WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas flooding applicable

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF MORE-EFFICIENT GAS FLOODING APPLICABLE TO SHALLOW RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Rossen; Russell T. Johns; Gary A. Pope

    2003-08-21

    The objective of this research is to widen the applicability of gas flooding to shallow oil reservoirs by reducing the pressure required for miscibility using gas enrichment and increasing sweep efficiency with foam. Task 1 examines the potential for improved oil recovery with enriched gases. Subtask 1.1 examines the effect of dispersion processes on oil recovery and the extent of enrichment needed in the presence of dispersion. Subtask 1.2 develops a fast, efficient method to predict the extent of enrichment needed for crude oils at a given pressure. Task 2 develops improved foam processes to increase sweep efficiency in gas flooding. Subtask 2.1 comprises mechanistic experimental studies of foams with N2 gas. Subtask 2.2 conducts experiments with CO{sub 2} foam. Subtask 2.3 develops and applies a simulator for foam processes in field application.

  2. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  3. Application of Flood Nomograph for Flood Forecasting in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperviousness has increased due to urbanization, as has the frequency of extreme rainfall events by climate change. Various countermeasures, such as structural and nonstructural measures, are required to prepare for these effects. Flood forecasting is a representative nonstructural measure. Flood forecasting techniques have been developed for the prevention of repetitive flood damage in urban areas. It is difficult to apply some flood forecasting techniques using training processes because training needs to be applied at every usage. The other flood forecasting techniques that use rainfall data predicted by radar are not appropriate for small areas, such as single drainage basins. In this study, a new flood forecasting technique is suggested to reduce flood damage in urban areas. The flood nomograph consists of the first flooding nodes in rainfall runoff simulations with synthetic rainfall data at each duration. When selecting the first flooding node, the initial amount of synthetic rainfall is 1 mm, which increases in 1 mm increments until flooding occurs. The advantage of this flood forecasting technique is its simple application using real-time rainfall data. This technique can be used to prepare a preemptive response in the process of urban flood management.

  4. Quantitative monitoring of gas flooding in oil-bearing reservoirs using a pulsed neutron tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhovets, N.; Wyatt, D.F. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on quantitative monitoring of gas flooding in oil bearing reservoirs which is unique in that saturations of three fluids (gas, oil and water) in the effective pore space have to be determined, while in most other applications saturation behind casing is determined only for two fluids: hydrocarbons and water. A new method has been developed to monitor gas flooding of oil reservoirs. The method is based on computing two porosities: true effective (base) porosity determined before gas flooding, and apparent effective (monitor) porosity determined after gas flooding. The base porosity is determined from open and/or cased hole porosity logs run before the flooding. When open hole logs are available, the cased hole porosity logs are calibrated against open hole log. The monitor porosity is determined from one of the cased hole porosity logs, such as a neutron log or count rate ratio curve from a pulsed neutron log run after the gas flooding. The base and monitor porosities provide determination of the hydrogen index of the reservoir fluid after the flooding. This hydrogen index is then used to determine saturation of the flood agent after flooding. Water saturation after flooding can be determined from the equation which relates neutron total cross section (Σm) to volumetric constituent cross sections, using Σm values from a monitor run (after flooding)

  5. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  6. Application of RUNTA code in flood analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, F.; Benitez Fonzalez, F.

    1994-01-01

    Flood probability analyses carried out to date indicate the need to evaluate a large number of flood scenarios. This necessity is due to a variety of reasons, the most important of which include: - Large number of potential flood sources - Wide variety of characteristics of flood sources - Large possibility of flood-affected areas becoming inter linked, depending on the location of the potential flood sources - Diversity of flood flows from one flood source, depending on the size of the rupture and mode of operation - Isolation times applicable - Uncertainties in respect of the structural resistance of doors, penetration seals and floors - Applicable degrees of obstruction of floor drainage system Consequently, a tool which carries out the large number of calculations usually required in flood analyses, with speed and flexibility, is considered necessary. The RUNTA Code enables the range of possible scenarios to be calculated numerically, in accordance with all those parameters which, as a result of previous flood analyses, it is necessary to take into account in order to cover all the possible floods associated with each flood area

  7. Flood Resilient Systems and their Application for Flood Resilient Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, N.; Gabalda, V.; Antanaskovic, D.; Gershovich, I.; Pasche, E.

    2012-04-01

    Following the paradigm shift in flood management from traditional to more integrated approaches, and considering the uncertainties of future development due to drivers such as climate change, one of the main emerging tasks of flood managers becomes the development of (flood) resilient cities. It can be achieved by application of non-structural - flood resilience measures, summarised in the 4As: assistance, alleviation, awareness and avoidance (FIAC, 2007). As a part of this strategy, the key aspect of development of resilient cities - resilient built environment can be reached by efficient application of Flood Resilience Technology (FReT) and its meaningful combination into flood resilient systems (FRS). FRS are given as [an interconnecting network of FReT which facilitates resilience (including both restorative and adaptive capacity) to flooding, addressing physical and social systems and considering different flood typologies] (SMARTeST, http://www.floodresilience.eu/). Applying the system approach (e.g. Zevenbergen, 2008), FRS can be developed at different scales from the building to the city level. Still, a matter of research is a method to define and systematise different FRS crossing those scales. Further, the decision on which resilient system is to be applied for the given conditions and given scale is a complex task, calling for utilisation of decision support tools. This process of decision-making should follow the steps of flood risk assessment (1) and development of a flood resilience plan (2) (Manojlovic et al, 2009). The key problem in (2) is how to match the input parameters that describe physical&social system and flood typology to the appropriate flood resilient system. Additionally, an open issue is how to integrate the advances in FReT and findings on its efficiency into decision support tools. This paper presents a way to define, systematise and make decisions on FRS at different scales of an urban system developed within the 7th FP Project

  8. Operation of flooded wells by the gas-lift method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, G S; Kabirov, M M; Nigay, Yu V

    1983-01-01

    A study is made of the factors which influence the effectiveness of operation of the gas-lift lifter during progressive flooding of a well. The law governing the change in its efficiency under the given conditions is also examined.

  9. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  10. Floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods are common in the United States. Weather such as heavy rain, thunderstorms, hurricanes, or tsunamis can ... is breached, or when a dam breaks. Flash floods, which can develop quickly, often have a dangerous ...

  11. Leaf gas films contribute to rice (Oryza sativa) submergence tolerance during saline floods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max; Konnerup, Dennis; Pedersen, Ole

    2018-01-01

    Floods and salinization of agricultural land adversely impact global rice production. We investigated whether gas films on leaves of submerged rice delay salt entry during saline submergence. Two-week-old plants with leaf gas films (+GF) or with gas films experimentally removed (-GF) were submerged...

  12. Application of Artificial Neural Networks for estimating index floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimor, Viliam; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Ján

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and multiple regression models for estimating mean annual maximum discharge (index flood) at ungauged sites. Both approaches were tested for 145 small basins in Slovakia in areas ranging from 20 to 300 km2. Using the objective clustering method, the catchments were divided into ten homogeneous pooling groups; for each pooling group, mutually independent predictors (catchment characteristics) were selected for both models. The neural network was applied as a simple multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer and with a back propagation learning algorithm. Hyperbolic tangents were used as an activation function in the hidden layer. Estimating index floods by the multiple regression models were based on deriving relationships between the index floods and catchment predictors. The efficiencies of both approaches were tested by the Nash-Sutcliffe and a correlation coefficients. The results showed the comparative applicability of both models with slightly better results for the index floods achieved using the ANNs methodology.

  13. Separate effects of flooding and anaerobiosis on soil greenhouse gas emissions and redox sensitive biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin McNicol; Whendee L. Silver

    2014-01-01

    Soils are large sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and both the magnitude and composition of soil gas emissions are strongly controlled by redox conditions. Though the effect of redox dynamics on greenhouse gas emissions has been well studied in flooded soils, less research has focused on redox dynamics without total soil inundation. For the latter, all that is...

  14. Possibility of removing condensate and scattered oil from gas-condensate field during bed flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belkina, N.A.; Yagubov, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem is set of evaluating the possible removal from the bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed. For this purpose, an experimental study was made of the displacement by water from the porous medium of the oil and condensate saturating it. The obtained experimental results permit evaluation of the possible removal from the gas-condensate bed of scattered oil and condensate during flooding of the bed.

  15. An application of Geographic Information System in mapping flood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Roland

    1Department of Geography, Benue State University, Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. 2National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), Central Area, Abuja, Nigeria. Accepted 20 May, 2013. This study deals with the application of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in mapping flood risk zones in Makurdi Town. This study ...

  16. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  17. Medium Range Ensembles Flood Forecasts for Community Level Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S.; Kawasaki, A.; Babel, M. S.; AIT

    2013-05-01

    Early warning is a key element for disaster risk reduction. In recent decades, there has been a major advancement in medium range and seasonal forecasting. These could provide a great opportunity to improve early warning systems and advisories for early action for strategic and long term planning. This could result in increasing emphasis on proactive rather than reactive management of adverse consequences of flood events. This can be also very helpful for the agricultural sector by providing a diversity of options to farmers (e.g. changing cropping pattern, planting timing, etc.). An experimental medium range (1-10 days) flood forecasting model has been developed for Bangladesh which provides 51 set of discharge ensembles forecasts of one to ten days with significant persistence and high certainty. This could help communities (i.e. farmer) for gain/lost estimation as well as crop savings. This paper describe the application of ensembles probabilistic flood forecast at the community level for differential decision making focused on agriculture. The framework allows users to interactively specify the objectives and criteria that are germane to a particular situation, and obtain the management options that are possible, and the exogenous influences that should be taken into account before planning and decision making. risk and vulnerability assessment was conducted through community consultation. The forecast lead time requirement, users' needs, impact and management options for crops, livestock and fisheries sectors were identified through focus group discussions, informal interviews and questionnaire survey.

  18. Freezing around a pipeline carrying cooled gas in flooded areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koval' kov, V P; Krivoshein, B L

    1978-12-01

    The USSR's NIPIESUneftegazstroi mathematically analyzed the problem of ice formation around a subcooled-gas pipeline submerged in water in cold regions and derived charts for determining heat-transfer coefficients and the rate of ice formation for various water and gas temperatures. Because the ice halo that forms around these pipelines necessitates additional anchoring of the line, NIPIESUneftegazstroi sought to quantify the weight required in order to minimize the cost and material needed. The differential heat-transfer equations given can be used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients and the specific heat flux from the water to the ice halo, as well as the radius of the ice halo. Values of the ice-halo radius are plotted graphically as parabolic function of time (to 15,000 h) for pipeline surface temperatures of 30.2, 27.5, 23, 18.5, and 14/sup 0/F. An equation indicates the limiting value of the temperature of the transported gas at which icing of an insulated pipeline will not occur.

  19. Methods and tools to support real time risk-based flood forecasting - a UK pilot application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown Emma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood managers have traditionally used probabilistic models to assess potential flood risk for strategic planning and non-operational applications. Computational restrictions on data volumes and simulation times have meant that information on the risk of flooding has not been available for operational flood forecasting purposes. In practice, however, the operational flood manager has probabilistic questions to answer, which are not completely supported by the outputs of traditional, deterministic flood forecasting systems. In a collaborative approach, HR Wallingford and Deltares have developed methods, tools and techniques to extend existing flood forecasting systems with elements of strategic flood risk analysis, including probabilistic failure analysis, two dimensional flood spreading simulation and the analysis of flood impacts and consequences. This paper presents the results of the application of these new operational flood risk management tools to a pilot catchment in the UK. It discusses the problems of performing probabilistic flood risk assessment in real time and how these have been addressed in this study. It also describes the challenges of the communication of risk to operational flood managers and to the general public, and how these new methods and tools can provide risk-based supporting evidence to assist with this process.

  20. Effects of Biochar on the Net Greenhouse Gas Emissions under Continuous Flooding and Water-Saving Irrigation Conditions in Paddy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the greenhouse gas emission under different application of biochar in the conditions of continuous flooding and water-saving irrigation in paddy fields, whereas, plant and soil carbon sequestration were considered in the calculation of net greenhouse gas emissions. The emission rates of methane (CH4, carbon dioxide (CO2, and nitrous oxide (N2O gases were simultaneously monitored once every 7–10 days using the closed-chamber method. As a whole, the net greenhouse gas emission in the water-saving irrigation was more than that of the continuous flooding irrigation conditions. Compared with the water-saving irrigation, the continuous flooding irrigation significantly increased the CH4 in the control (CK and chemical fertilizer treatments (NPK. The CO2 emissions increased in each treatment of the water-saving irrigation condition, especially in the chemical fertilizer treatments (NPKFW. Similarly, the soil N2O emission was very sensitive to the water-saving irrigation condition. An interesting finding is that the biochar application in soils cut down the soil N2O emission more significantly than NPKFW in the water-saving irrigation condition while the effect of biochar increased under the continuous flooding irrigation condition.

  1. Colombia Mi Pronostico Flood Application: Updating and Improving the Mi Pronostico Flood Web Application to Include an Assessment of Flood Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushley, Stephanie; Carter, Matthew; Chiou, Charles; Farmer, Richard; Haywood, Kevin; Pototzky, Anthony, Jr.; White, Adam; Winker, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Colombia is a country with highly variable terrain, from the Andes Mountains to plains and coastal areas, many of these areas are prone to flooding disasters. To identify these risk areas NASA's Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) was used to construct a digital elevation model (DEM) for the study region. The preliminary risk assessment was applied to a pilot study area, the La Mosca River basin. Precipitation data from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM)'s near-real-time rainfall products as well as precipitation data from the Instituto de Hidrologia, Meteorologia y Estudios Ambientales (the Institute of Hydrology, Meteorology and Environmental Studies, IDEAM) and stations in the La Mosca River Basin were used to create rainfall distribution maps for the region. Using the precipitation data and the ASTER DEM, the web application, Mi Pronóstico, run by IDEAM, was updated to include an interactive map which currently allows users to search for a location and view the vulnerability and current weather and flooding conditions. The geospatial information was linked to an early warning system in Mi Pronóstico that can alert the public of flood warnings and identify locations of nearby shelters.

  2. Assessment of static flood modeling techniques: application to contrasting marshes flooded during Xynthia (western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Breilh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the performance of raster-based flood modeling methods on a wide diversity of coastal marshes. These methods are applied to the flooding associated with the storm Xynthia, which severely hit the western coast of France in February 2010. Static and semi-dynamic methods are assessed using a combination of LiDAR data, post-storm delineation of flooded areas and sea levels originating from both tide gauge measurements and storm surge modeling. Static methods are applied to 27 marshes showing a wide geomorphological diversity. It appears that these methods are suitable for marshes with a small distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh, which causes these marshes to flood rapidly. On the contrary, these methods overpredict flooded areas for large marshes where the distance between the coastline and the landward boundary of the marsh is large, because the flooding cannot be considered as instantaneous. In this case, semi-dynamic methods based on surge overflowing volume calculations can improve the flooding prediction significantly. This study suggests that static and semi-dynamic flood modeling methods can be attractive and quickly deployed to rapidly produce predictive flood maps of vulnerable areas under certain conditions, particularly for small distances between the coastline and the landward boundary of the low-lying coastal area.

  3. ANALYSIS OF GROWTH AND GAS EXCHANGE OF PLANTS Lonchocarpus sericeus (Poir. D.C. IN FLOODING FOR THE RECOVERY OF THE RIPARIAN FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marcel Sousa Lira

    2013-12-01

    subjected to analysis of variance and subsequently theaverage test (Tukey p <0.05, while the values of gas exchange were taken from the standard deviationsof the mean. Thus, we observe that the flooding caused a reduction in height and dry mass of root / shootratio, from 30 days after treatment application. In addition, flooded plants showed morphological changessuch as hypertrophy of adventitious roots and lenticels, characteristics of species tolerant to flooding. Thenet photosynthetic rate has been reduced by 48.20% compared to control after 60 days. However, despitereductions in growth variables and gas exchange species Lonchocarpus sericeus showed promise in therecovery of riparian vegetation, due to its morphological characteristics of species tolerant to flooding.

  4. Application of polymer flooding technology for enhanced oil recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkyt Kudaivergenov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Application of brine-initiated gelation of gellan for conformance control and water shutoff operations in field conditions was demonstrated. The developed technology was tested in Kumkol oilfield (Kyzylorda region, Kazakhstan on five injection wells. According to the results of the first oilfield test, the amount of additionally recovered oil during 11 months (from October 1, 2013 till September 1, 2014 was equal to 5890 tons. In 2014, the JSC “NIPIneftegas” (Aktau city, Kazakhstan carried out the second pilot test of polymer flooding technology on the same oilfield. The amount of additionally recovered oil during eight months (from October 2014 till May 2015 was equal to 8695 tons. The technology was tested for water shut-off purposes in producing well of Karabulak oilfield. After one-month treatment of production well the amount of water decreased 16 times in comparison with previous results.

  5. Establishment and Practical Application of Flood Warning Stage in Taiwan's River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hsueh; Chia Yeh, Keh-

    2017-04-01

    result is decided by this rate. The flood early warning time is divided into two levels, the first level is 2 hours, evacuation time for the public, the second level is 5 hours for the implementation of unit preparation time. Finally, The flood warning stages are practical application in 20 water level stations have been incorporated into the flood early warning system of the Danshuei river basin in Taiwan.

  6. EVALUATION OF GAS EXCHANGES IN DIFFERENT Prunus SPP. ROOTSTOCKS UNDER DROUGHT AND FLOODING STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELSA KUHN KLUMB

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The state of Rio Grande do Sul is the largest peach productor in Brazil; however, it still possesses poor yield values when compared with other states. One of the problems associated with this is the occurrence of soils with drainage problems, mainly in Pelotas region, which depending on the year period, may undergo water deficit or flooding situations in the great majority of the years, which harm the crop development and yield. Among the harmful effects caused by these stresses stand out, the decrease in the net assimilation rate, closure of stomata, reduction of the cell activities, production of reactive oxygen species, membrane and protein destabilization. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate in what magnitude of the gaseous exchange parameters of Prunus spp. rootstocks are influenced under drought and flood stress. In the experiment, gas exchange parameters net photosynthetic rate (A stomata conductance (gs, intercellular carbon (Ci and transpiration (E] were evaluated in three Prunus spp. rootstocks (peach tree ‘Capdeboscq’ and plum trees ‘Julior’ and ‘Marianna 2624’ under three water conditions (control, water deficit and soil flooding for seven days. The three rootstocks proved more susceptible to flooding than to water deficit, only varying in response time, which is intrinsic to each genotype, and that there is a genetic variability for the tolerance to the studied stresses. The variation on physiological response to the water deficit stress was later in both evaluated genotypes. However, in general, ‘Julior’ presented greater tolerance to both stresses when compared to the other rootstocks evaluated. Such information is useful to help in the choice of rootstocks for plant production, in the orchard management and for plant breeding programs, aiming at the selection of new genotypes with increased tolerance to these water stresses.

  7. Application of Indigenous Knowledge to Flood Prevention and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the last three decades, flooding has become a nightmare associated with rainfall in all the continents of the world, as it records heavy casualties everywhere and each time it occurred. Flooding is now a big and seemingly unstoppable environmental threat to rural and urban settlements, in both developed and developing ...

  8. 24 CFR 1000.38 - What flood insurance requirements are applicable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What flood insurance requirements are applicable? 1000.38 Section 1000.38 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT NATIVE AMERICAN HOUSING ACTIVITIES General § 1000.38 What flood...

  9. Rice leaf hydrophobicity and gas films are conferred by a wax synthesis gene (LGF1) and contribute to flood tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurokawa, Yusuke; Nagai, Keisuke; Hung, Phung Danh

    2018-01-01

    Floods impede gas (O2and CO2) exchange between plants and the environment. A mechanism to enhance plant gas exchange under water comprises gas films on hydrophobic leaves, but the genetic regulation of this mechanism is unknown. We used a rice mutant (dripping wet leaf 7, drp7) which does...... not retain gas films on leaves, and its wild-type (Kinmaze), in gene discovery for this trait. Gene complementation was tested in transgenic lines. Functional properties of leaves as related to gas film retention and underwater photosynthesis were evaluated. Leaf Gas Film 1 (LGF1) was identified as the gene...... determining leaf gas films. LGF1 regulates C30 primary alcohol synthesis, which is necessary for abundant epicuticular wax platelets, leaf hydrophobicity and gas films on submerged leaves. This trait enhanced underwater photosynthesis 8.2-fold and contributes to submergence tolerance. Gene function...

  10. The application of enhanced conveyance calculations in flood prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, G.; Pender, G. [Glasgow Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    2000-07-01

    Over the past twenty years extensive research has been conducted on overbank flow behaviour during river floods. When the main channel flow interacts with flood plain flow, secondary losses other than bed friction act to retard the flow. Traditional one-dimensional modelling tools commonly used in the UK, such as ISIS or HEC-RAS, currently take no account of these secondary losses In an attempt to establish the nature and significance of secondary losses the flood channel facility (FCF) was constructed at HR Wallingford in 1987. As a direct result of the meandering channel series B experiments the James and Wark Method (1992) was developed to predict stage discharge relationships. For a given water level, this method will calculate a value of discharge taking into account the secondary losses. The paper will report on the modification of the method to fit into the river modelling software ISIS. Within the ISIS framework the James and Wark Method is used to calculate conveyance. The aim is to produce a more accurate flood prediction tool than currently exists. The newly developed software has been tested on laboratory data and shown to be highly accurate in both stage discharge and water level prediction. The software has since been applied to natural rivers that have experienced significant flood events. The paper will illustrate the significance of applying flume based conveyance calculation methods at the field scale. (orig.)

  11. A flood geodatabase and its climatological applications: the case of Catalonia for the last century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnolas, M.; Llasat, M. C.

    2007-04-01

    Floods are the natural hazards that produce the highest number of casualties and material damage in the Western Mediterranean. An improvement in flood risk assessment and study of a possible increase in flooding occurrence are therefore needed. To carry out these tasks it is important to have at our disposal extensive knowledge on historical floods and to find an efficient way to manage this geographical data. In this paper we present a complete flood database spanning the 20th century for the whole of Catalonia (NE Spain), which includes documentary information (affected areas and damage) and instrumental information (meteorological and hydrological records). This geodatabase, named Inungama, has been implemented on a GIS (Geographical Information System) in order to display all the information within a given geographical scenario, as well as to carry out an analysis thereof using queries, overlays and calculus. Following a description of the type and amount of information stored in the database and the structure of the information system, the first applications of Inungama are presented. The geographical distribution of floods shows the localities which are more likely to be flooded, confirming that the most affected municipalities are the most densely populated ones in coastal areas. Regarding the existence of an increase in flooding occurrence, a temporal analysis has been carried out, showing a steady increase over the last 30 years.

  12. Neural networks-based operational prototype for flash flood forecasting: application to Liane flash floods (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Liane River is a small costal river, famous for its floods, which can affect the city of Boulogne-sur-Mer. Due to the complexity of land cover and hydrologic processes, a black-box non-linear modelling was chosen using neural networks. The multilayer perceptron model, known for its property of universal approximation is thus chosen. Four models were designed, each one for one forecasting horizon using rainfall forecasts: 24h, 12h, 6h, 3h. The desired output of the model is original: it represents the maximal value of the water level respectively 24h, 12h, 6h, 3h ahead. Working with best forecasts of rain (the observed ones during the event in the past, on the major flood of the database in test set, the model provides excellent forecasts. Nash criteria calculated for the four lead times are 0.98 (3h, 0.97 (6h, 0.91 (12h, 0.89 (24h. Designed models were thus estimated as efficient enough to be implemented in a specific tool devoted to real time operational use. The software tool is described hereafter: designed in Java, it presents a friendly interface allowing applying various scenarios of future rainfalls, and a graphical visualization of the predicted maximum water levels and their associated real time observed values.

  13. The U.S. Gas Flooding Experience: CO2 Injection Strategies and Impact on Ultimate Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Lopez, Vanessa [The University of Texas at Austin; Hosseini, Seyyed; Gil-Egui, Ramon

    2017-09-29

    The Permian Basin in West Texas and southwestern New Mexico has seen 45 years of oil reserve growth through CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2 EOR). More than 60 CO2 EOR projects are currently active in the region’s limestone, sandstone and dolomite reservoirs. Water alternating gas (WAG) has been the development strategy of choice in the Permian for several technical and economic reasons. More recently, the technology started to get implemented in the much more porous and permeable clastic depositional systems of the onshore U.S. Gulf Coast. Continued CO2 injection (CGI), as opposed to WAG, was selected as the injection strategy to develop Gulf Coast oil fields, where CO2 injection volumes are significantly larger (up to 6 times larger) than those of the Permian. We conducted a compositional simulation based study with the objective of comparing the CO2 utilization ratios (volume of CO2 injected to produce a barrel of oil) of 4 conventional and novel CO2 injection strategies: (1) continuous gas injection (CGI), (2) water alternating gas (WAG), (3) water curtain injection (WCI), and (4) WAG and WCI combination. These injection scenarios were simulated using the GEM module from the Computer Modeling Group (CMG). GEM is an advanced general equation-of-state compositional simulator, which includes equation of state, CO2 miscible flood, CO2/brine interactions, and complex phase behavior. The simulator is set up to model three fluid phases including water, oil, and gas. Our study demonstrates how the selected field development strategy has a significant impact on the ultimate recovery of CO2-EOR projects, with GCI injection providing maximum oil recovery in absolute volume terms, but with WAG offering a more balanced technical-economical approach.

  14. Application of Medium and Seasonal Flood Forecasts for Agriculture Damage Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, Shamsul; Ballio, Francesco; Menoni, Scira

    2015-04-01

    Early warning is a key element for disaster risk reduction. In recent decades, major advancements have been made in medium range and seasonal flood forecasting. This progress provides a great opportunity to reduce agriculture damage and improve advisories for early action and planning for flood hazards. This approach can facilitate proactive rather than reactive management of the adverse consequences of floods. In the agricultural sector, for instance, farmers can take a diversity of options such as changing cropping patterns, applying fertilizer, irrigating and changing planting timing. An experimental medium range (1-10 day) and seasonal (20-25 days) flood forecasting model has been developed for Thailand and Bangladesh. It provides 51 sets of discharge ensemble forecasts of 1-10 days with significant persistence and high certainty and qualitative outlooks for 20-25 days. This type of forecast could assist farmers and other stakeholders for differential preparedness activities. These ensembles probabilistic flood forecasts have been customized based on user-needs for community-level application focused on agriculture system. The vulnerabilities of agriculture system were calculated based on exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity. Indicators for risk and vulnerability assessment were conducted through community consultations. The forecast lead time requirement, user-needs, impacts and management options for crops were identified through focus group discussions, informal interviews and community surveys. This paper illustrates potential applications of such ensembles for probabilistic medium range and seasonal flood forecasts in a way that is not commonly practiced globally today.

  15. Underground- and surface technologies for joint flooding of gas caves; Unter- und Uebertagetechnik als Einheit zur Flutung von Gaskavernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raudonus, K.; Miersch, D. [UGS GmbH, Mittenwalde (Germany); Haensler, G. [Verbundnetz Gas AG, Leipzig (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    After 20 years of operation the oldes caves in the Bernburg storage VNG AG had to repair the facilities. This required flooding of the caves from the start. At the same time geomechanical reserves which were reevaluated on the basis of redimensioning could be used by deepening. Flooding and relocation of the displaced gas should not disturb gas storage and brine extraction. As one of the caves was filled with gas for the first time it was possible to use the brine. Flooding and gas filling were coupled. [Deutsch] Nach mehr als 20jaehriger Betriebszeit der aeltesten Kavernen auf dem Speicher Bernburg stand fuer die VNG AG die Aufgabe der Reparatur. Der Umfang der Arbeiten machte von Anfang an das vollstaendige Fluten der Kavernen erforderlich. Gleicheitig ergab sich dabei die Moeglichkeit, seinerzeit verbliebene geomechanische Reserven, die auf Basis einer auf aktuelle Erkenntnisse beruhenden Neudimensionierung bewertet wurden, durch Nachsolung auszuschoepfen. Die Heranfuehrung des Flutmediums und die Umlagerung des verdraengten Gases sollten ohne nachteilige Rueckwirkung auf den Gasspeicher- und Solegewinnungsbetrieb erfolgen. Da zu diesem Zeitpunkt eine Kaverne in der Phase der Gaserstbefuellung stand, konnte die ausgetragene Sole genutzt werden. Flutprozess und Gaserstbefuellung wurden somit im direkt gekoppelten Betrieb durchgefuehrt. (orig./MSK)

  16. [Smartphone application for blood gas interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obiols, Julien; Bardo, Pascale; Garnier, Jean-Pierre; Brouard, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Ninety four per cent of health professionals use their smartphone for business purposes and more than 50% has medical applications. The «Blood Gas» application was created to be part of this dynamic and participate to e-health development in France. The «Blood Gas» application facilitates interpretation of the results of blood gas analysis using an algorithm developed with reference to a medical bibliography. It can detect some complex or intricate acid-base disorders in evaluating the effectiveness of the secondary response. The application also studied the respiratory status of the patient by calculating the PaO2/FiO2 ratio and the alveol-arterial gradient. It also indicates the presence of a shunt effect. Finally, a specific module to calculate the SID (strong ion difference) depending on the model of Stewart can detect complex acid-base disorders.

  17. Solid state gas sensors. Industrial application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Maximilian [Siemens AG, Muenchen (Germany). Corporate Technology; Lehmann, Mirko (eds.) [Innovative Sensor Technology (IST) AG, Wattwil (Switzerland)

    2012-11-01

    Written by experts. Richly illustrated. Encourages future research and investments in the fascinating field of gas sensors. Gas sensor products are very often the key to innovations in the fields of comfort, security, health, environment, and energy savings. This compendium focuses on what the research community labels as solid state gas sensors, where a gas directly changes the electrical properties of a solid, serving as the primary signal for the transducer. It starts with a visionary approach to how life in future buildings can benefit from the power of gas sensors. The requirements for various applications, such as for example the automotive industry, are then discussed in several chapters. Further contributions highlight current trends in new sensing principles, such as the use of nanomaterials and how to use new sensing principles for innovative applications in e.g. meteorology. So as to bring together the views of all the different groups needed to produce new gas sensing applications, renowned industrial and academic representatives report on their experiences and expectations in research, applications and industrialisation.

  18. Combustion Sensors: Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Mel

    2002-01-01

    This report documents efforts to survey the current research directions in sensor technology for gas turbine systems. The work is driven by the current and future requirements on system performance and optimization. Accurate real time measurements of velocities, pressure, temperatures, and species concentrations will be required for objectives such as combustion instability attenuation, pollutant reduction, engine health management, exhaust profile control via active control, etc. Changing combustor conditions - engine aging, flow path slagging, or rapid maneuvering - will require adaptive responses; the effectiveness of such will be only as good as the dynamic information available for processing. All of these issues point toward the importance of continued sensor development. For adequate control of the combustion process, sensor data must include information about the above mentioned quantities along with equivalence ratios and radical concentrations, and also include both temporal and spatial velocity resolution. Ultimately these devices must transfer from the laboratory to field installations, and thus must become low weight and cost, reliable and maintainable. A primary conclusion from this study is that the optics-based sensor science will be the primary diagnostic in future gas turbine technologies.

  19. Numerical Well Testing Interpretation Model and Applications in Crossflow Double-Layer Reservoirs by Polymer Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents numerical well testing interpretation model and analysis techniques to evaluate formation by using pressure transient data acquired with logging tools in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. A well testing model is established based on rheology experiments and by considering shear, diffusion, convection, inaccessible pore volume (IPV, permeability reduction, wellbore storage effect, and skin factors. The type curves were then developed based on this model, and parameter sensitivity is analyzed. Our research shows that the type curves have five segments with different flow status: (I wellbore storage section, (II intermediate flow section (transient section, (III mid-radial flow section, (IV crossflow section (from low permeability layer to high permeability layer, and (V systematic radial flow section. The polymer flooding field tests prove that our model can accurately determine formation parameters in crossflow double-layer reservoirs by polymer flooding. Moreover, formation damage caused by polymer flooding can also be evaluated by comparison of the interpreted permeability with initial layered permeability before polymer flooding. Comparison of the analysis of numerical solution based on flow mechanism with observed polymer flooding field test data highlights the potential for the application of this interpretation method in formation evaluation and enhanced oil recovery (EOR.

  20. Challenges estimating the return period of extreme floods for reinsurance applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Emma; Busby, Kathryn; Liu, Ye

    2013-04-01

    Mapping and modelling extreme natural events is fundamental within the insurance and reinsurance industry for assessing risk. For example, insurers might use a 1 in 100-year flood hazard map to set the annual premium of a property, whilst a reinsurer might assess the national scale loss associated with the 1 in 200-year return period for capital and regulatory requirements. Using examples from a range of international flood projects, we focus on exploring how to define what the n-year flood looks like for predictive uses in re/insurance applications, whilst considering challenges posed by short historical flow records and the spatial and temporal complexities of flood. First, we shall explore the use of extreme value theory (EVT) statistics for extrapolating data beyond the range of observations in a marginal analysis. In particular, we discuss how to estimate the return period of historical flood events and explore the impact that a range of statistical decisions have on these estimates. Decisions include: (1) selecting which distribution type to apply (e.g. generalised Pareto distribution (GPD) vs. generalised extreme value distribution (GEV)); (2) if former, the choice of the threshold above which the GPD is fitted to the data; and (3) the necessity to perform a cluster analysis to group flow peaks to temporally represent individual flood events. Second, we summarise a specialised multivariate extreme value model, which combines the marginal analysis above with dependence modelling to generate industry standard event sets containing thousands of simulated, equi-probable floods across a region/country. These events represent the typical range of anticipated flooding across a region and can be used to estimate the largest or most widespread events that are expected to occur. Finally, we summarise how a reinsurance catastrophe model combines the event set with detailed flood hazard maps to estimate the financial cost of floods; both the full event set and also

  1. Application research for 4D technology in flood forecasting and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Liu, Yutong; Cao, Hongjie

    1998-08-01

    In order to monitor the region which disaster flood happened frequently in China, satisfy the great need of province governments for high accuracy monitoring and evaluated data for disaster and improve the efficiency for repelling disaster, under the Ninth Five-year National Key Technologies Programme, the method was researched for flood forecasting and evaluation using satellite and aerial remoted sensed image and land monitor data. The effective and practicable flood forecasting and evaluation system was established and DongTing Lake was selected as the test site. Modern Digital photogrammetry, remote sensing and GIS technology was used in this system, the disastrous flood could be forecasted and loss can be evaluated base on '4D' (DEM -- Digital Elevation Model, DOQ -- Digital OrthophotoQuads, DRG -- Digital Raster Graph, DTI -- Digital Thematic Information) disaster background database. The technology of gathering and establishing method for '4D' disaster environment background database, application technology for flood forecasting and evaluation based on '4D' background data and experimental results for DongTing Lake test site were introduced in detail in this paper.

  2. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project

  3. High temperature gas-cooled reactor: gas turbine application study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The high-temperature capability of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) is a distinguishing characteristic which has long been recognized as significant both within the US and within foreign nuclear energy programs. This high-temperature capability of the HTGR concept leads to increased efficiency in conventional applications and, in addition, makes possible a number of unique applications in both electrical generation and industrial process heat. In particular, coupling the HTGR nuclear heat source to the Brayton (gas turbine) Cycle offers significant potential benefits to operating utilities. This HTGR-GT Application Study documents the effort to evaluate the appropriateness of the HTGR-GT as an HTGR Lead Project. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-GT technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-GT markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-GT plants, and evaluation of the program and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-GT technology through the completion of the Lead Project.

  4. Floods and Flash Flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods and flash flooding Now is the time to determine your area’s flood risk. If you are not sure whether you ... If you are in a floodplain, consider buying flood insurance. Do not drive around barricades. If your ...

  5. Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y.

    1995-01-01

    For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed

  6. Flooding characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in a horizontal U bend pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaguchi, T.; Hosokawa, S.; Fujii, Y. [Kobe Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For next-generation nuclear reactors, hybrid safety systems which consist of active and passive safety systems have been planned. Steam generators with horizontal U bend pipelines will be used as one of the passive safety systems. It is required to clarify flow characteristics, especially the onset of flooding, in the horizontal U bend pipelines in order to examine their safety. Flooding in vertical pipes has been studied extensively. However, there is little study on flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines. It is supposed that the onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipelines is different from that in vertical pipes. On the other hand, liquid is generated due to condensation of steam in pipes of the horizontal steam generators at the loss of coolant accident because the steam generators will be used as a condenser of a cooling system of steam from the reactor. It is necessary to simulate this situation by the supply of water at the middle of horizontal pipe. In the present paper, experiments were carried out using a horizontal U bend pipeline with a liquid supply section in the midway of pipeline. The onset of flooding in the horizontal U bend pipeline was measured. Effects of the length of horizontal pipe and the radius of U bend on the onset of flooding were discussed.

  7. Simulating floods : On the application of a 2D-hydraulic model for flood hazard and risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkema, D.

    2007-01-01

    Over the last decades, river floods in Europe seem to occur more frequently and are causing more and more economic and emotional damage. Understanding the processes causing flooding and the development of simulation models to evaluate countermeasures to control that damage are important issues. This

  8. A relative permeability model to derive fractional-flow functions of water-alternating-gas and surfactant-alternating-gas foam core-floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mossawy, Mohammed Idrees; Demiral, Birol; Raja, D M Anwar

    2013-01-01

    Foam is used in enhanced oil recovery to improve the sweep efficiency by controlling the gas mobility. The surfactant-alternating-gas (SAG) foam process is used as an alternative to the water-alternating-gas (WAG) injection. In the WAG technique, the high mobility and the low density of the gas lead the gas to flow in channels through the high permeability zones of the reservoir and to rise to the top of the reservoir by gravity segregation. As a result, the sweep efficiency decreases and there will be more residual oil in the reservoir. The foam can trap the gas in liquid films and reduces the gas mobility. The fractional-flow method describes the physics of immiscible displacements in porous media. Finding the water fractional flow theoretically or experimentally as a function of the water saturation represents the heart of this method. The relative permeability function is the conventional way to derive the fractional-flow function. This study presents an improved relative permeability model to derive the fractional-flow functions for WAG and SAG foam core-floods. The SAG flow regimes are characterized into weak foam, strong foam without a shock front and strong foam with a shock front. (paper)

  9. GAS EXCHANGE IN YOUNG PLANTS OF Tabebuia aurea(Bignoniaceae Juss. SUBJECTED TO FLOODING STRESS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademir Kleber Morbeck Oliveira

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Paratudo (Tabebuia aurea is a species occurring in the Pantanal of Miranda, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, an area characterized by seasonal flooding. To evaluate the tolerance of this plant to flooding, plants aged four months were grown in flooded soil and in non-flooded soil (control group. Stomatal conductance, transpiration and CO2 assimilation were measured during the stress (48 days and recovery (11 days period, totalling 59 days. The values of stomatal conductance of the control group and stressed plants at the beginning of the flooded were 0.33 mol m-2s-1 and reached 0.02 mol m-2 s-1 (46th day at the end of this event. For the transpiration parameter, the initial rate was 3.1 mol m s-1, and the final rate reached 0.2 or 0.3 mol m-2 s-1 (47/48 th day. The initial photosynthesis rate was 8.9 mmol m-2s-1 and oscillated after the sixth day, and the rate reached zero on the 48th day. When the photosynthesis rate reached zero, the potted plants were dried, and the rate was analyzed (11th day. The following values were obtained for dried plants: stomatal conductance = 0.26 mol m-2 s-1, transpiration rate = 2.5 mol m-2 s-1 and photosynthesis rate = 7.8 mmol m-2 s-1. Flooded soil reduced photosynthesis and stomatal conductance, leading to the hypertrophy of the lenticels. These parameters recovered and after this period, and plants exhibited tolerance to flooding stress by reducing their physiological activities.

  10. Leaf gas exchange and nutrient use efficiency help explain the distribution of two Neotropical mangroves under contrasting flooding and salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona-Olarte, Pablo; Krauss, Ken W.; Twilley, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa co-occur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1) were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (gw), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE), and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE) were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and stomatal conductance and gw, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated) during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for assimilation at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  11. Leaf Gas Exchange and Nutrient Use Efficiency Help Explain the Distribution of Two Neotropical Mangroves under Contrasting Flooding and Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cardona-Olarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizophora mangle and Laguncularia racemosa cooccur along many intertidal floodplains in the Neotropics. Their patterns of dominance shift along various gradients, coincident with salinity, soil fertility, and tidal flooding. We used leaf gas exchange metrics to investigate the strategies of these two species in mixed culture to simulate competition under different salinity concentrations and hydroperiods. Semidiurnal tidal and permanent flooding hydroperiods at two constant salinity regimes (10 g L−1 and 40 g L−1 were simulated over 10 months. Assimilation (A, stomatal conductance (gw, intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci, instantaneous photosynthetic water use efficiency (PWUE, and photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE were determined at the leaf level for both species over two time periods. Rhizophora mangle had significantly higher PWUE than did L. racemosa seedlings at low salinities; however, L. racemosa had higher PNUE and gw and, accordingly, had greater intercellular CO2 (calculated during measurements. Both species maintained similar capacities for A at 10 and 40 g L−1 salinity and during both permanent and tidal hydroperiod treatments. Hydroperiod alone had no detectable effect on leaf gas exchange. However, PWUE increased and PNUE decreased for both species at 40 g L−1 salinity compared to 10 g L−1. At 40 g L−1 salinity, PNUE was higher for L. racemosa than R. mangle with tidal flooding. These treatments indicated that salinity influences gas exchange efficiency, might affect how gases are apportioned intercellularly, and accentuates different strategies for distributing leaf nitrogen to photosynthesis for these two species while growing competitively.

  12. Quantifying the effect of autonomous adaptation to global river flood projections: application to future flood risk assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Youhei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hirabayashi, Yukiko

    2018-01-01

    This study represents the first attempt to quantify the effects of autonomous adaptation on the projection of global flood hazards and to assess future flood risk by including this effect. A vulnerability scenario, which varies according to the autonomous adaptation effect for conventional disaster mitigation efforts, was developed based on historical vulnerability values derived from flood damage records and a river inundation simulation. Coupled with general circulation model outputs and future socioeconomic scenarios, potential future flood fatalities and economic loss were estimated. By including the effect of autonomous adaptation, our multimodel ensemble estimates projected a 2.0% decrease in potential flood fatalities and an 821% increase in potential economic losses by 2100 under the highest emission scenario together with a large population increase. Vulnerability changes reduced potential flood consequences by 64%-72% in terms of potential fatalities and 28%-42% in terms of potential economic losses by 2100. Although socioeconomic changes made the greatest contribution to the potential increased consequences of future floods, about a half of the increase of potential economic losses was mitigated by autonomous adaptation. There is a clear and positive relationship between the global temperature increase from the pre-industrial level and the estimated mean potential flood economic loss, while there is a negative relationship with potential fatalities due to the autonomous adaptation effect. A bootstrapping analysis suggests a significant increase in potential flood fatalities (+5.7%) without any adaptation if the temperature increases by 1.5 °C-2.0 °C, whereas the increase in potential economic loss (+0.9%) was not significant. Our method enables the effects of autonomous adaptation and additional adaptation efforts on climate-induced hazards to be distinguished, which would be essential for the accurate estimation of the cost of adaptation to

  13. An overview of the applications for early warning and mapping of the flood events in New Brunswick

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; McGillivray, E.; Anton, F.

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the on-line flood warning implementation in the province of New Brunswick, Canada. The on-line flood warning applications are available via the “River Watch” website provided by the New Brunswick Department of Environment. Advanced GIS technology combined with hydr....... The searchable historical database containing reports about the impact of past floods and estimated damages provides a valuable insight into the past of the province of New Brunswick and the motivation for development of the system for flood prediction and management....... with hydrological modelling, provide a mapping and visualization tool that can be used by emergency managers and the general public to predict possible flood zones. The applications developed for “River Watch” support the processing of large amounts of digital terrain and hydrological data, which are then...

  14. Flooding and Flood Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, K.N.; Fallon, J.D.; Lorenz, D.L.; Stark, J.R.; Menard, Jason; Easter, K.W.; Perry, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Floods result in great human disasters globally and nationally, causing an average of $4 billion of damages each year in the United States. Minnesota has its share of floods and flood damages, and the state has awarded nearly $278 million to local units of government for flood mitigation projects through its Flood Hazard Mitigation Grant Program. Since 1995, flood mitigation in the Red River Valley has exceeded $146 million. Considerable local and state funding has been provided to manage and mitigate problems of excess stormwater in urban areas, flooding of farmlands, and flood damages at road crossings. The cumulative costs involved with floods and flood mitigation in Minnesota are not known precisely, but it is safe to conclude that flood mitigation is a costly business. This chapter begins with a description of floods in Minneosta to provide examples and contrasts across the state. Background material is presented to provide a basic understanding of floods and flood processes, predication, and management and mitigation. Methods of analyzing and characterizing floods are presented because they affect how we respond to flooding and can influence relevant practices. The understanding and perceptions of floods and flooding commonly differ among those who work in flood forecasting, flood protection, or water resource mamnagement and citizens and businesses affected by floods. These differences can become magnified following a major flood, pointing to the need for better understanding of flooding as well as common language to describe flood risks and the uncertainty associated with determining such risks. Expectations of accurate and timely flood forecasts and our ability to control floods do not always match reality. Striving for clarity is important in formulating policies that can help avoid recurring flood damages and costs.

  15. Gas turbine applications in the drying industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapper, R.C.

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to determine if it is feasible to utilize the hot exhaust gas discharged from gas turbines in direct applications. This report illustrates the technical feasibility and economic viability of using gas turbines in drying applications. The size of turbines in this investigation ranges from 2 MW to 10 MW. In addition, an implementation strategy has been developed to employ this new system. The method used to structure the scope of this undertaking is as follows: Step 1. Collecting information by contacting dryer manufacturer and companies drying different products. Information was also gathered by literature studies and the internet. Thomas register is a great tool when it comes to company and market searches. Step 2. Looking into if it is technically possible to use the exhaust gas directly into dryers. The parameters needed for these calculations were gathered in step 1, and some of the more important are temperature, mass flow, heat demand, and information about how the dryer works. The computer program Gatecycle is a great help when it comes to finding the right turbine for a dryer. Step 3. When it was obvious that it would work for some drying applications, the profitability was tested with the help of some spreadsheets. Step 4. The market was also evaluated as a last step. Market analysis was performed with the help of Porter's (Porter is one of the most famous strategy gurus) different models. The point of this is to find ways to be unique so that competitors will have a harder time copying the new system. It is shown in the report that for the right kind of projects, this new application for turbines is profitable. It is important to realize that this new system is not profitable for every drying plant. This is a general study with general input parameters. Every plant has its' own in-parameters and has to be evaluated individually. The most important factors determining if it is profitable or not are: Local electricity

  16. An application of a hydraulic model simulator in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, J. M.; Romanowicz, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The standard procedure of climate change impact assessment on future hydrological extremes consists of a chain of consecutive actions, starting from the choice of GCM driven by an assumed CO2 scenario, through downscaling of climatic forcing to a catchment scale, estimation of hydrological extreme indices using hydrological modelling tools and subsequent derivation of flood risk maps with the help of a hydraulic model. Among many possible sources of uncertainty, the main are the uncertainties related to future climate scenarios, climate models, downscaling techniques and hydrological and hydraulic models. Unfortunately, we cannot directly assess the impact of these different sources of uncertainties on flood risk in future due to lack of observations of future climate realizations. The aim of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the processes involved, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-sections. The study shows that the application of a simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the

  17. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  18. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... announce they have received an application for the licensing of a natural gas deepwater port and the...

  19. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration [USCG-2010-0993] Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application AGENCY: Maritime Administration... application describes an offshore natural gas deepwater port facility that would be located approximately 16.2...

  20. Application of the Unbounded Probability Distribution of the Johnson System for Floods Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Aranda Daniel Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Floods designs constitute a key to estimate the sizing of new water works and to review the hydrological security of existing ones. The most reliable method for estimating their magnitudes associated with certain return periods is to fit a probabilistic model to available records of maximum annual flows. Since such model is at first unknown, several models need to be tested in order to select the most appropriate one according to an arbitrary statistical index, commonly the standard error of fit. Several probability distributions have shown versatility and consistency of results when processing floods records and therefore, its application has been established as a norm or precept. The Johnson System has three families of distributions, one of which is the Log–Normal model with three parameters of fit, which is also the border between the bounded distributions and those with no upper limit. These families of distributions have four adjustment parameters and converge to the standard normal distribution, so that their predictions are obtained with such a model. Having contrasted the three probability distributions established by precept in 31 historical records of hydrological events, the Johnson system is applied to such data. The results of the unbounded distribution of the Johnson system (SJU are compared to the optimal results from the three distributions. It was found that the predictions of the SJU distribution are similar to those obtained with the other models in the low return periods ( 1000 years. Because of its theoretical support, the SJU model is recommended in flood estimation.

  1. Application of naturally occurring isotopes and artificial radioactive tracer for monitoring water flooding in oil field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Khan, I.H.; Farooq, M.; Tasneem, M.A.; Rafiq, M.; Din, U.G.; Gul, S.

    2002-03-01

    Water flooding is an important operation to enhance oil recovery. Water is injected in the oil formation under high pressure through an injection well. Movement of the injected water is needed to be traced to test the performance of water flood, investigate unexpected anomalies in flow and verify suspected geological barriers or flow channels, etc. In the present study environmental isotopes and artificial radiotracer (tritium) were used at Fimkassar Oil Field of Oil and Gas Development Company Limited (OGDCL) where water flooding was started in March 1996 in Sakessar formation to maintain its pressure and enhance the oil recovery. Environmental isotopes: /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents were used to determine the breakthrough/transit time and contribution of fresh injected water. Water samples were collected from the injection well, production well and some other fields for reference indices of Sakessar Formation during June 1998 to August 1999. These samples were analyzed for the /sup 18/O, /sup 2/H and /sup 3/H, and chloride contents. Results show that the water of production well is mixture of fresh water and formation water. The fresh water contribution varied from 67% to 80%, while remaining component was the old recharged formation water. This percentage did not change significantly from the time of break-through till the last sampling which indicates good mixing in the reservoir and absence of any quick channel. The initial breakthrough time was 27 months as the fresh water contributed significantly in the first appearance of water in the production well in June 1998. Tritium tracer, which was injected in November 1998, appeared in the production well after 8 months. It show that breakthrough time decreased with the passage of time. /sup 14/C of inorganic carbon in the water in Chorgali and Sakessar Formations was also analyzed which indicates that the water is at least few thousand years old. (author)

  2. Aerospace gas/liquid separator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    The space gas/liquid separator, a key component in the heat transport subsystem of a space reactor power system, was developed to remove helium gas from liquid lithium in zero gravity. Helium is generated from lithium irradiation in the reactor core and would reach saturation in lithium after 48 hours of full power operations. The gas/liquid separator is also applicable for large commercial powerplants to deaerate the water before and after the feedwater heaters. Another terrestrial application is for industrial companies to use the gas/liquid separator and wet chemistry to remove all the gases from the air and only discharge clean air to the atmosphere. An additional application that resulted from this gas/liquid separator technology, was separating liquid carbon dioxide from nitrogen. This application is opposite from the space application in that it is removing a liquid from a gas rather than a gas from a liquid

  3. A new automatic synthetic aperture radar-based flood mapping application hosted on the European Space Agency's Grid Processing of Demand Fast Access to Imagery environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matgen, Patrick; Giustarini, Laura; Hostache, Renaud

    2012-10-01

    This paper introduces an automatic flood mapping application that is hosted on the Grid Processing on Demand (GPOD) Fast Access to Imagery (Faire) environment of the European Space Agency. The main objective of the online application is to deliver operationally flooded areas using both recent and historical acquisitions of SAR data. Having as a short-term target the flooding-related exploitation of data generated by the upcoming ESA SENTINEL-1 SAR mission, the flood mapping application consists of two building blocks: i) a set of query tools for selecting the "crisis image" and the optimal corresponding "reference image" from the G-POD archive and ii) an algorithm for extracting flooded areas via change detection using the previously selected "crisis image" and "reference image". Stakeholders in flood management and service providers are able to log onto the flood mapping application to get support for the retrieval, from the rolling archive, of the most appropriate reference image. Potential users will also be able to apply the implemented flood delineation algorithm. The latter combines histogram thresholding, region growing and change detection as an approach enabling the automatic, objective and reliable flood extent extraction from SAR images. Both algorithms are computationally efficient and operate with minimum data requirements. The case study of the high magnitude flooding event that occurred in July 2007 on the Severn River, UK, and that was observed with a moderateresolution SAR sensor as well as airborne photography highlights the performance of the proposed online application. The flood mapping application on G-POD can be used sporadically, i.e. whenever a major flood event occurs and there is a demand for SAR-based flood extent maps. In the long term, a potential extension of the application could consist in systematically extracting flooded areas from all SAR images acquired on a daily, weekly or monthly basis.

