WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas oil sorption

  1. Oils; gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D T

    1922-09-18

    Oils and gas are obtained from shale or oil-bearing sand by immersing the shale in and passing it through a bath of liquid oil, cracking the oil-soaked shale, and condensing the vapor and using the condensate to replenish the bath, preferably by passing the gases and vapors direct into the oil-bath container. Shale is fed continuously from a hopper to a bath of oil in an inclined chamber, is carried to the outlet by a conveyer, and through cracking tubes to an outlet pipe by conveyers. The gases and vapors escape by the pipe, a part condensing in the chamber and a run-back pipe and replenishing the bath, and the remainder passing through a condensing tower and condenser connected to reservoirs; the gas is further passed through a scrubber and a pipe to the burner of the retort. The oil condensed in the chamber overflows to the reservoir through a pipe provided with an open pipe to prevent siphoning. The conveyers and a valve on the pipe are operated by gearing. The operation may be conducted at reduced, normal, or increased pressure, e.g., 70 lbs. The temperature of the retort should be about 900 to 1400/sup 0/F, that of the inside of the tubes about 550 to 700/sup 0/F, and that of the chamber about 300/sup 0/F. The chamber and pipe may be insulated or artificially cooled.

  2. Gas Sorption, Diffusion, and Permeation in Nafion

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed; Litwiller, Eric; Pinnau, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    The gas permeability of dry Nafion films was determined at 2 atm and 35 °C for He, H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8. In addition, gas sorption isotherms were determined by gravimetric and barometric techniques as a function of pressure up to 20

  3. Gas Sorption, Diffusion, and Permeation in Nafion

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed

    2015-12-22

    The gas permeability of dry Nafion films was determined at 2 atm and 35 °C for He, H2, N2, O2, CO2, CH4, C2H6, and C3H8. In addition, gas sorption isotherms were determined by gravimetric and barometric techniques as a function of pressure up to 20 atm. Nafion exhibited linear sorption uptake for low-solubility gases, following Henry’s law, and convex behavior for highly sorbing condensable gases, indicating rubber-like behavior at 35 °C. XRD results demonstrated that Nafion contains bimodal amorphous chain domains with average d-spacing values of 2.3 and 5.3 Å. Only helium and hydrogen showed relatively high gas permeability of 37 and 7 barrers, respectively; all other gases exhibited low permeability that decreased significantly as penetrant size increased. Dry Nafion was characterized by extraordinarily high selectivities: He/H2 = 5.2, He/CH4 = 445, He/C2H6 = 1275, He/C3H8 = 7400, CO2/CH4 = 28, CO2/C2H6 = 79, CO2/C3H8 = 460, H2/CH4 = 84, H2/C2H6 = 241, and H2/C3H8 = 1400. These high selectivities could make Nafion a potential candidate membrane material for dry feeds for helium recovery and carbon dioxide separation from natural gas and removal of higher hydrocarbons from hydrogen-containing refinery gases.

  4. Characterization of nanoporous shales with gas sorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joewondo, N.; Prasad, M.

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of the fluid flow in porous media requires the knowledge of the pore system involved. Fluid flow in fine grained shales falls under different regime than transport regime in conventional reservoir due to the different average pore sizes in the two materials; the average pore diameter of conventional sandstones is on the micrometer scale, while of shales can be as small as several nanometers. Mercury intrusion porosimetry is normally used to characterize the pores of conventional reservoir, however with increasingly small pores, the injection pressure required to imbibe the pores becomes infinitely large due to surface tension. Characterization of pores can be expressed by a pore size distribution (PSD) plot, which reflects distribution of pore volume or surface area with respect to pore size. For the case of nanoporous materials, the surface area, which serves as the interface between the rock matrix and fluid, becomes increasingly large and important. Physisorption of gas has been extensively studied as a method of nanoporous solid characterization (particularly for the application of catalysis, metal organic frameworks, etc). The PSD is obtained by matching the experimental result to the calculated theoretical result (using Density Functional Theory (DFT), a quantum mechanics based modelling method for molecular scale interactions). We present the challenges and experimental result of Nitrogen and CO2 gas sorption on shales with various mineralogy and the interpreted PSD obtained by DFT method. Our result shows significant surface area contributed by the nanopores of shales, hence the importance of surface area measurements for the characterization of shales.

  5. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book is a directory of enterprises under the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the former USSR and is published for winter 1991 through spring 1992. It contains names and addresses for associations, institutes, design and engineering offices, oil and gas drilling administrations, and gas processing plants

  6. Malaysia: oil, gas, petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Petronas or Petroliam Nasional Berhad was established on 17 August 1974 as the national petroleum corporation of Malaysia. The Petroleum Development Act, passed by the Malaysian Parliament in October of that same year, vested in Petronas the entire ownership of all oil and natural gas resources in the country. These resources are considerable and Malaysia is poised to become one of the major petrochemical producers in the region. This report outlines the extent of oil, gas and petrochemicals production in Malaysia, lists companies holding licences and contracts from Petronas and provides a directory of the Malaysian oil industry. (Author)

  7. Peak oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, W. H.; Campbell, C. J.; Zagar, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Oil and gas were formed under exceptional conditions in the geological past, meaning that they are subject to natural depletion, such that the past growth in production must give way to decline. Although depletion is a simple concept to grasp, public data on the resource base are extremely unreliable due to ambiguous definitions and lax reporting. The oil industry is reluctant to admit to an onset of decline carrying obvious adverse financial consequences. There are several different categories of oil and gas, from tar sands to deep water fields, each with specific characteristics that need to be evaluated. It is important to build a global model on a country by country basis in order that anomalous statistics may be identified and evaluated. Such a study suggests that the world faces the onset of decline, with far-reaching consequences given the central role of oil-based energy. It is accordingly an important subject deserving detailed consideration by policy makers. (author)

  8. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The two major political events of 1991 produced a much less dramatic reaction in the global oil industry than might have been expected. The economic dislocation in the former USSR caused oil production to fall sharply but this was largely offset by a concurrent fall in demand. Within twelve months of the invasion of Kuwait, crude oil prices had returned to their pre-invasion level; there was no shortage of supply due to the ability of some producers to boost their output rapidly. Details are given of world oil production and developments in oil demand. Demand stagnated in 1991 due to mainly to the economic chaos in the former USSR and a slowdown in sales in the USA; this has produced problems for the future of the refining industry. By contrast, the outlook for the natural gas industry is much more buoyant. Most clean air or carbon emissions legislation is designed to promote the use of gas rather than other hydrocarbons. World gas production rose by 1.5% in 1991; details by production on a country by country basis are given. (UK)

  9. Oil and gas USSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickering, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Business co-operation with various foreign partners has begun to develop intensively as a result of the restructuring that is now progressing in the Soviet Union. This is particularly the case with the enterprises and organisations dealing with oil and gas production, all of them component parts of the Ministry of Oil and Gas Industry of the USSR. Owing to the enormous territorial expanse of this country, and also to the rather considerable volume of oil produced, the scheme of organisation of this Ministry is complicated and versatile. This Directory lists all the enterprises and organisations that are component parts of the Ministry, their postal addresses, their telephone numbers and the names of their departmental heads. (author)

  10. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts and is desirable for longterm sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance

  11. Dynamic design of gas sorption J-T refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C. K.

    1986-01-01

    A long-life Joule-Thomson refrigerator which is heat powered, involves no sealing, and has few mechanical parts is desirable for long-term sensor cooling in space. In the gas-sorption J-T refrigerator, cooling is achieved by gas sorption (either adsorption or absorption) processes. Currently, a modular, single-stage refrigerator is being designed and built to be operated at 20 K. The design was analyzed using a dynamic model, which is described here. The model includes the kinetics of the compressors and the heat switches, the heat transfer of the pre-coolers and the heat exchangers, the on/off ratio of the check valves, and the impedance of the J-T valve. The cooling power, the cycle time, and the operating conditions were obtained in terms of the power input, the heat sink temperature, and the J-T impedance.

  12. Sorption of polar and nonpolar organic contaminants by oil-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin; Zhang, Yaobin

    2008-12-01

    Sorption of nonpolar (phenanthrene and butylate) and polar (atrazine and diuron) organic chemicals to oil-contaminated soil was examined to investigate oil effects on sorption of organic chemicals and to derive oil-water distribution coefficients (K(oil)). The resulting oil-contaminated soil-water distribution coefficients (K(d)) for phenanthrene demonstrated sorption-enhancing effects at both lower and higher oil concentrations (C(oil)) but sorption-reducing (competitive) effects at intermediate C(oil) (approximately 1 g kg(-1)). Rationalization of the different dominant effects was attempted in terms of the relative aliphatic carbon content which determines the accessibility of the aromatic cores to phenanthrene. Little or no competitive effect occurred for butylate because its sorption was dominated by partitioning. For atrazine and diuron, the changes in K(d) at C(oil) above approximately 1 g kg(-1) were negligible, indicating that the presently investigated oil has little or no effect on the two tested compounds even though the polarity of the oil is much less than soil organic matter (SOM). Therefore, specific interactions with the active groups (aromatic and polar domains) are dominantly responsible for the sorption of polar sorbates, and thus their sorption is controlled by available sorption sites. This study showed that the oil has the potential to be a dominant sorptive phase for nonpolar pollutants when compared to SOM, but hardly so for polar compounds. The results may aid in a better understanding of the role of the aliphatic and aromatic domains in sorption of nonpolar and polar organic pollutants.

  13. Oil and gas -94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, A.

    1994-06-01

    This report deals with the use of oil-, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) during 1993. Information about markets and technical environmental questions are also given. Data have been collected from earlier reports, information given by different persons and statistics from SCB and SPI. The import of crude oil increased from 16,8 million tons in 1992 to 17,8 million tons in 1993. The import of oil products decreased by 0,9 million tons down to 6,7 million tons in the same period. During this period, the import of natural gas increased by 9%, a total of 817 million cubic meters. The import of LPG was 748000 tons in 1993, which is 61000 tons less compared to the import of 1992. The production in Sweden for 1993 was 290000 tons, the same level as the level reached in 1992. The export of LPG increased from 107000 tons to 138000 tons during this period. In January 1993, legislative changes were made concerning energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes. The rate of the latter was increased from 25 to 32 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide released in the atmosphere. For industry and greenhouse production, the penalty rate is only 25% or 8 oere per kilogram of carbon dioxide. From 1995 to 1998, yearly increases in the rate of energy taxes and carbon dioxide penalty taxes will be based on the consumer price index. Taxes will be increased by 4% in 1994. Due to changes in energy taxes, the consumption of LPG decreased in 1993. Earlier, many industries had changed from oil to LPG but now have changed back to oil. 8 figs, 17 tabs

  14. European gas oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, D.

    1991-04-01

    The developments over the past five years of the bulk markets for gas oil in Europe are examined using advanced econometric techniques to study the related issues of pricing efficiency and hedge efficiency. The study attempts to preserve the fluctuations of the actual data as these provide insights into the process of price discovery. The markets studied include the spot, forward and futures markets and looks for evidence of differentiated markets. (UK)

  15. Gas sorption properties of microporous metal organic frameworks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, JeongYong; Li Jing; Jagiello, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    A low-temperature gas sorption study has been carried out on four three-dimensional microporous metal organic framework (MMOF) structures and two two-dimensional layered structures. The pore characteristics are analyzed based on the argon adsorption-desorption isotherms at 87 K. The results from hydrogen sorption experiments conducted at 77 and 87 K show that all MMOFs have a relatively high hydrogen uptake, with adsorbed hydrogen densities falling in the range of liquid hydrogen. Isosteric heats of hydrogen adsorption data calculated based on the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are consistent with these observations, indicating strong sorbent-sorbate interactions. - Graphical abstract: Hydrogen adsorption isotherms measured at 77 and 87 K

  16. Mechanistic Processes Controlling Gas Sorption in Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaef, T.; Loring, J.; Ilton, E. S.; Davidson, C. L.; Owen, T.; Hoyt, D.; Glezakou, V. A.; McGrail, B. P.; Thompson, C.

    2014-12-01

    Utilization of CO2 to stimulate natural gas production in previously fractured shale-dominated reservoirs where CO2 remains in place for long-term storage may be an attractive new strategy for reducing the cost of managing anthropogenic CO2. A preliminary analysis of capacities and potential revenues in US shale plays suggests nearly 390 tcf in additional gas recovery may be possible via CO2 driven enhanced gas recovery. However, reservoir transmissivity properties, optimum gas recovery rates, and ultimate fate of CO2 vary among reservoirs, potentially increasing operational costs and environmental risks. In this paper, we identify key mechanisms controlling the sorption of CH4 and CO2 onto phyllosilicates and processes occurring in mixed gas systems that have the potential of impacting fluid transfer and CO2 storage in shale dominated formations. Through a unique set of in situ experimental techniques coupled with molecular-level simulations, we identify structural transformations occurring to clay minerals, optimal CO2/CH4 gas exchange conditions, and distinguish between adsorbed and intercalated gases in a mixed gas system. For example, based on in situ measurements with magic angle spinning NMR, intercalation of CO2 within the montmorillonite structure occurs in CH4/CO2 gas mixtures containing low concentrations (hydrocarbon recovery processes.

  17. Oil and gas in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The oil and gas industry in Bolivia is discussed. Typically, the hydrocarbon production of the Bolivian fields is made up of very light oil and natural gas, both of very good quality with no deleterious contaminants. About 80% of the production comes from gas condensate fields. At present, the proven gas reserves are more than 6 trillion cubic feet that have been available for the last 10 years, notwithstanding the fact that 200 million cubic feet per day are exported

  18. New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alazard-Toux, N.

    2004-01-01

    During the period 1999-2003, new oil and gas fields generated additional reserves of nearly 11 000 bcm of natural gas and 62 Gbbl of oil and condensates, volumes very much superior to those discovered in the five previous years. Two-thirds of these discoveries were located offshore, half in deep water. (author)

  19. Future of oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatermann, R.; Ten Hoedt, R.

    2009-01-01

    Two articles in the section 'Future of oil and gas': one ('Baltic strained by oil traffic') on the growing risks of accidents in maritime traffic in the Baltic region, and one ('Angola wants bigger piece of the pie') on the importance of the oil production in Angola to energy supplies in Europe and the USA. It appears that national oil company Sonango wants to have a greater part of the profits

  20. Sorption of oil in the polyurethane from oil or castor oil; Sorcao de oleo no poliuretano derivado do petroleo ou do oleo de mamona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florentino, Wagner M; Goulart, Shane A.S.; Mulinari, Daniella R. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UniFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: wagner-can@hotmail.com

    2011-07-01

    The oil outpouring has caused serious environmental problems. To minimize this damage polyurethane foams have been used. In this work, the use of polyurethane from oil and castor oil, in different polyol/diisocyanate mass ratios, to absorb oil was evaluated. Results revealed that the proportion of polyol and diisocyanate influenced in the sorption capacity and the polyurethane from castor oil presented greater sorption capacity. Of this way, can say that the polyurethane from oil can be replaced by castor oil, contributing to sustainable development. (author)

  1. Gas sorption properties of zwitterion-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surapathi, Anil; Chen, Hang-yan; Marand, Eva; Karl Johnson, J.; Sedlakova, Zdenka

    2013-02-01

    We have functionalized carbon nanotubes with carboxylic acid and zwitterion groups. We have evaluated the effect of functionalization by measuring the sorption of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and N{sub 2} at 35°C for pressures up to 10 bar. Zwitterion functionalized nanotubes were found to be highly hygroscopic. Thermal gravimetric analysis indicates that water can be desorbed at about 200°C. The adsorption of gases in zwitterion functionalized nanotubes is dramatically reduced compared with nanotubes functionalized with carboxylic acid groups. The presence of water on the zwitterion functionalized nanotube reduces the sorption even further. Molecular simulations show that three or more zwitterion groups per tube entrance are required to significantly reduce the flux of CO{sub 2} into the tubes. Simulations also show that gas phase water is rapidly sorbed into the zwitterion functionalized nanotubes, both increasing the free energy barrier to CO{sub 2} entering the tube and also lowering the equilibrium adsorption through competitive adsorption.

  2. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  3. Use of biomass sorbents for oil removal from gas station runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Virojnagud, Wanpen; Ratpukdi, Thunyalux

    2004-11-01

    The use of biomass sorbents, which are less expensive and more biodegradable than synthetic sorbents, for oil removal from gas station runoff was investigated. A bench-scale flume experiment was conducted to evaluate the oil removal and retention capabilities of the biomass sorbents which included kapok fiber, cattail fiber, Salvinia sp., wood chip, rice husk, coconut husk, and bagasse. Polyester fiber, a commercial synthetic sorbent, was also experimented for comparison purpose. Oil sorption and desorption tests were performed at a water flow rate of 20 lmin-1. In the oil sorption tests, a 50 mgl(-1) of used engine oil-water mixture was synthesized to simulate the gas station runoff. The mass of oil sorbed for all sorbents, except coconut husk and bagasse, was greater than 70%. Cattail fiber and polyester fiber were the sorbents that provided the least average effluent oil concentrations. Oil selectivity (hydrophobic properties) and physical characteristics of the sorbents are the two main factors that influence the oil sorption capability. The used sorbents from the sorption tests were employed in the desorption tests. Results indicated that oil leached out of all the sorbents tested. Polyester fiber released the highest amount of oil, approximately 4% (mass basis) of the oil sorbed. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. The oil and gas industry in 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Illustrated by many graphs and tables, this report presents and comments many data and figures on many aspects of the oil and gas industry in the world and in France: worldwide oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, worldwide gas exploration and production and stakes for European supply, exploration and production in France, oil and oil-based industry, hydrocarbon supplies, refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, domestic transport of oil products, gas infrastructures, oil product storage, oil and gas product consumption, hydrocarbon taxing, oil product prices, and oil product distribution

  5. Sorption of diesel oil from polyurethane composite reinforced with palm fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, I.R.; Cipriano, J.P.; Costa, I.L.M.; Mulinari, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the methods to contain the diesel oil spill is the application of materials polymeric sorbents and the polyurethane is an option of porous sorbents. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of polyurethane composites derivative of castor oil reinforced with palm fibers to sorption of diesel oil and compare with pure polyurethane. The composites were reinforced with 5 to 20% w/w of fibers. Subsequently, the sorption capacity of the composite in function of inserted fiber content in the matrix was analyzed. The physical and morphological characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD) and the contact angle. The results showed that the composite with 20% w /w showed higher sorption capacity oil diesel compared to pure PU and other composites this fact was due to the heterogeneity of the pores and dispersion of fiber in the matrix. (author)

  6. Oil and gas information 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This reference book on current developments in oil and gas supply and demand contains country-specific statistics for OECD countries on production, trade, demand and prices. This book is divided in four parts. Part 1 gives the statistics sources for oil, gas and by products (lubricants, bitumen, paraffin waxes etc..) supply, demand, consumption, origin, feedstocks, import and export prices, spot and end-user prices and taxes, and gives also the definitions of products, supply and consumption items reported in this book. Part 2 provides summary tables of world oil and gas market developments with time series back to the early 1970's. Parts 3 and 4 provide, in tables form, a more detailed and comprehensive picture of oil and gas supply and demand for the OECD by region and individual countries. (J.S.)

  7. Arab oil and gas directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This reference book is the only oil and gas encyclopedia in the world providing detailed country surveys on the oil and gas industry in the Arab countries and Iran. It provides thorough country reports and detailed statistics on oil and gas exploration, production, transport, refining and petrochemicals, as well as on development projects in all countries in the Middle East and North Africa: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. Separate chapters cover OPEC and OAPEC, as well as world oil and gas statistics. It includes 53 maps and 268 tables and graphs, and 2420 addresses and contact names

  8. Gas Permeation Related to the Moisture Sorption in Films of Glassy Hydrophilic Polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laksmana, F. L.; Kok, P. J. A. Hartman; Frijlink, H. W.; Vromans, H.; Maarschalk, K. Van Der Voort

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to elucidate the effect of integral sorption of moisture on gas permeation in glassy hydrophilic polymers. The oxygen and the simultaneous moisture sorption into various hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) films were measured under a wide range of relative humidities

  9. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya; Kyoungjin An, Alicia; Guo, Jiaxin; Lee, Eui-Jong; Usman Farid, Muhammad; Jeong, Sanghyun

    2016-01-01

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  10. CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jingya

    2016-12-05

    To meet the challenges of global oil spills and oil-water contamination, the development of a low-cost and reusable sorbents with good hydrophobicity and oleophilic nature is crucial. In this study, functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were wrapped in polystyrene (PS) polymer (PS-CNTs) and electrospun to create an effective and rigid sorbent for oil. Covalent modification and fluorination of CNTs improved their dispersibility and interfacial interaction with the polymer, resulting in a well-aligned CNTs configuration inside the porous fiber structure. Interestingly, the oil sorption process using PS-CNTs was observed to have two phases. First, the oil swiftly entered the membrane pores formed by interconnected nanofibers due to oleophilic properties of the micro-sized void. In the second phase, the oil not only moved to nano interior spaces of the fibers by capillary forces but also adsorbed on the surface of fibers where the latter was retained due to Van der Waals force. The sorption process fits well with the intra particle diffusion model. Maximum oil sorption capacity of the PS-CNTs sorbent for sunflower oil, peanut oil, and motor oils were 116, 123, and 112 g/g, respectively, which was 65% higher than that of the PS sorbent without CNTs. Overall, a significant increase in the porosity, surface area, water contact angle, and oleophilic nature was observed for the PS-CNTs composite sorbents. Not only did the PS-CNTs sorbents exhibited a promising oil sorption capacity but also showed potential for reusability, which is an important factor to be considered in determining the overall performance of the sorbent and its environmental impacts.

  11. Analysis of ideal sorption compressor cycles operating with gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tzabar, N.; ter Brake, H.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Sorption-based compressors are thermally driven and because of the absence of moving parts they are vibration free, and have the potential for long life. Sorption-based compressors have been reported to operate Joule–Thomson (JT) cryogenic coolers with pure working fluids. However, using mixed

  12. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavlarides, Lawrence [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View Texas A& M; DePaoli, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-20

    processes. These models were built on a numerical framework for solving conservation law problems in one-dimensional geometries such as spheres, cylinders, and lines. Coupled with the framework are specific models for adsorption in commercial adsorbents, such as zeolites and mordenites. Utilizing this modeling approach, the authors were able to accurately describe and predict adsorption kinetic data obtained from experiments at a variety of different temperatures and gas phase concentrations. A demonstration of how these models, and framework, can be used to simulate adsorption in fixed- bed columns is provided. The CO2 absorption work involved modeling with supportive experimental information. A dynamic model was developed to simulate CO2 absorption using high alkaline content water solutions. The model is based upon transient mass and energy balances for chemical species commonly present in CO2 absorption. A computer code was developed to implement CO2 absorption with a chemical reaction model. Experiments were conducted in a laboratory scale column to determine the model parameters. The influence of geometric parameters and operating variables on CO2 absorption was studied over a wide range of conditions. Continuing work could employ the model to control column operation and predict the absorption behavior under various input conditions and other prescribed experimental perturbations. The value of the validated models and numerical frameworks developed in this project is that they can be used to predict the sorption behavior of off-gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear waste and thus reduce the cost of the experiments. They can also be used to design sorption processes based on concentration limits and flow-rates determined at the plant level.

  13. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Oil and gas field database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Han, Jung Kuy [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    As agreed by the Second Meeting of the Expert Group of Minerals and Energy Exploration and Development in Seoul, Korea, 'The Construction of Database on the Oil and Gas Fields in the APEC Region' is now under way as a GEMEED database project for 1998. This project is supported by Korean government funds and the cooperation of GEMEED colleagues and experts. During this year, we have constructed the home page menu (topics) and added the data items on the oil and gas field. These items include name of field, discovery year, depth, the number of wells, average production (b/d), cumulative production, and API gravity. The web site shows the total number of oil and gas fields in the APEC region is 47,201. The number of oil and gas fields by member economics are shown in the table. World oil and gas statistics including reserve, production consumption, and trade information were added to the database for the users convenience. (author). 13 refs., tabs., figs.

  15. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  16. Australia's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Reasons for underperformance in the Australian oil and gas industry are explored in this paper including lower than expected oil prices following major capital investment, management strategies, taxation changes and access problems. Over the last two decades, the return offered to providers of equity capital has been adequate but lower than the industry expected. Corporate planning techniques need to be reexamined in the light of past performance, and realistic goals set. (UK)

  17. North Africa oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priddle, R.

    1996-01-01

    During the last decade, Algeria, Egypt and Libya have improved their fiscal terms for oil and gas development to attract more investment in this area. As a group, the three countries are implementing plans to increase crude oil production capacity 16 % from 3.15 million barrels per day (Mb/d) in 1995 to 3.65 Mb/d in the year 2000. Natural gas liquid are also being developed and their production capacity is planned to increase 30 % to 0.82 Mb/d in 2000. Concurrently, natural gas production capacity is being expanded about 50 % by 200 and natural gas exporting capacity should see a 92 % increase in 2000 over 1995 levels in short, the North Africa hydrocarbon producers are rapidly expanding their production and export capacity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. This is the first IEA study to focus on North Africa. It shows how changing hydrocarbon legislation or production sharing agreements can result in changes in crude oil and natural gas production capacity. Much of the expansion outlined in this study is being guided by international oil companies attracted by the improved fiscal terms

  18. Separation of motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from contaminated water by sorption on chrome shavings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammoun, A; Tahiri, S; Albizane, A; Azzi, M; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M

    2007-06-25

    In this paper, the ability of chrome shavings to remove motor oils, oily wastes and hydrocarbons from water has been studied. To determine amount of hydrocarbons sorbed on tanned wastes, a FT-NIR methodology was used and a multivariate calibration based on partial least squares (PLS) was employed for data treatment. The light density, porous tanned waste granules float on the surface of water and remove hydrocarbons and oil films. Wastes fibers from tannery industry have high sorption capacity. These tanned solid wastes are capable of absorbing many times their weight in oil or hydrocarbons (6.5-7.6g of oil and 6.3g of hydrocarbons per gram of chrome shavings). The removal efficiency of the pollutants from water is complete. The sorption of pollutants is a quasi-instantaneous process.

  19. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  20. Arab oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This review explains the situation of petroleum products and gas in Arab countries. Several kinds of difficulties are exposed: too many projects, concurrence of other producers like Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Norway, Russian Federation, will be rude. New exporters (Iran, Venezuela, Nigeria, even Alaska) will appear and will want a part of market and western countries will probably diversify their tradesmen. An other point is that producers overestimate future growth of worldwide demand or underestimate the impact of more expansive gas price on this demand. Inversely if this one is too low, several projects, would not be profitable. The last point is in the concurrence between gas and petroleum products, which needs a consistent policy

  1. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  2. Gas, oil, and environmental biotechnology IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akin, C; Markuszewski, R; Smith, J [eds.; Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Contains 32 papers presented at the 4th international IGT symposium on gas, oil and environmental biotechnology. Topics covered were: hydrocarbon bioremediation; groundwater, soil and explosives bioremediation; gas and oil reservoir souring; and biodesulfurization. 2 papers have been abstracted separately.

  3. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.

    1992-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an oil/gas collector/separator for recovery of oil leaking, for example, from an offshore or underwater oil well. The separator is floated over the point of the leak and tethered in place so as to receive oil/gas floating, or forced under pressure, toward the water surface from either a broken or leaking oil well casing, line, or sunken ship. The separator is provided with a downwardly extending skirt to contain the oil/gas which floats or is forced upward into a dome wherein the gas is separated from the oil/water, with the gas being flared (burned) at the top of the dome, and the oil is separated from water and pumped to a point of use. Since the density of oil is less than that of water it can be easily separated from any water entering the dome.

  4. Structural comparison of hazardous and non-hazardous coals based on gas sorption experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Toth, J. [Research Lab. for Mining Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary); Radnai-Gyoengyoes, Z. [Geopard Ltd., Pecs (Hungary); Bokanyi, L. [Miskolc Univ., Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    Comparison of carbon-dioxide and propane sorption at ambient temperature was used for characterising the difference of the structure of hazardous and non hazardous coals. However, hazardous coals were found more microporous or contain more closed pores than non hazardous ones, this difference couldn`t have been enlarged and attributed to one petrographic component by producing the density fractions. Gas sorption isobars (nitrogen, methane, ethane) are proposed to make a distinction between fine pore structure of coals. (orig.)

  5. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Lin, Ronghong [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Nan, Yue [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States); Yiacoumi, Sotira [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tsouris, Costas [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ladshaw, Austin [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sharma, Ketki [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A & M Univ., Prairie View, TX (United States); DePaoli, David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-29

    The project has made progress toward developing a comprehensive modeling capability for the capture of target species in off gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The effort has integrated experimentation, model development, and computer code development for adsorption and absorption processes. For adsorption, a modeling library has been initiated to include (a) equilibrium models for uptake of off-gas components by adsorbents, (b) mass transfer models to describe mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle and adsorption on the active sites of the particle, and (c) interconnection of these models to fixed bed adsorption modeling which includes advection through the bed. For single-component equilibria, a Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) code was developed to represent experimental data from a broad range of isotherm types; this is equivalent to a Langmuir isotherm in the two-parameter case, and was demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. The GSTA isotherm was extended to multicomponent systems through application of a modified spreading pressure surface activity model and generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory; the result is the capability to estimate multicomponent adsorption equilibria from single-component isotherms. This advance, which enhances the capability to simulate systems related to off-gas treatment, has been demonstrated for a range of real-gas systems in the literature and is ready for testing with data currently being collected for multicomponent systems of interest, including iodine and water on MS3A. A diffusion kinetic model for sorbent pellets involving pore and surface diffusion as well as external mass transfer has been established, and a methodology was developed for determining unknown diffusivity parameters from transient

  6. Sorption Modeling and Verification for Off-Gas Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L.; Lin, Ronghong; Nan, Yue; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas; Ladshaw, Austin; Sharma, Ketki; Gabitto, Jorge; DePaoli, David

    2015-01-01

    The project has made progress toward developing a comprehensive modeling capability for the capture of target species in off gas evolved during the reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The effort has integrated experimentation, model development, and computer code development for adsorption and absorption processes. For adsorption, a modeling library has been initiated to include (a) equilibrium models for uptake of off-gas components by adsorbents, (b) mass transfer models to describe mass transfer to a particle, diffusion through the pores of the particle and adsorption on the active sites of the particle, and (c) interconnection of these models to fixed bed adsorption modeling which includes advection through the bed. For single-component equilibria, a Generalized Statistical Thermodynamic Adsorption (GSTA) code was developed to represent experimental data from a broad range of isotherm types; this is equivalent to a Langmuir isotherm in the two-parameter case, and was demonstrated for Kr on INL-engineered sorbent HZ PAN, water sorption on molecular sieve A sorbent material (MS3A), and Kr and Xe capture on metal-organic framework (MOF) materials. The GSTA isotherm was extended to multicomponent systems through application of a modified spreading pressure surface activity model and generalized predictive adsorbed solution theory; the result is the capability to estimate multicomponent adsorption equilibria from single-component isotherms. This advance, which enhances the capability to simulate systems related to off-gas treatment, has been demonstrated for a range of real-gas systems in the literature and is ready for testing with data currently being collected for multicomponent systems of interest, including iodine and water on MS3A. A diffusion kinetic model for sorbent pellets involving pore and surface diffusion as well as external mass transfer has been established, and a methodology was developed for determining unknown diffusivity parameters from transient

  7. Oil sorption and retention capacities of thermally-bonded hybrid nonwovens prepared from cotton, kapok, milkweed and polypropylene fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilagavathi, G; Praba Karan, C; Das, Dipayan

    2018-08-01

    This work reports on a series of thermally-bonded, hybrid and oil-sorbent nonwovens developed from binary and tertiary mixing of cotton, kapok, and three varieties of milkweed fibers (Asclepias Syriaca, Calotropis Procera and Calotropis Gigantea) and polypropylene fibers. The physical and chemical properties of the fibers were investigated to examine their oleophilic character. It was observed that all the fiber surfaces were covered with natural wax. Further, kapok and milkweed fibers were found to have less cell wall thickness and high void ratio. Oil sorption and retention characteristics of these fibers were studied in loose fibrous form as well as in structured assembly form (thermally-bonded nonwovens) using high density oil and diesel oil. The effects of fiber diameter, fiber cross-sectional shape, fiber surface area and porosity on the oil sorption behavior were discussed. An excellent and a selective oil sorption behavior of milkweed fibers (Calotropis Procera and Calotropis Gigantea) blended with cotton and polypropylene fibers were observed. The maximum oil sorption capacity of the developed thermal bonded nonwoven was 40.16 g/g for high density (HD) oil and 23.00 g/g for diesel oil. Further, a high porosity combined with high surface area played a major role in deciding the oil sorption and retention characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prospects for oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, J.

    2011-01-01

    It was five years ago, in January 2006, that Futuribles devoted a major special issue (no. 315) to energy prospects and the greenhouse effect. That was already a time of great concern about this question and several articles offered analyses of the gloomy prospects for the development of energy resources and the issues around climate change. Among these, an article by Jean Laherrere outlined the prospects for oil resources, showing the extent to which information in this area was disparate, unreliable and even questionable, being often highly political. As one of the more pessimistic writers on the question, Laherrere reminded us of the imminence of 'peak oil' (the prelude to a decline in global oil production) and the need to re-think our styles of consumption to adapt to a new age in which, as energy becomes scarcer, it will be increasingly expensive. Five years later, Jean Laherrere returns to the columns of Futuribles on the occasion of a new special issue on energy and the climate, to update us on the global prospects for oil and gas production. He begins by recalling how politically slanted and unreliable information in this area can be, depending on its source, the units of measurement employed etc. He stresses, too, that in the view of many experts peak oil was reached in 2006 and the situation is currently plateau-ing, just ahead of a decline in oil production (gradual or sudden, depending on whether measures of economic constraint are implemented). For its part, gas production should peak around 2025-2030. Jean Laherrere specifies what reserves remain, how these are currently exploited and marketed, and the prospects that ensue in the longer term (he also shows how wrong gas-price forecasts have been in the past). As he stresses, in conclusion, with both oil and gas we must be aware that the world does not have infinite resources and, since the alternatives do not allow us, at the moment, to make up for future energy-resource shortages, it is for

  9. Imported resources - gas/oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, K. [MOL Hungarian Oil and Gas Company, Budapest (Hungary)

    1995-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to provide information on issues of crude oil and natural gas supply at a conference addressing the problems of energy in Eastern and Central Europe. Although this can inevitably be performed through the {open_quotes}binoculars{close_quotes} of the petroleum sector of my country, I will try to present the issues and challenges that are thought to be characteristic in general for the region.

  10. International oil and gas finance review 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This first edition covers financing projects in the developing world, mergers and acquisitions; mitigating cross-border risk; basic risk in energy markets; real-time oil and gas pricing issues; oil and gas equity; risk management; project finance. The yearbook also features more regional specific topics such as: gas transportation in the Mercosur; 25 years of growth in the UAE; natural gas in Mexico; LNG in the Far East; legal issues surrounding the Russian oil and gas industry; LNG projects in the Middle East; the North Sea; and financing the oil and gas industry of Southern and South Africa. (UK)

  11. Have oil and gas prices got separated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdős, Péter

    2012-01-01

    This paper applies vector error correction models that show that oil and natural gas prices decoupled around 2009. Before 2009, US and UK gas prices had a long-term equilibrium with crude prices to which gas prices always reverted after exogenous shocks. Both US and UK gas prices adjusted to the crude oil price individually, and departure from the equilibrium gas price on one continent resulted in a similar departure on the other. After an exogenous shock, the adjustment between US and UK gas prices took approximately 20 weeks on average, and the convergence was mediated mainly by crude oil with a necessary condition that arbitrage across the Atlantic was possible. After 2009, however, the UK gas price has remained integrated with oil price, but the US gas price decoupled from crude oil price and the European gas price, as the Atlantic arbitrage has halted. The oversupply from shale gas production has not been mitigated by North American export, as there has been no liquefying and export capacity. - Highlights: ► VEC models are applied to investigate the relationship between oil and natural gas prices. ► While natural gas prices in Europe and Asia react to oil price, US gas price decoupled from oil in 2009. ► Since 2009, the US gas price has decoupled from the European and Asian gas prices.

  12. Availability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Lei; Luthy, Richard G

    2007-03-01

    Lampblack-impacted soils at former oil-gas plant sites in California, USA, were characterized to assess the sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the concentration-dependent effects of a residual oil tar phase on sorption mechanism and availability of PAHs. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrated similar aromaticity for both lampblack carbon and the oil tar phase, with pronounced resonance signals in the range of 100 to 150 ppm. Scanning-electron microscopic images revealed a physically distinct oil tar phase, especially at high concentrations in lampblack, which resulted in an organic-like film structure when lampblack particles became saturated with the oil tar. Sorption experiments were conducted on a series of laboratory-prepared lampblack samples to systematically evaluate influences of an oil tar phase on PAH sorption to lampblack. Results indicate that the sorption of PAHs to lampblack exhibits a competition among sorption phases at low oil tar contents when micro- and mesopores are accessible. When the oil tar content increases to more than 5 to 10% by weight, this tar phase fills small pores, reduces surface area, and dominates PAH sorption on lampblack surface. A new PAH partitioning model, Kd = KLB-C(1 - ftar)alpha + ftarKtar (alpha = empirical exponent), incorporates these effects in which the control of PAH partitioning transits from being dominated by sorption in lampblack (KLB-C) to absorption in oil tar (Ktar), depending on the fraction of tar (ftar). This study illustrates the importance of understanding interactions among PAHs, oil tar, and lampblack for explaining the differences in availability of PAHs among site soils and, consequently, for refining site-specific risk assessment and establishing soil cleanup levels.

  13. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  14. Hydroprocesssing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walendziewski, Jerzy; Stolarski, Marek; Luzny, Rafal; Klimek, Bartlomiej [Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Gdanska 7/9, 50-310 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    Two series of experiments of hydroprocessing of light gas oil - rape oil mixtures were carried out. The reactor feed was composed of raw material: first series - 10 wt.% rape oil and 90 wt.% of diesel oil; second series - 20 wt.% rape oil and 80 wt.% of diesel oil. Hydroprocessing of both mixtures was performed with the same parameter sets, temperature (320, 350 and 380 C), hydrogen pressure 3 and 5 MPa, LHSV = 2 h{sup -} {sup 1} and hydrogen feed ratio of 500 Nm{sup 3}/m{sup 3}. It was stated that within limited range it is possible to control vegetable oil hydrogenolysis in the presence of light gas oil fraction (diesel oil boiling range) through the proper selection of the process parameters. Hydrogenolysis of ester bonds and hydrogenation of olefinic bonds in vegetable oils are the main reactions in the process. Basic physicochemical properties of the obtained hydroprocessed products are presented. (author)

  15. Study of oil sorption behavior of filled and structured fiber assemblies made from polypropylene, kapok and milkweed fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengasamy, R S; Das, Dipayan; Karan, C Praba

    2011-02-15

    This article reports on oil sorption behavior of fiber assemblies made up of single natural and synthetic fibers as well as blend of natural and synthetic fibers when tested with high density oil and diesel oil. A series of filled fiber assemblies were prepared from 100% polypropylene, kapok, and milkweed fibers and another series of bonded structured fiber assemblies were prepared from a 70/30 blend of kapok and polypropylene fibers and a 70/30 blend of milkweed and polypropylene fibers. It was observed that the porosity of the fiber assemblies played a very important role in determining its oil sorption capacity. The polypropylene fiber assembly exhibited the highest sorption capacity (g/g) followed by the kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies at porosity milkweed fibers have intra fiber porosities of 0.81 and 0.83, respectively. All the fiber assemblies showed higher oil sorption capacity with the high density oil as compared to the diesel oil. As the kapok and milkweed fiber have low cellulose content, hence their slow degradation is an advantage in fresh and marine water applications. The good sorption capacity of kapok and milkweed fiber assemblies along with their bio-degradable nature offer great scope for structuring them into fiber assemblies with large porosity and uniform pores to have efficient oil sorbents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Ionic π-Conjugated Polymer Networks by Catalyst-Free Polymerization, Photoluminescence and Gas Sorption Behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Faukner, T.; Zukal, Arnošt; Brus, Jiří; Zedník, J.; Sedláček, J.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 217, č. 17 (2016), s. 1886-1898 ISSN 1022-1352 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-09637S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : conjugated polyacetylene * ethanol vapors * gas sorption Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 2.500, year: 2016

  17. Oil and Gas Field Locations, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_fields_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This GIS layer consists of oil and gas field approximate center point locations (approximately 1,800). Oil and gas fields not assigned a center point by the DNR...

  18. Gas migration from oil and gas fields and associated hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, A.E.; Endres, B.L.; Robertson Jr, J.O.; Chilingar, G.V.

    1993-01-01

    The migration of gas from oil and gas formations to the surface is a problem that greatly affects those surface areas where human activity exists. Underground gas storage facilities and oil fields have demonstrated a long history of gas migration problems. Experience has shown that the migration of gas to the surface creates a serious potential risk of explosion, fires, noxious odors and potential emissions of carcinogenic chemicals. These risks must be seriously examined for all oil and gas operations located in urban areas. This paper presents the mechanics of gas migration, paths of migration and a review of a few of the risks that should be considered when operating a gas facility in an urban area. The gas can migrate in a continuous or discontinuous stream through porous, water-filled media to the surface. The primary force in this migration of gas is the difference between specific weights of gas and water

  19. Effects of oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment–seawater systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiao; Gong, Yanyan; O’Reilly, S.E.; Zhao, Dongye

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Oil dispersant enhances solubilization of PAHs more effectively than surfactants. • Dispersant and dispersed oil enhance sediment sorption of PAHs and induce hysteresis. • Partitioning to sediment-sorbed dispersant is the mechanism for enhanced PAH uptake. • Dual-mode models well simulate dispersant-facilitated sorption of PAHs on sediment. • Deepwater conditions reduce solubilization of PAHs and lessen dispersant effects. - Abstract: This work investigated effects of a prototype oil dispersant on solubilization, sorption and desorption of three model PAHs in sediment–seawater systems. Increasing dispersant dosage linearly enhanced solubility for all PAHs. Conversely, the dispersant enhanced the sediment uptake of the PAHs, and induced significant desorption hysteresis. Such contrasting effects (adsolubilization vs. solubilization) of dispersant were found dependent of the dispersant concentration and PAH hydrophobicity. The dual-mode models adequately simulated the sorption kinetics and isotherms, and quantified dispersant-enhanced PAH uptake. Sorption of naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene by sediment positively correlated with uptake of the dispersant, while sorption of pyrene dropped sharply when the dispersant exceeded its critical micelle concentration (CMC). The deepwater conditions diminished the dispersant effects on solubilization, but enhanced uptake of the PAHs, albeit sorption of the dispersant was lowered. The information may aid in understanding roles of dispersants on distribution, fate and transport of petroleum PAHs in marine systems

  20. Oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.D.

    1993-01-01

    An oil/gas collector/separator for underwater oil leaks is described comprising: a cylindrical tank; a hollow float member for supporting said tank in a substantially upright position; a skirt assembly secured to said hollow float member and extending in a direction away from said float member opposite said tank; means for removing oil from said tank; and means for removing gas from said tank

  1. Investigating the gas sorption mechanism in an rht -metal-organic framework through computational studies

    KAUST Repository

    Pham, Tony T.