  4. Coupled prediction of flash flood response and debris flow occurrence: Application on an alpine extreme flood event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, Elisa; Amponsah, William; Nikolopoulos, Efthymios I.; Marchi, Lorenzo; Marra, Francesco; Zoccatelli, Davide; Borga, Marco

    2018-03-01

    The concurrence of flash floods and debris flows is of particular concern, because it may amplify the hazard corresponding to the individual generative processes. This paper presents a coupled modelling framework for the predictions of flash flood response and of the occurrence of debris flows initiated by channel bed mobilization. The framework combines a spatially distributed flash flood response model and a debris flow initiation model to define a threshold value for the peak flow which permits identification of channelized debris flow initiation. The threshold is defined over the channel network as a function of the upslope area and of the local channel bed slope, and it is based on assumptions concerning the properties of the channel bed material and of the morphology of the channel network. The model is validated using data from an extreme rainstorm that impacted the 140 km2 Vizze basin in the Eastern Italian Alps on August 4-5, 2012. The results show that the proposed methodology has improved skill in identifying the catchments where debris-flows are triggered, compared to the use of simpler thresholds based on rainfall properties.

  5. Application of the "Behind the Barriers" resilience conceptual model to a flooded rail transport system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzva, Michael; Barroca, Bruno

    2017-04-01

    The vulnerability of guided transport systems facing natural hazards is a burning issue for the urban risks management. Experience feedbacks on guided transport systems show they are particularly vulnerable to natural risks, especially flood risks. Besides, the resilience concept is used as a systemic approach for making an accurate analysis of the effect of these natural risks on rail guided transport systems. In this context, several conceptual models of resilience are elaborated for presenting the various possible resilience strategies applied to urban technical systems. One of this resilience conceptual model is the so-called "Behind The Barriers" model based on the identification of four complementary types of resilience: (i) cognitive resilience, linked to knowledge of the risk and the potential failures; (ii) functional resilience, representing the capacity of a system to protect itself from damage while continuing to provide services; (iii) correlative resilience, that characterises the relationship between service demand and the capacity of the system to respond; (iv) organisational resilience, expressing the capacity to mobilise an area much wider than the one affected. In addition to the work already published during the 7th Resilience Engineering Symposium, the purpose of this paper is to offer an application of a resilience conceptual model, the "Behind the Barriers" model, relating to a specific urban technical system, the public guided transport system, and facing a particular risk, a flood hazard. To do that, the paper is focused on a past incident on a French Intercity railway line as a studied case. Indeed, on June 18th and 19th 2013, the rise of the level of the "Gave de Pau" river, located in the municipality of Coarraze, caused many disorders on the intercity line serving the cities of Tarbes, Pau and Lourdes . Among the disorders caused by the flooding, about 100 meters of railway embankments were collapsed. With a constraint to reopen the

  6. Natural gas: modern application - the environmental question

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, Miriam Liliana Hinostroza; Guerra, Sinclair Mallet-Guy

    1999-01-01

    Natural gas has been proposed as a transition fuel. The combustion of natural gas emits less CO 2 per unit of energy than the combustion of other fossil fuels. Increased reliance upon natural gas in preference to other fossil fuels would be encouraged to mitigate greenhouse gas releases while more comprehensive responses are devised to provide more time for adaptation to the inevitable climate change. In this context, the article overviews of natural gas and its relation with the environment

  7. Application of optimization technique for flood damage modeling in river system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Sangita Deb; Choudhury, Parthasarathi

    2018-04-01

    A river system is defined as a network of channels that drains different parts of a basin uniting downstream to form a common outflow. An application of various models found in literatures, to a river system having multiple upstream flows is not always straight forward, involves a lengthy procedure; and with non-availability of data sets model calibration and applications may become difficult. In the case of a river system the flow modeling can be simplified to a large extent if the channel network is replaced by an equivalent single channel. In the present work optimization model formulations based on equivalent flow and applications of the mixed integer programming based pre-emptive goal programming model in evaluating flood control alternatives for a real life river system in India are proposed to be covered in the study.

  8. A new automatic SAR-based flood mapping application hosted on the European Space Agency's grid processing on demand fast access to imagery environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostache, Renaud; Chini, Marco; Matgen, Patrick; Giustarini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    There is a clear need for developing innovative processing chains based on earth observation (EO) data to generate products supporting emergency response and flood management at a global scale. Here an automatic flood mapping application is introduced. The latter is currently hosted on the Grid Processing on Demand (G-POD) Fast Access to Imagery (Faire) environment of the European Space Agency. The main objective of the online application is to deliver flooded areas using both recent and historical acquisitions of SAR data in an operational framework. It is worth mentioning that the method can be applied to both medium and high resolution SAR images. The flood mapping application consists of two main blocks: 1) A set of query tools for selecting the "crisis image" and the optimal corresponding pre-flood "reference image" from the G-POD archive. 2) An algorithm for extracting flooded areas using the previously selected "crisis image" and "reference image". The proposed method is a hybrid methodology, which combines histogram thresholding, region growing and change detection as an approach enabling the automatic, objective and reliable flood extent extraction from SAR images. The method is based on the calibration of a statistical distribution of "open water" backscatter values inferred from SAR images of floods. Change detection with respect to a pre-flood reference image helps reducing over-detection of inundated areas. The algorithms are computationally efficient and operate with minimum data requirements, considering as input data a flood image and a reference image. Stakeholders in flood management and service providers are able to log onto the flood mapping application to get support for the retrieval, from the rolling archive, of the most appropriate pre-flood reference image. Potential users will also be able to apply the implemented flood delineation algorithm. Case studies of several recent high magnitude flooding events (e.g. July 2007 Severn River flood

  9. A Review on Applications of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS in Water Resources and Flood Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most critical natural resources that maintain the ecosystem and support people’s daily life. Pressures on water resources and disaster management are rising primarily due to the unequal spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and pollution, and also partially due to our poor knowledge about the distribution of water resources and poor management of their usage. Remote sensing provides critical data for mapping water resources, measuring hydrological fluxes, monitoring drought and flooding inundation, while geographic information systems (GIS provide the best tools for water resources, drought and flood risk management. This special issue presents the best practices, cutting-edge technologies and applications of remote sensing, GIS and hydrological models for water resource mapping, satellite rainfall measurements, runoff simulation, water body and flood inundation mapping, and risk management. The latest technologies applied include 3D surface model analysis and visualization of glaciers, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV video image classification for turfgrass mapping and irrigation planning, ground penetration radar for soil moisture estimation, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite rainfall measurements, storm hyetography analysis, rainfall runoff and urban flooding simulation, and satellite radar and optical image classification for urban water bodies and flooding inundation. The application of those technologies is expected to greatly relieve the pressures on water resources and allow better mitigation of and adaptation to the disastrous impact of droughts and flooding.

  10. Parts-based geophysical inversion with application to water flooding interface detection and geological facies detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwei

    I built parts-based and manifold based mathematical learning model for the geophysical inverse problem and I applied this approach to two problems. One is related to the detection of the oil-water encroachment front during the water flooding of an oil reservoir. In this application, I propose a new 4D inversion approach based on the Gauss-Newton approach to invert time-lapse cross-well resistance data. The goal of this study is to image the position of the oil-water encroachment front in a heterogeneous clayey sand reservoir. This approach is based on explicitly connecting the change of resistivity to the petrophysical properties controlling the position of the front (porosity and permeability) and to the saturation of the water phase through a petrophysical resistivity model accounting for bulk and surface conductivity contributions and saturation. The distributions of the permeability and porosity are also inverted using the time-lapse resistivity data in order to better reconstruct the position of the oil water encroachment front. In our synthetic test case, we get a better position of the front with the by-products of porosity and permeability inferences near the flow trajectory and close to the wells. The numerical simulations show that the position of the front is recovered well but the distribution of the recovered porosity and permeability is only fair. A comparison with a commercial code based on a classical Gauss-Newton approach with no information provided by the two-phase flow model fails to recover the position of the front. The new approach could be also used for the time-lapse monitoring of various processes in both geothermal fields and oil and gas reservoirs using a combination of geophysical methods. A paper has been published in Geophysical Journal International on this topic and I am the first author of this paper. The second application is related to the detection of geological facies boundaries and their deforation to satisfy to geophysica

  11. Natural gas applications in waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarman, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is engaged in several projects related to the use of natural gas for waste management. These projects can be classified into four categories: cyclonic incineration of gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes; fluidized-bed reclamation of solid wastes; two-stage incineration of liquid and solid wastes; natural gas injection for emissions control. 5 refs., 8 figs

  12. Evaluation of sources, rates and methods of zinc fertilizer applications in flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, A.K.; Deb, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted using 65 Zn as tracer to evaluate the different sources, levels and methods of zinc fertilization in flooded rice. Results indicated that zinc sulphate was either at par or slightly superior to zincated urea from the point of view of yield and total zinc uptake by rice. The Zndff percent was found to be the highest with zincated urea and the lowest was observed with zinc oxide. 5 and 10 kg/ha levels of zinc were statistically at par in this regard. Among the different methods, surface application and thorough mixing with soil were comparable. Root dipping in 1 percent zinc oxide suspension and application of zinc in irrigation water also indicated high zinc absorption by the rice plant. (author)

  13. ENSO-Based Index Insurance: Approach and Peru Flood Risk Management Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, A. F.; Kwon, H.; Lall, U.; Miranda, M. J.; Skees, J. R.

    2006-12-01

    Index insurance has recently been advocated as a useful risk transfer tool for disaster management situations where rapid fiscal relief is desirable, and where estimating insured losses may be difficult, time consuming, or subject to manipulation and falsification. For climate related hazards, a rainfall or temperature index may be proposed. However, rainfall may be highly spatially variable relative to the gauge network, and in many locations data are inadequate to develop an index due to short time-series and the spatial dispersion of stations. In such cases, it may be helpful to consider a climate proxy index as a regional rainfall index. This is particularly useful if a long record is available for the climate index through an independent source and it is well correlated with the regional rainfall hazard. Here, ENSO related climate indices are explored for use as a proxy to extreme rainfall in one of the departments of Peru -- Piura. The ENSO index insurance product may be purchased by banks or microfinance institutions (MFIs) to aid agricultural damage relief in Peru. Crop losses in the region are highly correlated with floods, but are difficult to assess directly. Beyond agriculture, many other sectors suffer as well. Basic infrastructure is destroyed during the most severe events. This disrupts trade for many micro-enterprises. The reliability and quality of the local rainfall data is variable. Averaging the financial risk across the region is desirable. Some issues with the implementation of the proxy ENSO index are identified and discussed. Specifically, we explore (a) the reliability of the index at different levels of probability of exceedance of maximum seasonal rainfall; (b) the potential for clustering of payoffs; (c) the potential that the index could be predicted with some lead time prior to the flood season; and (d) evidence for climate change or non-stationarity in the flood exceedance probability from the long ENSO record. Finally, prospects for

  14. The "Prediflood" database of historical floods in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula) AD 1035-2013, and its potential applications in flood analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriendos, M.; Ruiz-Bellet, J. L.; Tuset, J.; Mazón, J.; Balasch, J. C.; Pino, D.; Ayala, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    "Prediflood" is a database of historical floods that occurred in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula), between the 11th century and the 21st century. More than 2700 flood cases are catalogued, and more than 1100 flood events. This database contains information acquired under modern historiographical criteria and it is, therefore, suitable for use in multidisciplinary flood analysis techniques, such as meteorological or hydraulic reconstructions.

  15. DAFNE: A Matlab toolbox for Bayesian multi-source remote sensing and ancillary data fusion, with application to flood mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addabbo, Annarita; Refice, Alberto; Lovergine, Francesco P.; Pasquariello, Guido

    2018-03-01

    High-resolution, remotely sensed images of the Earth surface have been proven to be of help in producing detailed flood maps, thanks to their synoptic overview of the flooded area and frequent revisits. However, flood scenarios can be complex situations, requiring the integration of different data in order to provide accurate and robust flood information. Several processing approaches have been recently proposed to efficiently combine and integrate heterogeneous information sources. In this paper, we introduce DAFNE, a Matlab®-based, open source toolbox, conceived to produce flood maps from remotely sensed and other ancillary information, through a data fusion approach. DAFNE is based on Bayesian Networks, and is composed of several independent modules, each one performing a different task. Multi-temporal and multi-sensor data can be easily handled, with the possibility of following the evolution of an event through multi-temporal output flood maps. Each DAFNE module can be easily modified or upgraded to meet different user needs. The DAFNE suite is presented together with an example of its application.

  16. Ideal-gas thermodynamic properties for natural-gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeschke, M.; Schley, P.

    1995-01-01

    Calculating caloric properties from a thermal equation of state requires information such as isobaric heat capacities in the ideal-gas state as a function of temperature. In this work, values for the parameters of the c p o correlation proposed by Aly and Lee were newly determined for 21 pure gases which are compounds of natural gas mixtures. The values of the parameters were adjusted to selected c p o data calculated form spectroscopic data for temperatures ranging from 10 to 1000 K. The data sources used are discussed and compared with literature data deduced from theoretic models and caloric measurements. The parameters presented will be applied in a current GERG project for evaluating equations of state (e.g., the AGA 8 equation) for their suitability for calculating caloric properties

  17. A Participatory Modeling Application of a Distributed Hydrologic Model in Nuevo Leon, Mexico for the 2010 Hurricane Alex Flood Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baish, A. S.; Vivoni, E. R.; Payan, J. G.; Robles-Morua, A.; Basile, G. M.

    2011-12-01

    A distributed hydrologic model can help bring consensus among diverse stakeholders in regional flood planning by producing quantifiable sets of alternative futures. This value is acute in areas with high uncertainties in hydrologic conditions and sparse observations. In this study, we conduct an application of the Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator (tRIBS) in the Santa Catarina basin of Nuevo Leon, Mexico, where Hurricane Alex in July 2010 led to catastrophic flooding of the capital city of Monterrey. Distributed model simulations utilize best-available information on the regional topography, land cover, and soils obtained from Mexican government agencies or analysis of remotely-sensed imagery from MODIS and ASTER. Furthermore, we developed meteorological forcing for the flood event based on multiple data sources, including three local gauge networks, satellite-based estimates from TRMM and PERSIANN, and the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS). Remotely-sensed data allowed us to quantify rainfall distributions in the upland, rural portions of the Santa Catarina that are sparsely populated and ungauged. Rural areas had significant contributions to the flood event and as a result were considered by stakeholders for flood control measures, including new reservoirs and upland vegetation management. Participatory modeling workshops with the stakeholders revealed a disconnect between urban and rural populations in regard to understanding the hydrologic conditions of the flood event and the effectiveness of existing and potential flood control measures. Despite these challenges, the use of the distributed flood forecasts developed within this participatory framework facilitated building consensus among diverse stakeholders and exploring alternative futures in the basin.

  18. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    OpenAIRE

    Devikala, S.; Kamaraj, P.

    2011-01-01

    Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In t...

  19. Application of hydrometeorological coupled European flood forecasting operational real time system in Yellow River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-qi Yan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the application of the European flood forecasting operational real time system (EFFORTS to the Yellow River. An automatic data pre-processing program was developed to provide real-time hydrometeorological data. Various GIS layers were collected and developed to meet the demands of the distributed hydrological model in the EFFORTS. The model parameters were calibrated and validated based on more than ten years of historical hydrometeorological data from the study area. The San-Hua Basin (from the Sanmenxia Reservoir to the Huayuankou Hydrological Station, the most geographically important area of the Yellow River, was chosen as the study area. The analysis indicates that the EFFORTS enhances the work efficiency, extends the flood forecasting lead time, and attains an acceptable level of forecasting accuracy in the San-Hua Basin, with a mean deterministic coefficient at Huayuankou Station, the basin outlet, of 0.90 in calibration and 0.96 in validation. The analysis also shows that the simulation accuracy is better for the southern part than for the northern part of the San-Hua Basin. This implies that, along with the characteristics of the basin and the mechanisms of runoff generation of the hydrological model, the hydrometeorological data play an important role in simulation of hydrological behavior.

  20. Origin of Scale-Dependent Dispersivity and Its Implications For Miscible Gas Flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Bryant; Russ Johns; Larry Lake; Thomas Harmon

    2008-09-30

    Dispersive mixing has an important impact on the effectiveness of miscible floods. Simulations routinely assume Fickian dispersion, yet it is well established that dispersivity depends on the scale of measurement. This is one of the main reasons that a satisfactory method for design of field-scale miscible displacement processes is still not available. The main objective of this project was to improve the understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of dispersion and mixing, particularly at the pore scale. To this end, microsensors were developed and used in the laboratory to measure directly the solute concentrations at the scale of individual pores; the origin of hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated from first principles of laminar flow and diffusion at the grain scale in simple but geometrically completely defined porous media; techniques to use flow reversal to distinguish the contribution to dispersion of convective spreading from that of true mixing; and the field scale impact of permeability heterogeneity on hydrodynamic dispersion was evaluated numerically. This project solved a long-standing problem in solute transport in porous media by quantifying the physical basis for the scaling of dispersion coefficient with the 1.2 power of flow velocity. The researchers also demonstrated that flow reversal uniquely enables a crucial separation of irreversible and reversible contributions to mixing. The interpretation of laboratory and field experiments that include flow reversal provides important insight. Other advances include the miniaturization of long-lasting microprobes for in-situ, pore-scale measurement of tracers, and a scheme to account properly in a reservoir simulator (grid-block scale) for the contributions of convective spreading due to reservoir heterogeneity and of mixing.

  1. A statistical approach to evaluate flood risk at the regional level: an application to Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mauro; Marchesini, Ivan; Salvati, Paola; Donnini, Marco; Guzzetti, Fausto; Sterlacchini, Simone; Zazzeri, Marco; Bonazzi, Alessandro; Carlesi, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Floods are frequent and widespread in Italy, causing every year multiple fatalities and extensive damages to public and private structures. A pre-requisite for the development of mitigation schemes, including financial instruments such as insurance, is the ability to quantify their costs starting from the estimation of the underlying flood hazard. However, comprehensive and coherent information on flood prone areas, and estimates on the frequency and intensity of flood events, are not often available at scales appropriate for risk pooling and diversification. In Italy, River Basins Hydrogeological Plans (PAI), prepared by basin administrations, are the basic descriptive, regulatory, technical and operational tools for environmental planning in flood prone areas. Nevertheless, such plans do not cover the entire Italian territory, having significant gaps along the minor hydrographic network and in ungauged basins. Several process-based modelling approaches have been used by different basin administrations for the flood hazard assessment, resulting in an inhomogeneous hazard zonation of the territory. As a result, flood hazard assessments expected and damage estimations across the different Italian basin administrations are not always coherent. To overcome these limitations, we propose a simplified multivariate statistical approach for the regional flood hazard zonation coupled with a flood impact model. This modelling approach has been applied in different Italian basin administrations, allowing a preliminary but coherent and comparable estimation of the flood hazard and the relative impact. Model performances are evaluated comparing the predicted flood prone areas with the corresponding PAI zonation. The proposed approach will provide standardized information (following the EU Floods Directive specifications) on flood risk at a regional level which can in turn be more readily applied to assess flood economic impacts. Furthermore, in the assumption of an appropriate

  2. Reduced translocation of current photosynthate precedes changes in gas exchange for Quercus rubra seedlings under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Joshua L; Islam, M Anisul; Jacobs, Douglass F

    2016-01-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedlings are frequently planted on suboptimal sites in their native range in North America, subjecting them to environmental stresses, such as flooding, for which they may not be well adapted. Members of the genus Quercus exhibit a wide range of responses to flooding, and responses of northern red oak to flooding remain inadequately described. To better understand the physiological effects of root system inundation in post-transplant northern red oak seedlings and the effects of flooding on endogenous patterns of resource allocation within the plant, we observed the effects of short-term flooding initiated at the linear shoot growth stage on net photosynthetic rates, dark respiration, chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) and translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate. Downward translocation of current photosynthate declined after 4 days of flooding and was the first measured physiological response to flooding; net photosynthetic rates decreased and dark respiration rates increased after 7 days of flooding. Short-term flooding did not affect maximal potential efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm). The finding that decreased downward translocation of (13)C-labeled current photosynthate preceded reduced net photosynthesis and increased dark respiration during flooding suggests the occurrence of sink-limited photosynthesis under these conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Quantifying riverine and storm-surge flood risk by single-family residence: application to Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowski, Jeffrey; Kunreuther, Howard; Michel-Kerjan, Erwann

    2013-12-01

    The development of catastrophe models in recent years allows for assessment of the flood hazard much more effectively than when the federally run National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) was created in 1968. We propose and then demonstrate a methodological approach to determine pure premiums based on the entire distribution of possible flood events. We apply hazard, exposure, and vulnerability analyses to a sample of 300,000 single-family residences in two counties in Texas (Travis and Galveston) using state-of-the-art flood catastrophe models. Even in zones of similar flood risk classification by FEMA there is substantial variation in exposure between coastal and inland flood risk. For instance, homes in the designated moderate-risk X500/B zones in Galveston are exposed to a flood risk on average 2.5 times greater than residences in X500/B zones in Travis. The results also show very similar average annual loss (corrected for exposure) for a number of residences despite their being in different FEMA flood zones. We also find significant storm-surge exposure outside of the FEMA designated storm-surge risk zones. Taken together these findings highlight the importance of a microanalysis of flood exposure. The process of aggregating risk at a flood zone level-as currently undertaken by FEMA-provides a false sense of uniformity. As our analysis indicates, the technology to delineate the flood risks exists today. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Geographical information system (GIS) application for flood prediction at Sungai Sembrong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Masiri; Ahmad, Nor Farah Atiqah; Razali, Siti Nooraiin Mohd; Hilaham, Mashuda Mohamad; Rahman, Mohamad Abdul; Ngadiman, Norhayati; Sahat, Suhaila

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of flood is one of natural disaster that often beset Malaysia. The latest incident that happened in 2007 was the worst occurrence of floods ever be set in Johor. Reporting floods mainly focused on rising water rising levels, so about once a focus on the area of flood delineation. A study focused on the effectiveness of using Geographic Information System (GIS) to predict the flood by taking Sg. Sembrong, Batu Pahat, Johor as study area. This study combined hydrological model and water balance model in the display to show the expected flood area for future reference. The minimum, maximum and average rainfall data for January 2007 at Sg Sembrong were used in this study. The data shows that flood does not occurs at the minimum and average rainfall of 17.2mm and 2mm respectively. At maximum rainfall, 203mm, shows the flood area was 9983 hectares with the highest level of the water depth was 2m. The result showed that the combination of hydrological models and water balance model in GIS is very suitable to be used as a tool to obtain preliminary information on flood immediately. Besides that, GIS system is a very powerful tool used in hydrology engineering to help the engineer and planner to imagine the real situation of flood events, doing flood analysis, problem solving and provide a rational, accurate and efficient decision making.

  5. Improved PSO algorithm based on chaos theory and its application to design flood hydrograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Fang Dong

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The deficiencies of basic particle swarm optimization (bPSO are its ubiquitous prematurity and its inability to seek the global optimal solution when optimizing complex high-dimensional functions. To overcome such deficiencies, the chaos-PSO (COSPSO algorithm was established by introducing the chaos optimization mechanism and a global particle stagnation-disturbance strategy into bPSO. In the improved algorithm, chaotic movement was adopted for the particles' initial movement trajectories to replace the former stochastic movement, and the chaos factor was used to guide the particles' path. When the global particles were stagnant, the disturbance strategy was used to keep the particles in motion. Five benchmark optimizations were introduced to test COSPSO, and they proved that COSPSO can remarkably improve efficiency in optimizing complex functions. Finally, a case study of COSPSO in calculating design flood hydrographs demonstrated the applicability of the improved algorithm.

  6. Technical Note: The normal quantile transformation and its application in a flood forecasting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bogner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Normal Quantile Transform (NQT has been used in many hydrological and meteorological applications in order to make the Cumulated Distribution Function (CDF of the observed, simulated and forecast river discharge, water level or precipitation data Gaussian. It is also the heart of the meta-Gaussian model for assessing the total predictive uncertainty of the Hydrological Uncertainty Processor (HUP developed by Krzysztofowicz. In the field of geo-statistics this transformation is better known as the Normal-Score Transform. In this paper some possible problems caused by small sample sizes when applying the NQT in flood forecasting systems will be discussed and a novel way to solve the problem will be outlined by combining extreme value analysis and non-parametric regression methods. The method will be illustrated by examples of hydrological stream-flow forecasts.

  7. Videoscope applications in oil and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Bachek

    2003-01-01

    The need of inspection not only for external condition but for both internal and external. How we are going to check and know the internal condition of a piping as small as 4 inch or tube sheet of 10 mm outside diameter. Due to the nature of its operation which carries high temperature products or water it is very essential to know the internal condition before its too late where this may cause explosion or failure to any part or equipment which will claim lives and causes huge lost to the plant owner. With the aid of video scope inspection service or commonly called CCTV you now can see and inspect the internal condition of a small pipe or tube sheet or any in access item or equipment. Not only you can inspect but with the latest CCTV technologies you also can size the defect length and record the findings in CD-Rom for monitoring purposes. You can observe the growth of a defects and decide whether or not to repair or when to repair. CCTV has many field application beside normal tube inspection?its also can be used for special task such to inspect cause of blockage, to check any left over materials before box-up, to confirm presence or absence, etc. With various camera sizes and with or without control head many inspection task has been successfully completed.Normal defect that can be expected from CCTV inspection are such as erosion, burn trough, blockage, hard sediments, left behind item (before the box beam) pitting, etc. We have experience in inspecting the following items for major oil and gas petrochemical plant as well as special request from various industries sector. (Author)

  8. A review on applications of nanotechnology in the enhanced oil recovery part B: effects of nanoparticles on flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghian, Goshtasp; Hendraningrat, Luky

    2016-11-01

    Chemical flooding is of increasing interest and importance due to high oil prices and the need to increase oil production. Research in nanotechnology in the petroleum industry is advancing rapidly, and an enormous progress in the application of nanotechnology in this area is to be expected. The nanotechnology has been widely used in several other industries, and the interest in the oil industry is increasing. Nanotechnology has the potential to profoundly change enhanced oil recovery and to improve mechanism of recovery, and it is chosen as an alternative method to unlock the remaining oil resources and applied as a new enhanced oil recovery method in last decade. This paper therefore focuses on the reviews of the application of nanotechnology in chemical flooding process in oil recovery and reviews the applications of nanomaterials for improving oil recovery that have been proposed to explain oil displacement by polymer flooding within oil reservoirs, and also this paper highlights the research advances of polymer in oil recovery. Nanochemical flooding is an immature method from an application point of view.

  9. Extensive spatio-temporal assessment of flood events by application of pair-copulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schulte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the consequences of floods are strongly related to their peak discharges, a statistical classification of flood events that only depends on these peaks may not be sufficient for flood risk assessments. In many cases, the flood risk depends on a number of event characteristics. In case of an extreme flood, the whole river basin may be affected instead of a single watershed, and there will be superposition of peak discharges from adjoining catchments. These peaks differ in size and timing according to the spatial distribution of precipitation and watershed-specific processes of flood formation. Thus, the spatial characteristics of flood events should be considered as stochastic processes. Hence, there is a need for a multivariate statistical approach that represents the spatial interdependencies between floods from different watersheds and their coincidences. This paper addresses the question how these spatial interdependencies can be quantified. Each flood event is not only assessed with regard to its local conditions but also according to its spatio-temporal pattern within the river basin. In this paper we characterise the coincidence of floods by trivariate Joe-copula and pair-copulas. Their ability to link the marginal distributions of the variates while maintaining their dependence structure characterizes them as an adequate method. The results indicate that the trivariate copula model is able to represent the multivariate probabilities of the occurrence of simultaneous flood peaks well. It is suggested that the approach of this paper is very useful for the risk-based design of retention basins as it accounts for the complex spatio-temporal interactions of floods.

  10. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devikala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In the present work, a new composite has been prepared by using PMMA and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP. The PMMA/Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (PMADP composites PMADP 1 and PMADP 2 were characterized by using Powder XRD. The thick films of the composite on glass plates were prepared by using a spin coating unit at 9000 rpm. The application of the thick film as gas sensor has been studied between 0 and 2000 seconds. The results reveal that the thick film of PMADP composite can function as a very good gas sensor.

  11. Review of IVR-ERVC and using flooding concept for application to high power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min ho; Heo, Hyo; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Accident scope will be limited in the RPV. For example, in case of Fukushima, they have difficulties for cleanup the accident and even catching the location of the melt-through corium. Therefore, IVR-ERVC is the right strategy for mitigation of the severe accident. However, in case of high power reactors, there is a Critical Heat Flux (CHF) problem in its application to high power reactor. If CHF occurred, boiling regime changes from effective nucleate boiling to ineffective film boiling, so temperature of the RPV goes up and finally the RPV fails. To solve the CHF problem, here have been a lot of works for IVR-ERVC. In the point of in-vessel heat transfer, Theofanous suggested risk oriented accident analysis methodology which is a combination of probabilistic and deterministic approach. A lot of experiments have been done using simulants of corium in various experimental apparatus. Their simulants were usually water due to simulate large Rayleigh number and natural circulation of corium. IVR-ERVC concept has been researched for a long time. For in-vessel heat transfer, simulants or real corium was used to get a heat flux distribution to the outer wall. And based on those results, ex-vessel cooling has been researched in various geometry to get cooling limit as CHF. Material flooding is suggested as improvement of ERVC in APR 1400 to secure safety margin for CHF. Regardless of Prandtl number of the flooding material, the focusing effect of heat flux was mitigated; the maximum heat flux was reduced less than half of the maximum heat flux in bare condition

  12. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  13. Proportional gas scintillation detectors and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petr, I.

    1978-01-01

    The principle is described of a gas proportional scintillation detector and its function. Dependence of Si(Li) and xenon proportional detectors energy resolution on the input window size is given. A typical design is shown of a xenon detector used for X-ray spetrometry at an energy of 277 eV to 5.898 keV and at a gas pressure of 98 to 270 kPa. Gas proportional scintillation detectors show considerable better energy resolution than common proportional counters and even better resolution than semiconductor Si(Li) detectors for low X radiation energies. For detection areas smaller than 25 mm 2 Si(Li) detectors show better resolution, especially for higher X radiation energies. For window areas 25 to 190 mm 2 both types of detectors are equal, for a window area exceeding 190 mm 2 the proportional scintillation detector has higher energy resolution. (B.S.)

  14. Impacts of soil incorporation of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue on soil biogeochemistry and greenhouse gas fluxes under flooding and drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutekunst, Madison Y; Vargas, Rodrigo; Seyfferth, Angelia L

    2017-09-01

    Incorporation of silica-rich rice husk residue into flooded paddy soil decreases arsenic uptake by rice. However, the impact of this practice on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and elemental cycling is unresolved particularly as amended soils experience recurrent flooding and drying cycles. We evaluated the impact of pre-incubated silica-rich rice residue incorporation to soils on pore water chemistry and soil GHG fluxes (i.e., CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O) over a flooding and drying cycle typical of flooded rice cultivation. Soils pre-incubated with rice husk had 4-fold higher pore water Si than control and 2-fold higher than soils pre-incubated with rice straw, whereas the pore water As and Fe concentrations in soils amended with pre-incubated straw and husk were unexpectedly similar (maximum ~0.85μM and ~450μM levels, respectively). Pre-incubation of residues did not affect Si but did affect the pore water levels of As and Fe compared to previous studies using fresh residues where straw amended soils had higher As and Fe in pore water. The global warming potential (GWP) of soil GHG emissions decreased in the order straw (612±76g CO 2 -eqm -2 )>husk (367±42gCO 2 -eqm -2 )>ashed husk=ashed straw (251±26 and 278±28gCO 2 -eqm -2 )>control (186±23gCO 2 -eqm -2 ). The GWP increase due to pre-incubated straw amendment was due to: a) larger N 2 O fluxes during re-flooding; b) smaller contributions from larger CH 4 fluxes during flooded periods; and c) higher CH 4 and CO 2 fluxes at the onset of drainage. In contrast, the GWP of the husk amendment was dominated by CO 2 and CH 4 emissions during flooded and drainage periods, while ashed amendments increased CO 2 emissions particularly during drainage. This experiment shows that ashed residues and husk addition minimizes GWP of flooded soils and enhances pore water Si compared to straw addition even after pre-incubation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. MAPLE activities and applications in gas sensors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Remsa, Jan; Kocourek, Tomáš; Kubešová, B.; Schůrek, J.; Myslík, V.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 3 (2011), 643-649 ISSN 0947-8396 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : MAPLE * gas sensors * biomedicine * thin films Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.630, year: 2011

  16. [Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Gas Hydrate Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Wu, Neng-you; Lu, Hai-long; Wu, Dai-dai; Su, Qiu-cheng

    2015-11-01

    Gas hydrates are important potential energy resources. Microstructural characterization of gas hydrate can provide information to study the mechanism of gas hydrate formation and to support the exploitation and application of gas hydrate technology. This article systemly introduces the basic principle of laser Raman spectroscopy and summarizes its application in gas hydrate studies. Based on Raman results, not only can the information about gas composition and structural type be deduced, but also the occupancies of large and small cages and even hydration number can be calculated from the relative intensities of Raman peaks. By using the in-situ analytical technology, laser Raman specstropy can be applied to characterize the formation and decomposition processes of gas hydrate at microscale, for example the enclathration and leaving of gas molecules into/from its cages, to monitor the changes in gas concentration and gas solubility during hydrate formation and decomposition, and to identify phase changes in the study system. Laser Raman in-situ analytical technology has also been used in determination of hydrate structure and understanding its changing process under the conditions of ultra high pressure. Deep-sea in-situ Raman spectrometer can be employed for the in-situ analysis of the structures of natural gas hydrate and their formation environment. Raman imaging technology can be applied to specify the characteristics of crystallization and gas distribution over hydrate surface. With the development of laser Raman technology and its combination with other instruments, it will become more powerful and play a more significant role in the microscopic study of gas hydrate.

  17. Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of SAR data for flood applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussul, Natalia; Skakun, Serhiy; Shelestov, Andrii

    2010-05-01

    More and more geosciences applications are being put on to the Grids. Due to the complexity of geosciences applications that is caused by complex workflow, the use of computationally intensive environmental models, the need of management and integration of heterogeneous data sets, Grid offers solutions to tackle these problems. Many geosciences applications, especially those related to the disaster management and mitigations require the geospatial services to be delivered in proper time. For example, information on flooded areas should be provided to corresponding organizations (local authorities, civil protection agencies, UN agencies etc.) no more than in 24 h to be able to effectively allocate resources required to mitigate the disaster. Therefore, providing infrastructure and services that will enable automatic generation of products based on the integration of heterogeneous data represents the tasks of great importance. In this paper we present Grid infrastructure for automatic processing of synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to derive flood products. In particular, we use SAR data acquired by ESA's ENVSAT satellite, and neural networks to derive flood extent. The data are provided in operational mode from ESA rolling archive (within ESA Category-1 grant). We developed a portal that is based on OpenLayers frameworks and provides access point to the developed services. Through the portal the user can define geographical region and search for the required data. Upon selection of data sets a workflow is automatically generated and executed on the resources of Grid infrastructure. For workflow execution and management we use Karajan language. The workflow of SAR data processing consists of the following steps: image calibration, image orthorectification, image processing with neural networks, topographic effects removal, geocoding and transformation to lat/long projection, and visualisation. These steps are executed by different software, and can be

  18. Research on Multi Hydrological Models Applicability and Modelling Data Uncertainty Analysis for Flash Flood Simulation in Hilly Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, L.; Wu, J.; Wang, L.; Song, T.; Ji, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding in small-scale watershed in hilly area is characterized by short time periods and rapid rise and recession due to the complex underlying surfaces, various climate type and strong effect of human activities. It is almost impossible for a single hydrological model to describe the variation of flooding in both time and space accurately for all the catchments in hilly area because the hydrological characteristics can vary significantly among different catchments. In this study, we compare the performance of 5 hydrological models with varying degrees of complexity for simulation of flash flood for 14 small-scale watershed in China in order to find the relationship between the applicability of the hydrological models and the catchments characteristics. Meanwhile, given the fact that the hydrological data is sparse in hilly area, the effect of precipitation data, DEM resolution and their interference on the uncertainty of flood simulation is also illustrated. In general, the results showed that the distributed hydrological model (HEC-HMS in this study) performed better than the lumped hydrological models. Xinajiang and API models had good simulation for the humid catchments when long-term and continuous rainfall data is provided. Dahuofang model can simulate the flood peak well while the runoff generation module is relatively poor. In addition, the effect of diverse modelling data on the simulations is not simply superposed, and there is a complex interaction effect among different modelling data. Overall, both the catchment hydrological characteristics and modelling data situation should be taken into consideration in order to choose the suitable hydrological model for flood simulation for small-scale catchment in hilly area.

  19. MOFs for storage of natural gas in mobile applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, S.; Arnold, L.; Gaab, M.; Maurer, S.; Weickert, M.; Mueller, U. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Gummaraju, R.; SantaMaria, M.; Wilson, K.; Garbotz, C.; Lynch, J. [BASF Corporation, Iselin, NJ (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are supposed to have high potential in gas storage, particular in the storage of natural gas (NG) for mobile applications. Due to the shale gas exploration and the cost advantage of natural gas on the North American market as well as the environmental benign behavior upon combustion, storage of gaseous fuels will become more important for future mobility. The main challenge with all gaseous fuels is the limited range of the fuel stored on board of a vehicle. Instead of increasing the pressure in the tank, which would lead to heavy tanks and high compression costs, MOFs might help to improve the energy density of the gas stored in a tank resulting in an increased driving distance or reduced space needed for the gas tanks. (orig.)

  20. High-accuracy single-pass InSAR DEM for large-scale flood hazard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, G.; Faherty, D.; Moller, D.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we used a unique opportunity of the GLISTIN-A (NASA airborne mission designed to characterizing the cryosphere) track to Greenland to acquire a high-resolution InSAR DEM of a large area in the Red River of the North Basin (north of Grand Forks, ND, USA), which is a very flood-vulnerable valley, particularly in spring time due to increased soil moisture content near state of saturation and/or, typical for this region, snowmelt. Having an InSAR DEM that meets flood inundation modeling and mapping requirements comparable to LiDAR, would demonstrate great application potential of new radar technology for national agencies with an operational flood forecasting mandate and also local state governments active in flood event prediction, disaster response and mitigation. Specifically, we derived a bare-earth DEM in SAR geometry by first removing the inherent far range bias related to airborne operation, which at the more typical large-scale DEM resolution of 30 m has a sensor accuracy of plus or minus 2.5 cm. Subsequently, an intelligent classifier based on informed relationships between InSAR height, intensity and correlation was used to distinguish between bare-earth, roads or embankments, buildings and tall vegetation in order to facilitate the creation of a bare-earth DEM that would meet the requirements for accurate floodplain inundation mapping. Using state-of-the-art LiDAR terrain data, we demonstrate that capability by achieving a root mean squared error of approximately 25 cm and further illustrating its applicability to flood modeling.

  1. Application of STORMTOOLS's simplified flood inundation model with sea level rise to assess impacts to RI coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    The vision for STORMTOOLS is to provide access to a suite of coastal planning tools (numerical models et al), available as a web service, that allows wide spread accessibly and applicability at high resolution for user selected coastal areas of interest. The first product developed under this framework were flood inundation maps, with and without sea level rise, for varying return periods for RI coastal waters. The flood mapping methodology is based on using the water level vs return periods at a primary NOAA water level gauging station and then spatially scaling the values, based on the predictions of high resolution, storm and wave simulations performed by Army Corp of Engineers, North Atlantic Comprehensive Coastal Study (NACCS) for tropical and extratropical storms on an unstructured grid, to estimate inundation levels for varying return periods. The scaling for the RI application used Newport, RI water levels as the reference point. Predictions are provided for once in 25, 50, and 100 yr return periods (at the upper 95% confidence level), with sea level rises of 1, 2, 3, and 5 ft. Simulations have also been performed for historical hurricane events including 1938, Carol (1954), Bob (1991), and Sandy (2012) and nuisance flooding events with return periods of 1, 3, 5, and 10 yr. Access to the flooding maps is via a web based, map viewer that seamlessly covers all coastal waters of the state at one meter resolution. The GIS structure of the map viewer allows overlays of additional relevant data sets (roads and highways, wastewater treatment facilities, schools, hospitals, emergency evacuation routes, etc.) as desired by the user. The simplified flooding maps are publically available and are now being implemented for state and community resilience planning and vulnerability assessment activities in response to climate change impacts.

  2. Application of wavelet-based multi-model Kalman filters to real-time flood forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chien-Ming; Wang, Ru-Yih

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents the application of a multimodel method using a wavelet-based Kalman filter (WKF) bank to simultaneously estimate decomposed state variables and unknown parameters for real-time flood forecasting. Applying the Haar wavelet transform alters the state vector and input vector of the state space. In this way, an overall detail plus approximation describes each new state vector and input vector, which allows the WKF to simultaneously estimate and decompose state variables. The wavelet-based multimodel Kalman filter (WMKF) is a multimodel Kalman filter (MKF), in which the Kalman filter has been substituted for a WKF. The WMKF then obtains M estimated state vectors. Next, the M state-estimates, each of which is weighted by its possibility that is also determined on-line, are combined to form an optimal estimate. Validations conducted for the Wu-Tu watershed, a small watershed in Taiwan, have demonstrated that the method is effective because of the decomposition of wavelet transform, the adaptation of the time-varying Kalman filter and the characteristics of the multimodel method. Validation results also reveal that the resulting method enhances the accuracy of the runoff prediction of the rainfall-runoff process in the Wu-Tu watershed.

  3. Around and about an application of the GAMLSS package to non-stationary flood frequency analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debele, S. E.; Bogdanowicz, E.; Strupczewski, W. G.

    2017-08-01

    The non-stationarity of hydrologic processes due to climate change or human activities is challenging for the researchers and practitioners. However, the practical requirements for taking into account non-stationarity as a support in decision-making procedures exceed the up-to-date development of the theory and the of software. Currently, the most popular and freely available software package that allows for non-stationary statistical analysis is the GAMLSS (generalized additive models for location, scale and shape) package. GAMLSS has been used in a variety of fields. There are also several papers recommending GAMLSS in hydrological problems; however, there are still important issues which have not previously been discussed concerning mainly GAMLSS applicability not only for research and academic purposes, but also in a design practice. In this paper, we present a summary of our experiences in the implementation of GAMLSS to non-stationary flood frequency analysis, highlighting its advantages and pointing out weaknesses with regard to methodological and practical topics.

  4. Continuous rainfall simulation for regional flood risk assessment - application in the Austrian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jose Luis; Nester, Thomas; Komma, Jürgen; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Generation of realistic synthetic spatial rainfall is of pivotal importance for assessing regional hydroclimatic hazard as the input for long term rainfall-runoff simulations. The correct reproduction of the observed rainfall characteristics, such as regional intensity-duration-frequency curves, is necessary to adequately model the magnitude and frequency of the flood peaks. Furthermore, the replication of the observed rainfall spatial and temporal correlations allows to model important other hydrological features like antecedent soil moisture conditions before extreme rainfall events. In this work, we present an application in the Tirol region (Austrian alps) of a modification of the model presented by Bardossy and Platte (1992), where precipitation is modeled on a station basis as a mutivariate autoregressive model (mAr) in a Normal space, and then transformed to a Gamma-distributed space. For the sake of simplicity, the parameters of the Gamma distributions are assumed to vary monthly according to a sinusoidal function, and are calibrated trying to simultaneously reproduce i) mean annual rainfall, ii) mean daily rainfall amounts, iii) standard deviations of daily rainfall amounts, and iv) 24-hours intensity duration frequency curve. The calibration of the spatial and temporal correlation parameters is performed in a way that the intensity-duration-frequency curves aggregated at different spatial and temporal scales reproduce the measured ones. Bardossy, A., and E. J. Plate (1992), Space-time model for daily rainfall using atmospheric circulation patterns, Water Resour. Res., 28(5), 1247-1259, doi:10.1029/91WR02589.

  5. Observed and forecast flood-inundation mapping application-A pilot study of an eleven-mile reach of the White River, Indianapolis, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon H.; Morlock, Scott E.; Arihood, Leslie D.; Kiesler, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Near-real-time and forecast flood-inundation mapping products resulted from a pilot study for an 11-mile reach of the White River in Indianapolis. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Indiana Silver Jackets hazard mitigation taskforce members, the National Weather Service (NWS), the Polis Center, and Indiana University, in cooperation with the City of Indianapolis, the Indianapolis Museum of Art, the Indiana Department of Homeland Security, and the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water. The pilot project showed that it is technically feasible to create a flood-inundation map library by means of a two-dimensional hydraulic model, use a map from the library to quickly complete a moderately detailed local flood-loss estimate, and automatically run the hydraulic model during a flood event to provide the maps and flood-damage information through a Web graphical user interface. A library of static digital flood-inundation maps was created by means of a calibrated two-dimensional hydraulic model. Estimated water-surface elevations were developed for a range of river stages referenced to a USGS streamgage and NWS flood forecast point colocated within the study reach. These maps were made available through the Internet in several formats, including geographic information system, Keyhole Markup Language, and Portable Document Format. A flood-loss estimate was completed for part of the study reach by using one of the flood-inundation maps from the static library. The Federal Emergency Management Agency natural disaster-loss estimation program HAZUS-MH, in conjunction with local building information, was used to complete a level 2 analysis of flood-loss estimation. A Service-Oriented Architecture-based dynamic flood-inundation application was developed and was designed to start automatically during a flood, obtain near real-time and forecast data (from the colocated USGS streamgage and NWS flood forecast point within the study reach

  6. Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry | Shammar | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Virtual reality application in oil and gas industry. ... is the key factor for considering AR as an effective tool to be used in maintenance work. Works related to applications of VR for energy exploration and safety training for petroleum industry is ...

  7. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Liu, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical sensors often need to be specifically designed (or tailored) to operate in a given environment. It is often the case that a chemical sensor that meets the needs of one application will not function adequately in another application. The more demanding the environment and specialized the requirement, the greater the need to adapt exiting sensor technologies to meet these requirements or, as necessary, develop new sensor technologies. Aerospace (aeronautic and space) applications are particularly challenging since often these applications have specifications which have not previously been the emphasis of commercial suppliers. Further, the chemical sensing needs of aerospace applications have changed over the years to reflect the changing emphasis of society. Three chemical sensing applications of particular interest to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) which illustrate these trends are launch vehicle leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection. Each of these applications reflects efforts ongoing throughout NASA. As described in NASA's "Three Pillars for Success", a document which outlines NASA's long term response to achieve the nation's priorities in aerospace transportation, agency wide objectives include: improving safety and decreasing the cost of space travel, significantly decreasing the amount of emissions produced by aeronautic engines, and improving the safety of commercial airline travel. As will be discussed below, chemical sensing in leak detection, emission monitoring, and fire detection will help enable the agency to meet these objectives. Each application has vastly different problems associated with the measurement of chemical species. Nonetheless, the development of a common base technology can address the measurement needs of a number of applications.

  8. Coastal Flooding in Florida's Big Bend Region with Application to Sea Level Rise Based on Synthetic Storms Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott C. Hagen Peter Bacopoulos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is examined by comparing maximum envelopes of water against the 0.2% (= 1-in-500-year return-period flooding surface generated as part of revising the Federal Emergency Management Agency¡¦s flood insurance rate maps for Franklin, Wakulla, and Jefferson counties in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region. The analysis condenses the number of storms to a small fraction of the original 159 used in production. The analysis is performed by assessing which synthetic storms contributed to inundation extent (the extent of inundation into the floodplain, coverage (the overall surface area of the inundated floodplain and the spatially variable 0.2% flooding surface. The results are interpreted in terms of storm attributes (pressure deficit, radius to maximum winds, translation speed, storm heading, and landfall location and the physical processes occurring within the natural system (storms surge and waves; both are contextualized against existing and new hurricane scales. The approach identifies what types of storms and storm attributes lead to what types of inundation, as measured in terms of extent and coverage, in Florida¡¦s Big Bend Region and provides a basis in the identification of a select subset of synthetic storms for studying the impact of sea level rise. The sea level rise application provides a clear contrast between a dynamic approach versus that of a static approach.

  9. A Cascading Storm-Flood-Landslide Guidance System: Development and Application in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ziyue; Tang, Guoqiang; Long, Di; Ma, Meihong; Hong, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Flash floods and landslides, triggered by storms, often interact and cause cascading effects on human lives and property. Satellite remote sensing data has significant potential use in analysis of these natural hazards. As one of the regions continuously affected by severe flash floods and landslides, Yunnan Province, located in Southwest China, has a complex mountainous hydrometeorology and suffers from frequent heavy rainfalls from May through to late September. Taking Yunnan as a test-bed, this study proposed a Cascading Storm-Flood-Landslide Guidance System to progressively analysis and evaluate the risk of the multi-hazards based on multisource satellite remote sensing data. First, three standardized rainfall amounts (average daily amount in flood seasons, maximum 1h and maximum 6h amount) from the products of Topical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) were used as rainfall indicators to derive the StorM Hazard Index (SMHI). In this process, an integrated approach of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and the Information-Entropy theory was adopted to determine the weight of each indicator. Then, land cover and vegetation cover data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) products, soil type from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD) soil map, and slope from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data were add as semi-static geo-topographical indicators to derive the Flash Flood Hazard Index (FFHI). Furthermore, three more relevant landslide-controlling indicators, including elevation, slope angle and soil text were involved to derive the LandSlide Hazard Index (LSHI). Further inclusion of GDP, population and prevention measures as vulnerability indicators enabled to consecutively predict the risk of storm to flash flood and landslide, respectively. Consequently, the spatial patterns of the hazard indices show that the southeast of Yunnan has more possibility to encounter with storms

  10. Hybrid environmental robot: a tool for monitoring gas on flooded area; Robo ambiental hibrido: utilizacao como ferramenta para monitoramento de gases em areas alagadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goes, Emerson de; Cerqueira, Romulo Curty; Reis, Ney Robinson S. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The impoundment of rivers for power generation leads to flooding of vast areas of land vegetation. Most submerged plants, die and enter into decomposition, releasing CO2 (carbon dioxide), CH4 (methane gas) into the air for many years. Scientists from around the world seek to clarify the processes to which these gases are submitted and their contributions to the process of global warming. Estimates suggest that the re-use of methane that passes through the turbines of these power plants could increase their energy potential by 75% and reduce their emissions of these gases by 65%, reducing their impact on global warming and resulting in carbon credits. To check the feasibility of using new processes and technologies to generate energy that recycles this biogas, operations for monitoring these biogases become routine tasks. The frequency is such that the exposure of humans to the risks of gas combustion, inherent to scenarios where these operations take place, becomes unacceptable. This motivates the use of robots in this activity. This paper presents the multi-mission platform Hybrid Environmental Robot, named 'Chico Mendes', as a tool for tracking gas emission and specially designed for flooded forest areas.