    2014-01-09

    Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed to investigate CO2 and H2 sorption in an rht-metal-organic framework (MOF) that was synthesized with a ligand having a nitrogen-rich trigonal core through trisubstituted triazine groups and amine functional groups. This MOF was synthesized by two different groups, each reporting their own distinct gas sorption measurements and crystal structure. Electronic structure calculations demonstrated that the small differences in the atomic positions between each group\\'s crystal structure resulted in different electrostatic parameters about the Cu2+ ions for the respective unit cells. Simulations of CO2 sorption were performed with and without many-body polarization effects and using our recently developed CO2 potentials, in addition to a well-known bulk CO2 model, in both crystallographic unit cells. Simulated CO2 sorption isotherms and calculated isosteric heats of adsorption, Qst, values were in excellent agreement with the results reported previously by Eddaoudi et al. for both structures using the polarizable CO2 potential. For both crystal structures, the initial site for CO2 sorption were the Cu 2+ ions that had the higher positive charge in the unit cell, although the identity of this electropositive Cu2+ ion was different in each case. Simulations of H2 sorption were performed with three different hydrogen potentials of increasing anisotropy in both crystal structures and the results, especially with the highest fidelity model, agreed well with Eddaoudi et al.\\'s experimental data. The preferred site of H 2 sorption at low loading was between two Cu2+ ions of neighboring paddlewheels. The calculation of the normalized hydrogen dipole distribution for the polarizable model in both crystal structures aided in the identification of four distinct sorption sites in the MOF, which is consistent to what was observed in the experimental inelastic neutron scattering (INS) spectra. Lastly, while the

  2. Ecologically friendly ways to clean up oil spills in harbor water areas: crude oil and diesel sorption behavior of natural sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskiene, Tatjana

    2018-04-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the sorption capacity of natural sorbents (wool, moss, straw, peat) and their composites during the sorption of crude oil and of diesel overspread on the water surface. The work presents the research results of the maximum sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites using crude oil/diesel; the sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites when crude oil/diesel is spilled on the water surface; and the research results of the unrealized part of the crude oil/diesel in the sorbents. The results of the analysis showed that all the sorbents and their composites have their selectivity to crude oil less than 50%. Also the results showed that the distribution of diesel and water in the sorbents and their composites is very different compared with the distribution of crude oil during the sorption analyses. In total, the diesel in the liquid mass absorbed by the straw and the peat amounted to 17 and 20%, respectively. This shows that these sorbents are much more selective for water but not for diesel. A larger part of the diesel was in the liquid amount absorbed by the composites-up to 33%. Accordingly, the use of these composites in watery environments is much more effective than the use of individual sorbents. The composition of sorbents in the composite enhanced both the hydrophobic and the oleophilic properties; as a result, a more effective removal of the diesel and oil from the water surface was achieved.

  3. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-07-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gas related firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, RandD and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.(au)

  4. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P.

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  5. Arctic oil and gas 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Henry P

    2007-07-01

    The Arctic Council's assessment of oil and gas activities in the Antic is prepared in response to a request from Ministers of the eight Arctic countries. The Ministers called for engagement of all Arctic Council Working Groups in this process, and requested that the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment programme (AMAP) take responsibility for coordinating the work. This Executive Summary is in three parts. Part A presents the main findings of the assessment and related recommendations. Part B is structured in the same manner as Part A and provides additional information for those interested in examining the basis for the conclusions and recommendations that are presented in Part A. Part C presents information on 'gaps in knowledge' and recommendations aimed at filling these gaps. (AG)

  6. Funding oil and gas ventures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billingsley, L.T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is addressed to geologists who must raise external funds for prospect acquisition, exploratory and development drilling, or to a limited extent, production acquisition. In the ranks of independent geologists, external funding is what separates a dreamer with a good idea from a successful oil and gas producer who gets ideas evaluated on a regular basis. The quantity of external funding usually dictates the level of drilling activity for independent geologists and small companies. Companies or individuals with high levels of internal cash flow set budgets to determine their drilling activity. The purpose of this paper is to provide an independent geologist with an overview of raising external funding. The scope is purposely general. The real motivation behind this paper is not to provide a cookbook for selling prospects. Instead, the author hopes to stimulate geologists to become students of salesmanship and thereby increase the effectiveness of their fund

  7. China Oil and Gas Market Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Yu

    2004-08-01

    China, with one-fifth of the world's population and one of the fastest rates of economic growth, is experiencing a boom in its energy requirements. China has been identified as a high priority market for the oil and gas sector. This priority has resulted in the high level of investment and many large-scale projects related to the oil and gas industry. Oil production from existing fields is expected to increase, new oil and gas fields will be developed, and the country's oil and gas transmission infrastructure will be extended to meet domestic demands. In addition, total domestic investment needs for the next three decades till 2030 are estimated at around $119 billion, and upstream exploration and development will account for about $69 billion. China's oil and gas exploitation business has been the biggest beneficiary of the bearish crude oil prices, national oil stockpile and the need of infrastructure. In the first six-month period of 2005, this industry has gained a profit of USD16.5 billion, up 73.4 per cent year-on-year. The country is becoming increasingly open to international oil companies, contractors and equipment suppliers, who can bring advanced technology, equipment, and management experience. In this context, considerable opportunities in the supply and service sectors are open to Dutch companies. This report analyses the present situation and market prospect of China upstream oil and gas industry, including: Current status of Chinese oil and gas industry analysis and future development forecast; Potential customers analysis, such as three stated-owned oil companies and their foreign partners;Domestic and foreign competitors analysis; Potential opportunities and challenges analysis; Providing contacts and information on main ongoing oil exploration and development projects, and business practices

  8. New oil and gas incentives in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, B.

    2003-01-01

    Saskatchewan is Canada's second largest producer of crude oil and the third largest producer of natural gas with nearly 400 oil and gas companies operating in the province. The oil ranges from heavy sour to light sweet crude oil. Nearly half of the production is heavy oil, 30 per cent is medium oil and 20 per cent is light oil. In 2002, the Province announced changes to the oil and gas Royalty and Tax Regime in an effort to encourage new oil and gas exploration and development activities in Saskatchewan and to help the industry compete with other jurisdictions around the world. This paper examined the pre-October 2002 Saskatchewan Crown Royalty and freehold production tax structure and compared them to the new structure. The paper also briefly outlined the corporation capital tax, resource surcharge, and flow-through share tax credit initiatives announced in 2001 and 2002. With reductions in the Crown Royalty, freehold production tax and corporation capital taxes, the Province expects that more than 9000 oil and gas wells will be drilled in the next decade, representing new investment of about $4.3 billion and 40,000 new jobs. The flow-through share credit may not attract significant investment because it only benefits those who pay taxes in Saskatchewan. 40 refs

  9. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  10. Quartz Crystal Microbalance: A tool for analyzing loss of volatile compounds, gas sorption, and curing kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajric, Sendin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has recently procured a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Current popular uses are biological sensors, surface chemistry, and vapor detection. LANL has projects related to analyzing curing kinetics, measuring gas sorption on polymers, and analyzing the loss of volatile compounds in polymer materials. The QCM has yet to be employed; however, this review will cover the use of the QCM in these applications and its potential.

  11. Gas sorption properties of zwitterion-functionalized carbon nanotubes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Surapathi, A.; Chen, H.-Y.; Marand, E.; Johnson, J. K.; Sedláková, Zdeňka

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 429, 15 February (2013), s. 88-94 ISSN 0376-7388 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME09058 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : carbon nanotube * zwitterion functionalized membrane * adsorption of gas es Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.908, year: 2013

  12. Oil & Ethnocentrism: A study of Global Oil & Gas Organisations

    OpenAIRE

    Rees, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation will examine the concept of ‘ethnocentrism’, or a belief in the superiority of one’s own cultural norms and values, against the backdrop of the Global Oil & Gas Service industry. Using Howard Perlmutter’s framework, ethnocentrism will be tested and analysed across distinct areas of international business; staffing and cultural prevalence, the management of international subsidiaries and corporate and national culture. Data will be collected from experienced Oil & Gas ma...

  13. Formation of the oil and gas lease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillespie, E.M.; Piercy, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    The legal nature of an oil and gas lease was described and the challenges associated with working with the freehold oil and gas lease were discussed. This paper also reviewed the formalities of execution under seal, issues relating to capacity of the executing party, ability of an executor of an estate to grant the lease, and homestead rights. Precautions that should be taken to ensure that oil and gas lease documents are properly executed so as not to void a lease are also discussed. 46 refs

  14. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  15. Sorption of 226Ra from oil effluents onto synthetic cation exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attar, L.; Safia, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing environmental awareness is being urged for the safe disposal of 226 Ra-contaminated production water generated in the oil industry. Brainiest, antimony silicate and their cationic derivatives were studied for the take-up of 226 Ra using the batch-type method under experimentally determined parameters, viz. contact time, solution-solid ratio and 226 Ra concentration. Data was expressed in terms of distribution coefficients. Sorption experiments were performed in different concentrations of nitric acid in order to speculate the mechanism of 226 Ra uptake. Variation in the magnitude of sorption efficiency of the materials in the presence of the major components of waste streams, i.e. Na + , K + and Ca 2+ , revealed that K + was the greatest competitor and Na + the least. The application of the materials to sorb 226 Ra from actual oil co-production water samples, collected from Der Ezzor and Al Fourat petroleum companies (DEZPC and AFPC), was interpreted in terms of the exchange properties of the materials and water characterisation. Of the parameters studied, the selectivity of materials was shown to be greatly dependent on the pH of wastewater to be treated. (author)

  16. Oil and gas conservation in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Saskatchewan's Oil and Gas Conservation Act provides legislative authority for the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, 1985. The main purposes of the Act are to maximize oil and gas recovery, to allow each owner the opportunity of obtaining his share of oil or gas and to protect the environment and prevent waste. The document under review described how this legislative intent is fulfilled through the spacing of wells, the setting of allowables, and approval of waterflood and enhanced recovery projects, while considering equitable drainage of oil and gas. Specific topics dealt with include: vertical well spacing, infill drilling, off-target drilling, horizontal well spacing, and allowables. The concepts of voluntary and statutory pooling as well as voluntary and statutory unitization were explained. Examples of waterflood and enhanced oil recovery projects were provided. The regulation relating to oil and gas conservation were first implemented in 1952 and evolved to their present form through a series of changes and amendments. The most significant changes to the regulations were made in 1991 when horizontal drilling needed to be accommodated. 1 tab

  17. Oil and gas in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Our society and economy have become dependent on oil and gas. The UK uses oil and gas for more than two-thirds of its energy needs - to run its transport network, heat its homes, in industrial processes, and to produce over a quarter of its electricity. There has been a steady increase in consumption of petrol, diesel and aviation fuel since 1970, mostly for transportation, although consumption of fuel oil has fallen dramatically. This has largely been replaced in the industrial and domestic sectors by gas, the consumption of which has risen sharply since 1990. This report assesses how this dependence on oil and gas is affecting the environment, and looks at the impact of the increasing consumption of oil and gas on the environment. The need to regulate and manage these impacts has been recognised for many years. The report forms the Environment Agency's view on the general state of pollution of the environment in relation to oil and gas. It looks at how well existing regulations and controls are working in practice and what more needs to be done, both by the Agency itself and by others, to reduce pollution. After giving a background to the formation of oil and gas and the history of their exploitation, the report summarises who does what in regulation. It then takes a life-cycle approach to look at the pressures on the environment from the exploration, production, transportation, refining, storage, and the use of oil and gas, and finally the disposal of used oil and oily waste. (UK)

  18. Oil, gas and other energies, a primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legault, A.

    2007-09-01

    At a time when the topic of energy is front and centre, this book examines the basic concepts that are essential to grasping the energy issues of the 21 st century. Ail the main questions that people have about energy, especially oil and gas, are addressed, providing students, academics, journalists, representatives of government and other institutions and interested readers in general with the information they need to understand the complex, multifaceted energy sector. Abundantly illustrated, this book represents five years of exhaustive research on a fascinating and highly controversial topic. If discusses all the processes related to fossil forms of energy, from the formation of hydrocarbons (crude oil and natural gas) to the delivery of oil and gas to consumers. It also examines renewable energy options and climate change issues in addressing the major geopolitical challenges facing the energy sector. Content: 1 - The Extraordinary History of the Earth; 2 - The Formation of Oil and Gas; 3 - Energy, Past and Present; 4 - Renewable Energies; 5 - The Essence of Oil and Gas; 6 - Geography of Oil and Gas; 7 - The Outlook for Petroleum Prices and Demand Until 2030; 8 - Global Warming; 9 - Liquefied Natural Gas;10 - The Big Three: Russia, China and the United States

  19. Rosneftegazstroy - Russia's premier oil and gas contractor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This special Petroleum Economist Sponsored Supplement looks at the present condition and future prospects of the Russian oil and gas industry. Russia's chief oil and gas contractor, Rosneftegazstroy, a joint stock company formed in 1991, took over from the former Soviet Union's Ministry of Oil and Gas Construction and from Neftegazstroy, the State concern. Responsible for the exploration and exploitation of the country's huge oil and gas reserves, Rosneftegazstroy has a mammoth task ahead to modernize and create an adequate infrastructure for its new commercial basis. Its foreign investment projects are described and plans for rebuilding and new developments are discussed. Russia's fuel and energy industries now show clear signs of increasing activity, amid a backdrop of falling production overall. (UK)

  20. New oil and gas contract in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    2004-01-01

    The Colombian government has implemented two fundamental changes in the upstream oil and gas industry, Ecopetrol role is now as sole entrepreneur and the national hydrocarbons agency - ANH was created to administer the hydrocarbons resource

  1. (Canada) Oil and gas survey, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This summarizes the financial reporting of a major segment of the oil and gas industry in Canada as shown in annual reports to shareholders for 1986. Annual reports have been surveyed with particular attention to developments in accounting practices in the oil and gas industry during 1986. The survey was not restricted to financial statements and all information presented in the annual reports was considered. Matters of general financial disclosure not unique to the oil and gas industry are not included. Examples quoted from reports covered by this survey are not presented as recommended methods but are illustrations of present practice only. Some illustrations were drawn from oil and gas companies not included in the survey.

  2. Oil and gas industry, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, O.

    1998-01-01

    A consistent investment boost on exploration and development, the favourable prospects connected with technological improvement, the opening of virgin areas of exploration are all factors granting extraordinary opportunities for the oil and gas industry. However, environmental constraints relevant to emission standards and products quality are also growing and will be increasingly binding upon both oil and car industries [it

  3. Strategic alliances in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, J.G.

    1998-01-01

    A competitor today is an ally tomorrow. A strategic partner in one market is an adversary in another. In this radically new way of doing business, the oil and gas industry seems quite at home. The trend to mergers is not unique to the oil industry, what is unique is the knack of petroleum companies to form strategic alliances [it

  4. Knowledge Based Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sasson, Amir; Blomgren, Atle

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the Norwegian upstream oil and gas industry (defined as all oil and gasrelated firms located in Norway, regardless of ownership) and evaluates the industry according to the underlying dimensions of a global knowledge hub - cluster attractiveness, education attractiveness, talent attractiveness, R&D and innovation attractiveness, ownership attractiveness, environmental attractiveness and cluster dynamics.

  5. Oil and gas in Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.; Lattimore, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper documents the current status of oil and gas reserves and production in Papua New Guinea. It then provides an assessment of future prospects for the industry in the context of both the international market for oil and gas and local constraints on the industry's growth. Finally, an estimate of the impact of the industry's development on the economy of PNG is presented. (author)

  6. International oil and gas imnvestment: moving eastward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.W.; Ndi, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    Emerging trends in international oil and gas investment are surveyed in this volume. There is a particular emphasis on the evolution in investment conditions, the environment, and the relationship between the international petroleum industry and the oil and gas sectors in Russia, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and Eastern Europe. A number of legislative documents appear as annexes. A separate abstract has been prepared for each of the 23 chapters. (UK)

  7. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  8. Canadian oil and gas survey 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The year 1997 brought record levels of financing for the Canadian oil and gas industry which led to record levels of capital spending and unprecedented merger and acquisition activity. Production records were achieved, but soft commodity prices in the fourth quarter resulted in a significant downturn in the equity markets. El Nino reduced demand for natural gas and heating oil, resulting in increased storage levels for both commodities. Record drilling and capital spending fueled the Canadian oilfield service industry as total market capitalization rose to $10 billion. As for the 1998 outlook, the industry has turned to natural gas as the favoured commodity, as indicated by the conclusion of the Alliance pipeline hearings and the Nova/TCPL merger. This survey presents a review of crude oil and natural gas production, prices, and capital spending for development and exploratory wells, and the financial and operating results for fiscal year 1997 of selected oil and gas companies and income trusts. All listed companies are Canadian public companies, or publicly traded income trusts, traded on one of the country's four major stock exchanges. They are ranked according to gross oil and gas production revenue only (before royalties). Syncrude and oil sands production is also included. The remaining data in the financial statistics tables includes all business segments of each company included. The survey excluded companies that were wholly-owned subsidiaries, divisions or U.S. subsidiaries and private companies. tabs., figs

  9. Oil and gas. Gas supply under pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, A.

    2008-01-01

    The latest review of natural gas markets from the International Energy Agency (IEA) paints a picture of growing demand in the face of rising prices, a strengthening link between gas and electricity markets, and a globalising influence from increasingly flexible LNG supplies. But there are growing signs that security of supply is under threat from underinvestment, delays and cost escalation

  10. Gas Sorption, Diffusion and Permeation in a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-7)

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2013-05-08

    The entire world including Saudi Arabia is dependent on natural gas to provide new energy supplies for the future. Conventional ways for gas separation are expensive, and, hence, it is very important to reduce the cost and lower the energy consumption. Membrane technology is a relatively new separation process for natural gas purification with large growth potential, specifically for off-shore applications. The economics of any membrane separation process depend primarily on the intrinsic gas permeation properties of the membrane materials. All current commercial membranes for natural gas separation are made from polymers, which have several drawbacks, including low permeability, moderate selectivity, and poor stability in acid gas and hydrocarbon environments. The recent development of polymeric materials called “polymers of intrinsic microporosity” (PIMs) provide a new class of high-performance membrane materials that are anticipated to be used in natural gas separation processes including, but not limited to, acid gas removal and separation of hydrocarbons from methane. PIM-7 is an excellent example of a material from the PIMs series for gas separation. It was selected for this work since it has not been extensively tested for its gas permeation properties to date. Specifically, sorption and mixed-gas permeation data were not available for PIM-7 prior to this work. Sorption isotherms of N2, O2, CH4, CO2, C2H6, C3H8 and n-C4H10 were determined over a range of pressures at 35 oC for PIM-7 using a custom-designed dual-volume pressure decay system. Condensable hydrocarbon gases, such as C3H8 and n-C4H10, show significantly higher solubility than the other less condensable gas of the test series due to their high affinity to the polymer matrix. Dual-mode sorption model parameters were determined from the sorption isotherms. Henry’s law solubility, Langmuir capacity constant and the affinity constant increased with gas condensability. Permeability coefficients

  11. Oil and Gas in the Arab world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The state of oil and gas production in each of twelve Arab states in 1996 is reviewed. A table of proved oil reserves and production in these countries as at the end of 1995 is provided. For Arab oil producers, 1996 was a good year in price terms. Crude oil was selling at an average of $3 a barrel more than in 1995. Factors contributing to prices rises were the increase in demand accompanying global economic growth, especially in the developing economies of Asia, which was not matched by supply growth, and the news that Iraq is unlikely to return to international markets in the near future. (UK)

  12. Gas and Oil Flow through Wellbore Flaws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatambeigi, M.; Anwar, I.; Reda Taha, M.; Bettin, G.; Chojnicki, K. N.; Stormont, J.

    2017-12-01

    We have measured gas and oil flow through laboratory samples that represent two important potential flow paths in wellbores associated with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR): cement-steel interfaces (microannuli) and cement fractures. Cement fractures were created by tensile splitting of cement cores. Samples to represent microannuli were created by placing thin steel sheets within split cement cores so flow is channeled along the cement-steel interface. The test sequence included alternating gas and oil flow measurements. The test fluids were nitrogen and silicone oil with properties similar to a typical crude oil stored in the SPR. After correcting for non-linear (inertial) flow when necessary, flows were interpreted as effective permeability and hydraulic aperture using the cubic law. For both samples with cement fractures and those with cement-steel interfaces, initial gas and oil permeabilities were comparable. Once saturated with oil, a displacement pressure had to be overcome to establish gas flow through a sample, and the subsequent gas permeability were reduced by more than 50% compared to its initial value. Keywords: wellbore integrity, leakage, fracture, microannulus, SPR. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of NTESS/Honeywell, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2017-8168 A

  13. Oil and gas market developments in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Turkey's strategic location makes it a natural 'energy bridge' between major oil and gas producing areas in the Middle East and Caspian Sea regions on one hand and consumer markets in Europe on the other. Oil consumption has increased in recent years in Turkey, and this trend is expected to continue, with growth of 2-3% annually in coming years. The annual oil consumption of the country is around 31.3 million tons, while 83% of total consumption is supplied from imports and only 17% is supplied from indigenous production. Oil provides around 43% of Turkey's total energy requirements, but its share is declining (as the share of natural gas rises). On the other hand, due to diversification efforts of energy sources, use of natural gas was newly introduced into the Turkish economy in 1987 and has been growing rapidly. Turkey's natural gas reserves seem limited and current gas production in the country meets 2.8% of domestic consumption requirements. The annual natural gas consumption of Turkey is around 14.7 billion m 3 and is assumed to increase by 12% per annum. Turkish natural gas use is projected to increase dramatically in coming years, with the prime consumers expected to be industry and power plants. Turkey has chosen natural gas as the preferred fuel for the massive amount of new power plant capacity to be added in coming years. (Author)

  14. Yukon's common oil and gas regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Yukon's common oil and gas regime was developed in partnership with First Nations and it sets out the rules that will apply throughout the Yukon and on Yukon and First Nation lands. While separate and distinct, it conforms with and is compatible with other government systems and regimes. The major elements of the common regime include the Oil and Gas Act, regulations, policies, processes and agreements. The specific opportunities that are available in each phase of oil and gas development in the Yukon are described, with a map showing all basins, reserves and sites of current oil and gas activity. The Yukon has eight potential oil and gas basins: North Coast, Old Crow, Kandik, Eagle Plain, Peel Plateau, Bonnet Plume, Whitehorse Trough, and Liard Plateau. Only three of the eight, the Liard Plateau, Whitehorse Trough and Eagle Plain, have been explored. No wells have been drilled in several of Yukon's basins. Factors influencing economic opportunities in the Territory are also described, including: (1) international events and energy markets, (2) North American gas markets, (3) environmental factors, (4) competitiveness of the Yukon regime, and (5) the commitment of industry resources. 4 figs

  15. Oil and gas competition in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrie, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that in Western Europe, the competition between oil and gas began on a large scale during the 1960s. Indeed, natural gas accounted for only 2 percent of Western Europe's energy consumption in 1960 and for already 7 percent in 1970. It now accounts for about 17 percent. Almost all of this increase took place at the detriment of oil products. The competition between those two energy sources has resulted in the development of natural gas supply on one hand, and in several political and economic factors on the other

  16. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report proposes an overview of facts, events and data concerning the world oil and gas markets, the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, the challenges of gas European supplies, the exploration and production in France, the oil and oil-related industry, hydrocarbons imports, the refining activity in France, fuel quality, alternative fuels, the domestic transportation of oil products, gas infrastructures, the storage of oil products, the consumption of oil and gas products, taxes on hydrocarbons, prices for the final consumer, and the prices of oil products

  17. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  18. Oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Favennec, J.P.; Bauquis, P.R.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Guirauden, D.

    2004-01-01

    The steps that lead to the production of oil and gas are diverse, complex and costly. They are diverse, because the detection of oil and gas involves input from many specialties, ranging from geology to reservoir engineering. They are complex, as shown by the development of the job of the petroleum architect, who coordinates all the operations. They are costly, as the investments for exploration and production represent more than half of all investments in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, exploration is a risky activity, both from the technical and financial viewpoint: only one well in five produces marketable oil. Meanwhile, the areas for exploration and production are spread throughout the world. This book provides a complete overview of the stakes and challenges involved in oil and gas exploration and production. Following a historical review and a survey of the markets, the technical phases are covered, as are the evaluation of reserves, the estimation of investments and costs, the decision-making and control processes, and the accounting, legal and contractual environment for these activities. The book concludes with a discussion of the role of safety, and of environmental and ethical issues. This work, which is designed for readers concerned with the various aspects of the oil and gas upstream sector, is accessible to all. Contents: 1. Petroleum: a strategic product. 2. Oil and gas exploration and production. 3. Hydrocarbon reserves. 4. Investments and costs. 5. Legal, fiscal and contractual framework. 6. Decision-making on exploration and production. 7. Information, accounting and competition analysis. 8. Health, safety, the environment, ethics. Bibliography. Glossary. Index

  19. Oil and gas fiscal regime review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Poor levels of oil and gas industry profitability, declining activity, and increasing provincial budgetary pressures led to formation of a joint government/industry committee to review fiscal systems in the oil and gas industry and identify areas for potential change. An overview is presented of the development of oil and gas resources in Saskatchewan, showing that reserves and production peaked in 1966. Although reserves and production declined steadily until the early 1980s, some growth has occurred in the past decade, largely due to the influence of horizontal drilling. The province's oil and gas royalty structure is then summarized, giving the classes of oil and gas production and the royalty applicable to each class, as well as incentives available to encourage exploration and development activity. Opportunities for increased exploration and development are identified in two categories (existing wells and new wells) and impacts of possible changes in the existing royalty and incentive regime are discussed. Recommendations are provided to promote new capital investment in the industry and to extend the economic life of existing wells which are at or near the point of abandonment or suspension. 40 figs., 16 tabs

  20. Learning through Oil and Gas Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.

    I investigate the importance of learning in oil and gas exploration. I developed a tractable dynamic structural model of oil and gas exploration in which firms gradually learn about the productive qualities of different regions through exploratory drilling. Exploratory drilling is modelled...... as an information-gathering process in which each new exploratory well provides information concerning the profitability of drilling additional wells in a given area. The model is geographically based and accounts for the heterogeneity in the characteristics of oil and gas deposits that can exist across large...... the observed geography of exploratory drilling. The broader implications of my model indicate that the structure of information has important effects on drilling behaviour, and that these effects vary, depending on the specific characteristics of the regions being explored....

  1. Oil and gas leasing/production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimberger, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities

  2. Governance of Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bringing together leading experts from various disciplines, this book offers a comprehensive study of the governance of offshore oil and gas activities in the circumpolar Arctic. As a consequence of energy globalisation, and of a sharp increase in world energy demand, the Arctic Ocean is also now...... being targeted for its offshore oil and gas resources, at the same time as an increasing demand for democratic legitimisation and recognition of the rights of indigenous peoples is emerging in the civil spheres of society. The volume analyses how, in the daunting context of climate change......, the interactions between the various levels of governance structure the policy process and impact on the efficiency of environmental management and the effectiveness of public participation, including the participation of indigenous peoples. Any governance system for Arctic offshore oil and gas activities...

  3. Norwegian oil and gas policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjerde, B

    1978-04-01

    The Norwegian Minister of Oil and Energy explains the importance of integrating petroleum policy into the broad political picture because of Norway's economic situation. Since oil was found on the continental shelf 13 years ago, changes have been made in projected production levels to reflect the international recession and concerns over unemployment in Norway. Policies are aimed at keeping a constant activity in the petroleum sector through allocation of particular block development that will improve continental shelf mapping and encourage new deepwater exploration and development. He outlines licensing criteria and future exploratory activities. The report covers aspects of safety, transportation, and landing and the impacts of petroleum activities on Norwegian communities.

  4. Mexico: 'oil mentality' at last accepts a role for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, R.

    1992-01-01

    The history of Mexico's policy of concentrating on oil and treating natural gas as a nuisance is traced. The current redefinition of natural gas policies by PEMEX, Mexico's giant oil and gas state monopoly, and the expanding petrochemical industry are discussed. Proven reserves of natural gas, imports of gas from the US, and the growing demand for gas products are considered. (UK)

  5. Oil and Gas Industry In Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In less than two decades, numerous impressive developments have taken place. These include: the realization of full ownership and complete control by the State over oil and gas operations and related industries, the establishment of Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC), the development of exploration and production activities, the full utilization of natural gas in industry and domestic sectors and the construction of down stream industries in the industrial area (Umm Said) including the refinery, the natural gas liquids plants and the fertilizer and petrochemical complexes. Such important achievements have been crowned with the development of the North Field massive reserves of non associated gas. 4 figs

  6. Oil and gas development : a northern perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, M.

    1998-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas industry in the North, and in particular its impact over the years on the town of Fort Nelson, British Columbia, is discussed. Other important issues such as cultural differences, government/industry/community partnerships in community development, employment, training and workforce development, land claims, Aboriginal consultation and the consequent appearance of reverse discrimination were discussed. The environment, safety programs, drug and alcohol programs are also reviewed. All of these issues have a bearing on the further development of the oil and gas industry in the Yukon

  7. Geologic distributions of US oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication presents nonproprietary field size distributions that encompass most domestic oil and gas fields at year-end 1989. These data are organized by geologic provinces as defined by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists' Committee on Statistics of Drilling (AAPG/CSD), by regional geographic aggregates of the AAPG/CSD provinces, and Nationally. The report also provides partial volumetric distributions of petroleum liquid and natural gas ultimate recoveries for three macro-geologic variables: principal lithology of the reservoir rock, principal trapping condition and geologic age of the reservoir rock, The former two variables are presented Nationally and by geographic region, in more detail than has heretofore been available. The latter variable is provided Nationally at the same level of detail previously available. Eighteen tables and 66 figures present original data on domestic oil and gas occurrence. Unfortunately, volumetric data inadequacy dictated exclusion of Appalachian region oil and gas fields from the study. All other areas of the United States known to be productive of crude oil or natural gas through year-end 1989, onshore and offshore, were included. It should be noted that none of the results and conclusions would be expected to substantively differ had data for the Appalachian region been available for inclusion in the study

  8. World oil and gas markets in 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In front of insufficient production capacities, the petroleum and gas spot prices have won historical records in 2005. This paper analyzes this situation using the highlights of this exceptional year and concerning the producing countries (political situation), the oil and gas markets (exchange rates, demand, production capacity), the European quotations of petroleum products (automotive and domestic fuels), and the prices of petroleum products in France. (J.S.)

  9. Canadian oil and gas survey : 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberge, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    An outlook of the Canadian Petroleum Industry, financial and operating statistics of the top 100 Canadian public oil and gas companies and 15 energy income trusts, were summarized for the fiscal year ending in 1996. In general, 1996 was a good year for the industry. Greater industry financing resulted in increased drilling activity and good stock market returns for investors. However, strong commodity prices also resulted in record levels of hedging activity, which meant lost revenues for the industry. The top 100 companies recorded losses of about $800 million in 1996, largely on crude oil hedges. The fact that volumes hedged forward to 1997 are down from 1996 indicate that many companies are rethinking their commitment to risk management. Details of crude oil and natural gas prices and production levels during 1996 were provided. A list of significant corporate mergers and acquisitions during the year under review rounded out the presentation

  10. Disclosure of oil and gas reserve information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emsile, B.H.

    1998-01-01

    The current regulations regarding disclosure of oil and gas reserve information in Canada are described. These regulations have been in place since the early 1980s and have generally worked well, but there are some issues that need to be updated. The Alberta Securities Commission Oil and Gas Securities Task Force was established to review the regulations and the major issues that need to be addressed. The issues under consideration are: (1) reserve definitions and price assumptions, (2) use of deterministic or probabilistic reserve calculation methods, (3) use of audits in reserve reporting, (4) abandonment costs, (5) calculation of barrels of oil equivalents, and (6) the calculation of various performance indicators such as finding and development costs and reserve replacement ratios

  11. Oil and gas products and energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The planned activities of the Canadian oil and gas products and energy equipment industry for 1996-1997, were presented. The sector is made up of approximately 1500 small and medium sized enterprises. The Canadian oil field manufacturing and servicing industry holds only a small 2.5% share of the world export market, but it is recognized internationally as one of the leading suppliers of advanced petroleum equipment. Their exports include specialized equipment for extracting oil sands, gathering and treatment facilities for sour gas, underbalanced drilling technologies, equipment for wells experiencing declining production rates, top motor drives, winter drilling rigs, and horizontal drilling technologies. They also offer petroleum industry software products. Most exploration and production equipment sold abroad by Canadian firms is manufactured in Canada, but there is an increasing trend toward manufacturing in the country of operation. 2 tabs

  12. Noise characterization of oil and gas operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Cameron; Autenrieth, Daniel A; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2017-08-01

    In cooperation with The Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, researchers at Colorado State University performed area noise monitoring at 23 oil and gas sites throughout Northern Colorado. The goals of this study were to: (1) measure and compare the noise levels for the different phases of oil and gas development sites; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of noise barriers; and (3) determine if noise levels exceeded the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission noise limits. The four phases of oil and gas development include drilling, hydraulic fracturing, completion and production. Noise measurements were collected using the A- and C-weighted sound scales. Octave band analysis was also performed to characterize the frequency spectra of the noise measurements.  Noise measurements were collected using noise dosimeters and a hand-held sound-level meter at specified distances from the development sites in each cardinal direction. At 350 ft (107 m), drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion sites without noise barriers exceeded the maximum permissible noise levels for residential and commercial zones (55 dBA and 60 dBA, respectively). In addition, drilling and hydraulic fracturing sites with noise barriers exceeded the maximum permissible noise level for residential zones (55 dBA). However, during drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion operations, oil producers are allowed an exception to the noise permissible limits in that they only must comply with the industrial noise limit (80 dBA). It is stated in Rule 604.c.(2)A. that: "Operations involving pipeline or gas facility installation or maintenance, the use of a drilling rig, completion rig, workover rig, or stimulation is subject to the maximum permissible noise levels for industrial zones (80dBA)." [8] Production sites were within the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission permissible noise level criteria for all zones. At 350 ft (107 m) from the noise source, all drilling

  13. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  14. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  15. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA's annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series' objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series' approach is to integrate EIA's crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel

  16. Maximize Liquid Oil Production from Shale Oil and Gas Condensate Reservoirs by Cyclic Gas Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, James [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Li, Lei [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Yu, Yang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Meng, Xingbang [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Sharma, Sharanya [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Huang, Siyuan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Shen, Ziqi [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Zhang, Yao [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Wang, Xiukun [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Carey, Bill [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Nguyen, Phong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Mark [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mody, Fersheed [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Barnes, Warren [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Cook, Tim [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Griffith, Paul [Apache Corp., Houston, TX (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The current technology to produce shale oil reservoirs is the primary depletion using fractured wells (generally horizontal wells). The oil recovery is less than 10%. The prize to enhance oil recovery (EOR) is big. Based on our earlier simulation study, huff-n-puff gas injection has the highest EOR potential. This project was to explore the potential extensively and from broader aspects. The huff-n-puff gas injection was compared with gas flooding, water huff-n-puff and waterflooding. The potential to mitigate liquid blockage was also studied and the gas huff-n-puff method was compared with other solvent methods. Field pilot tests were initiated but terminated owing to the low oil price and the operator’s budget cut. To meet the original project objectives, efforts were made to review existing and relevant field projects in shale and tight reservoirs. The fundamental flow in nanopores was also studied.

  17. 77 FR 21748 - Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel... Foreign Commercial Service (CS), is organizing an Executive-led Oil and Gas Trade Mission to Israel.... The purpose of the mission is to introduce U.S. firms to Israel's rapidly expanding oil and gas market...

  18. Upstream oil and gas. Subsector no. 7: Oil and gas exploration and development 1995 to 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-01

    Prepared by the Alberta Human Resources and Employment, this report provides a summary of the lost-time injuries and disease descriptions of workers injured while employed in the upstream oil and gas industries in Alberta during the period 1995 to 1999. The report includes the characteristics of the injured worker and the risk of injury to workers in the industries in Alberta, as well as the cost of injuries and revenue by means of total premiums paid by the employers. The occupational fatalities that were accepted by the Workers Compensation Board and investigated by the Occupational Health and Safety were summarized in the report along with a brief description of the injuries. The aim was to provide information concerning health and safety issues to government, employers, workers, and health and safety officers in the industries in Alberta about health and safety issues. The focus was placed on the oil and gas exploration and development sub-sector. Defined as all upstream oil field activities of employers which generate revenue from the production and sale of crude oil and/or natural gas, the sub-sector comprises major integrated oil and gas companies and small independent producers. In those cases where the owner/producer operates its own upstream production/processing facilities, they form an integral part of this sub-section. In addition, oil and gas marketing firms are included. Oil/gas well, well head equipment; flow lines/gathering systems tied into field processing facilities; battery sites/compressors stations; crude oil separators and natural gas dehydrators/treaters; natural gas/sulfur processing plants; heavy oil projects including steam generation; and other enhanced recovery methods are all included in the sub-sector. The other sub-sectors in the upstream oil and gas industries are: exploration, oilfield maintenance and construction, well servicing with service rigs and power swivels, drilling of oil and gas wells, oilfield downhole and other

  19. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  20. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it's decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs

  1. Composting of biochars improves their sorption properties, retains nutrients during composting and affects greenhouse gas emissions after soil application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochar application to soils has been suggested to elevate nutrient sorption, improve soil fertility and reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We examined the impact of composting biochar together with a biologically active substrate (i.e., livestock manure-straw mixture). We hypothesized that ...

  2. Hydrogen storage materials discovery via high throughput ball milling and gas sorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Kaye, Steven S; Riley, Conor; Greenberg, Doron; Galang, Daniel; Bailey, Mark S

    2012-06-11

    The lack of a high capacity hydrogen storage material is a major barrier to the implementation of the hydrogen economy. To accelerate discovery of such materials, we have developed a high-throughput workflow for screening of hydrogen storage materials in which candidate materials are synthesized and characterized via highly parallel ball mills and volumetric gas sorption instruments, respectively. The workflow was used to identify mixed imides with significantly enhanced absorption rates relative to Li2Mg(NH)2. The most promising material, 2LiNH2:MgH2 + 5 atom % LiBH4 + 0.5 atom % La, exhibits the best balance of absorption rate, capacity, and cycle-life, absorbing >4 wt % H2 in 1 h at 120 °C after 11 absorption-desorption cycles.

  3. A unique 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework for efficient gas sorption applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader

    2016-10-03

    A novel 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework with high surface area (1050 m2 g−1) and thermal stability was synthesized. It exhibits relatively high CO2 (3.4 mmol g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar), H2 (7 mmol g−1 at 77 K and 1 bar), and olefin sorption capacity, good CO2/N2 (45) and CO2/CH4 (9.6) selectivity at 273 K and 1 bar, as well as promising C2H4/CH4 and C3H6/CH4 selectivities at 298 K, making it a potential candidate for CO2 capture, H2 storage, and hydrocarbon gas separation applications.

  4. A unique 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework for efficient gas sorption applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Wang, Yingge; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Pinnau, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework with high surface area (1050 m2 g−1) and thermal stability was synthesized. It exhibits relatively high CO2 (3.4 mmol g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar), H2 (7 mmol g−1 at 77 K and 1 bar), and olefin sorption capacity, good CO2/N2 (45) and CO2/CH4 (9.6) selectivity at 273 K and 1 bar, as well as promising C2H4/CH4 and C3H6/CH4 selectivities at 298 K, making it a potential candidate for CO2 capture, H2 storage, and hydrocarbon gas separation applications.

  5. Advances in operations research in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, M.; Zaccour, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various theories and examples of modelling, forecasting and optimization designing in the different parts of the petroleum and gas industries are presented, stochastic programming for long term planning in the refining industry, stochastic model for gasoline blending, feedstock optimization, location and sizing for offshore platforms, hydrocarbon exploration simulation rapid method, valuation of oil field development leases, economic models for petroleum allocation, models for oil supply market, trade embargo game theory, stochastic programming of gas contract portfolio management, scheduling transportation of oil and gas, strategic planning in an oil pipeline company, simulation of offshore oil terminal systems, hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

  6. Noble Gas signatures of Enhanced Oil Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, P. H.; Kulongoski, J. T.; Tyne, R. L.; Hillegonds, D.; Byrne, D. J.; Landon, M. K.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Noble gases are powerful tracers of fluids from various oil and gas production activities in hydrocarbon reservoirs and nearby groundwater. Non-radiogenic noble gases are introduced into undisturbed oil and natural gas reservoirs through exchange with formation waters [1-3]. Reservoirs with extensive hydraulic fracturing, injection for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and/or waste disposal also show evidence for a component of noble gases introduced from air [4]. Isotopic and elemental ratios of noble gases can be used to 1) assess the migration history of the injected and formation fluids, and 2) determine the extent of exchange between multiphase fluids in different reservoirs. We present noble gas isotope and abundance data from casing, separator and injectate gases of the Lost Hills and Fruitvale oil fields in the San Joaquin basin, California. Samples were collected as part of the California State Water Resource Control Board's Oil and Gas Regional Groundwater Monitoring Program. Lost Hills (n=7) and Fruitvale (n=2) gases are geochemically distinct and duplicate samples are highly reproducible. Lost Hills casing gas samples were collected from areas where EOR and hydraulic fracturing has occurred in the past several years, and from areas where EOR is absent. The Fruitvale samples were collected from a re-injection port. All samples are radiogenic in their He isotopes, typical of a crustal environment, and show enrichments in heavy noble gases, resulting from preferential adsorption on sediments. Fruitvale samples reflect air-like surface conditions, with higher air-derived noble gas concentrations. Lost Hills gases show a gradation from pristine crustal signatures - indicative of closed-system exchange with formation fluids - to strongly air-contaminated signatures in the EOR region. Pristine samples can be used to determine the extent of hydrocarbon exchange with fluids, whereas samples with excess air can be used to quantify the extent of EOR. Determining noble

  7. Oil and Gas in the Netherlands - Is there a future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, R.; de Jager, J.

    The impact of oil and, in particular, gas fields discovered in the Dutch subsurface has been very significant. However, 50 years after the discovery of the giant Groningen gas field the Netherlands has become very mature for exploration of oil and gas, and the gas volume left to be discovered in

  8. Netherlands Oil and Gas Catalogue 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-04-15

    The Netherlands Oil and Gas Catalogue 2010 is a specialist publication from IRO (the Association of Dutch Suppliers in the Oil and Gas Industry) and Pedemex. A wealth of relevant business information has been collected with the greatest care to be included in this publication, and subsequently brought together in an easy to digest order. The catalogue is broken down into the following headings: (1) Engineering, Consultancy and Research; (2) Exploration, Drilling and Production; (3) Construction and Fabrication; (4) Contracting,Transport and Installation; (5) Equipment Supply; (6) Miscellaneous. In addition you can by using keywords, rapidly identify the company you are looking for. A list is also enclosed with the names and contact details of IRO members, and the sectors in which they are active.

  9. Oil, Gas, Coal and Electricity - Quarterly statistics. Second Quarter 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-15

    This publication provides up-to-date and detailed quarterly statistics on oil, coal, natural gas and electricity for the OECD countries. Oil statistics cover production, trade, refinery intake and output, stock changes and consumption for crude oil, NGL and nine selected oil product groups. Statistics for electricity, natural gas, hard coal and brown coal show supply and trade. Import and export data are reported by origin and destination. Moreover, oil and hard coal production are reported on a worldwide basis.

  10. Environmental audits of oil and gas properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moody, T.D.; Forbes, S.

    1991-01-01

    The growing concern over one, the cost of correcting environmental damage and two, the potential financial liabilities associated with the acquisition, sale or lease of oil and gas properties, has led many prospective buyers to investigate the environmental liabilities associated with the property transfer. The environmental audit provides a tool or mechanism to assist the prudent investor in identifying environmental problems that could adversely effect an otherwise normal business activity. Accordingly, an environmental audit can identify potential environmental liabilities associated with the property, thus allowing the investor an opportunity to better assess financial risks. In addition, should the negative findings of the environmental audit be limited, the findings could be used by the buyer in negotiating the final price of the subject property to account for potential or known liabilities. As this suggests, environmental damage to an oil and gas property does not necessarily render the property worthless. This paper provides a brief guide on environmental audits of oil and gas properties as well as general information on the most common exploration and production wastes

  11. OIL AND GAS FUTURES AND OPTIONS MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Nosić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy mineral resources markets are represented by complex supply and demand ratios which are depending on different factors such as technical (transport and geopolitical. The main specific of energy markets is represented by an uneven geographic distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and exploration on one hand and energy consumption on the other. World oil markets, although geographically localized, because of specific market trade, represent unique global market with decreasing price difference. Price differences are result of development of a transport possibilities of oil supply. Development of transport routes of natural gas and increasing number of liquefied natural gas terminals in the world give pressure to natural gas market and its integration into global gas market. Integration of regional gas markets into a common European gas market is main energy policy of EU concerning natural gas. On the other hand, there are still significant price differences on some markets (e.g. United States of America - South East Asia. Development of global energy markets is enabled by development of a futures and options contracts of an energy trade which have replaced bilateral contract deals between producers and consumers. Futures contracts are standardized contracts traded on exchanges. Buyer agrees to buy certain quantity of stock for an agreed upon price and with some future delivery date. Option is a contract which gives a buyer the option of the right to buy (or sell, depending on the option an asset at predetermined price and at a later date. Stocks price risk can be managed with the purchase and selling futures and options contracts. This paper deals with futures and options energy markets and their market strategies.

  12. Sorption of diesel oil from polyurethane composite reinforced with palm fiber; Sorcao de oleo diesel a partir de composito de poluretano reforcado com fibras da palmeira

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, I.R.; Cipriano, J.P.; Costa, I.L.M.; Mulinari, D.R., E-mail: dmulinari@hotmail.com [Universidade do Estado do Rio de janeiro (FAT/UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    One of the methods to contain the diesel oil spill is the application of materials polymeric sorbents and the polyurethane is an option of porous sorbents. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of polyurethane composites derivative of castor oil reinforced with palm fibers to sorption of diesel oil and compare with pure polyurethane. The composites were reinforced with 5 to 20% w/w of fibers. Subsequently, the sorption capacity of the composite in function of inserted fiber content in the matrix was analyzed. The physical and morphological characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD) and the contact angle. The results showed that the composite with 20% w /w showed higher sorption capacity oil diesel compared to pure PU and other composites this fact was due to the heterogeneity of the pores and dispersion of fiber in the matrix. (author)

  13. Cracking oils, etc. , glycerine, oil and coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, W

    1919-02-06

    In the cracking of hydrocarbon oils, the thermal decomposition of fats to obtain glycerine, the production of oil and coal gas, and the destructive distillation of coal, peat, shale, etc., the lower molecular weight products are separated, while the higher molecular weight products are separated, while the higher molecular weight products and undecomposed substances are retained for further exposure to the decomposition conditions, by interposing one or more porous septa between the decomposition chamber and the condenser or receiver. The decomposition conditions may be maintained up to the porous septum; but it is preferable to place the porous septum in a separate chamber inside or outside the decomposition vessel; and a plurality of decomposition chambers may be used in series or parallel.

  14. Oil and gas operational and policy issues in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1992-01-01

    The method of arriving at monthly values under Schedule 3 OTA 1975 applies to all oil which can include LPG and condensate as well as crude oil and gas. The majority of crude oil is now sold spot and in 1987 the method of arriving at monthly values was amended better to reflect this aspect of the crude oil market. The UK gas market was such that the proceeds of sale of large amounts of natural gas were exempt from PRT under Section 10 OTA 1975 and very little gas was disposed of other than at arms length to British Gas. British Gas no longer buys virtually all gas produced from the UK Continental Shelf and neither does it sell all the gas used by UK customers. The use of natural gas to generate electricity has opened up a new market for UK landed gas. How do these changes affect gas valuation.?. (Author)

  15. Refining fuels of the heavy gas--oil type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruzac, J F.A.

    1930-01-28

    This invention has for its object the production of a new type of gas-oil fuel, obtained from crude petroleum, shale oil, and peat oil, according to the method of treatment mentioned, by means of which is obtained from gas oil, shale oil, lignite oil, and peat oil (deprived of asphaltic, and bituminous, resinous, and sulfur compounds), a fuel suitable for running Diesel, Junkers, and Clerget motors and all others of the same kind, by diminishing considerably the fouling and attack on the metal.

  16. Qualification of the ALKASORB sorbent for the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Selow, E.R.; Cobden, P.D.; Dijk, Van H.A.J.; Walspurger, S.; Verbraeken, P.A.; Jansen, D.

    2013-07-01

    For the sorption-enhanced water-gas shift (SEWGS) process, a new sorbent material has been qualified in a reactor of 2 m length under conditions close to industrial designs. The sorbent ALKASORB is a potassium-carbonate promoted hydrotalcite-based compound. ALKASORB is shown to have many favourable properties in comparison to the reference sorbent, in particular with respect to mechanical stability. The cyclic capacity of the new compound is substantially higher than the cyclic capacity of the reference sorbent, and it allows a reduction of the steam requirement of 50%. The sorbent has demonstrated catalytic activity for the water-gas shift reaction that is sufficient to omit a separate catalyst. It is demonstrated that the sorbent remains chemically and mechanically stable during operation of at least 2000 adsorption-desorption cycles, even in the presence of H2S in the feed. H2S is shown not to influence CO2 adsorption capacity and is co-captured with the CO2. In contrast to the reference material that showed mechanical degradation during extended adsorption-desorption cycles, the new material is stable and allows to obtain carbon capture levels exceeding 95% more efficiently and more economically since the required size of the vessels will be smaller.

  17. Radiological consequences of gas and oil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.

    2002-01-01

    Contamination of the environment by Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (TENORM) is a well-known side outcome of gas and oil extraction. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) means material containing the radionuclides of nature origin, i.e., K 40, U 238, Th 232 and their decay products. Technologically Enhanced means, that the physical, chemical, radiological properties, and concentrations of natural radionuclides in NORM have been altered such that there exists a potential for:Redistribution and contamination of environmental media (soil, water, and air); Increased environmental mobility in soils and groundwater; Incorporation of elevated levels of radioactivity in products and construction materials; Improper disposal or use of disposal methods that could result in unnecessary and relatively high exposures to individuals and populations via any environmental pathway and medium. NORM and TENORM are the major sources of human exposure in the World. Their contributions to the worldwide human exposure as evaluated by UNSCEAR. The radiological consequences of occupational and public exposures with TENORM are not clearly monitored and examined. The principal reason of such situation is that for a long time neither ecological organizations nor Regulatory Authorities did not consider the handling of material containing natural radionuclides (other than radon and thoron) as object for regulation of radiation safety. For instance, till now Green peace have not demonstrated any opinion about this problem. TENORM released in oil and gas extraction is a major source of environmental contamination of the Caspian Sea and soils, surface and ground waters in Azerbaijan. The origin of TENORM in oil fields of Apsheron peninsula is related to drilling, production, and processing operations. Other sources of contamination are oil well equipment where separation of contaminated water from oil takes place. Contamination of the environment leads

  18. Heavy gas oils as feedstock for petrochemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, P.D. [Nova Chemicals Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Du Plessis, D. [Alberta Energy Research Inst., Edmonton, AB (Canada)]|[Alberta Economic Development and Trade, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation reviewed the possibilities for converting heavy aromatic compounds and gas oils obtained from Alberta bitumen into competitively priced feedstock for high value refined products and petrochemicals. Upgrading bitumen beyond synthetic crude oil to refined products and petrochemicals would add value to bitumen in Alberta by expanding the petrochemical industry by providing a secure market for co-products derived from the integration of bitumen upgrading and refining. This presentation also reviewed conventional feedstocks and processes; by-products from bitumen upgrading and refining; production of light olefins by the fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) and hydrocracking process; deep catalytic cracking, catalytic pyrolysis and PetroFCC processes; technical and economic evaluations; and opportunities and challenges. Conventional feeds for steam cracking were listed along with comparative yields on feedstock. The use of synthetic gas liquids from oil sands plants was also reviewed. Current FCC type processes for paraffinic feedstocks are not suitable for Alberta's bitumen, which require better technologies based on hydrotreating and new ring opening catalysts. tabs., figs.

  19. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  20. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. Oil and Gas R&D Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This publication describes the major components of the research and development programs of the Department of Energy`s Office of Natural Gas and Petroleum Technology. These programs are commonly referred to collectively as the `Oil and Gas Program.` This document provides customers with a single source of information describing the details of the individual technology program components. This document reflects the results of a planning cycle that began in early 1996 with the development of a scenario analysis for the programs, followed by the development of the coordinated strategic plan. The technology program plans, which are the most recent products of the planning cycle, expand on the program descriptions presented in the coordinated strategic plan, and represent an initial effort to coordinate the Oil and Gas Program exploration and production programs and budgets. Each technology program plan includes a `roadmap` that summarizes the progress of the program to the present and indicates its future direction. The roadmaps describe the program drivers, vision, mission, strategies, and measures of success. Both the individual technology program plans and the strategic plan are dynamic and are intended to be updated regularly.

  3. Radiological impact of oil/gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact on the environment and population of the oil/gas industry that is non-nuclear industry but uses and can produce materials, with an enhanced content of naturally occurring radionuclides. The natural radioactivity levels in the oil field environmental media, which could represent a risk for the people living in the areas influenced by this non-nuclear industry, do not indicate an increase in the natural radiation background. From a radiological point of view, the situation does not pose any immediate concern. Some places however need further investigations, with special emphasis on the control of 226 Ra releases to prevent from polluting the environment with this radionuclide. The growing concern amongst the population about the quality of their environment increases the significance of impact assessment of radioactive releases into the environment even if natural radionuclides occur. (N.C.)

  4. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  5. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle [nl

  6. Alberta oil and gas industry : annual statistics for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Alberta's 1996 annual and historical statistics for the supply and disposition of the following oil and gas products was presented: (1) crude oil and equivalent, (2) natural gas, (3) ethane, (4) propane, (5) butanes, (6) natural gas liquids, and (7) sulphur. Statistics regarding the deliveries and average price of the products and statistical data on drilling activity during 1996 were also included. Tables

  7. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    protection technique as a method of controlling corrosion in oil and gas pipelines is effective and efficient when compared to ... In the field of crude oil production and associated engineering .... Industrial/Mechanical Systems, Joen Printing and.

  8. Controlled PVTS oil and gas production stimulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina-Racines, E

    1970-02-01

    By completing oil- or gas-producing wells according to the PVTS method and energizing the flow of the oil-gas fluids in the reservoir with a small horse-power gas compressor at the wellhead, the following oil and gas production features are attained: (1) Original reservoir story energy conditions are restored, improved, used, and conserved while producing oil and/or gas. (2) The flow of oil or gas in the pay formation to the well bore is stimulated by gas compressor energy, outside of the reservoir system. The pressure drawdown is developed by gas-compressor energy in the well casing and not in the pay formation. (3) The stored energy of the reservoir is conserved while producing oil or gas. The potential energy (pressure) of the reservoir can be used to advantage up to bubble point of the virgin crude. (4) Producible reserves are increased from 4-to 5-fold by the conservation of reservoir energy. Present-day primary oil production practice yields a maximum of 20% of the oil in place by depleting the original reservoir energy. The PVTS system will yield over 80% + of oil in place. (5) Producible gas reserves can be increased greatly by establishing a low abandonment pressure at will. The principal features of the PVTS well mechanism and energy injection method are illustrated by a schematic diagram.

  9. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sote, K.

    1993-01-01

    Petroleum remains the greatest jewel of inestimable value in both the local and international treasure hunts for cheap energy source and viable investment options the world over. The diverse business potentials and favourable government policies in Nigeria aimed specifically at stimulating investments in the up streams, midstream and downstream industries need to be tapped by both indigenous and foreign investors alike. Beyond the crude oil and gas reserves' is therefore our modest effort to support such policies, sensitise the Nigerian petroleum industry and promote more dynamic awareness for the varied business opportunities abound in this sector of the economy. The main objective or this publication is to bring to a wider audience within and outside the oil industry a spectrum of such salient opportunities therein. The publication further presents in a lucid and consize form the hidden potentials yet to be harnessed, captures the essence of such investments, identifies the inherent problems in Nigeria peculiar circumstance and thus provides a detailed guide to address such short-coming, viz. Inadequate and poor knowledge of petroleum industry, its operation, by products and their correct applications. - Lack of understanding of the intricacies, realities and technicalities of petroleum business in general. - Poor financial resources, management style, operational and marketing strategies man power and human resources development.- Dirge of information, lack of professional advice and technical service support on the varied business opportunities for diversification. Apathy on the part of the investors themselves to seek for professional support from competent oil consultants, technocrats, institutionalised authorities on petroleum and related matters, amongst others. In summary, the book is divided into ten chapters with illustrations, graphics, drawings, sketches and incorporating figures, statistics, business reports, marketing results, feasibility studies

  10. The oil and gas operator as fiduciary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Edward.

    1992-01-01

    What, if any, fiduciary duties are owed by those who direct oil and gas operations to their co-venturers? The question is a complex one that has led to much controversy among industry participants, lawyers, academics and judges. The law dealing with fiduciary duties has been constantly evolving in Canada as in other countries and has yet to reach its definitive form. The principles which underlie when a fiduciary relationship will exist and the scope of the duties that will be imposed on the fiduciary in a given relationship are elusive. Yet, while the courts in Canada have raised what amounts to a presumption against the existence of a fiduciary relationship in arm's length commercial transactions, it is clear that the presumption is rebuttable and may be disregarded in light of the facts of a particular case. Certain observations may be made about the potential fiduciary obligations of an operator of oil and gas properties from the decided cases in the oil and gas area and the trends in other areas of the law as they relate to fiduciaries. Such operators have routinely had imposed on them a duty of good faith or have been classified as in a fiduciary relationship with the non-operators, at least with respect to the management, administration and marketing of the product and ultimately the distribution of the revenues. These observations may provide useful guidelines to those companies who are operators or joint operators in a complex industry in which the same organisations may find themselves simultaneously to be conventurers in relation to one piece of property and intense competitors with respect to another. (Author)

  11. Ecological and Economic Indicators of Oil and Gas Companies Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    This article analyzes the basic ecological-economic indicators of oil and gas companies, in particular the various volumes of oil, the number of spills per year of CO2 emissions, the costs of environmental protection. In the process of exploration, development and exploitation of oil and gas fields, production, refining, transportation and storage companies have a negative impact on the environment. Occur accidents involving oil spills, emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environm...

  12. Oil and gas supply : hurdles and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusti, L.

    2006-01-01

    The socioeconomic development in Latin America was discussed with reference to its abundant and diverse resources. Despite its large population, Latin America represents only 6 per cent of the world gross domestic product (GDP) and a less than 6 per cent of the total world trading. This presentation described the problems of large deficits, poor economic policies, large debt and corruption that provoked inflation, economic slowdown, and foreign debt in Latin America. Policy makers agreed that reforms were needed if Latin American economies were to grow more than 6 per cent a year, and to lower the number of people living in poverty in the region. The second-generation reform for Latin America was meant to promote economic development without inflation. It is based on quality public sector governance; fiscal strengthening; an enhanced legal and regulatory framework; efficient financial markets; and, labour and market reform. This presentation also discussed the oil and gas industry's contention with the perceptions that the economic crisis in Latin America was caused by globalization, international trade and acquisitive industrialized countries. An initiative was launched in 1994 to build an integrated energy data bank, evaluate existing interconnections among Latin American countries, and identify barriers for a larger integration to facilitate and improve commercial activities. It was emphasized that while the United States has a large deficit of oil, Canada and Latin America have large surpluses of energy resources, which if developed efficiently and effectively, can be a leading engine of regional development and an important contributor to global competitiveness. Canada is the largest supplier of energy, including oil, natural gas and electricity to the United States, the world's largest energy consumer and largest oil and gas market. Mexico and Brazil were identified as the other 2 large economies in the region's energy chain, but Mexico is self sufficient and

  13. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Isabelle; Hesske, Philip; Welter-Nicol, Cecile; Korman, Bernard; Wermelinger, Elea; Gouge, Patrick; Balian, Armelle; Guichaoua, Sabine; Levaillant, Elise; Ripaux, Marion; Baumont, Thierry; Fondeville, Louis; Lamy, Jean-Michel; Delvincourt, Thibaud; Pertuiset, Thomas; Quintaine, Thierry; Miraval, Bruno; Cesari, Vartouhie

    2012-01-01

    Illustrated by several graphs and tables, this report first proposes an overview of international oil and gas markets and supplies: markets, exploration, challenges faced by European supplies, and French hydrocarbon imports. It comments oil exploration and production activities in France, refining activities and activities in the field of substitution fuels. The next part addresses the French oil and gas logistics: domestic transports of oil products, oil product storage infrastructures, strategic storage, and gas infrastructures. The last part addresses the final consumption: consumption, distribution, fuel quality, prices, and tax policy

  14. Oil and gas field code master list, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-16

    This document contains data collected through October 1993 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service.

  15. Entrepreneurial Leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kalu, Mona Ukpai

    2015-01-01

    The study examined Entrepreneurial leadership in Upstream Oil and Gas industry and its ability to accelerate innovative energy technology development. The declining deliverability from existing reservoirs and ever increasing demand for energy to fuel growth in many parts of the world is driving oil and gas exploration into more difficult to access reservoirs like bituminous sands and shale gas. Accelerating new innovative technology development to access these new streams of profitable oil an...

  16. Treatment of Oil & Gas Produced Water.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Production of oil and gas reserves in the New Mexico Four Corners Region results in large volumes of "produced water". The common method for handling the produced water from well production is re-injection in regulatory permitted salt water disposal wells. This is expensive (%7E $5/bbl.) and does not recycle water, an ever increasingly valuable commodity. Previously, Sandia National Laboratories and several NM small business tested pressure driven membrane-filtration techniques to remove the high TDS (total dissolved solids) from a Four Corners Coal Bed Methane produced water. Treatment effectiveness was less than optimal due to problems with pre-treatment. Inadequate pre-treatment allowed hydrocarbons, wax and biological growth to foul the membranes. Recently, an innovative pre-treatment scheme using ozone and hydrogen peroxide was pilot tested. Results showed complete removal of hydrocarbons and the majority of organic constituents from a gas well production water. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report was made possible through funding from the New Mexico Small Business Administration (NMSBA) Program at Sandia National Laboratories. Special thanks to Juan Martinez and Genaro Montoya for guidance and support from project inception to completion. Also, special thanks to Frank McDonald, the small businesses team POC, for laying the ground work for the entire project; Teresa McCown, the gas well owner and very knowledgeable- fantastic site host; Lea and Tim Phillips for their tremendous knowledge and passion in the oil & gas industry.; and Frank Miller and Steve Addleman for providing a pilot scale version of their proprietary process to facilitate the pilot testing.

  17. Gas pressure from a nuclear explosion in oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The quantity of gas and the gas pressure resulting from a nuclear explosion in oil shale is estimated. These estimates are based on the thermal history of the rock during and after the explosion and the amount of gas that oil shale releases when heated. It is estimated that for oil shale containing less than a few percent of kerogen the gas pressure will be lower than the hydrostatic pressure. A field program to determine the effects of nuclear explosions in rocks that simulate the unique features of oil shale is recommended. (U.S.)

  18. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  20. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  1. Visual Workflows for Oil and Gas Exploration

    KAUST Repository

    Hollt, Thomas

    2013-04-14

    The most important resources to fulfill today’s energy demands are fossil fuels, such as oil and natural gas. When exploiting hydrocarbon reservoirs, a detailed and credible model of the subsurface structures to plan the path of the borehole, is crucial in order to minimize economic and ecological risks. Before that, the placement, as well as the operations of oil rigs need to be planned carefully, as off-shore oil exploration is vulnerable to hazards caused by strong currents. The oil and gas industry therefore relies on accurate ocean forecasting systems for planning their operations. This thesis presents visual workflows for creating subsurface models as well as planning the placement and operations of off-shore structures. Creating a credible subsurface model poses two major challenges: First, the structures in highly ambiguous seismic data are interpreted in the time domain. Second, a velocity model has to be built from this interpretation to match the model to depth measurements from wells. If it is not possible to obtain a match at all positions, the interpretation has to be updated, going back to the first step. This results in a lengthy back and forth between the different steps, or in an unphysical velocity model in many cases. We present a novel, integrated approach to interactively creating subsurface models from reflection seismics, by integrating the interpretation of the seismic data using an interactive horizon extraction technique based on piecewise global optimization with velocity modeling. Computing and visualizing the effects of changes to the interpretation and velocity model on the depth-converted model, on the fly enables an integrated feedback loop that enables a completely new connection of the seismic data in time domain, and well data in depth domain. For planning the operations of off-shore structures we present a novel integrated visualization system that enables interactive visual analysis of ensemble simulations used in ocean

  2. Sector report: Malaysia. Upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This report is one of a series designed to introduce British exporters to the opportunities offered by the Malaysian market in oil and natural gas. The report includes Malaysia's oil and gas reserves, production, exploration, major profits upstream, production sharing contracts, pipeline construction, operators in production, service sector, and Petronas. (UK)

  3. Characterisation of Oil-Gas Mixtures by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    . The present project deals with development of a technique for quick analysis of oil-gas mixtures. The main emphasis is laid on characterisation of gas phases in equilibrium with oil at high pressures and high temperatures by Raman spectroscopy. The Raman technique has a great potential of being useful, due...

  4. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Chris

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean volumes of 1.6 billion barrels of undiscovered conventional oil and 17 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered conventional natural gas in three geologic provinces of Thailand using a geology-based methodology. Most of the undiscovered conventional oil and gas resource is estimated to be in the area known as offshore Thai Basin province.

  5. Largest US oil and gas fields, August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-06

    The Largest US Oil and Gas Fields is a technical report and part of an Energy Information Administration (EIA) series presenting distributions of US crude oil and natural gas resources, developed using field-level data collected by EIA`s annual survey of oil and gas proved reserves. The series` objective is to provide useful information beyond that routinely presented in the EIA annual report on crude oil and natural gas reserves. These special reports also will provide oil and gas resource analysts with a fuller understanding of the nature of US crude oil and natural gas occurrence, both at the macro level and with respect to the specific subjects addressed. The series` approach is to integrate EIA`s crude oil and natural gas survey data with related data obtained from other authoritative sources, and then to present illustrations and analyses of interest to a broad spectrum of energy information users ranging from the general public to oil and gas industry personnel.

  6. Alberta oil and gas industry : annual statistics for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Alberta's 1997 annual and historical statistics for the supply and disposition of the following oil and gas products was presented: (1) crude oil and equivalent, (2) gas, (3) ethane, (4) propane, (5) butanes, (6) NGL mixes, and (7) sulphur. Statistics regarding the deliveries and average price of the products, and a statistical summary of well drilling activities in the province were also provided. tabs

  7. 6 Ghana's Quest for Oil and Gas.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    the European Union and the United States of. America (Ayoade ... oil and gas industry and their effects on the environment are discussed. Also discussed are ... There are some existing laws in Ghana .... As may be the case elsewhere, oil and gas ... construction and vehicular traffic ..... spillage, Newmont was negligent.

  8. The future of the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Changes are under way that are moving the oil and gas industry in Norway toward the creation of global energy companies in a global energy market. According to the author, three key forces are creating the changes of oil and gas companies comprising a global market for energy, growing demand - ample supply, and the end-user. 5 figs

  9. Financial Times oil and gas international year book 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Julian

    1993-01-01

    The greater part of this book aims to provide narrative, production and financial details of major oil and gas companies, both upstream and downstream, across the world. Smaller sections give details on major oil and gas brokers and traders, and on the principal oil and gas associations. These sections are arranged alphabetically by company name. A geographical index towards the end of the book enables the user to identify upstream companies exploring for or producing oil and gas in particular areas. The company index includes every company mentioned in the book and includes all subsidiary and related companies to the major companies. Four introductory tables give data on world petroleum production, oil refining, tanker tonnage and oil consumption. (Author)

  10. Alaskan North Slope Oil & Gas Transportation Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilly, Michael Russell [Geo-Watersheds Scientific LLC, Fairbanks, AK (United States)

    2017-03-31

    North Slope oil and gas resources are a critical part of US energy supplies and their development is facing a period of new growth to meet increasing national energy needs. While this growth is taking place in areas active in development for more than 20 years, there are many increasing environmental challenges facing industry and management agencies. A majority of all exploration and development activities, pipeline maintenance and other field support activities take place in the middle of winter, when the fragile tundra surface is more stable. The window for the critical oil and gas winter operational season has been steadily decreasing over the last 25 years. The number of companies working on the North Slope is increasing. Many of these companies are smaller and working with fewer resources than the current major companies. The winter operations season starts with the tundra-travel opening, which requires 15 cm of snow on the land surface in the coastal management areas and 23 cm in the foothills management areas. All state managed areas require -5°C soil temperatures at a soil depth of 30 cm. Currently there are no methods to forecast this opening date, so field mobilization efforts are dependent on agency personnel visiting field sites to measure snow and soil temperature conditions. Weeks can be easily lost in the winter operating season due to delays in field verification of tundra conditions and the resulting mobilization. After the season is open, a significant percentage of exploration, construction, and maintenance do not proceed until ice roads and pads can be built. This effort is dependent on access to lake ice and under-ice water. Ice chipping is a common ice-road construction technique used to build faster and stronger ice roads. Seasonal variability in water availability and permitting approaches are a constant constraint to industry. At the end of the winter season, projects reliant on ice-road networks are often faced with ending operations

  11. Geopolitics of Caspian Oil and Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Tolga Turker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper providesan analysis of increasing geopolitical competition over energyrich Central Asia andCaucasus by key actors such as theU.S.A., Russia andChina. In addition to an evaluation of theregion’s future as anenergyhub both forEast andWest,this paperexamineshow the regional conflicts such as the August2008 war between Russia and Georgia might affect prospects for Caspian energydevelopment and export.Even though both Russia and China have a commongoal of countering Western, particularly U.S., influence in the region, they bothhave their own agenda and distinct relationships with Western countries.In termsof oil and natural gas, only Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan have the potential toplay significant roles in the future.However the entire region will continue to bemajor area of conflict or cooperation forglobal powers.

  12. Decommissioning of offshore oil and gas installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, M.D.; Marks, M.H.

    1997-01-01

    A task facing the offshore oil and gas industry is the removal of about 7000 platforms. In this chapter, the legal framework for offshore platform decommissioning is first discussed. The various phases of abandonment are then described. The first and most critical of these is the planning phase which should be initiated years in advance when depletion plans for a field are recommended. Seven discrete activities are identified in the abandonment process itself and briefly discussed. These are: the permanent plugging and abandonment of non-productive well bores; pre-abandonment surveys and data gathering to gain knowledge about the platform and its condition; decommissioning; structure removal; disposal, recycle or reuse of platform components on or off shore; site clearance. (13 figures; 13 references) (UK)

  13. Definitions and guidelines for classification of oil and gas reserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSorcy, G.J.; Warne, G.A.; Ashton, B.R.; Campbell, G.R.; Collyer, D.R.; Drury, J.; Lang, R.V.; Robertson, W.D.; Robinson, J.G.; Tutt, D.W

    1993-05-01

    The unpredictability of estimating reserves of oil and gas has made it imperative to develop a universal set of definitions and guidelines for calculating and classifying reserves. A committee of representatives from the oil and gas industry, consulting firms, industry associations, regulatory agencies, government, and financial organizations in Canada has prepared definitions of oil and gas resources and reserves, as well as a recommended classification system for those reserves. The committee believes these definitions and guidelines are suitable for use with respect to all types of oil and gas and related substances, including offshore situations and oil sands. Both deterministic and probabilistic methods are presented, as well as guidelines for specific methods including the volumetric, material balance, decline curve analysis, and reservoir simulation methods. The guidelines also consider reserves from improved recovery projects and reserves of natural gas liquids and sulfur. A glossary of terms is appended. 14 figs.

  14. Oil and gas, the hot spots of the planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delage, St.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the economic crisis, more than 400 billion dollars have been in,vested in 2009 in oil and gas exploration and production. Oil companies and their suppliers from the para-petroleum industry are still working hard to exploit new discoveries. This paper makes a worldwide overview of the most promising oil and gas fields in particular in Brazil, Australia, Ghana and qatar (investments, partners, production, reserves). (J.S.)

  15. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia. The physical and monetary balance sheets for crude oil and natural gas for the period 2000- 2007 was constructed. The net present value of expected future incomes to reflect the value of resource change was calculated based on a physical extraction and a resource rent scenario. Resource rent is gross operating surplus less the estimated user cost of produced capital in the crude oil and ...

  16. The ties between natural gas and oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2006-01-01

    On the European continent, the price of natural gas is still tied directly and to a great extent to the price of competing energies, especially heavy fuel oil and home heating oil. In other words, the gas market is linked to the oil market. Under the effect of deregulation, this model is likely to change in the future, making a shift like that which took place on the American market in the past. (author)

  17. ) The Digital Oil and Gas Enterprise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, H.

    2003-01-01

    The E and P industry faces mounting pressures to meet the expected demand for energy, reduce costs increase recovery rates and maximize asset value. Stockholders and the investment community are demanding higher returns from an industry that has traditionally lagged the financial performance and business pace of other commercial sectors. Value generated from efficiency and productivity gains at the reservoir level over the past decade has been captured and translated into sufficiently improved financial results. In response, the industry is rapidly transforming itself to an information centered economy, the i Economy, where information technology (IT) is leveraged to conduct business without borders, to streamline operations, markets. This is not an incremental adjustment. It represents a quantum shift in the way business is conducted. Business, at all levels within the oil field marketplace, is changing.This paper will describe how oil gas companies can achieve this step improvement in their business results and an enhanced profile in the financial sector. To do this they must combine their specific energy industry knowledge and market position with innovative technologies, flexible infrastructures and will be discussed in this paper and that E and P companies are already implementing are: Installation of best-in-class, integrated software tools, developed according to industry-wide open standards, - decentralized and highly connected expert service organization, - Global and secure connectivity via intra- and internets, enabling the implementation of collaborative practices, - ore effective data capture and transmission systems, - advanced skills development programs for human resources

  18. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-07-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  19. Residual Sorption and leaching of the herbicide diuron following de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste addition to soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Pineiro, A.; Albarran, A.; Cabrera, D.; Rato, J. M.; Munoz, A.; Flores, S.

    2009-01-01

    The residual sorption, desorption, degradation, and leaching of the herbicide diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) a herbicide widely used in olive groves, was studied following the addition to soils of de oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DTPOMW). Field experiments were conducted on an olive grove soil amended over seven years with DTPOMW. (Author)

  20. Alberta oil and gas industry annual statistics for 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A compilation of statistical data from Alberta's oil and gas industry was presented to provide energy analysts and economists a single source of consistent energy-related data. Alberta is Canada's largest crude oil and natural gas producer. This report provides current monthly and historical annual energy data covering the last decade. Data is organized by energy type including butane, ethane, natural gas, natural gas liquids, oil, propane and sulphur. This CD-Rom also included statistical data on energy supply, energy production, disposition, and prices. tabs

  1. Documentation of the Oil and Gas Supply Module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSM), to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. Projected production estimates of US crude oil and natural gas are based on supply functions generated endogenously within National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) by the OGSM. OGSM encompasses domestic crude oil and natural gas supply by both conventional and nonconventional recovery techniques. Nonconventional recovery includes enhanced oil recovery (EOR), and unconventional gas recovery (UGR) from tight gas formations, Devonian/Antrim shale and coalbeds. Crude oil and natural gas projections are further disaggregated by geographic region. OGSM projects US domestic oil and gas supply for six Lower 48 onshore regions, three offshore regions, and Alaska. The general methodology relies on forecasted profitability to determine exploratory and developmental drilling levels for each region and fuel type. These projected drilling levels translate into reserve additions, as well as a modification of the production capacity for each region. OGSM also represents foreign trade in natural gas, imports and exports by entry region. Foreign gas trade may occur via either pipeline (Canada or Mexico), or via transport ships as liquefied natural gas (LNG). These import supply functions are critical elements of any market modeling effort.

  2. Ranking Canadian oil and gas projects using TOPSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Jafar Sadjadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns for investment in oil and gas projects is to have a comprehensive understanding on different issues associated with this industry. The industry is mainly influ-enced by the price of oil and gas and in some events, many production units have been forced to shut down solely because of low price of oil and gas. Environmental issues are other important factors, which may put pressure on Canada’s political affairs since the country has strong com-mitment to reduce green gas effect. In this paper, we introduce a multi-criteria decision making method, which helps us rank different projects in terms of investment. The proposed study con-siders different investment factors including net present value, rate of return, benefit-cost analy-sis and payback period along with the intensity of green gas effects for ranking the present oil and gas projects in Canada.

  3. Co-processing of standard gas oil and biocrude oil to hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Mante, O.; McClung, R.; Oyama, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    The major obstacle in thermochemical biomass conversion to hydrocarbon fuels using pyrolysis has been the high oxygen content and the poor stability of the product oils, which cause them to solidify during secondary processing. We have developed a fractional catalytic pyrolysis process to convert biomass feedstocks into a product termed “biocrude oils” (stable biomass pyrolysis oils) which are distinct from unstable conventional pyrolysis oils. The biocrude oils are stable, low viscosity liquids that are storable at ambient conditions without any significant increases in viscosity; distillable at both atmospheric pressure and under vacuum without char or solid formation. About 15 wt% biocrude oils containing 20–25% oxygen were blended with 85 wt% standard gas oil and co-cracked in an Advanced Catalyst Evaluation (ACE™) unit using fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts to produce hydrocarbon fuels that contain negligible amount of oxygen. For the same conversion of 70% for both the standard gas oil and the biocrude oil/gas oil blends, the product gasoline yield was 44 wt%, light cycle oil (LCO) 17 wt%, heavy cycle oil (HCO) 13 wt%, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) 16 wt%. However, the coke yield for the standard gas oil was 7.06 wt% compared to 6.64–6.81 wt% for the blends. There appeared to be hydrogen transfer from the cracking of the standard gas oil to the biocrude oil which subsequently eliminated the oxygen in the fuel without external hydrogen addition. We have demonstrated for the first time that biomass pyrolysis oils can be successfully converted into hydrocarbons without hydrogenation pretreatment. -- Highlights: ► The co-processed product had less than 1% oxygen content and contained biocarbons determined by 14 C analysis. ► The co-processing did not affect the yields of gasoline, LCO, and HCO. ► First demonstration of direct conversion of pyrolysis oils into drop-in hydrocarbon fuels.

  4. Canada : oil, gas, and the new Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebert, R. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Political Science; Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Centre for Military and Strategic Studies

    2010-07-01

    This presentation provided a broad overview of the geopolitical issues affecting the massive transformation of the Arctic resulting from resource development, globalization, and climate change. Two Arctics are emerging, notably one European and one North American. Oil and gas companies are investing heavily in the North, and there is continued debate over pipelines and projects, but the viability of projects can shift abruptly from technological and political change. Recent examples include the emergence of shale gas, the possibility of the United States becoming a gas exporter, and the Deepwater Horizon disaster. In terms of Maritime jurisdictions and boundaries, a comparison was presented regarding the Canadian and Russian claims to the continental shelf. International cooperation and a commitment to peaceful means can be seen in the Ilulissat Declaration, the acceptance of the United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea as rules, the scientific cooperation of Canada, the United States, and Denmark, and the recent boundary agreement between Russia and Norway. The positions of the main players in the new geopolitics of the North were outlined, particularly with respect to Russia, the United States, Norway, Denmark, and Canada. Their recent policy statements and developing arctic force capabilities were summarized. Canada's more assertive Arctic policy was outlined in more detail along with the country's base locations and recent security actions in the North. The main issues facing nations with interests in the North will be maritime and aerospace; understanding the new players on the scene; and new technological developments. 10 figs., 5 refs.

  5. Canada's east coast offshore oil and gas industry: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, R.

    1999-06-01

    Another of the backgrounder series published by the Petroleum Communication Foundation, this booklet describes Canada's offshore oil and natural gas operations in the North Atlantic Ocean, specifically in the Hibernia (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Terra Nova (off Newfoundland, crude oil), Cohasset-Panuke (off Nova Scotia, crude oil) and Sable Island (off Nova Scotia, natural gas) fields. Together, these project represent an investment of more than 10 billion dollars and constitute a growing portion of Canada's 400,000 cubic metres of crude oil and natural gas liquids per day production. The booklet explains the importance of the offshore oil and natural gas industry to Canada, the benefits accruing to the maritime provinces locally, prospects for future offshore oil and natural gas development and provides a brief summary of each of the four current major projects. The booklet also provides an overview of the facilities required for offshore energy projects, environmental impacts and safeguards, exploration, drilling, production, processing and transportation aspects of offshore oil and gas projects. 9 refs, photos

  6. Impact of sustained low oil prices on China's oil & gas industry system and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The global sustained low oil prices have a significant impact on China's oil and gas industry system and the national energy security. This paper aims to find solutions in order to guarantee the smooth development of China's oil and gas industry system and its survival in such a severe environment. First, the origins of sustained low oil prices were analyzed. Then, based on those published data from IEA, government and some other authorities, this study focused on the development status, energy policies and the future developing trend of those main oil & gas producing countries. Investigations show that the low-price running is primarily contributed to the so-called oil and gas policies in the USA. It is predicted that national petroleum consumption will reach up to 6.0 × 108 t (oil & 3300 × 108 m3 (gas in 2020 and 6.8 × 108 t (oil & 5200 × 108 m3 (gas in 2030. For reducing the dependence on foreign oil and gas, the investment in the upstream of oil and gas industry should be maintained and scientific research should be intensified to ensure the smooth operation of the oil and gas production system. Considering China's national energy security strategy, the following suggestions were proposed herein. First, ensure that in China the yearly oil output reaches 2 × 108 t, while natural gas yield will be expected to be up to 2700 × 108 m3 in 2030, both of which should become the “bottom line” in the long term. Second, focus on the planning of upstream business with insistence on risk exploration investment, scientific and technological innovation and pilot area construction especially for low-permeability tight oil & gas, shale oil & gas reservoir development techniques. Third, encourage the in-depth reform and further growth especially in the three major state-owned oil & gas companies under adverse situations, and create more companies competent to offer overseas technical services by taking the opportunity of the

  7. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. The European Gas and Oil Market: The Role of Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbo, F.

    2008-01-01

    The research question of this paper is related to the role of Norway in the European gas and oil market. This study aims to give a presentation of the energy policy in Norway and Norwegian participation at the European level. The first chapter will introduce Norwegian relations with Europe. For the purpose of my research, I will focus mainly on Norwegian energy policy in the second chapter, presenting Norway's oil industry in chapter 2.1.; Norwegian gas production in chapter 2.2.; and the Norwegian electrical power system in chapter 2.3. The sub-chapter 2.4. will analyse in detail the activity of the largest Norwegian oil and gas company, StatoilHydro. The third chapter will be dedicated to Norway's green energy policy (wind, sun and water), etc. The fourth chapter looks at the European perspective and will examine the European strategic gas and oil market in a globalized world. The fifth chapter will present Norway's participation in the European gas and oil market. Such strategic research must also include a look at the European Union's (EU) energy market development between Russia and Norway, which will be presented in chapter six. And finally, Norway's contribution to the development of an EU energy policy in fighting climate change will be emphasised in chapter seven. This research will analyse the following central issues: - Norwegian oil industry, - Norwegian gas production, - Norwegian electrical power system, - Norwegian challenges in the European gas and oil market. (author)

  10. The voice of Canada's oil and natural gas industry : oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 150 members of the oil and gas industry, which together are responsible for approximately 95 per cent of the oil and natural gas produced in Canada. The upstream sector comprises companies that explore for, develop and produce petroleum resources, while the downstream sector involves companies that refine and market the resources. CAPP works closely with governments of 11 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories and with public groups to represent upstream producers active across the country. The enhancement of the economic well-being and sustainability of the upstream petroleum industry is the mission of the CAPP. The main priorities of the CAPP are: Environment, Health and Safety Stewardship, reasonable and timely access to resources, competitiveness of the Canadian industry on a global basis, the secure and efficient access to markets, and open and constructive public, government and media affairs. Some of the issues dealt with by the CAPP are sour gas, flaring, venting and industry-landowner relations, improved safety performance, federal issues such as corporate taxes and environmental issues, Aboriginal and First Nations issues, transportation costs for natural gas on major pipelines, and oil and sands bitumen issues, to name a few. The board of the CAPP is made up of 32 members. The work is carried out by hundreds of volunteers from member companies who provide their time and expertise for various committees and working groups, as well as a staff of approximately 40 people to assist them. The members provide the entire funding for CAPP, which is located in Calgary, Alberta. The document concluded with a few facts concerning the petroleum industry in general. 12 figs

  11. The Netherlands: development of oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Oil was first discovered in The Netherlands in the late 1930s near The Hague. Later the larger onshore field at Schoonebeek was found. In the 1960s significant resources of oil were discovered in the Dutch sector of the North Sea. However onshore oil still provides about 20% of the nation's requirements. In the 1960s the vast size of the onshore Groningen gas field became apparent and its subsequent development has provided the Dutch with a huge source of wealth. In recent years the Dutch Continental Shelf has also yielded substantial reserves of gas, although these are not yet as important as the onshore gas reserves. Dutch Government policy is designed to encourage the development of smaller offshore gas fields thereby conserving the Gronigen field. Dutch oil and gas production, licensing and drilling activities are discussed, and the prospects for British suppliers is considered. (author)

  12. Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Sarmidi

    2009-01-01

    Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.

  13. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  14. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  15. Underwater sound and vibrations due to oil & gas activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Binnerts, B.; Nennie, E.D.; Benda-Beckmann, A.M. von

    2014-01-01

    In the oil & gas industry there is a trend towards more subsea activities. To improve gas recovery from existing and new fields at greater depths, the produced gas will be compressed, processed and transported via subsea templates and underwater networks (pipelines, flexible risers, etc.). Besides

  16. Plastics - the sustainable way to use Oil and Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siebourg, Wolfgang

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Plastics are a sustainable use of oil and gas - Plastic products enable significant savings of energy and GHG emissions particularly in the use phase; - Plastic products help use resources in the most efficient way. Restricting plastics relative growth would result in increased energy consumption. Diversion from landfill would increase resource efficiency. Waste-to-Energy is an additional resource and is complementary to mechanical recycling. Plastics producers and the Oil and Gas industry should cooperate to produce reliable consumption data. Oil and Gas industry should develop and maintain European (world) eco-profiles (cradle to gate) for their respective industry. (author)

  17. Mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corlay, C.; Huby, D.

    1999-01-01

    This paper focuses on mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries, and lists the most important mergers in terms of transaction value for the period 1981-1997, and plots oil and gas mergers and acquisitions activity by sector and by major region. The mean operation indicator in 1998 in terms of reserves, production and refining capacity of the major companies are tabulated. The impact of the mergers on the oil and gas markets are examined, and issues concerning these mergers and acquisitions are explored. (UK)

  18. Companies: oil and gas industry on the up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burk, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a 1993 survey of the oil and gas industries in the USA are reported. Exploration and development spending and production replacement rates increased for the first time since 1990 while reserve replacement costs were at their lowest for five years. Data demonstrating these improvements are included. The information is drawn from 250 publicly owned oil and gas companies, 28 of which have headquarters outside the USA. A ranked list of the ''Top 100'' companies is presented, detailing: oil and gas reserves and production revenues; results of operations from producing activities; acquisition, exploration and development expenditures; reserve and production replacement costs. (UK)

  19. Mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corlay, C.; Huby, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil-Malmaison (France)

    1999-07-01

    This paper focuses on mergers and acquisitions in the oil and gas industries, and lists the most important mergers in terms of transaction value for the period 1981-1997, and plots oil and gas mergers and acquisitions activity by sector and by major region. The mean operation indicator in 1998 in terms of reserves, production and refining capacity of the major companies are tabulated. The impact of the mergers on the oil and gas markets are examined, and issues concerning these mergers and acquisitions are explored. (UK)

  20. Separation of radionuclides from gas by sorption on activated charcoal and inorganic sorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepak, F.