  11. Integration of climate change in flood prediction: application to the Somme river (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinault, J.-L.; Amraoui, N.; Noyer, M.-L.

    2003-04-01

    Exceptional floods that have occurred for the last two years in western and central Europe were very unlikely. The concomitance of such rare events shows that they might be imputable to climate change. The statistical analysis of long rainfall series confirms that both the cumulated annual height and the temporal variability have increased for the last decade. This paper is devoted to the analysis of climate change impact on flood prediction applied to the Somme river. The exceptional pluviometry that occurred from October 2000 to April 2001, about the double of the mean value, entailed catastrophic flood between the high Somme and Abbeville. The flow reached a peak at the beginning of May 2001, involving damages in numerous habitations and communication routes, and economical activity of the region had been flood-bound for more than 2 months. The flood caught unaware the population and caused deep traumas in France since it was the first time such a sudden event was recognized as resulting from groundwater discharge. Mechanisms of flood generation were studied tightly in order to predict the behavior of the Somme catchment and other urbanized basins when the pluviometry is exceptional in winter or in spring, which occurs more and more frequently in the northern part of Europe. The contribution of groundwater in surface water flow was calculated by inverse modeling from piezometers that are representative of aquifers in valleys. They were found on the slopes and near the edge of plateaus in order to characterize the drainage processes of the watertable to the surface water network. For flood prediction, a stochastic process is used, consisting in the generation of both rainfall and PET time series. The precipitation generator uses Markov chain Monte Carlo and simulated annealing from the Hastings -- Metropolis algorithm. Coupling of rainfall and PET generators with transfer enables a new evaluation of the probability of occurrence of floods, taking into account

  12. Natural gas hydrates. Experimental techniques and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Yuguang; Liu, Changling (eds.) [Qingdao Institute of Marine Geology (China). Gas Hydrate Laboratory

    2013-07-01

    Focuses on gas hydrate experiment in laboratory. Intends to provide practical significant parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation in the oceanic and permafrost environments. Consists of different themes that present up-to-date information on hydrate experiments. ''Natural Gas Hydrates: Experimental Techniques and Their Applications'' attempts to broadly integrate the most recent knowledge in the fields of hydrate experimental techniques in the laboratory. The book examines various experimental techniques in order to provide useful parameters for gas hydrate exploration and exploitation. It provides experimental techniques for gas hydrates, including the detection techniques, the thermo-physical properties, permeability and mechanical properties, geochemical abnormalities, stability and dissociation kinetics, exploitation conditions, as well as modern measurement technologies etc.

  13. Low cost, multiscale and multi-sensor application for flooded area mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Giordan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Flood mapping and estimation of the maximum water depth are essential elements for the first damage evaluation, civil protection intervention planning and detection of areas where remediation is needed. In this work, we present and discuss a methodology for mapping and quantifying flood severity over floodplains. The proposed methodology considers a multiscale and multi-sensor approach using free or low-cost data and sensors. We applied this method to the November 2016 Piedmont (northwestern Italy flood. We first mapped the flooded areas at the basin scale using free satellite data from low- to medium-high-resolution from both the SAR (Sentinel-1, COSMO-Skymed and multispectral sensors (MODIS, Sentinel-2. Using very- and ultra-high-resolution images from the low-cost aerial platform and remotely piloted aerial system, we refined the flooded zone and detected the most damaged sector. The presented method considers both urbanised and non-urbanised areas. Nadiral images have several limitations, in particular in urbanised areas, where the use of terrestrial images solved this limitation. Very- and ultra-high-resolution images were processed with structure from motion (SfM for the realisation of 3-D models. These data, combined with an available digital terrain model, allowed us to obtain maps of the flooded area, maximum high water area and damaged infrastructures.

  14. Gas cluster ion beam equipments for industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, J.; Takaoka, G.H.; Yamada, I.

    1995-01-01

    30 keV and 200 keV gas cluster ion beam equipments have been developed for industrial applications. A gas cluster source with a non-cooled nozzle was used for both the equipments. Sufficient monomer ion suppression was achieved by using an ExB filter and chromatic lenses mass filter with low extraction voltage. These equipments are suitable to be used for low-damage surface treatment of metals, insulators and semiconductors without heavy metal contamination. (orig.)

  15. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  16. Compound simulation of fluvial floods and storm surges in a global coupled river-coast flood model : Model development and its application to 2007 Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip J.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Verlaan, Martin; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-01-01

    Water-related disasters, such as fluvial floods and cyclonic storm surges, are a major concern in the world's mega-delta regions. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of extreme discharges from rivers and storm surges could exacerbate flood risk, compared to when they occur separately. Hence, it

  17. Impact of fresh and saline water flooding on leaf gas exchange in two Italian provenances of Tamarix africana Poiret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Jaoudé, R; de Dato, G; Palmegiani, M; De Angelis, P

    2013-01-01

    In Mediterranean coastal areas, changes in precipitation patterns and seawater levels are leading to increased frequency of flooding and to salinization of estuaries and freshwater systems. Tamarix spp. are often the only woody species growing in such environments. These species are known for their tolerance to moderate salinity; however, contrasting information exists regarding their tolerance to flooding, and the combination of the two stresses has never been studied in Tamarix spp. Here, we analyse the photosynthetic responses of T. africana Poiret to temporary flooding (45 days) with fresh or saline water (200 mm) in two Italian provenances (Simeto and Baratz). The measurements were conducted before and after the onset of flooding, to test the possible cumulative effects of the treatments and effects on twig aging, and to analyse the responses of twigs formed during the experimental period. Full tolerance was evident in T. africana with respect to flooding with fresh water, which did not affect photosynthetic performances in either provenance. Saline flooding was differently tolerated by the two provenances. Moreover, salinity tolerance differently affected the two twig generations. In particular, a reduction in net assimilation rate (-48.8%) was only observed in Baratz twigs formed during the experimental period, compared to pre-existing twigs. This reduction was a consequence of non-stomatal limitations (maximum carboxylation rate and electron transport), probably as a result of higher Na transport to the twigs, coupled with reduced Na storage in the roots. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  18. Radioisotope applications in petroleum and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.; Agudo, E.G.; Duarte, U.

    1974-01-01

    The principal radioisotopic technique used for studying and /or controling the drilling, completion, treatment and oil well secondary recovery operations are described. In this cases the radioisotopes are employed almost exclusively as 'markers', in the form of localized and dispersed tracers. The growing acceptance of these techniques is essentially, a consequence of the confidence in the reliability of the data and conclusions derived from their application

  19. Extreme flood estimation by the SCHADEX method in a snow-driven catchment: application to Atnasjø (Norway)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Emmanuel; Lawrence, Deborah

    2013-04-01

    The SCHADEX method for extreme flood estimation was developed by Paquet et al. (2006, 2013), and since 2008, it is the reference method used by Electricité de France (EDF) for dam spillway design. SCHADEX is a so-called "semi-continuous" stochastic simulation method in that flood events are simulated on an event basis and are superimposed on a continuous simulation of the catchment saturation hazard usingrainfall-runoff modelling. The MORDOR hydrological model (Garçon, 1999) has thus far been used for the rainfall-runoff modelling. MORDOR is a conceptual, lumped, reservoir model with daily areal rainfall and air temperature as the driving input data. The principal hydrological processes represented are evapotranspiration, direct and indirect runoff, ground water, snow accumulation and melt, and routing. The model has been intensively used at EDF for more than 15 years, in particular for inflow forecasts for French mountainous catchments. SCHADEX has now also been applied to the Atnasjø catchment (463 km²), a well-documented inland catchment in south-central Norway, dominated by snowmelt flooding during spring/early summer. To support this application, a weather pattern classification based on extreme rainfall was first established for Norway (Fleig, 2012). This classification scheme was then used to build a Multi-Exponential Weather Pattern distribution (MEWP), as introduced by Garavaglia et al. (2010) for extreme rainfall estimation. The MORDOR model was then calibrated relative to daily discharge data for Atnasjø. Finally, a SCHADEX simulation was run to build a daily discharge distribution with a sufficient number of simulations for assessing the extreme quantiles. Detailed results are used to illustrate how SCHADEX handles the complex and interacting hydrological processes driving flood generation in this snow driven catchment. Seasonal and monthly distributions, as well as statistics for several thousand simulated events reaching a 1000 years return level

  20. Development of flood index by characterisation of flood hydrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Biswa; Suman, Asadusjjaman

    2015-04-01

    In recent years the world has experienced deaths, large-scale displacement of people, billions of Euros of economic damage, mental stress and ecosystem impacts due to flooding. Global changes (climate change, population and economic growth, and urbanisation) are exacerbating the severity of flooding. The 2010 floods in Pakistan and the 2011 floods in Australia and Thailand demonstrate the need for concerted action in the face of global societal and environmental changes to strengthen resilience against flooding. Due to climatological characteristics there are catchments where flood forecasting may have a relatively limited role and flood event management may have to be trusted upon. For example, in flash flood catchments, which often may be tiny and un-gauged, flood event management often depends on approximate prediction tools such as flash flood guidance (FFG). There are catchments fed largely by flood waters coming from upstream catchments, which are un-gauged or due to data sharing issues in transboundary catchments the flow of information from upstream catchment is limited. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of these downstream catchments will never be sufficient to provide any required forecasting lead time and alternative tools to support flood event management will be required. In FFG, or similar approaches, the primary motif is to provide guidance by synthesising the historical data. We follow a similar approach to characterise past flood hydrographs to determine a flood index (FI), which varies in space and time with flood magnitude and its propagation. By studying the variation of the index the pockets of high flood risk, requiring attention, can be earmarked beforehand. This approach can be very useful in flood risk management of catchments where information about hydro-meteorological variables is inadequate for any forecasting system. This paper presents the development of FI and its application to several catchments including in Kentucky in the USA

  1. Flood frequency estimation by national-scale continuous hydrological simulations: an application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Stewart, Elizabeth; Bell, Victoria; Reynard, Nick

    2017-04-01

    Estimation of peak discharge for an assigned return period is a crucial issue in engineering hydrology. It is required for designing and managing hydraulic infrastructure such as dams, reservoirs and bridges. In the UK, the Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) recommends the use of the index flood method to estimate the design flood as the product of a local scale factor (the index flood, IF) and a dimensionless regional growth factor (GF). For gauged catchments the IF is usually estimated as the median annual maximum flood (QMED), while for ungauged catchments it is computed through multiple linear regression models based on a set of morpho-climatic indices of the basin. The GF is estimated by fitting the annual maxima with the generalised logistic distribution (GL) using two methods depending on the record length and the target return period: single-site or pooled analysis. The single site-analysis estimates the GF from the annual maxima of the subject site alone; the pooled analysis uses data from a set of catchments hydrologically similar to the subject site. In this work estimates of floods up to 100-year return period obtained from the FEH approach are compared to those obtained using Grid-to-Grid, a continuous physically-based hydrological model. The model converts rainfall and potential evapotranspiration into river flows by modelling surface/sub-surface runoff, lateral water movements, and snow-pack. It is configured on a 1km2 grid resolution and it uses spatial datasets of topography, soil, and land cover. It was set up in Great Britain and has been evaluated for the period 1960-2014 in forward-mode (i.e. without parameter calibration) using daily meteorological forcing data. The modelled floods with a given return period (5,10, 30, 50, and 100 years) were computed from the modelled discharge annual maxima and compared to the FEH estimates for 100 catchments in Great Britain. Preliminary results suggest that there is a good agreement between modelled and

  2. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF ULTRA-LIGHT UAV FOR FLOODING SITE SURVEY IN SOUTH KOREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lee

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is used in a variety of fields such as the military service, fire prevention, traffic supervision, mapping, and etc. The increased demand for UAVs is typically attributed to the low manufacturing and operational costs, flexibility of the platforms to accommodate the consumer’s particular needs and the elimination of the risk to pilots’ lives in difficult missions. But, in South Korea, UAV might be first introduced to military service, and is still in its infancy, just being available for construction site monitoring, landscape photographing, spraying agricultural chemicals, broadcasting fields. This study presents the background and the aim of flood mapping, and presents the possibility analysis of how to use UAV effectively for flooding area. And author tries to overlap UAV image with the flooding area trace surveyed by ground surveys. As a result, it is expected that UAV photogrammetry will contributes to investigating the flooded area by providing images, which is describing the flooded area in near real-time and also making a decision like paying compensation.

  3. Application of BP Neural Network Algorithm in Traditional Hydrological Model for Flood Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjin Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Flooding contributes to tremendous hazards every year; more accurate forecasting may significantly mitigate the damages and loss caused by flood disasters. Current hydrological models are either purely knowledge-based or data-driven. A combination of data-driven method (artificial neural networks in this paper and knowledge-based method (traditional hydrological model may booster simulation accuracy. In this study, we proposed a new back-propagation (BP neural network algorithm and applied it in the semi-distributed Xinanjiang (XAJ model. The improved hydrological model is capable of updating the flow forecasting error without losing the leading time. The proposed method was tested in a real case study for both single period corrections and real-time corrections. The results reveal that the proposed method could significantly increase the accuracy of flood forecasting and indicate that the global correction effect is superior to the second-order autoregressive correction method in real-time correction.

  4. Overview of the EPRI CONTRACTMIX model for natural gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The Contract Mix Model (CONTRACTMIX) is designed to assist gas supply planners in analyzing the costs and risks of alternative supply strategies. By explicitly incorporating uncertainty about gas demand and market conditions into the analysis, the methodology permits the analyst to compare contracting strategies on the basis of cost and risk and to assess the value of flexible strategies and contracts. The model is applicable to purchase decisions for natural gas and other fuels. CONTRACTMIX may be used at all phases of supply decision-making, from broad strategy formulation to detailed contract design and evaluation. This document introduces the prospective user to the model's capability for analysis of gas supply contracting decisions. The document describes the types of problems CONTRACTMIX is designed to address as well as the model's structure, inputs, outputs, and unique features

  5. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H 2 +CO 2 ) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000 0 F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH 4 + H 2 O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR

  6. Gas reactor international cooperative program. HTR-synfuel application assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This study assesses the technical, environmental and economic factors affecting the application of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Thermal Reactor (HTR) to: synthetic fuel production; and displacement of fossil fuels in other industrial and chemical processes. Synthetic fuel application considered include coal gasification, direct coal liquefaction, oil shale processing, and the upgrading of syncrude to motor fuel. A wide range of other industrial heat applications was also considered, with emphasis on the use of the closed-loop thermochemical energy pipeline to supply heat to dispersed industrial users. In this application syngas (H/sub 2/ +CO/sub 2/) is produced at the central station HTR by steam reforming and the gas is piped to individual methanators where typically 1000/sup 0/F steam is generated at the industrial user sites. The products of methanation (CH/sub 4/ + H/sub 2/O) are piped back to the reformer at the central station HTR.

  7. Surviving floods: leaf gas films improve O₂ and CO₂ exchange, root aeration, and growth of completely submerged rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-04-01

    When completely submerged, the leaves of some species retain a surface gas film. Leaf gas films on submerged plants have recently been termed 'plant plastrons', analogous with the plastrons of aquatic insects. In aquatic insects, surface gas layers (i.e. plastrons) enlarge the gas-water interface to promote O₂ uptake when under water; however, the function of leaf gas films has rarely been considered. The present study demonstrates that gas films on leaves of completely submerged rice facilitate entry of O₂ from floodwaters when in darkness and CO₂ entry when in light. O₂ microprofiles showed that the improved gas exchange was not caused by differences in diffusive boundary layers adjacent to submerged leaves with or without gas films; instead, reduced resistance to gas exchange was probably due to the enlarged water-gas interface (cf. aquatic insects). When gas films were removed artificially, underwater net photosynthesis declined to only 20% of the rate with gas films present, such that, after 7 days of complete submergence, tissue sugar levels declined, and both shoot and root growth were reduced. Internal aeration of roots in anoxic medium, when shoots were in aerobic floodwater in darkness or when in light, was improved considerably when leaf gas films were present. Thus, leaf gas films contribute to the submergence tolerance of rice, in addition to those traits already recognized, such as the shoot-elongation response, aerenchyma and metabolic adjustments to O₂ deficiency and oxidative stress. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae submitted at the flooding and the "Ethrel" and silver nitrate application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane M. Davanso

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-month-old Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae plants cultivated in the greenhouse were submitted to 56 days of flooding and to "Ethrel" and silver nitrate applications to find out it’s capacity for morphological and physiological modifications to survive under flooding conditions and at which degree such responses were correlated with alterations in the ethylene level. Flooding and the "Ethrel" application caused growth reduction and epinasty in T. avellanedae and the application of silver nitrate lessened some these symptoms. Certain symptoms shown during flooding by this species and its ability to develop structures which lessen hypoxia effects, such as stem fissures and hypertrophied lenticels in the roots, modifications which enable the species to adapt to short flooding periods, could be related to increases in the ethylene concentration in the plant tissues.Plantas de Tabebuia avellanedae Lor. ex Griseb. (Bignoniaceae com três meses de idade e cultivadas em casa de vegetação, foram submetidas a 56 dias alagamento e à aplicação de "Ethrel" e de nitrato de prata. Objetivou-se verificar qual a capacidade desta espécie apresentar modificações morfológicas e fisiológicas para sobreviver durante períodos de inundação e em que grau tais respostas podem estar relacionadas com alterações nos níveis de etileno. O alagamento e a aplicação de "Ethrel" provocaram redução do crescimento e epinastia em T. avellanedae e a aplicação de nitrato prata amenizou em certos aspectos estes efeitos. Alguns sintomas apresentados por esta espécie durante a inundação e sua capacidade de desenvolver estruturas que amenizam os efeitosda hipoxia, como rachaduras corticaise hipertrofia de lenticelas nas raízes (modificações que possibilitaram a adaptação a curtos períodos de inundação podem estar relacionados a aumentos na concentração de etileno nos tecidos da planta.

  9. Extending the molecular application range of gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, E.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography is an important analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative analysis in a wide range of application areas. It is fast, provides a high peak capacity, is sensitive and allows combination with a wide range of selective detection methods including mass spectrometry.

  10. Improved zinc oxide film for gas sensor applications

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is a versatile material for different commercial applications such as transparent electrodes, piezoelectric devices, varistors, SAW devices etc because of its high piezoelectric coupling, greater stability of its hexagonal phase and its pyroelectric property. In fact, ZnO is a potential material for gas sensor ...

  11. Application of flood-intensity-duration curve, rainfall-intensity-duration curve and time of concentration to analyze the pattern of storms and their corresponding floods for the natural flood events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Nam Won; Shin, Mun-Ju; Lee, Jeong Eun

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of storm effects on floods is essential step for designing hydraulic structure and flood plain. There are previous studies for analyzing the relationship between the storm patterns and peak flow, flood volume and durations for various sizes of the catchments, but they are not enough to analyze the natural storm effects on flood responses quantitatively. This study suggests a novel method of quantitative analysis using unique factors extracted from the time series of storms and floods to investigate the relationship between natural storms and their corresponding flood responses. We used a distributed rainfall-runoff model of Grid based Rainfall-runoff Model (GRM) to generate the simulated flow and areal rainfall for 50 catchments in Republic of Korea size from 5.6 km2 to 1584.2 km2, which are including overlapped dependent catchments and non-overlapped independent catchments. The parameters of the GRM model were calibrated to get the good model performances of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Then Flood-Intensity-Duration Curve (FIDC) and Rainfall-Intensity-Duration Curve (RIDC) were generated by Flood-Duration-Frequency and Intensity-Duration-Frequency methods respectively using the time series of hydrographs and hyetographs. Time of concentration developed for the Korea catchments was used as a consistent measure to extract the unique factors from the FIDC and RIDC over the different size of catchments. These unique factors for the storms and floods were analyzed against the different size of catchments to investigate the natural storm effects on floods. This method can be easily used to get the intuition of the natural storm effects with various patterns on flood responses. Acknowledgement This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  12. Foliar application of molybdenum reduces yield loss and pre-harvest sprouting in japonica rice seed subjected to simulated flooding during seed development and maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Tejakhod, Sujittra; Hammond, John P.; Ellis, Richard H.

    2018-01-01

    Flooding damages rice crops and its incidence is increasing. Foliar spray applications of molybdenum (100, 600 or 3000 mg Mo L-1), abscisic acid (ABA, 50 μM), or deionised water (control) were made to pot-grown plants of the Japonica rice cv. Gleva at flag leaf appearance to determine their effects on seed yield and pre-harvest sprouting after flooding. Plants were submerged , to simulate flooding, for four days from 20 or 30 days after anthesis (DAA). Seed yield per plant, seed weight, and p...

  13. Applications of multiscale waveform inversion to marine data using a flooding technique and dynamic early-arrival windows

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2010-11-01

    A recently developed time-domain multiscale waveform tomography (MWT) method is applied to synthetic and field marine data. Although the MWT method was already applied to synthetic data, the synthetic data application leads to a development of a hybrid method between waveform tomography and the salt flooding technique commonly use in subsalt imaging. This hybrid method can overcome a convergence problem encountered by inversion with a traveltime velocity tomogram and successfully provides an accurate and highly resolved velocity tomogram for the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model. In the application of MWT to the field data, the inversion process is carried out using a multiscale method with a dynamic early-arrival muting window to mitigate the local minima problem of waveform tomography and elastic effects. With the modified MWT method, reasonably accurate results as verified by comparison of migration images and common image gathers were obtained. The hybrid method with the salt flooding technique is not used in this field data example because there is no salt in the subsurface according to our interpretation. However, we believe it is applicable to field data applications. © 2010 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  14. The study of the application of crystalline silicone solar cell type for a temporary flood camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendarti, R.; Katarina, W.; Wangidjaja, W.

    2017-12-01

    During flood period, most of temporary evacuation shelters in Jakarta are lack in electricity because the local electricity company turned the electricity off to avoid any electrical problem because of the high water level over the flooded area. Whereas, the local electricity or the grid is the main energy source for the lighting and water pump machine, therefore the energy source becomes a significant issue during this period. Currently, the local government has already provided diesel generators to substitute the local grid when it is off, however, the amount of the generators is still limited. This study, therefore, investigated an alternative energy for the electricity, particularly solar energy and this paper presents an analysis of the Jakarta duration of sunshine during rainy seasons in order to investigate which Crystalline Silicone solar cell type that can be implemented optimally for energy supply in the period of flood evacuation as well as for the shelter. A deep analysis on literature review was conducted on the three types of Crystalline Silicone solar cell, Jakarta local weather. Furthermore, the standard of International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) was also studied for the shelter design. The results of this study could be used as a reference for the local authority in providing the substitute energy supply in the temporary evacuation area during flood period in which the solar energy source could be also attached on the shelter.

  15. A framework to assess plan implementation maturity with an application to flood management in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phi, Ho Long; Hermans, L.M.; Douven, W.J.A.M.; Halsema, Van G.E.; Khan, Malik Fida

    2015-01-01

    Implementation failure is a long-known Achilles’ heel of water and flood management plans. Contemporary planning approaches address the implementation challenge by using more participatory planning processes to ensure support for plans, assuming that this support will also benefit plan

  16. Application of GPR Method for Detection of Loose Zones in Flood Levee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Tomisław; Małysa, Tomasz

    2018-02-01

    In the paper the results of non-invasive georadar (GPR) surveys carried out for detection of loose zones located in the flood levee was presented. Terrain measurements were performed on the Vistula river flood levee in the village of Wawrzeńczyce near Cracow. In the investigation site, during the flood in 2010, leakages of levee were observed, so detection of inner water filtration paths was an important matter taking into account the stability of the levee during the next flood. GPR surveys had reconnaissance character, so they were carried out with the use of short-offset reflection profiling (SORP) technique and radargrams were subjected to standard signal processing. The results of surveys allowed to outline main loose zone in the levee which were the reason of leakages in 2010. Additionally gravel interbeddings in sand were detected which had an important influence, due to higher porosity of such zones, to water filtration inside of the levee. In the paper three solutions which allow to increase quality and resolution of radargrams were presented, i.e. changeable-polarisation surveys, advanced signal processing and DHA procedure.

  17. A Real-Time Measurement System for Long-Life Flood Monitoring and Warning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Skarmeta Gómez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A flood warning system incorporates telemetered rainfall and flow/water level data measured at various locations in the catchment area. Real-time accurate data collection is required for this use, and sensor networks improve the system capabilities. However, existing sensor nodes struggle to satisfy the hydrological requirements in terms of autonomy, sensor hardware compatibility, reliability and long-range communication. We describe the design and development of a real-time measurement system for flood monitoring, and its deployment in a flash-flood prone 650 km2 semiarid watershed in Southern Spain. A developed low-power and long-range communication device, so-called DatalogV1, provides automatic data gathering and reliable transmission. DatalogV1 incorporates self-monitoring for adapting measurement schedules for consumption management and to capture events of interest. Two tests are used to assess the success of the development. The results show an autonomous and robust monitoring system for long-term collection of water level data inmany sparse locations during flood events.

  18. Evaluating the effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures by the application of Propensity Score Matching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudson, P.G.M.B.; Botzen, W.J.W.; Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.

    2014-01-01

    The employment of damage mitigation measures (DMMs) by individuals is an important component of integrated flood risk management. In order to promote efficient damage mitigation measures, accurate estimates of their damage mitigation potential are required. That is, for correctly assessing the

  19. Assessment of nature-based flood defences' implementation potential : development and application of a game theory based method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.K.H.; Hermans, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Nature-based flood defence (NBFD) by means of vegetated foreshores is an innovative flood protection strategy. In contrasts with traditional hard structures it combines nature and flood protection functions and employs natural dynamics. Introducing such an innovation into actual flood protection

  20. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Neudeck, Philip G.; Knight, Dak; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Wu, Quing-Hai; Zhou, Huan-Jun

    1997-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Two areas of particular interest are safety monitoring and emission monitoring. In safety monitoring, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen at potentially low temperatures is important while for emission monitoring the detection of nitrogen oxides, hydrogen, hydrocarbons and oxygen is of interest. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: (1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. (2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. The detection of each type of gas involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this general area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  1. Forecasting Global Rainfall for Points Using ECMWF's Global Ensemble and Its Applications in Flood Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillosu, F. M.; Hewson, T.; Mazzetti, C.

    2017-12-01

    Prediction of local extreme rainfall has historically been the remit of nowcasting and high resolution limited area modelling, which represent only limited areas, may not be spatially accurate, give reasonable results only for limited lead times (based statistical post-processing software ("ecPoint-Rainfall, ecPR", operational in 2017) that uses ECMWF Ensemble (ENS) output to deliver global probabilistic rainfall forecasts for points up to day 10. Firstly, ecPR applies a new notion of "remote calibration", which 1) allows us to replicate a multi-centennial training period using only one year of data, and 2) provides forecasts for anywhere in the world. Secondly, the software applies an understanding of how different rainfall generation mechanisms lead to different degrees of sub-grid variability in rainfall totals, and of where biases in the model can be improved upon. A long-term verification has shown that the post-processed rainfall has better reliability and resolution at every lead time if compared with ENS, and for large totals, ecPR outputs have the same skill at day 5 that the raw ENS has at day 1 (ROC area metric). ecPR could be used as input for hydrological models if its probabilistic output is modified accordingly to the inputs requirements for hydrological models. Indeed, ecPR does not provide information on where the highest total is likely to occur inside the gridbox, nor on the spatial distribution of rainfall values nearby. "Scenario forecasts" could be a solution. They are derived from locating the rainfall peak in sensitive positions (e.g. urban areas), and then redistributing the remaining quantities in the gridbox modifying traditional spatial correlation characterization methodologies (e.g. variogram analysis) in order to take account, for instance, of the type of rainfall forecast (stratiform, convective). Such an approach could be a turning point in the field of medium-range global real-time riverine flood forecasts. This presentation will

  2. Applications of stable isotope analysis to atmospheric trace gas budgets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenninkmeijer C. A.M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Stable isotope analysis has become established as a useful method for tracing the budgets of atmospheric trace gases and even atmospheric oxygen. Several new developments are briefly discussed in a systematic way to give a practical guide to the scope of recent work. Emphasis is on applications and not on instrumental developments. Processes and reactions are less considered than applications to resolve trace gas budgets. Several new developments are promising and applications hitherto not considered to be possible may allow new uses.

  3. Gas scintillation proportional counters for x-ray synchrotron applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.

    1992-01-01

    Gas scintillation proportional counters (GSPCs) as x-ray detectors provide some advantages and disadvantages compared with proportional counters. In this paper the various configurations of xenon filled GSPC are described including both imaging and nonimaging devices. It is intended that this work be used to configure a GSPC for a particular application and predict its general performance characteristics. The general principles of operation are described and the performance characteristics are then separately considered. A high performance, imaging, driftless GSPC is described in which a single intermediate window is used between the PMT and gas cell

  4. Gas-cooled reactors for advanced terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesavan, K.; Lance, J.R.; Jones, A.R.; Spurrier, F.R.; Peoples, J.A.; Porter, C.A.; Bresnahan, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Conceptual design of a power plant on an inert gas cooled nuclear coupled to an open, air Brayton power conversion cycle is presented. The power system, called the Westinghouse GCR/ATA (Gas-Cooled Reactors for Advanced Terrestrial Applications), is designed to meet modern military needs, and offers the advantages of secure, reliable and safe electrical power. The GCR/ATA concept is adaptable over a range of 1 to 10 MWe power output. Design descriptions of a compact, air-transportable forward base unit for 1 to 3 MWe output and a fixed-base, permanent installation for 3 to 10 MWe output are presented

  5. Gas-cooled reactor application for a university campus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colak, Ue.; Kadiroghlu, O.K.; Soekmen, C.N.; Schmitt, H.

    1991-01-01

    Large urban areas with unfavourable topographic and meteorological conditions suffer severe air pollution during the winter months. Use of low grade lignites, imported higher quality coal or imported fuel oil are the sources of air pollution in the form of sulphur dioxide, fly ash and soot. Large housing complexes or old and historical locations within the city are in need of pollution free centralized district heating systems. Natural gas imported from the Soviet Union is a solution for this problem. Lack of gas distribution network for high pressure gas within the city is the main bottle-neck for the heating systems utilizing natural gas. Concern of the safety of flammable high pressure gas circulating within the city is another drawback for the natural gas heating systems. Nuclear district heating is an environmentally viable option worth looking into it. Localized urban nuclear heating is an interesting solution for large urban areas with old and historical character. The results of a feasibility study on the HGR application for the Hacettepe University presented here, summarizes the concept of gas-cooled heating reactors specially designed for urban centers. The inherently safe characteristics of the pebble bed heating reactor makes localized urban nuclear heating a viable alternative to other heat sources. An economical analysis of various heat sources with equal power levels is done for the Beytepe campus of Hacettepe University in Ankara. Under special boundary conditions, the price for heat generation can be much lower for nuclear heating with GHR 20 than for hard coal or fuel oil. It is also possible that if the price escalation rate for natural gas exceeds 3%, then nuclear heating with GHR can be more competitive. It is concluded that the nuclear heating of Beytepe campus with a GHR 20 is feasible and economical. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs

  6. Application of gis on determination of flood prone areas and critical arterial road network by using chaid method in bandung area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darwin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Floods in Bandung area often occur when the rainfall is high then the water volume exceed the capacity of Citarum watershed. Floods cause economic and social losses. The purpose of this research is to get the GIS application model in the estimation of puddle area and road network in Bandung Metropolitan Area has disturbed.Geospatial map preparation methodology used statistical data from 11041 flood points, which divided into two groups, 7729 flood points to estimate the decision tree model and 3312 flood points to validate the model. The process of making flood vulnerability maps is approached by Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID method, and validation using Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC method. Validation results in the area under the curve with a value of 93.1% for success rate and 92.7% for the prediction level.Chaid result is class 0 - 0,047 covering 76,68% area; Grades of 0.047-0.307 include 5.37%; Grades 0.307 - 0.599 (Low covering 5.36%; Grades 0.599 to 0.4444 include 5.31% and grade 0.844-1 (high covering 7.27% of the research area. Flood-prone road network is Link from Rancaekek (Area of PT Kahatex, link from Solokan Jeruk (Cicalengka-Majalaya, Link Baleendah, and linkDayeuhkolot (M.Toha - Andir

  7. Compound simulation of fluvial floods and storm surges in a global coupled river-coast flood model: Model development and its application to 2007 Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip J.; Winsemius, Hessel C.; Verlaan, Martin; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-08-01

    Water-related disasters, such as fluvial floods and cyclonic storm surges, are a major concern in the world's mega-delta regions. Furthermore, the simultaneous occurrence of extreme discharges from rivers and storm surges could exacerbate flood risk, compared to when they occur separately. Hence, it is of great importance to assess the compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, including mega-deltas. However, most studies on compound fluvial and coastal flooding have been limited to relatively small scales, and global-scale or large-scale studies have not yet addressed both of them. The objectives of this study are twofold: to develop a global coupled river-coast flood model; and to conduct a simulation of compound fluvial flooding and storm surges in Asian mega-delta regions. A state-of-the-art global river routing model was modified to represent the influence of dynamic sea surface levels on river discharges and water levels. We conducted the experiments by coupling a river model with a global tide and surge reanalysis data set. Results show that water levels in deltas and estuaries are greatly affected by the interaction between river discharge, ocean tides and storm surges. The effects of storm surges on fluvial flooding are further examined from a regional perspective, focusing on the case of Cyclone Sidr in the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna Delta in 2007. Modeled results demonstrate that a >3 m storm surge propagated more than 200 km inland along rivers. We show that the performance of global river routing models can be improved by including sea level dynamics.

  8. Implementation and Evaluation of the Streamflow Statistics (StreamStats) Web Application for Computing Basin Characteristics and Flood Peaks in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Audrey L.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2010-01-01

    Illinois StreamStats (ILSS) is a Web-based application for computing selected basin characteristics and flood-peak quantiles based on the most recently (2010) published (Soong and others, 2004) regional flood-frequency equations at any rural stream location in Illinois. Limited streamflow statistics including general statistics, flow durations, and base flows also are available for U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations. ILSS can be accessed on the Web at http://streamstats.usgs.gov/ by selecting the State Applications hyperlink and choosing Illinois from the pull-down menu. ILSS was implemented for Illinois by obtaining and projecting ancillary geographic information system (GIS) coverages; populating the StreamStats database with streamflow-gaging station data; hydroprocessing the 30-meter digital elevation model (DEM) for Illinois to conform to streams represented in the National Hydrographic Dataset 1:100,000 stream coverage; and customizing the Web-based Extensible Markup Language (XML) programs for computing basin characteristics for Illinois. The basin characteristics computed by ILSS then were compared to the basin characteristics used in the published study, and adjustments were applied to the XML algorithms for slope and basin length. Testing of ILSS was accomplished by comparing flood quantiles computed by ILSS at a an approximately random sample of 170 streamflow-gaging stations computed by ILSS with the published flood quantile estimates. Differences between the log-transformed flood quantiles were not statistically significant at the 95-percent confidence level for the State as a whole, nor by the regions determined by each equation, except for region 1, in the northwest corner of the State. In region 1, the average difference in flood quantile estimates ranged from 3.76 percent for the 2-year flood quantile to 4.27 percent for the 500-year flood quantile. The total number of stations in region 1 was small (21) and the mean

  9. Artificial Neural Network Model for Alkali-Surfactant-Polymer Flooding in Viscous Oil Reservoirs: Generation and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si Le Van

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical flooding has been widely utilized to recover a large portion of the oil remaining in light and viscous oil reservoirs after the primary and secondary production processes. As core-flood tests and reservoir simulations take time to accurately estimate the recovery performances as well as analyzing the feasibility of an injection project, it is necessary to find a powerful tool to quickly predict the results with a level of acceptable accuracy. An approach involving the use of an artificial neural network to generate a representative model for estimating the alkali-surfactant-polymer flooding performance and evaluating the economic feasibility of viscous oil reservoirs from simulation is proposed in this study. A typical chemical flooding project was referenced for this numerical study. A number of simulations have been made for training on the basis of a base case from the design of 13 parameters. After training, the network scheme generated from a ratio data set of 50%-20%-30% corresponding to the number of samples used for training-validation-testing was selected for estimation with the total coefficient of determination of 0.986 and a root mean square error of 1.63%. In terms of model application, the chemical concentration and injection strategy were optimized to maximize the net present value (NPV of the project at a specific oil price from the just created ANN model. To evaluate the feasibility of the project comprehensively in terms of market variations, a range of oil prices from 30 $/bbl to 60 $/bbl referenced from a real market situation was considered in conjunction with its probability following a statistical distribution on the NPV computation. Feasibility analysis of the optimal chemical injection scheme revealed a variation of profit from 0.42 $MM to 1.0 $MM, corresponding to the changes in oil price. In particular, at the highest possible oil prices, the project can earn approximately 0.61 $MM to 0.87 $MM for a quarter

  10. GIS Support for Flood Rescue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Gengsheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2007-01-01

    Under flood events, the ground traffic is blocked in and around the flooded area due to damages to roads and bridges. The traditional transportation network may not always help people to make a right decision for evacuation. In order to provide dynamic road information needed for flood rescue, we...... to retrieve the shortest and safest route in Fredericton road network during flood event. It enables users to make a timely decision for flood rescue. We are using Oracle Spatial to deal with emergency situations that can be applied to other constrained network applications as well....... developed an adaptive web-based transportation network application using Oracle technology. Moreover, the geographic relationships between the road network and flood areas are taken into account. The overlay between the road network and flood polygons is computed on the fly. This application allows users...

  11. Pressureless sintering and gas flux properties of porous ceramic membranes for gas applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Obada

    Full Text Available The preparation and characterization of kaolin based ceramic membranes using styrofoam (STY and sawdust (SD as pore formers have been prepared by mechano-chemical synthesis using pressureless sintering technique with porogen content between (0–20 wt% by die pressing. Pellets were fired at 1150 °C and soaking time of 4 h. The membranes cast as circular disks were subjected to characterization studies to evaluate the effect of the sintering temperature and pore former content on porosity, density, water absorption and mechanical strength. Obtained membranes show effective porosity with maximum at about 43 and 47% respectively for membranes formulated with styrofoam and sawdust porogens but with a slightly low mechanical strength that does not exceed 19 MPa. The resultant ceramic bodies show a fine porous structure which is mainly caused by the volatilization of the porogens. The fabricated membrane exhibited high N2 gas flux, hence, these membranes can be considered as efficient for potential application for gas separation by reason of the results shown in the gas flux tests. Keywords: Porosity, Pore formers, Kaolin, Physico-mechanical properties, Gas separation, Gas flux

  12. [Prospects for Application of Gases and Gas Hydrates to Cryopreservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, N V; Fesenko, E E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, we tried to evaluate the known properties of gas hydrates and gases participating in the formation of gas hydrates from the point of view of the mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryoprotection, to consider the papers on freezing biological materials in the presence of inert gases, and to analyze the perspectives for the development of this direction. For the purpose, we searched for the information on the physical properties of gases and gas hydrates, compared processes occured during the formation of gas hydrates and water ice, analyzed the influence of the formation and growth of gas hydrates on the structure of biological objects. We prepared a short review on the biological effects of xenon, krypton, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide especially on hypothermal conditions and probable application of these properties in cryopreservation technologies. The description of the existing experiments on cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases was analyzed. On the basis of the information we found, the most perspective directions of work in the field of cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases were outlined. An attempt was made to forecast the potential problems in this field.

  13. 78 FR 58529 - Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 4, 2013, Floridian Natural Gas Storage Company, LLC (Floridian Gas Storage), 1000 Louisiana Street, Suite 4361, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in Docket No. CP13-541-000 an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  14. Application of fluorinated nanofluid for production enhancement of a carbonate gas-condensate reservoir through wettability alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhaei, Zahra; Azin, Reza; Naghizadeh, Arefeh; Osfouri, Shahriar; Saboori, Rahmatollah; Vahdani, Hosein

    2018-03-01

    Condensate blockage phenomenon in near-wellbore region decreases gas production rate remarkably. Wettability alteration using fluorinated chemicals is an efficacious way to vanquish this problem. In this study, new synthesized fluorinated silica nanoparticles with an optimized condition and mean diameter of 50 nm is employed to modify carbonate rock surface wettability. Rock characterization tests consisting Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Energy Dispersive x-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) were utilized to assess the nanofluid adsorption on rock surface after treatment. Contact angle, spontaneous imbibition and core flooding experiments were performed to investigate the effect of synthesized nanofluid adsorption on wettability of rock surface and liquid mobility. Results of contact angle experiments revealed that wettability of rock could alter from strongly oil-wetting to the intermediate gas-wetting even at elevated temperature. Imbibition rates of oil and brine were diminished noticeably after treatment. 60% and 30% enhancement in pressure drop of condensate and brine floods after wettability alteration with modified nanofluid were observed which confirm successful field applicability of this chemical.

  15. HERA: A dynamic web application for visualizing community exposure to flood hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Henry, Kevin; Wood, Nathan; Ng, Peter; Jamieson, Matthew

    2017-12-01

    The Hazard Exposure Reporting and Analytics (HERA) dynamic web application was created to provide a platform that makes research on community exposure to coastal-flooding hazards influenced by sea level rise accessible to planners, decision makers, and the public in a manner that is both easy to use and easily accessible. HERA allows users to (a) choose flood-hazard scenarios based on sea level rise and storm assumptions, (b) appreciate the modeling uncertainty behind a chosen hazard zone, (c) select one or several communities to examine exposure, (d) select the category of population or societal asset, and (e) choose how to look at results. The application is designed to highlight comparisons between (a) varying levels of sea level rise and coastal storms, (b) communities, (c) societal asset categories, and (d) spatial scales. Through a combination of spatial and graphical visualizations, HERA aims to help individuals and organizations to craft more informed mitigation and adaptation strategies for climate-driven coastal hazards. This paper summarizes the technologies used to maximize the user experience, in terms of interface design, visualization approaches, and data processing.

  16. HERA: A dynamic web application for visualizing community exposure to flood hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jeanne M.; Henry, Kevin; Wood, Nathan J.; Ng, Peter; Jamieson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The Hazard Exposure Reporting and Analytics (HERA) dynamic web application was created to provide a platform that makes research on community exposure to coastal-flooding hazards influenced by sea level rise accessible to planners, decision makers, and the public in a manner that is both easy to use and easily accessible. HERA allows users to (a) choose flood-hazard scenarios based on sea level rise and storm assumptions, (b) appreciate the modeling uncertainty behind a chosen hazard zone, (c) select one or several communities to examine exposure, (d) select the category of population or societal asset, and (e) choose how to look at results. The application is designed to highlight comparisons between (a) varying levels of sea level rise and coastal storms, (b) communities, (c) societal asset categories, and (d) spatial scales. Through a combination of spatial and graphical visualizations, HERA aims to help individuals and organizations to craft more informed mitigation and adaptation strategies for climate-driven coastal hazards. This paper summarizes the technologies used to maximize the user experience, in terms of interface design, visualization approaches, and data processing.

  17. Artificial intelligence applications in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, F.G.

    1994-01-01

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gained considerable acceptance in virtually all fields, of engineering applications. Artificial intelligence is now being applied in several areas of offshore oil and gas operations, such as drilling, well testing, well logging and interpretation, reservoir engineering, planning and economic evaluation, process control, and risk analysis. Current AI techniques offer a new and exciting technology for solving problems in the oil and gas industry. Expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks and genetic algorithms are major AI technologies which have made an impact on the petroleum industry. Presently, these technologies are at different stages of maturity with expert systems being the most mature and genetic algorithms the least. However, all four technologies have evolved such that practical applications were produced. This paper describes the four major Al techniques and their many applications in offshore oil and gas production operations. A summary description of future developments in Al technology that will affect the execution and productivity of offshore operations will be also provided

  18. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  19. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautic and Space Applications 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Chen, L. Y.; Neudeck, P. G.; Knight, D.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Zhou, H. J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; Rauch, W. A.

    1998-01-01

    Aeronautic and Space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of most interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring emission monitoring and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensor is based on progress two types of technology: 1) Micro-machining and micro-fabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this micro-fabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  20. Chemical Gas Sensors for Aeronautics and Space Applications III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Chen, L. Y.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, Z.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; Liu, M.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Aeronautic and space applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. Areas of interest include launch vehicle safety monitoring, emission monitoring, and fire detection. This paper discusses the needs of aeronautic and space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. The development of these sensors is based on progress in two types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. The number of dual-use commercial applications of this microfabricated gas sensor technology make this area of sensor development a field of significant interest.

  1. Assessment of hyporheic zone, flood-plain, soil-gas, soil, and surface-water contamination at the Old Incinerator Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface-water for contaminants at the Old Incinerator Area at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Total petroleum hydrocarbons were detected above the method detection level in all 13 samplers deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain of an unnamed tributary to Spirit Creek. The combined concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene were detected at 3 of the 13 samplers. Other organic compounds detected in one sampler included octane and trichloroethylene. In the passive soil-gas survey, 28 of the 60 samplers detected total petroleum hydrocarbons above the method detection level. Additionally, 11 of the 60 samplers detected the combined masses of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylene above the method detection level. Other compounds detected above the method detection level in the passive soil-gas survey included octane, trimethylbenzene, perchlorethylene, and chloroform. Subsequent to the passive soil-gas survey, six areas determined to have relatively high contaminant mass were selected, and soil-gas samplers were deployed, collected, and analyzed for explosives and chemical agents. No explosives or chemical agents were detected above

  2. A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Llasat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to introduce a systematic press database on natural hazards and climate change in Catalonia (NE of Spain and to analyze its potential application to social-impact studies. For this reason, a review of the concepts of risk, hazard, vulnerability and social perception is also included. This database has been built for the period 1982–2007 and contains all the news related with those issues published by the oldest still-active newspaper in Catalonia. Some parameters are registered for each article and for each event, including criteria that enable us to determine the importance accorded to it by the newspaper, and a compilation of information about it. This ACCESS data base allows each article to be classified on the basis of the seven defined topics and key words, as well as summary information about the format and structuring of the new itself, the social impact of the event and data about the magnitude or intensity of the event. The coverage given to this type of news has been assessed because of its influence on construction of the social perception of natural risk and climate change, and as a potential source of information about them. The treatment accorded by the press to different risks is also considered. More than 14 000 press articles have been classified. Results show that the largest number of news items for the period 1982–2007 relates to forest fires and droughts, followed by floods and heavy rainfalls, although floods are the major risk in the region of study. Two flood events recorded in 2002 have been analyzed in order to show an example of the role of the press information as indicator of risk perception.

  3. Optimal multi-agent path planning for fast inverse modeling in UAV-based flood sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Shaqura, Mohammad; Ghommem, Mehdi; Collier, Nathan; Calo, Victor M.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Unmanned air vehicles equipped

  4. Application of polish experience in the implementation of the flood directive in Georgia – hydrological calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Egiazarova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper present an example of the implementation of hydrological calculation methods for delineation of flood risk zones in the conditions prevailing in Georgia. The results, described in the present paper, were obtained in the project “Study of hydraulic modelling against floods – 2nd stage – support to the competence and readiness of Georgian institutions” which was organized and implemented by Polish Center for International Aid (PCPM, and co-funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland. The results related to the catchments of the Lopota, the Intsoba, the Chelti, the Avaniskhevi, the Shromiskhevi in Kakheti and the Aragvi. All the catchments named above are hydrologically ungauged, therefore, a rainfall-runoff hydrological model was required for generating hypothetical hydrographs. Based on the peak daily total rainfall for the multi-annual period 1966–2014, quantiles of rainfall with a specified exceedance probability were calculated. A rainfall hyetogram was found using the beta distribution function. Effective rainfall was calculated by the SCS-CN method. Details of the land profile, cover and soil conditions were obtained from the numerical land model as well as maps, generated as part of the project named above. The effective rainfall was transformed into runoff using a simple SCSUH model, based on the synthetic unit hydrograph. Studies indicated that total daily uniform rainfalls were random and could be described using the Fisher-Tippett distribution type III min. The results obtained by modeling were boundary conditions in the hydraulic model of transformation of the flood wave in rivers.

  5. Probabilistic flood forecasting tool for Andalusia (Spain). Application to September 2012 disaster event in Vera Playa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Darío; Baquerizo, Asunción; Ortega, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Ángel Losada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Torrential and heavy rains are frequent in Andalusia (Southern Spain) due to the characteristic Mediterranean climate (semi-arid areas). This, in combination with a massive occupation of floodable (river sides) and coastal areas, produces severe problems of management and damage to the population and social and economical activities when extreme events occur. Some of the most important problems are being produced during last years in Almería (Southeastern Andalusia). Between 27 and 28 September 2012 rainstorms characterized by 240mm in 24h (exceeding precipitation for a return period of 500 years) occurred. Antas River and Jático creek, that are normally dry, became raging torrents. The massive flooding of occupied areas resulted in eleven deaths and two missing in Andalucía, with a total estimated cost of all claims for compensation on the order of 197 million euros. This study presents a probabilistic flood forecasting tool including the effect of river and marine forcings. It is based on a distributed, physically-based hydrological model (WiMMed). For Almería the model has been calibrated with the largest event recorded in Cantoria gauging station (data since 1965) on 19 October 1973. It was then validated with the second strongest event (26 October 1977). Among the different results of the model, it can provide probability floods scenarios in Andalusia with up 10 days weather forecasts. The tool has been applied to Vera, a 15.000 inhabitants town located in the east of Almería along the Antas River at an altitude of 95 meters. Its main economic resource is the "beach and sun" based-tourism, which has experienced an enormous growth during last decades. Its coastal stretch has been completely built in these years, occupying floodable areas and constricting the channel and rivers mouths. Simulations of the model in this area for the 1973 event and published in March 2011 on the internet event already announced that the floods of September 2012 may occur.

  6. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  7. An Application of a Stochastic Semi-Continuous Simulation Method for Flood Frequency Analysis: A Case Study in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valent, Peter; Paquet, Emmanuel

    2017-09-01

    A reliable estimate of extreme flood characteristics has always been an active topic in hydrological research. Over the decades a large number of approaches and their modifications have been proposed and used, with various methods utilizing continuous simulation of catchment runoff, being the subject of the most intensive research in the last decade. In this paper a new and promising stochastic semi-continuous method is used to estimate extreme discharges in two mountainous Slovak catchments of the rivers Váh and Hron, in which snow-melt processes need to be taken into account. The SCHADEX method used, couples a precipitation probabilistic model with a rainfall-runoff model used to both continuously simulate catchment hydrological conditions and to transform generated synthetic rainfall events into corresponding discharges. The stochastic nature of the method means that a wide range of synthetic rainfall events were simulated on various historical catchment conditions, taking into account not only the saturation of soil, but also the amount of snow accumulated in the catchment. The results showed that the SCHADEX extreme discharge estimates with return periods of up to 100 years were comparable to those estimated by statistical approaches. In addition, two reconstructed historical floods with corresponding return periods of 100 and 1000 years were compared to the SCHADEX estimates. The results confirmed the usability of the method for estimating design discharges with a recurrence interval of more than 100 years and its applicability in Slovak conditions.

  8. General Analysis of System Efficiency in Application of Combined Power Plants for Gas-Distribution Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kachan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes utilization of discharged heat of gas-piston engine (GPE or contact steam-gas plants (SGP with the purpose to heat up gas at gas-distribution stations (GDS of combined power plants with turbine and gas-expansion units. Calculations prove significant economic efficiency of the proposed variant in comparison with the application of ordinary gas- turbine units. Technical and economic calculation is used to determine gas-piston engine or contact steam-gas plant power for specific operational conditions of gas-distribution stations and utilization rate of discharged heat.