    1988-01-01

    The review deals with the sorption and ion exchange of gaseous radionuclides on activated charcoal and on inorganic sorbents. It presents the physical and chemical characteristics of radionuclides, the sources of gaseous forms of radionuclides as well as the composition of radioactive gases from some nuclear facilities. 79 refs. (author)

  1. Oil and gas fiscal regimes of the western Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This report compares the fiscal regimes in British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. During 1985-1988, federal and provincial governments have made numerous fiscal changes, many in response to the drop in world oil prices. The new fiscal policies generally have reflected governments' willingness to forego revenues in an effort to aid the oil and gas industry, with certain exemptions. Since 1988, changes have reflected trends of consolidation and less government willingness to forego revenues. A federal large corporations capital tax has been introduced, the natural gas exploration holiday in Alberta expired, new oil royalties were introduced, and changes were made in fiscal regimes to accomodate horizontal drilling in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. In this document, the existing corporate tax regime is described. A comparison of fiscal regimes must recognize the differing scale and nature of oil and gas operations among the 4 provinces, with Alberta accounting for 80-90% of Canada's oil and gas productions, while British Columbia, Saskatchewan and Manitoba are much smaller producers. The document describes Crown royalties and incentives and freehold taxes for each type of fuel (crude oil, natural gas, natural gas byproducts, nonconventional oil). 8 figs

  2. Sorption properties of wool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radetić Maja M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Strict ecological legislation, especially in highly developed countries, imposed requirements for the purification of industrial effluents and the need for efficient oil clean up after sea and inland water spills. Although numerous processes have been developed, the application of sorbents is still one of the most efficient methods to remove heavy metal ions, dyes and crude oil from water. Recently, special attention was paid to sorbents based on natural fibres. A review of studies concerning the sorption properties of wool is presented in this paper. The presence of various functional groups on the wool fibre surface contributes to the efficient sorption of heavy metal ions and dyes. A hydrophobic, scaly surface and fibre crimp strongly influence the high sorption capacity of wool for oil. Wool has great sorption potential even as a recycled material. Accordingly, it can be used as a viable substitute to commercially available synthetic sorbents that show poor biodegradab ility.

  3. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to oil contaminated sediments: Unresolved Complex?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, M.T.O.; Sinke, A.; Brils, J.M.; Koelmans, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    Oil is ubiquitous in aquatic sediments and may affect partitioning and bioavailability of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs). In contrast to other sedimentary hydrophobic carbon phases (natural organic matter, soot-like materials), oil residues have hardly received any attention as far as it

  4. Fortum Oil and Gas 2000: Exceptionally high price of crude oil and strong refining margins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ropponen, V.-M.

    2001-01-01

    Fortum intends to be an active player in the structural reorganization of the oil business by utilizing its niche position in oil refining. Fortum produces sophisticated motor fuel components, which it uses in its reformulated gasolines and sells and exports to other oil companies, even to highly demanding markets in California. The increase in the price of crude oil considerably improved the results of Oil and Gas Upstream. Similarly, an improvement in the refining margin, as well as profitable shipping operations and a strong demand for gasoline components, boosted the results of Oil Refining and Marketing. (orig.)

  5. The petroleum challenge. Present day questions about oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussena, S.; Locatelli, C.; Pauwels, J.P.; Swartenbroekx, C.

    2006-04-01

    Will the 21. century be the petroleum challenge century? The petroleum problem is no longer the affair of experts and journalists, it challenges also governments and consumers in pressing terms. If there is today a petroleum problem, there is no oil or gas shortage for the moment. The cumulated oil and gas reserves would allow to face the demand of the century, with the condition that investments in exploration, field development, production, and back-end of oil and gas industries will be done in time. This book, written by specialists of energy economics and geopolitics shows up some of the key questions of our energy future. In particular, it invites us to never forget the basic heavy trends of the hydrocarbons sector in order to never be trapped by superficial extrapolations of short term phenomena. Content: heavy trend of oil prices at the 2020 prospects, natural gas take over?; oil and gas geopolitics: enough of hydrocarbons for the 21. century; Russia and Caspian sea oil and gas weight; China: a new strategic actor of the energy scene; influence of 'futures' market, of speculation, and of stocks on hydrocarbon prices; which future for LNG?; natural gas in the USA: towards a new foreign dependence. (J.S.)

  6. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  7. Determinants of Environmental Disclosures in Nigeria's Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of Humanities and Development Studies ... The objective was to determine the effect of firm size, leverage, profitability and firm origin on the extent of environmental disclosures in all quoted companies in the Nigeria's oil and gas sector.

  8. Conference Proceedings: Structuring oil and gas property transactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The 12 presentations at this conference dealt with issues concerning the legal aspects of oil and gas property transaction agreements. Several issues regarding sales and purchase negotiations of oil and gas property are reviewed and some of the basic principles of contract law are explained. Advantages, disadvantages and opportunities of structuring oil and gas property acquisitions, as well as their tax consequences are also identified. The issue of risk assessment regarding environmental consequences and how public concerns regarding the state of the environment has had an impact on oil and gas transactions, is addressed. Interest in this topic stems from the fact that improved enforcement of existing laws regarding the environment can potentially make purchasers liable for significant costs associated with remediation or clean-up of contaminated properties. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Overview of Environmental Impact Assessment of Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The environmental impact assessment (EIA) of oil and gas projects in Nigeria ... natural, social and health components of the environment; Determination of issues ... of impact quantification through which the Environmental Management Plan ...

  10. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  12. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Well geospatial dataset contains point features representing permitted locations, most of which have been drilled and completed, or drilled...

  13. Lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouquegneau, Christian [Polytechnical University of Mons (Belgium)

    2007-07-01

    The paper brings some cases and presents the general principles, what the IEC 62305 international standard says, the warning and avoidance and the conclusion about lightning protection of oil and gas industrial plants.

  14. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Miao; Mancang Yuan; Guodong Li

    2014-01-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is propos...

  15. Expert hierarchical selection of oil and gas distribution systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    Selection and design of oil and gas distribution systems involves a large number of decision makers and interest groups, as well as many alternative technical, financial, network, operating, management and regulatory options. Their objectives and measures of performance are different. Decision models can be effectively represented by hierarchical structures. A simple deterministic analytic hierarchy process is presented with application to oil and gas distribution systems

  16. Explosively fracturing a productive oil and gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, C W

    1966-06-23

    In this method of fracturing an oil- or gas-producing strata, a portion of the formation adjacent to, but separated from, the producing strata is fractured. Explosives are then introduced into the fracture in this portion of the formation and thereafter detonated to fracture the productive strata. Also claimed are a method of variably controlling the extent and force of the explosives used, and a method of increasing oil and gas production from a productive strata.

  17. Misplaced generosity: extraordinary profits in Alberta's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boychuk, R.

    2010-11-01

    This document gives a picture extended over a decade of the revenues, investment levels and profits of the Alberta's oil and gas industry. It also investigates on the distribution of those revenues and profits that were accrued to the provincial government through royalties and land sales. This document, tries to fill the information gaps left by the current government's achievement as Albertans' oil and gas trustee, pointing out the ongoing lack of responsibility in this province's most important economic sector.

  18. Oil and gas business in changing times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasoveanu Sergiu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The top 5 oil majors (British Petroleum, ExxonMobil, Total, Chevron and Royal Dutch Shell are analyzed in terms of investments, earnings and financial & operational performance along the entire business value chain, for a period of 5 years. One of the key objectives is to understand how the Upstream and Downstream segments may play different roles in the definition of a winning corporate strategy, considering how they may reveal very different strengths and weaknesses during crude oil price crises. When the crude oil price goes down, the upstream sector is running big cost cutting measures, in order to reduce expenditures and keep acceptable gross margins per barrel of oil equivalent. On the other hand, the downstream segment receives cheaper raw material without a significant decrease in the final price of the oil products. Thus, how can oil companies leverage this flexibility in order to pass successfully through periods of crude oil price slides, and even take advantage of those? The paper aims to analyze the correlation between oil price and oil volume produced on one hand, and investments and earnings, split by business segments, on the other hand. The variation of investment and earnings is hence compared to crude oil price fluctuations for a clearer picture of the business profitability per segment during the peak and bottom periods of the oil market. Upstream and Downstream segments are also benchmarked against each other to understand the role that each of them is playing in the industry. The results are expected to provide some trend lines to understand how much the cost cutting measures are impacting the overall business, as well as to appreciate whether the reduction in the oil production, which in theory should be followed by a rise in prices, is indeed in the best interest of the oil majors. Going further into analysis, the paper is trying to define an optimum production interval, that will maximize profits along the entire value

  19. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003 (China); Ko, Yung-Chang [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 81233 (China); Lin, Ta-Hui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101 (China)

    2011-03-15

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area. (author)

  20. Study on incineration technology of oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Shuhn-Shyurng; Ko, Yung-Chang; Lin, Ta-Hui

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design, set up and operate an incinerator system capable of providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in Taiwan. In this study, we successfully develop a vertical-type incinerator, which consists of five oil gas burners with entrained primary air, a pilot burner, and an auxiliary burner. The incinerator system is equipped with necessary control units in order to achieve safe, easy, fast, and efficient operation. Flame appearance, flue gas temperature and CO emission of the incinerator system for burning oil gas are reported and discussed. Under the long-term operation, it is found that the new designed incinerator is satisfactory for burning oil gas with low supply pressure at various compositions and supply rates during the recovery process of oil spill. It is noteworthy that the results obtained herein are of great significance to provide a good guidance for those who need to design, set up and operate an incinerator system providing clean exhaust and safety control for burning oil gas generated during the recovery process of oil spill in a polluted site with a large area.

  1. The dynamic linkages between crude oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Ciner, Cetin; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The time varying price spillovers between natural gas and crude oil markets for the period 1994 to 2014 are investigated. Contrary to earlier research, we show that in a large part of our sample the natural gas price leads the price of crude oil with price spillover effects lasting up to two weeks. This result is robust to a battery of tests including out-of-sample forecasting exercises. However, after 2006, we detect little price dependencies between these two energy commodities. These findings arise due to a conjunction of both demand and supply-side shocks arising from both natural and economic events, including Hurricane Katrina, the Tohoku earthquake and the Global Financial Crisis, as well as infrastructure and technological improvements. The increased use of new technologies such as hydraulic fracking for the extraction of gas and oil in particular affected supply in the latter part of the study. We conclude that the long term relation present in the early part of the sample has decoupled, such that price determination of these two energy sources is now independent. - Highlights: • Contrary to earlier research we find natural gas may lead crude oil prices over a long sample. • This finding holds in forecasting out of sample. • There may be a break in the relationship between oil and gas in 2006. • We suggest that new technologies and financial conditions have led to a decoupling of these markets. • Oil and natural gas prices may now be determined independently.

  2. Problems in operation of gas-oil condensate fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheltov, Yu V; Martos, V N

    1966-12-01

    This is a review of various methods used to deplete gas-oil condensate reservoirs. Four depletion techniques are discussed: (1) natural depletion without injection of fluids into the reservoir; (2) depletion accompanied by gas cycling; (3) depletion in which the gas cap is separated from the oil by water injected into the reservoir, a method in which each part of the reservoir is produced essentially independently of the other; and (4) depletion in which reservoir temperature is raised above the cricondentherm point by in-situ combustion, so that gas and oil form a single phase. This method is prospective, and has not been tried in the field. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed. It is concluded that a gas condensate reservoir can be depleted most economically only if some secondary energy is added. (13 refs.)

  3. Videoscope applications in oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Bachek

    2003-01-01

    The need of inspection not only for external condition but for both internal and external. How we are going to check and know the internal condition of a piping as small as 4 inch or tube sheet of 10 mm outside diameter. Due to the nature of its operation which carries high temperature products or water it is very essential to know the internal condition before its too late where this may cause explosion or failure to any part or equipment which will claim lives and causes huge lost to the plant owner. With the aid of video scope inspection service or commonly called CCTV you now can see and inspect the internal condition of a small pipe or tube sheet or any in access item or equipment. Not only you can inspect but with the latest CCTV technologies you also can size the defect length and record the findings in CD-Rom for monitoring purposes. You can observe the growth of a defects and decide whether or not to repair or when to repair. CCTV has many field application beside normal tube inspection?its also can be used for special task such to inspect cause of blockage, to check any left over materials before box-up, to confirm presence or absence, etc. With various camera sizes and with or without control head many inspection task has been successfully completed.Normal defect that can be expected from CCTV inspection are such as erosion, burn trough, blockage, hard sediments, left behind item (before the box beam) pitting, etc. We have experience in inspecting the following items for major oil and gas petrochemical plant as well as special request from various industries sector. (Author)

  4. Oil, Gas, and Injection Wells in Louisiana, Geographic NAD83, LDNR (2007) [oil_gas_wells_LDNR_2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset containing the location of over 230,000 oil and gas and injection wells in the state of Louisiana. It was developed from the DNR Office of...

  5. Britain's North Sea oil and gas production: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The size and longevity of Britain's offshore hydrocarbons resources have been underestimated. Gas reserves were seriously under-exploited for almost 20 years from the late 1960s, given a belief that gas should be used only as a premium fuel and in the context of an uncompetitive market. Oil reserves' development and production has suffered from time to time from inappropriate politico-economic conditions. Nevertheless, offshore oil and gas has come to dominate the UK's energy production over the past 20 years and currently accounts for 85% of the country's total energy output. Fears for resources' exhaustion remain unjustified, as the industry continues to replace oil and gas reserves used each year. The North Sea is still not comprehensively explored: the continuation of the process will enable oil production to remain at high levels and that of gas to expand further. Supplementary output from the new west of Shetland province will become progressively more important after 2000. But continued intensive production overall depends on the maintenance of attractive politico-economic conditions and on present oil prices. It also requires the European gas market to remain firm but, ironically, the planned flow of UK gas to the mainland constitutes a threat to this condition. (Author)

  6. BC's oil and gas industry : opportunities and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, P.

    2003-01-01

    An update of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry was presented with reference to activity trends and major issues. The presentation also described opportunities and challenges facing the industry in British Columbia and reviewed the impact of federal policies on BC. In recent years the industry has moved to oil sands and unconventional gas, offshore sites, and coalbed methane development. Other changes are a result of technology which makes it possible to drill deeper and faster while having less environmental impact. Government issues have become increasingly complex, however. Industry capital spending from 2000 to 2003 was presented for Northern Canada, the east coast offshore, Alberta, the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, oil sand deposits, and international activities. The presentation included several graphs depicting: the changing natural gas production mix; North American natural gas demand; wells drilled by province; natural gas resources in BC; upstream capital spending in BC; wells drilled by type and depth in BC; top natural gas wells in 2000 and 2002; natural gas production in BC; finding and development costs for Canadian natural gas; and, the widening gap of the federal income tax rate between oil and natural gas and other industries. British Columbia is in the strategic position of having significant untapped gas potential in the northeastern part of the province. For now, there is sufficient pipeline capacity to bring the gas to markets in the United States where there is a strong demand for electric power generation. 16 figs

  7. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  8. Oil and gas in Central and Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeh, D.

    1994-01-01

    A lawyer's view of oil and gas activity in Central and Eastern Europe is presented. General observations include: the regional interdependence which stems from the persistence of the influence of Russian price subsidies and the transport infrastructure; the difference between the region's organization of the oil and gas industry from that of the West; political and historical dimensions; the difficulties of coming to terms with both the cultural elements of the law and the flood of new legislation; the search of the oil companies for a stable legal environment; and taxation. Brief country reports follow this overview. (UK)

  9. Oil and gas in the Ogaden Basin, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Toit, S.R.; Kurdy, S. [Alconsult International, Calgary, AB (Canada); Asfaw, S.H.; Gessesse, A.A. [Petroleum Operations Dept., Ministry of Mines and Energy, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1997-09-01

    To date, many of the 47 exploration and development wells drilled in the Ogaden Basin in Ethiopia have exhibited natural oil seeps and oil and gas shows. The Calub gas field and the Hilala oil field occurs in the central part of the 350,000 sq. km. basin. The various units within the basin consist of continental sediments, a regional organic-rich interval close to the Permo-Triassic boundary, organic-rich marine sediments and carbonates. The Ogaden Basin is dissected by several faults that are related to the Ethiopian Rift and may form a component of traps in the Calub-Hilala area.

  10. India expanding oil/gas E and D, infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that India continues to press oil and gas exploration and development and expansion of its petroleum sector infrastructure. One of the key moves is the government's decision to stage a fourth exploration bidding round, its most ambitious to date and one expected to elicit enthusiasm from international oil companies. At the same time, state oil companies Oil and Natural Gas Commission and Oil India Ltd. plan to maintain strong domestic E and D programs. ONGC is seeking more revenue to sustain India's ambitious oil and gas upstream plans. The state company has asked the government for a 50% hike in the price of domestic crude. The government currently pays ONGC and OIL only about $8.84/bbl, a price fixed in 1981. A jump of 50% in the domestic crude price would net ONGC another $1 billion/year in revenues, ONGC Chairman S.L. Khosla the. The government and other state companies also continue efforts to expand gas utilization and markets and match refining plans with market needs

  11. Valuation of international oil- and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    In Norway, stock exchange quotation of Statoil has led to increased interest in valuation of oil companies. This article goes through the theory of corporate valuation. Then it compares the theory with practice, where valuation largely is built on accounts-based indicators. Taking the oil companies as a case, the article describes and evaluates the valuation methods used by analysts and investment banks

  12. Two-stage hydroprocessing of synthetic crude gas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahay, A.; Chmielowiec, J.; Fisher, I.P.; Monnier, J. (Petro-Canada Products, Missisauga, ON (Canada). Research and Development Centre)

    1992-02-01

    The hydrocracking of synthetic crude gas oils (SGO), which are commercially produced from Canadian oil sands, is strongly inhibited by nitrogen-containing species. To alleviate the pronounced effect of these nitrogenous compounds, SGO was hydrotreated at severe conditions prior to hydrocracking to reduce its N content from 1665 to about 390 ppm (by weight). Hydrocracking was then performed using a commercial nickel-tungsten catalyst supported on silica-alumina. Two-stage hydroprocessing of SGO was assessed in terms of product yields and quality. As expected, higher gas oil conversion were achieved mostly from an increase in naphtha yield. The middle distillate product quality was also clearly improved as the diesel fuel cetane number increased by 13%. Diesel engine tests indicated that particulate emissions in exhaust gases were lowered by 20%. Finally, pseudo first-order kinetic equations were derived for the overall conversion of the major gas oil components. 17 refs., 2 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Geospatial Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riqueros, N. S.; Kang, M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    California currently ranks third in oil production by U.S. state and more than 200,000 wells have been drilled in the state. Oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, leading to groundwater contamination and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Here we compile available public databases on oil and gas wells from the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other state and federal sources. We perform geospatial analysis at the county and field levels to characterize depths, producing formations, spud/completion/abandonment dates, land cover, population, and land ownership of active, idle, buried, abandoned, and plugged wells in California. The compiled database is designed to serve as a quantitative platform for developing field-based groundwater and air emission monitoring plans.

  14. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  15. Alberta oil and gas industry: annual statistics for 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Statistical data for 1995 concerning the supply and disposition of crude oil and equivalent, natural gas, ethane, butanes, natural gas liquids, and sulphur in the Province of Alberta, were provided. A list of new wells drilled during 1995, and an annual well count, were also included

  16. Aspects of royalty clauses inside freehold oil and gas leases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, N.T.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the most common royalty clauses currently used are discussed with particular emphasis on the CAPL 88 and the CAPL 91 petroleum and natural gas lease forms and the provisions regarding lessors and lessees. The problems regarding their practical applications are described. The legal status of a royalty inside a freehold oil and gas lease is also examined. 4 refs

  17. Oil and gas field code master list 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    This is the thirteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1994 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. The master field name spellings and codes are to be used by respondents when filing the following Department of Energy (DOE) forms: Form EIA-23, {open_quotes}Annual Survey of Domestic Oil and Gas Reserves,{close_quotes} filed by oil and gas well operators (field codes are required from larger operators only); Forms FERC 8 and EIA-191, {open_quotes}Underground Gas Storage Report,{close_quotes} filed by natural gas producers and distributors who operate underground natural gas storage facilities. Other Federal and State government agencies, as well as industry, use the EIA Oil and Gas Field Code Master List as the standard for field identification. A machine-readable version of the Oil and Gas Field Code Master List is available from the National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161, (703) 487-4650. In order for the Master List to be useful, it must be accurate and remain current. To accomplish this, EIA constantly reviews and revises this list. The EIA welcomes all comments, corrections, and additions to the Master List. All such information should be given to the EIA Field Code Coordinator at (214) 953-1858. EIA gratefully acknowledges the assistance provides by numerous State organizations and trade associations in verifying the existence of fields and their official nomenclature.

  18. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The oil and gas market in Nigeria is being expanded by the Nigerian government over the 2003-2010 period through increased exploration and production (E and P) in new areas. Other measures being implemented are the improvements of structural flaws that hamper industry growth, the modernization of the weak downstream sector, and attempts to attract foreign investment and technologies required for petroleum development. In 2001, it was estimated that the market for oil and gas equipment in Nigeria was approximately 1.03 billion dollars, and is expected to reach 1.15 billion dollars in 2002. In deep-sea areas, major offshore E and P projects are being planned by large oil multinationals. The implementation of several gas-related E and P operations and major liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects are being supported by the government of Nigeria to develop the natural gas sector. Onshore and offshore exploration, surveying and geophysical prospecting, drilling equipment, facilities maintenance, deepwater E and P, equipment for LNG/GTL facilities, enhanced recovery equipment and services, gas re-injection technology, pipelines, and the refinery sector are all areas where Canadian equipment and service suppliers could benefit from opportunities in Nigeria. One of the most prominent foreign player in the Nigerian market is Royal Dutch Shell. As far as the offshore deepwater E and P sub-sector, the three major players are Shell, ChevronTexaco, and ExxonMobil. The Nigerian government advocate in upstream and downstream oil industries in the country is Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC). The primary domestic end-users of oil and gas equipment and services are member companies of the Nigerian Association of Indigenous Petroleum Exploration Companies (NAIPEC). Canadian companies are encouraged to form joint venture partnerships in oil and gas projects, as foreign majors operating in Nigeria tend to rely on the skills and expertise of foreign

  19. Physical aspects of the US oil and gas systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Acierno, J.; Hermelee, A.

    1979-11-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the physical operations which take place within the petroleum and natural gas industries of the US. This information was the basis for the overall network design and the detailed data requirements for the Emergency Management Information System (EEMIS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). Since EEMIS represents the entire oil and gas systems this report can be used to obtain a basic understanding of the entire energy system, from production to consumption, that is composed of the US oil and gas industries.

  20. The U.S. Oil and Gas Boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodman, John

    2012-01-01

    A funny thing happened in the last few years when no one was paying attention. What is going on is nothing short of a revolution in U.S., Lower-48 oil and natural gas production that is quickly transforming the energy sector. This transformation, while important for the oil market, is likely to be spectacularly more evolutionary in natural gas markets, both here and abroad. New production technologies have arrived at a time when the whole world is looking for cleaner-burning fuels, and they may usher in a new golden era for natural gas as a bridge fuel to a cleaner, more-sustainable energy future

  1. The tidal influence on oil and gas emissions from an abandoned oil well: Nearshore Summerland, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Wilson, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Oil and gas emissions were quantified for natural and human sources in nearshore waters off Summerland, California through deployment of custom designed collection tents. Seepage was measured at a repeatedly abandoned well, on the seabed from a caisson located along the historical location of the Treadwell Wharf, where the world's first off-shore oil wells were drilled at the end of the 19th century. Seepage rates at the capped T-10 Well, located in ∼5 m water, showed high correlation to tides. Site emissions were 2.4 and 38.7 L day -1 oil and gas, respectively. Emissions were measured from two areas of seepage at the T-10 Well Site. Oil and gas ratios were inversely correlated between the two seepage areas, demonstrating connectivity. Data were interpreted in terms of an electronic circuit model of seepage with respect to the time lag between local low tide and peak oil emissions

  2. Insight conference reports : Far north oil and gas forum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The emerging issues and opportunities for developing oil and gas resources in the North were outlined during this conference, along with recent developments, the current climate from an exploration perspective and the current state of play in the North. It highlighted Yukon's oil and gas potential and emphasized the importance of both the Mackenzie Gas Project and the Alaska Highway Pipeline Project. The activities of gas producers, pipeline proponents and governments regarding the construction of gas pipelines to connect northern gas to markets in North America were reviewed along with net fiscal and social benefits; community and First Nations' involvement; federal regulatory processes that have First Nations support; and securing federal funding to help prepare for the pipelines. The conference featured 19 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  3. China's energy security: Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    China is currently the largest energy consuming country in the world. Until the early 1990s, China had long been a net energy exporter. The country became a net oil importer in 1993, the first time since the 1960s. For China, energy security first means oil supply security. China turned into a net natural gas importer in 2007 and then a net coal importer in 2009. In other words, China is now a net importer of all three types of fossil energy—oil, natural gas, and coal. In the context of rising oil imports and implementation of China's 12th Five-Year Program from 2011 to 2015, this paper examines China's energy security strategies with a focus on three leading elements, namely overseas oil investment, strategic petroleum reserves (SPR)and unconventional gas development. Our findings suggest that the Chinese government has promoted overseas investment strongly; its SPR program has been established though the progress for Phase II has been slower than expected and the government intends to boost the unconventional gas sector development. However, the challenges are enormous as well. As for future research, other elements for each dimension of energy security should be reviewed to reach a comprehensive conclusion about how well China has done and what steps are needed to move forward. - Highlights: • Identified China's key energy security strategies during the 12th Five-Year Program (FYP) and previous FYPs. • Provided a unique insight into China's rising oil imports. • Reviewed China's overseas oil and gas investment as a key energy security measure. • Assessed China's strategic petroleum reserves program and the future growth. • Provided a comprehensive coverage of China's unconventional gas development, including both coal-bed methane and shale gas

  4. Measuring Effective Tax Rates for Oil and Gas in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack M. Mintz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this report is to provide cost of capital formulae for assessing the effects of taxation on the incentive to invest in oil and gas industries in Canada. The analysis is based on the assumption that businesses invest in capital until the after-tax rate of return on capital is equal to the tax-adjusted cost of capital. The cost of capital in absence of taxation is the inflation-adjusted cost of finance. The after-tax rate of return on capital is the annualized profit earned on a project net of the taxes paid by the businesses. For this purpose, we include corporate income, sales and other capital-related taxes as applied to oil and gas investments. For oil and gas taxation, it is necessary to account for royalties in a special way. Royalties are payment made by businesses for the right to extract oil and gas from land owned by the property holder. The land is owned by the province so the royalties are a rental payment for the benefit received from extracting the product from provincial lands. Thus, provincial royalty payments are a cost to oil and gas companies for using public property. However, since the provincial government is responsible for the royalty regime and could use taxes like the corporate income tax to extract revenue, one might think of royalties as part of the overall fiscal regime to raise revenue. In principle, one should subtract the rental benefit received from oil and gas businesses from taxes and royalty payments to assess the overall fiscal impact. This is impossible to do without measuring some explicit rental rate for use of provincial property. Further, royalty payments may distort economic decisions unlike a payment based on the economic rents earned on oil and gas projects. Instead, for comparability across jurisdictions, one might calculate the aggregate tax and royalty effective tax rates (such as between Alberta and Texas.

  5. 13th CERI [Canadian Energy Research Inst.] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    At an oil and gas industry conference, papers were presented on world oil supply and demand, energy geopolitics, world oil prices, the status of the Chinese oil/gas industry and prospects for exploration and development, Latin American oil/gas markets and development opportunities, the oil and gas industries in non-OPEC Middle East countries (Oman, Yemen, Turkey), oil and gas markets in North America, and financial and regulatory aspects of domestic gas markets in Canada and the USA. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 17 papers from this conference

  6. Sorption characteristic of coal as regards of gas mixtures emitted in the process of the self-heating of coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtacha-Rychter Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most challenging tasks in the coal mining sector is the detection of endogenous fire risks. Under field conditions, the distance between the points where samples for the analyses are collected and the actual place where coal self-heating takes place may be quite remote. Coal is a natural sorbent with a diverse character of pore structures which are surrounded by fractures and cleavage planes constituting ideal spaces for the flow and adsorption of gases. The gases (methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen released from the source of fire migrate through the seam and may be subject to adsorption, or they may cause the desorption of gases accumulated in coal. Therefore, the values of reference sample concentrations may be overstated or understated, respectively. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the adsorption phenomena accompanying the flow of a multi-component gas mixture through a coal bed which may occur in situ. The research was conducted by means of a method based on a series of calorimetric/chromatographic measurements taken to determine the amount of gases released during coal heating at various temperatures under laboratory conditions. Based on the results obtained in the course of the experiments, it was concluded that the amount of gas adsorbed in the seam depends on the type of coal and the gas. Within the multi-component gas mixture, hydrocarbons demonstrated the largest sorption capacity, especially as concerns propylene.

  7. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model`s basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM.

  8. Documentation of the oil and gas supply module (OGSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Oil and Gas Supply Model (OGSK, to describe the model's basic approach, and to provide detail on how the model works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public. It is prepared in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its statistical and forecast reports (Public Law 93-275, Section 57(b)(2). OGSM is a comprehensive framework with which to analyze oil and gas supply potential and related issues. Its primary function is to produce forecast of crude oil, natural gas production, and natural gas imports and exports in response to price data received endogenously (within NEMS) from the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) and the Petroleum Market Model (PMM). To accomplish this task, OGSM does not provide production forecasts per se, but rather parameteres for short-term domestic oil and gas production functions and natural gas import functions that reside in PMM and NGTDM

  9. Simulation of the Mechanism of Gas Sorption in a Metal–Organic Framework with Open Metal Sites: Molecular Hydrogen in PCN-61

    KAUST Repository

    Forrest, Katherine A.; Pham, Tony; McLaughlin, Keith; Belof, Jonathan L.; Stern, Abraham C.; Zaworotko, Michael J.; Space, Brian

    2012-01-01

    polarizability; sorbed hydrogen is a dipolar dense fluid in the MOF. This study demonstrates that many-body polarization makes a critical contribution to gas sorption structure and must be accounted for in modeling MOFs with polar interaction sites. © 2012

  10. Ecological and Economic Indicators of Oil and Gas Companies Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the basic ecological-economic indicators of oil and gas companies, in particular the various volumes of oil, the number of spills per year of CO2 emissions, the costs of environmental protection. In the process of exploration, development and exploitation of oil and gas fields, production, refining, transportation and storage companies have a negative impact on the environment. Occur accidents involving oil spills, emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environment. As a result contaminates water resources, soil and atmosphere, animals dying, birds and fish, but also transformed the structure of the subsurface and changes the landscape, reduced strategic reserves of fuel and energy resources are formed objects of accumulated environmental damage. The need for construction of environmental protection facilities; the protection, rational use and rehabilitation of lands; protection of water resources and atmospheric air; monitoring the environment and industrial facilities; the prevention and elimination of consequences of accidents on pipelines; disposal and recycling of waste; environmental education; conducting scientific research requires oil and gas companies to undertake large expenditures. A positive trend of modern development of oil and gas companies is the introduction of mechanisms for environmental management in practice their activities, which leads to a gradual reduction of the negative impact of their activities on the environment.

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Turkey 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil has been one of the main energy sources in Turkey, accounting for some 28% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Turkey’s oil demand slightly increased from 637 kb/d in 2003 to 670 kb/d in 2012, although it dropped down from 678 kb/d in 2009 to 650 kb/d in 2010. The transport sector accounted for half of total oil consumption in 2010. Domestic oil production is in decline in Turkey, amounting to 45 kb/d or about 6.7% of total consumption in 2012. In 2012, Turkey imported 712 kb/d, consisting of about 392 kb/d of crude oil and some 320 kb/d refined products. Around 39% of total crude oil imports came from Iran. Crude oil and petroleum products are mainly undertaken by tankers and two major international pipelines running through the country with a total annual handling capacity of 2.8 mb/d. In the country, there are four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 610 kb/d. Turkey meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. Under the relevant acts, refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily sales of previous year, while eligible consumers that use more than 20,000 tonnes annually are required to hold 15 days’ consumption of each type of liquid fuel. Turkey held some 61 million barrels of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 99 days of 2011 net-imports. Around 55% of total oil stocks are held in the form of crude oil. The use of emergency oil stocks is central to Turkey’s emergency response policy, which can be complemented by demand restraint measures. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES significantly increased at 32% in 2011. Turkey’s gas demand significantly increased from 0.7 billion cubic meters (2 mcm/d) in 1987 to 45.3 bcm (124 mcm/d) in 2012, while indigenous natural gas production totalled some 0.63 bcm in the same year

  12. Micropore analysis of polymer networks by gas sorption and 129Xe NMR spectroscopy: toward a better understanding of intrinsic microporosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jens; Schmidt, Johannes; Thomas, Arne; Böhlmann, Winfried

    2010-10-05

    The microporosity of two microporous polymer networks is investigated in detail. Both networks are based on a central spirobifluorene motif but have different linker groups, namely, imide and thiophene units. The microporosity of the networks is based on the "polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIM)" design strategy. Nitrogen, argon, and carbon dioxide were used as sorbates in order to analyze the microporosity in greater detail. The gas sorption data was analyzed with respect to important parameters such as specific surface area, pore volume, and pore size (distribution). It is shown that the results can be strongly model dependent and swelling effects have to be regarded. (129)Xe NMR was used as an independent technique for the estimation of the average pore size of the polymer networks. The results indicate that both networks are mainly ultramicroporous (pore sizes microporous matter might have a different micropore size in the solvent swollen/filled state that in the dry state.

  13. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: China 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Although coal is the dominant energy source in China, accounting for some 70% of the country's Total Energy Consumption (TEC) in 2009, oil and gas are also essential energy sources. Despite strong growth in consumption of oil, its share of TEC fell from 22% in 2000 to 18% in 2009, as coal use rose even faster to meet burgeoning demand for electricity. A strong policy push boosted natural gas supplies, particularly to residential customers, so that the share of natural gas doubled from 2% in 2000 to 4% in 2009. China is one of the important oil and natural gas producing counties in the world. In 2010, China's crude oil production exceeded 4 million barrels per day (mb/d). However, with strong and sustained economic growth, its demand for oil has also increased, from 4.6 mb/d in 2000 to over 8 mb/d in 2009. In the New Policy Scenario (NPS) of the IEA World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2011, China's primary oil demand rises to 12.2 mb/d in 2020. Although China is now the world's fifth largest oil producer, the country has been a net oil importer since 1993. In 2011, China imported over 5 mb/d of crude oil, accounting for about 54% of its total demand. More than 50% of the total crude oil imports came from counties of the Middle East. To prevent a potential shock to the economy caused by an oil supply disruption, the Chinese government has been steadily pushing building an oil stock reserve system. China has completed four stockpiling facilities with a capacity of around 103 mb in the first phase of its Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) plan, and has begun construction of its second phase, which comprises eight storage sites that will reportedly have a combined capacity of around 207 mb. Among them, two sites were completed in the second half of 2011 and the Tianjin site is reportedly set to be completed in 2012. According to unofficial reports, the remaining four SPR-II sites are expected to become operational by 2013. The third phase is expected to boost

  14. Equilibrium gas-oil ratio measurements using a microfluidic technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Robert; Shah, Mohammad Khalid; Eskin, Dmitry; Schmidt, Kurt; Singh, Anil; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2013-07-07

    A method for measuring the equilibrium GOR (gas-oil ratio) of reservoir fluids using microfluidic technology is developed. Live crude oils (crude oil with dissolved gas) are injected into a long serpentine microchannel at reservoir pressure. The fluid forms a segmented flow as it travels through the channel. Gas and liquid phases are produced from the exit port of the channel that is maintained at atmospheric conditions. The process is analogous to the production of crude oil from a formation. By using compositional analysis and thermodynamic principles of hydrocarbon fluids, we show excellent equilibrium between the produced gas and liquid phases is achieved. The GOR of a reservoir fluid is a key parameter in determining the equation of state of a crude oil. Equations of state that are commonly used in petroleum engineering and reservoir simulations describe the phase behaviour of a fluid at equilibrium state. Therefore, to accurately determine the coefficients of an equation of state, the produced gas and liquid phases have to be as close to the thermodynamic equilibrium as possible. In the examples presented here, the GORs measured with the microfluidic technique agreed with GOR values obtained from conventional methods. Furthermore, when compared to conventional methods, the microfluidic technique was simpler to perform, required less equipment, and yielded better repeatability.

  15. Specific radiological monitoring (SRM) in oil and gas production platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris, Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S.M Ghazi and Fadzley Izwan Abd Manaf

    2007-01-01

    Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) are present in components of both oil and natural gas production facilities. TENORM can be associated with the presence of crude oil, produced water and natural gas. The radiation exposure pathways to the workers in oil and gas production are similar to those in the uranium and heavy mineral sand mining and processing industry. This paper work provides a short review on the Specific Radiological Monitoring (SRM) program were carried out at oil and gas platforms in the east cost of Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this paper work is to observe the monitoring parameters levels and to evaluate whether these levels are exceeding the limits set by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The monitoring results showed that the surface contamination, airborne contamination and concentration of radon and thoron are well below the set limit stipulated in LEM/TEK/30 SEM.2, except for external radiation and radioactivity concentration of sludge and scales. About 2 (2.35%) from the 85 external radiation measurements performed were found above the permissible limit. While about 11 (36.6%) and 7 (23.3%) of the 30 collected sludge and scales samples were found containing higher Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively, than the mean concentrations in normal soils of Peninsular Malaysia. In general, it can be concluded that a few of oil and gas production platform are producing TENORM. (Author)

  16. Oil and gas site contamination risks : improved oversight needed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-02-01

    British Columbia has seen record levels of activities in the oil and gas sector. Upstream petroleum processes include exploration, well completion and production. Site contamination can occur during all of these activities, resulting in potential environmental and human health impacts. Although well operators are responsible by law for site restoration, there is a potential risk that some operators will not fulfill their responsibilities, thereby leaving the province liable for the site restoration costs. In British Columbia, the BC Oil and Gas Commission (OGC) is responsible for managing these risks through oversight activities designed to ensure that industry meets its obligations. The OGC also manages the orphan sites reclamation fund. This report presented an audit of the OGC in order to determine if it is providing adequate oversight of upstream oil and gas site contamination risks. The audit examined whether the agency responsibilities are clear and whether the OGC is fully aware of the environmental and financial risks associated with upstream oil and gas site contamination. The audit also examined if the OGC has established appropriate procedures to oversee the risks and to inform the public of how effectively site contamination risks are being managed. The report presented the audit background, audit expectations, findings, conclusions and recommendations. It was concluded that the OGC's oversight of the environmental and financial risks associated with oil and gas site contamination needs improving. tabs., figs.

  17. 30 CFR 250.1157 - How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? 250.1157 Section 250.1157 Mineral Resources... do I receive approval to produce gas-cap gas from an oil reservoir with an associated gas cap? (a...

  18. Environmental risk analysis for offshore oil and gas activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brude, Odd Willy; Aspholm, Ole O.; Rudberg, Anders [Det Norske Veritas (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Offshore oil and gas activities always have a risk for environmental impact due to potential accidental releases of oil and gas. The environmental risk can be calculated as a combination of the frequency of such accidents to occur and their environmental consequences in terms of environmental damage to habitats or populations. A method for conducting environmental risk analysis has been in use in Norwegian offshore waters for a decade, with a continuously refinement of methodology over the past years. This paper outlines the principles in the MIRA method and gives examples and discussions regarding use in different environmental compartments. The risk assessment starts with identification of oil spill scenarios with frequencies of potential release rates and spill durations. The next step is to model the oil drift for each accidental oil spill scenario. Drift and fate of oil is modeled probabilistic. Based on the oil spill scenarios and their probability of oil pollution, the potential environmental damage is quantified for each scenario. The endpoint of environmental damage is reduction of a population and the resulting recovery time (in years) for various species and habitats. Environmental risk levels are then evaluated against the operating companies' environmental acceptance criteria. (author)

  19. Medium-Term Oil and Gas Markets 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-06-16

    Oil and gas markets have been marked by an increased divergence in recent months. On the one hand, oil market developments have generated an unpleasant sense of deja vu: rapid demand growth in emerging markets eclipsed sluggish supply growth to push prices higher even before the conflict in Libya tightened supplies still further. Oil prices around $100/bbl are weighing down on an already-fragile macroeconomic and financial situation in the OECD, pressuring national budgets in the non-OECD and causing price inflation of other commodities, as well as political concerns about speculation. There is an uncanny resemblance to the first half of 2008. On the other hand, in the world of natural gas an amazing disconnect has developed as demand recovered to well above pre-financial-crisis levels in most major regions. Gas markets have tightened in Europe and Asia, where prices are about twice the level seen in the United States, as the unconventional gas revolution is in full swing. From the upstream implications of the Arab Spring to the macroeconomic consequences of the eurozone crisis, energy markets are experiencing one of the most uncertain periods in decades. This publication provides a comprehensive outlook for oil and gas fundamentals through 2016. The oil market analysis covers demand developments on a product-by-product and key-sector basis, as well as a detailed bottom-up assessment of upstream and refinery investments, trade flows, oil products supply and OPEC spare capacity. The gas market analysis offers a region-by-region assessment of demand and production, infrastructure investment, price developments and prospects for unconventional gas. It also examines the globalising LNG trade.

  20. The oil and gas equipment and services market in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The economy of Bolivia is based mainly on agriculture and resource extraction, making Bolivia one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Approximately 14 per cent of exports are hydrocarbons. Starting in 1996, the oil and gas sector was privatised, resulting in the domination of multinational corporations. It is estimated that the natural gas reserves of Bolivia stand in excess of 2.2 trillion cubic metres. Equipment, materials, and services used in all stages of the oil and gas production and distribution chain are all in demand in Bolivia. Over the medium term, it is expected that pipelines and equipment required for gas-fired power plants represent the most important opportunity in the country. Incentives for vehicle and industrial conversion were included in the new domestic energy plan, as well as the extension of the domestic gas distribution system to 250,000 homes. Canadian geomatics capability could fill the requirements concerning the Bolivian oil and gas assets still in the exploration, development, and documentation stages. Companies with exploration and development contracts, companies producing from commercial fields, refinery operators, producers in the liquid propane gas and compressed natural gas sub-sector, as well as pipeline operators are all considered key players, in addition to the Bolivian Chamber of Hydrocarbons. The customers are sophisticated buyers who purchase based on technical specifications and price negotiations. There are no significant non-tariff barriers, and Bolivia has adopted liberal trade policies. 9 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Gas Sorption, Diffusion and Permeation in a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity (PIM-7)

    KAUST Repository

    Alaslai, Nasser Y.

    2013-01-01

    consumption. Membrane technology is a relatively new separation process for natural gas purification with large growth potential, specifically for off-shore applications. The economics of any membrane separation process depend primarily on the intrinsic gas

  2. Kinetics of Cd2+ and Cr3+ Sorption from Aqueous Solutions Using Mercaptoacetic Acid Modified and Unmodified Oil Palm Fruit Fibre(Elaeis guineensis) Adsorbents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The kinetics of the sorption of Cd2+ and Cr3+ from aqueous solutions by mercaptoacetic acid modified and unmodified oil palm fruit fibre adsorbents were investigated. The results indicate that sorption equilibrium was reached within 60 min for both metals. Also, the removal efficiency of the three adsorbents was observed to increase for both metals with stronger treatments with mercaptoacetic acid. This may be attributed to the influence of the thiolation of the adsorbents. Furthermore, Cr3+ had higher removal percentages than Cd2+ for all the adsorbents. The sorption mechanism based on the intraparticle diffusion model shows that Cd2+ sorption is better described than Cr3+. The intraparticle diffusion rate constants, K1d, for Cd2+are 62.04 min-1 (untreated), 67.01 min-1 (treated with 0.5 mol/L mercaptoacetic acid), and 71.43 min-1(treated with 1.0 mol/L mercaptocacetic acid) while those for Cr3+ are 63.41 min-1 (untreated), 65.79 min-1(0.5 mol/L acid treated), and 66.25 min-1 (1.0 mol/L acid treated).

  3. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knott, D.

    1997-01-01

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria's reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed

  4. Interest grows in African oil and gas opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knott, D.

    1997-05-12

    As African countries continue a slow drift towards democratic government and market economics, the continent is increasingly attractive to international oil and gas companies. Though Africa remains politically diverse, and its volatile politics remains a major barrier to petroleum companies, a number of recent developments reflect its growing significance for the industry. Among recent projects and events reflecting changes in Africa: oil and gas exporter Algeria has invited foreign oil companies to help develop major gas discoveries, with a view to boosting exports to Europe; oil and gas producer Egypt invited foreign companies to explore in the Nile Delta region, and the result appears to be a flowering world scale gas play; west African offshore exploration has entered deep water and new areas, and a number of major projects are expected in years to come; Nigeria`s reputation as a difficult place to operate has been justified by recent political and civil events, but a long-planned liquefied natural gas (LNG) export plant is being built there; South Africa, which has returned to the international scene after years of trade isolation because of apartheid, is emerging as a potential driver for energy industry schemes throughout the continent. Activities are discussed.

  5. Compositional simulations of producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in low permeable gas condensate reservoir

    OpenAIRE

    Gundersen, Pål Lee

    2013-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Gas condensate flow behaviour below the dew point in low permeable formations can make accurate fluid sampling a difficult challenge. The objective of this study was to investigate the producing oil-gas ratio behaviour in the infinite-acting period for a low permeable gas condensate reservoir. Compositional isothermal flow simulations were performed using a single-layer, radial and two-dimensional, gas condensate reservoir model with low permeabili...

  6. The investment challenges facing the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suellentrop, Steve

    1998-01-01

    In considering the potential of the United Kingdom for investment in the oil and gas industry, four factors are discussed. They are: the importance of certainty in identifying markets; the importance of infrastructure in assisting follow-on developments in mature oil and gas fields; the UK's competitive position in the world investment market; fiscal terms in the UK as compared with those offered by other countries. The conclusion drawn is that the UK needs to be responsive to its status as a mature oil and gas area and have the flexibility to stimulate investment in frontier areas. Stability in both the fiscal regime and also handling issues like market access is important. There is a need to capitalise on the many advantages conferred by the existing infrastructure in mature areas. (UK)

  7. Dispersion of Waxy Gas Oil by Some Nonionic Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidr, T.T.; Mahmoud, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Straight chain fatty alcohols having the following number of carbon atoms C 12 , C 14 , C 18 and C 21 each alcohol was ethoxylated to the same of ethylene oxide content, characterized through average molecular weight and elemental analysis. The surface properties of these compounds were studied through surface tension measurements. The synthesized additives were tested as flow improvers for improving the cold flow properties of two waxy gas oils through pour point test. The results show the right efficiency of these compounds in improving the flow ability. Comparative evaluation of the synthesized products with available commercial additive (com) showed their efficiency and suitability to use in gas oils. Wax modification was assisted through photo analysis. Correlation between wax modification and flow improvement in term of pour point depression appeared to be merely qualitative in such heterogeneous gas oil systems

  8. Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-04

    This is the ninth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1990 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the United States. There are 54,963 field records in this year's Oil and Gas Field Code Master List (FCML). This amounts to 467 more than in last year's report. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes: Field records for each state and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides;field records for each alias field name; fields crossing state boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective state naming authorities.

  9. Market for oil and gas assets defined in survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taggart, L.; Murry, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that hundreds of companies are currently active in the oil and gas acquisition and disposition marketplace, but unfortunately, the entire sale process within the industry continues to operate inefficiently. The mechanism for selling oil and gas properties in this secondary market - as used here, a term that excludes initial investments in oil and gas assets and sales of drilling program shares - is sort of catch-as-catch- can. Identifying who is seeking what type of property at any time is difficult, bordering on guesswork. A recent survey of 186 company representatives and individuals, who declared themselves as in the market, disclosed some of this information at a point in time

  10. Problems of salaries management in oil and gas companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gennad'evna Kolosova

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the results of the author's analysis and generalization of practical experience in the organization of remuneration on the oil and gas companies of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous District — Yugra, the current state and remuneration policy were defined. The designed SWOT matrix reveals the possibilities of further improvement of the remuneration organization. Innovative development of remuneration systems involves a complex process of selecting management tools to achieve performance targets and implementing business strategies. A study of the most upfront human resources and staff practices in the Russian oil and gas sector has allowed the author to formulate approaches to building effective systems of remuneration. The suggestions described in this paper coordinate the interests of employers and employees. At the same time, they increase efficiency and job satisfaction through raising personal responsibility, which will gain the effectiveness of incentives for oil and gas companies.

  11. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  12. Modelling a deep water oil/gas spill under conditions of gas hydrate formation and decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Yapa, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    A model for the behavior of oil and gas spills at deepwater locations was presented. Such spills are subjected to pressures and temperatures that can convert gases to gas hydrates which are lighter than water. Knowing the state of gases as they rise with the plume is important in predicting the fate of an oil or gas plume released in deepwater. The objective of this paper was to develop a comprehensive jet/plume model which includes computational modules that simulate the gas hydrate formation/decomposition of gas bubbles. This newly developed model is based on the kinetics of hydrate formation and decomposition coupled with mass and heat transfer phenomena. The numerical model was successfully tested using results of experimental data from the Gulf of Mexico. Hydrate formation and decomposition are integrated with an earlier model by Yapa and Zheng for underwater oil or gas jets and plumes. The effects of hydrate on the behavior of an oil or gas plume was simulated to demonstrate the models capabilities. The model results indicate that in addition to thermodynamics, the kinetics of hydrate formation/decomposition should be considered when studying the behavior of oil and gas spills. It was shown that plume behavior changes significantly depending on whether or not the local conditions force the gases to form hydrates. 25 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs

  13. ECOLOGY SAFETY TECHNOLOGIES OF UNCONVENTIONAL OIL RESERVES RECOVERY FOR SUSTAINABLE OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav Zyrin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of effective technology for heavy oil recovery nowadays has a great importance, because of worsening geological conditions of the developed deposits, decreasing recovery factor, increasing the part of heavy oil. For the future sustainable development of oil producing industry the involved technologies must require energy effectiveness and ecological safety. The paper proves the enhanced oil recovery methods necessity for heavy oil deposits, highlighted thermal technologies as the most effective. But traditional thermal treatment technologies is a source of air pollutant emission, such as CO, NO etc. The calculation of emissions for traditional steam generator is provided. Besides, the paper shows the effectiveness of electrical enhanced oil recovery methods. The advantages of associated gas as a fuel for cogeneration plants is shown. The main approaches to implementation of carbon dioxide sequestration technologies in the oil and gas industry of Russia are defined. Conceptual view of СО2-EOR technologies potential within the context of sustainable development of oil and gas industry are presented. On the basis of the conducted research a number of scientific research and practical areas of the CCS technology development are revealed.

  14. Analysis of gas-phase mercury sorption with coke and lignite dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marczak Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the problem of mercury emission became a widely discussed topic. Its high impact is caused by its toxicity and ability to accumulate in living organisms, properties that justified the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA to classify mercury as hazardous pollutant. The problem of mercury emission is crucial for countries like Poland, where the most of the emission is caused by coaldepended energy sector. Current technology of mercury removal utilizes adsorption of mercury on the surface of activated carbon. Due to high price of activated carbon, this technological approach seems to be uneconomical and calls for cheaper alternative. One possible solution can be usage of other sorptive materials obtained from thermal processes like coke production. Example of such material is coke dust obtained from dry quenching of coke. The aim of this work was to analyse the sorption potential of lignite and coke dust and determine parameters influencing mercury behaviour during combustion.

  15. Oil shale, shale oil, shale gas and non-conventional hydrocarbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clerici A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a world “revolution” in the field of unconventional hydrocarbon reserves, which goes by the name of “shale gas”, gas contained inside clay sediments micropores. Shale gas finds particular development in the United States, which are now independent of imports and see a price reduction to less than one third of that in Europe. With the high oil prices, in addition to the non-conventional gas also “oil shales” (fine-grained sedimentary rocks that contain a large amount of organic material to be used both to be directly burned or to extract liquid fuels which go under the name of shale oil, extra heavy oils and bitumen are becoming an industrial reality. Both unconventional gas and oil reserves far exceed in the world the conventional oil and gas reserves, subverting the theory of fossil fuels scarcity. Values and location of these new fossil reserves in different countries and their production by comparison with conventional resources are presented. In view of the clear advantages of unconventional fossil resources, the potential environmental risks associated with their extraction and processing are also highlighted.

  16. Oil and gas financing by the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Hossein

    1995-01-01

    The World Bank has developed a flexible oil and gas programme that is structured to meet the changing needs of the sector as they arise. The Bank became prominent in the oil and gas sector after the oil crises of the 1970s, when it began assisting client countries in developing their indigenous energy resources. At the beginning, Bank lending concentrated on exploration and development of hydrocarbon resources where the level of lending expanded to US$1 billion in 1983. This rapid expansion caused some concern that Bank activities might preempt those of the private sector. In response, the Bank imposed in 1984 strict limitations on petroleum exploration and oil production lending. In combination with the perception that future oil demand would be weak, this caused the lending programme to fall off sharply (to US$300 million by 1986). By 1990, the Bank was again moving actively into hydrocarbon sector lending, but then the emphasis was on promoting private sector development and supporting the development of natural gas as a substitute for coal and oil. Bank lending to the sector has been on the increase since 1990; a lending level of about US$1 billion yearly is expected for the second half of the 1990s. In addition to its direct lending, the World Bank facilitates contributions by other financiers through its cofinancing and risk mitigation arrangements. (author)

  17. Report on the oil and gas sector in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    After a brief introduction on the economic and political situation in Ecuador, the state of the country's oil and gas sector is reviewed. Before 1967, all oil came from wells along the Pacific coast, but with discoveries in the Amazon Basin, the opening of the trans-Ecuador pipeline, and creation of the state oil company CEPE (renamed Petroecuador in 1990) by the early 1970s, a boom in the industry occurred. Current proven reserves stand at 1.2-1.5 billion bbl of oil and 140 billion ft 3 of natural gas. Current production is generally around 300,000 bbl/d, mostly from the Petroecuador-Texaco consortium block in the Amazon Basin. Petroecuador now operates the main oil export pipeline and has subsidiaries responsible for exploration and production, refining, and the marketing of petroleum and its derivatives. In recent years Petroecuador has imported about $60 million worth of goods annually, offering a market opportunity for foreign companies supplying goods and services to the oil and gas industry. Market opportunities of interest to Canadian companies are outlined, local procedures for doing business are presented, and lists of Canadian and Ecuadorian contacts are provided. 3 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denninger, Kate; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Bell, Sean; Jacobs, Amelia; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Tilley, Mitch; Quick, Ralph

    2015-09-02

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling. This study of drilling operations seeks opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies. The scope of this study included analyzing 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'Perfect Well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.) and poor data collection practices An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate figures for analysis. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/ equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averaged 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million was spent on non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells, compared with only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry using Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real time services, and official glossary terms to describe rig operations, and advanced drilling rigs/technology.

  19. Oil and gas activities of the world bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The oil crisis of the 1970s profoundly challenged the economies of most developing countries. The crisis hit the the oil-importing countries severely, and many suffered deteriorating balances of payments and increasingly unmanageable import bills. It was in this context, in July 1977, that the World Bank's Executive Directors approved an expanded program of lending to assist the Bank's client countries in developing their own energy resources. In 1978, the Bonn Summit and the Secretary General of the United Nations endorsed the initiation of new approaches in the energy sector by the World Bank, particularly in financing oil exploration in countries that were significant oil importers. The new initiative led to a rapid expansion of the World Bank's lending for oil and gas projects, which reached about $1 billion in 1983

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Japan 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil remains the most significant energy source in Japan, accounting for some 45% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Japan’s oil demand steadily decreased from 5.71 mb/d in 1997 to 4.47 mb/d in 2010. However, its oil demand increased to 4.48 mb/d in 2011 and 4.73 mb/d in 2012 due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 and its subsequent impacts. The transport sector represented around 38% of total consumption in 2010, while the industry sector accounted for 30%. A significant proportion of the industry sector’s oil demand comes from the chemical industry. Of the 4.8 mb/d of oil imported by Japan in 2012, 3.5 mb/d consisted of crude oil, 209 kb/d of NGLs and feedstocks, and some 1.2 mb/d of refined products. About 83% of Japan’s crude oil imports in 2012 came from the Middle East. The country has 27 operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 4.5 mb/d. Japan meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by holding government emergency stocks and by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. JOGMEC’s primary role is to manage public stocks under the Oil Stockpiling Act, while industry (refineries, specified distributors and importers) is obliged to hold the equivalent of 70 days of their daily imports, sales or refinery production, based on the average of the previous 12 months. The public stocks mostly consist of crude oil, but the Administration has expanded its emergency inventory to include four categories of refined products - gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil and diesel oil. Japan held some 591 million barrels (mb) of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 166 days of 2011 net-imports (92 days of government stocks and 74 days of industry stocks). Around 72% of total stocks were held in the form of crude oil. Japan has consistently met its minimum IEA stockholding obligation. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES increased significantly from 17% in 2010

  1. Politics and economics to shape international oil and gas activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that political and economic events play unusually strong roles in shaping worldwide oil and gas activity levels this year. Developments in the former U.S.S.R. will be critical. As the now-independent republics adopt new economic systems, production and demand patterns will change, as will exports from what has been the world's leading oil producer. Changing conditions in the Middle East among members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting countries also will affect the industry in the year following the brief Persian Gulf war. Unless worldwide demand surges unexpectedly, these substantial additions to supply will tend to weaken oil prices in 1992

  2. Venezuela nationalises oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertheim, Peter Howard; Abrantes, Dayse

    2007-01-01

    Venezuela President Hugo Chavez has stated he will nationalise the Orinoco belt's extra-heavy oil operations and ask for 'special powers' to rule the country. Since last year, the government has been negotiating with international consortia currently operating in the Orinoco area, so that Venezuela state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) attains a majority stake in each project (ml)

  3. The tenth CERI [Canadian Energy Research Institute] international oil and gas markets conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    At a conference on oil and gas markets, papers were presented on oil market instability and its impact on economic development, international energy policy, oil supply and demand, natural gas liquids sales, world gas trade, gas markets in Europe and Asia, petroleum industry activities and their relation to government, oil refining and product market developments, and the North American natural gas market. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 25 papers from this conference

  4. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PEAK OIL FOR THE MAJOR MULTINATIONAL OIL AND GAS COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Amate

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this work is to analyze the financial statements of the five major multinational oil and gas companies, for the 2011-2015 period, in the framework of the peak oil phenomenon. Peak oil can affect key financial indicators (e.g., earnings volatility, leverage that are used by managers, investors, and stockholders and which may potentially lead to changes in the decision making by management. Our results show that the decline in oil production affects the decisions about investment in new oil wells, leverage, dividends paid, shares purchased and net income involving the five major companies. In addition, we study the evolution of oil prices, and its influence in several items of the financial statements. Even though oil prices were at high levels during 2011-2014, however, the net income of the five companies actually declined due to the impact of peak oil. Finally, data for the last year studied (2015 indicate a general deterioration in return ratios and other accounting variables. Although the new investments should have been profitable, they have been influenced by peak oil, compromising the economic position of the companies. The advice to these companies would be to relax their investments, especially during a period of falling oil prices. Company managers need to recognize the prolonged duration of peak oil and price trends to promote profitability recovery decisions.

  5. The oil and gas sector in the brazilian economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guilhoto, Joaquim J.M.; Ichihara, Silvio Massaru; Postali, Fernando Antonio Slaibe

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a research conducted to measure the importance of the oil and gas complex in the Brazilian economy and in its states, henceforth called O&G. Initially, the efforts were concentrated on the construction of an interregional input-output system for the 27 states of the Brazilian economy at the level of 42 industries, for the year of 2002. By using this system, it was possible to make an analysis of the role played by the oil and gas complex in the Brazi...

  6. Manual on oil-gas industry waste utilization radioecological safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashev, V.A.; Lukashenko, S.N.; Tuleushev, A.Zh.; Marabaev, Zh.N.; Pasysaev, V.A.; Kayukov, P.G.; Kozhakhmetov, N.B.; Shevtsov, S.P.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a new document - 'Manual on radio-ecologically safe utilization of waste from oil-and-gas production' is carried out. This document regulates the whole cycle of environment protection measures at waste utilization for the named industry in Kazakhstan and is aimed on lowering the radiation risks and assurance of radioecological safety both at present and for the future. The document presents a set regulations necessary for radioactive wastes handling in the oil-gas industry. The normative document was agreed in both the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan (RK) and Ministry of Environment Protection of RK

  7. Oil and natural gas technology review-lubrication and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, J

    1966-01-01

    A summary is presented of the advances made during 1967 in the following areas: production and transmission of natural gas; geosciences; drilling and production technology; secondary recovery; transportation by tanker, pipelines, and tank cars; storage; planning of refineries; control and automation; cracking and gasification of crude oil; separation and hydrogenation processes; petrochemicals; combustion technology; fuels and additives; air and water pollution control; production of lubricants; lubrication with mist, gas, and vapors; hydraulic fluids; lubricant additives; oxidation and aging of oils; greases; solid lubricants; bearings; machining; friction and wear; and changes in materials of construction. (220 refs.)

  8. Four Essays on the Economics of Oil and Gas Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tischler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1960s hydrocarbons like crude oil and natural gas have been the most important energy source to fuel the world economy. Despite high recent growth rates for renewable energies, hydro- carbons are expected to be a dominant source of energy for several decades to come. In the last 20 years not only fundamental trends, but also singular events such as the financial crisis have shaped the development of crude oil and natural gas markets as well as the corresponding academic debate. On a...

  9. Equivalent oil price, equivalent gas price and CO2 cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2008-01-01

    This article assess the magnitudes of costs to replace oil (and natural gas) in their fixed (heat) or mobile (transport) uses with energy savings or non CO 2 emitting energies. The price of oil (or gas) at which such measures would be profitable at is inferred, without any tax or subsidy, as well as the resulting CO 2 costs avoided. It shows that several of the actions considered in France and Europe to protect the climate are far from being the most economically justified. (author)

  10. Design Private Cloud of Oil and Gas SCADA System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Miao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition system is computer control system based on supervisory. SCADA system is very important to oil and gas pipeline engineering. Cloud computing is fundamentally altering the expectations for how and when computing, storage and networking resources should be allocated, managed and consumed. In order to increase resource utilization, reliability and availability of oil and gas pipeline SCADA system, the SCADA system based on cloud computing is proposed in the paper. This paper introduces the system framework of SCADA system based on cloud computing and the realization details about the private cloud platform of SCADA system.

  11. Investment and uncertainty in the international oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohn, Klaus; Misund, Baard

    2009-01-01

    The standard theory of irreversible investments and real options suggests a negative relation between investment and uncertainty. Richer models with compound option structures open for a positive relationship. This paper presents a micro-econometric study of corporate investment and uncertainty in a period of market turbulence and restructuring in the international oil and gas industry. Based on data for 115 companies over the period 1992-2005, we estimate four different specifications of the q model of investment, with robust results for the uncertainty variables. The estimated models suggest that macroeconomic uncertainty creates a bottleneck for oil and gas investment and production, whereas industry-specific uncertainty has a stimulating effect. (author)

  12. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, N.; Barton, M.D.; Bebout, D.G.; Fisher, R.S.; Grigsby, J.D.; Guevara, E.; Holtz, M.; Kerans, C.; Nance, H.S.; Levey, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    Research described In this report addresses the internal architecture of two specific reservoir types: restricted-platform carbonates and fluvial-deltaic sandstones. Together, these two reservoir types contain more than two-thirds of the unrecovered mobile oil remaining ill Texas. The approach followed in this study was to develop a strong understanding of the styles of heterogeneity of these reservoir types based on a detailed outcrop description and a translation of these findings into optimized recovery strategies in select subsurface analogs. Research targeted Grayburg Formation restricted-platform carbonate outcrops along the Algerita Escarpment and In Stone Canyon In southeastern New Mexico and Ferron deltaic sandstones in central Utah as analogs for the North Foster (Grayburg) and Lake Creek (Wilcox) units, respectively. In both settings, sequence-stratigraphic style profoundly influenced between-well architectural fabric and permeability structure. It is concluded that reservoirs of different depositional origins can therefore be categorized Into a heterogeneity matrix'' based on varying intensity of vertical and lateral heterogeneity. The utility of the matrix is that it allows prediction of the nature and location of remaining mobile oil. Highly stratified reservoirs such as the Grayburg, for example, will contain a large proportion of vertically bypassed oil; thus, an appropriate recovery strategy will be waterflood optimization and profile modification. Laterally heterogeneous reservoirs such as deltaic distributary systems would benefit from targeted infill drilling (possibly with horizontal wells) and improved areal sweep efficiency. Potential for advanced recovery of remaining mobile oil through heterogeneity-based advanced secondary recovery strategies In Texas is projected to be an Incremental 16 Bbbl. In the Lower 48 States this target may be as much as 45 Bbbl at low to moderate oil prices over the near- to mid-term.

  13. The economics of Australia's oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Rob

    1994-01-01

    This article evaluates the performance of the Australian oil and gas industry, focusing on the listed companies. A large part of the Australian oil and gas industry-(as much as 60 per cent)-is held by unlisted companies or by major international groups not listed in Australia. Nevertheless, it was considered that the sample of companies reviewed gives a reasonable guide to overall industry performance. Also, as part of this relative analysis, the Australian oil and gas industry will be compared to other investments that shareholders could have enjoyed. As well, its performance will be compared with the much larger industry in the United States. It is shown that over the past 10 to 20 years, the rate of return that the Australian oil and gas industry has offered to providers of equity capital has been less than industry expectations. While it was a better performer than the smaller US companies, it lagged substantially behind the major three sectors of the US index, which are international integrated gas distribution and domestic. 10 figs

  14. Gas inflow in oil base fluids; Influxo de gas em fluidos a base de oleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazaro, Welmar [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Perfuracao. Div. de Fluidos de Perfuracao; Boas, Mario Barbosa V [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao

    1990-12-31

    One of the major problems related to the use of oil base fluids is the dissolution of the natural gas in the fluid. This paper attempts initially at making a bibliographical review of all that was written on the subject of drilling fluids up to now. It also mentions some theoretical aspects regarding the process of gas dissolution in diesel oils, in order to produce an understanding of how the dissolution mechanism is processed. For a same increase in measured volume on the surface, the amount of gas incorporated into the fluid is significantly larger if the gas is dissolved in the oil phase than if it is emulsified in the fluid, as occurs when the fluid is water base. A rig team used to working with water-base fluids may be surprised with the fact that an increase of 20 bbl of fluid on the surface of a 5000 m well can mean the incorporation of about 1800 m{sup 3} of gas, if the fluid is oil-base and all the gas is in solution instead of the incorporation of 900 m{sup 3} if the fluid is water base. This paper has the goal of warning drilling engineers and technicians about this problem, as well as presenting charts and equations that allow for a more realistic evaluation of the amount of gas incorporated into oil fluids. (author) 16 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  16. Oil Fields, Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil spills., Published in 1998, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Louisiana State University (LSU).

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Oil Fields dataset current as of 1998. Oil and gas production platforms are potential source for oil spills and may interfere with mechanical means to clean up oil...

  17. Oil and gas developments in western Canada in 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, P.W.; Robertson, D.C.

    1982-12-01

    In 1981 there was a marked slump in drilling activity in western Canada, resulting from the combined effects of the National Energy Program (NEP), economic recession and a worldwide oil surplus. The number of wells drilled dropped by 22% to a total of 6,904. Exploratory drilling decreased 19% to 3,074 wells, and development drilling decreased 25% to 3,830 wells. The exploratory success rate also decreased to 62% in 1981, based on 740 oil discoveries and 1,172 gas discoveries. The development success rate decreased slightly to 88%, with 1,334 oil discoveries and 2,034 gas discoveries. Average well depth increased in four of the five western areas, but total revenue from land sales plummetted to half of the previous years' record totals. Average price per hectare also dropped. In Alberta, significant exploration activity was centred in the Shekilie, Golden-Evi and West Pembina areas, while major gas discoveries were made at Whiskey and Elmworth, and oil discoveries at Tangent. No significant new discoveries were made in British Columbia or Saskatchewan, but the 1980 Manitoba oil discovery at Waskada continued to stimulate activity. Preliminary results from the Nechako Basin drilling in central British Columbia proved to be disappointing with three successive dry holes. In the Arctic Islands, two major oil discoveries were made at Skate and Cisco, off Lougheed Island and a gas discovery at MacLean. Beaufort Sea drilling was hampered by weather, but nonetheless resulted in major oil discoveries a Koakoak and at a Kopanoar follow-up well. The year 1981 will probably be viewed as a major turning point in exploration in western Canada, with interest shifting from the provinces to the frontiers, and the participants now mainly Canadian-controlled companies.

  18. The features of oil & gas complex's strategic management and hydrocarbon products transportation at developing marine oil & gas fields in Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadeev А. М.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers some theoretical and practical issues of strategic management of oil and gas complex at the development of hydrocarbon resources in the Arctic offshore. The analysis of existing approaches in process and project management of oil and gas complex has been carried out taking into account characteristics of offshore projects in the Arctic zone. Considerable attention has been paid to the history and evolution of strategic management as an economic category, functional areas of strategic management at different levels of management have been proposed. The analysis of existing scientific works dedicated to the projects on the Arctic shelf, has shown insufficient development of the strategic management's theory and practice. In particular, the biggest part of the scientific studies is focused on studying issues of the management at the corporate level, at the same time questions at the level of the oil and gas complex are not considered. In existing studies, the project and process approaches to management are often opposed to each other, and according to the authors it is incorrect in relation to the management of the oil and gas complex on the Arctic shelf. The oil and gas complex is a complex and multilevel system that implements unprecedentedly difficult projects in terms of technology. The beginning of hydrocarbon production on the Arctic shelf is inextricably linked with the transportation of extracted raw materials to the processing and marketing sites; it complements the strategic management of the oil and gas complex by the features of organizing efficient transport and logistics solutions.

  19. OIL AND GAS FUTURES AND OPTIONS MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ante Nosić; Daria Karasalihović Sedlar; Lucija Jukić

    2017-01-01

    Energy mineral resources markets are represented by complex supply and demand ratios which are depending on different factors such as technical (transport) and geopolitical. The main specific of energy markets is represented by an uneven geographic distribution of hydrocarbon reserves and exploration on one hand and energy consumption on the other. World oil markets, although geographically localized, because of specific market trade, represent unique global market with decreasing price diffe...

  20. Conceptual design and techno-economic evaluation of efficient oil shale refinery processes ingratiated with oil and gas products upgradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qingchun; Qian, Yu; Zhou, Huairong; Yang, Siyu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Three integrated oil shale refinery processes are proposed. • Techno-economic performance of three proposed processes is conducted and compared. • Competitiveness of the three proposed processes is investigated at different scenarios. • A development direction for oil shale refinery industry is suggested. - Abstract: Compared with the petrochemical industry, oil shale refinery industry is still relatively backward and has many shortcomings, such as poor quality of shale oil, inefficient utilization of retorting gas, and the unsatisfactory economic performance. In the situation of the low oil price, many oil shale refinery plants are forced to stop or cut production. Thus, oil shale industry is facing a severe problem. How to relieve monetary loss or turn it into profits? This paper proposes three integrated oil shale refinery processes: an integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas, an integrated with hydrogenation of shale oil, and an integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation. The techno-economic performance of the three different processes is conducted and compared with that of a conventional oil shale process. Results show the exergy destruction ratio of the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is the least, 41.6%, followed by the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation, 45.9%. Furthermore, these two proposed processes have the best economic performance. Especially they can turn losses of the conventional oil shale process into profits at the situation of low oil price. The oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production from retorting gas is recommended to the oil shale plants which use the oil shale with oil content lower than 12.9%, while the plants using oil shale with oil content higher than 12.9% are better to select the oil shale process integrated with hydrogen production and oil hydrogenation.

  1. Shale Gas and Oil in Germany - Resources and Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladage, Stefan; Blumenberg, Martin; Houben, Georg; Pfunt, Helena; Gestermann, Nicolai; Franke, Dieter; Erbacher, Jochen

    2017-04-01

    In light of the controversial debate on "unconventional" oil and gas resources and the environmental impacts of "fracking", the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) conducted a comprehensive resource assessment of shale gas and light tight oil in Germany and studied the potential environmental impacts of shale gas development and hydraulic fracturing from a geoscientific perspective. Here, we present our final results (BGR 2016), incorporating the majority of potential shale source rock formations in Germany. Besides shale gas, light tight oil has been assessed. According to our set of criteria - i.e. thermal maturity 0.6-1.2 %vitrinite reflectance (VR; oil) and >1.2 % VR (gas) respectively, organic carbon content > 2%, depth between 500/1000 m and 5000 m as well as a net thickness >20 m - seven potentially generative shale formations were indentified, the most important of them being the Lower Jurassic (Toarcian) Posidonia shale with both shale gas and tight oil potential. The North German basin is by far the most prolific basin. The resource assessment was carried out using a volumetric in-place approach. Variability inherent in the input parameters was accounted for using Monte-Carlo simulations. Technically recoverable resources (TRR) were estimated using recent, production-based recovery factors of North American shale plays and also employing Monte-Carlo simulations. In total, shale gas TRR range between 320 and 2030 bcm and tight oil TRR between 13 and 164 Mio. t in Germany. Tight oil potential is therefore considered minor, whereas the shale gas potential exceeds that of conventional resources by far. Furthermore an overview of numerical transport modelling approaches concerning environmental impacts of the hydraulic fracturing is given. These simulations are based on a representative lithostratigraphy model of the North-German basin, where major shale plays can be expected. Numerical hydrogeological modelling of frac fluid

  2. NOAA Mobile Laboratory Measures Oil and Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J. D.; Petron, G.; Dube, W. P.; Edwards, P. M.; Brown, S. S.; Geiger, F.; Patrick, L.; Crepinsek, S.; Chen, H.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Lang, P. M.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Wolter, S.; Williams, J.; Jordan, A.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    A van capable of continuous real time measurements of CH4 , CO2, CO, Water Vapor, Ozone, NO, NO2, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs including aromatics and other traces gases was driven in the oil and gas fields of the Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah. Compressor Stations, processing plants, oil and gas well heads. Separators, condensate tanks, evaporation pond disposal facilities, holding tanks, hydraulic fracturing sites, gas pipelines and more were studied using the van. The mobile measurements provide a powerful tool to get to the source of the emissions and reveal the unique chemical signature of each of the stages and components of oil and gas production as well as the overall basin and background gas concentrations. In addition to a suite of gas analyzers, the van includes a meteorological system (temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction), GPS tracking, flask sampling system and a batter power system. Aspects of the vans hardware, sampling methods and operations are discussed along with a few highlights of the measurements.

  3. Diversification of Oil and Gas Companies’ Activities in the Condition of Oil Prices Reduction and Economic Sanctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the influence of the economic sanctions imposed from the USA and the EU and oil prices reduction on the oil and gas companies and the directions of diversification of their activity as a method of management of price risks are considered. In the modern dynamic and quickly developing world, in the conditions of globalization and market economy, the oil and gas companies are affected by various risks which can exert negative impact on production and financial results. Risks can arise in absolutely various spheres, beginning from natural and technological hazards, and finishing with price risks. Sharp reduction of oil prices and decrease in demand for energy resources in the world markets, first of all in the European countries, input of financial or technological sanctions from the USA and Europe against Russia in 2014 has caused necessity of search a new more effective methods of price risks management of the oil and gas company. The methods of price risk management include the creation of commodity reserves, the establishment of a reserve fund, long-term contracts, subsidies from the state and the diversification of activities. The most effective it is possible to offer diversification of oil and gas companies' activity. It is expedient to carry out diversification of oil and gas companies' activity in such directions as geographical diversification of the oil, oil products and gas realization directions, geographical diversification of oil and gas companies' purchasing activity, diversification of oil, oil products and gas transportation ways, diversification of oil and gas companies' business. This approach allows to expand the activities of the oil and gas companies and create additional ways to generate revenue and enhance efficiency of oil and gas companies.

  4. Natural gas in 1927: Petroleum in 1927: The oil and gas fields of Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B

    1930-12-31

    This annual report presents figures for gas consumption in Ontario, gas wells and their production, and leakage. It includes licenses issued for the year and logs of wells. Information is also given on oil production in Ontario, petroleum refining and petroleum imported into Ontario.

  5. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Quantitative calculation of GOR of complex oil-gas-water systems with logging data: A case study of the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field in the Qaidam Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Liqiang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Yingdong Oil/Gas Field of the Qaidam Basin, multiple suites of oil-gas-water systems overlie each other vertically, making it difficult to accurately identify oil layers from gas layers and calculate gas-oil ratio (GOR. Therefore, formation testing and production data, together with conventional logging, NMR and mud logging data were integrated to quantitatively calculate GOR. To tell oil layers from gas layers, conventional logging makes use of the excavation effect of compensated neutron log, NMR makes use of the different relaxation mechanisms of light oil and natural gas in large pores, while mud logging makes use of star chart of gas components established based on available charts and mathematical statistics. In terms of the quantitative calculation of GOR, the area ratio of the star chart of gas components was first used in GOR calculation. The study shows that: (1 conventional logging data has a modest performance in distinguishing oil layers from gas layers due to the impacts of formation pressure, hydrogen index (HI, shale content, borehole conditions and invasion of drilling mud; (2 NMR is quite effective in telling oil layers from gas layers, but cannot be widely used due to its high cost; (3 by contrast, the star chart of gas components is the most effective in differentiating oil layers from gas layers; and (4 the GOR calculated by using the area ratio of star chart has been verified by various data such as formation testing data, production data and liquid production profile.

  7. Environmental requirements for oil and gas operations in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystuen, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    The administration and regulation of environmental issues regarding the oil and gas industry in Saskatchewan were discussed. The political and cultural differences in Saskatchewan that make environmental processes distinct from its neighbouring jurisdictions were described. The following Saskatchewan legislation deals with environmental requirements: Environmental Management and Protection Act, Environmental Assessment Act, Oil and Gas Conservation Act, Wildlife Habitat Protection Act, Clean Air Act, Planning and Development Act, Forest Act, Water Corporation Act, Heritage Property Act, and Parks Act. The Saskatchewan Department of Energy and Mines (SEM) is the primary regulator of the upstream oil and gas industry. It regulates the construction, operation, reporting and abandonment requirements for oilfield operations. SEM also manages crude oil prior to refining and manages the wastes contaminated with crude oil. Provisions of the relevant Acts regarding drilling in environmentally sensitive areas, flaring requirements, transporting and disposing of oilfield wastes, road-building, operating restrictions, emergency response plans, spill clean-up responsibilities, well abandonment and site reclamation responsibilities were discussed. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  9. Marketing BTUs: Gas, electricity lead oil in innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapels, E.N.

    1996-01-01

    The transformation in relations between energy providers and users--powered by reform of electric utilities and by continuation of natural gas deregulation--is challenging several fundamental precepts of how oil companies managed their deregulation. In the wake of the price decontrol completed by the Reagan administration in 1981, oil companies (1) retreated from national business structures, (2) focused on limited range core businesses, and (3) provided minimal oil price risk management services for their customers. By contrast, the electric and natural gas industry is consolidating for the purpose of playing a role in ever-larger markets, diversifying its products and services, and providing innovative hedging instruments to itself as well as its customers. From Enron, one can purchase physical and paper energy, delivered in whatever form desired, nationwide and internationally, with or without mechanisms to manage price risk. What will impede the newly integrated energy companies--which are composite electric plus natural gas firms--from also delivering products and services now rendered by the oil companies? Could utilities organize gasoline consumers better than oil companies? If the Price Club can sell gasoline at 10 cents below market, why can't the new energy companies do so? The paper discusses what consumers want, procurement and costs, and innovations and lessons

  10. Market risks and oilfield ownership - Refining oil and gas disclosures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretzschmar, Gavin L.; Hatherly, David; Misund, Bard

    2007-01-01

    Market risk exposures of balance sheet asset values are becoming an increasingly important accounting issue. In oil and gas, oilfield exposures to oil prices are specific and contractual, presenting a contingency problem for investors, financial analysts, standard setting bodies and government agencies. Our paper uses an extensive sample of 292 oilfields to provide evidence that the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) supplementary disclosures do not capture the price sensitivities of oil and gas disclosures implicit in the two main forms of oilfield ownership, concession and production sharing contracts (PSCs). Current asset disclosures neither distinguish between global variations in oilfield ownership terms, nor on market risk implications for the value of oilfield assets. Importantly, we show that unlike concessions, reserve and production disclosures vary in response to oil price movements for PSC regimes. Our results highlight the need to differentiate PSC disclosures from concession fields, and to fully reflect price risks implicit in oilfield ownership contracts. We extend findings by Rajgopal [1999. Early evidence on the informativeness of the SEC's market risk disclosures: the case of commodity price risk exposure of oil and gas producers. The Accounting Review 74, 251-280] and propose refinements to capture market risk in financial reporting. (author)

  11. [Determination of olive oil content in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wanfeng; Zhang, Ning; Zhang, Fengyan; Yang, Zhao

    2017-07-08

    A method for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SH-GC/MS) was established. The amount of the sample, the heating temperature, the heating time, the amount of injection, the injection mode and the chromatographic column were optimized. The characteristic compounds of olive oil were found by chemometric method. A sample of 1.0 g was placed in a 20 mL headspace flask, and heated at 180℃ for 2700 s. Then, 1.0 mL headspace gas was taken into the instrument. An HP-88 chromatographic column was used for the separation and the analysis was performed by GC/MS. The results showed that the linear range was 0-100%(olive oil content). The linear correlation coefficient ( r 2 ) was more than 0.995, and the limits of detection were 1.26%-2.13%. The deviations of olive oil contents in the olive blend oil were from -0.65% to 1.02%, with the relative deviations from -1.3% to 6.8% and the relative standard deviations from 1.18% to 4.26% ( n =6). The method is simple, rapid, environment friendly, sensitive and accurate. It is suitable for the determination of the content of olive oil in olive blend oil.

  12. Geopolitical connections problems of oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreatta, F.

    1998-01-01

    The connections between diplomatic alignments and economic policy and the strategic nature of energy resources affect the foreign policies of major powers. The discovery of vast oil and gas deposits in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus represents an important alternative source other than the Middle East. However, it also presents serious geopolitical problems given the persistence of multiple regional conflicts [it

  13. Effect of zero discharge permits on oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higdon, G.D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines one of the more prominent effects of the Clean Water Act (CWA) upon oil and gas operations. To that end, the paper begins with a general discussion of the regulatory background and permitting framework which serves as the foundation for water pollution control. From this discussion, the paper will then move into a discussion of particular permit provisions which govern the discharge of wastes generated from oil and gas operations. Upon discussing these provisions, the paper will then discuss potential enforcement options available to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address violations of the regulations and permits it has issued to implement the CWA. In that regard, the paper will also discuss some recent enforcement theories advocated by the EPA which may have significant impacts upon oil and gas operators and the way in which they conduct their operations. In light of some of these recent enforcement activities, the paper will close with a discussion of the implications of the theories of liability espoused by EPA and steps which oil and gas operators may taking in response to the positions assumed by EPA

  14. Predominant MIC Mechanisms in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    literature, terms such as microbial corrosion, biocorrosion, microbially influenced/induced corrosion, and biodegradation are often applied. All descriptions...express that microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, and fungi) influence the corrosion process of a given material. In this chapter, an overview of the common MIC mechanisms encountered in the oil and gas industry is presented.

  15. Determination of oil and gas reserves. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, R.; MacKay, V.

    2004-01-01

    This book was prepared by more than 40 contributing authors with expertise in a wide range of topics related to oil and gas reserves. It represents a collaborative effort to find definitions and guidelines for the classification of reserves that is acceptable to the oil industry, evaluators, oil and gas companies, financial agencies, securities commissions and government departments. This second edition is an update of the original work that was published in 1994 which compares estimates of reserves and their classification. The new edition includes changes that have occurred in the past 10 years and expands on the processes that are used to estimate reserves. New techniques for assessing risk were also included. The book is divided into four parts entitled: (1) definitions and guidelines for estimating and classifying oil and gas resources and reserves, (2) determination of in-place resources, (3) estimation of recovery factors and forecasting of recoverable hydrocarbons, and (4) prices, economics and markets. The second edition includes new sections dealing with geostatistics, natural gas balance calculations, reserves estimates in naturally fractured reservoirs, and new developments in estimating recovery factors through enhanced recovery methods such as horizontal drilling. The objective was to develop a reference that is of great value to geologists, engineers and technical persons involved in estimating reserves. refs., tabs., figs

  16. PIPELINE CORROSION CONTROL IN OIL AND GAS INDUSTRY: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corrosion in pipelines is one of the major challenges faced by oil and gas industries all over the world. This has made corrosion control or management a major factor to consider before setting up any industry that will transport products via pipelines. In this study the types of corrosion found on system 2A pipeline were; ...

  17. Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Essential Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyze the essential oil composition of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandifloroum L. (Jasminum grandiflorum) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Methods: The optimum GC-MS conditions used for the analysis were 250 oC inlet temperature, 150 oC MSD detector temperature, ...

  18. Asian gas and oil supplies, production, and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonchere, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Some changes which have occurred recently, or which are now emerging, allow one to consider commercial energy revolving effectively around three poles--oil, natural gas and electricity, and these to be viewed more and more as commodities for services. A hard core of oil consumption, mainly dedicated to the transportation sector, will continue to fuel the crude oil demand growth. In Asia, such a trend will lead to an increasing reliance on Middle East crudes and thus to the need to upgrade the heavier part of the barrel. For its part, natural gas will help to limit the reliance on oil, and its resource base is large enough to offer it increasing shares in two key energy consuming sectors: electricity generation and nitrogen fertilizers. Moreover, concerns about the need to conserve natural gas reserves for use as a feedstock for nitrogen fertilizers and other petrochemicals, do not affect the picture. Limited amounts would be required and a dynamic approach to the development of fossil fuel resources enables the consideration of natural gas as a transitional fuel for the energy hungry power sector. However, in the meantime it is expected to play a key role both in safeguarding the environment and alleviating the investment burden, particularly in the power and nitrogen fertilizer sectors

  19. Women in Canada's oil and gas sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherk, S. [AGRA Earth and Environmental Ltd., St. John' s, NF (Canada)

    2005-01-01

    This text presents a summary of the report: Women in Canada's Oil and Gas Sector, gathered for the Oil and Gas Sector Programme Pakistan (OGSP). The OGSP aims to strengthen Pakistan's capacity to manage its oil and gas resources more sustainably through policy advice, privatization assistance, appropriate regulatory mechanisms, technology transfer and specialized petroleum training. The OGSP promotes gender equity and women's participation in its project activities and within the petroleum industry in Pakistan and Canada. The purpose of this report was to identify current levels of female labour force participation in the Canadian petroleum sector, examine barriers to women's entry and promotion within the petroleum sector, and present strategies used by petroleum companies to promote the complete participation of their female employees. The report concluded that although women are not yet equally represented in Canada's petroleum industry, the industry is moving in the right direction. For example, there are more women in petroleum-related university programs, more associations dedicated to promoting women in science and engineering, organizational change within companies in support of the principles of diversity. While monitoring and overcoming barriers to women's participation should continue, these positive steps should be supported, in order to ensure that Canada's oil and gas sector benefits fully from the new approaches, ideas and alternative working styles that women bring to their work. 4 tabs.

  20. Risk assessment and safety regulations in offshore oil and gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Risk management of which risk assessment is part, and safety regulations are common in the offshore oil and gas industry management system. The process of conducting risk assessment is mostly a challenge for operational personnel assigned to perform this function. The most significant problem is the decision to use ...

  1. A Deterministic Approach to Noise Attenuation in Oil and Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an estimation of an oil and gas seismic data acquisition process which incorporates a priori knowledge of noise contamination in the measured data. A conceptual simplicity of parameter and state estimation by a least squares computational algorithm was developed and a filter was postulated to define ...

  2. Market brief : the oil and gas market in Bolivia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This report presents a market overview of the oil and gas sector in Bolivia and describes the potential for Canadian suppliers to enter into joint ventures to establish local production facilities and transfer technology expertise. Bolivia has an estimated 54.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas reserves and 440.5 million barrels of proven oil reserves. The main hope for future economic growth in Bolivia hinges on increasing natural gas exports. Opportunities for Canadian companies exist in exploration, production and pipeline construction. There is also a demand for drilling machinery equipment, pipeline components and services for the expansion of the proposed Bolivia-Brazil pipeline. The largest energy company in Bolivia is Repsol YPF which operates through its subsidiary Empress Petrolera Andina. The largest end-users of oil and gas equipment and services include domestic upstream operators and international oil majors and international exploration and production companies. This report describes the key factors shaping market growth along with the competitive environment, local capabilities, international competition and the Canadian position. Considerations for market-entry in Bolivia were also outlined.