  9. Thermodynamic design of natural gas liquefaction cycles for offshore application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Lim, Hye Su; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2014-09-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for natural gas liquefaction cycles applicable to offshore floating plants, as partial efforts of an ongoing governmental project in Korea. For offshore liquefaction, the most suitable cycle may be different from the on-land LNG processes under operation, because compactness and simple operation are important as well as thermodynamic efficiency. As a turbine-based cycle, closed Claude cycle is proposed to use NG (natural gas) itself as refrigerant. The optimal condition for NG Claude cycle is determined with a process simulator (Aspen HYSYS), and the results are compared with fully-developed C3-MR (propane pre-cooled mixed refrigerant) JT cycles and various N2 (nitrogen) Brayton cycles in terms of efficiency and compactness. The newly proposed NG Claude cycle could be a good candidate for offshore LNG processes.

  10. Advanced Gas Tungsten Arc Weld Surfacing Current Status and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Egerland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gas Shielded Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW – a process well-known providing highest quality weld results joined though by lower performance. Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW is frequently chosen to increase productivity along with broadly accepted quality. Those industry segments, especially required to produce high quality corrosion resistant weld surfacing e.g. applying nickel base filler materials, are regularly in consistent demand to comply with "zero defect" criteria. In this conjunction weld performance limitations are overcome employing advanced 'hot-wire' GTAW systems. This paper, from a Welding Automation perspective, describes the technology of such devices and deals with the current status is this field – namely the application of dual-cathode hot-wire electrode GTAW cladding; considerably broadening achievable limits.

  11. Development and Application of an Ultrasonic Gas Flowmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Ho; Jeong, Hee Don; Park, Sang Gug; Jhang, Kyung Young

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the development and the field application of the ultrasonic gas flowmeter for accurate measurement of the volumetric flow rate of gases in a harsh environmental conditions in iron and steel making company. This ultrasonic flowmeter is especially suited for measuring LDG, COG, BFG gases produced in iron and steel making process. This is a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have developed the transmitting and receiving algorithm of ultrasonic wave and the ultrasonic signal processing algorithm to develope a transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter. We have evaluated the performance of ultrasonic flowmeter by the calibration system with Venturi type standard flowmeter. We has confirmed its reliability by extensive field tests for a year in POSCO, iron and steel making company. Now we have developed the commercial model of ultrasonic flowmeter and applied to the POSCO gas line

  12. Nogales flood detention study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Laura M.; Levick, Lainie; Guertin, D. Phillip; Callegary, James; Guadarrama, Jesus Quintanar; Anaya, Claudia Zulema Gil; Prichard, Andrea; Gray, Floyd; Castellanos, Edgar; Tepezano, Edgar; Huth, Hans; Vandervoet, Prescott; Rodriguez, Saul; Nunez, Jose; Atwood, Donald; Granillo, Gilberto Patricio Olivero; Ceballos, Francisco Octavio Gastellum

    2010-01-01

    Flooding in Ambos Nogales often exceeds the capacity of the channel and adjacent land areas, endangering many people. The Nogales Wash is being studied to prevent future flood disasters and detention features are being installed in tributaries of the wash. This paper describes the application of the KINEROS2 model and efforts to understand the capacity of these detention features under various flood and urbanization scenarios. Results depict a reduction in peak flow for the 10-year, 1-hour event based on current land use in tributaries with detention features. However, model results also demonstrate that larger storm events and increasing urbanization will put a strain on the features and limit their effectiveness.

  13. Behavior of radionuclides in nuclear gas stimulation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Jr, C F [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-01

    The Gasbuggy experiment has presented a unique opportunity to investigate the behavior of radionuclides over an extended period of time in a somewhat unusual environment. In addition to the obvious practical utility of this investigation for Plowshare applications, the information gained has value of a purely scientific nature. Both aspects of the Gas Quality program for Gasbuggy are discussed in this presentation. The study of Gasbuggy results is divided into two distinct periods, according to the field operations. During the initial six months following detonation, the chimney reentry well was shut-in, and the nuclear chimney served as a chemical and radiochemical reaction vessel. A detailed examination of the concentrations and specific activities of tritium and C{sup 14} is presented as a function of the changing chemical composition of the chimney gas and as a function of time. The effects of radiochemical exchange reactions, together with the tritium isotope effect, are demonstrated. Following this shut-in period, a series of production and flushing tests was conducted. During these experiments, the chimney gas composition was seen to change about as would be expected due to dilution of the chimney gas with formation gas. An examination of radionuclide concentrations and specific activities during the production tests demonstrated the relative unimportance of isotopic exchange and chemical reactions during this period, as compared to the early shut-in periods. Within the limitations of the Gasbuggy experience a generalized model of the behavior of tritium and C{sup 14} can be deduced. The discussion involves estimation of initial distribution of activities, the effects of chemical reactions and isotopic exchange on this distribution, and the importance of the environment in determining the level of radioactivity contamination to be expected. (author)

  14. Study on Applicability of Conceptual Hydrological Models for Flood Forecasting in Humid, Semi-Humid Semi-Arid and Arid Basins in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyuan Kan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flood simulation and forecasting in various types of watersheds is a hot issue in hydrology. Conceptual hydrological models have been widely applied to flood forecasting for decades. With the development of economy, modern China faces with severe flood disasters in all types of watersheds include humid, semi-humid semi-arid and arid watersheds. However, conceptual model-based flood forecasting in semi-humid semi-arid and arid regions is still challenging. To investigate the applicability of conceptual hydrological models for flood forecasting in the above mentioned regions, three typical conceptual models, include Xinanjiang (XAJ, mix runoff generation (MIX and northern Shannxi (NS, are applied to 3 humid, 3 semi-humid semi-arid, and 3 arid watersheds. The rainfall-runoff data of the 9 watersheds are analyzed based on statistical analysis and information theory, and the model performances are compared and analyzed based on boxplots and scatter plots. It is observed the complexity of drier watershed data is higher than that of the wetter watersheds. This indicates the flood forecasting is harder in drier watersheds. Simulation results indicate all models perform satisfactorily in humid watersheds and only NS model is applicable in arid watersheds. Model with consideration of saturation excess runoff generation (XAJ and MIX perform better than the infiltration excess-based NS model in semi-humid semi-arid watersheds. It is concluded more accurate mix runoff generation theory, more stable and efficient numerical solution of infiltration equation and rainfall data with higher spatial-temporal resolution are main obstacles for conceptual model-based flood simulation and forecasting.

  15. Flood risk assessment and robust management under deep uncertainty: Application to Dhaka City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahed, Vahid; Gain, Animesh Kumar; Giupponi, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    The socio-economic changes as well as climatic changes have been the main drivers of uncertainty in environmental risk assessment and in particular flood. The level of future uncertainty that researchers face when dealing with problems in a future perspective with focus on climate change is known as Deep Uncertainty (also known as Knightian uncertainty), since nobody has already experienced and undergone those changes before and our knowledge is limited to the extent that we have no notion of probabilities, and therefore consolidated risk management approaches have limited potential.. Deep uncertainty is referred to circumstances that analysts and experts do not know or parties to decision making cannot agree on: i) the appropriate models describing the interaction among system variables, ii) probability distributions to represent uncertainty about key parameters in the model 3) how to value the desirability of alternative outcomes. The need thus emerges to assist policy-makers by providing them with not a single and optimal solution to the problem at hand, such as crisp estimates for the costs of damages of natural hazards considered, but instead ranges of possible future costs, based on the outcomes of ensembles of assessment models and sets of plausible scenarios. Accordingly, we need to substitute optimality as a decision criterion with robustness. Under conditions of deep uncertainty, the decision-makers do not have statistical and mathematical bases to identify optimal solutions, while instead they should prefer to implement "robust" decisions that perform relatively well over all conceivable outcomes out of all future unknown scenarios. Under deep uncertainty, analysts cannot employ probability theory or other statistics that usually can be derived from observed historical data and therefore, we turn to non-statistical measures such as scenario analysis. We construct several plausible scenarios with each scenario being a full description of what may happen

  16. Effective Viscosity in Porous Media and Applicable Limitations for Polymer Flooding of an Associative Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrophobically associating polyacrylamide (HAPAM is considered to be a promising candidate for polymer flooding because of its excellent apparent viscosifying capability. Compared with partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM, the resistance factor and residual resistance factor caused by HAPAM tend to be higher. However, the effective viscosity of HAPAM is lower than that of conventional polymer at a concentration of 2 000 mg/L. The dynamic retention capacity of HAPAM is about 2.3 times that of HPAM. The oil displacement efficiency of HAPAM is lower than that of conventional polymer at a concentration of 2 000 mg/L in the homogeneous sandpack model. The oil displacement efficiency of HAPAM is higher than that of HPAM only in the heterogeneous model (permeability ratio 2.8. Neither high nor low permeability ratios are good for the oil displacement efficiency of HAPAM.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Intermittently Flooded (Dambo) Rice under Different Tillage Practices in Chiota Smallholder Farming Area of Zimbabwe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyamadzawo, George; Wuta, Menas; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the biggest sources of greenhouse gases. Rice production has been identified as one of the major sources of greenhouse gases, especially methane. However, data on the contributions of rice towards greenhouse gas emissions in tropical Africa are limited. In Zimbabwe, as in mo...

  18. Possibilities of gas-phase radio-chromatography application to permanent-gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.; Charrier, G.; Alba, C.; Massimino, D.

    1970-01-01

    The gas-phase radio-chromatography technique has been applied to the rapid analysis of permanent gases (H 2 , O 2 , N 2 , A, Kr, Xe, CO, CH 4 ) labelled with radioactive indicators ( 3 H, 37 A, 85 Kr, 133 Xe). After calibration, the components of such a mixture can be identified and their concentrations measured in less than two hours, using a sample volume of from 0.1 to 10 cm 3 . The minimum detectable activity is of the order of 10 -4 μC for each radioactive isotope. The measurements are reproducible to about 2 to 3 per cent. This work has been mainly concerned with the influence of parameters affecting the response of the radioactivity detector (ionization chamber or gas flow proportional counter). The method has very numerous applications both theoretically, for the study of chromatographic phenomena under ideal conditions (infinitesimal concentrations made possible by the use of radioactive tracers), and practically, for rapid and accurate radiochemical analysis of radioactive gas mixtures. (authors) [fr

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Gas Sensing Applications of WO3 Nanobricks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jingkun; Song, Chengwen; Dong, Wei; Li, Chen; Yin, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoni; Song, Mingyan

    2015-08-01

    WO3 nanobricks are fabricated by a simple hydrothermal method. Morphology and structure of the WO3 nanobricks are characterized by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Gas sensing properties of the as-prepared WO3 sensor are systematically investigated by a static gas sensing system. The results show that the WO3 nanobricks with defect corners demonstrate good crystallinity, and the mean edge length and wall thickness are 1-1.5 and 400 nm, respectively. The WO3 sensor achieves its maximum sensitivity to 100 ppm ethanol at the optimal operating temperature of 300 °C. Ultra-fast response time (2-3 s) and fast recovery time (4-11 s) of the WO3 sensor toward 100 ppm ethanol are also observed at this optimal operating temperature. Moreover, the WO3 sensor exhibits high selectivity to other gases such as methanol, benzene, hexane, and dichloromethane, indicating its excellent potential application as a gas sensor for ethanol detection.

  20. The Application of WebGIS Tools for Visualizing Coastal Flooding Vulnerability and Planning for Resiliency: The New Jersey Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lathrop

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available While sea level rise is a world-wide phenomenon, mitigating its impacts is a local decision-making challenge that is going to require site-specific remedies. Faced with a variety of conflicting mandates and uncertainty as to appropriate responses, local land use planners and managers need place-based decision support tools. With the increasing availability of high-resolution digital elevation models and the advancing speed and sophistication of web-based mapping, a number of web geographic information systems (GIS tools have been developed to map and visualize what areas of a coastal landscape will potentially be flooded under different scenarios of sea level rise. This paper presents a case study of one such WebGIS application, NJFloodMapper (www.NJFloodMapper.org, with a focus on the user-centered design process employed to help our target audience of coastal decision-makers in the state of New Jersey, USA, access and understand relevant geographic information concerning sea level rise and exposure to coastal inundation, as well as assess the vulnerability of key infrastructure, populations and natural resources within their communities. We discuss the success of this approach amidst the broader context of the application of WebGIS tools in this arena. Due to its flexible design and user-friendly interface, NJFloodMapper has been widely adopted by government and non-governmental agencies in the state to assess coastal flooding exposure and vulnerability in the aftermath of a recent destructive coastal storm. However, additional decision support tools are needed to help coastal decision-makers translate the place-based information into concrete action plans aimed at promoting more resilient coastal land use decisions.

  1. Potential application of gas chromatography to the analysis of hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, D.K.; Sprague, R.E.; Bohl, D.R.

    1976-01-01

    Gas chromatography is used at Mound Laboratory for the analysis of hydrogen isotopic impurities in gas mixtures. This instrumentation was used to study the applicability of the gas chromatography technique to the determination of the major components of hydrogen isotopic gas mixtures. The results of this study, including chromatograms and precision data, are presented

  2. 76 FR 66054 - Southern Natural Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 7, 2011, Southern Natural Gas... in Docket No. CP12-4-000 pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act and Part 157 of the... Glenn A. Sheffield, Director--Rates and Regulatory, Southern Natural Gas Company, P.O. Box 2563...

  3. Aerodynamic Effects in Weakly Ionized Gas: Phenomenology and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2006-01-01

    Aerodynamic effects in ionized gases, often neglected phenomena, have been subject of a renewed interest in recent years. After a brief historical account, we discuss a selected number of effects and unresolved problems that appear to be relevant in both aeronautic and propulsion applications in subsonic, supersonic, and hypersonic flow. Interaction between acoustic shock waves and weakly ionized gas is manifested either as plasma-induced shock wave dispersion and acceleration or as shock-wave induced double electric layer in the plasma, followed by the localized increase of the average electron energy and density, as well as enhancement of optical emission. We describe the phenomenology of these effects and discuss several experiments that still do not have an adequate interpretation. Critical for application of aerodynamic effects is the energy deposition into the flow. We classify and discuss some proposed wall-free generation schemes with respect to the efficiency of energy deposition and overall generation of the aerodynamic body force

  4. Fabrication of Titania Nanotubes for Gas Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzilal, A. A.; Muti, M. N.; John, O. D.

    2010-03-01

    Detection of hydrogen is needed for industrial process control and medical applications where presence of hydrogen indicates different type of health problems. Titanium dioxide nanotube structure is chosen as an active component in the gas sensor because of its highly sensitive electrical resistance to hydrogen over a wide range of concentrations. The objective of the work is to fabricate good quality titania nanotubes suitable for hydrogen sensing applications. The fabrication method used is anodizing method. The anodizing parameters namely the voltage, time duration, concentration of hydrofluoric acid in water, separation between the electrodes and the ambient temperature are varied accordingly to find the optimum anodizing conditions for production of good quality titania nanotubes. The highly ordered porous titania nanotubes produced by this method are in tabular shape and have good uniformity and alignment over large areas. From the investigation done, certain set of anodizing parameters have been found to produce good quality titania nanotubes with diameter ranges from 47 nm to 94 nm.

  5. A Cross-cultural Analytical Framework for Territorial Development Policies : The Application to Flood Risk Management Policies in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongwinriyaphanich, S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a proposed analytical framework that takes cultural dimensions as main parameters to explain territorial development processes. It is illustrated through the analysis of flood risk management in two case study areas in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. It aims

  6. An assessment of flood vulnerability on physical development along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mohammad

    Key words: Drainage channel, flood, risk assessment, vulnerability. INTRODUCTION ... hydraulic and other control structures.” The effects of floods are always ..... An application of Geographic Information System in mapping flood risk zones in ...

  7. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: method development and application to Can Tho City, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, H.; Trepat, O. M.; Hung, N. N.; Chinh, D. T.; Merz, B.; Dung, N. V.

    2015-08-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas, and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims at the analysis of fluvial and pluvial flood hazard individually, but also at developing a method for the analysis of combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. Fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. Pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data, and a stochastic rain storm generator. Inundation was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphical Processor Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. All hazards - fluvial, pluvial and combined - were accompanied by an uncertainty estimation considering the natural variability of the flood events. This resulted in probabilistic flood hazard maps showing the maximum inundation depths for a selected set of probabilities of occurrence, with maps showing the expectation (median) and the uncertainty by

  8. Iowa Flood Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.; Goska, R.; Mantilla, R.; Weber, L. J.; Young, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS) is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, flood-related data, information and interactive visualizations for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and rainfall conditions are available in the IFIS by streaming data from automated IFC bridge sensors, USGS stream gauges, NEXRAD radars, and NWS forecasts. Simple 2D and 3D interactive visualizations in the IFIS make the data more understandable to general public. Users are able to filter data sources for their communities and selected rivers. The data and information on IFIS is also accessible through web services and mobile applications. The IFIS is optimized for various browsers and screen sizes to provide access through multiple platforms including tablets and mobile devices. The IFIS includes a rainfall-runoff forecast model to provide a five-day flood risk estimate for around 500 communities in Iowa. Multiple view modes in the IFIS accommodate different user types from general public to researchers and decision makers by providing different level of tools and details. River view mode allows users to visualize data from multiple IFC bridge sensors and USGS stream gauges to follow flooding condition along a river. The IFIS will help communities make better-informed decisions on the occurrence of floods, and will alert communities

  9. Noble gas mass spectrometry. Application to earth sciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaoka, Nobuo [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1983-03-01

    The method for the isotopic analysis of trace noble gas is described briefly, and the theoretical background of the application to earth science is discussed. Furthermore, the measured results of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio in volcanic gases and hot spring gases from various areas in Japan, and /sup 3/He//sup 4/He and /sup 40/Ar//sup 36/Ar ratios in mantle-origi nated rocks and minerals are presented. The examples of the application of these results to the field of earth science are introduced. The magma activity which is specific to the considered volcano is identified from the decrease in /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio with the process of volcanic activity. The possibility of earthquake prediction by the measurement of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio is suggested from the measured results of /sup 3/He//sup 4/He ratio in the gas sampled from an earthquake fault. The isotopes of He and Ar in a diamond were analyzed, and from these results, the isotope composition in mantle when the diamond had been formed was estimated. The mantle model that the mantle is constituted from upper depleted mantle and lower fertile mantle is explained, based on the results of the analysis of He and Ar isotopes in various volcanic eruptions.

  10. 77 FR 51792 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 7, 2012, Colorado Interstate Gas Company, L.L.C. (CIG), Post Office Box 1087, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80944, filed in the above captioned docket an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for a certificate of...

  11. 76 FR 79673 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application On December 9, 2011, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C... (Commission) an application under section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as amended, and part 157 of the... Rocan, Senior Counsel, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas...

  12. 78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-97-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas..., filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the Commission's...

  13. Pure- and Mixed-Gas Transport Study of Nafion® and Its Fe3+-Substituted Derivative for Membrane-Based Natural Gas Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Mukaddam, Mohsin Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this research project was to develop a fundamental understanding of the structure-gas transport property relationship in Nafion® to investigate its potential use as a gas separation membrane material for natural gas (NG) applications

  14. Smoky River coal flood risk mapping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-06-01

    The Canada-Alberta Flood Damage Reduction Program (FDRP) is designed to reduce flood damage by identifying areas susceptible to flooding and by encouraging application of suitable land use planning, zoning, and flood preparedness and proofing. The purpose of this study is to define flood risk and floodway limits along the Smoky River near the former Smoky River Coal (SRC) plant. Alberta Energy has been responsible for the site since the mine and plant closed in 2000. The study describes flooding history, available data, features of the river and valley, calculation of flood levels, and floodway determination, and includes flood risk maps. The HEC-RAS program is used for the calculations. The flood risk area was calculated using the 1:100 year return period flood as the hydrological event. 7 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs., 3 apps.

  15. Combined fluvial and pluvial urban flood hazard analysis: concept development and application to Can Tho city, Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Heiko; Martínez Trepat, Oriol; Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thi Chinh, Do; Merz, Bruno; Viet Dung, Nguyen

    2016-04-01

    Many urban areas experience both fluvial and pluvial floods, because locations next to rivers are preferred settlement areas and the predominantly sealed urban surface prevents infiltration and facilitates surface inundation. The latter problem is enhanced in cities with insufficient or non-existent sewer systems. While there are a number of approaches to analyse either a fluvial or pluvial flood hazard, studies of a combined fluvial and pluvial flood hazard are hardly available. Thus this study aims to analyse a fluvial and a pluvial flood hazard individually, but also to develop a method for the analysis of a combined pluvial and fluvial flood hazard. This combined fluvial-pluvial flood hazard analysis is performed taking Can Tho city, the largest city in the Vietnamese part of the Mekong Delta, as an example. In this tropical environment the annual monsoon triggered floods of the Mekong River, which can coincide with heavy local convective precipitation events, causing both fluvial and pluvial flooding at the same time. The fluvial flood hazard was estimated with a copula-based bivariate extreme value statistic for the gauge Kratie at the upper boundary of the Mekong Delta and a large-scale hydrodynamic model of the Mekong Delta. This provided the boundaries for 2-dimensional hydrodynamic inundation simulation for Can Tho city. The pluvial hazard was estimated by a peak-over-threshold frequency estimation based on local rain gauge data and a stochastic rainstorm generator. Inundation for all flood scenarios was simulated by a 2-dimensional hydrodynamic model implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) for time-efficient flood propagation modelling. The combined fluvial-pluvial flood scenarios were derived by adding rainstorms to the fluvial flood events during the highest fluvial water levels. The probabilities of occurrence of the combined events were determined assuming independence of the two flood types and taking the seasonality and probability of

  16. Experimental Study of Matrix Permeability of Gas Shale: An Application to CO2-Based Shale Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengpeng Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Because the limitations of water-based fracturing fluids restrict their fracturing efficiency and scope of application, liquid CO2 is regarded as a promising substitute, owing to its unique characteristics, including its greater environmental friendliness, shorter clean-up time, greater adsorption capacity than CH4 and less formation damage. Conversely, the disadvantage of high leak-off rate of CO2 fracturing due to its very low viscosity determines its applicability in gas shales with ultra-low permeability, accurate measurement of shale permeability to CO2 is therefore crucial to evaluate the appropriate injection rate and total consumption of CO2. The main purpose of this study is to accurately measure shale permeability to CO2 flow during hydraulic fracturing, and to compare the leak-off of CO2 and water fracturing. A series of permeability tests was conducted on cylindrical shale samples 38 mm in diameter and 19 mm long using water, CO2 in different phases and N2 considering multiple influencing factors. According to the experimental results, the apparent permeability of shale matrix to gaseous CO2 or N2 is greatly over-estimated compared with intrinsic permeability or that of liquid CO2 due to the Klinkenberg effect. This phenomenon explains that the permeability values measured under steady-state conditions are much higher than those under transient conditions. Supercritical CO2 with higher molecular kinetic energy has slightly higher permeability than liquid CO2. The leak-off rate of CO2 is an order of magnitude higher than that of water under the same injection conditions due to its lower viscosity. The significant decrease of shale permeability to gas after water flooding is due to the water block effect, and much longer clean-up time and deep water imbibition depth greatly impede the gas transport from the shale matrix to the created fractures. Therefore, it is necessary to substitute water-based fracturing fluids with liquid or super

  17. The application of the Contingent Valuation method towards the assessment of the impacts emerged from the March 2006 floods in the Evros River. An experts-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markantonis, V.; Bithas, K.

    2009-04-01

    In March 2006 Greece was struck by a severe flooding, which caused significant damages in the Prefecture of Evros, on the Eastern border of Greece. 250 million m² of farmland was flooded causing severe damages to agriculture, transport and water supply networks. Total direct damages are estimated at € 372 million. The negative effect on economic activity caused by the floods, considered the worst over the last 50 years, took place in an area that had already been severely affected by floods in 2005. Apart from the direct damages critical were also the indirect impacts on the environmental and the social level. The need for economic analysis concerning the design and implementation of efficient flood management policies is well emphasized in the natural hazards' policies. Within this framework, the present paper is analyzing the application of stated preferences valuation techniques for the assessment of the damages caused in the Prefecture of Evros by the severe floods of March 2006. The objective of this paper is to define the role of economic valuation techniques in assisting the design of efficient and sustainable policies for flood management. More specific, the Contingent Valuation (CV) method is applied in order to valuate the impacts of the March 2006 floods, including the environmental impacts as far as concerns the soil, the biodiversity and the aesthetic environment of the flooded areas. The paper begins with a discussion of the theoretical economic framework, and particularly, the contingent valuation method framework that can be used to evaluate flood impacts. Understanding public preferences for complex environmental policy changes, such as flood impacts, is a preeminent challenge for environmental economists and other social scientists. Information issues are central to the design and application of the survey-based contingent valuation (CV) method for valuing environmental goods. While content is under the control of the analyst, how this

  18. Data Processing Methods for 3D Seismic Imaging of Subsurface Volcanoes: Applications to the Tarim Flood Basalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Tian, Wei; Shi, Yongmin

    2017-08-07

    The morphology and structure of plumbing systems can provide key information on the eruption rate and style of basalt lava fields. The most powerful way to study subsurface geo-bodies is to use industrial 3D reflection seismological imaging. However, strategies to image subsurface volcanoes are very different from that of oil and gas reservoirs. In this study, we process seismic data cubes from the Northern Tarim Basin, China, to illustrate how to visualize sills through opacity rendering techniques and how to image the conduits by time-slicing. In the first case, we isolated probes by the seismic horizons marking the contacts between sills and encasing strata, applying opacity rendering techniques to extract sills from the seismic cube. The resulting detailed sill morphology shows that the flow direction is from the dome center to the rim. In the second seismic cube, we use time-slices to image the conduits, which corresponds to marked discontinuities within the encasing rocks. A set of time-slices obtained at different depths show that the Tarim flood basalts erupted from central volcanoes, fed by separate pipe-like conduits.

  19. Application of fuzzy weight of evidence and data mining techniques in construction of flood susceptibility map of Poyang County, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Haoyuan; Tsangaratos, Paraskevas; Ilia, Ioanna; Liu, Junzhi; Zhu, A-Xing; Chen, Wei

    2018-06-01

    In China, floods are considered as the most frequent natural disaster responsible for severe economic losses and serious damages recorded in agriculture and urban infrastructure. Based on the international experience prevention of flood events may not be completely possible, however identifying susceptible and vulnerable areas through prediction models is considered as a more visible task with flood susceptibility mapping being an essential tool for flood mitigation strategies and disaster preparedness. In this context, the present study proposes a novel approach to construct a flood susceptibility map in the Poyang County, JiangXi Province, China by implementing fuzzy weight of evidence (fuzzy-WofE) and data mining methods. The novelty of the presented approach is the usage of fuzzy-WofE that had a twofold purpose. Firstly, to create an initial flood susceptibility map in order to identify non-flood areas and secondly to weight the importance of flood related variables which influence flooding. Logistic Regression (LR), Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machines (SVM) were implemented considering eleven flood related variables, namely: lithology, soil cover, elevation, slope angle, aspect, topographic wetness index, stream power index, sediment transport index, plan curvature, profile curvature and distance from river network. The efficiency of this new approach was evaluated using area under curve (AUC) which measured the prediction and success rates. According to the outcomes of the performed analysis, the fuzzy WofE-SVM model was the model with the highest predictive performance (AUC value, 0.9865) which also appeared to be statistical significant different from the other predictive models, fuzzy WofE-RF (AUC value, 0.9756) and fuzzy WofE-LR (AUC value, 0.9652). The proposed methodology and the produced flood susceptibility map could assist researchers and local governments in flood mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. ISTSOS, SENSOR OBSERVATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: A REAL CASE APPLICATION OF HYDRO-METEOROLOGICAL DATA FOR FLOOD PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cannata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available istSOS (Istituto scienze della Terra Sensor Observation Service is an implementation of the Sensor Observation Service standard from Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC. The development of istSOS started in 2009 in order to provide a simple implementation of the Sensor Observation Service (SOS standard for the management, provision and integration of hydro-meteorological data collected in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland. istSOS is entirely written in Python and is based on reliable open source software like PostgreSQL/PostGIS and Apache/mod_wsgi. The authors during this presentation want to illustrate the latest software enhancements together with a real case in a production environment. Latest software enhancement includes the development of a RESTful service and of a Web-based graphical user interface that allows hydrologists a better interaction with measurements. This includes the ability of new services creation, addition of new sensors and relative metadata, visualization and manipulation of stored observations, registration of new measures and setting of system properties like observable properties and data quality codes. The study will show a real case application of the system for the provision of data to interregional partners and to a hydrological model for lake level forecasting and flooding hazard assessment. The hydrological model uses a combination of WPS (Web Processing Service and SOS for the generation of model input data. This system is linked with a dedicated geo-portal used by the civil protection for the management, alert and protection of population and assets of the Locarno area (Verbano Lake flooding. Practical considerations and technical issues will be presented and discussed.

  1. Application of MIKE21 Software in Flood Routing of Tidal Rivers: A Case Study of the Zohre River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karami Khaniki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Flood routing is of special importance from different aspects of river engineering such as flood zoning, flood forecasting, etc. There are two methods employed in river flood routing, hydraulic and hydrological. Hydrological methods are used when the river is at low tide and, hence, cannot be employed to analyze floods caused by the tide. Hydraulic methods must be employed in tidal rivers when the direction of the current reverses at high tide. In this research,MIKE21 modeling software was used for the flood routing of the Zohreh tidal river. The model was calibrated by surveying the river, taking samples form the river bed, measuring sea water level and the velocity of the river flow. Analyzing the sensitivity of the model showed that the coefficient of determination, root mean square error and relative error were 0.95, 0.032, and 0.27, respectively, all indicating the efficacy of the model in simulating different parameters such as velocity, flow rate, and water surface profile. The flood routing results of the tidal currents showed that the hydrograph of the influent and effluent to the reach at high tide (when the current direction is from sea to the river was similar to the normal flood routing of the river, but at low tide (when the current direction is from the sea to the river influent and effluent hydrograph would not follow the laws of normal flood routing.

  2. Application of safeguards techniques to the Eurodif gas diffusion plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coates, J.H.; Goens, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    The characteristic features of gas diffusion plants are such that safeguards procedures specifically suited for this technique can be proposed. The first of these features is the fact that appreciably altering the enrichment level of the plant product is not possible without making easily detectable changes either in the plant structure itself or in the movement of incoming and outgoing materials. Furthermore, because of the size of gas diffusion plants large stocks of uranium are present in them. Although inventory differences may be small in relative terms, they are large in abosolute terms and exceed the quantities of low-enriched uranium considered significant from the standpoint of safeguards. Lastly, the impossibility for economic reasons for taking a physical inventory of the plant after it has been emptied prevents a comparison of the physical inventory with the book inventory. It would therefore seem that the safeguarding of a gas diffusion plant should be focused on the movement of nuclear material between the plant and the outside world. The verification of inputs and outputs can be considered satisfactory from the safeguards standpoint as long as it is possible to make sure of the containment of the plant and of the surveillance for the purpose of preventing clandestine alterations of structure. The description of the Eurodif plant and the movement of materials planned there at present indicate that the application of such a safeguards technique to the plant should be acceptable to the competent authorities. For this purpose a monitoring area has been set aside in which the inspectors will be able to keep track of all movements between the outside world and the enrichment plant

  3. Application of Hastelloy X in gas-cooled reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, C.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; Corwin, W.R.; Strizak, J.P.; Lystrup, A.; DiStefano, J.R.

    1976-10-01

    Hastelloy X, an Ni--Cr--Fe--Mo alloy, may be an important structural alloy for components of gas-cooled reactor systems. Expected applications of this alloy in the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) are discussed, and the development of interim mechanical properties and supporting data are reported. Properties of concern include tensile, creep, creep-rupture, fatigue, creep-fatigue interaction, subcritical crack growth, thermal stability, and the influence of helium environments with controlled amounts of impurities on these properties. In order to develop these properties in helium environments that are expected to be prototypic of HTGR operating conditions, it was necessary to construct special environmental test systems. Details of construction and operating parameters are described. Interim results from tests designed to determine the above properties are presented. To date a fairly extensive amount of information has been generated on this material at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and elsewhere concerning behavior in air, which is reviewed. However, only limited data are available from tests conducted in helium. Comparisons of the fatigue and subcritical growth behavior in air between Hastelloy X and a number of other structural alloys are given

  4. Corrosive Space Gas Restores Artwork, Promises Myriad Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Atomic oxygen's unique characteristic of oxidizing primarily hydrogen, carbon, and hydrocarbon polymers at surface levels has been applied in the restoration of artwork, detection of document forgeries, and removal of bacterial contaminants from surgical implants. The Electro-Physics Branch at Glenn Research Center built on corrosion studies of long-duration coatings for use in space, and applied atomic oxygen's selectivity to instances where elements need to be removed from a surface. Atomic oxygen is able to remove organic compounds high in carbon (mostly soot) from fire-damaged artworks without causing a shift in the paint color. First successfully tested on oil paintings, the team then applied the restoration technique to acrylics, watercolors, and ink. The successful art restoration process was well-publicized, and soon a multinational, nonprofit professional organization dedicated to the art of forensic analysis of documents had successfully applied this process in the field of forgery detection. The gas has biomedical applications as well-Atomic Oxygen technology can be used to decontaminate orthopedic surgical hip and knee implants prior to surgery, and additional collaborative research between the Cleveland Clinic Foundation and the Glenn team shows that this gas's roughening of surfaces improves cell adhesion, which is important for the development of new drugs.

  5. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eHerrera

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during eight years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs and photosynthetic rate (PN during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential ( suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  6. Responses to flooding of plant water relations and leaf gas exchange in tropical tolerant trees of a black-water wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, A

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes the research on physiological responses to flooding of trees in the seasonal black-water wetland of the Mapire River in Venezuela. Inter-annual variability was found during 8 years of sampling, in spite of which a general picture emerged of increased stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic rate (PN) during the flooded period to values as high as or higher than in plants in drained wet soil. Models explaining the initial inhibitory responses and the acclimation to flooding are proposed. In the inhibitory phase of flooding, hypoxia generated by flooding causes a decrease in root water absorption and stomatal closure. An increase with flooding in xylem water potential (ψ) suggests that flooding does not cause water deficit. The PN decreases due to changes in relative stomatal and non-stomatal limitations to photosynthesis; an increase in the latter is due to reduced chlorophyll and total soluble protein content. Total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC) accumulate in leaves but their content begins to decrease during the acclimatized phase at full flooding, coinciding with the resumption of high gs and PN. The reversal of the diminution in gs is associated, in some but not all species, to the growth of adventitious roots. The occurrence of morpho-anatomical and biochemical adaptations which improve oxygen supply would cause the acclimation, including increased water absorption by the roots, increased rubisco and chlorophyll contents and ultimately increased PN. Therefore, trees would perform as if flooding did not signify a stress to their physiology.

  7. Inverse problem and uncertainty quantification: application to compressible gas dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birolleau, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with uncertainty propagation and the resolution of inverse problems together with their respective acceleration via Polynomial Chaos. The object of this work is to present a state of the art and a numerical analysis of this stochastic spectral method, in order to understand its pros and cons when tackling the probabilistic study of hydrodynamical instabilities in Richtmyer-Meshkov shock tube experiments. The first chapter is introductory and allows understanding the stakes of being able to accurately take into account uncertainties in compressible gas dynamics simulations. The second chapter is both an illustrative state of the art on generalized Polynomial Chaos and a full numerical analysis of the method keeping in mind the final application on hydrodynamical problems developing shocks and discontinuous solutions. In this chapter, we introduce a new method, naming iterative generalized Polynomial Chaos, which ensures a gain with respect to generalized Polynomial Chaos, especially with non smooth solutions. Chapter three is closely related to an accepted publication in Communication in Computational Physics. It deals with stochastic inverse problems and introduces bayesian inference. It also emphasizes the possibility of accelerating the bayesian inference thanks to iterative generalized Polynomial Chaos described in the previous chapter. Theoretical convergence is established and illustrated on several test-cases. The last chapter consists in the application of the above materials to a complex and ambitious compressible gas dynamics problem (Richtmyer-Meshkov shock tube configuration) together with a deepened study of the physico-numerical phenomenon at stake. Finally, in the appendix, we also present some interesting research paths we quickly tackled during this thesis. (author) [fr

  8. istSOS, a new sensor observation management system: software architecture and a real-case application for flood protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cannata

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available istSOS (Istituto scienze della Terra Sensor Observation Service is an implementation of the Sensor Observation Service (SOS standard from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The development of istSOS started in 2009 in order to provide a simple implementation of the SOS for the management, provision and integration of hydro-meteorological data collected in Canton Ticino (Southern Switzerland. istSOS is an Open Source, entirely written in Python and based on reliable software like PostgreSQL/PostGIS and Apache/mod_wsgi. This paper illustrates the latest software enhancements, including a RESTful Web service and a Web-based graphical user interface, which enable a better and simplified interaction with measurements and SOS service settings. The robustness of the implemented solution has been validated in a real-case application: the Verbano Lake Early Warning System. In this application, near real-time data have to be exchanged by inter-regional partners and used in a hydrological model for lake level forecasting and flooding hazard assessment. This system is linked with a dedicated geoportal used by the civil protection for the management, alert and protection of the population and the assets of the Locarno area. Practical considerations, technical issues and foreseen improvements are presented and discussed.

  9. Use of Flood Seasonality in Pooling-Group Formation and Quantile Estimation: An Application in Great Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formetta, Giuseppe; Bell, Victoria; Stewart, Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Regional flood frequency analysis is one of the most commonly applied methods for estimating extreme flood events at ungauged sites or locations with short measurement records. It is based on: (i) the definition of a homogeneous group (pooling-group) of catchments, and on (ii) the use of the pooling-group data to estimate flood quantiles. Although many methods to define a pooling-group (pooling schemes, PS) are based on catchment physiographic similarity measures, in the last decade methods based on flood seasonality similarity have been contemplated. In this paper, two seasonality-based PS are proposed and tested both in terms of the homogeneity of the pooling-groups they generate and in terms of the accuracy in estimating extreme flood events. The method has been applied in 420 catchments in Great Britain (considered as both gauged and ungauged) and compared against the current Flood Estimation Handbook (FEH) PS. Results for gauged sites show that, compared to the current PS, the seasonality-based PS performs better both in terms of homogeneity of the pooling-group and in terms of the accuracy of flood quantile estimates. For ungauged locations, a national-scale hydrological model has been used for the first time to quantify flood seasonality. Results show that in 75% of the tested locations the seasonality-based PS provides an improvement in the accuracy of the flood quantile estimates. The remaining 25% were located in highly urbanized, groundwater-dependent catchments. The promising results support the aspiration that large-scale hydrological models complement traditional methods for estimating design floods.

  10. Natural gas demand forecast system based on the application of artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfeliu, J.M.; Doumanian, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Gas Natural BAN, as a distribution gas company since 1993 in the north and west area of Buenos Aires Argentina, with 1,000,000 customers, had to develop a gas demand forecast system which should comply with the following basic requirements: Be able to do reliable forecasts with short historical information (2 years); Distinguish demands in areas of different characteristics, i.e. mainly residential, mainly industrial; Self-learning capability. To accomplish above goals, Gas Natural BAN chose in view of its own necessities, an artificial intelligence application (neural networks). 'SANDRA', the gas demand forecast system for gas distribution used by Gas Natural BAN, has the following features: Daily gas demand forecast, Hourly gas demand forecast and Breakdown of both forecast for each of the 3 basic zones in which the distribution area of Gas Natural BAN is divided. (au)

  11. Nanowire field-effect transistors for gas sensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Marios

    Sensing BTEX (Benzene, Ethylbenzene, Toluene, Xylene) pollutants is of utmost importance to reduce health risk and ensure public safety. The lack of sensitivity and selectivity of the current gas sensors and the limited number of available technologies in the field of BTEX-sensing raises the demand for the development of high-performance gas sensors for BTEX applications. The scope of this thesis is the fabrication and characterisation of high-quality field-effect transistors (FETs), with functionalised silicon nanowires (SiNWs), for the selective sensing of benzene vs. other BTEX gases. This research addresses three main challenges in SiNW FET-sensor device development: i) controllable and reproducible assembly of high-quality SiNWs for FET sensor devices using the method of dielectrophoresis (DEP), ii) almost complete elimination of harmful hysteresis effect in the SiNW FET current-voltage characteristics induced by surface states using DMF solvent, iii) selective sensing of benzene with up to ppb range of sensitivity using calix[4]arene-derivatives. It is experimentally demonstrated that frequency-controlled DEP is a powerful tool for the selection and collection of semiconducting SiNWs with advanced electrical and morphological properties, from a poly-disperse as-synthesised NWs. The DEP assembly method also leads to a controllable and reproducible fabrication of high-quality NW-based FETs. The results highlight the superiority of DEP, performed at high signal frequencies (5-20 MHz) to selectively assemble only high-quality NWs which can respond to such high DEP frequencies. The SiNW FETs, with NWs collected at high DEP frequencies, have high mobility (≈50 cm2 V-1 s-1), low sub-threshold-swing (≈1.26 V/decade), high on-current (up to 3 mA) and high on/off ratio (106-107). The DEP NW selection is also demonstrated using an industrially scalable method, to allow establishing of NW response characteristics to different DEP frequencies in a very short time

  12. 78 FR 4400 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG, and is a customer of the Cameron... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 12-161-LNG] Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket..., by Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC (Eni USA Gas Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export...

  13. 76 FR 62395 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP11-547-000] Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on September 20, 2011, Natural Gas..., filed in Docket Number CP11-547-000, pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), an...

  14. Advances in marine ice profiling for oil and gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissel, D.; Marko, J.; Melling, H.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in acoustic profiling technologies have allowed ever more accurate and information-rich extraction of data on the draft, undersurface topography and immediately adjacent water column environment of polar and other marine and freshwater ice covers. The purpose of these advances was to replace and improve upon other, often inconvenient, costly and/or otherwise unsatisfactory methodologies such as the use of upward looking sonar (ULS) sounders on submarines as well as deployments of airborne- sensors such as laser profilometers and electromagnetic induction instrumentation. ULS is a primary source of data for measurements of ice thickness. Self-contained units now have the data capacity and accuracy/resolution sufficient for unattended operation. Recent technological advances have now led to the next generation of ice profiling sonar (IPS), incorporating much expanded on-board data storage capacity and powerful onboard real-time firmware. This paper outlined the nature of the issues addressed in past oil and gas related ice profiling studies. The paper focused on identifying the key items of interest and the remaining uncertainties in the derived products. All of the data gathered in this regard was obtained with first generation profiling instrumentation of the type initially introduced by Melling and coworkers in 1995. The additional features of a recently introduced next generation IPS instrument were briefly described. The observed and potential benefits offered in oil and gas related applications were also presented. It was concluded that the next generation ice profilers sets the stage for research and development into the measurement of new ice parameters, the combination of information from ice profilers and all-weather radar satellite systems, and the possibility of remote access to the ice profiler data from multi-year moorings located well within the main Arctic Ocean ice pack. 11 refs., 10 figs

  15. Gas-phase synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Rajib

    Luminescent nanomaterials is a newly emerging field that provides challenges not only to fundamental research but also to innovative technology in several areas such as electronics, photonics, nanotechnology, display, lighting, biomedical engineering and environmental control. These nanomaterials come in various forms, shapes and comprises of semiconductors, metals, oxides, and inorganic and organic polymers. Most importantly, these luminescent nanomaterials can have different properties owing to their size as compared to their bulk counterparts. Here we describe the use of plasmas in synthesis, modification, and deposition of semiconductor nanomaterials for luminescence applications. Nanocrystalline silicon is widely known as an efficient and tunable optical emitter and is attracting great interest for applications in several areas. To date, however, luminescent silicon nanocrystals (NCs) have been used exclusively in traditional rigid devices. For the field to advance towards new and versatile applications for nanocrystal-based devices, there is a need to investigate whether these NCs can be used in flexible and stretchable devices. We show how the optical and structural/morphological properties of plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) change when they are deposited on stretchable substrates made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Synthesis of these NCs was performed in a nonthermal, low-pressure gas phase plasma reactor. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of direct deposition of NCs onto stretchable substrates. Additionally, in order to prevent oxidation and enhance the luminescence properties, a silicon nitride shell was grown around Si NCs. We have demonstrated surface nitridation of Si NCs in a single step process using non?thermal plasma in several schemes including a novel dual-plasma synthesis/shell growth process. These coated NCs exhibit SiNx shells with composition depending on process parameters. While measurements including

  16. 46 CFR 28.580 - Unintentional flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unintentional flooding. 28.580 Section 28.580 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Stability § 28.580 Unintentional flooding. (a) Applicability. Except for an open boat that... survive the assumed damage and unintentional flooding described in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section...

  17. Optimal multi-agent path planning for fast inverse modeling in UAV-based flood sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    Floods are the most common natural disasters, causing thousands of casualties every year in the world. In particular, flash flood events are particularly deadly because of the short timescales on which they occur. Unmanned air vehicles equipped with mobile microsensors could be capable of sensing flash floods in real time, saving lives and greatly improving the efficiency of the emergency response. However, of the main issues arising with sensing floods is the difficulty of planning the path of the sensing agents in advance so as to obtain meaningful data as fast as possible. In this particle, we present a fast numerical scheme to quickly compute the trajectories of a set of UAVs in order to maximize the accuracy of model parameter estimation over a time horizon. Simulation results are presented, a preliminary testbed is briefly described, and future research directions and problems are discussed. © 2014 IEEE.

  18. 77 FR 23472 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 4, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in the..., Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002...

  19. 75 FR 8051 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... Storage, L.L.C.; Notice of Application February 12, 2010. Take notice that on January 29, 2010, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal), 1100 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas, 77002, filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an abbreviated application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), as...

  20. 78 FR 6313 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 14, 2013, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in... directed to Thomas G. Joyce, Manager, Certificates, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. 1001 Louisiana...

  1. 77 FR 8247 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C. Notice of Application Take notice that on February 2, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed an application in Docket... Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C., 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, by telephone at (713) 420...

  2. 77 FR 64972 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 10, 2012, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in the above captioned docket an application pursuant to sections 7(b) and 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA) for a...

  3. 78 FR 39719 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. CP13-498-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 13, 2013, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission an application under section 7...

  4. 77 FR 34031 - Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Storage, L.L.C., Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 21, 2012, Petal Gas Storage, L.L.C. (Petal) and Hattiesburg Industrial Gas Sales, L.L.C. (Hattiesburg... pursuant to sections 7(c) and 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), for authorization for Petal to acquire the...

  5. Geology knowledge application in civil engineering realization: Gas Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Company manager for the building project of south gas pipeline contracted technical services to National Direction of Geology and Mining DINAMIGE for study the geology.It studied Colonia-Montevideo stretch s and then Colonia-Porto Alegre stretch s of gas pipeline.The main purpose was determine the physical and mechanics earthly characteristic for in a future to bury the gas pipe

  6. Electron beam application in gas waste treatment in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Haifeng

    2003-01-01

    In the most recent decade, electron beam waste treatment technology attracted serious attention from environment policymaker and industrial leaders in power industry in China. Starting in middle of 1980's, Chinese research institute began experiment of electron beam treatment on flue gas. By the end of 2000, two 10,000 cubic meters per hour small scale electron beam gas purifying station were established in Sichuang province and Beijing. Several electron beam gas purifying demonstration projects are under construction. With robust economy and strong energy demand, needless to say, in near future, electron beam gas purifying technology will have a bright prospect in China. (author)

  7. Towards a Flood Severity Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettner, A.; Chong, A.; Prades, L.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Muir, S.; Amparore, A.; Slayback, D. A.; Poungprom, R.

    2017-12-01

    Flooding is the most common natural hazard worldwide, affecting 21 million people every year. In the immediate moments following a flood event, humanitarian actors like the World Food Program need to make rapid decisions ( 72 hrs) on how to prioritize affected areas impacted by such an event. For other natural disasters like hurricanes/cyclones and earthquakes, there are industry-recognized standards on how the impacted areas are to be classified. Shake maps, quantifying peak ground motion, from for example the US Geological Survey are widely used for assessing earthquakes. Similarly, cyclones are tracked by Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) and Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) who release storm nodes and tracks (forecasted and actual), with wind buffers and classify the event according to the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. For floods, the community is usually able to acquire unclassified data of the flood extent as identified from satellite imagery. Most often no water discharge hydrograph is available to classify the event into recurrence intervals simply because there is no gauging station, or the gauging station was unable to record the maximum discharge due to overtopping or flood damage. So, the question remains: How do we methodically turn a flooded area into classified areas of different gradations of impact? Here, we present a first approach towards developing a global applicable flood severity index. The flood severity index is set up such that it considers relatively easily obtainable physical parameters in a short period of time like: flood frequency (relating the current flood to historical events) and magnitude, as well as land cover, slope, and where available pre-event simulated flood depth. The scale includes categories ranging from very minor flooding to catastrophic flooding. We test and evaluate the postulated classification scheme against a set of past flood events. Once a severity category is determined, socio

  8. Applications of TRMM-based Multi-Satellite Precipitation Estimation for Global Runoff Simulation: Prototyping a Global Flood Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yang; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Pierce, Harold

    2008-01-01

    Advances in flood monitoring/forecasting have been constrained by the difficulty in estimating rainfall continuously over space (catchment-, national-, continental-, or even global-scale areas) and flood-relevant time scale. With the recent availability of satellite rainfall estimates at fine time and space resolution, this paper describes a prototype research framework for global flood monitoring by combining real-time satellite observations with a database of global terrestrial characteristics through a hydrologically relevant modeling scheme. Four major components included in the framework are (1) real-time precipitation input from NASA TRMM-based Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA); (2) a central geospatial database to preprocess the land surface characteristics: water divides, slopes, soils, land use, flow directions, flow accumulation, drainage network etc.; (3) a modified distributed hydrological model to convert rainfall to runoff and route the flow through the stream network in order to predict the timing and severity of the flood wave, and (4) an open-access web interface to quickly disseminate flood alerts for potential decision-making. Retrospective simulations for 1998-2006 demonstrate that the Global Flood Monitor (GFM) system performs consistently at both station and catchment levels. The GFM website (experimental version) has been running at near real-time in an effort to offer a cost-effective solution to the ultimate challenge of building natural disaster early warning systems for the data-sparse regions of the world. The interactive GFM website shows close-up maps of the flood risks overlaid on topography/population or integrated with the Google-Earth visualization tool. One additional capability, which extends forecast lead-time by assimilating QPF into the GFM, also will be implemented in the future.

  9. Application of Conductive Carbon Nanotube Fibers and Composites: Gas Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    changes in Raman spectroscopy data when single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are immersed in various liquids, including common organics (12). In...Resistance -- (82) 2007 Su H2O MWNT PMMA, KOH Gas Impedance -- (83) 2011 Tang H2O MWNT PI Gas Resistance -- (84) 2003 Wang H2O2, NADH SWNT

  10. Application of gas chromatography in hydrogen isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Xiaoqiu; Sang Ge; Peng Lixia; Xue Yan; Cao Wei

    2008-01-01

    The principle of gas chromatographic separation of hydrogen isotopes was briefly introduced. The main technology and their development of separating hydrogen isotopes, including elution chromatography, hydrogen-displacement chromatography, self-displacement chromatography and frontal chromatography were discussed in detail. The prospect of hydrogen isotope separation by gas chromatography was presented. (authors)

  11. Flood forecasting using a fully distributed model: application of the TOPKAPI model to the Upper Xixian Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available TOPKAPI is a physically-based, fully distributed hydrological model with a simple and parsimonious parameterisation. The original TOPKAPI is structured around five modules that represent evapotranspiration, snowmelt, soil water, surface water and channel water, respectively. Percolation to deep soil layers was ignored in the old version of the TOPKAPI model since it was not important in the basins to which the model was originally applied. Based on published literature, this study developed a new version of the TOPKAPI model, in which the new modules of interception, infiltration, percolation, groundwater flow and lake/reservoir routing are included. This paper presents an application study that makes a first attempt to derive information from public domains through the internet on the topography, soil and land use types for a case study Chinese catchment - the Upper Xixian catchment in Huaihe River with an area of about 10000 km2, and apply a new version of TOPKAPI to the catchment for flood simulation. A model parameter value adjustment was performed using six months of the 1998 dataset. Calibration did not use a curve fitting process, but was chiefly based upon moderate variations of parameter values from those estimated on physical grounds, as is common in traditional calibration. The hydrometeorological dataset of 2002 was then used to validate the model, both against the outlet discharge as well as at an internal gauging station. Finally, to complete the model performance analysis, parameter uncertainty and its effects on predictive uncertainty were also assessed by estimating a posterior parameter probability density via Bayesian inference.