  3. Zeolites and Zeotypes for Oil and Gas Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Eelco T C; Whiting, Gareth T.; Dutta Chowdhury, Abhishek; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite-based catalyst materials are widely used in chemical industry. In this chapter, the applications of zeolites and zeotypes in the catalytic conversion of oil and gas are reviewed. After a general introduction to zeolite science and technology, we discuss refinery applications, such as fluid

  4. Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry | Shammar | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry. ... is the key factor for considering AR as an effective tool to be used in maintenance work. Works related to applications of VR for energy exploration and safety training for petroleum industry is ...

  5. Measurement of NO2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants using gas NO2 labelled 15N

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, Nizar; Wungkar, Marietje; Gunawan, Andi; Gandanegara, Soertini; Suharsono, Heny

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study is to measure the NO 2 pollutant sorption of various trees, shrubs and ground cover plants. 32 species of trees, 64 speceis of shrubs and 13 species of ground cover plants were exposed to 3 ppm (v / v) N- 15 O 2 in a gas chamber for 60 minutes. Experiment consisted of 2 replicates. The environment conditions in the chamber were set at 30 o C, 1000 lux, and initial relative humidity 60 %. After gas treatment, plants parts were separated into leaves, stems and roots, than dried in 70 o C for 48 hours and then weighed. After weighing, those plants parts were ground to a pine powder. After kjendhal digestion, N total content of plants were analyzed by distillation method. 15 N content of plant samples were analyzed by emission spectrometer ( Yasco, N-151). The amount of N-15 absorbed by plant was the total content of 15 N in the whole plants ( leaves, stem and root ) per gram dry weight of leaves. The amount of 15 N absorbed by plants varied among investigated plants. 15 N sorption of trees are in the range 0.28 - 68.31μg/g. The sorption of shrubs and ground cover plants varied in 1.97 - 100.02 μg/g and 2.38 - 24.06μg/g, respectively. According to the amount of 15 N sorption , the plants were divided into 3 groups of sorption level, high ( > 30.0μg/g), moderate ( 15 - 30 μg/g ), and low sorption level ( 15 μg/g). Results showed that among of 32 investigated trees, 64 shrubs and 13 ground cover plant, 4 species of trees and 13 species of shrubs performed a high sorption level and no one of ground cover plants performed a high sorption level. The species of trees and 15 species of shrubs that mention above are recommended to use as an element of landscape which to be functioned to reduce NO 2 atmospheric pollutant

  6. Opportunities - oil and gas development in the Mexican market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This review of business opportunities is intended as a guide for Alberta companies who are interested in investing or otherwise participating in the Mexican oil and gas industry. The guide provides a brief summary of Mexico, its political, legal and economic system, a brief review of the Mexican oil and gas industry, environmental legislation, the financial institutions, labour/management relations and overseas trade relations. Opportunities for Alberta firms in the Mexican resources industry are identified. Steps to follow for anyone contemplating business with Pemex, the state-owned oil company, are outlined and sources of assistance available to Alberta companies are reviewed. There are various lists of private consultants, Canadian banks in Mexico, accounting firms, customs brokers, freight forwarders and tips on Canadian and Mexican sources of financing. There is also a summary of commercial regulations between Pemex and its suppliers, and an organization chart of the Exploration and Production Branch of Petroleos Mexicanos. tabs., figs

  7. Mapping reactor operating regimes for heavy gas oil hydrotreating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munteanu, Mugurel Catalin; Chen, Jinwen [CanmetENERGY, Natural Resources Canada (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrotreating (HDT) is used in oil refineries at temperatures of 350-400 degree C and pressure of 50-100 bars in a fixed bed to improve the quality of distillate fraction. HDT operates as a gas-liquid-solid process, trickle bed. Efforts have been made to model it but volatilization of liquid oil is often ignored. The aim of this paper is to predict vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) for a typical heavy distillate feed in pilot plant hydrotreaters. The study was conducted under various operating conditions and a flash calculation program calibrated in-house was used to predict VLE. VLE values were found and results showed that higher pressure, lower gas/oil ratio and temperature should be used to maintain the desired operating regimes when hydrotreating heavy distillate feed. This study determined the operating conditions for maintaining the desired operating regimes and these findings could be useful for operators.

  8. IOGCC/DOE oil and gas environmental workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) in cooperation with US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a workshop format to allow state regulatory officials and industry representatives the opportunity to participate in frank and open discussions on issues of environmental regulatory compliance. The purpose in providing this forum is to assist both groups in identifying the key barriers to the economic recoverability of domestic oil and gas resources while adequately protecting human health and the environment. The following topics were discussed, groundwater protection; temporarily abandoned and idle wells; effluent discharges; storm water runoff; monitoring and compliance; wetlands; naturally occurring radioactive materials; RCRA reauthorization and oil pollution prevention regulation. At the conclusion, all of the participants were asked to complete a questionnaire which critiqued the day activities. A discussion of each of the issues is made a part of this report as is a summary of the critique questionnaire which were received

  9. Characterization of oil and gas reservoir heterogeneity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The objective of the cooperative research program is to characterize Alaskan reservoirs in terms of their reserves, physical and chemical properties, geologic configuration and structure, and the development potential. The tasks completed during this period include: (1) geologic reservoir description of Endicott Field; (2) petrographic characterization of core samples taken from selected stratigraphic horizons of the West Sak and Ugnu (Brookian) wells; (3) development of a polydispersed thermodynamic model for predicting asphaltene equilibria and asphaltene precipitation from crude oil-solvent mixtures, and (4) preliminary geologic description of the Milne Point Unit.

  10. Oil and gas trends and implications in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahim, Khalid Abdul; Liwan, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    The trends of reserves, production and consumption of oil in Malaysia to meet the ever-increasing demands do not seem to show that oil and gas will be depleted soon, contrary to many reports. Malaysia’s net exporter status of oil continues to expand over time for as long as the value of exports is greater than the value of imports. Only in physical quantities of oil that Malaysia’s imports exceed exports, but this does not mean that Malaysia will be a net importer by then. Given higher prices of exports, the value of exports outweighs the value of imports. If the current reserves are extracted based on the domestic consumption trend of 1980–2010, Malaysia’s reserves will last until 2027 but based on the 1998–2010 trend, the reserves will be depleted by 2035. Malaysia has adopted a four fuel diversification strategy comprising oil, gas, coal and hydro, instead of heavily dependent on oil. Gas has a huge potential for domestic utilization as well as for exports to increase revenues. Malaysia is one of the few countries having many types of renewable energy sources. Malaysia has great potential in biomass utilization as renewable resources mostly from the existing natural forest and planned plantations. - Highlights: ► The quantities of petroleum production and consumption are expected to converge. ► Malaysia’s status as a net exporter in value terms is expected to expand. ► With slower consumption trend, petroleum reserves will be depleted by 2035. ► There is a large potential in natural gas utilization in Malaysia. ► Renewable energy is abundant for the fuel diversification policy for Malaysia.

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  12. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  13. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  14. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Korea 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Republic of Korea for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  20. Key concerns of U.K. oil and gas company directors for upstream oil developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Energy 2006 is a survey published by Ernst and Young presenting the main concerns over the past decade of the UK company directors. The upstream conclusions are presented here. In the medium term (3 years) and long term (10 years), the main concerns were with replacing reserves and with oil price changes. Company re-organisation etc., de-regulation of the gas market, maximising production, return of Iraq to the oil market, and environmental issues were also of concern. (author)

  1. VSAT: opening new horizons to oil and gas explorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dhamen, Muhammad I.

    2002-08-01

    Whether exploring in the Empty Quarter, drilling offshore in the Gulf of Mexico, or monitoring gas pipelines or oil wells in the deserts, communications is a key element to the success of oil and gas operations. Secure, efficient communications is required between remote, isolated locations and head offices to report on work status, dispatch supplies and repairs, report on-site emergencies, transfer geophysical surveys and real-time drilling data. Drilling and exploration firms have traditionally used land-based terrestrial networks that rely on radio transmissions for voice and data communications to offshore platforms and remote deep desert drilling rigs. But these systems are inefficient and have proven inflexible with today's drilling and exploration communications demands, which include high-speed data access, telephone and video conferencing. In response, numerous oil and gas exploration entities working in deep waters and remote deep deserts have all tapped into what is an ideal solution for these needs: Very Small Aperture Terminal Systems (VSAT) for broadband access services. This led to the use of Satellite Communication Systems for a wide range of applications that were difficult to achieve in the past, such as real-time applications transmission of drilling data and seismic information. This paper provides a thorough analysis of opportunities for satellite technology solutions in support of oil and gas operations. Technologies, architecture, service, networking and application developments are discussed based upon real field experience. More specifically, the report addresses: VSAT Opportunities for the Oil and Gas Operations, Corporate Satellite Business Model Findings, Satellite Market Forecasts

  2. Oil and Gas field code master list 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This is the fourteenth annual edition of the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. It reflects data collected through October 1995 and provides standardized field name spellings and codes for all identified oil and/or gas fields in the US. The Field Code Index, a listing of all field names and the States in which they occur, ordered by field code, has been removed from this year`s publications to reduce printing and postage costs. Complete copies (including the Field Code Index) will be available on the EIA CD-ROM and the EIA World-Wide Web Site. Future editions of the complete Master List will be available on CD-ROM and other electronic media. There are 57,400 field records in this year`s Oil and Gas Field Code Master List. As it is maintained by EIA, the Master List includes the following: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (see definition of alias below); and fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. Taking into consideration the double-counting of fields under such circumstances, EIA identifies 46,312 distinct fields in the US as of October 1995. This count includes fields that no longer produce oil or gas, and 383 fields used in whole or in part for oil or gas Storage. 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Sweden 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Oil and natural gas represented respectively 27% and 3% of Sweden’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2010. With coal representing 5% of TPES, Sweden has the lowest share of fossil fuels in the energy supply mix among IEA member countries. This is a significant difference from the mid-1970s, when fossil fuels made up three-quarters of Sweden’s energy supply, and is the result of a concerted effort to move away from the use of oil through the development of nuclear and renewable energy sources. Sweden’s energy policy seeks to further increase the share of renewable energy sources, including having them provide half of all energy, and 10% of all transport needs, by 2020. The share of fossil fuel is also to be further reduced, through plans to fully eliminate their use for heating purposes by 2020 and having a vehicle stock in Sweden that is ''independent'' of fossil fuels by 2030. Under this policy, demand for both oil and natural gas is anticipated to decline from current levels. Oil demand in Sweden was nearly 330 thousand barrels per day (kb/d) in 2011. While fully dependent on imports to meet domestic oil demand, Sweden is a net exporter of refined oil products. Overall oil demand will likely decline in the coming decade, however demand for oil in the transport sector is expected to grow. At the same time, oil demand will be ever more concentrated on transport diesel, with demand for the fuel reaching over 110 kb/d by 2020 compared to just under 80 kb/d in 2011. Concerning natural gas, consumption in Sweden totalled 1.3 billion cubic metres (bcm) in 2011, all of which was supplied via a single interconnector with Denmark. While natural gas plays only a minor role in Sweden’s TPES, its role in the energy supply of southern and western Sweden is much more substantial, accounting for around 20% of the area’s total energy use. Around 30 large consumers, including CHP plants, account for roughly 80% of total gas demand in the country

  4. The future of the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, G.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the state of the Canadian oil and gas industry for 1997 was presented. In 1997, capital investment levels were at $19 billion with oil, gas and gas by-products production valued at $31 billion. Exports were strong and set to grow further. As far as the Yukon is concerned, the availability of increased incentives and the announcement of a common royalty regime for the Territory have helped to increase interest by outside capital. Ongoing efforts are being made to include First Nations communities in the public consultation processes, and to ensure significant benefits to First Nation people from any development. The industry's initiatives and approaches to exploration, development and production were outlined. Environmental initiatives to protect the wilderness, and the existing ecosystem were described with examples from Alberta (Special Places 2000) and from British Columbia (BC Northern Rockies (Muskwa-Kechika; marine protected areas). 1 fig

  5. Experimental validation of a new sorption refrigerator heated by natural gas; Validacao experimental de um refigerador de sorcao aquecido por gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria E. Vieira da; Medeiros, Marcelo R.Q. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Schwarzer, Klemens [Universidade de Ciencias Aplicadas de Aachen (Germany); Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This article presents the experimental results that validate the operation of a new refrigerator in sorption cycle that uses natural gas as its heat source. The project was financed by the RedeGasEnergia of the Petroleo Brasileiro Company - PETROBRAS and by Brazilian agency Agencia Brasileira Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos - FINEP. The refrigeration cycle has two phases: heating/desorption and cooling/adsorption. The materials used were the zeolite 13X and water. The system components, designed for this project, were: two adsorbers, two burners, one condenser and one evaporator. In the heating phase, the burners were turned on to heat up the adsorbers. The adsorbate was released in the vapor phase e flew to the condenser. After its condensation, the liquid moved by the action of gravity to the evaporator. When the burners were turned off, the adsorbers started to cool down due to natural convection and radiation to the ambient. With the decrease of temperature in the adsorbers, the adsorption process began and temperatures below 0 deg C (ice making) were measured in the evaporator. The equipment showed good thermal performance and temperatures near -4 deg C were measured in the evaporator. To produce 5 kg of ice, 0,123 kg of natural gas was used. (author)

  6. Investigation into the determination of trimethylarsine in natural gas and its partitioning into gas and condensate phases using (cryotrapping)/gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and liquid/solid sorption techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupp, E.M.; Johnson, C.; Rechsteiner, C.; Moir, M.; Leong, D.; Feldmann, J.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of trialkylated arsenic compunds in natural gas, pressurized and stable condensate samples from the same gas well was performed using (Cryotrapping) Gas Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The major species in all phases investigated was found to be trimethylarsine with a highest concentration of 17.8 ng/L (As) in the gas phase and 33.2 μg/L (As) in the stable condensate phase. The highest amount of trimethylarsine (121 μg/L (As)) was found in the pressurized condensate, along with trace amounts of non-identified higher alkylated arsines. Volatile arsenic species in natural gas and its related products cause concern with regards to environment, safety, occupational health and gas processing. Therefore, interest lies in a fast and simple field method for the determination of volatile arsenicals. Here, we use simple liquid and solid sorption techniques, namely absorption in silver nitrate solution and adsorption on silver nitrate impregnated silica gel tubes followed by total arsenic determination as a promising tool for field monitoring of volatile arsenicals in natural gas and gas condensates. Preliminary results obtained for the sorption-based methods show that around 70% of the arsenic is determined with these methods in comparison to volatile arsenic determination using GC-ICP-MS. Furthermore, an inter-laboratory- and inter-method comparison was performed using silver nitrate impregnated silica tubes on 14 different gas samples with concentrations varying from below 1 to 1000 μg As/m 3 natural gas. The results obtained from the two laboratories differ in a range of 10 to 60%, but agree within the order of magnitude, which is satisfactory for our purposes

  7. 78 FR 52239 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...] Electronic-based emergency shutdown systems (ESDs); [cir] Valve closure timing; [cir] Valve leakage rates... assembly of valves, gauges, and chokes mounted on a well casinghead used to control the production and flow of oil or gas. Dry tree completions are the standard for OCS shallow water platforms, with the tree...

  8. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  9. 25 CFR 213.6 - Leases for minerals other than oil and gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. 213.6 Section 213.6 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF... Leases for minerals other than oil and gas. Uncontested mining leases for minerals other than oil and gas...

  10. Panorama 2014 - New oil and gas discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vially, Roland; Hureau, Geoffroy

    2013-12-01

    Spending on exploration increased significantly in 2012, and this growth should continue into 2013. Over a period of ten years, exploration budgets have increased five-fold, leading to major discoveries in regions as yet unexplored. In 2012, 25 billion barrels of oil equivalent (Gboe) were revealed. This is more than the average for the whole decade, but less than the amount for the previous year. Although knowledge of the volumes that have been discovered is still very fragmented, they should continue to fall into 2013. The main reason lies in the fact that spending on exploration is being shifted towards assessing discoveries made in previous years in the particularly prolific basins of Brazil and East Africa, while the exploration of border regions - such as the West African pre-salt formation - is still only in its early stages. (authors)

  11. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer

    2013-11-01

    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  12. Combilift ideal for maneuvering oil and gas equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2009-07-15

    This article described an innovative forklift that responds to the oil industry's need for a safer, better and easier way to move long tubular products that cannot be carried high in the air. The Gator Jaw is a duplex pipe clamp attachment that secures to the Combilift forklift carriage. The clamp arm can be hydraulically moved upwards to allow the operator full use of the forks without interference from the hold down arm. The Combilift's platform is ideal for maneuvering oil and gas equipment close to the ground. Since it can travel sideways, the length of the load is not critical. The Gator Jaw's unique design makes it possible for one forklift to handle both skids and pallets. The C-Series product extends to the subsea oil and gas industry, which works with long loads such as oil drilling tools and pipe. The benefits include safer product handling, significant space savings, increased productivity and versatile indoor and outdoor use. The machines are available with a fuel-efficient liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or diesel engine. 1 fig.

  13. A review of the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, M.J.; Pulsipher, A.G. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Center for Energy Studies

    2007-02-15

    Kazakhstan is endowed with significant oil and gas resources and is expected to become one of the world's top 10 oil producers within the next decade. The high cost of doing business in the country, however, means that Kazakhstan will need to improve its institutional framework to successfully compete for Western investment. A large degree of risk and uncertainty continues to plague the oil and gas sector as the government makes significant changes to the petroleum tax legislation and takes an aggressive approach in ''rebalancing'' contractual arrangements with industry. High levels of bureaucracy, regulatory burden, and corruption persist, and economic factors appear to be subordinated increasingly to geopolitical objectives aimed to strengthen relationships with China and Russia. The rapid pace of change and the high degree of uncertainty present significant challenges and risk to foreign investment. The purpose of this paper is to review the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan and highlight recent developments in the petroleum legislation, business climate and government policy. (author)

  14. A review of the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, Mark J.; Pulsipher, Allan G.

    2007-01-01

    Kazakhstan is endowed with significant oil and gas resources and is expected to become one of the world's top 10 oil producers within the next decade. The high cost of doing business in the country, however, means that Kazakhstan will need to improve its institutional framework to successfully compete for Western investment. A large degree of risk and uncertainty continues to plague the oil and gas sector as the government makes significant changes to the petroleum tax legislation and takes an aggressive approach in 'rebalancing' contractual arrangements with industry. High levels of bureaucracy, regulatory burden, and corruption persist, and economic factors appear to be subordinated increasingly to geopolitical objectives aimed to strengthen relationships with China and Russia. The rapid pace of change and the high degree of uncertainty present significant challenges and risk to foreign investment. The purpose of this paper is to review the oil and gas sector in Kazakhstan and highlight recent developments in the petroleum legislation, business climate and government policy

  15. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  16. North Sea oil and gas: a geographical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, K

    1976-01-01

    Only ten years after the first rig moved into position, British oil has been piped ashore from the North Sea and, by 1980, will be making a substantial contribution to UK energy supplies. The discovery of natural gas in 1967--for initially gas was the primary objective--has transformed the gas supply so that 90% of the UK's needs already come from the North Sea. The speed and concentration of exploration pinpoints the vital importance of this new energy source. Until now the major oil 'pipeline' in the world has been led between the Middle East and Western Europe, so this new energy source has far reaching implications, both political and economic. Keith Chapman examines these implications starting from events in the North Sea itself; the geological background, agreement on the division of the North Sea, relations between oil companies, and government embodied in offshore mining legislation. The latter part of the book concentrates on the onshore repercussions of offshore activities; how North Sea oil fits into the international oil system, the various options open for its utilisation, the attitude of the EEC towards Scottish-based resources, government policy for the North coast of Scotland--an area which planners classed as ''peripheral'' but which must now accommodate extensive support facilities and service industries for the oil sites. There is also the question of relations between national and commercial interests--government versus the giant multi-national companies which took the initial gamble in the North Sea and are now responsible for the development of a resource vital to the economic well-being of Western Europe.

  17. Oil and natural gas prospects: Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    The MENA region is endowed with enormous resources of oil and gas, rendering it the world′s richest region in this regard. Endowment differs from one country to another with few countries are almost dry; however the economic benefits proliferated to almost every country in the region. In spite of some doubts being cast about the amount of proven oil reserves, these with improved technology and new discoveries are increasing year after another. With no long term feasible alternatives to oil for transport and the increasing trade in LNG, the region′s importance as a world′s leading supplier of fossil fuels will continue for decades to come. However, these favourable prospects hide many challenges facing the MENA region, among them is the difficulty in mobilizing investment funds for sustaining and increasing output to feed growing global demand. Growing local demand, due to the proliferation of subsides, is another worrying aspect that already caused few countries with modest resources to become oil importers instead of exporters, with larger exporters decreasing their surplus output. The region is also still mainly dependant on foreign technologies and skilled manpower. Regional cooperation in oil and gas networks and electricity interconnections is still modest. The region has a long history of conflict; correspondingly it is a major importer of armaments which is increasingly eating a lot of its surplus income. With the political and social changes presently taking place in many MENA countries, due to the Arab spring and continuation of local conflicts, the sustainability of supplies from the region are increasingly a source of worry to MENA exporters and its many importers. It is also causing increasing involvement of the super powers in regional affairs. - Highlights: • Global oil and gas reserves and prices. • Energy sustainability and the Middle East. • Energy economics and investments in the Middle East

  18. America's gas tank : the high cost of Canada's oil and gas export strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, M.; Bennett, J.

    2002-10-01

    The high environmental cost of exporting oil and gas from Canada to the United States is discussed. The increased demand for fossil fuels by the United States has coincided with Canada's deregulation of the energy industry and a greater control of Canadian energy companies by American interests. The authors note that most of the oil and gas produced in Canada is exported to the United States, where many of the extraction and production decisions affecting Canadians and the Canadian environment are made. It was cautioned that if the current trend continues, oil and gas development will degrade habitat for endangered species and greenhouse gases will escalate. This is because the fossil fuel industry, particularly the development of Alberta's tar sands, is helping to increase greenhouse gas emissions outside of Canada by selling fossil fuels that are burned outside of Canada. It is recommended that federal and provincial governments in Canada should shift their policies away from fossil fuel production and promote renewable energy production. The United States plans to increase Canadian oil and gas imports in the coming decade, requiring more wells to be drilled and pipelines to carry it. If the fossil fuel industry proceeds with the current plans, greenhouse gas emissions in Canada will grow to 827 million tonnes by 2010, 44 per cent beyond the Kyoto target, having an overall negative impact on public health, wildlife and fresh water supplies. refs., tabs., figs

  19. Using Polymer Alternating Gas to Enhance Oil Recovery in Heavy Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongzhi; Li, Weirong; Zhou, Tiyao; Dong, Zhenzhen

    2018-02-01

    CO2 has been used to recover oil for more than 40 years. Currently, about 43% of EOR production in U.S. is from CO2 flooding. CO2 flooding is a well-established EOR technique, but its density and viscosity nature are challenges for CO2 projects. Low density (0.5 to 0.8 g/cm3) causes gas to rise upward in reservoirs and bypass many lower portions of the reservoir. Low viscosity (0.02 to 0.08 cp) leads to poor volumetric sweep efficiency. So water-alternating-gas (WAG) method was used to control the mobility of CO2 and improve sweep efficiency. However, WAG process has some other problems in heavy oil reservoir, such as poor mobility ratio and gravity overriding. To examine the applicability of carbon dioxide to recover viscous oil from highly heterogeneous reservoirs, this study suggests a new EOR method--polymer-alternating gas (PAG) process. The process involves a combination of polymer flooding and CO2 injection. To confirm the effectiveness of PAG process in heavy oils, a reservoir model from Liaohe Oilfield is used to compare the technical and economic performance among PAG, WAG and polymer flooding. Simulation results show that PAG method would increase oil recovery over 10% compared with other EOR methods and PAG would be economically success based on assumption in this study. This study is the first to apply PAG to enhance oil recovery in heavy oil reservoir with highly heterogeneous. Besides, this paper provides detailed discussions and comparison about PAG with other EOR methods in this heavy oil reservoir.

  20. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  1. Husky Oil's gas migration research effort: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, R.; Carlson, P.B.; Lorenz, G.D.; Watson, M.D.; Erno, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    Gas migration, which is the leakage of gas from outside the wellbore casings of oil and gas wells, has been recognized for many years as a problem but is still not clearly understood. It can exhibit itself as gas pressure on the surface casing, gas migrating through the soil surrounding the casing, or both. The phenomena is particularly visible in the Lloydminster area, in part due to the fact that well density is high and much of the land is under cultivation, making the effects on soil more evident. A research and development program has been initiated to determine the extent and impact of the problem and to identify technical solutions. The magnitude of the problem is discussed, indicating that 1 in 20 wells in Alberta has gas pressure on the surface casing. In the Lloydminster area, nearly half of all wells show indication of gas migration. Industry/regulatory action in the past is discussed, and the search for technical and business solutions is described. It is shown that methane leakage from gas migration is low, and emission from most gas migration wells is comparable to that generated by a typical dairy cow. 8 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms are energy-intensive systems – each facility uses from a few to several hundreds MW of energy, depending on the petroleum properties, export specifications and field lifetime. Several technologies for increasing the energy efficiency of these plants are investigated in this work. They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphase expanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the power plant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Significant energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15–20%. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which suggests that generic improvements can hardly be proposed, and that thorough techno-economic analyses should be conducted for each plant. - Highlights: • Energy efficiency measures for offshore platforms are assessed. • Energy savings and reductions in CO_2-emissions can reach up to 15-20%. • They differ strongly depending on the oil type, operating conditions and strategies.

  3. Oil(Gas) - source rock correlation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The overview of bio-marker parameters which are applicable to hydrocarbon exploration has been illustrated. Experimental analysis of saturated hydrocarbon and bio-markers of the Pohang E and F core samples has been carried out. Samples were extracted by stirring in dichloromethane at 40-50 degree for 10 hours. The saturated, aromatic and resin fractions of the extract were obtained using thin layer chromatograms. The relative abundance of normal alkane fraction of the samples is low except lowest interval, which is probably due to the biodegradation. The bio-marker assemblage of hopanoids and steranes has been characterized. According to the analysis of saturated hydrocarbons and bio-markers, the sedimentary environment of the Pohang core samples is marine and transitional zone except the terrestrial environment of the lowest samples such as 610.5 m from E core and 667.2 m from F core. The thermal maturity through the studied interval did not reach oil window even though slight increase in thermal maturity with depth, which coincide with Rock Eval pyrolysis data. In order to check the validation of analysis of the bio-markers, same samples were analyzed by the University of Louis Pasteur, France. The distribution and relative peak area of the bio-markers were identical with those by laboratory of KIGAM. For the 2 nd stage of the research, analysis of bio-markers other than hopanoids and steranes should be continued. (author). 29 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. Kuwait. Oil and Gas sector report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieft, C.; Thasing, T. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Kuwait, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Safat (Kuwait)

    2011-04-15

    Kuwait is stepping up its efforts to position itself as one of the main transport and logistics hubs in the Gulf. Looking at the logistics performance index Kuwait is placed behind UAE and Bahrain but (far) ahead of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Iraq and Iran. Besides, Kuwait is gaining ground, investing heavily in new infrastructure which is intended not only to meet the country's own needs but also the needs of the wider region.Kuwait has nearly 500 kilometres of coastline along the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and is strategically positioned at the mouth of the waterways to Iraq and Iran. This could give Kuwait the advantage to serve as one of the most important regional hubs for shipping and transportation in the Gulf region. This becomes especially true when a planned railway line connecting Kuwait with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and especially Turkey becomes in service. Information is presented on: government plans, existing port infrastructure in Kuwait, developments and opportunities in the existing ports, the oil ports and terminals, investment and business opportunities.

  5. Kuwait. Oil and Gas sector report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, C.; Thasing, T.

    2011-04-01

    Kuwait is stepping up its efforts to position itself as one of the main transport and logistics hubs in the Gulf. Looking at the logistics performance index Kuwait is placed behind UAE and Bahrain but (far) ahead of Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Iraq and Iran. Besides, Kuwait is gaining ground, investing heavily in new infrastructure which is intended not only to meet the country's own needs but also the needs of the wider region.Kuwait has nearly 500 kilometres of coastline along the Persian (Arabian) Gulf and is strategically positioned at the mouth of the waterways to Iraq and Iran. This could give Kuwait the advantage to serve as one of the most important regional hubs for shipping and transportation in the Gulf region. This becomes especially true when a planned railway line connecting Kuwait with Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and especially Turkey becomes in service. Information is presented on: government plans, existing port infrastructure in Kuwait, developments and opportunities in the existing ports, the oil ports and terminals, investment and business opportunities.

  6. Optimizing Geothermal Drilling: Oil and Gas Technology Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tilley, Mitch; Eustes, Alfred; Visser, Charles; Baker, Walt; Bolton, Dan; Bell, Jason; Nagandran, Uneshddarann; Quick, Ralph

    2015-01-26

    There is a significant amount of financial risk associated with geothermal drilling; however, there are opportunities to improve upon current practices and technologies used. The scope of this drilling operational study included 21 geothermal wells and 21 oil and gas wells. The goal was to determine a 'perfect well' using historical data to compare the best oil and gas well to the best geothermal well. Unfortunately, limitations encountered in the study included missing data (bit records, mud information, etc.), poor data collection, and difficult to ascertain handwriting. An online software database was used to format drilling data to IADC coded daily drilling reports and generate analysis figures. Six major issues have been found in geothermal drilling operations. These problems include lost circulation, rig/equipment selection, cementing, penetration rate, drilling program, and time management. As a result of these issues, geothermal drilling averages 56.4 days longer than drilling comparable oil and gas wells in the wells in this study. Roughly $13.9 million would be lost due to non-productive time in the 21 geothermal wells and only $1.3 million in the oil and gas wells, assuming a cost of $50,000 per day. Comparable events such as drilling the same sized hole, tripping in/out, cementing, and running the same size casing took substantially less time in the oil and gas wells. Geothermal wells were drilled using older and/or less advanced technology to depths less than 10,000 feet, while oil and gas wells reached 12,500 feet faster with purpose built rigs. A new approach is now underway that will optimize drilling programs throughout the drilling industry. It is the use of Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) as a tool to realize efficient drilling processes. However, a work-flow must also be established in order for there to be an efficient drilling program. Potential improvements for current geothermal operations are: the use of electronic records, real

  7. Human and Organisational Safety Barriers in the Oil & Gas Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystad, E.; Szőke, I.

    2016-01-01

    The oil & gas industry is a safety-critical industry where errors or accidents may potentially have severe consequences. Offshore oil & gas installations are complex technical systems constructed to pump hydrocarbons from below the seabed, process them and pipe them to onshore refineries. Hydrocarbon leaks may lead to major accidents or have negative environmental impacts. The industry must therefore have a strong focus on safety. Safety barriers are devices put into place to prevent or reduce the effects of unwanted incidents. Technical barriers are one type of safety barrier, e.g., blow-out preventers to prevent uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from a well. Human operators may also have an important function in maintaining safety. These human operators are part of a larger organisation consisting of different roles and responsibilities and with different mechanisms for ensuring safety. This paper will present two research projects from the Norwegian oil & gas industry that look at the role of humans and organisations as safety barriers. The first project used questionnaire data to investigate the use of mindful safety practices (safety-promoting work practices intended to prevent or interrupt unwanted events) and what contextual factors may affect employees’ willingness to use these safety practices. Among the findings was that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices was affected more by factors on a group level than factors at an individual or organisational level, and that the factors may differ depending on what is the object of a practice—the employee or other persons. It was also suggested that employees’ willingness to use mindful safety practices could be an indicator used in the assessment of the safety level on oil & gas installations. The second project is related to organisational safety barriers against major accidents. This project was based on a review of recent incidents in the Norwegian oil & gas industry, as well as

  8. Report on the oil and gas industry in 2009; Rapport sur l'industrie petroliere et gaziere en 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discuss the recent evolutions of world oil and gas markets in 2009, of the oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of the exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of gas infrastructures, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of gas price for the end consumer, of oil product prices, and of the retailing of oil products

  9. National Assessment of Oil and Gas Project: Areas of Historical Oil and Gas Exploration and Production in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This report contains maps and associated spatial data showing historical oil and gas exploration and production in the United States. Because of the proprietary nature of many oil and gas well databases, the United States was divided into cells one-quarter square mile and the production status of all wells in a given cell was aggregated. Base-map reference data are included, using the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Map, the USGS and American Geological Institute (AGI) Global GIS, and a World Shaded Relief map service from the ESRI Geography Network. A hardcopy map was created to synthesize recorded exploration data from 1859, when the first oil well was drilled in the U.S., to 2005. In addition to the hardcopy map product, the data have been refined and made more accessible through the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) tools. The cell data are included in a GIS database constructed for spatial analysis via the USGS Internet Map Service or by importing the data into GIS software such as ArcGIS. The USGS internet map service provides a number of useful and sophisticated geoprocessing and cartographic functions via an internet browser. Also included is a video clip of U.S. oil and gas exploration and production through time.

  10. TREATMENT OF PRODUCED OIL AND GAS WATERS WITH SURFACTANT-MODIFIED ZEOLITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn E. Katz; R.S. Bowman; E.J. Sullivan

    2003-11-01

    Co-produced water from the oil and gas industry accounts for a significant waste stream in the United States. It is by some estimates the largest single waste stream in the country, aside from nonhazardous industrial wastes. Characteristics of produced water include high total dissolved solids content, dissolved organic constituents such as benzene and toluene, an oil and grease component, and chemicals added during the oil-production process. While most of the produced water is disposed via reinjection, some must be treated to remove organic constituents before the water is discharged. Current treatment options are successful in reducing the organic content; however, they cannot always meet the levels of current or proposed regulations for discharged water. Therefore, an efficient, cost-effective treatment technology is needed. Surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) has been used successfully to treat contaminated ground water for organic and inorganic constituents. In addition, the low cost of natural zeolites makes their use attractive in water-treatment applications. This report summarizes the work and results of this four-year project. We tested the effectiveness of surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) for removal of BTEX with batch and column experiments using waters with BTEX concentrations that are comparable to those of produced waters. The data from our experimental investigations showed that BTEX sorption to SMZ can be described by a linear isotherm model, and competitive effects between compounds were not significant. The SMZ can be readily regenerated using air stripping. We field-tested a prototype SMZ-based water treatment system at produced water treatment facilities and found that the SMZ successfully removes BTEX from produced waters as predicted by laboratory studies. When compared to other existing treatment technologies, the cost of the SMZ system is very competitive. Furthermore, the SMZ system is relatively compact, does not require the storage of

  11. Oil and gas in China: The door opens wider to international oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Wang

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews new incentives offered by the China National Petroleum Corporation to help develop China's oil and gas fields. The initial offer for bids by foreign investors is for exploration and joint development contracts for western China's Tarim basin. However, the expansion to other basins and areas of China is well underway. It also discusses a pipeline project which will be connect the western China oil and gas fields with the eastern markets, approximately 2,200 miles. A historical review of the oil and gas production and utilization of China is presented along with forecasts of future production. It also provides estimates of gas and oil reserves and information on enhanced recovery techniques used to maintain a stable production level. The second half of the paper is an interview with Dr. Wang Tao, a PhD graduate of Moscow's Petroleum Institute, and president of the China National Petroleum Corporation. He reviews the government policies with regards to foreign investment in his country

  12. Radiological impact of oil and Gas Activities in selected oil fields in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A study of the radiological impact of oil and gas exploration activities in the production land area of Delta ... the public and non-nuclear industrial environment, while the levels for the fields at Otorogu, Ughelli West, ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  13. Weak oil prices seen hindrance to pace of increase in gas use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    World demand for gas is expected to rocket, yet future natural gas and liquefied natural gas projects remain threatened by the link of gas prices to crude oil prices. This is the main message that emerged from the 19th World Gas Conference in Milan last week. A number of reports predicted regional demand for gas. All foresaw a rise. International Gas Union (IGU), organizer of the conference, and said world natural gas production has continued to rise despite a significant downturn in industrial production. The paper discusses gas demand in Europe, the correlation between oil and gas prices, the natural gas industry in Indonesia, Russia, and southern Europe

  14. Risk factors in stock returns of Canadian oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper uses a multifactor market model to estimate the expected returns to Canadian oil and gas industry stock prices. Results are presented to show that exchange rates, crude oil prices and interest rates each have large and significant impacts on stock price returns in the Canadian oil and gas industry. In particular, an increase in the market or oil price factor increases the return to Canadian oil and gas stock prices while an increase in exchange rates or the term premium decreases the return to Canadian oil and gas stock prices. Furthermore, the oil and gas sector is less risky than the market and its moves are pro-cyclical. This suggests that Canadian oil and gas stocks may not be a good hedge against inflation

  15. Geoperspective | Oil and Gas in the Netherlands – Is there a future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herber, R.; Jager, J. de

    2010-01-01

    The impact of oil and, in particular, gas fields discovered in the Dutch subsurface has been very significant. However, 50 years after the discovery of the giant Groningen gas field the Netherlands has become very mature for exploration of oil and gas, and the gas volume left to be discovered in

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Ireland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Finland 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: France 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Norway 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Australia 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: France 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  8. Oil and gas: crises and controversies. V. 1: global issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odell, P.

    2001-11-01

    Oil and gas are the drivers of modern economics and issues relating to them impinge importantly on national and international politics. This first of two volumes of Odell's collected papers and essays charts the sequence of significant developments, over the past 40 years, of this most international of industries. At one level, the book is a work of recent economic history, but an appreciation of the past is essential for proper interpretation of the present, and all the more so, if forecasting is one's trade. For these reasons, this book needs to be on the shelves of all who are professionally concerned with contemporary and/or prospective global oil and gas issues. (author)

  9. Buying and selling oil and gas properties in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothian, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    During the last five years, Saskatchewan has experienced its highest level of activity in the oil and gas industry, in terms of drilling and land acquisition. This study reviewed the unique concerns and issues affecting the acquisition or disposition of oil and gas assets in Saskatchewan. The two separate and distinct land registry systems regarding mines and mineral interests in Saskatchewan, due diligence issues, title and leasehold opinions and their limitations and environmental liabilities issues management were described. Some basic principles of contract law such as registration issues with respect to GOR's, and builder's lien pitfalls, as well as legal issues created by horizontal drilling, and legal issues associated with a Right of First Refusal, were also explained

  10. Unconventional oil and gas extraction and animal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, M; Oswald, R E

    2014-08-01

    The extraction of hydrocarbons from shale formations using horizontal drilling with high volume hydraulic fracturing (unconventional shale gas and tight oil extraction), while derived from methods that have been used for decades, is a relatively new innovation that was introduced first in the United States and has more recently spread worldwide. Although this has led to the availability of new sources of fossil fuels for domestic consumption and export, important issues have been raised concerning the safety of the process relative to public health, animal health, and our food supply. Because of the multiple toxicants used and generated, and because of the complexity of the drilling, hydraulic fracturing, and completion processes including associated infrastructure such as pipelines, compressor stations and processing plants, impacts on the health of humans and animals are difficult to assess definitively. We discuss here findings concerning the safety of unconventional oil and gas extraction from the perspectives of public health, veterinary medicine, and food safety.

  11. Y2K - an oil and gas software vendor's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, L.D.

    1998-01-01

    Oil and gas companies have begun to deal with third party software vendors to increase their efficiency and to concentrate on their core business. When it comes to dealing with year 2000 (Y2K) problems, information technology (IT) departments will have to deal with complex heterogeneous systems and long lists of independent software vendors and suppliers. This paper highlighted some of the unique issues that should be considered when testing any heterogeneous oil and gas system for Y2K. Most petroleum companies and vendors have established Y2K compliance teams with plans involving three major phases: (1) testing and identification of problems, (2) correction and avoidance of problems, and (3) preparation for recovery from unidentified problems

  12. EEE (environmental engineering economics) attributes for oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isreb, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlined the basic attributes of environmental engineering economics (EEE) with reference to the oil and gas industry in Australia. The paper was designed as a reference guide for policy-makers, educators, and environmental engineers. Methods of calculating the Pareto Optimum status were discussed, and environmental values and principles were identified. Air quality indicators were outlined. The paper considered multidisciplinary approaches to EEE and sustainable development, as well as the application of statistics and qualitative methods in addressing contemporary issues. The ethical aspects of environmental policies were discussed. Issues related to environmental toxicity and public health were also examined. Various taxation approaches and financial incentives were reviewed. Environmental laws related to the oil and gas industry were outlined. Environmental assessment procedures were presented. It was concluded that environmental regulations within the industry will help to ensure appropriate pollution reductions. 7 refs

  13. Environmental Parametric Cost Model in Oil and Gas EPC Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Abbaspour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at identifying the parameters that govern the environmental costs in oil and gas projects. An initial conceptual model was proposed. Next, the costs of environmental management work packages were estimated, separately and were applied in project control tools (WBS/CBS. Then, an environmental parametric cost model was designed to determine the environmental costs and relevant weighting factors. The suggested model can be considered as an innovative approach to designate the environmental indicators in oil and gas projects. The validity of variables was investigated based on Delphi method. The results indicated that the project environmental management’s weighting factor is 0.87% of total project’s weighting factor.

  14. A catalytic distillation process for light gas oil hydrodesulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas-Villamil, F.D.; Marroquin, J.O.; Paz, C. de la; Rodriguez, E. [Prog. de Matematicas Aplicadas y Computacion, Prog. de Tratamiento de Crudo Maya, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City, DF (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    A light gas oil hydrodesulfurization process via catalytic distillation is developed and compared to a conventional process. By integrating the separation and reaction into a single unit, the catalytic distillation may produce a diesel with low concentration of sulfur compounds at a lower cost than the traditional reaction/separation process. The process proposed in this work is compared to an optimised conventional hydrodesulfurization unit which represents fairly well a plant that belongs to the National System of Refineries. During the optimisation of the conventional process, a compromise is established among the production of diesel and naphtha and the operating costs. The results show that the light gas oil hydrodesulfurization via catalytic distillation is as or more efficient than the conventional process. However, the removal of the sulfur compounds is carried out under less rigorous conditions. This design reduces the fix and operational costs. (author)

  15. Outlook '98 - Gas and oil pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, B.

    1998-01-01

    Due to rising North American demand, especially by the United States, by the end of 1997 there were plans to build 15 new pipelines over the next three years, at an estimated cost of $17 billion. Canada''s proximity to the United States, combined with huge Canadian reserves, and the fact that Canada already supplies some 15 per cent of U.S. requirements, makes Canada the obvious choice for filling future demand. This explains why most, if not all, current pipeline expansion projects are targeting markets in the U.S. Market forces will determine which of the projects will actually go forward. From the point of view of the Canadian Energy Pipeline Association pipeline regulatory reform, pipeline safety, integrity and climate change will be the Association''s key concerns during 1998. To that end, the Association is cooperating with the National Energy Board in a multi-million dollar study of stress corrosion cracking. The Association has also developed a Manual of Recommended Practices for the use of member companies to assist them to tailor stress corrosion cracking practices to their own operations. Meeting Canada''s commitment at the Kyoto Conference for greenhouse gas emissions of six per cent below 1990 levels by the year 2008 to 2012 (in effect a 25 per cent reduction from the level anticipated in the year 2000), a very difficult task according to industry experts, is also among the high priority items on the pipeline industry''s agenda for 1998

  16. Panorama 2013 - The search for new oil and gas reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hureau, Geoffroy; Vially, Roland

    2012-11-01

    Driven by investment in exploration that has been rising since 2004, there have been a number of spectacularly successful oil and gas discoveries over the last few years, such as the pre-salt formations found off the coast of Brazil, as well as the new gas provinces in East Africa and the Mediterranean. This trend looks set to continue in the mid-term. 2012 has been a very successful year in terms of exploration, with nearly 200 discoveries already announced by the end of October. (authors)

  17. Oil and gas, strategic regional cooperation between Persian Gulf countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalloi, Mir Mahdi

    2010-09-15

    Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.

  18. Shale oil and gas: technical and environmental files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilansky, Jean-Louis; Quehen, Audrey; Appert, Olivier; Aurengo, Andre; Candel, Sebastien; Chanin, Marie-Lise; Geoffron, Patrice; Goffe, Bruno; Marsily, Ghislain de; Pouzet, Andre; Schnapper, Dominique; Tardieu, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This publication proposes information regarding technical and environmental issues related to shale oil and gas extraction and exploitation. It addresses various topics: hydraulic fracturing (techniques, quantity assessment, regulation), water consumption and management (problematic, quantity assessment, regulation), additives and management of production fluids (a necessary taking into account, quantity assessment, regulation), surface aquifers (surface sheets and exploration activity, quantity assessment, regulation), activity footprint (ground footprint and impact on landscape, quantity assessment, regulation), end of activity and site future (return to the initial condition, quantity assessment, regulation), seismicity (manageable seismic risks, quantity assessment, regulations), greenhouse gas emissions (development, quantity assessment, regulation), issues related to health aspects (general and specific risks, epidemiological studies)

  19. Decoupling the Oil and Gas Prices. Natural Gas Pricing in the Post-Financial Crisis Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Miharu

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks into natural gas pricing in the post-financial crisis market and, in particular, examines the question whether the oil-linked gas pricing system has outlived its utility as global gas markets mature and converge more rapidly than expected and as large new resources of unconventional gas shift the gas terms-of-trade. Two opposing natural gas pricing systems have coexisted for the last two decades. On the one hand, there is traditional oil-linked pricing, used in pipeline gas imports by Continental European countries and in LNG imports by the countries in Far East. The other is the system led by futures exchanges in deregulated, competitive markets largely in the UK and the US. World gas markets are changing and the basis and mechanisms of price formation are changing with them. There is no reason to expect a revolution in gas pricing, but formulas designed to address the challenges of the 1970's will need to adjust to the realities of the present and expectations for the 21. century. Because such changes will imply a redistribution of costs and benefits, vested shareholders will defend the status quo. But hopefully and ultimately, appropriately regulated markets will assert themselves and shareholders along the entire value chain will have their interests served

  20. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Othman, Jamal, E-mail: jortman@ukm.my; Jafari, Yaghoob, E-mail: yaghoob.jafari@gmail.com [Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Management (Malaysia)

    2012-12-15

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000-2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  1. Accounting for Depletion of Oil and Gas Resources in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Jamal; Jafari, Yaghoob

    2012-01-01

    Since oil and gas are non-renewable resources, it is important to identify the extent to which they have been depleted. Such information will contribute to the formulation and evaluation of appropriate sustainable development policies. This paper provides an assessment of the changes in the availability of oil and gas resources in Malaysia by first compiling the physical balance sheet for the period 2000–2007, and then assessing the monetary balance sheets for the said resource by using the Net Present Value method. Our findings show serious reduction in the value of oil reserves from 2001 to 2005, due to changes in crude oil prices, and thereafter the depletion rates decreased. In the context of sustainable development planning, albeit in the weak sustainability sense, it will be important to ascertain if sufficient reinvestments of the estimated resource rents in related or alternative capitals are being attempted by Malaysia. For the study period, the cumulative resource rents were to the tune of RM61 billion. Through a depletion or resource rents policy, the estimated quantum may guide the identification of a reinvestment threshold (after considering needed capital investment for future development of the industry) in light of ensuring the future productive capacity of the economy at the time when the resource is exhausted.

  2. Frontier lands: Oil and gas statistical overview, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Canada's frontier lands consist of offshore and onshore areas outside the provinces which fall under federal authority. These lands cover some 10.2 million km 2 and include the Northwest Territories, Yukon Territory, and areas off the east and west coasts and in the far north. A statistical summary is presented of oil and gas activities in these frontier lands for 1992. Information provided includes activity status and wells drilled on frontier lands, a resource inventory, oil and gas production, land holdings and status, licenses concluded, petroleum-related employment on frontier lands, and petroleum expenditures on frontier lands. Highlights of activities include the first commercial production of crude oil from the Panuke oil field on the Scotian Shelf; a continued decrease in exploration activity on the frontier lands; the introduction of legislation to eliminate restrictions on foreign ownership of production licences on frontier lands; and the resolution to the Canada-France maritime boundary dispute by the International Court of Arbitration. 9 figs., 10 tabs

  3. ERP System Implementation: An Oil and Gas Exploration Sector Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Mishra, Deepti

    Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems provide integration and optimization of various business processes which leads to improved planning and decision quality, smoother coordination between business units resulting in higher efficiency, and quicker response time to customer demands and inquiries. This paper reports challenges, opportunities and outcome of ERP implementation in Oil & Gas exploration sector. This study will facilitate in understanding transition, constraints and implementation of ERP in this sector and also provide guidelines from lessons learned in this regard.

  4. Oil and gas production equals jobs and revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimes, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of oil and gas production on jobs and revenue are discussed. Some suggestions are presented that should provide the climate to increase jobs, add revenue and increase efficiency in state agencies within the producing states. Some of the ideas and suggestions are summarized. Some of these ideas include: how to extend the economic limits of marginal properties; how the states can encourage additional drilling without incurring loss of revenue; and the use of investment tax credits

  5. Optimization of lift gas allocation in a gas lifted oil field as non-linear optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper allocation and distribution of lift gas is necessary for maximizing total oil production from a field with gas lifted oil wells. When the supply of the lift gas is limited, the total available gas should be optimally distributed among the oil wells of the field such that the total production of oil from the field is maximized. This paper describes a non-linear optimization problem with constraints associated with the optimal distribution of the lift gas. A non-linear objective function is developed using a simple dynamic model of the oil field where the decision variables represent the lift gas flow rate set points of each oil well of the field. The lift gas optimization problem is solved using the emph'fmincon' solver found in MATLAB. As an alternative and for verification, hill climbing method is utilized for solving the optimization problem. Using both of these methods, it has been shown that after optimization, the total oil production is increased by about 4. For multiple oil wells sharing lift gas from a common source, a cascade control strategy along with a nonlinear steady state optimizer behaves as a self-optimizing control structure when the total supply of lift gas is assumed to be the only input disturbance present in the process. Simulation results show that repeated optimization performed after the first time optimization under the presence of the input disturbance has no effect in the total oil production.

  6. Oil price induced gas acquisition contracts. Immune to price changes; Oelpreisindizierte Gasbezugsvertraege. Immun gegen Preisaenderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, Meike [Soptim AG, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    The gas price continues to be linked to the oil price. Gas utilities that must buy gas in these conditions and sell it at a fixed price incur considerable financial risk. Especially with long-term buying contracts, and especially for gas from Russia, producers insist on linking to the oil price. Gas utilities, on the other hand, had to stop to sell gas at a price linked to the oil price two years ago. Utilities attempt to protect themselves, e.g. via oil swaps. Professional portfolio management is necessary to cope with the risks and the highly complex processes involved.

  7. Performance analysis of an integrated energy storage and energy upgrade thermochemical solid–gas sorption system for seasonal storage of solar thermal energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Tingxian; Wang, Ruzhu; Kiplagat, Jeremiah K.; Kang, YongTae

    2013-01-01

    An innovative dual-mode thermochemical sorption energy storage method is proposed for seasonal storage of solar thermal energy with little heat losses. During the charging phase in summer, solar thermal energy is stored in form of chemical bonds resulting from thermochemical decomposition process, which enables the stored energy to be kept several months at ambient temperature. During the discharging phase in winter, the stored thermal energy is released in the form of chemical reaction heat resulting from thermochemical synthesis process. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the advanced dual-mode thermochemical sorption energy storage is an effective method for the long-term seasonal storage of solar energy. A coefficient of performance (COP h ) of 0.6 and energy density higher than 1000 kJ/kg of salt can be attained from the proposed system. During the discharging phase at low ambient temperatures, the stored thermal energy can be upgraded by use of a solid–gas thermochemical sorption heat transformer cycle. The proposed thermochemical sorption energy storage has distinct advantages over the conventional sensible heat and latent heat storage, such as higher energy storage density, little heat losses, integrated energy storage and energy upgrade, and thus it can contribute to improve the seasonal utilization of solar thermal energy. - Highlights: ► A dual-mode solid thermochemical sorption is proposed for seasonal solar thermal energy storage. ► Energy upgrade techniques into the energy storage system are integrated. ► Performance of the proposed seasonal energy storage system is evaluated. ► Energy density and COP h from the proposed system are as high as 1043 kJ/kg of salt and 0.60, respectively

  8. Government chartered banks step up oil and gas lending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, P.

    1994-01-01

    International government chartered banks are playing an increasingly prominent role in lending for world oil and gas development projects. The main players are the World Bank's International Finance Corp. (IFC), European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), US Export-Import Bank, and Overseas Private Investment Corp. (OPIC). Those institutions and similar ones are the catalysts for a large number of projects in the former Soviet Union (FSU) and in other nations that are seeking to develop oil and gas resources and build processing plants, pipelines, and distribution networks. Banks also are taking a greater degree of interest in the environmental aspects of projects. In country after country, especially in the developing world, barriers to foreign investment in domestic petroleum sectors are falling. Oil and gas law reforms are under way on each continent. The paper discusses the major players, the World Bank grouped, the Romanian example, the Ex-Im Bank, OPIC, the emphasis on FSU, environmental issues, and new sources of capital in developing countries

  9. Oil and gas development on the Metis settlements of Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghostkeeper, E.N. [Metis Settlements General Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Goldie, D. [First Street Law Office, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a brief history of the Alberta Metis Settlements. In 1990, the Metis Settlement Act defined the Metis as a people of Aboriginal ancestry. The mandate of the Alberta Federation of Metis Settlement Associations is to protect settlement lands, and to take legal action against the province for alleged improper handling of subsurface resource revenues regarding the Metis Population Betterment Trust Fund. The Federation also attains local government authority for the Settlements. The Metis resources include game farming and alternative livestock, oil and gas, diamonds, forestry, and agriculture. The main source of economic development is in the oil and gas sector. Before the 1990 Metis Settlement Accord, the only money earned by the Metis from oil and gas development was through employment and surface rights compensation. No benefits were derived from royalties or participation. Since 1990, 265 wells have been drilled on settlement lands, with participation of the Metis General Council in 136 wells. This paper presents the terms of the Metis Development Agreement with reference to: royalties; General Council's participation rights; operating procedures; disposition of production; and, general matters. 6 figs.

  10. NORM management in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowie, Michael; Mously, Khalid; Fageeha, Osama; Nassar, Rafat

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) may accumulate at various locations along the oil/gas production process. Components such as wellheads, separation vessels, pumps, and other processing equipment can become NORM contaminated, and NORM can accumulate in the form of sludge, scale, scrapings and other waste media. This can create a potential radiation hazard to workers, general public and the environment if certain controls are not established. Saudi Aramco has developed NORM management guidelines and is implementing a comprehensive strategy to address all aspects of NORM management which aim towards enhancing: NORM monitoring; Control of NORM contaminated equipment; Control over NORM waste handling and disposal; Workers protection, awareness, and training. The benefits of shared knowledge, best practice and, experience across the oil and gas industry are seen as key to the establishment of common guidance. This paper outlines Saudi Aramco's experience in the development of a NORM management strategy and its goals of establishing common guidance throughout the oil and gas industry. (author)

  11. Artificial intelligence applications in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, F.G.

    1994-01-01

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gained considerable acceptance in virtually all fields, of engineering applications. Artificial intelligence is now being applied in several areas of offshore oil and gas operations, such as drilling, well testing, well logging and interpretation, reservoir engineering, planning and economic evaluation, process control, and risk analysis. Current AI techniques offer a new and exciting technology for solving problems in the oil and gas industry. Expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks and genetic algorithms are major AI technologies which have made an impact on the petroleum industry. Presently, these technologies are at different stages of maturity with expert systems being the most mature and genetic algorithms the least. However, all four technologies have evolved such that practical applications were produced. This paper describes the four major Al techniques and their many applications in offshore oil and gas production operations. A summary description of future developments in Al technology that will affect the execution and productivity of offshore operations will be also provided

  12. Transit and Globalization of the National Oil and Gas Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekulic, G.; Tomljenovic, D.

    2001-01-01

    Energy transit plays a significant role in the energy development and globalization of the energy economy due to the dependence of the countries of large energy consumers on the energy import and the increase of export from the regions which do not have a direct connection with these consumers. In such circumstances huge amounts of energy cross several borders on their way from energy producers to energy consumers ''facing'' the risks of different political systems as well as different economic, legislative and social conditions together with environment protection conditions. With the purpose of reducing such and other risks and increasing the security level of consumer supply as well as the economic results in the energy sector, huge efforts are being made in creating market, non-discriminatory and transparent transit conditions through international treaties, agreements, conventions, protocols and similar. Owing to its geographical position, especially on the Mediterranean, the Republic of Croatia is an interesting transit country, but until now it profited only partially from this advantage. By constructing new gas pipelines and new connections of the existing oil pipeline with the European network both for the needs of local supply and transit, and according to the adopted international obligations on the conditions of the access to available capacities, construction of new capacities, market pricing, environment protection and other, oil and gas transit through this Croatia of Ours will be increased and further integration of oil and gas economy into the globalization processes will be speeded up.(author)

  13. Future of oil and gas development in the western Amazon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finer, Matt; Babbitt, Bruce; Novoa, Sidney; Ferrarese, Francesco; Pappalardo, Salvatore Eugenio; Marchi, Massimo De; Saucedo, Maria; Kumar, Anjali

    2015-01-01

    The western Amazon is one of the world’s last high-biodiversity wilderness areas, characterized by extraordinary species richness and large tracts of roadless humid tropical forest. It is also home to an active hydrocarbon (oil and gas) sector, characterized by operations in extremely remote areas that require new access routes. Here, we present the first integrated analysis of the hydrocarbon sector and its associated road-building in the western Amazon. Specifically, we document the (a) current panorama, including location and development status of all oil and gas discoveries, of the sector, and (b) current and future scenario of access (i.e. access road versus roadless access) to discoveries. We present an updated 2014 western Amazon hydrocarbon map illustrating that oil and gas blocks now cover 733 414 km 2 , an area much larger than the US state of Texas, and have been expanding since the last assessment in 2008. In terms of access, we documented 11 examples of the access road model and six examples of roadless access across the region. Finally, we documented 35 confirmed and/or suspected untapped hydrocarbon discoveries across the western Amazon. In the Discussion, we argue that if these reserves must be developed, use of the offshore inland model—a method that strategically avoids the construction of access roads—is crucial to minimizing ecological impacts in one of the most globally important conservation regions. (letter)

  14. Radiation protection programme in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essien, E. C.

    2014-04-01

    The oil and gas industry uses many radiation sources in various radiation based technologies which are of great benefit to the industry, this includes nucleonic gauges, multiphase flow meters, well logging etc. Inappropriate use of these equipment and installations and uncontrolled activities associated with naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) can contaminate the environment resulting in occupational and public exposures. The objective of this work is to develop a Radiation Protection Programme (RPP) for the oil and gas industry which when implemented by the operating organisation will keep doses to the workers and public as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), maximize the benefits while minimizing the hazards associated with the use of radiation based technologies. In order to achieve the aim of this work, review of previous works on radiation sources in nucleonic gauges, well logging and waste management processes of NORMs was carried out. Some recommendations were stated, which if strictly implemented would improve the scope of radiation protection in the oil and gas industries. (au)

  15. IOGCC/DOE oil and gas environmental workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) in cooperation with US Department of Energy (DOE) has developed a workshop format to allow state regulatory officials and industry representatives the opportunity to participate in frank and open discussions on issues of environmental regulatory compliance. The purpose of providing this forum is to assist both groups in identifying the key barriers to the economic recoverability of domestic oil and gas resources while adequately protecting human health and the environment. The IOGCC and DOE staff worked with key state and industry representatives to develop a list of appropriate regulatory and industry representatives to be invited to participate. These same industry and regulatory representatives also provided a prioritized list of topics to be discussed at this workshop. After the topic leader set out the issue, views of those present were solicited. In almost every case, both the industry representatives and the regulatory personnel spoke with candor in discussing the problems. Common points of discussion for each topic were: (1) conflicting state and federal regulations; (2) conflicting regulations or permit requirements established by different state agencies; (3) increasing compliance costs; and (4) regulatory constraints that will result in ''no net growth'' in California oil and gas production and more likely a net decrease. This report contains a copy of the written presentation for each topic as well as a summary of the participants discussion

  16. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-29

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices.

  17. Marketing strategy for the BC oil and gas service sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The British Columbia (BC) oil and gas service sector is collaborating with the BC Ministry of Energy and Mines (MEM) to enhance the competitiveness of oil and gas service providers in Northeast BC. The MEM agreed to provide one-time funding to develop this marketing strategy for the oil and gas sector, particularly for small to medium-sized companies with limited resources. This document is also a resource tool for suppliers in the sector that have developed and are implementing their own marketing plans and wish to enhance elements of their own plans. The strategy also outlines the potential role of associations in Northeast BC that represent the service sector. It links their marketing activities with the activities of individual service providers. Local service providers (LSP) include companies in a wide range of businesses such as drilling support, transportation, health and safety services, and construction. Six issues that directly impact the competitiveness of LSPs were also presented along with recommendations for participants in the service sector, associations and individual companies. tabs., figs., 11 appendices

  18. Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column for aerosol precipitation and gas sorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayinger, F.; Lehner, M.

    1992-01-01

    A concept for a novel, compact process combination in the form of a Venturi scrubber with integrated separating column was developed. The design of the system is such as to meet the boundary conditions encountered in practice. Comprehensive tests were carried through with this high-performance Venturi scrubber in a wide range of parameters, using the superfine dusts titanium dioxide and zinc oxide as test aerosols. Separating efficiency was found to be excellent, especially for multi-stage spray injection of the scrubbing fluid. Multi-stage spray injection achieves a more favourable pulse exchange between gas and fluid so that pressure losses are relatively low even though loading may be high. A provisional experimental set-up is used for further optimization of separating efficiency and pressure loss. (orig.) [de

  19. Oil and gas field development: an NOC perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronman, George [Halliburton Energy Services (United States). Landmark Division

    2004-07-01

    Every day, oil companies around the world face real-life field development and management problems like the ones described above. Making timely and well-informed field development decisions are among the most important decisions the management of any oil company can make. The field development phase of the oil and gas life cycle extends from the discovery of a hydrocarbon deposit through initial production. It also includes revitalization of mature and marginal fields. Field development projects require the greatest level of cross-disciplinary integration and the largest investment decisions in the entire oil field life cycle. The ultimate economic success or failure of most fields is set by the quality of decisions made during field development. Oil companies take many different approaches to field development based on unique business drivers, their asset portfolio mix and risk tolerance, access to data and experienced manpower, adoption of technology, availability of capital, ownership, management style and so on. This paper focuses on understanding and addressing the particular field development challenges facing NOCs today. (author)

  20. The state tax regulation in the oil and gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Cherkasova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian tax laws in petrochemical complex generally has a fiscal orientation now. The current system of taxation in the oil industry has the biggest tax burden in the world, amount of oil and gas revenues was more then 43-51% of all budget revenues over past decades, remaining its main source. Generally, there were changes in the ratios of incomes in the forms of export customs duty and tax on the extraction of minerals. State policy in the field of resource payments affects the entire industry, influencing the structure of oil and oil supplies on internal and external markets and realization of the programs for modernization and development in priority areas. Changes of structure of national production, increasing the contribution of agriculture, IT sphere and other branches to aggregate national product should be reflected in the revision of the tax burden on the industries, associated with the extraction and processing of minerals. It is necessary to reduce the fiscal direction of tax regulation in petrochemical sector with a simultaneous increasing the role of tools that stimulate modernization and updating of equipment, implementation of new processes and technologies, the maximum use of process-deepening processes as well as the development of deposits with severe production conditions. In the near future, it is planned to introduce new changes in taxation in field of oil production and refining - introduction of benefits for oil production in new fields or fields with difficult production conditions or poor quality of oil and introduction of a tax on additional income..

  1. Sorption of colloids, organics, and metals onto gas-water interfaces: Transport mechanisms and potential remediation technology. 1998 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, T.K.; Wan, J.

    1998-01-01

    'Although contaminant sorption at mineral surfaces has received much recognition as a major mechanism controlling contaminant behavior in subsurface environments, virtually no attention has been given to the possibility of contaminant sorption at gas-water interfaces. Moreover, no effort has yet been advanced to optimize such interactions for the purpose of facilitating in-situ remediation. Gas-water interfaces, unlike water-solid interfaces, are mobile. Therefore, associations of contaminants with gas-water interfaces can be very important not only in subsurface contaminant distributions, but also in contaminant transport, and potentially in remediation. The first objective of this research is to develop a quantitative understanding of interactions between contaminants and gas-water interfaces. The anticipated results will provide insights into the poorly understood phenomenon of contaminant interactions with the gas-water interface, and improve the current conceptual models of contaminant behavior in subsurface environments. The second purpose of this research is to explore the possibility of using surfactant stabilized microbubbles for in-situ remediation. Both pump-and-treat, and air sparging remediation methods are ineffective at displacing contaminants in zones which are advectively inaccessible. Stable microbubbles can migrate beyond preferential flow pathways and enter lower permeability zones by buoyant rise. The microbubbles can deliver oxygen and nutrients for promoting aerobic degradation of organic contaminants, and also deliver surfactants for emulsifying NAPLs.'

  2. Z662-96: oil and gas pipeline systems; 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, S; Burford, G; Martin, A; Adragna, M [eds.

    1997-12-31

    This Standard is part of the pipeline systems and materials segment of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA)`s Transportation program. It covers the design, construction, operation and maintenance of oil and gas industry pipeline systems that carry (1) liquid hydrocarbons, including crude oil, multiphase fluids, condensate, liquid petroleum products, natural gas liquids, and liquefied petroleum gas, (2) oilfield water, (3) oilfield steam, (4) carbon dioxide used in oilfield enhanced recovery schemes, or (5) natural gas, manufactured gas, or synthetic gas. tabs. figs.

  3. Free energy study of H2O, N2O5, SO2, and O3 gas sorption by water droplets/slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentao; Pak, Chi Yuen; Tse, Ying-Lung Steve

    2018-04-01

    Understanding gas sorption by water in the atmosphere is an active research area because the gases can significantly alter the radiation and chemical properties of the atmosphere. We attempt to elucidate the molecular details of the gas sorption of water and three common atmospheric gases (N2O5, SO2, and O3) by water droplets/slabs in molecular dynamics simulations. The system size effects are investigated, and we show that the calculated solvation free energy decreases linearly as a function of the reciprocal of the number of water molecules from 1/215 to 1/1000 in both the slab and the droplet systems. By analyzing the infinitely large system size limit by extrapolation, we find that all our droplet results are more accurate than the slab results when compared to the experimental values. We also show how the choice of restraints in umbrella sampling can affect the sampling efficiency for the droplet systems. The free energy changes were decomposed into the energetic ΔU and entropic -TΔS contributions to reveal the molecular details of the gas sorption processes. By further decomposing ΔU into Lennard-Jones and Coulombic interactions, we observe that the ΔU trends are primarily determined by local effects due to the size of the gas molecule, charge distribution, and solvation structure around the gas molecule. Moreover, we find that there is a strong correlation between the change in the entropic contribution and the mean residence time of water, which is spatially nonlocal and related to the mobility of water.

  4. The oil and gas equipment and services market in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    In terms of purchasing power, India represents the fourth largest economy in the world. In the year April 1, 2001-Mar 31, 2002, it was estimated that India had a 5.4 per cent growth in gross domestic product (GDP). Canada experienced a 19.9 per cent increase in exports to India in 2001, reaching 656 million dollars. With the world's six-largest energy consumption, oil demand in India is expected to grow to 179 million tonnes in 2006-2007, while the demand for natural gas is expected to reach 231 million cubic metres per day in the same period. To meet this growing demand, India will require investments in the order of 150 billion dollars over the next 10 to 12 years. The oil and gas industry is being opened to the private sector and foreign direct investment, due to new government policies on exploration, production, distribution, and sales. Foreign involvement in exploration, previously restricted to Indian state-owned firms, is now allowed through the New Exploration Licensing Policy. In exploration and production (E and P) activities, as well as the refinery sector, foreign ownership of up to 100 per cent is now allowed. Two Indian companies which dominate the Indian E and P sector, namely Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) and Oil India Limited (OIL), will be upgrading their ageing infrastructure, purchasing new equipment and redeveloping existing oil and gas fields, thereby creating opportunities for the supply of equipment and services. Canadian companies possessing the latest technologies and services in exploration, drilling machinery and equipment, directional drilling services, production machinery and equipment, enhanced recovery services, deep-water drilling equipment and services, and equipment for coal methane E and P should benefit from these opportunities. Over 12,000 kilometres of pipelines are being planned across India, as well as private opportunities in the refinery sector which was opened to the private sector in April 2002. Occasional

  5. Report on the oil and gas industry 2010; Rapport sur l'industrie petroliere et gaziere en 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Illustrated by graphs and tables of data, this report discusses the recent evolutions and trends of world oil and gas markets in 2010, of oil and gas exploration and production in the world, of the issue of European gas supplies, of exploration and production in France, of the oil industry and oil services, of hydrocarbon imports, of refining activities in France, of the quality of fuels, of substitution fuels, of the domestic transportation of oil products, of the issue of strategic storage, of oil product storage, of oil and gas products consumption, of hydrocarbon taxing, of the retailing of oil products, of oil product prices, and of gas price for the end consumer

  6. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  7. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the Ventura Basin Province, California, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Lillis, Paul G.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Hawkins, Sarah J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2017-10-02

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a geology-based assessment of undiscovered, technically recoverable conventional and continuous oil and gas resources in the part of the Ventura Basin Province that lies onshore or within State waters (within 3 miles of the shoreline) of California (fig. 1). Conventional oil and gas resources are those that have migrated upward into structural or stratigraphic traps from deep zones where the oil and gas is generated; water is present below the oil or gas. Continuous accumulations, in contrast, are those in which oil or gas is pervasively present in essentially all wells that penetrate them, that may not be structurally or stratigraphically trapped, and that typically lack oil-water or gas-water contacts. They are commonly produced with well-stimulation technology, such as hydraulic fracturing, referred to as “unconventional.” The same stimulation technology, however, is also used in many conventionally trapped accumulations. We estimated both the likely range of oil and gas volumes remaining to be discovered in accumulations similar to existing conventional oil and gas fields in the Ventura Basin Province (previously assessed by Keller [1995] as 1,060 million barrels of oil [MMBO], 1,900 billion cubic feet of gas [BCFG], and 60 million barrels of natural gas liquids [MMBNGL]), and the potential for oil and gas that might be present in a continuous accumulation at extreme depth in the floor of the basin.

  8. Comparative Study and Critical Analysis of Sustainability Reporting in the Oil and Gas Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Prakash M.

    2006-01-01

    Oil and Gas sector is one of the largest and major economic sectors globally. It is also one of the most critical in terms of being a basic driver for all other economic activities worldwide. In the recent times we have seen large scale volatility in Oil and Gas prices and a surge in huge profits for Oil and Gas sector companies. Oil and Gas sector is also one of the major sectors with tremendous impact on not just environmental factors but also on Social and Economic factors. All major Oil a...

  9. Profiler : Canadian oil and gas : the First Nations : building successful partnerships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-05-15

    Canada's petroleum and natural gas is often produced in remote areas where the majority of the population is Aboriginal. Many First Nations and Metis communities are now playing an active role in Canada's oil and gas industry. Aboriginal-owned companies have earned more than $2.6 billion in the oil sands region since 1999. In 2007, the value of contracts between Alberta oil sands companies and Aboriginal companies was estimated at $606 million. This special supplement discussed First Nations partnerships in the oil and gas industry. Articles in the supplement presented new employment, training and partnership activities in the oil and gas industry as well as activities related to emerging unconventional resources. Educational programs and training facilities were described. The employment and procurement practices of leading oil and gas operators were discussed. The supplement featured presentations by several leading oil and gas companies. tabs., figs.

  10. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-11-19

    This is the second technical report, covering the period from April 1, 2003 through September 30, 2003. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. The geo-technical component is a shared effort between the State Department of Administration and the US Department of Energy. The Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission is rapidly converting high volumes of paper documents and geo-technical information to formats suitable for search and retrieval over the Internet. The permitting component is under the lead of the DNR Office of Project Management and Permitting. A web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information on-line. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. Structural changes are taking place in terms of organization, statutory authority, and regulatory requirements. Geographic Information Systems are a central component to the organization of information, and the delivery of on-line services. Progress has been made to deploy the foundation system for the shared GIS based on open GIS protocols to the extent feasible. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil production, or approximately one million barrels per day from over 1,800 active wells.

  11. Market opportunities in the oil and gas industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.

    2004-01-01

    China is an emerging marketplace, with a Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ranked fourth, after the United States, the European Union and Japan. Imports to China have risen from 21 per cent in 2002 to 40 per cent in 2003, with over 54 billion dollars in direct foreign investment in 2003 alone. Private car ownership is also increasing. This paper provides a market overview of China, with specific reference to increases in energy demand fuelled by the rise of energy intensive industries such as steel, aluminum, chemicals and construction. It was noted that resource-based inputs are in need, as well as high tech goods and services. Canada has committed to doubling its trade with China by 2010. Current Canadian exports to China were overviewed. The current situation in the oil and gas sector in China were outlined, as well as a forecast of expected trends. It was suggested that a rise in domestic energy demand and instability in the Middle East was causing China to seek alternative, more secure sources of oil. Major players in the oil and gas industry in China were profiled, with an overview of domestic business, as well as potential future competitors in the sector. It was concluded that opportunities for onshore and offshore exploration and pre-drilling services were a viable option for Canadian investors. Technology and consulting services were also considered to be possible areas for trade development. A list of future projects in the Chinese oil and gas sector was provided, as well as details of necessary steps for entry into the industry and advice concerning intellectual property and legal protection. tabs., figs

  12. Energy efficiency measures for offshore oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Voldsund, Mari; Breuhaus, Peter

    2016-01-01

    . They include: (i) the installation of multiple pressure levels in production manifolds, (ii) the implementation of multiphaseexpanders, (iii) the promotion of energy and process integration, (iv) the limitation of gas recirculation around the compressors, (v) the exploitation of low-temperature heat from...... the gas cooling steps, (vi) the downsizing or replacement of the existing gas turbines, and (vii) the use of the waste heat from the powerplant. The present study builds on four actual cases located in the North and Norwegian Seas, which differ by the type of oil processed, operating conditions...... and strategies. The benefits and practical limitations of each measure are discussed based on thermodynamic, economic and environmental factors. Signiffcant energy savings and reductions in CO2-emissions are depicted, reaching up to 15-20 %. However, they strongly differ from one facility to another, which...

  13. Natural gas: Governments and oil companies in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Hurst, C.; Mabro, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is asserted that oil companies claim to be generally receptive to gas development proposals; however, the lack of potential markets for gas, problems of foreign exchange convertibility, and lack of a legal framework often hinders their engagement. Governments, on the other hand, need to secure domestic energy supply and, if possible, gain some export earnings or royalties. An extensive discussion on the principles of pricing and fiscal regimes, potential points of disagreement is provided. A course of action is outlined from the managerial point of view to circumvent the most common pitfalls in planning and financing a gas project. Eight very detailed case studies are presented for Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Thailand

  14. The effect of oil and gas content on the controllability and separation in a de-oiling hydrocyclone

    OpenAIRE

    Belaidi, Hafid

    2003-01-01

    The effect of free gas on cyclonic oil-water separation was examined using a geometry which sought to minimise problems with gas. Tests were carried out using the purpose built oil-water separation facility at Bradford University where pre-choke conditions could be partially simulated. Firstly, tests were carried out with water and gas-water to look at flow behaviour and control parameters, then comparative tests carried out with gas-oil-water. Comparisons were also made with tests data from ...

  15. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  16. Liquid scintillation for NORM in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, Siegurd; Moebius, Rolf; Bartenbach, Martin; Ramamonjisoa, Tiana

    2008-01-01

    Natural radionuclides of Radium, Lead and Polonium are trapped along with crude oil and gas and accumulate as scale deposits on equipment in the oil industries. Problems arise by residues and sludge where such Norm often becomes concentrated during the process of extraction, transport, and storage of crude oil. Additionally, Radon is accumulated in natural gas or is co extracted into oil as organic phase where it equilibrates with its Progenies. Thus Norm creates a possible hazard to workers both by external radiation exposure and internal due to incorporation during intervention work, and to the environment due to waste disposal. The determination of 222 Rn, 226,228 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po in the various production stages is a precondition for an efficient Radiation Protection Management. We have studied the applicability of Liquid Scintillation L S for the measurement of NORM in the oil and gas industry. Our investigations show that 226 Ra may be quantified by L S in solid scale deposits as carbonate and sulphate after grinding and as carbonate additionally after dissolution. Then, an organic L S scintillation cocktail like Betaplate Scint is added and the sample stored for Rn equilibration. While 222 Rn is quantitatively extracted from the solution, only 20 to 30% are emanated as free Rn from the powder into the organic phase. Emanation yield versus grain size and sample amount has been studied using synthetic Ra/Ca-carbonate powder and grinded Pitchblende ore samples. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in carbonate may be determined by α/β-discriminating L S after dissolution, mutual separation on Radium Rad Disk filters and final elution with DHC and EDTA. From these results the isotopic ratio of Radium isotopes in the different scale fractions may be determined. 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb in production and waste waters may be quantified accordingly. Radon in oil fractions has been measured as 0.1 to 2% solution in Betaplate Scint with sensitivity down to 5 Bq/l. From

  17. The competitive environment for oil and gas financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The international oil and gas industry has always required access to external capital - debt and equity -in order to finance growth and the development of oil and gas projects. Today the industry faces an unprecedented number of investment opportunities and demands at a time when internally generated cash flows, historically the primary source of capital for most companies, is depressed. The underlying premise of this paper is that while the capital requirements of the industry in the next decade are likely to be in excess of the US$1 trillion spent during the last decade, capital, both internally generated and from external sources, will be available. However, restrictions on the allocation and the cost of capital will be crucial in determining which projects and companies are successful. The capital requirements of the next decade to maintain current oil production levels, replace reserves, fund exploration and development in the frontier areas and meet the environmental challenges of the downstream sector, call upon both the industry and the financial community to create innovative financial structures which ensure that capital is made available on terms which meet the requirements of both borrowers and lenders. (author)

  18. Technology keeps ice away from offshore oil and gas installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-05-01

    Ice management services provided to oil and natural gas operators off Canada's North Atlantic coast by Provincial Airlines is described. Provincial Airlines performs iceberg reconnaissance for both the offshore oil and natural gas operators as well as for the Canadian Ice Centre, using its specially equipped B-200 aircraft. The special equipment includes a complete electronic sensor package with 360-degree anti-submarine warfare radar, a thermal imaging system, high powered gyro-stabilized TV camera system, and a computerized data collection and management system. The Ice Data Network System (IDNS) is a fifth generation computer software package designed to monitor ice, provide drift analysis and forecast future trajectories, assess potential threats or risks associated with each piece of ice, and monitor and evaluate towing operations if required. The IDNS is backed up by a fully staffed ice operations centre from which Provincial Airline ice specialists can access satellite data and reports on ice conditions from around the world. Using a process of data fusion and careful analysis, staff of the Ice Centre can produce near-real time reports that depict ice conditions specific to individual operational requirements. Since drilling platforms cannot move, or require a great deal of time to move, to avoid any risk of an iceberg colliding with an oil platform it is important to know where exactly an iceberg is at any given time, hence the enormous importance of iceberg location information.

  19. Separated influence of crude oil prices on regional natural gas import prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qiang; Geng, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of global economic activity and international crude oil prices on natural gas import prices in three major natural gas markets using the panel cointegration model. It also investigates the shock impacts of the volatility and the increase and decrease of oil prices on regional natural gas import prices. The results show that both global economic activity and international crude oil prices have significant long-term positive effects on regional natural gas import prices. The volatility of international crude oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas import prices. The shock impact is weak in North America, lags in Europe and is most significant in Asia, which is mainly determined by different regional policies for price formation. In addition, the response of natural gas import prices to increases and decreases in international crude oil prices shows an asymmetrical mechanism, of which the decrease impact is relatively stronger. - Highlights: • Impacts of world economy and oil prices on regional natural gas prices are analysed • North American natural gas prices are mainly affected by world economy • Asian and European natural gas prices are mainly affected by oil prices • The volatility of oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas prices • The response of natural gas import prices to oil prices up and down shows asymmetry

  20. Gas sorption and barrier properties of polymeric membranes from molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozmuta, Ioana; Blanco, Mario; Goddard, William A

    2007-03-29

    temperatures between 250 and 650 K. The magnitudes of the calculated solubilities agree well with experimental results, and the trends with temperature are predicted correctly. The HCE method is used to predict the solubility constants at 298 K of water vapor and oxygen. The water vapor solubilities follow more closely the experimental trend of permeabilities, both ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. For oxygen, the calculated values do not follow entirely the experimental trend of permeabilities, most probably because at this temperature some of the polymers are in the glassy regime and thus are diffusion dominated. Our study also concludes large confidence limits are associated with the calculated Henry's constants. By investigating several factors (terminal ends of the polymer chains, void distribution, etc.), we conclude that the large confidence limits are intimately related to the polymer's conformational changes caused by thermal fluctuations and have to be regarded--at least at microscale--as a characteristic of each polymer and the nature of its interaction with the solute. Reducing the mobility of the polymer matrix as well as controlling the distribution of the free (occupiable) volume would act as mechanisms toward lowering both the gas solubility and the diffusion coefficients.

  1. Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Nugroho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Gas Production Generated from Crude Oil Biodegradation: Preliminary Study on its Aplication in MicrobialEnhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR. The objective of this study is to observe the capacity of gas production generatedfrom crude oil degradation by the isolated bacteria. The gas in the MEOR could increase pressure in the reservoir,decrease oil viscosity, increase oil permeability-due to the increase of the porosity and viscosity, and also increase oilvolume due to the amount of dissolved gas. A research on gas analysis of oil degradation by 6 isolated bacteria has beenconducted. The bacteria isolates including Bacillus badius (A, Bacillus circulans (B, Bacillus coagulans (C, Bacillusfirmus (D, Pasteurella avium (E and Streptobacillus moniliformis (F. The trial on gas production, gas analysis and oildegradation analysis, was carried out by using SMSS medium. The test of gas production was done by usingmicrorespirometer at 40°C. The result shows that B, C, D, E produce more gas than A and F. Gas of CO2, O2, CO, N2,CH4, and H2 were analyzed by using GC. The results show that only three gases were detected by GC i.e. CO2, N2, andO2. The concentration of CO2 and N2 gas increased while the concentration of O2 decreased over an 8th day ofobservation. CO2 gas producted by mix culture was higher than by the pure culture. On the 8th day of incubation, theproduction of CO2 gas by mix culture was 4,0452% while pure culture C and D only produced 2,4543% and 2,8729%.The mix culture increase simple hydrocarbon by 12.03% and the formation of a complex hydrocarbon by 3.07%. Themix culture (C-D generated the highest concentration of CO2 gas as well as a synergistic concortium that has ability todegrade crude oil.

  2. The opportunities for oil and gas development in the NWT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.

    2000-01-01

    The oil and gas prospects for the Northwest Territories (NWT) were discussed with particular emphasis on issues regarding the development of natural gas in the Western Arctic. The future for northern gas resources looks promising as gas demand rises and supply falters. The author emphasized that if all current plans materialize, gas from the Mackenzie Delta should be flowing to southern markets by 2006-2007. This paper also described the three main risk types associated with natural gas development and the manner with which they will be dealt. The risks include geological risk, market risk and economic risk. The NWT natural gas resource base is considered to hold about 14.5 trillion cf, mostly in the Mackenzie Delta with the remaining in the Fort Liard and Colville Lake areas. Geologists are working on providing a better understanding of the common petroleum potential for the area immediately north and south of 60 degrees to determine the feasibility for a pipeline project. There is currently a market in North America for approximately 25 Tcf of natural gas per year, 22 of which is in the United States and the balance in Canada. This number is expected to grow to between 30 and 35 Tcf over the next 10 to 15 years. It was suggested that the best way to handle market risk is to avoid putting too much product into the market to avoid a price collapse, and to have a project with the highest possible producer netback to ride the market changes caused by others. A brief discussion about pipeline tolls, average and marginal costs was also included. One way to reduce the monetary risk in transportation is to use a link for revenue producing opportunities completely unrelated to fossil fuel transportation, such as fibre optic conduits which could be installed as the pipe goes into the ground. Issues regarding political and regulatory risks range from access to land to the uncertainty of the regulatory regime, to political involvement in routing

  3. How will climate change policy affect upstream oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation outlined the status of climate change policies in Canada and Alberta for large industry with particular reference to the effect that the policies may have on upstream oil and gas. Global climate change and energy use was outlined along with what actions that should be taken to secure energy supplies and stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An economic model projection of global carbon dioxide emissions without the Kyoto agreement was presented. Global action on climate change will likely include greater efforts in energy efficiency to slow the growth in demand for energy. However, demand for oil and gas is still likely to increase in the next few decades due to a growing population worldwide. The author emphasized that developing countries should not forgo economic growth to avoid higher energy use. It was argued that Canadian climate change policies are out of line with the global climate change effort because they focus on short-term reductions rather than developing technologies. The policies also divert investment to competing suppliers that do not impose GHG costs, with no global GHG benefit. The author described why Alberta climate change policy rejects the Kyoto target. Natural Resource Canada's approach to large industrial emitters was also discussed along with a proposed policy framework by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for long term certainty. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  4. Atmospheric emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The results are presented of a study set up to determine the nature and levels of atmospheric emissions resulting from United Kingdom oil and gas exploration and production activities. The study was commissioned by the UK Offshore Operators Association. Emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry of common pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide, and ozone depletion chemicals were shown in each case to be less than 1% of total UK emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the industry arise mainly from production operations with a small but significant contribution from onshore activities. Carbon dioxide is the major component followed in descending order by nitrogen oxides, methane and volatile organic compounds. In 1991, these emissions formed 3.2%, 4.6%, 2.9% and 2.8% of the UK totals respectively; overall this represented only about 3% of UK global warming emissions. The evidence of this study illustrates that the industry, which produces 67% of the UK's primary energy, is successfully managing its operations in an environmentally responsible way. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  5. Performance Analysis of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Gas Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. C.I.C. Anyadiegwu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of underground gas storage in depleted oil reservoir was analysed with reservoir Y-19, a depleted oil reservoir in Southern region of the Niger Delta. Information on the geologic and production history of the reservoir were obtained from the available field data of the reservoir. The verification of inventory was done to establish the storage capacity of the reservoir. The plot of the well flowing pressure (Pwf against the flow rate (Q, gives the deliverability of the reservoir at various pressures. Results of the estimated properties signified that reservoir Y-19 is a good candidate due to its storage capacity and its flow rate (Q of 287.61 MMscf/d at a flowing pressure of 3900 psig

  6. An Experimental and Kinetic Study of the Sorption of Carbon Dioxide onto Amine-Treated Oil Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A. Saad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new CO2 adsorbent is produced from waste oil fly ash (OFA. Ammonium hydroxide solution is used to convert OFA to activated carbon. Then, the product is used for the adsorption of CO2 from a nitrogen/carbon dioxide (N2/CO2 gas mixture. The OFA samples are characterized by several techniques. Chemical treatment of OFA considerably changed its surface morphology. In particular, its surface area, as determined by BET measurements, increased from 59 to 318 m2/g. The amine-functionalized ash had a monolayer adsorption capacity of 74.51 mg/g and was obtained at relative pressure, 0.05

  7. Technical and economic feasibility study of flue gas injection in an Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2015-09-01

    The main aim of this research is to investigate various gas injection methods (N2, CO2, produced reservoir gas, and flue gas in one of the northern Persian gulf oil fields by a numerical simulation method. Moreover, for each scenario of gas injection technical and economical considerations are took into account. Finally, an economic analysis is implemented to compare the net present value (NPV of the different gas injection scenarios in the aforementioned oil field.