  12. Tribological Behavior of HNBR in Oil and Gas Field Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winoj Balasooriya

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The common usages of elastomeric components in oil and gas field applications are in dynamic atmospheres; especially sealing appliances that are in relative motion when interacting with surfaces. Therefore, their performance and service life mainly depend on the wear and friction characteristics in use. The objective of this scientific work is to identify the effect of swelling-induced ageing on the tribological properties and surface damage mechanisms of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR in contact with different liquids. Furthermore, the investigation of the co-relation between mechanical properties and surface properties in the tested conditions is indispensable. In the swollen state, deteriorated mechanical properties were observed; however, in de-swollen conditions, the mechanical properties were restored. As far as the surface characterization is concerned, when the HNBR was swollen by a standard IRM 903 solvent, its wear was greater compared with the un-swollen specimen (1.1 times despite the lower coefficient of friction (COF (reduced by ~25% and surface temperature (reduced by ~2.4 °C. In the de-swollen condition, wear was even greater (6 times, but the COF and surface temperature were situated in between those recorded in the swollen and un-swollen conditions. With swelling, greater wear damage and lower COF were observed; higher surface ageing (softness, which eases crack growth, created bigger debris. Under the conditions used, in the de-swollen states, the bulk mechanical properties were almost recovered, in contrast to the surface properties, which were still significantly impaired.

  13. Flood Water Segmentation from Crowdsourced Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, J. K.; Minsker, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    In the United States, 176 people were killed by flooding in 2015. Along with the loss of human lives is the economic cost which is estimated to be $4.5 billion per flood event. Urban flooding has become a recent concern due to the increase in population, urbanization, and global warming. As more and more people are moving into towns and cities with infrastructure incapable of coping with floods, there is a need for more scalable solutions for urban flood management.The proliferation of camera-equipped mobile devices have led to a new source of information for flood research. In-situ photographs captured by people provide information at the local level that remotely sensed images fail to capture. Applications of crowdsourced images to flood research required understanding the content of the image without the need for user input. This paper addresses the problem of how to automatically segment a flooded and non-flooded region in crowdsourced images. Previous works require two images taken at similar angle and perspective of the location when it is flooded and when it is not flooded. We examine three different algorithms from the computer vision literature that are able to perform segmentation using a single flood image without these assumptions. The performance of each algorithm is evaluated on a collection of labeled crowdsourced flood images. We show that it is possible to achieve a segmentation accuracy of 80% using just a single image.

  14. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment indexes of Eugenia uniflora L. in response to changes in light intensity and soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Marcelo S; Schaffer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of changing light intensity and soil flooding on the photosynthetic performance of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) seedlings in containers were examined. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) the photosynthetic apparatus of shade-adapted leaves can be rapidly acclimated to high light after transfer from shade to full sun, and (ii) photosynthetic acclimation to changing light intensity may be influenced by soil flooding. Seedlings cultivated in a shade house (40% of full sun, approximately 12 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1)) for 6 months were transferred to full sun (20-40 mol m(-2) day(-1)) or shade (30% of full sun, approximately 8 mol m(-2) day(-1)) and subjected to soil flooding for 23 days or not flooded. Chlorophyll content index (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf weight per area (LWA), photosynthetic light-response curves and leaf reflectance indexes were measured during soil flooding and after plants were unflooded. The CCI values increased throughout the experiment in leaves of shaded plants and decreased in leaves of plants transferred to full sun. There were no significant interactions between light intensity and flooding treatments for most of the variables analyzed, with the exception of Fv/Fm 22 days after plants were flooded and 5 days after flooded plants were unflooded. The light environment significantly affected LWA, and light environment and soil flooding significantly affected the light-saturated gross CO(2) assimilation rate expressed on area and dry weight bases (A(max-area) and A(max-wt), respectively), stomatal conductance of water vapor (g(ssat)) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g(s)). Five days after flooded plants were unflooded, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI) were significantly higher in shade than in sun leaves. Thirty days after transferring plants from the shade house to the light treatment, LWA was 30% higher in sun than in shade leaves, and A

  15. Application of HEC-RAS for flood forecasting in perched river-A case study of hilly region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Pingping; Wang, Shuqian; Gan, Hong; Liu, Bin; Jia, Ling

    2017-04-01

    Flooding in small and medium rivers are seriously threatening the safety of human beings’ life and property. The simulation forecasting of the river flood and bank risk in hilly region has gradually become a hotspot. At present, there are few studies on the simulation of hilly perched river, especially in the case of lacking section flow data. And the method of how to determine the position of the levee breach along the river bank is not much enough. Based on the characteristics of the sections in hilly perched river, an attempt is applied in this paper which establishes the correlation between the flow profile computed by HEC-RAS model and the river bank. A hilly perched river in Lingshi County, Shanxi Province of China, is taken as the study object, the levee breach positions along the bank are simulated under four different design storm. The results show that the flood control standard of upper reach is high, which can withstand the design storm of 100 years. The current standard of lower reach is low, which is the flooding channel with high frequency. As the standard of current channel between the 2rd and the 11th section is low, levee along that channel of the river bank is considered to be heighten and reinforced. The study results can provide some technical support for flood proofing in hilly region and some reference for the reinforcement of river bank.

  16. Local and regional estimation of floods in the Timis and Bega hydrographic basins: application of converging QDF model concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mic, Rodica; Gaida, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    A flow-duration-frequency regionalisation is carried out on the Timis and Bega rivers sub-catchments in the west of Romania. This regionalisation concerns 28 sub-catchments having about thirty years of stream flow measurements (daily flow, instantaneous flood peaks and hydrographs). This work about the floods regionalisation is realized in the framework of the European project Riverlife. The regional model will allow defining the hydrographs of project necessary for the hydraulic modelling. This hydraulic project is necessary in order to protect Timisoara - city against the floods. The method uses the hypotheses of the converging QdF model and adapts the index flood method for obtaining a regional dimensionless distribution. For long return periods, this approach uses the GRADEX method, which extrapolates discharge distributions according to the rainfall distributions. The dimensionless regional QdF model needs two local descriptors of target site to be denormed: QIXA10 and Δ: the annual maximum instantaneous flow with a 10% probability to be exceeded (the 10-year peak flood) and a characteristic duration, respectively. For these both variables, the relations obtained by regression are presented, involving morphologic and climatic basin characteristics.(Author)

  17. WRF model for precipitation simulation and its application in real-time flood forecasting in the Jinshajiang River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianzhong; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Jianyun; Zeng, Xiaofan; Ye, Lei; Liu, Yi; Tayyab, Muhammad; Chen, Yufan

    2017-07-01

    An accurate flood forecasting with long lead time can be of great value for flood prevention and utilization. This paper develops a one-way coupled hydro-meteorological modeling system consisting of the mesoscale numerical weather model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Chinese Xinanjiang hydrological model to extend flood forecasting lead time in the Jinshajiang River Basin, which is the largest hydropower base in China. Focusing on four typical precipitation events includes: first, the combinations and mode structures of parameterization schemes of WRF suitable for simulating precipitation in the Jinshajiang River Basin were investigated. Then, the Xinanjiang model was established after calibration and validation to make up the hydro-meteorological system. It was found that the selection of the cloud microphysics scheme and boundary layer scheme has a great impact on precipitation simulation, and only a proper combination of the two schemes could yield accurate simulation effects in the Jinshajiang River Basin and the hydro-meteorological system can provide instructive flood forecasts with long lead time. On the whole, the one-way coupled hydro-meteorological model could be used for precipitation simulation and flood prediction in the Jinshajiang River Basin because of its relatively high precision and long lead time.

  18. Systems of quasilinear equations and their applications to gas dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Roždestvenskiĭ, B L; Schulenberger, J R

    1983-01-01

    This book is essentially a new edition, revised and augmented by results of the last decade, of the work of the same title published in 1968 by "Nauka." It is devoted to mathematical questions of gas dynamics. Topics covered include Foundations of the Theory of Systems of Quasilinear Equations of Hyperbolic Type in Two Independent Variables; Classical and Generalized Solutions of One-Dimensional Gas Dynamics; Difference Methods for Solving the Equations of Gas Dynamics; and Generalized Solutions of Systems of Quasilinear Equations of Hyperbolic Type.

  19. Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Watson, J.S.

    1976-08-01

    Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results similar to the correlation for liquid-to-gas (L/G) mass flow rate ratios greater than 10, but the experimental flooding curve fell significantly below the correlation at lower L/G ratios. When the column was repacked with new packing, the results were essentially the same as those obtained in the inverted column. Thus, it is believed that a carefully packed column is more likely to yield flooding rates similar to those obtained in the new or inverted columns rather than rates predicted by the original correlation

  20. Bias correction of satellite precipitation products for flood forecasting application at the Upper Mahanadi River Basin in Eastern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beria, H.; Nanda, T., Sr.; Chatterjee, C.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite precipitation products such as Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), etc., offer a promising alternative to flood forecasting in data scarce regions. At the current state-of-art, these products cannot be used in the raw form for flood forecasting, even at smaller lead times. In the current study, these precipitation products are bias corrected using statistical techniques, such as additive and multiplicative bias corrections, and wavelet multi-resolution analysis (MRA) with India Meteorological Department (IMD) gridded precipitation product,obtained from gauge-based rainfall estimates. Neural network based rainfall-runoff modeling using these bias corrected products provide encouraging results for flood forecasting upto 48 hours lead time. We will present various statistical and graphical interpretations of catchment response to high rainfall events using both the raw and bias corrected precipitation products at different lead times.

  1. Application of the dynamic bounds method in the safety assessment of flood defences, a case study: 17th Street flood wall, New Orleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Demirbilek, Zeki; Mahdi, Tew-Fik; Vrijling, J.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we provide a computational framework for evaluation of reliability and safety assessment of infrastructures. It is based on the combined application of the dynamic bounds (DB) method and a probabilistic finite element model (FEM). The DB improves the computational efficiency of the FEM

  2. Gas sensing application of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental data revealed the sensors to be more selective to NO2 gas with satisfactory response and recovery time. .... energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, JEOL Model ... nm line of argon ion laser was used for excitation. 3.

  3. Wind turbines application for energy savings in Gas transportation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleeva, Renata

    2014-01-01

    The Thesis shows the perspectives of involving renewable energy resources into the energy balance of Russia, namely the use of wind energy for the purpose of energy supply for the objects of the Russian Gas transportation system. The methodology of the wind energy technical potential calculation is designed and the wind energy technical potential assessment for onshore and offshore zones of Russia is presented. The analysis of Russian Gas transportation system in terms of energy consumption i...

  4. Renewable Natural Gas Clean-up Challenges and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    produced from digesters ─ Animal manure (dairy cows, swine ) ─ Waste water treatment facilities > Methane from Landfills > RNG produced from...LNG) for vehicle fuel ─Ft. Lewis — Anaerobic digestion of waste water for production of hydrogen as a fuel cell vehicle fuel ─SCRA * – Landfill gas...BE CLEANED- UP AND PLACED IN THE NATURAL GAS PIPELINE SYSTEM 6 GTI RNG Project Examples >Example GTI Projects: ─Gills Onions— Anaerobic

  5. Basic characteristics of hollow-filament polyimide membrane in gas separation and application to tritium monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Sh.; Suzuki, T.; Kondo, K.; Tega, E.; Shimada, A.; Akahori, S.; Okuno, K.

    2003-01-01

    The separation efficiency of hollow-filament polyimide membranes for 3 H and 41 Ar is preliminarily examined for a potential application to continuous gas monitoring systems for analysis of stack emission from accelerator facilities. The basic gas separation characteristics of the membranes are experimentally investigated, and a preliminary gas monitor design is proposed. The membranes are capable of selectively enriching hydrogen by more than 25 times, with negligible variation with respect to the species of isotope. (author)

  6. Principle and Performance of Gas Self-inducing Reactors and Applications to Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qin; Li, Zhimin; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Gas-liquid contacting is an important unit operation in chemical and biochemical processes, but the gas utilization efficiency is low in conventional gas-liquid contactors especially for sparingly soluble gases. The gas self-inducing impeller is able to recycle gas in the headspace of a reactor to the liquid without utilization of additional equipment such as a gas compressor, and thus, the gas utilization efficiency is significantly enhanced. Gas induction is caused by the low pressure or deep vortex at a sufficiently high impeller speed, and the speed at which gas induction starts is termed the critical speed. The critical impeller speed, gas-induction flow rate, power consumption, and gas-liquid mass transfer are determined by the impeller design and operation conditions. When the reactor is operated in a dead-end mode, all the introduced gas can be completely used, and this feature is especially favorable to flammable and/or toxic gases. In this article, the principles, designs, characteristics of self-inducing reactors, and applications to biotechnology are described.

  7. Sensitivity and Interaction Analysis Based on Sobol’ Method and Its Application in a Distributed Flood Forecasting Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis is a fundamental approach to identify the most significant and sensitive parameters, helping us to understand complex hydrological models, particularly for time-consuming distributed flood forecasting models based on complicated theory with numerous parameters. Based on Sobol’ method, this study compared the sensitivity and interactions of distributed flood forecasting model parameters with and without accounting for correlation. Four objective functions: (1 Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (ENS; (2 water balance coefficient (WB; (3 peak discharge efficiency (EP; and (4 time to peak efficiency (ETP were implemented to the Liuxihe model with hourly rainfall-runoff data collected in the Nanhua Creek catchment, Pearl River, China. Contrastive results for the sensitivity and interaction analysis were also illustrated among small, medium, and large flood magnitudes. Results demonstrated that the choice of objective functions had no effect on the sensitivity classification, while it had great influence on the sensitivity ranking for both uncorrelated and correlated cases. The Liuxihe model behaved and responded uniquely to various flood conditions. The results also indicated that the pairwise parameters interactions revealed a non-ignorable contribution to the model output variance. Parameters with high first or total order sensitivity indices presented a corresponding high second order sensitivity indices and correlation coefficients with other parameters. Without considering parameter correlations, the variance contributions of highly sensitive parameters might be underestimated and those of normally sensitive parameters might be overestimated. This research laid a basic foundation to improve the understanding of complex model behavior.

  8. A predictive model of chemical flooding for enhanced oil recovery purposes: Application of least square support vector machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Ahmadi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Applying chemical flooding in petroleum reservoirs turns into interesting subject of the recent researches. Developing strategies of the aforementioned method are more robust and precise when they consider both economical point of views (net present value (NPV and technical point of views (recovery factor (RF. In the present study huge attempts are made to propose predictive model for specifying efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoirs. To gain this goal, the new type of support vector machine method which evolved by Suykens and Vandewalle was employed. Also, high precise chemical flooding data banks reported in previous works were employed to test and validate the proposed vector machine model. According to the mean square error (MSE, correlation coefficient and average absolute relative deviation, the suggested LSSVM model has acceptable reliability; integrity and robustness. Thus, the proposed intelligent based model can be considered as an alternative model to monitor the efficiency of chemical flooding in oil reservoir when the required experimental data are not available or accessible.

  9. 77 FR 65542 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP13-6-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on October 12, 2012, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, filed in the above referenced docket...

  10. 75 FR 13524 - Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-76-000] Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application March 15, 2010. Take notice that on March 5, 2010, Eastern Shore Natural Gas Company, (Eastern Shore), 1110 Forrest Avenue, Dover, Delaware 19904, pursuant to...

  11. Equal distribution of burdens in flood risk management : The application of the 'égalité principle' in the compensation regimes of the Netherlands, Flanders and France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn-Hoekveld, Willemijn|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344848752

    2017-01-01

    Flood risk management is an eminent example of a policy field in which the distribution of burdens and benefits takes place. Flood risks are distributed unequally among society and measures that reduce or prevent flood risks also distribute burdens and benefits. Flood risk management measures may

  12. A prediction method of natural gas hydrate formation in deepwater gas well and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To prevent the deposition of natural gas hydrate in deepwater gas well, the hydrate formation area in wellbore must be predicted. Herein, by comparing four prediction methods of temperature in pipe with field data and comparing five prediction methods of hydrate formation with experiment data, a method based on OLGA & PVTsim for predicting the hydrate formation area in wellbore was proposed. Meanwhile, The hydrate formation under the conditions of steady production, throttling and shut-in was predicted by using this method based on a well data in the South China Sea. The results indicate that the hydrate formation area decreases with the increase of gas production, inhibitor concentrations and the thickness of insulation materials and increases with the increase of thermal conductivity of insulation materials and shutdown time. Throttling effect causes a plunge in temperature and pressure in wellbore, thus leading to an increase of hydrate formation area.

  13. Progress Toward a Microfabricated Gas Turbine Generator for Soldier Portable Power Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, S. A; Das, S; Savoulides, N; Steyn, J. L; Lang, J; Li, H. Q; Livermore, C; Schmidt, M. A; Teo, C. J; Umans, S. D; Epstein, A. H; Arnold, D. P; Park, J-W; Zana, I; Allen, M. G

    2004-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) turbocharger and electric generator devices have been fabricated and tested as part of a program at MIT to develop a microfabricated gas turbine generator for portable power applications...

  14. Turbulent combustion modeling using Flamelet-Generated Manifolds for Gas Turbine applications in OpenFOAM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fancello, A.; Panek, L.; Lammel, O.; Krebs, W.; Bastiaans, R.J.M.; de Goey, L.P.H.

    2014-01-01

    The continuous interest in reducing pollutions and developing both an efficient and clean combustion system require large attention in the design requirements, especially when related to industrial gas turbine application. Although in recent years the advancements in modelling have increased

  15. Improving Flash Flood Prediction in Multiple Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxton, P. D.; Troch, P. A.; Schaffner, M.; Unkrich, C.; Goodrich, D.; Wagener, T.; Yatheendradas, S.

    2009-12-01

    Flash flooding is a major concern in many fast responding headwater catchments . There are many efforts to model and to predict these flood events, though it is not currently possible to adequately predict the nature of flash flood events with a single model, and furthermore, many of these efforts do not even consider snow, which can, by itself, or in combination with rainfall events, cause destructive floods. The current research is aimed at broadening the applicability of flash flood modeling. Specifically, we will take a state of the art flash flood model that is designed to work with warm season precipitation in arid environments, the KINematic runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2), and combine it with a continuous subsurface flow model and an energy balance snow model. This should improve its predictive capacity in humid environments where lateral subsurface flow significantly contributes to streamflow, and it will make possible the prediction of flooding events that involve rain-on-snow or rapid snowmelt. By modeling changes in the hydrologic state of a catchment before a flood begins, we can also better understand the factors or combination of factors that are necessary to produce large floods. Broadening the applicability of an already state of the art flash flood model, such as KINEROS2, is logical because flash floods can occur in all types of environments, and it may lead to better predictions, which are necessary to preserve life and property.

  16. Improving the performances of gas turbines operated on natural gas in combined cycle power plants with application of mathematical models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimkovski, Sasho

    2014-01-01

    The greater energy demand by today society sets a number of new challenges in the energy sector. The climate extremes impose new modes of operation of the power plants, with high flexibility in production. Combined cycle co generative power plants are the latest trend in the energy sector. Their high prevalence is due to the great efficiency and the good environmental characteristics. The main work horse in these cogeneration plants is the gas turbine, which power production and efficiency strongly depends on the external climate conditions. In warmer periods when there is increased demand for electricity, the power production from the gas turbines significantly declines. Because of the high electricity demand from the grid and reduced power production from the gas turbines at the same time, the need for application of appropriate technology for preserving the performances and power of the gas turbines arises. This master thesis explores different methods to improve the power in gas turbines by cooling the air on the compressor inlet, analyzing their applicability and effectiveness in order to choose the optimal method for power augmentation for the climatic conditions in the city Skopje. The master thesis gives detailed analysis of the weather in Skopje and the time frame in which the chosen method is applicable. At the end in the master thesis, the economic feasibility of the given method for power augmentation is clearly calculated, using a model of a power plant and calculating the resulting amount of gained energy, the amount of the initial investment, the cost for maintenance and operation of the equipment. By these calculations the period for initial return of investment is obtained. As an added benefit the positive environmental impacts of the applied technology for inlet air cooling is analyzed. (author)

  17. Application of advanced data reduction methods to gas turbine dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhl, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of advanced data reduction methods to the evaluation of dynamic data from gas turbines and turbine components. The use of the Fast Fourier Transform and of real-time spectrum analyzers is discussed. The use of power spectral density and probability density functions for analyzing random data is discussed. Examples of the application of these modern techniques to gas turbine testing are presented. The use of the computer to automate the data reduction procedures is discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Application of a power recovery system to gas turbine exhaust gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudat, N.P.; James, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of a power recovery system to recover waste heat from the exhaust gases of gas turbines and convert this energy into shaft horsepower. Also discussed are power cycles, selection of power fluid, equipment selection, and application of the power recovery system to various gas turbines. Several charts and tables are included: process flow diagram, cycle efficiencies, curve for estimating recoverable horsepower

  19. 76 FR 36526 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ....47-mile of 20-inch pipeline to transport natural gas for Virginia Power Services Energy Corp., Inc...- fired electric generation facility being constructed by Virginia Electric and Power Company d/b/a... expects to complete the construction and place the electric generation facility in service during 2014...

  20. Adsorbent filled polymeric membranes : applications to pervaporation and gas separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duval, Jean-Marc

    1993-01-01

    Nowadays research in membrane technology aims at improving the efficiency of the separation process to make it more competitive in comparison to conventional separation techniques. The improvement of the membrane material is a way to achieve this goal, especially in the case of pervaporation and gas

  1. 78 FR 33400 - Columbia Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-04

    ... Gas Act to construct, and operate a new 9,400 horsepower (hp) compressor station in Washington County, Pennsylvania (Redd Farm CS); two additional compressor units totaling 15,600 hp at its existing Glenville CS in Gilmer County, West Virginia; new station piping, control systems, and other appurtenant facilities at...

  2. Photoacoustic trace gas sensing : application to fruit and insects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persijn, Stefan Timotheüs

    2001-01-01

    A novel photoacoustic spectrometer has been applied to study trace gas emissions by fruit and insects. The spectrometer is based on a newly designed CO laser that can operate on 400 laser lines between 5.1-8.0 and 2.8-4.1 micrometer (delta v=1 and 2 mode, respectively). The spectrometer is equipped

  3. Validation of OpenFoam for heavy gas dispersion applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mack, A.; Spruijt, M.P.N.

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper heavy gas dispersion calculations were performed with OpenFoam. For a windtunnel test case, numerical data was validated with experiments. For a full scale numerical experiment,a code to code comparison was performed with numerical results obtained from Fluent. The validationwas

  4. Application of Irradiation. Application to polymer processing, exhaust gas treatment, sterilization of medical instruments and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawai, Takeshi; Sawai, Teruko

    2000-03-01

    Many fields such as industry, agriculture, medical treatment and environment use radiation. This report explained some examples of irradiation applications. Radiation source is {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray. Polymer industry use radiation for radiation curing (thermally stable polymer), tire, expanded polymer, radiation induced graft copolymerization and electron beam curing. On environmental conservation, radiation is used for elimination of NOx and SOx in exhaust combustion gas. In the medical treatment, radiation is applied to sterilization of medical instruments, that occupied about 50% volume, and blood for transfusion, which is only one method to prevent GVHD after transfusion. On agriculture, irradiation to spice, dry vegetable, frozen kitchen, potato and garlic are carried out in 30 countries. However, potato is only a kind food in Japan. Radiation breeding and pest control are put in practice. (S.Y.)

  5. Validation of OpenFoam for heavy gas dispersion applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, A; Spruijt, M P N

    2013-11-15

    In the present paper heavy gas dispersion calculations were performed with OpenFoam. For a wind tunnel test case, numerical data was validated with experiments. For a full scale numerical experiment, a code to code comparison was performed with numerical results obtained from Fluent. The validation was performed in a gravity driven environment (slope), where the heavy gas induced the turbulence. For the code to code comparison, a hypothetical heavy gas release into a strongly turbulent atmospheric boundary layer including terrain effects was selected. The investigations were performed for SF6 and CO2 as heavy gases applying the standard k-ɛ turbulence model. A strong interaction of the heavy gas with the turbulence is present which results in a strong damping of the turbulence and therefore reduced heavy gas mixing. Especially this interaction, based on the buoyancy effects, was studied in order to ensure that the turbulence-buoyancy coupling is the main driver for the reduced mixing and not the global behaviour of the turbulence modelling. For both test cases, comparisons were performed between OpenFoam and Fluent solutions which were mainly in good agreement with each other. Beside steady state solutions, the time accuracy was investigated. In the low turbulence environment (wind tunnel test) which for both codes (laminar solutions) was in good agreement, also with the experimental data. The turbulent solutions of OpenFoam were in much better agreement with the experimental results than the Fluent solutions. Within the strong turbulence environment, both codes showed an excellent comparability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A new method, with application, for analysis of the impacts on flood risk of widely distributed enhanced hillslope storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Metcalfe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Enhanced hillslope storage is utilised in natural flood management in order to retain overland storm run-off and to reduce connectivity between fast surface flow pathways and the channel. Examples include excavated ponds, deepened or bunded accumulation areas, and gullies and ephemeral channels blocked with wooden barriers or debris dams. The performance of large, distributed networks of such measures is poorly understood. Extensive schemes can potentially retain large quantities of run-off, but there are indications that much of their effectiveness can be attributed to desynchronisation of sub-catchment flood waves. Inappropriately sited measures may therefore increase, rather than mitigate, flood risk. Fully distributed hydrodynamic models have been applied in limited studies but introduce significant computational complexity. The longer run times of such models also restrict their use for uncertainty estimation or evaluation of the many potential configurations and storm sequences that may influence the timings and magnitudes of flood waves.Here a simplified overland flow-routing module and semi-distributed representation of enhanced hillslope storage is developed. It is applied to the headwaters of a large rural catchment in Cumbria, UK, where the use of an extensive network of storage features is proposed as a flood mitigation strategy. The models were run within a Monte Carlo framework against data for a 2-month period of extreme flood events that caused significant damage in areas downstream. Acceptable realisations and likelihood weightings were identified using the GLUE uncertainty estimation framework. Behavioural realisations were rerun against the catchment model modified with the addition of the hillslope storage. Three different drainage rate parameters were applied across the network of hillslope storage. The study demonstrates that schemes comprising widely distributed hillslope storage can be modelled effectively within such a

  7. A new method, with application, for analysis of the impacts on flood risk of widely distributed enhanced hillslope storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Peter; Beven, Keith; Hankin, Barry; Lamb, Rob

    2018-04-01

    Enhanced hillslope storage is utilised in natural flood management in order to retain overland storm run-off and to reduce connectivity between fast surface flow pathways and the channel. Examples include excavated ponds, deepened or bunded accumulation areas, and gullies and ephemeral channels blocked with wooden barriers or debris dams. The performance of large, distributed networks of such measures is poorly understood. Extensive schemes can potentially retain large quantities of run-off, but there are indications that much of their effectiveness can be attributed to desynchronisation of sub-catchment flood waves. Inappropriately sited measures may therefore increase, rather than mitigate, flood risk. Fully distributed hydrodynamic models have been applied in limited studies but introduce significant computational complexity. The longer run times of such models also restrict their use for uncertainty estimation or evaluation of the many potential configurations and storm sequences that may influence the timings and magnitudes of flood waves. Here a simplified overland flow-routing module and semi-distributed representation of enhanced hillslope storage is developed. It is applied to the headwaters of a large rural catchment in Cumbria, UK, where the use of an extensive network of storage features is proposed as a flood mitigation strategy. The models were run within a Monte Carlo framework against data for a 2-month period of extreme flood events that caused significant damage in areas downstream. Acceptable realisations and likelihood weightings were identified using the GLUE uncertainty estimation framework. Behavioural realisations were rerun against the catchment model modified with the addition of the hillslope storage. Three different drainage rate parameters were applied across the network of hillslope storage. The study demonstrates that schemes comprising widely distributed hillslope storage can be modelled effectively within such a reduced complexity

  8. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  9. Applications of the gas chromatography in the nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco Sanchez, L.

    1972-01-01

    This paper is a review on the applications of the gas chromatography in the nuclear science and technology published up to December 1971. Its contents has been classified under the following heads; I) Radiogaschromatography, II) Isotope separation, III) Preparation of labelled molecules, IV) Nuclear fuel cycle, V) Nuclear reactor technology, VI) Irradiation chemistry, VIl) Separation of me tal compounds in gas phase, VIII) Applications of the gas chromatography carried out at the Junta de Energia Nuclear, Spain. Arapter VIII only includes the investigations carried out from January 1969 to December 1971. Previous investigations in this field has been published elsewhere. (Author)

  10. Flooding Mechanism in Vertical Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronny-Dwi Agussulistyo; Indarto

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the mechanism of flooding ina vertical liquid-gas counter current flow, along two meter length of thetube. The tube use both circular and square tube, a cross section of squaretube was made the same as a cross section of circular tube with one inchdiameter tube. The liquid enters the tube, passes through a porous wall inletand a groove inlet in a distributor and it flows downwards through a liquidoutlet in a collector. The gas is being introduced at the bottom of the tube,it flows upwards through nozzle in the collector. The results of researchshowed that the flooding occurs earlier in the circular tube than in thesquare tube, either uses a porous wall inlet or a groove inlet. In the squaretube , onset of the flooding occurs at the top of the tube, in front ofliquid injection, it is related to the formation of a film wave, just belowthe liquid feed. Whereas in the circular tube, onset of the flooding occursfrom the bottom of the tube, at the liquid outlet, it is related to theexpand of the film wave. However, in the circular tube with the groove inlet,for the higher liquid flow rate, onset of the flooding from the top, like inthe square tube. (author)

  11. Recent applications of gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špánik, Ivan; Machyňáková, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical method that combines excellent separation power of gas chromatography with improved identification based on an accurate mass measurement. These features designate gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry as the first choice for identification and structure elucidation of unknown volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds. Gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry quantitative analyses was previously focused on the determination of dioxins and related compounds using magnetic sector type analyzers, a standing requirement of many international standards. The introduction of a quadrupole high-resolution time-of-flight mass analyzer broadened interest in this method and novel applications were developed, especially for multi-target screening purposes. This review is focused on the development and the most interesting applications of gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry towards analysis of environmental matrices, biological fluids, and food safety since 2010. The main attention is paid to various approaches and applications of gas chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry for non-target screening to identify contaminants and to characterize the chemical composition of environmental, food, and biological samples. The most interesting quantitative applications, where a significant contribution of gas chromatography with high-resolution mass spectrometry over the currently used methods is expected, will be discussed as well. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Vented fuel experiment for gas-cooled fast reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longest, A.W.; Gat, U.; Conlin, J.A.; Campana, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    A pressure-equalized and vented fuel rod is being irradiated in an instrumented capsule designated GB-10 to approximately 100MWd/kg-heavy metal. The fuel is a sol-gel-derived 88 at.% uranium (approximately 9% 235 U) and 12 at.% plutonium oxide, and the cladding is 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel. The capsule is being irradiated in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) and has exceeded a burnup of 70MWd/kg. The fuel has been operated at linear power rates of 39 and 44kW/m, and peak outer cladding temperature of 565 and 630 0 C respectively. A similar fuel rod in a previous capsule (GB-9) was subjected to 48kW/m (685 0 C). Helium gas sweeps through any portion of the three regions of the fuel rod, namely: fuel, blanket, and charcoal trap. The charcoal trap is operated at about 300 0 C. An on-line Ge(Li) detector is used to analyse release rates of several gamma-emitting noble gas isotopes. Analyses are performed primarily on sweep gas flowing through the entire fuel rod, and for sweeps over the top of the charcoal trap. Sweep gas samples are analyzed for stable noble gas isotopes. Results in the form of ratios of release rate over birth rate (R/B) and venting rate over birth rate (V/B) are derived. R/B rates range from 10 -4 % to 30% while V/B ranges from 10 -6 % to 30%. Flow conductance in the capsule was monitored by recording the flow rate and pressure drop across the fuel rod and inlet sweep line. The flow conductance has been falling with increasing burnup, currently restricting the flow to about 20ml (s.t.p.)/min at a pressure difference of about 1.5MPa. Venting rates of the gaseous fission products as a function of gas pressure in the range 6.9 to 1.4MPa have also been measured. Planned future experiments include the monitoring of tritium release, venting and cladding permeation rates, and its molecular form. First measurements have been made. A simulated leak experiment will determine the mixture of fission gases as a function of flow rate and the most

  13. The adaptive internet application for interpretation of the transformer oil gas chromatographic analysis results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polužanski Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an adaptive Internet application for the interpretation of the transformer oil gas chromatographic analysis results. The first version of the application is developed by following an evolutionary software development concept. The most important software development risks and the appropriate solutions are described. An open-source web framework named Bootstrap is used for an application implementation. The application is developed by using ASP.NET and MS SQL server.

  14. Low Pressure Storage of Natural Gas for Vehicular Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tim Burchell; Mike Rogers

    2000-01-01

    Natural gas is an attractive fuel for vehicles because it is a relatively clean-burning fuel compared with gasoline. Moreover, methane can be stored in the physically adsorbed state[at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi)] at energy densities comparable to methane compressed at 24.8 MPa (3600 psi). Here we report the development of natural gas storage monoliths[1]. The monolith manufacture and activation methods are reported along with pore structure characterization data. The storage capacities of these monoliths are measured gravimetrically at a pressure of 3.5 MPa (500 psi) and ambient temperature, and storage capacities of and gt;150 V/V have been demonstrated and are reported

  15. Application of ZnO Nanoparticle as Sulphide Gas Sensor Using UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliasih, N; Buchari; Noviandri, I

    2017-01-01

    The nanoparticle of metal oxides has great unique characteristics that applicable to the wide industrial as sensors and catalysts for reducing environmental pollution. Sulphide gas monitors and detectors are required for assessing safety aspects, due to its toxicity level. A thin film of ZnO as the sulphide gas sensor was synthesised by the simple method of chemical liquid deposition with variation of annealing temperature from 200 ºC to 500 ºC, and characterised by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer. Characterization studies showed nanoparticle size from the range 62 – 92 nm of diameters. The application this ZnO thin film to sulfide gas, detected by UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer with diffuse reflectance, showed specific chemical reaction by the shifting of maximum % Reflectance peak. The gas sensing using this method is applicable at room. (paper)

  16. Design and Fabrication of Porous Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia Ceramics for Hot Gas Filtration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahini, Shayan

    Hot gas filtration has received growing attention in a variety of applications over the past few years. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is a promising candidate for such an application. In this study, we fabricated disk-type porous YSZ filters using the pore forming procedure, in which poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) was used as the pore-forming agent. After fabricating the pellets, we characterized them to determine their potential for application as gas filters. We investigated the effect of sintering temperature, polymer particle size, and polymer-to-ceramic ratio on the porosity, pore size, gas permeability, and Vickers hardness of the sintered pellets. Furthermore, we designed two sets of experiments to investigate the robustness of the fabricated pellets--i.e., cyclic heating/cooling and high temperature exposure. This study ushers in a robust technique to fabricate such porous ceramics, which have the potential to be utilized in hot gas filtration.

  17. Application of Ionic Liquids in Amperometric Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gębicki, Jacek; Kloskowski, Adam; Chrzanowski, Wojciech; Stepnowski, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of available literature data on metrological parameters of the amperometric gas sensors containing ionic liquids as an electrolyte. Four mechanism types of signal generation in amperometric sensors with ionic liquid are described. Moreover, this article describes the influence of selected physico-chemical properties of the ionic liquids on the metrological parameters of these sensors. Some metrological parameters are also compared for amperometric sensors with GDE and SPE electrodes and with ionic liquids for selected analytes.

  18. Application of gas chromatography to the investigations on polypropylene radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorski, Z.P.; Gluszewski, W.

    2006-01-01

    Refinement of the gas chromatography (GC) instrumental approach permitted not only improvement of investigation in basic research, but also development of a new kind of polypropylene blends, more suitable for the production of medical devices and radiation sterilization. It has been shown, that using the GC method not only methane and carbon dioxide can be measured, but also the consumption of oxygen which reacts with free radicals on the polypropylene chain

  19. Flood probability quantification for road infrastructure: Data-driven spatial-statistical approach and case study applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantari, Zahra; Cavalli, Marco; Cantone, Carolina; Crema, Stefano; Destouni, Georgia

    2017-03-01

    Climate-driven increase in the frequency of extreme hydrological events is expected to impose greater strain on the built environment and major transport infrastructure, such as roads and railways. This study develops a data-driven spatial-statistical approach to quantifying and mapping the probability of flooding at critical road-stream intersection locations, where water flow and sediment transport may accumulate and cause serious road damage. The approach is based on novel integration of key watershed and road characteristics, including also measures of sediment connectivity. The approach is concretely applied to and quantified for two specific study case examples in southwest Sweden, with documented road flooding effects of recorded extreme rainfall. The novel contributions of this study in combining a sediment connectivity account with that of soil type, land use, spatial precipitation-runoff variability and road drainage in catchments, and in extending the connectivity measure use for different types of catchments, improve the accuracy of model results for road flood probability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  1. Zinc oxide nanostructured layers for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricato, A. P.; Cretí, A.; Luches, A.; Lomascolo, M.; Martino, M.; Rella, R.; Valerini, D.

    2011-03-01

    Various kinds of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures, such as columns, pencils, hexagonal pyramids, hexagonal hierarchical structures, as well as smooth and rough films, were grown by pulsed laser deposition using KrF and ArF excimer lasers, without use of any catalyst. ZnO films were deposited at substrate temperatures from 500 to 700°C and oxygen background pressures of 1, 5, 50, and 100 Pa. Quite different morphologies of the deposited films were observed using scanning electron microscopy when different laser wavelengths (248 or 193 nm) were used to ablate the bulk ZnO target. Photoluminescence studies were performed at different temperatures (down to 7 K). The gas sensing properties of the different nanostructures were tested against low concentrations of NO2. The variation in the photoluminescence emission of the films when exposed to NO2 was used as transduction mechanism to reveal the presence of the gas. The nanostructured films with higher surface-to-volume ratio and higher total surface available for gas adsorption presented higher responses, detecting NO2 concentrations down to 3 ppm at room temperature.

  2. Optical Breath Gas Sensor for Extravehicular Activity Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, William R.; Casias, Miguel E.; Vakhtin, Andrei B.; Pilgrim, Jeffrey S.; Chullen, Cinda; Falconi, Eric A.; McMillin, Summer

    2013-01-01

    The function of the infrared gas transducer used during extravehicular activity in the current space suit is to measure and report the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ventilation loop. The next generation portable life support system (PLSS) requires next generation CO2 sensing technology with performance beyond that presently in use on the Space Shuttle/International Space Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU). Accommodation within space suits demands that optical sensors meet stringent size, weight, and power requirements. A laser diode spectrometer based on wavelength modulation spectroscopy is being developed for this purpose by Vista Photonics, Inc. Two prototype devices were delivered to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in September 2011. The sensors incorporate a laser diode-based CO2 channel that also includes an incidental water vapor (humidity) measurement and a separate oxygen channel using a vertical cavity surface emitting laser. Both prototypes are controlled digitally with a field-programmable gate array/microcontroller architecture. The present development extends and upgrades the earlier hardware to the Advanced PLSS 2.0 test article being constructed and tested at JSC. Various improvements to the electronics and gas sampling are being advanced by this project. The combination of low power electronics with the performance of a long wavelength laser spectrometer enables multi-gas sensors with significantly increased performance over that presently offered in the EMU.

  3. Market chances for innovative natural gas applications. The determination of market potential by means of a phase model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelen, Q.E.J.J.M.; Klootwijk, M.

    2000-01-01

    Innovative applications of natural gas can increase the sale of natural gas, support energy companies in the development of commercial activities, and contribute to energy efficiency measures. The Dutch natural gas trading company Gasunie supports those developments by investigating the market potential of innovative gas appliances. Use is made of the so-called Phase Model for Market Introduction, developed by Kea Consult

  4. Application of Virtual Rain and Stream Gauge Information Service for Improved Flood Early Warning System in Lower Mekong Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnayake, S. B.; Jayasinghe, S.; Meechaiya, C.; Markert, K. N.; Lee, H.; Towashiraporn, P.; Anderson, E.; Okeowo, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Asia is the most vulnerable region in the world to hydro-meteorological extreme events, exacerbated by climate variability and change. Impacts of floods have been on the rapid increase in the recent decades. Myanmar is one of the most vulnerable countries in the lower Mekong region due to its socioeconomic situation (eg; Nargis in 2008, monsoon floods in 2015, etc). Early warning is an effective way to prepare for hydro-meteorological hazards, to minimize disaster risks; however, early warning systems in Myanmar are seriously hampered by limited observation networks. The Virtual Rain and Stream Gauge Information Service (VRSGIS) has been developed by SERVIR-Mekong program of Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC) to address these gaps and to provide dense, satellite-based rainfall and water level data, which are calibrated and validated with available in-situ observations. This service would enhance decision making in lower Mekong countries, including Myanmar, to minimize impacts of impending disasters. This service contains rainfall data from GPM IMERG and GSMap, CMORPH, TRMM, and CHIRPS, and water levels for 15 locations using Jason-2/3 altimetry. The virtual daily rainfall data sets are being calibrated with Gamma distribution method and are made publicly accessible through a user-friendly web interface.This paper presents a case study of satellite-derived rainfall data accessed from VRSGIS for hydrological modeling in Myanmar, to estimate inundation areas in Kalay township area of Chindwin River basin during the country's worst flood in 2015. Twelve out of fourteen States of Myanmar were severely affected, 103 people were killed, and one million were displaced due to heavy rains associated with Komen cyclone. The aforementioned rainfall data products are used as inputs for HEC-HMS hydrological runoff model to calculate river flows along Chindwin River, and HEC-RAS hydraulic model is used to estimate inundation areas in downstream including Kalay township

  5. Application of gas hydrate formation in separation processes: A review of experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique; Naidoo, Paramespri; Ramjugernath, Deresh

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Review of gas hydrate technology applied to separation processes. ► Gas hydrates have potential to be a future sustainable separation technology. ► More theoretical, simulation, and economic studies needed. - Abstract: There has been a dramatic increase in gas hydrate research over the last decade. Interestingly, the research has not focussed on only the inhibition of gas hydrate formation, which is of particular relevance to the petroleum industry, but has evolved into investigations on the promotion of hydrate formation as a potential novel separation technology. Gas hydrate formation as a separation technology shows tremendous potential, both from a physical feasibility (in terms of effecting difficult separations) as well as an envisaged lower energy utilization criterion. It is therefore a technology that should be considered as a future sustainable technology and will find wide application, possibly replacing a number of current commercial separation processes. In this article, we focus on presenting a brief description of the positive applications of clathrate hydrates and a comprehensive survey of experimental studies performed on separation processes using gas hydrate formation technology. Although many investigations have been undertaken on the positive application of gas hydrates to date, there is a need to perform more theoretical, experimental, and economic studies to clarify various aspects of separation processes using clathrate/semi-clathrate hydrate formation phenomena, and to conclusively prove its sustainability.

  6. Overview of gas cooled reactors' applications with CATHARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genevieve Geffraye; Fabrice Bentivoglio; Anne Messie; Alain Ruby; Manuel Saez; Nicolas Tauveron; Ola Widlund

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: For about four years, CEA has launched feasibility studies of future nuclear advanced systems in a consistent series of Gas Cooled Reactors (GCR) ranging from thermal reactors, as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) for the mid term, to fast reactors (GFR) for the long term. Thermal hydraulic performances are a key issue for the core design, the evaluation of the thermal stresses on the structures and the decay heat removal systems. This analysis requires a 1D code able to simulate the whole reactor, including the core, the vessel, the piping and the components (turbine, compressors, heat exchangers). CATHARE is the reference code developed and extensively validated in collaboration between CEA, EDF, IRSN and FRAMATOME-ANP for the French Pressurized Water Reactors. CATHARE has the capabilities to model a Gas Cooled Reactor using standard 0D and 1D modules with some adaptations to treat the specificities of the GCR designs. In this paper, the different adaptations are presented and discussed. The direct coupling of a Gas Cooled Reactor with a closed gas-turbine cycle leads to a specific dynamic plant behaviour and a specific turbomachinery module has been developed. The thermal reactors' core consists of hexagonal graphite blocks with an annular-fueled region surrounded by reflectors and a special attention is paid on the thermal modeling of such a core leading to a quasi-2D thermal description. First designs of the VHTR are proposed and are based on an indirect cycle concept with a primary circuit, cooled by helium, and containing the core and a circulator. The core power is transmitted to the secondary circuit via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX). The secondary circuit contains a turbine and a compressor coupled on a single shaft. It uses a mixture of helium and nitrogen, in order to benefit from both the favourable thermal properties of helium for the heat exchanger, and from existing experience of turbomachines using

  7. Surviving floods: leaf gas films improve O2 and CO2 exchange, root aeration, and growth of completely submerged rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Rich, Sarah Meghan; Colmer, Timothy David

    2009-01-01

    When completely submerged, the leaves of some species retain a surface gas film. Leaf gas films on submerged plants have recently been termed 'plant plastrons', analogous with the plastrons of aquatic insects. In aquatic insects, surface gas layers (i.e. plastrons) enlarge the gas–water interface...... or when in light, was improved considerably when leaf gas films were present. Thus, leaf gas films contribute to the submergence tolerance of rice, in addition to those traits already recognized, such as the shoot-elongation response, aerenchyma and metabolic adjustments to O2 deficiency and oxidative...... stress....

  8. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  9. Air and gas cleaning technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    All large-scale uses of radioactive materials require rigid control of off-gases and generated aerosols. Nuclear air and gas cleaning technology has answered the need from the days of the Manhattan Project to the present with a variety of devices. The one with the longest and most noteworthy service is the HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter that originally was referred to as an absolute filter in recognition of its extraordinary particle retention characteristics. Activated-charcoal adsorbers have been employed worldwide for retention of volatile radioiodine in molecular and combined forms and, less frequently, for retention of radioactive noble gases. HEPA filters and activated -charcoal adsorbers are often used with auxiliary devices that serve to extend their effective service life or significantly improve collection efficiency under unfavorable operating conditions. Use of both air cleaning devices and their auxiliaries figure prominently in atomic energy, disposal of high- and low-level nuclear wastes, and in the production of fissile materials. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy would be impossible without these, or equivalent, air- and gas-cleaning devices

  10. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni; Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng; Kaur, Gurpreet; Eriksson, Jens; Lakshmi, G.B.V.S.; Avasthi, D.K.; Gupta, Vinay; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M.; Syväjärvi, Mikael; Yazdi, G. Reza

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO_2 and NH_3 gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10"1"3 ions/cm"2). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and spintronic

  11. Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC by ion irradiation for gas sensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, Priya Darshni, E-mail: kaushik.priyadarshni@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Ivanov, Ivan G.; Lin, Pin-Cheng [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Kaur, Gurpreet [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Eriksson, Jens [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Lakshmi, G.B.V.S. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Avasthi, D.K. [Inter-University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi, 110067 (India); Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Noida 201313 (India); Gupta, Vinay [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi, 110007 (India); Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 (India); Syväjärvi, Mikael [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden); Yazdi, G. Reza, E-mail: yazdi@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-58183 Linköping (Sweden)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • For the first time the gas sensing application of SHI irradiated epitaxial graphene on SiC is explored. • Surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles. • Existence of an optimal fluence which maximize the gas sensing response towards NO{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} gases. - Abstract: In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide was performed by ion irradiation to investigate their gas sensing capabilities. Swift heavy ion irradiation using 100 MeV silver ions at four varying fluences was implemented on epitaxial graphene to investigate morphological and structural changes and their effects on the gas sensing capabilities of graphene. Sensing devices are expected as one of the first electronic applications using graphene and most of them use functionalized surfaces to tailor a certain function. In our case, we have studied irradiation as a tool to achieve functionalization. Morphological and structural changes on epitaxial graphene layers were investigated by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Raman mapping and reflectance mapping. The surface morphology of irradiated graphene layers showed graphene folding, hillocks, and formation of wrinkles at highest fluence (2 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}). Raman spectra analysis shows that the graphene defect density is increased with increasing fluence, while Raman mapping and reflectance mapping show that there is also a reduction of monolayer graphene coverage. The samples were investigated for ammonia and nitrogen dioxide gas sensing applications. Sensors fabricated on pristine and irradiated samples showed highest gas sensing response at an optimal fluence. Our work provides new pathways for introducing defects in controlled manner in epitaxial graphene, which can be used not only for gas sensing application but also for other applications, such as electrochemical, biosensing, magnetosensing and

  12. Application of State of Art Modeling Techniques to Predict Flooding and Waves for an Exposed Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm L. Spaulding

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Flood Insurance Rate Maps (FIRMs are developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA to provide guidance in establishing the risk to structures and infrastructure in the coastal zone from storm surge and coincidental waves. The maps are used by state agencies and municipalities to help guide coastal planning and establish the minimum elevation standard for new or substantially improved structures. A summary of the methods used and results of 2012 FIRM mapping are presented for Charlestown, RI; a coastal community located along the exposed, southern shoreline of the state. Concerns with the methods used in the 2012 analysis are put in context with the National Research Council’s (NRC 2009 review of the FEMA coastal mapping program. New mapping is then performed using state of the art, fully coupled surge and wave modeling and data analysis methods to address the concerns in the NRC review. The new maps and methodologies are in compliance with FEMA regulations and guidelines. The approach makes extensive use of the numerical modeling results from the recent US Army Corp of Engineers (USACE, North Atlantic Coast Comprehensive Study (NACCS 2015. Revised flood maps are presented and compared with the 2012 FIRM map to provide insight into the differences. The new maps highlight the importance of developing better estimates of offshore surge dynamics and its coupling to waves, dune erosion based on local observations, and the advancement in nearshore mapping of waves in flood inundated areas by the use of state of the art, two-dimensional wave transformation models.

  13. El Niño-Southern Oscillation-based index insurance for floods: Statistical risk analyses and application to Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Abedalrazq F.; Kwon, Hyun-Han; Lall, Upmanu; Miranda, Mario J.; Skees, Jerry

    2007-10-01

    Index insurance has recently been advocated as a useful risk transfer tool for disaster management situations where rapid fiscal relief is desirable and where estimating insured losses may be difficult, time consuming, or subject to manipulation and falsification. For climate-related hazards, a rainfall or temperature index may be proposed. However, rainfall may be highly spatially variable relative to the gauge network, and in many locations, data are inadequate to develop an index because of short time series and the spatial dispersion of stations. In such cases, it may be helpful to consider a climate proxy index as a regional rainfall index. This is particularly useful if a long record is available for the climate index through an independent source and it is well correlated with the regional rainfall hazard. Here El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related climate indices are explored for use as a proxy to extreme rainfall in one of the districts of Peru, Piura. The ENSO index insurance product may be purchased by banks or microfinance institutions to aid agricultural damage relief in Peru. Crop losses in the region are highly correlated with floods but are difficult to assess directly. Beyond agriculture, many other sectors suffer as well. Basic infrastructure is destroyed during the most severe events. This disrupts trade for many microenterprises. The reliability and quality of the local rainfall data are variable. Averaging the financial risk across the region is desirable. Some issues with the implementation of the proxy ENSO index are identified and discussed. Specifically, we explore (1) the reliability of the index at different levels of probability of exceedance of maximum seasonal rainfall, (2) the effect of sampling uncertainties and the strength of the proxy's association to local outcome, (3) the potential for clustering of payoffs, (4) the potential that the index could be predicted with some lead time prior to the flood season, and (5) evidence

  14. Silicon Carbide-Based Hydrogen Gas Sensors for High-Temperature Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangchoel Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors with metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS structure for high temperature process monitoring and leak detection applications in fields such as the automotive, chemical and petroleum industries. In this work, a thin tantalum oxide (Ta2O5 layer was exploited with the purpose of sensitivity improvement, because tantalum oxide has good stability at high temperature with high permeability for hydrogen gas. Silicon carbide (SiC was used as a substrate for high-temperature applications. We fabricated Pd/Ta2O5/SiC-based hydrogen gas sensors, and the dependence of their I-V characteristics and capacitance response properties on hydrogen concentrations were analyzed in the temperature range from room temperature to 500 °C. According to the results, our sensor shows promising performance for hydrogen gas detection at high temperatures.

  15. Adapting Human Reliability Analysis from Nuclear Power to Oil and Gas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-09-01

    ABSTRACT: Human reliability analysis (HRA), as currently used in risk assessments, largely derives its methods and guidance from application in the nuclear energy domain. While there are many similarities be-tween nuclear energy and other safety critical domains such as oil and gas, there remain clear differences. This paper provides an overview of HRA state of the practice in nuclear energy and then describes areas where refinements to the methods may be necessary to capture the operational context of oil and gas. Many key distinctions important to nuclear energy HRA such as Level 1 vs. Level 2 analysis may prove insignifi-cant for oil and gas applications. On the other hand, existing HRA methods may not be sensitive enough to factors like the extensive use of digital controls in oil and gas. This paper provides an overview of these con-siderations to assist in the adaptation of existing nuclear-centered HRA methods to the petroleum sector.

  16. Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors and Sensor Arrays for Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2005-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors; 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity; 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. This presentation discusses the needs of space applications as well as the point-contact sensor technology and sensor arrays being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NO,), carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed as well as arrays for leak, fire, and emissions detection. Demonstrations of the technology will also be discussed. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  17. Robust flood area detection using a L-band synthetic aperture radar: Preliminary application for Florida, the U.S. affected by Hurricane Irma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, H.; Ohki, M.; Abe, T.

    2017-12-01

    Urgent crisis response for a hurricane-induced flood needs urgent providing of a flood map covering a broad region. However, there is no standard threshold values for automatic flood identification from pre-and-post images obtained by satellite-based synthetic aperture radars (SARs). This problem could hamper prompt data providing for operational uses. Furthermore, one pre-flood SAR image does not always represent potential water surfaces and river flows especially in tropical flat lands which are greatly influenced by seasonal precipitation cycle. We are, therefore, developing a new method of flood mapping using PALSAR-2, an L-band SAR, which is less affected by temporal surface changes. Specifically, a mean-value image and a standard-deviation image are calculated from a series of pre-flood SAR images. It is combined with a post-flood SAR image to obtain normalized backscatter amplitude difference (NoBADi), with which a difference between a post-flood image and a mean-value image is divided by a standard-deviation image to emphasize anomalous water extents. Flooding areas are then automatically obtained from the NoBADi images as lower-value pixels avoiding potential water surfaces. We applied this method to PALSAR-2 images acquired on Sept. 8, 10, and 12, 2017, covering flooding areas in a central region of Dominican Republic and west Florida, the U.S. affected by Hurricane Irma. The output flooding outlines are validated with flooding areas manually delineated from high-resolution optical satellite images, resulting in higher consistency and less uncertainty than previous methods (i.e., a simple pre-and-post flood difference and pre-and-post coherence changes). The NoBADi method has a great potential to obtain a reliable flood map for future flood hazards, not hampered by cloud cover, seasonal surface changes, and "casual" thresholds in the flood identification process.

  18. Modern gas-avalanche radiation detectors: from innovations to applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Micro-Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) technologies allow for the conception of advanced large area radiation detectors with unprecedented spatial resolutions and sensitivities, capable of operating under very high radiation flux. After more than two decades of extensive R and D carried by large number of groups worldwide, these detector technologies have reached high level of maturity. Nowadays, they are adapted as leading instruments for a growing number of applications in particle physics and in many other fields on basic and applied research. The growing interest in MPGD technologies and their mass-production capabilities naturally motivates further developments in the field. The state-of-the-art detector concepts and technologies have been introduced and their evolution, properties and current leading applications have been reviewed. Future potential applications as well as new technology challenges have been discussed

  19. Applicability of the local field concept for the electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilson, D.; Sjoelander, A.; Swierkowski, L.

    1990-01-01

    The static exchange-correlation hole surrounding an electron in an electron gas at metallic densities has been a highly successful and useful concept. The properties of the static exchange-correlation hole can be accurately reflected by the construction of a static local field. This field surrounds each electron and modifies it interaction with the other electrons in the system. An important limitation of the local field concept is that it does not handle the time-dependent relaxation of the surrounding electron cloud in a particularly transparent way. At metallic densities this is if no consequence since relaxation effects are only small corrections anyway, but at lower densities and in two-dimensional systems they become increasingly important. Approaches which attempt to address these problems are discussed. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs

  20. Semiconductor type n for applications in gas sensing film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerón Hurtado, Nathalie Marcela; Rodríguez Páez, Jorge Enrique

    2008-01-01

    Semiconductors are materials commonly used in the conformation of the active material in gas sensors, in this paper the synthesis routes are shown for obtaining raw material Sn02-Ti02 system, n-type semiconductor material, methods of characterization the same and the formation of thick films. The synthesis was performed using the methods of precipitation Controlled Polymeric Precursor, characterization of ceramic powders are made using techniques of differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric (DTA / TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM ) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM); Finally they settled in thick films by screen printing method and microstructurally characterized by Optical Microscopy (M0) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), besides this electrically characterized. The ceramic powders obtained are nanoscale high chemical purity and respond favorably formed films in the presence of oxygen and carbon monoxide.

  1. Application of Pyrolysis - Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry in Failure Analysis in the Automotive Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kusch, Peter (Dr.)

    2015-01-01

    This book chapter describes application examples of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and pyrolysis – gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in failure analysis for the identification of chemical materials like mineral oils and nitrile rubber gaskets. Furthermore, failure cases demanding identification of polymers/copolymers in fouling on the compressor wall of a car air conditioner and identification of fouling on the surface of a bearing race from the automotive industry are demonstr...

  2. Pulse current gas metal arc welding characteristics, control and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Prakriti Kumar

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a first-of-its-kind compilation on high deposition pulse current GMAW process. The nine chapters of this monograph may serve as a comprehensive knowledge tool to use advanced welding engineering in prospective applications. The contents of this book will prove useful to the shop floor welding engineer in handling this otherwise critical welding process with confidence. It will also serve to inspire researchers to think critically on more versatile applications of the unique nature of pulse current in GMAW process to develop cutting edge welding technology.

  3. Gas sensing application of nanocrystalline zinc oxide thin films ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ZnO is a material with a variety of potential applications such as electronics,7 photonics,8 acoustics,9 TCO layer in ..... change, as a response to surface chemical reactions with environmental gases. ..... Wang D, Chu X and Gong M 2007 Nanotechnology 18 185601. 79. Kim K M, Hyun-Mook Jeong, Hae-Ryong Kim, Kwon-Il ...

  4. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of corn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-15

    Nitrogen fertilizer plays an important role in corn cultivation in terms of both economic and environmental aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer positively affects corn yield and the soil organic carbon level, but it also has negative environmental effects through nitrogen-related emissions from soil (e.g., N20, NOx, NO3(-) leaching, etc.). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain are investigated via life cycle assessment. Ecoefficiency analysis is also used to determine an economically and environmentally optimal nitrogen application rate (NAR). The ecoefficiency index in this study is defined as the ratio of economic return due to nitrogen fertilizer to the greenhouse gas emissions of corn cultivation. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain decrease as NAR increases at a lower NAR until a minimum greenhouse gas emission level is reached because corn yield and soil organic carbon level increase with NAR. Further increasing NAR after a minimum greenhouse gas emission level raises greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Increased greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to nitrous oxide emissions from soil are much higher than reductions of greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to corn yield and changes in soil organic carbon levels at a higher NAR. Thus, there exists an environmentally optimal NAR in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The trends of the ecoefficiency index are similar to those of economic return to nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Therefore, an appropriate NAR could enhance profitability as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain.

  5. Effect of feed-gas humidity on nitrogen atmospheric-pressure plasma jet for biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Karl D; McLean, Robert J C; DeLeon, Gian; Melnikov, Vadim

    2016-11-14

    We investigate the effect of feed-gas humidity on the oxidative properties of an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet using nitrogen gas. Plasma jets operating at atmospheric pressure are finding uses in medical and biological settings for sterilization and other applications involving oxidative stress applied to organisms. Most jets use noble gases, but some researchers use less expensive nitrogen gas. The feed-gas water content (humidity) has been found to influence the performance of noble-gas plasma jets, but has not yet been systematically investigated for jets using nitrogen gas. Low-humidity and high-humidity feed gases were used in a nitrogen plasma jet, and the oxidation effect of the jet was measured quantitatively using a chemical dosimeter known as FBX (ferrous sulfate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange). The plasma jet using high humidity was found to have about ten times the oxidation effect of the low-humidity jet, as measured by comparison with the addition of measured amounts of hydrogen peroxide to the FBX dosimeter. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets using nitrogen as a feed gas have a greater oxidizing effect with a high level of humidity added to the feed gas.

  6. Application of radioisotopes in oil, gas and petrochemical industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castagnet, A.C.G.

    1976-01-01

    The fundaments and the methodology of the principal radioisotope techniques used in the construction and operation of oil-pipes are described. These techniques deal with gamma radiography of weids, scraper tracking, leak localization in underground pipes and interface detection. The practical use of the mathematical formulas deduced during the theoretical treatment of each method is illustrated through several examples of application. A proceeding for the design of an interface detector based on gamma ray attenuation is presented [pt

  7. Cogeneration from poultry industry wastes: Indirectly fired gas turbine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, M.; Cherubini, F.; De Pascale, A.; Peretto, A.; Elmegaard, B.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of wet biomass as waste from a lot of industrial processes, from agriculture and farms and the need to meet the environmental standards force to investigate all options in order to dispose this waste. The possible treatments usually strongly depend on biomass characteristics, namely water content, density, organic content, heating value, etc. In particular, some of these wastes can be burnt in special plants, using them as energy supply for different processes. The study carried out with this paper is concerned with the promising utilization of the organic wastes from an existing poultry industry as fuel. Different plant configurations have been considered in order to make use of the oil and of the meat and bone meal, which are the by-products of the chicken cooking process. In particular, the process plant can be integrated with an energy supply plant, which can consist of an indirectly fired gas turbine. Moreover, a steam turbine plant or a simplified system for the supply of the only technological steam are investigated and compared. Thermodynamic and economic analysis have been carried out for the examined configurations in order to outline the basic differences in terms of energy savings/production and of return of the investments

  8. Optimization of a radiative membrane for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Anthony; Boutami, Salim; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Benisty, Henri

    2014-05-01

    To engineer a cheap, portable and low-power optical gas sensor, incandescent sources are more suitable than expensive quantum cascade lasers and low-efficiency light-emitting diodes. Such sources of radiation have already been realized, using standard MEMS technology, consisting in free standing circular micro-hotplates. This paper deals with the design of such membranes in order to maximize their wall-plug efficiency. Specification constraints are taken into account, including available energy per measurement and maximum power delivered by the electrical supply source. The main drawback of these membranes is known to be the power lost through conduction to the substrate, thus not converted in (useful) radiated power. If the membrane temperature is capped by technological requirements, radiative flux can be favored by increasing the membrane radius. However, given a finite amount of energy, the larger the membrane and its heat capacity, the shorter the time it can be turned on. This clearly suggests that an efficiency optimum has to be found. Using simulations based on a spatio-temporal radial profile, we demonstrate how to optimally design such membrane systems, and provide an insight into the thermo-optical mechanisms governing this kind of devices, resulting in a nontrivial design with a substantial benefit over existing systems. To further improve the source, we also consider tailoring the membrane stack spectral emissivity to promote the infrared signal to be sensed as well as to maximize energy efficiency.

  9. Applications of laser-photoacoustic gas analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Stenberg, J. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The dynamic behavior of a circulating fluidized bed boiler (CFB) was studied using two high speed gas analysis systems during combustion of coal, peat and wood chips. Time resolved concentrations of some pollutants (SO{sub 2}, NO, NH{sub 3} and H{sub 2}S) were measured using laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LIPS). A zirkonia cell based probe (lambda-probe) was used in synchronization with the LIPS-probe to measure fluctuations between reducing and oxidizing conditions. The two probes were positioned in the same measurement volume on the center-line of the combustion chamber of the CFB. The purpose of the measurements was to investigate the behavior of the LIPS in a combustion chamber containing large amounts of other unburnt hydrocarbons. The correlations between oxidizing and reducing conditions and concentrations at three locations in the combustion chamber are presented. The best correlations were found in the upper part of the CFB combustion chamber. In some cases the correlations between reducing conditions and the LIPS signal were caused by hydrocarbons. Comparison of the average values obtained by the LIPS-system for NO and SO{sub 2} with the result from a sampling probe system connected to on-line analysers was also carried out. (author)

  10. Application of Arma Technique For Operation Stability of RSG-Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djudjuratisbela, Udju

    2000-01-01

    Application Of Arma Technique For Operation Stability Of RSG-Gas. Application of Fast Fourier Transport (FFT) method in the noise experiments data had been conducted to reactor kinetic parameter determination of RSG-Gas. Reactor stability that has closed relation to operation safety has not been measured yet. Noise analysis method and ARMA (Auto Regressive Moving Average) technique that has capability to identify mathematical model of the noise experimental data can be used for determination of kinetic/dynamic characteristic equation and its roots. From the roots of reactor characteristic equation, magnitude of natural frequency (fn), damping ratio (xi), damping frequency (fd), decay ratio (delta) and then reactor stability can be calculated

  11. Flooding Capability for River-based Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Curtis L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Prescott, Steven [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ryan, Emerald [Idaho State Univ., Pocatello, ID (United States); Calhoun, Donna [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Sampath, Ramprasad [Centroid Labs., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Anderson, S. Danielle [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Casteneda, Cody [Boise State Univ., ID (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report describes the initial investigation into modeling and simulation tools for application of riverine flooding representation as part of the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Pathway external hazards evaluations. The report provides examples of different flooding conditions and scenarios that could impact river and watershed systems. Both 2D and 3D modeling approaches are described.

  12. Aerosol retention in the flooded steam generator bundle during SGTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Terttaliisa; Dehbi, Abdel; Guentay, Salih

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → High retention of aerosol particles in a steam generator bundle flooded with water. → Increasing particle inertia, i.e., particle size and velocity, increases retention. → Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle flooded with water than in a dry bundle. → Much higher retention of aerosol particles in the steam generator bundle than in a bare pool. → Bare pool models have to be adapted to be applicable for flooded bundles. - Abstract: A steam generator tube rupture in a pressurized water reactor may cause accidental release of radioactive particles into the environment. Its specific significance is in its potential to bypass the containment thereby providing a direct pathway of the radioactivity from the primary circuit to the environment. Under certain severe accident scenarios, the steam generator bundle may be flooded with water. In addition, some severe accident management procedures are designed to minimize the release of radioactivity into the environment by flooding the defective steam generator secondary side with water when the steam generator has dried out. To extend our understanding of the particle retention phenomena in the flooded steam generator bundle, tests were conducted in the ARTIST and ARTIST II programs to determine the effect of different parameters on particle retention. The effects of particle type (spherical or agglomerate), particle size, gas mass flow rate, and the break submergence on particle retention were investigated. Results can be summarized as follows: increasing particle inertia was found to increase retention in the flooded bundle. Particle shape, i.e., agglomerate or spherical structure, did not affect retention significantly. Even with a very low submergence, 0.3 m above the tube break, significant aerosol retention took place underlining the importance of the jet-bundle interactions close to the tube break. Droplets were entrained from the water surface with

  13. Flooding and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    According to the Federal Emergency Management Agency, flooding is the nation's most common natural disaster. Some floods develop slowly during an extended period of rain or in a warming trend following a heavy snow. Flash floods can occur quickly, without any visible sign of rain. Catastrophic floods are associated with burst dams and levees,…

  14. An experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of hydrogen and methane from biomass as natural gas substitute in industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraussler, Michael; Schindler, Philipp; Hofbauer, Hermann

    2017-08-01

    This work presents an experimental approach aiming the production of a gas mixture composed of H 2 and CH 4 , which should serve as natural gas substitute in industrial applications. Therefore, a lab-scale process chain employing a water gas shift unit, scrubbing units, and a pressure swing adsorption unit was operated with tar-rich product gas extracted from a commercial dual fluidized bed biomass steam gasification plant. A gas mixture with a volumetric fraction of about 80% H 2 and 19% CH 4 and with minor fractions of CO and CO 2 was produced by employing carbon molecular sieve as adsorbent. Moreover, the produced gas mixture had a lower heating value of about 15.5MJ·m -3 and a lower Wobbe index of about 43.4MJ·m -3 , which is similar to the typical Wobbe index of natural gas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Life prediction of advanced materials for gas turbine application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamrik, S.Y.; Ray, A.; Koss, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Most of the studies on the low cycle fatigue life prediction have been reported under isothermal conditions where the deformation of the material is strain dependent. In the development of gas turbines, components such as blades and vanes are exposed to temperature variations in addition to strain cycling. As a result, the deformation process becomes temperature and strain dependent. Therefore, the life of the component becomes sensitive to temperature-strain cycling which produces a process known as {open_quotes}thermomechanical fatigue, or TMF{close_quotes}. The TMF fatigue failure phenomenon has been modeled using conventional fatigue life prediction methods, which are not sufficiently accurate to quantitatively establish an allowable design procedure. To add to the complexity of TMF life prediction, blade and vane substrates are normally coated with aluminide, overlay or thermal barrier type coatings (TBC) where the durability of the component is dominated by the coating/substrate constitutive response and by the fatigue behavior of the coating. A number of issues arise from TMF depending on the type of temperature/strain phase cycle: (1) time-dependent inelastic behavior can significantly affect the stress response. For example, creep relaxation during a tensile or compressive loading at elevated temperatures leads to a progressive increase in the mean stress level under cyclic loading. (2) the mismatch in elastic and thermal expansion properties between the coating and the substrate can lead to significant deviations in the coating stress levels due to changes in the elastic modulii. (3) the {open_quotes}dry{close_quotes} corrosion resistance coatings applied to the substrate may act as primary crack initiation sites. Crack initiation in the coating is a function of the coating composition, its mechanical properties, creep relaxation behavior, thermal strain range and the strain/temperature phase relationship.

  16. Bayesian flood forecasting methods: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shasha; Coulibaly, Paulin

    2017-08-01

    Over the past few decades, floods have been seen as one of the most common and largely distributed natural disasters in the world. If floods could be accurately forecasted in advance, then their negative impacts could be greatly minimized. It is widely recognized that quantification and reduction of uncertainty associated with the hydrologic forecast is of great importance for flood estimation and rational decision making. Bayesian forecasting system (BFS) offers an ideal theoretic framework for uncertainty quantification that can be developed for probabilistic flood forecasting via any deterministic hydrologic model. It provides suitable theoretical structure, empirically validated models and reasonable analytic-numerical computation method, and can be developed into various Bayesian forecasting approaches. This paper presents a comprehensive review on Bayesian forecasting approaches applied in flood forecasting from 1999 till now. The review starts with an overview of fundamentals of BFS and recent advances in BFS, followed with BFS application in river stage forecasting and real-time flood forecasting, then move to a critical analysis by evaluating advantages and limitations of Bayesian forecasting methods and other predictive uncertainty assessment approaches in flood forecasting, and finally discusses the future research direction in Bayesian flood forecasting. Results show that the Bayesian flood forecasting approach is an effective and advanced way for flood estimation, it considers all sources of uncertainties and produces a predictive distribution of the river stage, river discharge or runoff, thus gives more accurate and reliable flood forecasts. Some emerging Bayesian forecasting methods (e.g. ensemble Bayesian forecasting system, Bayesian multi-model combination) were shown to overcome limitations of single model or fixed model weight and effectively reduce predictive uncertainty. In recent years, various Bayesian flood forecasting approaches have been

  17. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor: reformer application study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This Application Study evaluates the HTGR-R with a core outlet temperature of 850 0 C as a near-term Lead Project and as a vehicle to long-term HTGR Program objectives. The scope of this effort included evaluation of the HTGR-R technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-R markets, assessment of the economics of commercial HTGR-R plants, and the evaluation of the program scope and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-R technology through the completion of the Lead Project. In order to properly assess the potential of the HTGR-R and the suitability of the HTGR-R as a Lead Project, additional work must be performed before a final judgment is rendered. Design trade-off studies and alternative applications must be investigated to determine if a commercial potential exists for the HTGR-R at 850 0 C. If commercial incentives are only identified for the HTGR-R with core outlet temperatures greater than 850 0 C, the design and development program duration and cost and the demonstration path for the HTGR-R must be reassessed

  18. Feasibility study on application of volume acid fracturing technology to tight gas carbonate reservoir development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyin Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How to effectively develop tight-gas carbonate reservoir and achieve high recovery is always a problem for the oil and gas industry. To solve this problem, domestic petroleum engineers use the combination of the successful experiences of North American shale gas pools development by stimulated reservoir volume (SRV fracturing with the research achievements of Chinese tight gas development by acid fracturing to propose volume acid fracturing technology for fractured tight-gas carbonate reservoir, which has achieved a good stimulation effect in the pilot tests. To determine what reservoir conditions are suitable to carry out volume acid fracturing, this paper firstly introduces volume acid fracturing technology by giving the stimulation mechanism and technical ideas, and initially analyzes the feasibility by the comparison of reservoir characteristics of shale gas with tight-gas carbonate. Then, this paper analyzes the validity and limitation of the volume acid fracturing technology via the analyses of control conditions for volume acid fracturing in reservoir fracturing performance, natural fracture, horizontal principal stress difference, orientation of in-situ stress and natural fracture, and gives the solution for the limitation. The study results show that the volume acid fracturing process can be used to greatly improve the flow environment of tight-gas carbonate reservoir and increase production; the incremental or stimulation response is closely related with reservoir fracturing performance, the degree of development of natural fracture, the small intersection angle between hydraulic fracture and natural fracture, the large horizontal principal stress difference is easy to form a narrow fracture zone, and it is disadvantageous to create fracture network, but the degradable fiber diversion technology may largely weaken the disadvantage. The practices indicate that the application of volume acid fracturing process to the tight-gas carbonate

  19. Moderate temperature gas purification system: Application to high calorific coal-derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, M.; Shirai, H.; Nunokawa, M. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2008-01-15

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high-temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high-temperature (above 450{sup o}C) gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition. We suggest moderate temperature (around 300{sup o}C) operation of the gas purification system to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. Because the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal in the moderate temperature gas purification system, we evaluated the chemical removal processes; performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds was experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium aluminate sorbent had potential performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process with zinc ferrite sorbent was also applicable to the temperature range, though the reaction kinetics of the sorbent is essential to be approved.

  20. Moderate temperature gas purification system: application to high calorific coal derived fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Kobayashi; H. Shirai; M. Nunokawa [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Kanagawa (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Simultaneous removal of dust, alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, halides and sulfur compounds is required to enlarge application of coal-derived gas to the high temperature fuel cells and the fuel synthesis through chemical processing. Because high calorific fuel gas, such as oxygen-blown coal gas, has high carbon monoxide content, high temperature gas purification system is always subjected to the carbon deposition and slippage of contaminant of high vapor pressure. It was suggested that moderate temperature operation of the gas purification system is applied to avoid the harmful disproportionation reaction and efficient removal of the various contaminants. To establish the moderate temperature gas purification system, the chemical-removal processes where the reaction rate is predominant to the performance of contaminant removal should be evaluated. Performance of the removal processes for halides and sulfur compounds were experimentally evaluated. The halide removal process with sodium based sorbent had potential good performance at around 300{sup o}C. The sulfur removal process was also applicable to the temperature range, although the improvement of the sulfidation reaction rate is considered to be essential. 11 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Gold Nanoparticle Chemiresistor Arrays for Micro-Gas Chromatography Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covington, Elizabeth Laura

    Thiolate-monolayer-protected gold nanoparticle (MPN) chemiresistors were studied as the sensing devices for micro-gas chromatography (microGC) systems. Because transport through chemiresistors is dominated by tunneling, they are highly sensitive. In order to improve their limit of detection, their fundamental noise was studied. Chemiresistors exhibit 1/f type noise where noise scales inversely with frequency. Chemiresistor noise was found to scale inversely with MPN film thickness. We lowered the noise prefactor of a 50x60 microm2 chemiresistor by coating a thick rather than monolayer MPN film. Electron beam induced crosslinking (EBIX) of the MPN film slightly reduced chemiresistor noise. A technique for patterning chemiresistor arrays with MPN films using EBIX was developed, and an array with four distinct MPNs was fabricated in an area ˜600 microm 2. This is the smallest chemiresistor array reported to date. Chemiresistors were exposed to vapors and provided differential sensitivities comparable to those from larger uncrosslinked chemiresistors. Chemiresistors were studied to assess their long term stability. Chemiresistors exhibited decreases in resistance over time that is likely caused by loss of MPN ligands. Temperature dependent current-voltage measurements verified the resistance change was not due to changes in the size of the MPN core. While resistance could change by orders of magnitude, vapor sensitivity did not show significant changes. Heating increased the change in resistance, but chemiresistors remained responsive after being held at 80°C for a cumulative 400 hours. It was unknown whether tunneling in the MPN film is through the highest unoccupied molecular orbital (HOMO) or lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO). A new technique was explored to distinguish tunneling through the HOMO and LUMO by measuring the induced thermoelectric voltage caused by a temperature difference across the MPN film. For integration into a microGC system, we

  2. Application of gas shielded arc welding and submerged arc welding for fabrication of nuclear reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehani, M.L.; Rodrigues, W.D.

    1976-01-01

    The remarkable progress made in the development of knowhow and expertise in the manufacture of equipment for nuclear power plants in India is outlined. Some of the specific advances made in the application of higher efficiency weld processes for fabrication of nuclear reactor vessels and the higher level of quality attained are discussed in detail. Modifications and developments in submerged arc, gas tungsten arc and gas metal arc processes for welding of Calandria which have been a highly challenging and rewarding experience are discussed. Future scope for making the gas metal arc process more economical by using various gas-mixes like Agron + Oxygen, Argon + Carbon Dioxide, Argon + Nitrogen (for Copper Alloys) etc., in various proportions are outlined. Quality and dimensional control exercised in these jobs of high precision are highlighted. (K.B.)

  3. Superior selectivity and sensitivity of blue phosphorus nanotubes in gas sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Montes Muñoz, Enrique

    2017-05-23

    On the basis of first principles calculations, we study the adsorption of CO, CO2, NH3, NO, and NO2 molecules on armchair and zigzag blue phosphorus nanotubes. The nanotubes are found to surpass the gas sensing performance of other one-dimensional materials, in particular Si nanowires and carbon nanotubes, and two-dimensional materials, in particular graphene, phosphorene, and MoS2. Investigation of the energetics of the gas adsorption and induced charge transfers indicates that blue phosphorus nanotubes are highly sensitive to N-based molecules, in particular NO2, due to covalent bonding. The current–voltage characteristics of nanotubes connected to Au electrodes are derived by the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism and used to quantitatively evaluate the change in resistivity upon gas adsorption. The observed selectivity and sensitivity properties make blue phosphorus nanotubes superior gas sensors for a wide range of applications.

  4. High Temperature Metallic Seal Development For Aero Propulsion and Gas Turbine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Greg; Datta, Amit

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on metallic high temperature static seal development at NASA for gas turbine applications is shown. The topics include: 1) High Temperature Static Seal Development; 2) Program Review; 3) Phase IV Innovative Seal with Blade Alloy Spring; 4) Spring Design; 5) Phase IV: Innovative Seal with Blade Alloy Spring; 6) PHase IV: Testing Results; 7) Seal Seating Load; 8) Spring Seal Manufacturing; and 9) Other Applications for HIgh Temperature Spring Design

  5. Gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-01

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  6. Applications of noble gas radiation detectors to counter-terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanier, Peter E.; Forman, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Radiation detectors are essential tools in the detection, analysis and disposition of potential terrorist devices containing hazardous radioactive and/or fissionable materials. For applications where stand-off distance and source shielding are limiting factors, large detectors have advantages over small ones. The ability to distinguish between Special Nuclear Materials and false-positive signals from natural or man-made benign sources is also important. Ionization chambers containing compressed noble gases, notably xenon and helium-3, can be scaled up to very large sizes, improving the solid angle for acceptance of radiation from a distant source. Gamma spectrometers using Xe have a factor of three better energy resolution than NaI scintillators, allowing better discrimination between radioisotopes. Xenon detectors can be constructed so as to have extremely low leakage currents, enabling them to operate for long periods of time on batteries or solar cells. They are not sensitive to fluctuations in ambient temperature, and are therefore suitable for deployment in outdoor locations. Position-sensitive 3He chambers have been built as large as 3000 cm2, and with spatial resolution of less than 1 mm. Combined with coded apertures made of cadmium, they can be used to create images of thermal neutron sources. The natural background of spallation neutrons from cosmic rays generates a very low count rate, so this instrument could be quite effective at identifying a man-made source, such as a spontaneous fission source (Pu) in contact with a moderator (high explosive)

  7. 77 FR 43277 - Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... Pipeline Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on July 6, Tennessee Gas Pipeline Company, L.L.C. (Tennessee), 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed in the above referenced... Company, L.L.C. 1001 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, or telephone (713) 420- 3299, or facsimile...

  8. 18 CFR 380.12 - Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... effects of those hazards on the facility, and methods proposed to reduce the effects or risks. Resource... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Environmental reports... THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 380.12 Environmental reports for Natural Gas Act applications...

  9. Status of the Ford program to evaluate ceramics for stator applications in automotive gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trela, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper reviews the progress of the major technical tasks of the DOE/NASA/Ford program Evaluation of Ceramics for Stator Applications in Automotive Gas Turbine Engines: reliability prediction, stator fabrication, material characterization, and stator evaluation. A fast fracture reliability model was prepared for a one-piece ceramic stator. Periodic inspection results are presented.

  10. Development and industrial application of catalyzer for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis of Claus tail gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honggang Chang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the implementation of more strict national environmental protection laws, energy conservation, emission reduction and clean production will present higher requirements for sulfur recovery tail gas processing techniques and catalyzers. As for Claus tail gas, conventional hydrogenation catalyzers are gradually being replaced by low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers. This paper concentrates on the development of technologies for low-temperature hydrogenation hydrolysis catalyzers, preparation of such catalyzers and their industrial application. In view of the specific features of SO2 hydrogenation and organic sulfur hydrolysis during low-temperature hydrogenation, a new technical process involving joint application of hydrogenation catalyzers and hydrolysis catalyzers was proposed. In addition, low-temperature hydrogenation catalyzers and low-temperature hydrolysis catalyzers suitable for low-temperature conditions were developed. Joint application of these two kinds of catalyzers may reduce the inlet temperatures in the conventional hydrogenation reactors from 280 °C to 220 °C, at the same time, hydrogenation conversion rates of SO2 can be enhanced to over 99%. To further accelerate the hydrolysis rate of organic sulfur, the catalyzers for hydrolysis of low-temperature organic sulfur were developed. In lab tests, the volume ratio of the total sulfur content in tail gas can be as low as 131 × 10−6 when these two kinds of catalyzers were used in a proportion of 5:5 in volumes. Industrial application of these catalyzers was implemented in 17 sulfur recovery tail gas processing facilities of 15 companies. As a result, Sinopec Jinling Petrochemical Company had outstanding application performances with a tail gas discharging rate lower than 77.9 mg/m3 and a total sulfur recovery of 99.97%.

  11. Emergence of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry: Emphasis on the application of silica nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muili Feyisitan Fakoya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology in the oil and gas industry is on the rise as evidenced by the number of researches undertaken in the past few years. The quest to develop more game-changing technologies that can address the challenges currently facing the industry has spurred this growth. Several nanoparticles, of different sizes and at different concentrations, have been used in many investigations.In this work, the scope of the study covered the application of nanotechnology in drilling and hydraulic fracturing fluids, oilwell cementing, enhanced oil recovery (which includes transport study, and foam and emulsion stability, corrosion inhibition, logging operations, formation fines control during production, heavy oil viscosity reduction, hydrocarbon detection, methane release from gas hydrates, and drag reduction in porous media. The observed challenges associated with the use of nanoparticles are their stability in a liquid medium and transportability in reservoir rocks. The addition of viscosifier was implemented by researchers to ensure stability, and also, surface-treated nanoparticles have been used to facilitate stability and transportability.For the purpose of achieving better performance or new application, studies on synergistic effects are suggested for investigation in future nanotechnology research. The resulting technology from the synergistic studies may reinforce the current and future nanotechnology applications in the oil and gas industry, especially for high pressure and high temperature (HPHT applications. To date, majority of the oil and gas industry nanotechnology publications are reports of laboratory experimental work; therefore, more field trials are recommended for further advancement of nanotechnology in this industry. Usually, nanoparticles are expensive; so, it will be cost beneficial to use the lowest nanoparticles concentration possible while still achieving an acceptable level of a desired performance. Hence

  12. Reconstruction of the 1945 Wieringermeer Flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoes, O. A. C.; Hut, R. W.; van de Giesen, N. C.; Boomgaard, M.

    2013-03-01

    The present state-of-the-art in flood risk assessment focuses on breach models, flood propagation models, and economic modelling of flood damage. However, models need to be validated with real data to avoid erroneous conclusions. Such reference data can either be historic data, or can be obtained from controlled experiments. The inundation of the Wieringermeer polder in the Netherlands in April 1945 is one of the few examples for which sufficient historical information is available. The objective of this article is to compare the flood simulation with flood data from 1945. The context, the breach growth process and the flood propagation are explained. Key findings for current flood risk management addresses the importance of the drainage canal network during the inundation of a polder, and the uncertainty that follows from not knowing the breach growth parameters. This case study shows that historical floods provide valuable data for the validation of models and reveal lessons that are applicable in current day flood risk management.

  13. Flood Response System—A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Flood Response System (FRS is a network-enabled solution developed using open-source software. The system has query based flood damage assessment modules with outputs in the form of spatial maps and statistical databases. FRS effectively facilitates the management of post-disaster activities caused due to flood, like displaying spatial maps of area affected, inundated roads, etc., and maintains a steady flow of information at all levels with different access rights depending upon the criticality of the information. It is designed to facilitate users in managing information related to flooding during critical flood seasons and analyzing the extent of damage. The inputs to FRS are provided using two components: (1 a semi-automated application developed indigenously, to delineate inundated areas for Near-Real Time Flood Monitoring using Active Microwave Remote Sensing data and (2 a two-dimensional (2D hydrodynamic river model generated outputs for water depth and velocity in flooded areas for an embankment breach scenario. The 2D Hydrodynamic model, CCHE2D (Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering Two-Dimensional model, was used to simulate an area of 600 km2 in the flood-prone zone of the Brahmaputra basin. The resultant inundated area from the model was found to be 85% accurate when validated with post-flood optical satellite data.

  14. Flood risk control of dams and dykes in middle reach of Huaihe River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen-kun MA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three stochastic mathematical models for calculation of the reservoir flood regulation process, river course flood release, and flood risk rate under flood control were established based on the theory of stochastic differential equations and features of flood control systems in the middle reach of the Huaihe River from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate, comprehensively considering uncertain factors of hydrology, hydraulics, and engineering control. They were used to calculate the flood risk rate with flood regulation of five key reservoirs, including the Meishan, Xianghongdian, Nianyushan, Mozitan, and Foziling reservoirs in the middle reach of the Huaihe River under different flood frequencies, the flood risk rate with river course flood release under design and check floods for the trunk of the Huaihe River in conjunction with relevant flood storage areas, and the flood risk rate with operation of the Linhuaigang Project under design and check floods. The calculated results show that (1 the five reservoirs can withstand design floods, but the Xianghongdian and Foziling reservoirs will suffer overtopping accidents under check floods; (2 considering the service of flood storage areas under the design flood conditions of the Huaihe River, the mean flood risk rate with flood regulation of dykes and dams from Xixian to the Bengbu floodgate is about 0.2, and the trunk of the Huaihe River can generally withstand design floods; and (3 under a check flood with the flood return period of 1 000 years, the risk rate of overtopping accidents of the Linhuaigang Project is not larger than 0.15, indicating that it has a high flood regulation capacity. Through regulation and application of the flood control system of the Linhuigang Project, the Huaihe River Basin can withstand large floods, and the safety of the protected area can be ensured.

  15. Application of CFRP with High Hydrogen Gas Barrier Characteristics to Fuel Tanks of Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Koichi; Yamamoto, Yuta; Okuyama, Keiichi; Ebina, Takeo

    In the future, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRPs) with high hydrogen gas barrier performance will find wide applications in all industrial hydrogen tanks that aim at weight reduction; the use of such materials will be preferred to the use of conventional metallic materials such as stainless steel or aluminum. The hydrogen gas barrier performance of CFRP will become an important issue with the introduction of hydrogen-fuel aircraft. It will also play an important role in realizing fully reusable space transportation system that will have high specific tensile CFRP structures. Such materials are also required for the manufacture of high-pressure hydrogen gas vessels for use in the fuel cell systems of automobiles. This paper introduces a new composite concept that can be used to realize CFRPs with high hydrogen gas barrier performance for applications in the cryogenic tanks of fully reusable space transportation system by the incorporation of a nonmetallic crystal layer, which is actually a dense and highly oriented clay crystal laminate. The preliminary test results show that the hydrogen gas barrier characteristics of this material after cryogenic heat shocks and cyclic loads are still better than those of other polymer materials by approximately two orders of magnitude.

  16. Zinc oxide hollow micro spheres and nano rods: Synthesis and applications in gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, Saba; Janjua, Muhammad Ramzan Saeed Ashraf; Ahmad, Tauqeer; Mehmood, Tahir; Li, Songnan; Jing, Xiaoyan

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide nano rods and micro hollow spheres are successfully fabricated by adopting a simple solvo-thermal approach without employing any surfactant/template by keeping heating time as variable. The prepared products are characterized by using different instruments such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In order to investigate the morphological dependence on the reaction time, analogous experiments with various reaction times are carried out. Depending upon heating time, different morphological forms have been identified such as hollow microsphere (4 μm to 5 μm) and nano rods with an average diameter of approximately 100 nm. The fabricated materials are also tested for ethanol gas sensor applications and zinc oxide hollow microsphere proven to be an efficient gas sensing materials. Nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement was performed to understand better performance of zinc oxide micro hollow spheres as effective ethanol gas sensing material. - Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract is represented by zinc oxide sphere (prepared by simple solvothermal approach), its XRD pattern(characterization) and finally its application in gas sensing. - Highlights: • Zinc oxide spheres were prepared by using solvothermal method. • Detailed description of the morphology of microspheres assembled by nano rods. • Formation mechanism of zinc oxide spheres assembled by nano rods. • Zinc oxide spheres and nano rods displayed very good gas sensing ability

  17. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B. [Shiraz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neri, G., E-mail: gneri@unime.it [University of Messina, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core–shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core–shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  18. Sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.; Teo, T. [Caterpillar China Investment Co., Beijing (China); Tnay, C.H. [Westrac Inc., Beijing (China)

    2008-07-01

    According to the World Coal Institute, coal provides 25 per cent of worldwide primary energy needs and generates 40 per cent of the world's electricity. China produces the largest amount of hard coal. The anthropogenic release of methane (CH{sub 4}) into the environment is a byproduct of the coal mining process. The global warming potential of this methane continues to draw attention around the world. In particular, China's government has recognized the need for environmental responsibility in the pursuit of greater power production. The Kyoto Protocol requires developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and targets must be met within a five-year time frame between 2008 and 2012. Sequestering coal mine methane (CMM) as an alternative fuel for reciprocating gas engine generator sets is a mature and proven technology for greenhouse gas mitigation. Prior to commissioning CMM-fueled power systems, the methane gas composition must be evaluated. An integrated systems approach can then be used to develop a CMM-fueled power project. This paper discussed the sustainable application of reciprocating gas engines operating on coal mine methane. It discussed the Kyoto Protocol, clean development mechanism, and CMM as compared to other fuel sources. It was concluded that there is considerable opportunity for growth in the Asia-Pacific region for electric power applications using CMM. 4 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Individual hollow and mesoporous aero-graphitic microtube based devices for gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupan, Oleg; Postica, Vasile; Marx, Janik; Mecklenburg, Matthias; Mishra, Yogendra K.; Schulte, Karl; Fiedler, Bodo; Adelung, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    In this work, individual hollow and mesoporous graphitic microtubes were integrated into electronic devices using a FIB/SEM system and were investigated as gas and vapor sensors by applying different bias voltages (in the range of 10 mV-1 V). By increasing the bias voltage, a slight current enhancement is observed, which is mainly attributed to the self-heating effect. A different behavior of ammonia NH3 vapor sensing by increasing the applied bias voltage for hollow and mesoporous microtubes with diameters down to 300 nm is reported. In the case of the hollow microtube, an increase in the response was observed, while a reverse effect has been noticed for the mesoporous microtube. It might be explained on the basis of the higher specific surface area (SSA) of the mesoporous microtube compared to the hollow one. Thus, at room temperature when the surface chemical reaction rate (k) prevails on the gas diffusion rate (DK) the structures with a larger SSA possess a higher response. By increasing the bias voltage, i.e., the overall temperature of the structure, DK becomes a limiting step in the gas response. Therefore, at higher bias voltages the larger pores will facilitate an enhanced gas diffusion, i.e., a higher gas response. The present study demonstrates the importance of the material porosity towards gas sensing applications.

  20. Recent developments and applications of fast position-sensitive gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauli, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    The introduction, 30 years ago, of the multiwire proportional chamber initiated a very active and fruitful period of development of fast gas detectors. Performing position-sensitive devices have been perfected, for the needs of elementary particle physics and for applications in medical diagnostics, biology, material analysis. The high rate performance of wire counters, limited by positive ions accumulation, was largely improved with the introduction of the micro-strip gas chamber, capable of achieving position accuracies of few tens of microns at radiation fluxes exceeding 1 MHz/mm 2 . The micro-strip chamber properties have been extensively studied in view of large scale use in high luminosity experiments; some interesting applications in other fields will be described here. Originally conceived as a gain booster to solve reliability problems met with micro-strips, the gas electron multiplier was invented about a year and a half ago. Progress made with high gain models is leading to a new concept in gas detectors, powerful yet cheap and reliable. Possible developments and applications will be discussed: large area position-sensitive photo detectors and X-ray imagers, including devices with non-planar geometry suited to spectrometers and crystal diffraction studies

  1. Application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model gas mixtures using electronic nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulczyński, Bartosz; Gębicki, Jacek; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the possibility of application of fuzzy logic to determine the odour intensity of model, ternary gas mixtures (α-pinene, toluene and triethylamine) using electronic nose prototype. The results obtained using fuzzy logic algorithms were compared with the values obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) model and sensory analysis. As the results of the studies, it was found the electronic nose prototype along with the fuzzy logic pattern recognition system can be successfully used to estimate the odour intensity of tested gas mixtures. The correctness of the results obtained using fuzzy logic was equal to 68%.

  2. Preparation and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films for their application as gas sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaishnav, V.S.; Patel, P.D.; Patel, N.G.

    2005-01-01

    The structural and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (In 2 O 3 /SnO 2 ) thin films grown using direct evaporation technique on various substrates at different temperatures were studied. The effect of annealing, of films with different weight percent concentration of SnO 2 in In 2 O 3 and of different thickness on the structural and electrical properties were studied and optimized for use as gas sensor. The stability of the films against time and temperature variations was studied. The effect of the catalytic layers on the sensor microstructure and its performance towards the gas sensing application was observed

  3. Cogeneration applications of biomass gasifier/gas turbine technologies in the cane sugar and alcohol industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogden, J.M.; Williams, R.H.; Fulmer, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) technologies for cogeneration or stand-alone power applications hold forth the promise of being able to produce electricity at lower cost in many instances than most alternatives, including large central-station, coal-fired, steam-electric power plants with fuel gas desulphurization, nuclear power plants, and hydroelectricity power plants. BIG/GT technologies offer environmental benefits as well, including the potential for zero net carbon dioxide emissions, if the biomass feedstock is grown renewably. (author). 77 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs

  4. Porous Metal Filters for Gas and Liquid Applications in the Nuclear Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth, Rubow

    2009-01-01

    Sintered metal media are ideally suited for use in the most demanding industrial applications where long life is required and often other media are not cost-effective solution. As examples, filtration technology utilizing sintered metal media provides excellent performance in numerous liquid/solids and gas/solid separation applications found in the handling and processing of fluids containing radioactive materials. Many types of filter media, ranging from single use (disposable) to semi-permanent, are utilized today for separation of particulate matter. However, semi-permanent media are usually cleanable, either on or off-line, and are intended for sustainable, often multi-year, operating life in harsh environments. These harsh environments, which may involve corrosive fluids, high temperatures, high pressures or pressure spikes, often requiring continuous filtration service, are ideally suited for all-metal filtration systems employing semi-permanent sintered metal media. Sintered metal media, usually fabricated into tubular metal elements, have proven high particle removal efficiency and demonstrated reliability that uniquely afford excellent performance for demanding liquid/solids and gas/solids separation processes. The filter element and, in certain cases, the entire filter are weldable; therefore, the inherent sealing eliminates the need for potentially problematic seals. These media provide a positive barrier to ensure particulate removal to protect downstream equipment, for product separation, and/or to meet health, safety and environmental regulations. Typical applications for sintered metal media include: 1) gas and liquid filter systems used in various nuclear and radioactive waste processing applications, 2) an all-metal High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter developed under Department of Energy (DOE) funding as an alternative to traditional HEPA filters fabricated with conventional glass fibers used on High Level Waste (HLW) tank ventilation

  5. Application of ESP for gas cleaning in cement industry--with reference to India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, J D

    2001-02-16

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESP) are used for gas cleaning in almost every section of cement manufacture. Application of ESP is studied, keeping in view Indian conditions. The characterisation of dust emissions has been done for different units, such as rotary kiln and raw mill, alkali by-pass, clinker cooler, cement and coal mill, in terms of exit gas quantity, temperature, dew point, dust content and particle size. It is seen that all these characteristics have a wide range of variance. The ESP system must effectively deal with these variations. The fundamental analytical expression governing the performance of ESP, i.e. the Deutsch equation, and that for particle migration velocity, were analysed to predict the effect of major operating parameters, namely particle size, temperature and applied voltage. Whereas the migration velocity (and the efficiency) varies directly with the particle size, it is proportional to the square and square root of applied voltage and absolute temperature of the gas, respectively. The increase in efficiency due to temperature is not seen in dc based ESP, perhaps due to more pronounced negative effect on the applied voltage due to the increase in dust resistivity at higher temperatures. The effect of gas and dust characteristics on the collection efficiency of ESP, as seen in the industrial practice, is summarised. Some main process and design improvements effectively dealing with the problem of gas and dust characteristics have been discussed. These are gas conditioning, pulse energization, ESP-fabric filter (FF) combination, improved horizontal flow as well as open top ESP.Generally, gas conditioning entails higher operating and maintenance costs. Pulse energization allows the use of hot gas, besides reducing the dust emission and power consumption. The improved horizontal flow ESP has been successfully used in coal dust cleaning. The open top or vertical flow ESP has a limitation on collection efficiency as it provides for only

  6. After the flood is before the next flood - post event review of the Central European Floods of June 2013. Insights, recommendations and next steps for future flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szoenyi, Michael; Mechler, Reinhard; McCallum, Ian

    2015-04-01

    perception and understanding of risk in the population. • Residual risk and the levee shadow effect - why the population "felt safe." • What is the overload case and how to implement it in flood protection systems? • Decision-making for the future under uncertainty - how to design to acceptable flood protection levels if we haven't seen yet what's physically possible. 3. How to protect - practical examples Finally, we outline practical examples for reducing the loss burden and risk over time. • "Flood protection hierarchy" - from location choice under a hazard perspective to mobile flood protection. • Risk-based approach and identification of critical infrastructure. • Integrated flood risk management in theory and practical application. • Role of insurance.

  7. Flood Damage Assessment in Pearl River Delta Rural Area Application in Huashan Town, Huadu District,Guanghzou during the 2017 5.7 Heavy Rain Storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The Pearl River Delta (PRD) in China, the summer rain storm occurs frequently, the flood damage is very serious. Damage assessment is the basis of scientific decision-making in disaster mitigation. All approaches of flood damage analysis contain uncertainties due to the inaccuracies and generalisations used, the lack of data aggravates this problem, making methods very rough. This study presents a detailed flood damage assessment framework in Pearl River Delta rural area, using 2017 "5.7" heavy rain storm event to simulate the process and estimate the flood loss in resident building and property, agriculture production. The framework integrates four modules,1) utilize the remote sensing and statistical yearbook and so on to construct the disaster bearing bodies GIS database; 2) using hydraulics model to simulate the flood extent and depth spatial distribution;3)through field investigation to obtain the flood loss data for all kinds of hazard-affected body, using statistical analysis method to get the damage curves;4)Integrate flood scenarios, disaster bearing bodies GIS database and damage curves to calculate the flood loss estimation value. Using this methodology, in the 2017 "5.7" heavy rain storm event, Huashan Town flood damage loss is underestimate compared with the government report, because of not considering the damage of water conservancy facilities. But the disaster loss value on the spatial distribution is consistent with actual situation. In terms of aggregated values in the whole town, the model is capable of obtaining figures that are within the same order of magnitude. This study produce a flood damage assessment framework taking into account the regional characteristics of PRD rural area, provide a template for future practice. This study only considers the current impacts, the framework should be improved by taking into account socio-economic and climatic changes, as well as implementing adaptation measures to be applied to assess the potential

  8. Multi-period natural gas market modeling Applications, stochastic extensions and solution approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egging, Rudolf Gerardus

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. 1 The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  9. Multi-Period Natural Gas Market Modeling. Applications, Stochastic Extensions and Solution Approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, R.G.

    2010-11-01

    This dissertation develops deterministic and stochastic multi-period mixed complementarity problems (MCP) for the global natural gas market, as well as solution approaches for large-scale stochastic MCP. The deterministic model is unique in the combination of the level of detail of the actors in the natural gas markets and the transport options, the detailed regional and global coverage, the multi-period approach with endogenous capacity expansions for transportation and storage infrastructure, the seasonal variation in demand and the representation of market power according to Nash-Cournot theory. The model is applied to several scenarios for the natural gas market that cover the formation of a cartel by the members of the Gas Exporting Countries Forum, a low availability of unconventional gas in the United States, and cost reductions in long-distance gas transportation. The results provide insights in how different regions are affected by various developments, in terms of production, consumption, traded volumes, prices and profits of market participants. The stochastic MCP is developed and applied to a global natural gas market problem with four scenarios for a time horizon until 2050 with nineteen regions and containing 78,768 variables. The scenarios vary in the possibility of a gas market cartel formation and varying depletion rates of gas reserves in the major gas importing regions. Outcomes for hedging decisions of market participants show some significant shifts in the timing and location of infrastructure investments, thereby affecting local market situations. A first application of Benders decomposition (BD) is presented to solve a large-scale stochastic MCP for the global gas market with many hundreds of first-stage capacity expansion variables and market players exerting various levels of market power. The largest problem solved successfully using BD contained 47,373 variables of which 763 first-stage variables, however using BD did not result in

  10. Assessing Flood Risk Under Sea Level Rise and Extreme Sea Levels Scenarios: Application to the Ebro Delta (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayol, J. M.; Marcos, M.

    2018-02-01

    This study presents a novel methodology to estimate the impact of local sea level rise and extreme surges and waves in coastal areas under climate change scenarios. The methodology is applied to the Ebro Delta, a valuable and vulnerable low-lying wetland located in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Projections of local sea level accounting for all contributions to mean sea level changes, including thermal expansion, dynamic changes, fresh water addition and glacial isostatic adjustment, have been obtained from regionalized sea level projections during the 21st century. Particular attention has been paid to the uncertainties, which have been derived from the spread of the multi-model ensemble combined with seasonal/inter-annual sea level variability from local tide gauge observations. Besides vertical land movements have also been integrated to estimate local relative sea level rise. On the other hand, regional projections over the Mediterranean basin of storm surges and wind-waves have been used to evaluate changes in extreme events. The compound effects of surges and extreme waves have been quantified using their joint probability distributions. Finally, offshore sea level projections from extreme events superimposed to mean sea level have been propagated onto a high resolution digital elevation model of the study region in order to construct flood hazards maps for mid and end of the 21st century and under two different climate change scenarios. The effect of each contribution has been evaluated in terms of percentage of the area exposed to coastal hazards, which will help to design more efficient protection and adaptation measures.

  11. Application of InSAR to detection of localized subsidence and its effects on flood protection infrastructure in the New Orleans area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cathleen; Blom, Ronald; Latini, Daniele

    2014-05-01

    acquisition, a dramatic increase of persistent scatter density in urban areas, and improved measurement of very small displacements (Crosetto et al., 2010). We compare the L-band UAVSAR results with permanent scatterer (PS-InSAR) and Short Baseline Subsets (SBAS) interferometric analyses of a stack composed by 28 TerraSAR X-band images acquired over the same period, to determine the influence of different radar frequencies and analyses techniques. Our applications goal is to demonstrate a technique to inform targeted ground surveys, identify areas of persistent subsidence, and improve overall monitoring and planning in flood risk areas. Dokka, 2011, The role of deep processes in late 20th century subsidence of New Orleans and coastal areas of southern Louisiana and Mississippi: J. Geophys. Res., 116, B06403, doi:10.1029/2010JB008008. Jones, C. E., G. Bawden, S. Deverel, J. Dudas, S. Hensley, Study of movement and seepage along levees using DINSAR and the airborne UAVSAR instrument, Proc. SPIE 8536, SAR Image Analysis, Modeling, and Techniques XII, 85360E (November 21, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.976885. Crosetto, M., Monserrat, O., Iglesias, R., & Crippa, B. (2010). Persistent Scatterer Interferometry: Potential, limits and initial C-and X-band comparison. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing, 76(9), 1061-1069. Acknowledgments: This research was carried out in part at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  12. Development and Applications of Pipeline Steel in Long-Distance Gas Pipeline of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyong, Huo; Yang, Li; Lingkang, Ji

    In past decades, with widely utilizing of Microalloying and Thermal Mechanical Control Processing (TMCP) technology, the good matching of strength, toughness, plasticity and weldability on pipeline steel has been reached so that oil and gas pipeline has been greatly developed in China to meet the demand of strong domestic consumption of energy. In this paper, development history of pipeline steel and gas pipeline in china is briefly reviewed. The microstructure characteristic and mechanical performance of pipeline steel used in some representative gas pipelines of china built in different stage are summarized. Through the analysis on the evolution of pipeline service environment, some prospective development trend of application of pipeline steel in China is also presented.

  13. TO APPLICATION OF BIO-GAS UNITS: ORGANIZATIONAL AND TECHNOLOGICAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuy Nga Nguyen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the published papers written by national and foreign researchers reveals that an increasing global energy deficit, exhaustion of  fossil organic and nuclear fuels, chemical and radio-active contamination of the environment are main reasons in favour of  thorough investigation  and wide introduction of non-conventional and renewable energy sources. Nowadays Vietnamese Institute of Energy Science has been developing the state-of-the-art bio-gas technologies on the  basis of application and modernization of Chinese and Dutch family-style technologies. The most rational technologies are combined ones which operate using various types of energy raw materials, for example, solar and bio-gas energy because usage of solar energy expands operational possibilities of the bio-gas system, ensures its operation within wide temperature range creating necessary parameters for the required technological task.

  14. SF6-alternative gases for application in gas-insulated switchgear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingwen; Zhao, Hu; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental problems caused by greenhouse gases have received unprecedented attention. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), which is the preferred gas for use in gas-insulated switchgear (circuit breakers, disconnect switches, etc. for high-voltage electrical circuits), has a very high global warming potential, and there is a large international effort to find alternative gases. Recently, this effort has made important progress, with promising alternative gases being identified and tested. An overview, in particular the current state of the art, of the study of SF6-alternative gases is presented in the paper. The review focuses on the application of the SF6-alternative gases in gas-insulated switchgear, with detailed analysis of calculations and measurements of their basic physical properties, dielectric strengths, and arc-quenching capabilities. Finally, a discussion of and perspectives on current research and future research directions are presented.

  15. Application of gas chromatography to analysis of spirit-based alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Śliwińska, Magdalena; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Spirit-based beverages are alcoholic drinks; their production processes are dependent on the type and origin of raw materials. The composition of this complex matrix is difficult to analyze, and scientists commonly choose gas chromatography techniques for this reason. With a wide selection of extraction methods and detectors it is possible to provide qualitative and quantitative analysis for many chemical compounds with various functional groups. This article describes different types of gas chromatography techniques and their most commonly used associated extraction techniques (e.g., LLE, SPME, SPE, SFE, and SBME) and detectors (MS, TOFMS, FID, ECD, NPD, AED, O or EPD). Additionally, brief characteristics of internationally popular spirit-based beverages and application of gas chromatography to the analysis of selected alcoholic drinks are presented.

  16. Application of the Elitist-Mutated PSO and an Improved GSA to Estimate Parameters of Linear and Nonlinear Muskingum Flood Routing Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Kang

    Full Text Available Heuristic search algorithms, which are characterized by faster convergence rates and can obtain better solutions than the traditional mathematical methods, are extensively used in engineering optimizations. In this paper, a newly developed elitist-mutated particle swarm optimization (EMPSO technique and an improved gravitational search algorithm (IGSA are successively applied to parameter estimation problems of Muskingum flood routing models. First, the global optimization performance of the EMPSO and IGSA are validated by nine standard benchmark functions. Then, to further analyse the applicability of the EMPSO and IGSA for various forms of Muskingum models, three typical structures are considered: the basic two-parameter linear Muskingum model (LMM, a three-parameter nonlinear Muskingum model (NLMM and a four-parameter nonlinear Muskingum model which incorporates the lateral flow (NLMM-L. The problems are formulated as optimization procedures to minimize the sum of the squared deviations (SSQ or the sum of the absolute deviations (SAD between the observed and the estimated outflows. Comparative results of the selected numerical cases (Case 1-3 show that the EMPSO and IGSA not only rapidly converge but also obtain the same best optimal parameter vector in every run. The EMPSO and IGSA exhibit superior robustness and provide two efficient alternative approaches that can be confidently employed to estimate the parameters of both linear and nonlinear Muskingum models in engineering applications.

  17. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  18. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  19. Base Flood Elevation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  20. Flood Risk Regional Flood Defences : Technical report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Jonkman, S.N.; Lendering, K.T.

    2015-01-01

    Historically the Netherlands have always had to deal with the threat of flooding, both from the rivers and the sea as well as from heavy rainfall. The country consists of a large amount of polders, which are low lying areas of land protected from flooding by embankments. These polders require an

  1. A review of shape memory material’s applications in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Devendra; Song, Gangbing

    2017-09-01

    The continuously increasing demand for oil and gas and the depleting number of new large reservoir discoveries have made it necessary for the oil and gas industry to investigate and design new, improved technologies that unlock new sources of energy and squeeze more from existing resources. Shape memory materials (SMM), with their remarkable properties such as the shape memory effect (SME), corrosion resistance, and superelasticity have shown great potential to meet these demands by significantly improving the functionality and durability of offshore systems. Shape memory alloy (SMA) and shape memory polymer (SMP) are two types of most commonly used SMM’s and are ideally suited for use over a range of robust engineering applications found within the oil and gas industry, such as deepwater actuators, valves, underwater connectors, seals, self-torqueing fasteners and sand management. The potential high strain and high force output of the SME of SMA can be harnessed to create a lightweight, solid state alternative to conventional hydraulic, pneumatic or motor based actuator systems. The phase transformation property enables the SMA to withstand erosive stresses, which is useful for minimizing the effect of erosion often experienced by downhole devices. The superelasticity of the SMA provides good energy dissipation, and can overcome the various defects and limitations suffered by conventional passive damping methods. The higher strain recovery during SME makes SMP ideal for developments of packers and sand management in downhole. The increasing number of SMM related research papers and patents from oil and gas industry indicate the growing research interest of the industry to implement SMM in offshore applications. This paper reviews the recent developments and applications of SMM in the offshore oil and gas industry.

  2. Application of natural gas to the direct reduction of iron ore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-05-01

    The Gas Committee of the U.N. Economic Commission for Europe evaluated the potentials of natural gas for direct reduction of iron ore. The report, based essentially on that by the Italian representative E. Pasero with comments and observations from experts of the other member countries, indicated the general tendency of the iron and steel industry to use natural gas to reduce production costs by reducing coke consumption. By the end of 1972, gas consumption by these industries was reported at 38.8 billion Btu/ton (10.79 Gcal/m ton) by the Steel Committee of the U.N. Economic Commission at the symposium on the economic and technical aspects of the direct reduction of iron ore, held in September 1972 in Bucharest. In comparison, coke consumption was 9.5 billion Btu/ton (2.64 Gcal/m ton) steel, liquid hydrocarbons 3.1 billion Btu (0.85 Gcal), and electricity 16.1 billion Btu (4.46 Gcal). Natural gas was used mainly for ore reduction and generation of the reducing gas in-shaft furnaces with backdraft heating circulation, fixed-bed furances (Hyl type), and fluidized-bed reactors. Processes include the Midrex (shaft furnace), H.I.B. (fluidized bed), and Novalfer (fluidized bed). These processes are used to obtain 4.5 million tons/yr of iron sponge for the production of steel in electric furnaces. The natural gas outlook for direct reduction of iron will depend on local conditions and fuel availability. Its industrial application has been most successful in mini-steel installations, especially in the U.S., Japan, and Western Europe, and it is recommended for developing countries with no steel-industry basis.

  3. Data flood : using processes such as data quality management and cloud computing, oil and gas producers harness the growing quantities of digital information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, P.

    2009-07-15

    One of the greatest challenges facing companies today is information growth. The oil and gas sector is one of the most data-intensive businesses in the world. Seismic data alone is growing at more than 30 per cent per year. In addition, the ability to efficiently handle the increase in data can be compromised as reservoir models grow bigger with the use of more sophisticated algorithms. The oil and gas industry is also faced with the challenge of protecting the integrity of information while making it available to all who need it. Better information management is essential to identifying risks, expanding markets, managing costs and improving integration across the global enterprise. This article described how Schlumberger has implemented an ongoing process that improves data quality and keeps the data quality from degrading over time. The company has developed a solution called Data Quality Management (DQM) to better control and manage the huge flow of data. A set of DQM training classes have been developed along with a DQM Handbook. This article also addressed the issue of cloud computing which will continue to gain prominence as oil and gas companies try to handle high volumes of data more effectively. Cloud computing refers to accessing resources and services needed to perform functions with dynamically changing needs. A cloud service has 3 characteristics that differentiate it from traditional hosting, notably it is sold on demand; it is elastic; and the service is fully managed by the provider. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  4. 76 FR 2093 - Eni USA Gas Marketing LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-12

    ... Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, DOE. ACTION: Notice of...), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into... (Bcf) of natural gas. The LNG would be exported from the Cameron LNG Terminal (Cameron Terminal), owned...

  5. Confined dense particle-gas flow, application to nuclear fuel relocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, A.

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we investigate particle-gas two-phase flows in the jamming regime where the flow stops in finite time. In this regime, which occurs quite often in nature and industrial applications, the flow is stochastic and needs therefore to be characterized by the jamming probability as well as the flow rate and its fluctuations that depend on the confining geometry, granular microstructure and gas properties. We developed a numerical approach based on the coupling of the Non Smooth Contact Dynamics for the solid phase and a mesoscopic method for the gas phase. We find that the flow rate as a function of the opening is well fit by a power law in agreement with reported experimental data. The presence of a gas affects only the mean flow rate, the flow statistics being sensibly the same as in the absence of the gas. We apply our quantitative statistical results in order to estimate the relocation rate of fragmented nuclear fuel inside its cladding tube as a result of a local balloon caused by an accident (loss-of-coolant accident). (author)

  6. Faults as Windows to Monitor Gas Seepage: Application to CO2 Sequestration and CO2-EOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald W. Klusman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of potential gas seepage for CO2 sequestration and CO2-EOR (Enhanced Oil Recovery in geologic storage will involve geophysical and geochemical measurements of parameters at depth and at, or near the surface. The appropriate methods for MVA (Monitoring, Verification, Accounting are needed for both cost and technical effectiveness. This work provides an overview of some of the geochemical methods that have been demonstrated to be effective for an existing CO2-EOR (Rangely, CA, USA and a proposed project at Teapot Dome, WY, USA. Carbon dioxide and CH4 fluxes and shallow soil gas concentrations were measured, followed by nested completions of 10-m deep holes to obtain concentration gradients. The focus at Teapot Dome was the evaluation of faults as pathways for gas seepage in an under-pressured reservoir system. The measurements were supplemented by stable carbon and oxygen isotopic measurements, carbon-14, and limited use of inert gases. The work clearly demonstrates the superiority of CH4 over measurements of CO2 in early detection and quantification of gas seepage. Stable carbon isotopes, carbon-14, and inert gas measurements add to the verification of the deep source. A preliminary accounting at Rangely confirms the importance of CH4 measurements in the MVA application.

  7. Metal-Organic Frameworks for Sensing Applications in the Gas Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Achmann

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Several metal-organic framework (MOF materials were under investigated to test their applicability as sensor materials for impedimetric gas sensors. The materials were tested in a temperature range of 120 °C - 240 °C with varying concentrations of O2, CO2, C3H8, NO, H2, ethanol and methanol in the gas atmosphere and under different test gas humidity conditions. Different sensor configurations were studied in a frequency range of 1 Hz -1 MHz and time-continuous measurements were performed at 1 Hz. The materials did not show any impedance response to O2, CO2, C3H8, NO, or H2 in the gas atmospheres, although for some materials a significant impedance decrease was induced by a change of the ethanol or methanol concentration in the gas phase. Moreover, pronounced promising and reversible changes in the electric properties of a special MOF material were monitored under varying humidity, with a linear response curve at 120 °C. Further investigations were carried out with differently doped MOF materials of this class, to evaluate the influence of special dopants on the sensor effect.

  8. Applications of covalent organic frameworks (COFs): From gas storage and separation to drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Xue Wu; Ying-Wei Yang

    2017-01-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are an emerging class of porous covalent organic structures whose backbones were composed of light elements (B,C,N,O,Si) and linked by robust covalent bonds to endow such material with desirable properties,i.e.,inherent porosity,well-defined pore aperture,ordered channel structure,large surface area,high stability,and multi-dimension.As expected,the abovementioned properties of COFs broaden the applications of this class of materials in various fields such as gas storage and separation,catalysis,optoelectronics,sensing,small molecules adsorption,and drug delivery.In this review,we outlined the synthesis of COFs and highlighted their applications ranging from the initial gas storage and separation to drug delivery.

  9. A Review on Graphene-Based Gas/Vapor Sensors with Unique Properties and Potential Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Wang; Da Huang; Zhi Yang; Shusheng Xu; Guili He; Xiaolin Li; Nantao Hu; Guilin Yin; Dannong He; Liying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Graphene-based gas/vapor sensors have attracted much attention in recent years due to their variety of structures, unique sensing performances, room-temperature working conditions, and tremendous application prospects, etc.Herein, we summarize recent advantages in graphene preparation, sensor construction, and sensing properties of various graphene-based gas/vapor sensors, such as NH3, NO2, H2, CO, SO2, H2S, as well as vapor of volatile organic compounds.The detection mechanisms pertaining to various gases are also discussed. In conclusion part, some existing problems which may hinder the sensor applications are presented. Several possible methods to solve these problems are proposed, for example, conceived solutions, hybrid nanostructures, multiple sensor arrays, and new recognition algorithm.

  10. Research on application of GIS and GPS in inspection and management of city gas pipeline network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jin; Meng, Xiangyin; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Fengpei

    2018-01-01

    To solve the problems existing in the current Gas Company patrol management, such as inaccurate attendance, whether or not the patrol personnel exceed the scope of patrol inspection. This paper Proposed that we apply the SuperMap iDeskTop 8C plug-in desktop GIS application and development platform, the positioning function of GPS and the data transmission function of 3G/4G/GPRS/Ethernet to develop a gas pipeline inspection management system. We build association between real-time data, pipe network information, patrol data, map information, spatial data and so on to realize the bottom data fusion, use the mobile location system and patrol management client to achieve real-time interaction between the client and the mobile terminal. Practical application shows that the system has completed the standardized management of patrol tasks, the reasonable evaluation of patrol work and the maximum utilization of patrol resources.

  11. Application of the aqueous coating suspension for the protection of Gas Turbine Engine parts from corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ivanov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the physical nature of receiving diffusion coatings from aqueous suspensions of various alloys for various conditions and their further exploitation. Structure of coatings, advantages and features of the production of coatings from aqueous suspensions are shown. Based on the analysis of thermodynamic reactions in the systems of elements formulations of aqueous suspensions were developed and practical recommendations for their application to the parts of gas turbine engine were given.

  12. Microturbine applications for the oil and gas industries of South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Lee [Capstone Turbine Corp., Chatsworth, CA (United States); Vescovo, Edgardo [Capstone Turbine Corp. South America (Colombia)

    2008-07-01

    This paper will describe the application of power generation by the use of microturbine technology by Capstone Turbine Corporation throughout South America. The purpose of this paper is to describe the technology and the experience gained over the last six years. The microturbines are power generation systems that produce energy from a diverse range of liquid or gaseous fuels. The generator is driven by a small gas turbine with a common shaft for the rotors of the generator and the engine. (author)

  13. Shell Canada Limited application for increased throughput sour gas plant - Caroline Field : decision 97-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-06-01

    The Alberta Energy and Utilities Board considered an application by Shell Canada Limited to amend its existing Caroline Gas plant approval. Shell desires to add additional cooling equipment to enhance gas processing during the warmer months. Interveners raised several concerns, including the impact of the existing operation on the environment, and the health and safety of the community. Shell stated that the proposed increased throughput of sour gas would result in a 21 per cent increase in sulphur inlet, but that the emissions of SO 2 would still remain below the currently-approved daily maximum level of 45 t/d. Shell also stated that the proposed project would have no impact on flaring duration or frequency. The Board reviewed the evidence filed, and considered the comments of the participants made at a pre-hearing on June 11, 1996. The Board's assessment was that a public hearing was necessary to address Shell's application. The Board also expressed the belief that the scope of the public hearing should be limited to the possible impacts that may occur from the processing of incremental raw inlet gas and sulphur. A hearing date of July 22, 1996 was set. Having regard to the evidence which the Board received and considered, the Board declared itself satisfied that the technical changes to the plant were satisfactory and that the applied-for plant modifications would meet regulatory standards. The Board also believed that the approval of the application to increase throughput at the plant would be in the public interest. Accordingly, the Board declared its readiness to approve the application provided that Shell agreed to meet certain specified conditions. tab., 1 fig

  14. Assessing infrastructure vulnerability to major floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenssen, Lars

    1998-12-31

    This thesis proposes a method for assessing the direct effects of serious floods on a physical infrastructure or utility. This method should be useful in contingency planning and in the design of structures likely to be damaged by flooding. A review is given of (1) methods of floodplain management and strategies for mitigating floods, (2) methods of risk analysis that will become increasingly important in flood management, (3) methods for hydraulic computations, (4) a variety of scour assessment methods and (5) applications of geographic information systems (GIS) to the analysis of flood vulnerability. Three computer codes were developed: CULVCAP computes the headwater level for circular and box culverts, SCOUR for assessing riprap stability and scour depths, and FASTFLOOD prepares input rainfall series and input files for the rainfall-runoff model used in the case study. A road system in central Norway was chosen to study how to analyse the flood vulnerability of an infrastructure. Finally, the thesis proposes a method for analysing the flood vulnerability of physical infrastructure. The method involves a general stage that will provide data on which parts of the infrastructure are potentially vulnerable to flooding and how to analyse them, and a specific stage which is concerned with analysing one particular kind of physical infrastructure in a study area. 123 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs= .

  15. Application of element logging to lithologic identification of key horizons in Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization and application of fast drilling technology in Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces, the returned cuttings are fine and even powdered, so the traditional cutting lithology identification methods are not applicable any longer. In this paper, qualitative lithology identification and quantitative interpretation based on element logging were conducted on the key oil and gas bearing layers in this area according to the principle of elemental geochemistry. The study results show that: (1 different lithologies can be identified easily because of their different element logging characteristics. For example, basalts have the element characteristics of 0.35 0.55. (2 Clastic rocks, carbonate rocks, sulphate and transition rocks in the category of sedimentary rocks can be identified based on the element combination of (Al + Si + Fe and (Ca + Mg + S. Among them, clastic rocks have (Al + Si + Fe >31%, carbonate rocks have (Al + Si + Fe 36%. (3 Then, based on the element combination of (Si + K + Ca+Si/Al and (Al + Si + Fe + K+(Ca + S/Mg, sandstone, mudstone (shale, gypsum, dolomite, limestone and transition rocks can be identified. Finally, a qualitative identification chart and a set of quantitative interpretation software of element logging on key horizons in Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces were developed to make this method convenient for field application. This method was applied on site in ten wells (such as Well MX207 in Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces. It is indicated that the coincidence rate of lithology identification is in the range of 88.75–95.22% (averaging 92.42%. Obviously, it can satisfy the requirements of fast lithology identification while drilling of key oil and gas horizons in Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces. Keywords: Sichuan–Chongqing gas provinces, Key horizon, Element logging, Lithologic identification while drilling, Quantitative lithologic interpretation, Qualitative

  16. Efficiently mapping structure-property relationships of gas adsorption in porous materials: application to Xe adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaija, A R; Wilmer, C E

    2017-09-08

    Designing better porous materials for gas storage or separations applications frequently leverages known structure-property relationships. Reliable structure-property relationships, however, only reveal themselves when adsorption data on many porous materials are aggregated and compared. Gathering enough data experimentally is prohibitively time consuming, and even approaches based on large-scale computer simulations face challenges. Brute force computational screening approaches that do not efficiently sample the space of porous materials may be ineffective when the number of possible materials is too large. Here we describe a general and efficient computational method for mapping structure-property spaces of porous materials that can be useful for adsorption related applications. We describe an algorithm that generates random porous "pseudomaterials", for which we calculate structural characteristics (e.g., surface area, pore size and void fraction) and also gas adsorption properties via molecular simulations. Here we chose to focus on void fraction and Xe adsorption at 1 bar, 5 bar, and 10 bar. The algorithm then identifies pseudomaterials with rare combinations of void fraction and Xe adsorption and mutates them to generate new pseudomaterials, thereby selectively adding data only to those parts of the structure-property map that are the least explored. Use of this method can help guide the design of new porous materials for gas storage and separations applications in the future.

  17. Fabrication of gas diffusion layer based on x-y robotic spraying technique for proton exchange membrane fuel cell application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitanggang, Ramli; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Kadhum, Abdul Amir H.; Iyuke, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The x-y robotic spraying technique developed in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia is capable of fabricating various sizes of thickness and porosity of gas diffusion layer (GDL) used in the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). These parameters are obtained by varying the characteristic spray numbers of the robotic spraying machine. This investigation results were adequately represented with mathematical equations for hydrogen gas distribution in GDL. Volumetric modulus (M) parameter is used to determine the value of current density produced on the electrode of a single cell PEMFC. Thus the M parameter can be employed as indicator for a successful GDL fabrication. GDL type 4 has three variables of layer design that can be optimized to function as gas distributor, gas storage, flooding preventer on GDL surface, to evacuate water from the electrode and to control the electrical conductivity. The gas distribution in GDL was mathematically represented with average error of 15.5%. The M value of GDL type 4 according to the model was 0.22 cm 3 /s and yielded a current density of 750 A/m 2 .

  18. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor steam cycle/cogeneration application study update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Since publication of a report on the application of a High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Steam Cycle/Cogeneration (HTGR-SC/C) plant in December of 1980, progress has continued on application related activities. In particular, a reference plant and an application identification effort has been performed, a variable cogeneration cycle balance-of-plant design was developed and an updated economic analysis was prepared. A reference HTGR-SC/C plant size of 2240 MW(t) was selected, primarily on the basis of 2240 MW(t) being in the mid-range of anticipated application needs and the availability of the design data from the 2240 MW(t) Steam Cycle/Electric generation plant design. A variable cogeneration cycle plant design was developed having the capability of operating at a range of process steam loads between the reference design load (full cogeneration) and the no process steam load condition

  19. Gas turbine application in power plants of Mexican refineries; Aplicacion de turbinas de gas en plantas de fuerza de refinerias mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz Calderon, A. M.; Rodriguez Martinez, H.; Garcia Paredes, Job; Morales Guillen, Magdalena; Manzanares Papayanapolous, Emilio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: malcaraz@iie.org.mx; jhrm@iie.org.mx; jgarcia@iie.org.mx; mmmg@iie.org.mx; emp@iie.org.mx

    2010-11-15

    This article presents an overview of the application to have the gas turbine power generation systems, electric and steam for Mexican refineries. First there is a general description of the gas turbines and heat recovery (system components CHP) and CHP schemes are based on gas turbines capable of use in Mexican refineries. Subsequently referred to the characteristics of energy consumption (steam and electricity) from Mexican refineries and performs a technical analysis of CHP schemes based on gas turbines from the point of view of rates Q/W, power efficiencies and combined concluded that by their nature are very useful for refinery and gives some recommendations for improved implementation. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta una vision general de la aplicacion que tienen las turbinas de gas en sistemas de generacion de energia electrica y vapor para refinerias mexicanas. Primeramente se da una descripcion general de las turbinas de gas y recuperadores de calor (componentes principales del sistema de cogeneracion) y se muestran los esquemas de cogeneracion basados en turbinas de gas susceptibles de utilizar en refinerias mexicanas. Posteriormente se mencionan las caracteristicas de consumos energeticos (vapor y energia electrica) de las refinerias mexicanas y se realiza un analisis tecnico de los esquemas de cogeneracion basado en turbinas de gas desde el punto de vista de tasas Q/W, eficiencias electricas y combinadas, concluyendose que por sus caracteristicas son muy utiles para refinerias y se dan algunas recomendaciones para su mejor aplicacion.

  20. Pesticide-soil microflora interactions in flooded rice soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethunathan, N.; Siddaramappa, R.; Siddarame Gowda, T.K.; Rajaram, K.P.; Barik, S.; Rao, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    Isotope studies revealed that gamma and beta isomers of HCH (hexachlorocyclohexane) decomposed rapidly in nonsterile soils capable of attaining redox potentials of -40 to -100mV within 20 days after flooding. Degradation was slow, however, in soils low in organic matter and in soils with extremely low pH and positive potentials, even after several weeks of flooding. Under flooded conditions, endrin decomposed to six metabolites in most soils. There is evidence that biological hydrolysis of parathion is more widespread than hitherto believed, particularly under flooded soil conditions. Applications of benomyl (fungicide) to a simulated-oxidized zone of flooded soils favoured heterotrophic nitrification. (author)

  1. Urban pluvial flood prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Nielsen, Jesper Ellerbæk; Jensen, David Getreuer

    2016-01-01

    Flooding produced by high-intensive local rainfall and drainage system capacity exceedance can have severe impacts in cities. In order to prepare cities for these types of flood events – especially in the future climate – it is valuable to be able to simulate these events numerically both...... historically and in real-time. There is a rather untested potential in real-time prediction of urban floods. In this paper radar data observations with different spatial and temporal resolution, radar nowcasts of 0–2 h lead time, and numerical weather models with lead times up to 24 h are used as inputs...... to an integrated flood and drainage systems model in order to investigate the relative difference between different inputs in predicting future floods. The system is tested on a small town Lystrup in Denmark, which has been flooded in 2012 and 2014. Results show it is possible to generate detailed flood maps...

  2. Applications of multiscale waveform inversion to marine data using a flooding technique and dynamic early-arrival windows

    KAUST Repository

    Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot; Schuster, Gerard T.; Valasek, Paul A.; Cao, Weiping

    2010-01-01

    an accurate and highly resolved velocity tomogram for the 2D SEG/EAGE salt model. In the application of MWT to the field data, the inversion process is carried out using a multiscale method with a dynamic early-arrival muting window to mitigate the local

  3. Nanoporous spongy graphene: Potential applications for hydrogen adsorption and selective gas separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostoglou, Nikolaos, E-mail: nikolaos.kostoglou@stud.unileoben.ac.at [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus); Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Constantinides, Georgios [Research Unit for Nanostructured Materials Systems, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, 3036 Lemesos (Cyprus); Charalambopoulou, Georgia; Steriotis, Theodore [National Center for Scientific Research Demokritos, Agia Paraskevi Attikis, 15310 Athens (Greece); Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Li, Yuanqing; Liao, Kin [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Khalifa University of Science, Technology and Research, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Ryzhkov, Vladislav [Nanotube Production Department, Fibrtec Incorporation, TX, 75551 Atlanta (United States); Mitterer, Christian [Department of Physical Metallurgy and Materials Testing, Montanuniversität Leoben, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Rebholz, Claus, E-mail: claus@ucy.ac.cy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Cyprus, 1678 Nicosia (Cyprus)

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, a nanoporous (pore width ~ 0.7 nm) graphene-based sponge-like material with large surface area (~ 350 m{sup 2}/g) was synthesized by wet chemical reduction of graphene oxide in combination with freeze-drying. Surface morphology and elemental composition were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Surface chemistry was qualitatively examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, while the respective structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Textural properties, including Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, micropore volume and surface area as well as pore size distribution, were deduced from nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption data obtained at 77 K and up to 1 bar. Potential use of the spongy graphene for gas storage and separation applications was preliminarily assessed by low-pressure (0–1 bar) H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} sorption measurements at different temperatures (77, 273 and 298 K). The adsorption capacities for each gas were evaluated up to ~ 1 bar, the isosteric enthalpies of adsorption for CO{sub 2} (28–33 kJ/mol) and CH{sub 4} (30–38 kJ/mol) were calculated using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, while the CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} gas selectivity (up to 95:1) was estimated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). - Highlights: • Nanoporous sponge produced by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and freeze-drying • Characterization performed using SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD methods • Gas storage performance evaluated towards H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} adsorption up to 1 bar • CO{sub 2} over CH{sub 4} gas selectivity estimated between 45 and 95 at 273 K using the IAST model.

  4. Nanoporous spongy graphene: Potential applications for hydrogen adsorption and selective gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglou, Nikolaos; Constantinides, Georgios; Charalambopoulou, Georgia; Steriotis, Theodore; Polychronopoulou, Kyriaki; Li, Yuanqing; Liao, Kin; Ryzhkov, Vladislav; Mitterer, Christian; Rebholz, Claus

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, a nanoporous (pore width ~ 0.7 nm) graphene-based sponge-like material with large surface area (~ 350 m"2/g) was synthesized by wet chemical reduction of graphene oxide in combination with freeze-drying. Surface morphology and elemental composition were studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Surface chemistry was qualitatively examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, while the respective structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. Textural properties, including Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, micropore volume and surface area as well as pore size distribution, were deduced from nitrogen gas adsorption/desorption data obtained at 77 K and up to 1 bar. Potential use of the spongy graphene for gas storage and separation applications was preliminarily assessed by low-pressure (0–1 bar) H_2, CO_2 and CH_4 sorption measurements at different temperatures (77, 273 and 298 K). The adsorption capacities for each gas were evaluated up to ~ 1 bar, the isosteric enthalpies of adsorption for CO_2 (28–33 kJ/mol) and CH_4 (30–38 kJ/mol) were calculated using the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, while the CO_2/CH_4 gas selectivity (up to 95:1) was estimated using the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST). - Highlights: • Nanoporous sponge produced by chemical reduction of graphene oxide and freeze-drying • Characterization performed using SEM, EDS, TEM, FT-IR, BET and XRD methods • Gas storage performance evaluated towards H_2, CO_2 and CH_4 adsorption up to 1 bar • CO_2 over CH_4 gas selectivity estimated between 45 and 95 at 273 K using the IAST model

  5. Development and Application of Microfabricated Chemical Gas Sensors For Aerospace Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, G. W.; Neudeck, P. G.; Fralick, G.; Thomas, V.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Sawayda, M. S.; Jin, A.; Hammond, J.; Makel, D.; hide

    1990-01-01

    Aerospace applications require the development of chemical sensors with capabilities beyond those of commercially available sensors. In particular, factors such as minimal sensor size, weight, and power consumption are particularly important. Development areas which have potential aerospace applications include launch vehicle leak detection, engine health monitoring and control, and fire detection. Sensor development for these applications is based on progress in three types of technology: 1) Micromachining and microfabrication (Microsystem) technology to fabricate miniaturized sensors. 2) The use of nanocrystalline materials to develop sensors with improved stability combined with higher sensitivity. 3) The development of high temperature semiconductors, especially silicon carbide. Sensor development for each application involves its own challenges in the fields of materials science and fabrication technology. This paper discusses the needs of space applications and the point-contact sensor technology being developed to address these needs. Sensors to measure hydrogen, hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (Nox, carbon monoxide, oxygen, and carbon dioxide are being developed. A description is given of each sensor type and its present stage of development. Demonstration and application these sensor technologies will be described. The demonstrations range from use of a microsystem based hydrogen sensor on the Shuttle to engine demonstration of a nanocrystalline based sensor for NO, detection. It is concluded that microfabricated sensor technology has significant potential for use in a range of aerospace applications.

  6. Assessment of Hyporheic Zone, Flood-Plain, Soil-Gas, Soil, and Surface-Water Contamination at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area, Fort Gordon, Georgia, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimaraes, Wladmir B.; Falls, W. Fred; Caldwell, Andral W.; Ratliff, W. Hagan; Wellborn, John B.; Landmeyer, James E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of the Army Environmental and Natural Resources Management Office of the U.S. Army Signal Center and Fort Gordon, Georgia, assessed the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, soil, and surface water for contaminants at the McCoys Creek Chemical Training Area (MCTA) at Fort Gordon, from October 2009 to September 2010. The assessment included the detection of organic contaminants in the hyporheic zone, flood plain, soil gas, and surface water. In addition, the organic contaminant assessment included the analysis of organic compounds classified as explosives and chemical agents in selected areas. Inorganic contaminants were assessed in soil and surface-water samples. The assessment was conducted to provide environmental contamination data to the U.S. Army at Fort Gordon pursuant to requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Part B Hazardous Waste Permit process. Ten passive samplers were deployed in the hyporheic zone and flood plain, and total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and octane were detected above the method detection level in every sampler. Other organic compounds detected above the method detection level in the hyporheic zone and flood-plain samplers were trichloroethylene, and cis- and trans- 1, 2-dichloroethylene. One trip blank detected TPH below the method detection level but above the nondetection level. The concentrations of TPH in the samplers were many times greater than the concentrations detected in the blank; therefore, all other TPH concentrations detected are considered to represent environmental conditions. Seventy-one soil-gas samplers were deployed in a grid pattern across the MCTA. Three trip blanks and three method blanks were used and not deployed, and TPH was detected above the method detection level in two trip blanks and one method blank. Detection of TPH was observed at all 71 samplers, but because TPH was detected in the trip and method blanks, TPH was

  7. FLOOD MENACE IN KADUNA METROPOLIS: IMPACTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    damage, causes of flooding, human response to flooding and severity of ... from moving out. Source of ... Man responds to flood hazards through adjustment, flood abatement ... action to minimize or ameliorate flood hazards; flood abatement.

  8. A Global Geospatial Database of 5000+ Historic Flood Event Extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellman, B.; Sullivan, J.; Doyle, C.; Kettner, A.; Brakenridge, G. R.; Erickson, T.; Slayback, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    A key dataset that is missing for global flood model validation and understanding historic spatial flood vulnerability is a global historical geo-database of flood event extents. Decades of earth observing satellites and cloud computing now make it possible to not only detect floods in near real time, but to run these water detection algorithms back in time to capture the spatial extent of large numbers of specific events. This talk will show results from the largest global historical flood database developed to date. We use the Dartmouth Flood Observatory flood catalogue to map over 5000 floods (from 1985-2017) using MODIS, Landsat, and Sentinel-1 Satellites. All events are available for public download via the Earth Engine Catalogue and via a website that allows the user to query floods by area or date, assess population exposure trends over time, and download flood extents in geospatial format.In this talk, we will highlight major trends in global flood exposure per continent, land use type, and eco-region. We will also make suggestions how to use this dataset in conjunction with other global sets to i) validate global flood models, ii) assess the potential role of climatic change in flood exposure iii) understand how urbanization and other land change processes may influence spatial flood exposure iv) assess how innovative flood interventions (e.g. wetland restoration) influence flood patterns v) control for event magnitude to assess the role of social vulnerability and damage assessment vi) aid in rapid probabilistic risk assessment to enable microinsurance markets. Authors on this paper are already using the database for the later three applications and will show examples of wetland intervention analysis in Argentina, social vulnerability analysis in the USA, and micro insurance in India.

  9. Quantitative flood risk assessment for Polders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manen, Sipke E. van; Brinkhuis, Martine

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design of dikes and other water retaining structures is based on an acceptable probability (frequency) of overtopping. In 1993 a new safety concept was introduced based on total flood risk. Risk was defined as the product of probability and consequences. In recent years advanced tools have become available to calculate the actual flood risk of a polder. This paper describes the application of these tools to an existing lowland river area. The complete chain of calculations necessary to estimate the risk of flooding of a polder (or dike ring) is presented. The difficulties in applying the present day tools and the largest uncertainties in the calculations are shown

  10. Quantitative flood risk assessment for Polders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manen, Sipke E. van [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Bouwdienst Rijkswaterstaat, Griffioenlaan 2, Utrecht 3526 (Netherlands)]. E-mail: s.e.vmanen@bwd.rws.minvenw.nl; Brinkhuis, Martine [Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, Delft (Netherlands)

    2005-12-01

    In the Netherlands, the design of dikes and other water retaining structures is based on an acceptable probability (frequency) of overtopping. In 1993 a new safety concept was introduced based on total flood risk. Risk was defined as the product of probability and consequences. In recent years advanced tools have become available to calculate the actual flood risk of a polder. This paper describes the application of these tools to an existing lowland river area. The complete chain of calculations necessary to estimate the risk of flooding of a polder (or dike ring) is presented. The difficulties in applying the present day tools and the largest uncertainties in the calculations are shown.

  11. On the Use of Global Flood Forecasts and Satellite-Derived Inundation Maps for Flood Monitoring in Data-Sparse Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Revilla-Romero

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response decisions. Global-scale flood forecasting and satellite-based flood detection systems are currently operating, however their reliability for decision-making applications needs to be assessed. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of several operational global flood forecasting and flood detection systems, using 10 major flood events recorded over 2012–2014. Specifically, we evaluated the spatial extent and temporal characteristics of flood detections from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS and the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS. Furthermore, we compared the GFDS flood maps with those from NASA’s two Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS sensors. Results reveal that: (1 general agreement was found between the GFDS and MODIS flood detection systems, (2 large differences exist in the spatio-temporal characteristics of the GFDS detections and GloFAS forecasts, and (3 the quantitative validation of global flood disasters in data-sparse regions is highly challenging. Overall, satellite remote sensing provides useful near real-time flood information that can be useful for risk management. We highlight the known limitations of global flood detection and forecasting systems, and propose ways forward to improve the reliability of large-scale flood monitoring tools.

  12. Upgrading of reformate gas for different applications with focus on small-scale hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jannasch, Anna-Karin; Silversand, Fredrik [CATATOR AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-12-01

    Hydrogen gas or hydrogen rich gas is today used in many different applications, i.e. as fuel in fuel cells or additive in vehicle fuel (i.e. hythane) and as reagent or reducing agent in different industrial product lines. The majority of the hydrogen is produced either via electrolysis or reformation, where this work has entirely been focused on the latter alternative. The overarching aims of this project have been to demonstrate the need for reformate purification for different applications, and then, to investigate different available methods that can be used in order to enable the requested gas clean-up. The different purification methods have been examined with respect to parameters such as operating conditions (temperature, pressure), impurity tolerance, size, weight and cost. Another goal of the project has been to investigate how the reformer fuel type used influences the reformate gas quality and hence, the need for gas purification before the reformate can be fed to e.g. a low temperature polymer membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). For this reason, some experimental work has been performed. First, analysis of the reformate gas composition when natural gas, LPG, gasoline, diesel, kerosene (low and high S-concentration (i.e. JP8)) and ethanol have been processed. The reformation tests were carried out in a small scale reformer unit ({approx} 1 kW H{sub 2}) including Catator's catalyst formulations developed for the steam reforming, the water gas shift and the preferential oxidation reaction, respectively. Verification tests, with synthetic gas blends, including different potential reformate impurities, and with real reformate gas were thereafter performed with a commercial 4-cell PEMFC stack (3-5 W). Finally, some examination and also to some extent further development of Catator's existing gas purification units were made, i.e. chemical (WGS, PROX) and physical (regenerative adsorption). The Pd-alloy membrane seems to be the obvious choice of purification

  13. Application of a vortex shedding flowmeter to the wide range measurement of high temperature gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single flowmeter was required for helium gas measurement in a Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor loss of coolant simulator. Volumetric flow accuracy of +-1.0% of reading was required over the Reynolds Number range 6 x 10 3 to 1 x 10 6 at flowing pressures from 0.2 to 9 MPa (29 to 1305 psia) at 350 0 C (660 0 F) flowing temperature. Because of its inherent accuracy and rangeability, a vortex shedding flowmeter was selected and specially modified to provide for a remoted thermal sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between signal attenuation and sensor remoting geometry, as well as the relationship between gas flow parameters and remoted thermal sensor signal for both compressed air and helium gas. Based upon the results of these experiments, the sensor remoting geometry was optimized for this application. The resultant volumetric flow rangeability was 155:1. The associated temperature increase at the sensor position was 9 0 C above ambient (25 0 F) at a flowing temperature of 350 0 C. The volumetric flow accuracy was measured over the entire 155:1 flow range at parametric values of flowing density. A volumetric flow accuracy of +- % of reading was demonstrated

  14. The radiation gas detectors with novel nanoporous converter for medical imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, H.; Saramad, S.

    2018-02-01

    For many reason it is tried to improve the quantum efficiency (QE) of position sensitive gas detectors. For energetic X-rays, the imaging systems usually consist of a bulk converter and gas amplification region. But the bulk converters have their own limitation. For X-rays, the converter thickness should be increased to achieve a greater detection efficiency, however in this case, the chance of escaping the photoelectrons is reduced. To overcome this limitation, a new type of converter, called a nanoporous converter such as Anodizing Aluminum Oxide (AAO) membrane with higher surface to volume ratio is proposed. According to simulation results with GATE code, for this nanoporous converter with the 1 mm thickness and inter pore distance of 627 nm, for 20-100 keV X-ray energies with a reasonable gas pressure and different pore diameters, the QE can be one order of magnitude greater than the bulk ones, which is a new approach for proposing high QE position sensitive gas detectors for medical imaging application and also high energy physics.

  15. Synthesis and application of graphene–silver nanowires composite for ammonia gas sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Quang Trung; Huynh, Tran My Hoa; Tong, Duc Tai; Tran, Van Tam; Nguyen, Nang Dinh

    2013-01-01

    Graphene, consisting of a single carbon layer in a two-dimensional (2D) lattice, has been a promising material for application to nanoelectrical devices in recent years. In this study we report the development of a useful ammonia (NH 3 ) gas sensor based on graphene–silver nanowires ‘composite’ with planar electrode structure. The basic strategy involves three steps: (i) preparation of graphene oxide (GO) by modified Hummers method; (ii) synthesis of silver nanowires by polyol method; and (iii) preparation of graphene and silver nanowires on two electrodes using spin and spray-coating of precursor solutions, respectively. Exposure of this sensor to NH 3 induces a reversible resistance change at room temperature that is as large as ΔR/R 0 ∼ 28% and this sensitivity is eight times larger than the sensitivity of the ‘intrinsic’ graphene based NH 3 gas sensor (ΔR/R 0 ∼ 3,5%). Their responses and the recovery times go down to ∼200 and ∼60 s, respectively. Because graphene synthesized by chemical methods has many defects and small sheets, it cannot be perfectly used for gas sensor or for nanoelectrical devices. The silver nanowires are applied to play the role of small bridges connecting many graphene islands together to improve electrical properties of graphene/silver nanowires composite and result in higher NH 3 gas sensitivity. (paper)

  16. A pathway to eliminate the gas flow dependency of a hydrocarbon sensor for automotive exhaust applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hagen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors will play an essential role in future combustion-based mobility to effectively reduce emissions and monitor the exhausts reliably. In particular, an application in automotive exhausts is challenging due to the high gas temperatures that come along with highly dynamic flow rates. Recently, a thermoelectric hydrocarbon sensor was developed by using materials which are well known in the exhausts and therefore provide the required stability. As a sensing mechanism, the temperature difference that is generated between a catalytically activated area during the exothermic oxidation of said hydrocarbons and an inert area of the sensor is measured by a special screen-printed thermopile structure. As a matter of principle, this thermovoltage significantly depends on the mass flow rate of the exhausts under certain conditions. The present contribution helps to understand this cross effect and proposes a possible setup for its avoidance. By installing the sensor in the correct position of a bypass solution, the gas flow around the sensor is almost free of turbulence. Now, the signal depends only on the hydrocarbon concentration and not on the gas flow. Such a setup may open up new possibilities of applying novel sensors in automotive exhausts for on-board-measurement (OBM purposes.

  17. Application and numerical simulation research on biomimetic drag-reducing technology for gas pipelining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Deyuan; Luo Yuehao; Chen Huawei [Beihang Univ., Beijing (China). School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation

    2011-06-15

    For the purpose of increasing the transmission capacity of gas pipelines, the internal coating technology has been vastly put into application, and a remarkable benefit has been achieved so far. However, with the reduction of wall roughness, the small convex parts are all completely submerged in the viscous sublayer, the gas pipeline becomes a 'hydraulic smooth pipe', even by smoothing the coating surface further, it is difficult to reduce wall friction. Therefore, in order to increase the transportation capacity on the basis of internal coating, the new methods and technologies should be researched and investigated, and perhaps, the biomimetic drag-reducing technology is a good approach. In this paper, according to the planning parameters of the second pipeline of the West-to-East gas transmission project, the best drag reducing effect grooves are calculated and designed, and based on the characteristics and properties of internal coating (AW-01 epoxy resin), the Pre-Cured Micro- Rolling Technology (PCMRT) is discussed and presented, the rolling equipment is also designed and analyzed, the rolling process can be easily added on the available production line. Aiming at the field operating parameters of the gas pipeline in China, and the drag-reducing effect of the grooved surface is analyzed and discussed comprehensively. In addition, the economic benefit of adopting the biomimetic drag reduction technology is investigated. (orig.)

  18. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  19. Probabilistic Flood Mapping using Volunteered Geographical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, S. J.; Girons Lopez, M.; Seibert, J.; Minsker, B. S.

    2016-12-01

    Flood extent maps are widely used by decision makers and first responders to provide critical information that prevents economic impacts and the loss of human lives. These maps are usually obtained from sensory data and/or hydrologic models, which often have limited coverage in space and time. Recent developments in social media and communication technology have created a wealth of near-real-time, user-generated content during flood events in many urban areas, such as flooded locations, pictures of flooding extent and height, etc. These data could improve decision-making and response operations as events unfold. However, the integration of these data sources has been limited due to the need for methods that can extract and translate the data into useful information for decision-making. This study presents an approach that uses volunteer geographic information (VGI) and non-traditional data sources (i.e., Twitter, Flicker, YouTube, and 911 and 311 calls) to generate/update the flood extent maps in areas where no models and/or gauge data are operational. The approach combines Web-crawling and computer vision techniques to gather information about the location, extent, and water height of the flood from unstructured textual data, images, and videos. These estimates are then used to provide an updated flood extent map for areas surrounding the geo-coordinate of the VGI through the application of a Hydro Growing Region Algorithm (HGRA). HGRA combines hydrologic and image segmentation concepts to estimate a probabilistic flooding extent along the corresponding creeks. Results obtained for a case study in Austin, TX (i.e., 2015 Memorial Day flood) were comparable to those obtained by a calibrated hydrologic model and had good spatial correlation with flooding extents estimated by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).

  20. On the atomization and combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines: towards the application of biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.

    2015-01-01

    The combustion of liquid biofuels in gas turbines is an efficient way of generating heat and power from biomass. Gas turbines play a major role in the global energy supply and are suitable for a wide range of applications. However, biofuels generally have different properties compared to

  1. WiP abstract: Optimal multi-agent path planning for fast inverse modeling in UAV-based flood sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed; Shaqura, Mohammad; Ghommem, Mehdi; Collier, Nathan O.; Calo, Victor M.; Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    Floods are one of the most commonly occurring natural disasters, and caused more than 120,000 fatalities in the world between 1991 and 2005. Most of these casualties are caused by the lack of a reliable real-time flash flood monitoring system. Given the area to monitor, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) appear as the most promising solutions for this task. © 2014 IEEE.

  2. WiP abstract: Optimal multi-agent path planning for fast inverse modeling in UAV-based flood sensing applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelkader, Mohamed

    2014-04-01

    Floods are one of the most commonly occurring natural disasters, and caused more than 120,000 fatalities in the world between 1991 and 2005. Most of these casualties are caused by the lack of a reliable real-time flash flood monitoring system. Given the area to monitor, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) appear as the most promising solutions for this task. © 2014 IEEE.

  3. Has land subsidence changed the flood hazard potential? A case example from the Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Chen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas are subject to flood hazards because of their topographic features, social development and related human activities. The Kujukuri Plain, Chiba Prefecture, Japan, is located nearby the Tokyo metropolitan area and it faces to the Pacific Ocean. In the Kujukuri Plain, widespread occurrence of land subsidence has been caused by exploitation of groundwater, extraction of natural gas dissolved in brine, and natural consolidation of the Holocene and landfill deposits. The locations of land subsidence include areas near the coast, and it may increase the flood hazard potential. Hence, it is very important to evaluate flood hazard potential by taking into account the temporal change of land elevation caused by land subsidence, and to prepare hazard maps for protecting the surface environment and for developing an appropriate land-use plan. In this study, flood hazard assessments at three different times, i.e., 1970, 2004, and 2013 are implemented by using a flood hazard model based on Multicriteria Decision Analysis with Geographical Information System techniques. The model incorporates six factors: elevation, depression area, river system, ratio of impermeable area, detention ponds, and precipitation. Main data sources used are 10 m resolution topography data, airborne laser scanning data, leveling data, Landsat-TM data, two 1:30 000 scale river watershed maps, and precipitation data from observation stations around the study area and Radar data. The hazard assessment maps for each time are obtained by using an algorithm that combines factors with weighted linear combinations. The assignment of the weight/rank values and their analysis are realized by the application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process method. This study is a preliminary work to investigate flood hazards on the Kujukuri Plain. A flood model will be developed to simulate more detailed change of the flood hazard influenced by land subsidence.

  4. Ethylene-Mediated Acclimations to Flooding Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan, Rashmi; Voesenek, Laurentius A.C.J.

    2015-01-01

    Flooding is detrimental for plants, primarily because of restricted gas exchange underwater, which leads to an energy and carbohydrate deficit. Impeded gas exchange also causes rapid accumulation of the volatile ethylene in all flooded plant cells. Although several internal changes in the plant can signal the flooded status, it is the pervasive and rapid accumulation of ethylene that makes it an early and reliable flooding signal. Not surprisingly, it is a major regulator of several flood-adaptive plant traits. Here, we discuss these major ethylene-mediated traits, their functional relevance, and the recent progress in identifying the molecular and signaling events underlying these traits downstream of ethylene. We also speculate on the role of ethylene in postsubmergence recovery and identify several questions for future investigations. PMID:25897003

  5. Mechanisms of flood tolerance in wheat and rice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herzog, Max

    Most crops are sensitive to excess water, and consequently floods have detrimental effects on crop yields worldwide. In addition, global climate change is expected to regionally increase the number of floods within decades, urging for more flood-tolerant crop cultivars to be released. The aim...... of this thesis was to assess mechanisms conferring rice (Oryza sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) flood tolerance, focusing on the role of leaf gas films during plant submergence. Reviewing the literature showed that wheat germplasm holds genetic variation towards waterlogging (soil flooding), and highlighted...... that the contrasting submergence tolerance could rather be governed by tolerance to radical oxygen species or contrasting metabolic responses (other than carbohydrate consumption) to ethylene accumulation. Manipulating leaf gas film presence affected wheat and rice submergence tolerance such as plant growth...

  6. Progress toward determining the potential of ODS alloys for gas turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Hoppin, G., III; Sheffler, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Materials for Advanced Turbine Engine (MATE) Program managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center is supporting two projects to evaluate the potential of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys for aircraft gas turbine applications. One project involves the evaluation of Incoloy (TM) MA-956 for application as a combustor liner material. An assessment of advanced engine potential will be conducted by means of a test in a P&WA 2037 turbofan engine. The other project involves the evaluation of Inconel (TM) MA 6000 for application as a high pressure turbine blade material and includes a test in a Garrett TFE 731 turbofan engine. Both projects are progressing toward these engine tests in 1984.

  7. TANGR2015 Heidelberg. Second international workshop on tracer applications of noble gas radionuclides in the geosciences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-07-01

    TANGR2015 is a workshop on the progress in the technique and application of Atom Trap Trace Analyis (ATTA). It is a follow-up to the first TANGR workshop, TANGR2012, which was held at the Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, USA, in June 2012. It is organized in response to recent technical advances and new applications of Atom Trap Trace Analysis (ATTA), an analytical method for measuring the isotopes {sup 81}Kr, {sup 85}Kr, and {sup 39}Ar. The primary aim of the workshop is to discuss the technical progress of ATTA and thereby enable innovative and timely applications of the noble gas radionuclides to important scientific problems in earth and environmental sciences, e.g. in the fields of groundwater hydrology, glaciology, oceanography, and paleoclimatology.

  8. Amplification and scintillation properties of oxygen-rich gas mixtures for optical-TPC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, L; Gai, M; Breskin, A; Chechik, R; Dangendorf, V; Tittelmeier, K; Weller, H R

    2006-01-01

    We studied electron amplification and light emission from avalanches in oxygen-containing gas mixtures. The mixtures investigated in this work included, among others, CO 2 and N 2 O mixed with Triethylamine (TEA) or N 2 . Double-Step Parallel Gap (DSPG) multipliers and THick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) were investigated. High light yields were measured from CO 2 + N 2 and CO 2 + TEA, though with different emission spectra. We observed the characteristic wave-length emission of N 2 and of TEA and used a polymer wave-length shifter to convert TEA UV-light into the visible spectrum. The results of these measurements indicate the applicability of optical recording of ionizing tracks in a TPC target-detector designed to study the cross-sections of the 16 O(γ, α) 12 C reaction, a central problem in nuclear astrophysics

  9. Principles and applications of a research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, J.E.; Risby, T.H.; Jurs, P.C.

    1979-01-01

    A research-oriented gas chromatography-mass spectrometry data system for a quadrupole mass spectrometer has been developed based on a centrally located departmental computer facility. An overview of the hardware and software system is presented, emphasizing the important aspects of on-line computer data acquisition and control and the design philosophy used in the development of the system. The application of the system is demonstrated by the g.c.-m.s. analysis of a mixture of four transition metal β-diketonates (Al, Cr, Rh, and Ru tris-1,1,1-trifluoro-pentane-2,4-dionate). This anaysis involved vacuum gas chromatography with a support-coated open tubular column and detection of the eluent by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate the data system capabilities and indicate the utility of the combined methodologies. (Auth.)

  10. Studies of Flow in Ionized Gas: Historical Perspective, Contemporary Experiments, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, S.; Vuskovic, L.

    2007-01-01

    Since the first observations that a very small ionized fraction (order of 1 ppm) could strongly affect the gas flow, numerous experiments with partially or fully wall-free discharges have demonstrated the dispersion of shock waves, the enhancement of lateral forces in the flow, the prospects of levitation, and other aerodynamic effects with vast potential of application. A review of physical effects and observations are given along with current status of their interpretation. Special attention will be given to the physical problems of energy efficiency in generating wall-free discharges and the phenomenology of filamentary discharges. Comments and case examples are given on the current status of availability of necessary data for modelling and simulation of the aerodynamic phenomena in weakly ionized gas

  11. Quench gas and preamplifier selection influence on {sup 3}He tube performance for spent fuel applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henziova, Daniela; Menlove, Howard [Safeguards Science and Technology Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-06-15

    Current {sup 3}He tubes utilized in neutron coincidence counting use different quench gas admixtures to shorten the avalanche process. In addition amplifier modules with different shaping characteristics are used to process detector signals. Both of these aspects affect the detector response. In the current paper, {sup 3}He tubes with several quench gas admixtures (CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, Ar+CH{sub 4} and CF{sub 4}) and amplifier modules (PDT, AMPTEK, BOT) are compared. The plateau characteristics, gamma-sensitivity and deadtime of individual counters in combination with the listed amplifier modules are compared to determine optimum amplifier module/counter performance for the spent fuel applications.

  12. Experimental screening of porous materials for high pressure gas adsorption and evaluation in gas separations: application to MOFs (MIL-100 and CAU-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum, Andrew D; Giovannangeli, Christophe; Vincent, Dominique; Bloch, Emily; Reinsch, Helge; Stock, Norbert; Lee, Ji Sun; Chang, Jong-San; Llewellyn, Philip L

    2013-02-11

    A high-throughput gas adsorption apparatus is presented for the evaluation of adsorbents of interest in gas storage and separation applications. This instrument is capable of measuring complete adsorption isotherms up to 40 bar on six samples in parallel using as little as 60 mg of material. Multiple adsorption cycles can be carried out and four gases can be used sequentially, giving as many as 24 adsorption isotherms in 24 h. The apparatus has been used to investigate the effect of metal center (MIL-100) and functional groups (CAU-10) on the adsorption of N(2), CO(2), and light hydrocarbons on MOFs. This demonstrates how it can serve to evaluate sample quality and adsorption reversibility, to determine optimum activation conditions and to estimate separation properties. As such it is a useful tool for the screening of novel adsorbents for different applications in gas separation, providing significant time savings in identifying potentially interesting materials.

  13. Application of geoelectric methods for man-caused gas deposit mapping and monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymchuk, M. A.; Levashov, S. P.; Korchagin, I. N.; Syniuk, B. B.

    2009-04-01

    The rather new application of original geoelectric methods of forming of short-pulsed electromagnetic field (FSPEF) and vertical electric-resonance sounding (VERS) (FSPEF-VERS technology) (Levashov et al., 2003; 2004) is discussed. In 2008 the FSPEF-VERS methods were used for ascertaining the reasons of serious man-caused accident on gas field. The emission of water with gas has occurred near an operational well on one gas field. The assumption was discussed, that some part of gas from producing horizons has got into the upper horizons, in aquiferous stratum layers. It promoted creation of superfluous pressure in aquiferous stratums which has led to accident on the field. Operative geophysical investigations within an accident site were carried out by FSPEF and VERS geoelectric methods on 07.10.08 and 13.10.08 on the first stage. The primary goal of executed works was detection and mapping of gas penetration zones in aquiferous stratums of cross-section upper part, and also the determination of bedding depths and a total area of distribution of gas in upper aquiferous stratums. The anomalous zone were revealed and mapped by FSPEF survey. It is caused by raised migration of water in upper horizons of a cross-section. The depths of anomalous polarized layers (APL) of "gas" and „aquiferous stratum" type were defined by VERS method. The VERS data are presented by sounding diagram's and columns, by vertical cross-sections lengthways and transversely of gas penetration zones, by map of thicknesses of man-caused gas "deposit". The perforation on depths of 450 and 310 m was spent in a producing borehole on the first day investigation data. Gas discharges were received from 450 and 310 m depths. Three degassing boreholes have been drilled on 08.11.08 working day. Depths of wells are about 340 m. Gas inflows were received from 330 m depth. Drilling of fourth well was conducted. The anomalous zone area has decreased twice in comparison with two previous surveys. So, the

  14. An evaluation of gas release modelling approaches as to their applicability in fuel behaviour models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattila, L.J.; Sairanen, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The release of fission gas from uranium oxide fuel to the voids in the fuel rod affects in many ways the behaviour of LWR fuel rods both during normal operating conditions including anticipated transients and during off-normal and accident conditions. The current trend towards significantly increased discharge burnup of LWR fuel will increase the importance of fission gas release considerations both from the design and safety viewpoints. In the paper fission gas release models are classified to 5 categories on the basis of complexity and physical sophistication. For each category, the basic approach common to the models included in the category is described, a few representative models of the category are singled out and briefly commented in some cases, the advantages and drawbacks of the approach are listed and discussed and conclusions on the practical feasibility of the approach are drawn. The evaluation is based on both literature survey and our experience in working with integral fuel behaviour models. The work has included verification efforts, attempts to improve certain features of the codes and engineering applications. The classification of fission gas release models regarding their applicability in fuel behaviour codes can of course be done only in a coarse manner. The boundaries between the different categories are vague and a model may be well refined in a way which transfers it to a higher category. Some current trends in fuel behaviour research are discussed which seem to motivate further extensive efforts in fission product release modelling and are certain to affect the prioritizing of the efforts. (author)

  15. Stimulation technologies for Longwangmiao Fm gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin and their application results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Yongqiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Longwangmiao Fm group gas reservoirs in the Moxi structure in central Sichuan Basin feature high temperature, high pressure and high H2S content. The thickness of such high permeable reservoirs with great homogeneity is a geologic basis for a high-productivity gas well, and good match of natural fractures and vugs is the key factor to high well productivity. Overbalance drilling is likely to cause the opening-up of natural fractures, which will lead to the leakage of drilling fluid and severe damage to the reservoir. Experimental evaluation results show that the damage rate of the drilling fluid to the rock sample is between 82.2% and 89.2%, which severely restricts the productivity of gas wells. Therefore, it is necessary to deepen the experimental evaluation technologies and methods to promote the design pertinence of technical parameters. The study shows: first, the optimized gelling acid and steering acid are effective in slowing down speed and removing blockage, forming acidizing wormholes and effectively eliminating the blockage effect caused by drilling liquid pollution; second, the self-developed fiber steering agent and soluble temporary blocking ball can divert the acid, increasing the processing pressure at the well bottom by 5–15 MPa, realizing the even stimulation of heterogeneous reservoirs; third, based on experimental evaluation such as the acid penetration and acid rock reaction, it is recommended that the pumping rate be 3.0–3.5 m3/min in acidizing treatment and the acid intensity for blockage removal be 3.0–5.0 m3/m; fourth, the established blockage removal and steering acidizing technology have been applied in more than 20 wells with a remarkable productivity-increase effect, which gives full play to the natural productivity of gas wells and decreases the acid application scale. All these technologies and measures effectively enhance the development quality and profit of the gas reservoir.

  16. Case study on natural gas application for district heating and cooling in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair Arone [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (IE/PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Energia; Akiyama, Junichi [Mitsui Gas e Energia do Brasil Ltda., Rio de janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The distributed cogeneration applying natural gas consists in an excellent alternative to use this source, but it is limited by a compatible heat demand that must be found in its application. District heating and cooling solutions can overcome this hurdle, especially in Brazil, a tropical country, where new industrial and commercial enterprises usually install central air conditioning systems. By 2020 natural gas demand shall reach a value of more than 200 MM m{sup 3} per day, accordingly to the Brazilian Energy Research Office (EPE, 2011). An expressive part of it could be consumed in cogeneration systems like the one described in this paper. This project had a special taxes exception rule applied. The chilled water and heated thermal oil produced were not taxed at all. But these two DHC utilities could obtain a different treatment if someone considers this is a tricky way of power and heat trading, which should be taxed as electricity and natural gas normally are. A bolder legislation with respect to the export of energy surplus would facilitate the project and operation of this kind of system, because the basic premise would be to attend the thermal demand with the electrical power installed, maximizing the global efficiency of the installation. An average 8 GW of Brazilian power demand, with roughly 50 MMm{sup 3}/day of natural gas consumption, could be attended by distributed energy gas cogeneration enterprises. If this prediction were totally accomplished it would bring the Brazilian participation of distributed energy in total power generation to values close to 10% in 2020, value already reached in average by the world biggest electricity's consumer countries (WADE, 2006). This also would mean an equivalent investment economy of approximately 11,000 MW in transmission and distribution lines capacity (author)

  17. A simple large-scale synthesis of mesoporous In_2O_3 for gas sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Su; Song, Peng; Yan, Huihui; Yang, Zhongxi; Wang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Large-scale mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures for gas-sensing applications were successfully fabricated via a facile Lewis acid catalytic the furfural alcohol resin template route. - Highlights: • Mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures with high-yield have been successfully fabricated via a facile strategy. • The microstructure and formation mechanism of mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures were discussed based on the experimental results. • The as-prepared In_2O_3 samples exhibited high response, short response-recovery times and good selectivity to ethanol gas. - Abstract: In this paper, large-scale mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures were synthesized by a facile Lewis acid catalytic the furfural alcohol resin (FAR) template route for the high-yield. Their morphology and structure were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential thermal and thermogravimetry analysis (DSC-TG) and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) approach. The as-obtained mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures possess excellent mesoporous and network structure, which increases the contact area with the gases, it is conducive for adsorption-desorption of gas on the surface of In_2O_3. The In_2O_3 particles and pores were both about 15 nm and very uniform. In gas-sensing measurements with target gases, the gas sensor based on mesoporous In_2O_3 nanostructures showed a good response, short response-recovery time, good selectivity and stability to ethanol. These properties are due to the large specific surface area of mesoporous structure. This synthetic method could use as a new design concept for functional mesoporous nanomaterials and for mass production.

  18. Methodology for flood risk analysis for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Casada, M.L.; Fussell, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    The methodology for flood risk analysis described here addresses the effects of a flood on nuclear power plant safety systems. Combining the results of this method with the probability of a flood allows the effects of flooding to be included in a probabilistic risk assessment. The five-step methodology includes accident sequence screening to focus the detailed analysis efforts on the accident sequences that are significantly affected by a flood event. The quantitative results include the flood's contribution to system failure probability, accident sequence occurrence frequency and consequence category occurrence frequency. The analysis can be added to existing risk assessments without a significant loss in efficiency. The results of two example applications show the usefulness of the methodology. Both examples rely on the Reactor Safety Study for the required risk assessment inputs and present changes in the Reactor Safety Study results as a function of flood probability

  19. Application of Fiscal Incentives for Development of East Natuna Gas Field for Long-Term National Natural Gas Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan Batubara

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available East Natuna gas field, which has proven reserves of 46 trillion cubic feet, is projected to meet long-term natural gas needs. However, CO2-content of the gas reserves reaches 71%, leading to expensive development costs. This research investigates the feasibility of the field based on several fiscal incentives. Firstly, gas supply-demand until year 2040 was analyzed. Then, based on the analysis, the field was developed using high CO2 gas separation technology to produce gas of 1300 MMSCFD in 2023, 2600 MMSCFD in 2031, and 3900 MMSCFD in 2039. Finally, the economic feasibility was assessed using cash flow analysis in accordance with Indonesia’s production sharing contract scheme. The results show that the supply-demand gap continues to increase and thus the development is urgently needed. The development cost is estimated around US$ 27.59 billion. The gas selling prices are assumed at US$ 8/MMBTU for wellhead, US$ 11/MMBTU for pipelines, and US$ 11/MMBTU for LNG. To achieve minimum IRR value of 12%, the government needs to offer incentives of 30-year contract period, profit sharing of 55%: 45%, first tranche petroleum to 10%, and tax holiday of 10 years. Toll fee for Natuna-Cirebon pipeline is US$ 2.3/MMBTU at IRR of 12.6%.

  20. A coupled modelling system for the Irish Sea and Liverpool Bay with application to coastal flood forecasting and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J.; Bricheno, L. R.; Brown, J. E.; Bolaños, R.

    2012-04-01

    The POLCOMS-WAM coupled wave and hydrodynamic model has been implemented at 1.8km resolution for the Irish Sea and 180m in a nested model of Liverpool Bay. It can be forced with output from the UK Met Office Unified Model. This allows the use of Smith and Banke (1975) and Charnock (1955) formulations for the wind-stress. The former gives an underestimate of the wind-stress, requiring enhanced winds for accurate surge hindcasts. While the latter gives good results for the Irish Sea and Liverpool Bay, with different values of the Charnock coefficient, it also allows the inclusion of a coupled wave stress into the wind-stress (Brown and Wolf, 2009). New results have been obtained by using wind and pressures from the WRF atmospheric model, allowing further development of air-sea coupling. The coupled model also includes bottom friction and the Doppler shift of the waves by the depth-averaged current), as well as advanced coupling procedures: use of the 3D current in the wave physics and calculation of radiation stress and Stokes' drift (Brown et al., 2011). During storm conditions it is found that the radiation stress is the most important term in this shallow water application. However, WAM runs in near real time, making this model only practical for research purposes. The model system has been used to hindcast tides, surges and waves in Liverpool Bay. Data are readily available from the Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory to quantify the importance of each coupled term with the aim of producing the most accurate model setup for coastal forecasting. A storm event, 18th January 2007, has been hindcast to investigate extreme tide-surge-wave condition both offshore and inshore. During storm events, wave setup in shallow regions can contribute significantly to the total water elevation. The application of a 2D method to calculate radiation stress in a 3D hydrodynamic model is thoroughly examined by comparison with observations and a 3D model (Mellor, 2003). The results show

  1. Applications of a Mid-IR Quantum Cascade Laser in Gas Sensing Research

    KAUST Repository

    Sajid, Muhammad Bilal

    2015-05-01

    Laser absorption based sensors are extensively used in a variety of gas sensing areas such as combustion, atmospheric research, human breath analysis, and high resolution infrared spectroscopy. Quantum cascade lasers have recently emerged as high resolution, high power laser sources operating in mid infrared region and can have wide tunability range. These devices provide an opportunity to access stronger fundamental and combination vibrational bands located in mid infrared region than previously accessible weaker overtone vibrational bands located in near infrared region. Spectroscopic region near 8 µm contains strong vibrational bands of methane, acetylene, hydrogen peroxide, water vapor and nitrous oxide. These molecules have important applications in a wide range of applications. This thesis presents studies pertaining to spectroscopy and combustion applications. Advancements in combustion research are imperative to achieve lower emissions and higher efficiency in practical combustion devices such as gas turbines and engines. Accurate chemical kinetic models are critical to achieve predictive models which contain several thousand reactions and hundreds of species. These models need highly reliable experimental data for validation and improvements. Shock tubes are ideal devices to obtain such information. A shock tube is a homogenous, nearly constant volume, constant pressure, adiabatic and 0-D reactor. In combination with laser absorption sensors, shock tubes can be used to measure reaction rates and species time histories of several intermediates and products formed during pyrolysis and oxidation of fuels. This work describes measurement of the decomposition rate of hydrogen peroxide which is an important intermediate species controlling reactivity of combustion system in the intermediate temperature range. Spectroscopic parameters (linestrengths, broadening coefficients and temperature dependent coefficients) are determined for various transitions of

  2. Phenomenally High Transduction Air/gas Transducers for Practical Non-Contact Ultrasonic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Mahesh C.

    2009-03-01

    Based on novel acoustic impedance matching layers and high coupling piezoelectric materials this paper describes exceptionally high air/gas transduction ultrasonic transducers. By providing applications oriented performance of these transducers we also usher in the era of much desired Non-Contact Ultrasound (NCU) testing and analysis of a wide range of materials including early stage formation of materials such as uncured composite prepregs, green ceramics and powder metals, plastics, elastomers, porous, hygroscopic, chemically bonded and other materials. Besides quality control, ultimately NCU offers timely opportunities for cost-effective materials production, energy savings, and environment protection.

  3. Semiconductor device-based sensors for gas, chemical, and biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Fan

    2011-01-01

    Sales of U.S. chemical sensors represent the largest segment of the multi-billion-dollar global sensor market, which includes instruments for chemical detection in gases and liquids, biosensors, and medical sensors. Although silicon-based devices have dominated the field, they are limited by their general inability to operate in harsh environments faced with factors such as high temperature and pressure. Exploring how and why these instruments have become a major player, Semiconductor Device-Based Sensors for Gas, Chemical, and Biomedical Applications presents the latest research, including or

  4. High-speed cinematography of gas-tungsten arc welding: theory and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, L.D.; Key, J.F.

    1981-06-01

    High-speed photo-instrumentation theory and application are reviewed, with particular emphasis on high-speed cinematography, for the engineer who has not acquired an extensive background in scientific photography. Camera systems, optics, timing system, lighting, photometric equipment, filters, and camera mounts are covered. Manufacturers and other resource material are listed in the Appendices. The properties and processing of photosensitive materials suitable for high-speed photography are reviewed, and selected film data are presented. Methods are described for both qualitative and quantitative film analysis. This technology is applied to the problem of analyzing plasma dynamics in a gas-tungsten welding arc.

  5. Development of a global river-coastal coupling model and its application to flood simulation in Asian mega-delta regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeuchi, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yukiko; Yamazaki, Dai; Muis, Sanne; Ward, Philip; Verlaan, Martin; Winsemius, Hessel; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2017-04-01

    The world's mega-delta regions and estuaries are susceptible to various water-related disasters, such as river flooding and storm surge. Moreover, simultaneous occurrence of them would be more devastating than a situation where they occur in isolation. Therefore, it is important to provide information about compound risks of fluvial and coastal floods at a large scale, both their statistical dependency as well as their combined resulting flooding in delta regions. Here we report on a first attempt to address this issue globally by developing a method to couple a global river model (CaMa-Flood) and a global tide and surge reanalysis (GTSR) dataset. A state-of-the-art global river routing model, CaMa-Flood, was modified to represent varying sea levels due to tides and storm surges as downstream boundary condition, and the GTSR dataset was post-processed to serve as inputs to the CaMa-Flood river routing simulation and a long-term simulation was performed to incorporate the temporal dependency between coastal tide and surge on the one hand, and discharge on the other. The coupled model was validated against observations, showing better simulation results of water levels in deltaic regions than simulation without GTSR. For example in the Ganges Delta, correlation coefficients were increased by 0.06, and root mean square errors were reduced by 0.22 m. Global coupling simulations revealed that storm surges affected river water levels in coastal regions worldwide, especially in low-lying flat areas with increases in water level larger than 0.5 m. By employing enhanced storm surge simulation with tropical storm tracks, we also applied the model to examine impacts of past hurricane and cyclone storm events on river flood inundation.

  6. Improving flood risk mapping in Italy: the FloodRisk open-source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Raffaele; Mancusi, Leonardo; Craciun, Iulia; Sole, Aurelia; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2017-04-01

    Time and again, floods around the world illustrate the devastating impact they can have on societies. Furthermore, the expectation that the flood damages can increase over time with climate, land-use change and social growth in flood prone-areas has raised the public and other stakeholders' (governments, international organization, re-insurance companies and emergency responders) awareness for the need to manage risks in order to mitigate their causes and consequences. In this light, the choice of appropriate measures, the assessment of the costs and effects of such measures, and their prioritization are crucial for decision makers. As a result, a priori flood risk assessment has become a key part of flood management practices with the aim of minimizing the total costs related to the risk management cycle. In this context, The EU Flood Directive 2007/60 requires the delineation of flood risk maps on the bases of most appropriate and advanced tools, with particular attention on limiting required economic efforts. The main aim of these risk maps is to provide the required knowledge for the development of flood risk management plans (FRMPs) by considering both costs and benefits of alternatives and results from consultation with all interested parties. In this context, this research project developed a free and open-source (FOSS) GIS software, called FloodRisk, to operatively support stakeholders in their compliance with the FRMPs. FloodRisk aims to facilitate the development of risk maps and the evaluation and management of current and future flood risk for multi-purpose applications. This new approach overcomes the limits of the expert-drive qualitative (EDQ) approach currently adopted in several European countries, such as Italy, which does not permit a suitable evaluation of the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies, because the vulnerability component cannot be properly assessed. Moreover, FloodRisk is also able to involve the citizens in the flood

  7. The index-flood and the GRADEX methods combination for flood frequency analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Diana; Di Baldassarre, Giuliano; Quesada, Beatriz; Xu, Chong-Yu; Halldin, Sven; Beven, Keith

    2017-04-01

    Flood frequency analysis is used in many applications, including flood risk management, design of hydraulic structures, and urban planning. However, such analysis requires of long series of observed discharge data which are often not available in many basins around the world. In this study, we tested the usefulness of combining regional discharge and local precipitation data to estimate the event flood volume frequency curve for 63 catchments in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean. This was achieved by combining two existing flood frequency analysis methods, the regionalization index-flood approach with the GRADEX method. For up to 10-years return period, similar shape of the scaled flood frequency curve for catchments with similar flood behaviour was assumed from the index-flood approach. For return periods larger than 10-years the probability distribution of rainfall and discharge volumes were assumed to be asymptotically and exponential-type functions with the same scale parameter from the GRADEX method. Results showed that if the mean annual flood (MAF), used as index-flood, is known, the index-flood approach performed well for up to 10 years return periods, resulting in 25% mean relative error in prediction. For larger return periods the prediction capability decreased but could be improved by the use of the GRADEX method. As the MAF is unknown at ungauged and short-period measured basins, we tested predicting the MAF using catchments climate-physical characteristics, and discharge statistics, the latter when observations were available for only 8 years. Only the use of discharge statistics resulted in acceptable predictions.

  8. Development and application of the BISON fuel performance code to the analysis of fission gas behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore, G.; Hales, J.D.; Novascone, S.R.; Perez, D.M.; Spencer, B.W.; Williamson, R.L.

    2014-01-01

    BISON is a modern finite-element based, multidimensional nuclear fuel performance code that has been under development at Idaho National Laboratory (USA) since 2009. The capabilities of BISON comprise implicit solution of the fully coupled thermo-mechanics and diffusion equations, applicability to a variety of fuel forms, and simulation of both steady-state and transient conditions. The code includes multiphysics constitutive behavior for both fuel and cladding materials, and is designed for efficient use on highly parallel computers. This paper describes the main features of BISON, with emphasis on recent developments in modelling of fission gas behaviour in LWR-UO 2 fuel. The code is applied to the simulation of fuel rod irradiation experiments from the OECD/NEA International Fuel Performance Experiments Database. The comparison of the results with the available experimental data of fuel temperature, fission gas release, and cladding diametrical strain during pellet-cladding mechanical interaction is presented, pointing out a promising potential of the BISON code with the new fission gas behaviour model. (authors)

  9. Application of process tomography in gas-solid fluidised beds in different scales and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. G.; Che, H. Q.; Ye, J. M.; Tu, Q. Y.; Wu, Z. P.; Yang, W. Q.; Ocone, R.

    2018-04-01

    Gas-solid fluidised beds are commonly used in particle-related processes, e.g. for coal combustion and gasification in the power industry, and the coating and granulation process in the pharmaceutical industry. Because the operation efficiency depends on the gas-solid flow characteristics, it is necessary to investigate the flow behaviour. This paper is about the application of process tomography, including electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) and microwave tomography (MWT), in multi-scale gas-solid fluidisation processes in the pharmaceutical and power industries. This is the first time that both ECT and MWT have been applied for this purpose in multi-scale and complex structure. To evaluate the sensor design and image reconstruction and to investigate the effects of sensor structure and dimension on the image quality, a normalised sensitivity coefficient is introduced. In the meantime, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis based on a computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) model and a two-phase fluid model (TFM) is used. Part of the CPFD-TFM simulation results are compared and validated by experimental results from ECT and/or MWT. By both simulation and experiment, the complex flow hydrodynamic behaviour in different scales is analysed. Time-series capacitance data are analysed both in time and frequency domains to reveal the flow characteristics.

  10. High-power selfshielded electron processors and their application to stack gas treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiley, J.; Frutiger, W.A.; Nablo, S.V.

    1987-01-01

    The increasing industrial demands for large width (approximately 2 m), high dose rate (1 Mrad at 1500 m/min) electron beam machinery has led to a relatively rapid improvement in this field over the past several years. Selfshielded machinery capable of up to 1000 mA of current at 300 kV is now in commercial use, and the essential features of these designs are presented. A variety of product handling geometries for use with these accelerators has been developed for processes involving flexible web, rigid sheet, and three-dimensional objects in both the polymerization and sterilization applications. One of the major power-intensive processes to which these machines are currently applied is that of the reduction of pollutants (NO x , SO 2 , etc.) in the flue gas from fuel combustion - particularly those fossil fuels used in power production. The preferred technique utilizes the treatment of the ammoniated gas at modest dose levels (0.5-2.0 Mrads) to enhance the formation of ammonium salts which are then removed from the gas stream by conventional filtration. Some results from a 180 kWx300 kV pilot installation in Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany are presented. (orig.)

  11. Maryland air toxics regulation applicable to a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidemann, H.A.; Hoffman, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Columbia Gas Transmission Corporation submitted an air permit application to the Maryland Department of the Environment to construct a natural gas compressor station near Rutledge, Maryland. The station consists of three natural gas-fueled internal combustion reciprocating engines, each rated at 3200 horsepower. Maximum potential pollutant emissions associated with the station operation did not trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration review or nonattainment area New Source review. However, a minor source air permit cannot be issued without addressing Maryland's toxic air regulations. Columbia initiated a detailed investigation of toxic air pollutants, including a stack test of an identical engine. Based on this information, the proposed station was subject to the toxic air regulation for acetaldehyde, acrolein, benzene, crotonaldehyde, and formaldehyde. Compliance with the toxic air regulation for crotonaldehyde was demonstrated by having an emission rate less than the threshold emission rate, specified in the regulation. The ambient air quality impact of the other four pollutants was determined using the Industrial Source Complex dispersion model and resulted in predicted concentrations below the pollutant-specific acceptable ambient level. A carcinogenic impact analysis was performed for acetaldehyde, benzene, and formaldehyde to demonstrate compliance with the accepted risk of one in one hundred thousand

  12. Applications to marine disaster prevention spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent results of the research project funded by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (S) of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (No. 23226017) from FY 2011 to FY 2015 on an autonomous spilled oil and gas tracking buoy system and its applications to marine disaster prevention systems from a scientific point of view. This book spotlights research on marine disaster prevention systems related to incidents involving oil tankers and offshore platforms, approaching these problems from new scientific and technological perspectives. The most essential aspect of this book is the development of a deep-sea underwater robot for real-time monitoring of blowout behavior of oil and gas from the seabed and of a new type of autonomous surface vehicle for real-time tracking and monitoring of oil spill spread and drift on the sea surface using an oil sensor. The mission of these robots is to provide the simulation models for gas and oil blowouts or spilled oil drifting on the sea surface w...

  13. An Easy to Manufacture Micro Gas Preconcentrator for Chemical Sensing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mitchell M; Zrodnikov, Yuriy; Fung, Alexander G; LeVasseur, Michael K; Pedersen, Josephine M; Zamuruyev, Konstantin O; Aksenov, Alexander A; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Davis, Cristina E

    2017-08-25

    We have developed a simple-to-manufacture microfabricated gas preconcentrator for MEMS-based chemical sensing applications. Cavities and microfluidic channels were created using a wet etch process with hydrofluoric acid, portions of which can be performed outside of a cleanroom, instead of the more common deep reactive ion etch process. The integrated heater and resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) were created with a photolithography-free technique enabled by laser etching. With only 28 V DC (0.1 A), a maximum heating rate of 17.6 °C/s was observed. Adsorption and desorption flow parameters were optimized to be 90 SCCM and 25 SCCM, respectively, for a multicomponent gas mixture. Under testing conditions using Tenax TA sorbent, the device was capable of measuring analytes down to 22 ppb with only a 2 min sample loading time using a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. Two separate devices were compared by measuring the same chemical mixture; both devices yielded similar peak areas and widths (fwhm: 0.032-0.033 min), suggesting reproducibility between devices.

  14. Improving the analysis of social component of flash-floods risk assessment: Application to urban areas of Castilla y León (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroca Jimenez, Estefanía; Bodoque del Pozo, Jose Maria; Garcia Martin, Juan Antonio; Diez Herrero, Andres

    2016-04-01

    The increasing evidence of anthropogenic climate change, the respective intensification of extreme events as well as the increase in human exposure to natural hazards and their vulnerability show that the enhancement of strategies on how to reduce disaster risk and promote adaptation to extreme events is critical to increase resilience. Growing economic losses, high numbers of casualties and the disruption of livelihoods in various places of the world, at an even higher rate than the increase of magnitude and frequency of extreme events, underline that the vulnerability of societies exposed is a key aspect to be considered. Social vulnerability characterizes the predisposition of society to be afflicted by hazards such as floods, being flash floods one of the hazards with the greatest capacity to generate risk. Despite its importance, social vulnerability is often a neglected aspect of traditional risk assessments which mainly focus on economic and structural measures. The aim of this research is to identify those social characteristics which render people vulnerable to flash flood hazards, and consider whether these characteristics are identifiable as local patterns at regional level. The result of this task is a Social Susceptibility Index (SSI) based on susceptibility profiles of the population per township. These profiles are obtained by Hierarchical Segmentation and Latent Class Analysis of demographic and socio-economic information provided by different public organisms. By adding exposure information to SSI, a Social and Infraestructure Flood Vulnerability Index (SIFVI) is created. The methodology proposed here is implemented in the region of Castilla y León (94,226 km2). Townships that are included in this study meet two requirements: i) city centres are affected by an area where potential significant flash-flood risk exists (i.e. villages are crossed by rivers with a longitudinal slope higher than 0.01); ii) city centres are affected by an area with low

  15. Gas storage in porous metal-organic frameworks for clean energy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shengqian; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2010-01-07

    Depletion of fossil oil deposits and the escalating threat of global warming have put clean energy research, which includes the search for clean energy carriers such as hydrogen and methane as well as the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, on the urgent agenda. A significant technical challenge has been recognized as the development of a viable method to efficiently trap hydrogen, methane and carbon dioxide gas molecules in a confined space for various applications. This issue can be addressed by employing highly porous materials as storage media, and porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) which have exceptionally high surface areas as well as chemically-tunable structures are playing an unusual role in this respect. In this feature article we provide an overview of the current status of clean energy applications of porous MOFs, including hydrogen storage, methane storage and carbon dioxide capture.

  16. Techno-economic optimisation of three gas liquefaction processes for small-scale applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard; Elmegaard, Brian

    2016-01-01

    inventory. The present work investigates three configurations (single-mixed refrigerant, single and dual reverse Brayton cycles) for small-scale applications, which are optimised and evaluated individually. The influences of the refrigerant properties and process technologies are analysed, and the most...... promising cycle setups are identified. The findings illustrate the resulting trade-offs between the system performance and investment costs, which differ significantly with the type of refrigeration cycle. Although these configurations are suitable for small-scale applications, mixed-refrigerant processes...... thermodynamic models leads to relative deviations of up to 1% for the power consumption and 20% for the network conductance. Particular caution should thus be exercised when extrapolating the results of process models to the design of actual gas liquefaction systems....

  17. Emerging applications of low temperature gas plasmas in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Alex; Shama, Gilbert; Iza, Felipe

    2015-06-16

    The global burden of foodborne disease due to the presence of contaminating micro-organisms remains high, despite some notable examples of their successful reduction in some instances. Globally, the number of species of micro-organisms responsible for foodborne diseases has increased over the past decades and as a result of the continued centralization of the food processing industry, outbreaks now have far reaching consequences. Gas plasmas offer a broad range of microbicidal capabilities that could be exploited in the food industry and against which microbial resistance would be unlikely to occur. In addition to reducing the incidence of disease by acting on the micro-organisms responsible for food spoilage, gas plasmas could also play a role in increasing the shelf-life of perishable foods and thereby reduce food wastage with positive financial and environmental implications. Treatment need not be confined to the food itself but could include food processing equipment and also the environment in which commercial food processing occurs. Moreover, gas plasmas could also be used to bring about the degradation of undesirable chemical compounds, such as allergens, toxins, and pesticide residues, often encountered on foods and food-processing equipment. The literature on the application of gas plasmas to food treatment is beginning to reveal an appreciation that attention needs also to be paid to ensuring that the key quality attributes of foods are not significantly impaired as a result of treatment. A greater understanding of both the mechanisms by which micro-organisms and chemical compounds are inactivated, and of the plasma species responsible for this is forming. This is significant, as this knowledge can then be used to design plasma systems with tailored compositions that will achieve maximum efficacy. Better understanding of the underlying interactions will also enable the design and implementation of control strategies capable of minimizing variations in

  18. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  19. Constitutive modeling of a nickel base superalloy -with a focus on gas turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almroth, Per

    2003-05-01

    Gas turbines are used where large amounts of energy is needed, typically as engines in aircraft, ferries and power plants. From an efficiency point of view it is desirable to increase the service temperature as much as possible. One of the limiting factors is then the maximum allowable metal temperatures in the turbine stages, primarily in the blades of the first stage, that are exposed to the highest gas temperatures. Specially designed materials are used to cope with these severe conditions, such as the nickel base superalloy IN792. In order to be able to design the components for higher temperatures and tighter tolerances, a detailed understanding and computationel models of the material behaviour is needed. The models presented in this work have been developed with the objective of being physically well motivated, and with the intention of avoiding excessive numbers of parameters. The influence of the parameters should also be as easy as possible to interpret. The models are to describe the behaviour of IN792, under conditions typically found for a gas turbine blade. Specifically the high- and intermediate temperature isothermal modelling of IN792 have been addressed. One main issue when characterising the material and calibrating the models is the use of relevant tests, that are representative of component conditions. Therefore isothermal tests with an eye on the typical environment of a turbine blade have been planned and performed. Using numerical optimization techniques the material parameters for the isothermal behaviour of IN792 at 650 deg and 850 deg have been estimated. The good overall calibration results for these specific temperatures, using the presented modeling concept and nonstandard constitutive tests, suggests that the model can describe the behaviour of IN792 in gas turbine hot part applications.

  20. Synthesis and integration of one-dimensional nanostructures for chemical gas sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthangal, Prahalad Madhavan

    The need for improved measurement technology for the detection and monitoring of gases has increased tremendously for maintenance of domestic and industrial health and safety, environmental surveys, national security, food-processing, medical diagnostics and various other industrial applications. Among the several varieties of gas sensors available in the market, solid-state sensors are the most popular owing to their excellent sensitivity, ruggedness, versatility and low cost. Semiconducting metal oxides such as tin oxide (SnO2), zinc oxide (ZnO), and tungsten oxide (WO3) are routinely employed as active materials in these sensors. Since their performance is directly linked to the exposed surface area of the sensing material, one-dimensional nanostructures possessing very high surface to volume ratios are attractive candidates for designing the next generation of sensors. Such nano-sensors also enable miniaturization thereby reducing power consumption. The key to achieve success in one-dimensional nanotechnologies lies in assembly. While synthesis techniques and capabilities continue to expand rapidly, progress in controlled assembly has been sluggish due to numerous technical challenges. In this doctoral thesis work, synthesis and characterization of various one-dimensional nanostructures including nanotubes of SnO2, and nanowires of WO3 and ZnO, as well as their direct integration into miniature sensor platforms called microhotplates have been demonstrated. The key highlights of this research include devising elegant strategies for growing metal oxide nanotubes using carbon nanotubes as templates, substantially reducing process temperatures to enable growth of WO3 nanowires on microhotplates, and successfully fabricating a ZnO nanowire array based sensor using a hybrid nanowire-nanoparticle assembly approach. In every process, the gas-sensing properties of one-dimensional nanostructures were observed to be far superior in comparison with thin films of the same

  1. Applications of Nd:YAG laser micromanufacturing in high temperature gas reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooyen, I.J. van; Smal, C.A.; Steyn, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Two innovative applications of Nd:YAG laser micromachining techniques demonstrated. ► Firstly an alumina jig to contain multiple 500 μm diameter ZrO 2 spheres. ► Secondly the manufacture of a sealing system using laser micromachining. ► ZrO 2 micro plugs isolate the openings of micro-machined cavities to produce a gas-tight seal. ► Manufacturing processes for both the tapered seating cavity and the plug are demonstrated. - Abstract: Two innovative applications of Nd:YAG laser micromachining techniques are demonstrated in this publication. Research projects to determine the fission product transport mechanisms in TRISO coated particles necessitate heat treatment studies as well as the manufacturing of a unique sealed system for experimentation at very high temperatures. This article describes firstly the design and creation of an alumina jig designed to contain 500 μm diameter ZrO 2 spheres intended for annealing experiments at temperatures up to 1600 °C. Functional requirements of this jig are the precision positioning of spheres for laser ablation, welding and post weld heat treatment in order to ensure process repeatability and accurate indexing of individual spheres. The design challenges and the performance of the holding device are reported. Secondly the manufacture of a sealing system using laser micromachining is reported. ZrO 2 micro plugs isolate the openings of micro-machined cavities to produce a gas-tight seal fit for application in a high temperature environment. The technique is described along with a discussion of the problems experienced during the sealing process. Typical problems experienced were seating dimensions and the relative small size (∼200 μm) of these plugs that posed handling challenges. Manufacturing processes for both the tapered seating cavity and the plug are demonstrated. In conclusion, this article demonstrates the application of Nd-YAG micromachining in an innovative way to solve practical research

  2. Design and fabrication of resonator-quantum well infrared photodetector for SF6 gas sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jason; Choi, Kwong-Kit; DeCuir, Eric; Olver, Kimberley; Fu, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The infrared absorption of SF6 gas is narrowband and peaks at 10.6 μm. This narrowband absorption posts a stringent requirement on the corresponding sensors as they need to collect enough signal from this limited spectral bandwidth to maintain a high sensitivity. Resonator-quantum well infrared photodetectors (R-QWIPs) are the next generation of QWIP detectors that use resonances to increase the quantum efficiency for more efficient signal collection. Since the resonant approach is applicable to narrowband as well as broadband, it is particularly suitable for this application. We designed and fabricated R-QWIPs for SF6 gas detection. To achieve the expected performance, the detector geometry must be produced according to precise specifications. In particular, the height of the diffractive elements and the thickness of the active resonator must be uniform, and accurately realized to within 0.05 μm. Additionally, the substrates of the detectors must be completely removed to prevent the escape of unabsorbed light in the detectors. To achieve these specifications, two optimized inductively coupled plasma etching processes were developed. Due to submicron detector feature sizes and overlay tolerance, we used an advanced semiconductor material lithography stepper instead of a contact mask aligner to pattern wafers. Using these etching techniques and tool, we have fabricated focal plane arrays with 30-μm pixel pitch and 320×256 format. The initial test revealed promising results.

  3. Application of gas-cooled Accelerator Driven System (ADS) transmutation devices to sustainable nuclear energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abanades, A., E-mail: abanades@etsii.upm.es [ETSII/Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, J.Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, C.; Garcia, L. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba); Escriva, A.; Perez-Navarro, A. [Instituto de Ingenieria Energetica, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, C.P. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rosales, J. [Instituto Superior de Tecnologia y Ciencias Aplicadas. Quinta de los, Molinos, Ave. Salvador Allende y Luaces, Ciudad de la Habana, CP 10400, Apartado Postal 6163 (Cuba)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Utilization of Accelerator Driven System (ADS) for Hydrogen production. > Evaluation of the potential use of gas-cooled ADS for a sustainable use of Uranium resources by transmutation of nuclear wastes, electricity and Hydrogen production. > Application of the Sulfur-Iodine thermochemical process to subcritical systems. > Application of CINDER90 to calculate burn-up in subcritical systems. - Abstract: The conceptual design of a pebble bed gas-cooled transmutation device is shown with the aim to evaluate its potential for its deployment in the context of the sustainable nuclear energy development, which considers high temperature reactors for their operation in cogeneration mode, producing electricity, heat and Hydrogen. As differential characteristics our device operates in subcritical mode, driven by a neutron source activated by an accelerator that adds clear safety advantages and fuel flexibility opening the possibility to reduce the nuclear stockpile producing energy from actual LWR irradiated fuel with an efficiency of 45-46%, either in the form of Hydrogen, electricity, or both.

  4. Use of geographic information systems for applications on gas pipeline rights-of-way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sydelko, P.J.; Wilkey, P.L.

    1992-12-01

    Geographic information system (GIS) applications for the siting and monitoring of gas pipeline rights-of-way (ROWS) were developed for areas near Rio Vista, California. The data layers developed for this project represent geographic features, such as landcover, elevation, aspect, slope, soils, hydrography, transportation, endangered species, wetlands, and public line surveys. A GIS was used to develop and store spatial data from several sources; to manipulate spatial data to evaluate environmental and engineering issues associated with the siting, permitting, construction, maintenance, and monitoring of gas pipeline ROWS; and to graphically display analysis results. Examples of these applications include (1) determination of environmentally sensitive areas, such as endangered species habitat, wetlands, and areas of highly erosive soils; (2) evaluation of engineering constraints, including shallow depth to bedrock, major hydrographic features, and shallow water table; (3) classification of satellite imagery for landuse/landcover that will affect ROWS; and (4) identification of alternative ROW corridors that avoid environmentally sensitive areas or areas with severe engineering constraints.

  5. Retrofit acid gas emission control for municipal waste incineration application of dry sorbent injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmuda, J.T.; Smith, P.V.

    1991-01-01

    Dry sorbent injection (DSI) has been successfully demonstrated on coal fired boiler applications as a means of reducing sulfur dioxide emissions. More recently, the dry sorbent injection process was applied to an existing municipal waste incinerator to provide acid gas emission controls. The results obtained from the successful demonstration of the sorbent injection system on an existing municipal incinerator are presented. Removal efficiencies of compounds such as HCl, SO 2 , SO 3 , mercury, and others by the use of sorbent injection are shown. Effects of the DSI system on downstream equipment, such as electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, ash handling systems, and waste management is included. The impacts of the DSI system on the furnace is also discussed. In this paper a discussion of dry sorbent injection as a means of reducing acid gas and other emissions from existing municipal waste incinerators which may be affected by the regulations is presented. An application case study will outline typical exhaust conditions, expected pollution reductions, capital and operating costs, and type of available sorbents and their costs

  6. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  7. Computerized evaluation of flood impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagnon, J.; Quach, T.T.; Marche, C.; Lessard, G.

    1998-01-01

    A computerized evaluation process for assessing the economic impacts of a potential dam failure is described. The DOMINO software, which was developed by Hydro-Quebec, takes into account flow data from dam break simulations of floods, the territory involved, plus the economic evaluations of the real estate and infrastructures affected. Some examples of software applications and impact evaluations are presented. The principal elements involved in estimating economic or other types of impacts induced by natural flooding or dam failure, are: (1) flow forecasting, (2) defining the contour of the involved territory, and (3) accounting for the various impacts identified in the affected zone. Owing to its wide range of functions and utilities, DOMINO has proven to be a very useful, user-friendly and portable decision-making tool. 5 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Discover Floods Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Now available as a Download! This valuable resource helps educators teach students about both the risks and benefits of flooding through a series of engaging, hands-on activities. Acknowledging the different roles that floods play in both natural and urban communities, the book helps young people gain a global understanding of this common--and…

  9. Flood Finder: Mobile-based automated water level estimation and mapping during floods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongsiriyaporn, B; Jariyavajee, C; Laoharawee, N; Narkthong, N; Pitichat, T; Goldin, S E

    2014-01-01

    Every year, Southeast Asia faces numerous flooding disasters, resulting in very high human and economic loss. Responding to a sudden flood is difficult due to the lack of accurate and up-to- date information about the incoming water status. We have developed a mobile application called Flood Finder to solve this problem. Flood Finder allows smartphone users to measure, share and search for water level information at specified locations. The application uses image processing to compute the water level from a photo taken by users. The photo must be of a known reference object with a standard size. These water levels are more reliable and consistent than human estimates since they are derived from an algorithmic measuring function. Flood Finder uploads water level readings to the server, where they can be searched and mapped by other users via the mobile phone app or standard browsers. Given the widespread availability of smartphones in Asia, Flood Finder can provide more accurate and up-to-date information for better preparation for a flood disaster as well as life safety and property protection

  10. Flood action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopek, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    Safe operating procedures developed by TransAlta Utilities for dealing with flooding, resulting from upstream dam failures or extreme rainfalls, were presented. Several operating curves developed by Monenco AGRA were described, among them the No Overtopping Curve (NOC), the Safe Filling Curve (SFC), the No Spill Curve (NSC) and the Guaranteed Fill Curve (GFC). The concept of an operational comfort zone was developed and defined. A flood action plan for all operating staff was created as a guide in case of a flooding incident. Staging of a flood action plan workshop was described. Dam break scenarios pertinent to the Bow River were developed for subsequent incorporation into a Flood Action Plan Manual. Evaluation of the technical presentations made during workshops were found them to have been effective in providing operating staff with a better understanding of the procedures that they would perform in an emergency. 8 figs

  11. Thermo-economic assessment of externally fired micro-gas turbine fired by natural gas and biomass: Applications in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, A.M.; Camporeale, S.M.; Shah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A thermo-economic analysis of natural gas/biomass fired microturbine is proposed. • Energy efficiency, capex, opex and electricity revenues trade-offs are assessed. • The optimal biomass energy input is 70% of total CHP consumption. • Industrial/tertiary heat demand and baseload/heat driven operation is assessed. • The main barriers of small scale CHP systems in Italy are overviewed. - Abstract: This paper proposes a thermo-economic assessment of small scale (100 kWe) combined heat and power (CHP) plants fired by natural gas and solid biomass. The focus is on dual fuel gas turbine cycle, where compressed air is heated in a high temperature heat exchanger (HTHE) using the hot gases produced in a biomass furnace, before entering the gas combustion chamber. The hot air expands in the turbine and then feeds the internal pre-heater recuperator, Various biomass/natural gas energy input ratios are modeled, ranging from 100% natural gas to 100% biomass. The research assesses the trade-offs between: (i) lower energy conversion efficiency and higher investment cost of high biomass input rate and (ii) higher primary energy savings and revenues from bio-electricity feed-in tariff in case of high biomass input rate. The influence of fuel mix and biomass furnace temperature on energy conversion efficiencies, primary energy savings and profitability of investments is assessed. The scenarios of industrial vs. tertiary heat demand and baseload vs. heat driven plant operation are also compared. On the basis of the incentives available in Italy for biomass electricity and for high efficiency cogeneration (HEC), the maximum investment profitability is achieved for 70% input biomass percentage. The main barriers of these embedded cogeneration systems in Italy are also discussed

  12. New mathematical method for the solution of gas-gas equilibria with special application to HTGR primary-coolant environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, K.

    1983-07-01

    A new mathematical method and corresponding computer program have been developed that provide a general method for the numerical solution of an equilibrium problem involving the chemical interactions of gaseous species. The method and computer code were developed to calculate the equilibrium concentrations of impurity gases, such as CO, CO 2 , H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 , and O 2 , which may be approached as the result of gaseous chemical reactions occurring within the hot primary coolant helium of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The method, however, can be applied