  8. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  9. Clean coal and heavy oil technologies for gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, D.M. [GE Industrial & Power Systems, Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Global power generation markets have shown a steady penetration of GT/CC technology into oil and gas fired applications as the technology has matured. The lower cost, improved reliability and efficiency advantages of combined cycles can now be used to improve the cost of electricity and environmental acceptance of poor quality fuels such as coal, heavy oil, petroleum coke and waste products. Four different technologies have been proposed, including slagging combustors, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), Externally Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC). Details of the technology for the three experimental technologies can be found in the appendix. IGCC is now a commercial technology. In the global marketplace, this shift is being demonstrated using various gasification technologies to produce a clean fuel for the combined cycle. Early plants in the 1980s demonstrated the technical/environmental features and suitability for power generation plants. Economics, however, were disappointing until the model F GT technologies were first used commercially in 1990. The economic break-through of matching F technology gas turbines with gasification was not apparent until 1993 when a number of projects were ordered for commercial operation in the mid-1990s. GE has started 10 new projects for operation before the year 2000. These applications utilize seven different gasification technologies to meet specific application needs. Early plants are utilizing low-cost fuels, such as heavy oil or petroleum coke, to provide economics in first-of-a-kind plants. Some special funding incentives have broadened the applications to include power-only coal plants. Next generation gas turbines projected for commercial applications after the year 2000 will contribute to another step change in technology. It is expected that the initial commercialization process will provide the basis for clear technology choices on future plants.

  10. Produce More Oil Gas via eBusiness Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Mike Stettner

    2004-09-30

    GWPC, DOGGR, and other state agencies propose to build eBusiness applications based on a .NET front-end user interface for the DOE's Energy 100 Award-winning Risk Based Data Management System (RBDMS) data source and XML Web services. This project will slash the costs of regulatory compliance by automating routine regulatory reporting and permit notice review and by making it easier to exchange data with the oil and gas industry--especially small, independent operators. Such operators, who often do not have sophisticated in-house databases, will be able to use a subset of the same RBDMS tools available to the agencies on the desktop to file permit notices and production reports online. Once the data passes automated quality control checks, the application will upload the data into the agency's RBDMS data source. The operators also will have access to state agency datasets to focus exploration efforts and to perform production forecasting, economic evaluations, and risk assessments. With the ability to identify economically feasible oil and gas prospects, including unconventional plays, over the Internet, operators will minimize travel and other costs. Because GWPC will coordinate these data sharing efforts with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM), this project will improve access to public lands and make strides towards reducing the duplicative reporting to which industry is now subject for leases that cross jurisdictions. The resulting regulatory streamlining and improved access to agency data will make more domestic oil and gas available to the American public while continuing to safeguard environmental assets.

  11. Simulation study to determine the feasibility of injecting hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas injection to improve gas and oil recovery oil-rim reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eid, Mohamed El Gohary

    This study is combining two important and complicated processes; Enhanced Oil Recovery, EOR, from the oil rim and Enhanced Gas Recovery, EGR from the gas cap using nonhydrocarbon injection gases. EOR is proven technology that is continuously evolving to meet increased demand and oil production and desire to augment oil reserves. On the other hand, the rapid growth of the industrial and urban development has generated an unprecedented power demand, particularly during summer months. The required gas supplies to meet this demand are being stretched. To free up gas supply, alternative injectants to hydrocarbon gas are being reviewed to support reservoir pressure and maximize oil and gas recovery in oil rim reservoirs. In this study, a multi layered heterogeneous gas reservoir with an oil rim was selected to identify the most optimized development plan for maximum oil and gas recovery. The integrated reservoir characterization model and the pertinent transformed reservoir simulation history matched model were quality assured and quality checked. The development scheme is identified, in which the pattern and completion of the wells are optimized to best adapt to the heterogeneity of the reservoir. Lateral and maximum block contact holes will be investigated. The non-hydrocarbon gases considered for this study are hydrogen sulphide, carbon dioxide and nitrogen, utilized to investigate miscible and immiscible EOR processes. In November 2010, re-vaporization study, was completed successfully, the first in the UAE, with an ultimate objective is to examine the gas and condensate production in gas reservoir using non hydrocarbon gases. Field development options and proces schemes as well as reservoir management and long term business plans including phases of implementation will be identified and assured. The development option that maximizes the ultimate recovery factor will be evaluated and selected. The study achieved satisfactory results in integrating gas and oil

  12. Total facing the new oil and gas situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmarest, Th.

    2006-01-01

    Total produces oil and gas in more than thirty countries, and contributes to warding off energy shortfalls through its exploration and investment programmes, through its expertise at the leading edge of hydrocarbon technology, and by its attention to the interests of host countries. However, the combination of unflagging demand and growing dependence vis-a-vis the principal producing regions is a source of tension and of risks which call for a much greater discipline in energy consumption and a diversification of energy sources. Thierry Desmarest, the Chairman and Managing Director of Total, gives his view of the new energy situation. (author)

  13. Securitisation of oil and gas receivables. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krischer, D.; Fairclough, N.

    1994-01-01

    Almost any type of cash flow based financing can be described as ''securitisation''. A stricter definition is: the sale by the Originator of a pool of financial assets to a separate company, usually a newly established special purpose company (the SPV), and the subsequent financing of this purchase by the SPV through the issue of notes in the public market secured on these assets. The technical, accounting and funding reasons which can make securitisation desirable, and the basic techniques involved are explained. Some of the legal and structural issues, including the financial risks, involved in applying securitisation techniques to the oil and gas industries are considered. (UK)

  14. Ligh oil-gas cracking on zeolite-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' chuk, L V; Takhmarova, G M; Topchieva, K V

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study was made of the activity of cation-decationized forms of zeolite-containing catalysts in the cracking of the kerosene-gas oil fraction. The greatest benzene yield was obtained at 400/sup 0/. Temperatures greater than that lead to a more intense cracking and to changes in the redistributive ability of the catalysts. An increase in the polyvalent cations was shown to have little effect on the activity of the thermally processed zeolite-containing catalysts but did lead to a reduction in the activity of the thermally processed samples. 5 tables, 6 references.

  15. Characterization of some Jordanian oil shales by pyrolysis gas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaradat, Q. M.

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) was used to study pyrolysis of some Jordanian oil shale samples. Three sampls of different altitudes from El-Lajjun were studied. Pyrograms of solid sampls were studied at different temperature profiles. Solid-liquid extraction with water, methanol, or hexane allowed extraction of organics of different polarity. Hexane showed the highest extraction efficiency. Reproducibility of the pyrograms of the solid sample was evalualted. Relative standard deviation was 7.56%. (author). 7 refs., 8 figs

  16. International oil and gas exploration and development activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-29

    This report is part of an ongoing series of quarterly publications that monitors discoveries of oil and natural gas in foreign countries and provides an analysis of the reserve additions that result. The report is prepared by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Foreign Energy Supply Assessment Program (FESAP). It presents a summary of discoveries and reserve additions that result from recent international exploration and development activities. It is intended for use by petroleum industry analysts, various government agencies, and political leaders in the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy plans, policy, and legislation. 25 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Size and profitability in the international oil- and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Mohn, Klaus; Espedal, Harald; Loevaas, Kjell

    2002-01-01

    Many industrial sectors have gone through a series of mergers and acquisitions. In the international oil- and gas industry this has produced new companies such as ExxonMobil and TotalFinaElf. BP and Amoco merged and then subjugated Atlantic Richfield (ARCO). ChevronTexaco has been established and ConocoPhillips are currently working on the same thing. Saga was previously acquired by Norsk Hydro and Statoil, and Shell recently bought Enterprise and Pennzoil-Quaker. Taking the stock market's principles for corporate analysis and valuation as a starting point, this article discusses the forces behind this consolidation process

  18. Detailed oil and gas proposals in UK energy review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The UK government is proposing a four-pronged attack to try and sustain future oil and gas production from the UK with measures designed to coerce and encourage maximum exploitation of reserves under the Energy Review proposals. Tax is to be looked at again. There will also be a move towards web-based licence awards to speed up the licensing process for oil and gas exploration blocks; an infrastructure task force in the West of Shetlands region is planned, and the Stewardship initiative will be refocused. The 218-page Energy Review policy document says: 'Using regulatory powers if necessary, Government must press for full investment in fields that are already producing. We will immediately refocus the DTI's Stewardship initiative - on maintaining reliability and encouraging nearby exploration and should see results in these areas by the middle of next year.' Turning to the plans for a taskforce, the Energy Review announces: 'We are establishing a Taskforce with Industry to get the right infrastructure (for example pipelines) in place to the west of Shetland so that, with minimal impact to the environment, we can speed up development and exploration in the area. The Taskforce will report by the end of the year.' Also the Department of Trade and Industry will re-examine the UK's licensing regime, as part of a policy for 'Ensuring the development of a dynamic market fit for the future.' On this point, the government says: 'The commercial framework needs to change so that it encourages the industry to be dynamic in the future by facilitating a strong market in assets and rapid access to infrastructure. For example, the DTI is moving to a web-based system of licence assignments that will substantially speed up deal making and reduce costs, especially for smaller firms. We will also continue to build on the work of PILOT to secure the long-term future of the industry in the UK.' And on tax: 'It is vital to ensure that we have the right fiscal approach,' the government

  19. Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion (MIC) in the Oil and Gas Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovhus, Torben Lund; Eckert, Rickard

    2015-01-01

    Microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) is a serious corrosion threat that impacts the operating integrity and reliability of assets in the oil and gas, maritime, power generation, and other industries. Yet MIC is also commonly misunderstood, leading to ineffective mitigation programs, wasted...... and implement improved mitigation strategies and thereby reduce operating risk. Our experts provide guidance in applying the latest state-of-the-art molecular microbiological methods (MMM) and industry standards to properly diagnose MIC in operating assets and on failed components. With this understanding, MIC...... can be effectively addressed as part of the overall Corrosion Management System (CMS)....

  20. DATA MINING AT THE NEBRASKA OIL & GAS COMMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James R. Weber

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study of the hearing records is to identify factors that are likely to impact the performance of a waterflood in the Nebraska panhandle. The records consisted of 140 cases. Most of the hearings were held prior to 1980. Many of the records were incomplete, and data believed to be key to estimating waterflood performance such as Dykstra-Parson permeability distribution or relative permeability were absent. New techniques were applied to analyze the sparse, incomplete dataset. When information is available, but not clearly understood, new computational intelligence tools can decipher correlations in the dataset. Fuzzy ranking and neural networks were the tools used to estimate secondary recovery from the Cliff Farms Unit. The hearing records include 30 descriptive entries that could influence the success or failure of a waterflood. Success or failure is defined by the ratio of secondary to primary oil recovery (S/P). Primary recovery is defined as cumulative oil produced at the time of the hearing and secondary recovery is defined as the oil produced since the hearing date. Fuzzy ranking was used to prioritize the relevance of 6 parameters on the outcome of the proposed waterflood. The 6 parameters were universally available in 44 of the case hearings. These 44 cases serve as the database used to correlate the following 6 inputs with the respective S/P. (1) Cumulative Water oil ratio, bbl/bbl; (2) Cumulative Gas oil ratio, mcf/bbl; (3) Unit area, acres; (4) Average Porosity, %; (5) Average Permeability, md; (6) Initial bottom hole pressure, psi. A 6-3-1 architecture describes the neural network used to develop a correlation between the 6 input parameters and their respective S/P. The network trained to a 85% correlation coefficient. The predicted Cliff Farms Unit S/P is 0.315 or secondary recovery is expected to be 102,700 bbl.

  1. The 2003 guidebook of petroleum, gas and LPG. Every professional and web site in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legros, E.

    2003-01-01

    This guidebook is a joint special issue of 'Petrole et Gaz Informations' and 'GPL Actualites' journals. It is a complete and practical information tool which takes stock of: the economical activity during 2001 and 2002 (exploration/production, deep offshore activities, maritime transport and tanker-ships, European refining and new specifications, automotive fuels and future engines, lubricants, maritime transport of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), storage facilities and capacity, new standards for bitumen binders, natural gas prospects, sustainable development and ethical investment, air pollution abatement etc..); the 2002 economical key-data of oil and gas summarized in an atlas of maps and statistical tables; a list of public organizations and associations, and of oil and gas companies settled in France; a list of companies involved in oil and gas equipments, services and products sorted by sector; and a yearbook of the oil and gas professionals with their corporate and web sites. (J.S.)

  2. Hydrogen-Rich Gas Production by Sorption Enhanced Steam Reforming of Woodgas Containing TAR over a Commercial Ni Catalyst and Calcined Dolomite as CO2 Sorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Naso

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of the catalytic steam reforming of a gaseous fuel obtained by steam biomass gasification to convert topping atmosphere residue (TAR and CH4 and to produce pure H2 by means of a CO2 sorbent. This experimental work deals with the demonstration of the practical feasibility of such concepts, using a real woodgas obtained from fluidized bed steam gasification of hazelnut shells. This study evaluates the use of a commercial Ni catalyst and calcined dolomite (CaO/MgO. The bed material simultaneously acts as reforming catalyst and CO2 sorbent. The experimental investigations have been carried out in a fixed bed micro-reactor rig using a slipstream from the gasifier to evaluate gas cleaning and upgrading options. The reforming/sorption tests were carried out at 650 °C while regeneration of the sorbent was carried out at 850 °C in a nitrogen environment. Both combinations of catalyst and sorbent are very effective in TAR and CH4 removal, with conversions near 100%, while the simultaneous CO2 sorption effectively enhances the water gas shift reaction producing a gas with a hydrogen volume fraction of over 90%. Multicycle tests of reforming/CO2 capture and regeneration were performed to verify the stability of the catalysts and sorbents to remove TAR and capture CO2 during the duty cycle.

  3. Two-stage preparation of magnetic sorbent based on exfoliated graphite with ferrite phases for sorption of oil and liquid hydrocarbons from the water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Julia A.; Ivanov, Andrei V.; Maksimova, Natalia V.; Pokholok, Konstantin V.; Vasiliev, Alexander V.; Malakho, Artem P.; Avdeev, Victor V.

    2018-05-01

    Due to the macropore structure and the hydrophobic properties, exfoliated graphite (EG) is considered as a perspective sorbent for oil and liquid hydrocarbons from the water surface. However, there is the problem of EG collection from the water surface. One of the solutions is the modification of EG by a magnetic compound and the collection of EG with sorbed oil using the magnetic field. In this work, the method of the two-stage preparation of exfoliated graphite with ferrite phases is proposed. This method includes the impregnation of expandable graphite in the mixed solution of iron (III) chloride and cobalt (II) or nickel (II) nitrate in the first stage and the thermal exfoliation of impregnated expandable graphite with the formation of exfoliated graphite containing cobalt and nickel ferrites in the second stage. Such two-stage method makes it possible to obtain the sorbent based on EG modified by ferrimagnetic phases with high sorption capacity toward oil (up to 45-51 g/g) and high saturation magnetization (up to 42 emu/g). On the other hand, this method allows to produce the magnetic sorbent in a short period of time (up to 10 s) during which the thermal exfoliation is carried out in the air atmosphere.

  4. Sustitución de fuel oil por gas natural en ANDERCOL Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Puerto, José Miguel; Ayala Mendoza, Miguel Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. This article shows the evaluation of the demand and the tendencies of fuel in the plant of ANDERCOL-Medellín, the current and future trends of the prices for the fuels available (fuel oil and natural gas) and also the operation costs, the investments required for their substitution and the limitations and benefits of substituting fuel oil with natural gas. Objective. To evaluate the impact of substituting fuel oil with natural gas in the ANDERCOL´s plant in Medell...

  5. BIG hydrogen: hydrogen technology in the oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The BIG Hydrogen workshop was held in Calgary, Alberta, Canada on February 13, 2006. About 60 representatives of industry, academia and government attended this one-day technical meeting on hydrogen production for the oil and gas industry. The following themes were identified from the presentations and discussion: the need to find a BIG hydrogen replacement for Steam Methane Reformer (SMR) because of uncertainty regarding cost and availability of natural gas, although given the maturity of SMR process (reliability, known capital cost) how high will H2 prices have to rise?; need for a national strategy to link the near-term and the longer-term hydrogen production requirements, which can take hydrogen from chemical feedstock to energy carrier; and in the near-term Canada should get involved in demonstrations and build expertise in large hydrogen systems including production and carbon capture and sequestration

  6. Virginia oil and gas production, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that although production and drilling declined in Virginia in 1989, there were interesting projects that should impact Virginal's future oil and gas potential. In Dickenson County, Equitable Resources (EREX) began development on two areas of coalbed methane and extended the limits of the Nora Coalbed Methane Field with an exploratory well. In Westmoreland County, Texaco drilled a deep test well in the Taylorsville Basin. While a depressed market caused a decline in natural gas production of four percent, there was significant new production from ten coalbed methane wells in Dickenson County. The coalbed methane wells produced 181,526 Mcf or over one percent of the total production in the state. The 1989 total of 17,935,376 Mcf produced from 752 wells was a four percent decline from the 1988 figure of 18,682,350 Mcf from 728 wells

  7. Mineral and surface issues in oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, P.F.

    1998-01-01

    The Farmers' Advocate Office was created in 1972 to help put Alberta mineral owners on an equal footing with the energy sector. Most mineral owners are at a disadvantage when dealing with the disposition of their minerals because they have little or no knowledge of what they own or what their surface rights are. This paper addresses key features of mineral leasing arrangements in Alberta and explains their potential impact. It also brings to the mineral owner's attention some specific problems and concerns including mineral rights, the lease agreement, signing considerations, length of leases, delayed production payment, drilling rental, royalties, and gas cost allowance. Issues regarding oil and gas production including shut-in wells, off-set clauses , drilling depth, taxes and prepayment for minerals are also discussed from the perspective of a mineral owner

  8. Offshore oil and gas : a community development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, J.; Vodden, K.; House, D.

    2003-01-01

    A community perspective on offshore oil and gas development in British Columbia was presented. It was noted that local benefits depend greatly on the level of regulation and government intervention in the industry. Community preparedness, jurisdictional certainty and corporate ethics also play a vital role. It is also necessary to clearly understand legal, economic, environmental, social and industrial aspects of offshore development. Jurisdictional concerns include the International Free Trade Agreement, ambiguities over mineral rights, and claims by First Nations to seabed and ocean resources. It was emphasized that the impact of offshore development on ecotourism and fisheries should not be underestimated. Community-based planning is critical. Economic imperatives include international prices, recovery costs, distribution of royalties, and alternative opportunities. It was also noted that communities in British Columbia have much to learn from other gas dependent regions

  9. Sorption mechanisms and sorption models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedoroff, M.; Lefevre, G.; Duc, M.; Neskovic, C.; Milonjic, S.

    2004-01-01

    Sorption at the solid-liquid interfaces play a major role in many phenomena and technologies: chemical separations, catalysis, biological processes, transport of toxic and radioactive species in surface and underground waters. The long term safety of radioactive waste repositories is based on artificial and natural barriers, intended to sorb radionuclides after the moment when the storage matrixes and containers will be corroded. Predictions on the efficiency of sorption for more than 10 6 years have to be done in order to demonstrate the safety of such depositories, what is a goal never encountered in the history of sciences and technology. For all these purposes, and, especially for the long term prediction, acquiring of sorption data constitutes only a first step of studies. Modeling based on a very good knowledge of sorption mechanisms is needed. In this review, we shall examine the main approaches and models used to quantify sorption processes, including results taken from the literature and from our own studies. We shall compare sorption models and examine their adequacy with sorption mechanisms. The cited references are only a few examples of the numerous articles published in that field. (orig.)

  10. Natural gas in 1936: Petroleum in 1936: The gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations: Appendix, the Brownsville Gas Field: Gas and oil in eastern Ontario. Annual publication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkness, R B; Evans, C S

    1938-12-31

    Part V of this annual report consists of four separate reports: Natural gas, petroleum, gas and oil fields in the Guelph and Medina (Grimsby) formations, and gas and oil in eastern Ontario. The natural gas report discusses production and distribution; changes and improvements; consumption and rates; gas wells and their production; and licenses issued. The logs of wells are also included, being presented alphabetically by counties, townships, and owners, respectively. The petroleum report presents information on production and drilling by township; expansion; and petroleum importation and refining operations.

  11. Independents in European Gas Markets after liberalisation - downstream integration of upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2005-01-01

    A central objective of gas market liberalisation in Europe in the 1990s was to increase competition by opening end-use markets for independent suppliers. Upstream oil and gas companies in Europe reacted to this opportunity by announcing strategies to integrate forward in European gas markets. By late 2004, however, upstream companies still recorded generally weak downstream strategy implementation in Europe. The article concludes that this general implementation gap should be explained by political failure in EU member states to abolish gas market barriers to entry for independents. Variation between companies in degree of implementation should be explained by variation in conditions in the companies' home markets / wider business spheres and internal company factors. (Author)

  12. The Vulnerability Formation Mechanism and Control Strategy of the Oil and Gas Pipeline City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. L.; Han, L.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the pipelines of oil and gas pipelines in our country have been for more than 25 years. These pipes are buried underground and was difficult to daily test. In addition, it was vulnerable to environmental, corrosion and natural disasters, So there is a hidden nature of accidents. The rapid development of urbanization, population accumulation, dense building and insufficient safety range are all the reasons for the frequent accidents of oil and gas pipelines. Therefore, to appraise and know the safe condition of the city various regions oil and gas pipelines is vital significant. In order to ensure the safety of oil and gas pipeline city, this paper defines the connotation of oil and gas pipeline city vulnerability according to the previous research on vulnerability. Then from three perspectives of environment, structure and behavior, based on the analytical paradigm of “structure—vulnerability conduct—performance” about oil and gas, the influential indicators of vulnerable oil and gas pipelines were analysed, the vulnerability mechanism framework of Oil and gas pipeline city was also constructed. Finally, the paper proposed the regulating strategy of the vulnerability of the oil and gas pipeline city to decrease its vulnerability index, which can be realize the city’s vulnerability evaluation and provides new ideas for the sustainable development of the city.

  13. Downstream natural gas in Europe - high hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, P.O.

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors. [Author

  14. Downstream natural gas in Europe-High hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors

  15. A system dynamic model for production and consumption policy in Iran oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Behdad; Ali Pourfakhraei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A system dynamic model is presented, which considers the feedback between supply and demand and oil revenue of the existing system in Iran considering different sectors of the economy. Also the export of the oil surplus and the injection of the gas surplus into the oil reservoirs are seen in the model by establishing a balance between supply and demand. In this model the counter-effects and existing system feedbacks between supply and demand and oil revenue can be seen considering different sectors of the economy. As a result, the effects of oil and gas policies in different scenarios for different sectors of Iran's economy together with the counter-effects of energy consumption and oil revenue are examined. Three scenarios, which show the worst, base and ideal cases, are considered to find future trends of major variables such as seasonal gas consumption in power plants, seasonal injected gas in oil reservoirs, economic growth in the industrial sector, oil consumption in the transportation sector, industrial gas consumption and exported gas. For example, it is shown that the exported gas will reach between 500 and 620 million cubic-meter per day in different scenarios and export revenues can reach up to $500 billion by 2025. - Research Highlights: →A system dynamic model analyzing the feedback between supply, demand and oil revenue is built. →The export of the oil surplus and the injection of the gas surplus into oil reservoirs are modeled. →Effects of oil and gas policies in different scenarios are examined for Iran's economy. →Counter-effects of energy consumption and oil revenue are examined. →Exported gas will reach between 500 and 620 million cubic-meter per day in different scenarios. →Export revenues can reach up to $500 billion by 2025.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  18. Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shires, T.M.; Loughran, C.J. [URS Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This document is a compendium of currently recognized methods and provides details for all oil and gas industry segments to enhance consistency in emissions estimation. This Compendium aims to accomplish the following goals: Assemble an expansive collection of relevant emission factors for estimating GHG emissions, based on currently available public documents; Outline detailed procedures for conversions between different measurement unit systems, with particular emphasis on implementation of oil and gas industry standards; Provide descriptions of the multitude of oil and gas industry operations, in its various segments, and the associated emissions sources that should be considered; and Develop emission inventory examples, based on selected facilities from the various segments, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the methodologies. The overall objective of developing this document is to promote the use of consistent, standardized methodologies for estimating GHG emissions from petroleum industry operations. The resulting Compendium documents recognized calculation techniques and emission factors for estimating GHG emissions for oil and gas industry operations. These techniques cover the calculation or estimation of emissions from the full range of industry operations - from exploration and production through refining, to the marketing and distribution of products. The Compendium presents and illustrates the use of preferred and alternative calculation approaches for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for all common emission sources, including combustion, vented, and fugitive. Decision trees are provided to guide the user in selecting an estimation technique based on considerations of materiality, data availability, and accuracy. API will provide (free of charge) a calculation tool based on the emission estimation methodologies described herein. The tool will be made available at http://ghg.api.org/.

  19. De-linking oil and gas; The cost of Gulf gas; Middle East gas must look to Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissaoui, Ali; Jensen, Jim; Stern, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    This item consists of letters in response to an article by Robert Mabro on the prospects for gas in North Africa and the Middle East. The first letter is concerned with the issue of de-linking oil and gas. It is argued that the introduction of an ecotax, far from its creators' intentions, may deter investment in the natural gas industry to the benefit of coal and oil producers, rather than promoting gas as the fuel which best protects the environment. The second writer points out the Middle East's geographical disadvantage in aiming to supply natural gas to Europe. While reserves are ample, they are also readily available closer to European consumers, and without extra transportation costs. Markets nearby are either already functioning or, in areas such as India or Pakistan, prohibitively expensive in terms of pipeline construction or other technology. The last author also argues for investment in large-scale pipeline projects in order to use the Middle Eastern gas reserves, but stresses the need for political and security problems to be addressed at the same time. (UK)

  20. Pollution control in oil, gas and chemical plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bahadori, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This unique book covers the fundamental requirements for air, soil, noise and water pollution control in oil and gas refineries, chemical plants, oil terminals, petrochemical plants, and related facilities. Coverage includes design and operational considerations relevant to critical systems such as monitoring of water pollution control, equipment, and engineering techniques as well as engineering/technological methods related to soil, noise and air pollution control. This book also: ·         Covers a diverse list of pollution control strategies important to practitioners, ranging from waste water gathering systems and oil/suspended solids removal to chemical flocculation units, biological treatment, and sludge handling and treatment ·         Provides numerous step-by-step tutorials that orient both entry level and veteran engineers to the essentials of pollution control methods in petroleum and chemical industries ·         Includes a comprehensive glossary providing readers with...

  1. Physics-Driven Innovation In the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poitzsch, Martin

    2014-03-01

    In terms of sheer scale and financial investment and geographical footprint, nothing is bigger than the oil and gas industry. This ``mature industry'' employs a bewildering mix of technologies dating from the 19th century to the 21th. Oil well construction represents one of the largest volume markets for steel tubulars, Portland cement, and high-quality sand. On the other hand, advanced 3D seismic data processing, shaped-charge perforating, and nuclear well logging have consistently driven forward the state of the art in their respective areas of applied science, as much or more so than defense or other industries. Moreover, a surprising number of physicists have made their careers in the oil industry. To succeed at introducing new technology requires understanding which problems most need to be solved. The most esoteric technology can take off in this industry if it honestly offers the best solution to a key problem that is costing millions of dollars in risk or inefficiency. When the right breakthrough solution emerges, the resources to implement it can be almost limitless. However, the prevailing culture is conservative and brutally cost-driven: any cheaper or simpler solution that performs as well will prevail, no matter how inelegant!

  2. Environmental issues related to oil and gas access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniuk, T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation discussed the environmental issues that petroleum companies face in northeast British Columbia. Petroleum exploration, development, production, abandonment and transportation activities in the province must follow provincial and federal regulations as well as government policies and guidelines which define environmental assessment, protection, and mitigation standards. A discussion about the regulatory framework in British Columbia can be found in the 'British Columbia Oil and Gas Handbook' which is available on the INTERNET at http://natural.gov.bc.ca/handpubs/oilgashb/bcoghb.htm. It was suggested that companies wishing to conduct drilling or exploration activities in sensitive areas should allow extra time (up to one year) to obtain approval for such activities. British Columbia's environmental setting includes five zones - the Alpine Tundra, the Spruce-Willow-Birch zone, the Engelmannn Spruce-Subalpine Fir forests, the Sub-Boreal Spruce zone, and the Boreal White and Black Spruce zone. Four discrete oil and gas guideline zones with differing standards have been developed. These are: (1) the Northern Rocky Mountains, (2) the Northeastern Slopes, (3) the Southeastern Slopes, and (4) the Northern Plains. A set of interim environmental guidelines are in effect to direct activity away from any sensitive area. Three sub-regional land use planning areas have also been established in the Prince George Forest Region which includes Dawson Creek, Fort St. John and Fort Nelson. Petroleum operators in these regions are obliged to deal with issues regarding aboriginal involvement, stream crossings, access management, and air quality. 40 refs

  3. The North Sea oil and gas industry and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    The North Sea environment is described. Inputs into this environment from oil and gas installations are relatively modest compared with the pollution from effluent discharged or directly dumped into the sea by its highly populated and industrialized enclosing nations. Hydrocarbon discharges provide the greatest input from the oil and gas industry and make a substantial contribution to the total hydrocarbon input. The sources from offshore installations are analysed. Accidental spills, flaring, atmospheric emissions and other inputs are discussed. Biological and chemical monitoring over many year has shown that the most common environmental effect is a marked fall in the number of species of marine fauna and an increase in the number of individuals. These effects appear within 1000 metres of the installation. The spread of contaminants may be more widespread than the biological response indicates, though. The cost of environmental protection is briefly considered. A need to determined the wider impact of low levels of contamination detected at greater distances from platform activities and the development of effective environmental management plans are identified as two objectives for the future. (UK)

  4. Royalty financing for the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Read, F. M. D.

    1998-01-01

    Key concepts in royalty financing for the oil and gas industry are described. The basic significance of royalty financing for a public company is that financing is 'off balance sheet', and can be used to achieve objectives that neither debt, equity, nor outright sale of assets or farm-outs can accomplish. Royalty financing can provide increased available capital or debt reduction while maintaining the full gross share of reserve and production volumes on the books. This paper provides an overview of the field of royalty financing, with an appreciation of the benefits, reviews each of the financial alternatives (debt, equity, farmout and or sale of assets to reduce capital requirements), and provides examples of specific application of royalty financing. It is claimed that this type of financing, which has been available to the mining sector for some time, is a useful alternative to other financing instruments to acquire new oil and gas assets, to develop new areas, to implement enhanced recovery projects or to carry out mergers and acquisitions. Used judiciously, royalty financing can provide significant benefits to both the working interest owner and his shareholders, as well as the royalty company

  5. Oil and gas field code master list 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    The Oil and Gas Field Code Master List 1997 is the sixteenth annual listing of all identified oil and gas fields in the US. It is updated with field information collected through October 1997. The purpose of this publication is to provide unique, standardized codes for identification of domestic fields. Use of these field codes fosters consistency of field identification by government and industry. As a result of their widespread adoption they have in effect become a national standard. The use of field names and codes listed in this publication is required on survey forms and other reports regarding field-specific data collected by EIA. There are 58,366 field records in this year`s FCML, 437 more than last year. The FCML includes: field records for each State and county in which a field resides; field records for each offshore area block in the Gulf of Mexico in which a field resides; field records for each alias field name (definition of alias is listed); fields crossing State boundaries that may be assigned different names by the respective State naming authorities. This report also contains an Invalid Field Record List of 4 records that have been removed from the FCML since last year`s report. These records were found to be either technically incorrect or to represent field names which were never recognized by State naming authorities.

  6. Improving environmental strategies of the UK oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanega, J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper is a strategic review of the current environmental policies and practices of the UK Oil and Gas Industry. It begins with an analysis of the current environmental impacts of the UK Oil and Gas Industry, including air emissions, effluents to sea and industrial wastes. The importance of environmental issues to UK operators is related to financial conseqeunces of environmental damage to the North Sea, poor public opinion and the spectre of increased government regulations. There is a survey of the best practices of environmental management programmes, including environmental assessment, monitoring auditing and contingency planning and emergency response, with historical lessons from Cadiz to Valdez and the industry's reaction to Exxon Valdez. After critically assessing the weaknesses of environmental management programmes, the author calls for systematic environmental assessment, employing inventory, monitoring, risk assessment and quantified risk assessment. There are recommendations on how to minimise the impact on the environment through the use of existing technology, training, incident response and crisis management, auditing, testing and industry-wide collaboration. (Author)

  7. Nuclear techniques in oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.L.; Mills, W.R. Jr.; Orr, W.L.; Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of some of the most significant new developments that have occurred during the past three years in the area of nuclear techniques applied to the exploration for and production of oil and gas deposits. Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out aimed at improving pulsed neutron logging tools and upgrading interpretation of data from such tools. Pulsed neutron borehole generators and gamma-ray spectroscopy have been combined in carbon/oxygen logging to provide a means of determining formation oil saturation in cased holes that is independent of water salinity. Use of pulsed neutron logs in the log-inject-log technique has been tested and evaluated in several field studies. The combination of a gamma-gamma density log and a borehole gravimeter has been used to detect economically important gas accumulations at distances from a borehole that are well beyond the depth of investigation of conventional logging techniques. The depths of investigation of several commercial nuclear logging tools have been studied in laboratory investigations. Possible geological applications of natural gamma-ray spectral logs have been investigated through the study of large sample suites and in specific field applications. The extensive use of digital recording of logging data and well-site analysis by minicomputer are expected to have a significant influence on future logging programmes and logging sonde designs. The present status of stable isotope geochemistry and radioactive tracer surveys is reviewed. (author)

  8. Risk, Place and Oil and Gas Policy Preferences among Coloradoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Adam

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction, primarily via hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"), has changed the energy landscape in the United States. The policy regime currently governing fracking is a complex patchwork in which state regulators have the primary authority. Social scientists have thoroughly documented general beliefs and risk perceptions related to fracking there is a lack of policy-related research. This dissertation examined public policy preferences for fracking regulation using a survey data from a statewide sample of Coloradoans. Theoretically, it was hypothesized that policy support hinged upon factors like risk perceptions, benefit perceptions, place attachment, community economic identity and political ideology. Overall, risk perceptions and political ideology emerged as relatively consistent and powerful predictors of support for unconventional oil and gas regulatory policy. On the other hand, several possible predictors had little to no role. Benefit perceptions had little effect on any policy dependent variable. Further, community economic identity and place attachment played very little role. I discuss policy implications and directions for future research.

  9. CEO's guide to world business costs : oil and gas equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a detailed study of wellhead equipment manufacturing costs in 11 countries in North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), Canada has a 5 per cent cost advantage and will be the best country in the world to do business between 2004 to 2008 because of its foreign trade policies, high quality infrastructure and market opportunities within the North American marketplace. KPMG Consulting developed a web-based cost model that allows investors to examine the costs involved in setting up and operating a business in more than 120 cities in Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Japan and Australia. According to the model, a comparison of annual costs for oil and gas wellhead equipment manufacturing was presented for the 11 countries with reference to revenues, costs, and profits before and after income tax. In addition, Canada's research and development (R and D) cost advantage compared to the United States was presented, with reference to tax credits, expenditures, salaries, contracts, capital equipment, volume-based tax credits, and research studies. This report also includes a brief summary of 3 oil and gas companies that came to Canada and prospered. tabs., figs

  10. Norm waste in oil and gas industry: The Syrian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Suman, H.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Syrian experience in respect to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) waste in Syrian oil and gas industry. NORM can be concentrated and accumulated in tubing and surface equipment of oil and gas production lines in the form of scale and sludge. NORM waste (scale, sludge, production water) is therefore generated during cleaning, physical or chemical treatment of streams. Uncontrolled disposal of this type of waste could lead to environmental pollution, and thus eventually to exposure of members of the public. The presence of NORM in Syrian oil fields has been recognized since 1987 and AECS has initiated several studies, in cooperation with oil companies, to manage such type of waste. Three categories of NORM waste in Syrian oil fields were identified. Firstly, hard scales from either decontamination of contaminated equipment and tubular using high-pressure water systems or mechanical cleaning at site are considered to contain the highest levels of radium isotopes ( 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 224 Ra). Secondly, sludge wastes are generated with large amount but low levels of radium isotopes were found. Thirdly, contaminated soil with 226 Ra as a result of uncontrolled disposal of production water was also considered as NORM waste. The first waste type (scale) is stored in Standard storage barrels in a controlled area; the number of barrels is increasing with time. High levels of radium isotopes were found in these scales. The options for disposal of these wastes are still under investigations; one of the most predominant thinking is the re-injection into abundant wells. For sludge waste, plastic lined disposal pits were constructed in each area for temporary storage. Moreover, big gas power stations have been built and operated since the last ten years. Maintenance operations for these stations produce tens of tones of scales containing radon daughters, 210 Pb and 210 Po with relatively high concentrations. The common practice used to dispose

  11. Development of oil and gas service as organizational form of entrepreneurship in post-industrial economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Василенко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of oil and gas service. The transformation of the oil and gas sector with the separation of independent enterprises and organizations providing services in the oil and gas service sector is compared by the author with the trend of rapid development of the service sector in the postindustrial economy. The purpose of the study is to identify the general and specific characteristics of modern oil and gas services and to determine the directions for the transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere under consideration. The growth of quantitative parameters of the oil and gas services market has been analyzed. The classification of this market is proposed depending on the place of services in a single technological cycle in relation to the main oil production process. The positive consequences of the development of oil and gas services for the development of oil and gas production have been systematized. Basic organizational models of entrepreneurship development in oil and gas service are generalized and substantiated. It is shown that the main influence in the market of services is taken by vertically integrated national oil and gas companies, as well as by international companies that provide service support for the work of Russian oil and gas companies. The results of a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of organizational models of entrepreneurship in the field of oil and gas services are presented. It is proved that oil and gas service as an organizational form of entrepreneurship in its development reflects the general trends of the post-industrial economy. Specific features of oil and gas service in Russia are singled out. The revealed directions of transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere of oil and gas service in current conditions can be used in the formation of state programs in the field of industrial

  12. Qatar's economy transition from oil based economy to gas based economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastry, G.R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The historical aspects of petroleum industry development in Qatar are reviewed. Evaluation of Qatar's oil and natural gas reserves and production capacities is outlined. Trends of petroleum, petrochemical and gas industry further development are discussed. (V.G.)

  13. An Investigation on Gas Lift Performance Curve in an Oil-Producing Well

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Saepudin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective in oil production system using gas lift technique is to obtain the optimum gas injection rate which yields the maximum oil production rate. Relationship between gas injection rate and oil production rate is described by a continuous gas lift performance curve (GLPC. Obtaining the optimum gas injection rate is important because excessive gas injection will reduce production rate, and also increase the operation cost. In this paper, we discuss a mathematical model for gas lift technique and the characteristics of the GLPC for a production well, for which one phase (liquid is flowing in the reservoir, and two phases (liquid and gas in the tubing. It is shown that in certain physical condition the GLPC exists and is unique. Numerical computations indicate unimodal properties of the GLPC. It is also constructed here a numerical scheme based on genetic algorithm to compute the optimum oil production.

  14. Methane’s Role in Promoting Sustainable Development in the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document summarizes a number of established methods to identify, measure and reduce methane emissions from a variety of equipment and processes in oil and gas production and natural gas processing and transmission facilities.

  15. ALASKA OIL AND GAS EXPLORATION, DEVELOPMENT, AND PERMITTING PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard McMahon; Robert Crandall; Chas Dense; Sean Weems

    2003-08-04

    The objective of this project is to eliminate three closely inter-related barriers to oil production in Alaska through the use of a geographic information system (GIS) and other information technology strategies. These barriers involve identification of oil development potential from existing wells, planning projects to efficiently avoid conflicts with other interests, and gaining state approvals for exploration and development projects. Each barrier is the result of either current labor-intensive methods or poorly accessible information. This project brings together three parts of the oil exploration, development, and permitting process to form the foundation for a more fully integrated information technology infrastructure for the State of Alaska. This web-based system will enable the public and other review participants to track permit status, submit and view comments, and obtain important project information online. By automating several functions of the current manual process, permit applications will be completed more quickly and accurately, and agencies will be able to complete reviews with fewer delays. The application will include an on-line diagnostic Coastal Project Questionnaire to determine the suite of permits required for a specific project. The application will also automatically create distribution lists based on the location and type of project, populate document templates for project review start-ups, public notices and findings, allow submission of e-comments, and post project status information on the Internet. Alaska has nearly one-quarter of the nation's supply of crude oil, at least five billion barrels of proven reserves. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists report that the 1995 National Assessment identified the North Slope as having 7.4 billion barrels of technically recoverable oil and over 63 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. From these reserves, Alaska produces roughly one-fifth of the nation's daily crude oil

  16. Oil and gas-fuelled high-efficiency boilers still going strong; Oel und Gas - Brennwert setzt sich weiter durch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnerbauer, R.

    2007-07-15

    High-efficiency boilers are going strong. They are generally used in gas boilers and are now conquering the gas boiler field as well. Producers are advertising their high energy efficiency, as was reflected at the ISH 2007. Further, the option of bio-natural gas and bio-oil provides an image of high sustainability. (orig.)

  17. Overview of DOE Oil and Gas Field Laboratory Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromhal, G.; Ciferno, J.; Covatch, G.; Folio, E.; Melchert, E.; Ogunsola, O.; Renk, J., III; Vagnetti, R.

    2017-12-01

    America's abundant unconventional oil and natural gas (UOG) resources are critical components of our nation's energy portfolio. These resources need to be prudently developed to derive maximum benefits. In spite of the long history of hydraulic fracturing, the optimal number of fracturing stages during multi-stage fracture stimulation in horizontal wells is not known. In addition, there is the dire need of a comprehensive understanding of ways to improve the recovery of shale gas with little or no impacts on the environment. Research that seeks to expand our view of effective and environmentally sustainable ways to develop our nation's oil and natural gas resources can be done in the laboratory or at a computer; but, some experiments must be performed in a field setting. The Department of Energy (DOE) Field Lab Observatory projects are designed to address those research questions that must be studied in the field. The Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a suite of "field laboratory" test sites to carry out collaborative research that will help find ways of improving the recovery of energy resources as much as possible, with as little environmental impact as possible, from "unconventional" formations, such as shale and other low permeability rock formations. Currently there are three field laboratories in various stages of development and operation. Work is on-going at two of the sites: The Hydraulic Fracturing Test Site (HFTS) in the Permian Basin and the Marcellus Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (MSEEL) project in the Marcellus Shale Play. Agreement on the third site, the Utica Shale Energy and Environmental Lab (USEEL) project in the Utica Shale Play, was just recently finalized. Other field site opportunities may be forthcoming. This presentation will give an overview of the three field laboratory projects.

  18. The US Shale Gas Revolution and Its Externality on Crude Oil Prices: A Counterfactual Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxun Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of shale gas production since the mid-2000s which is commonly referred to as “shale gas revolution” has had large impacts on global energy outlook. The impact is particularly substantial when it comes to the oil market because natural gas and oil are substitutes in consumption and complements and rivals in production. This paper investigates the price externality of shale gas revolution on crude oil. Applying a structural vector autoregressive model (VAR model, the effect of natural gas production on real oil price is identified in particular, and then based on the identification, counterfactuals of oil price without shale gas revolution are constructed. We find that after the expansion of shale gas production, the real West Texas Intermediate (WTI oil price is depressed by 10.22 USD/barrel on average from 2007 to 2017, and the magnitude seems to increase with time. In addition, the period before shale gas revolution is used as a “thought experiment” for placebo study. The results support the hypothesis that real WTI oil price can be reasonably reproduced by our models, and the estimated gap for oil price during 2007–2017 can be attributed to shale gas revolution. The methodology and framework can be applied to evaluate the economic impacts of other programs or policies.

  19. Energy map of southwestern Wyoming, Part B: oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biewick, Laura R.H.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled Part B of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI). Part B consists of oil and gas, oil shale, uranium, and solar energy resource information in support of the WLCI. The WLCI represents the USGS partnership with other Department of the Interior Bureaus, State and local agencies, industry, academia, and private landowners, all of whom collaborate to maintain healthy landscapes, sustain wildlife, and preserve recreational and grazing uses while developing energy resources in southwestern Wyoming. This product is the second and final part of the Energy Map of Southwestern Wyoming series (also see USGS Data Series 683, http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/683/), and encompasses all of Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, and Uinta Counties, as well as areas in Fremont County that are in the Great Divide and Green River Basins.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis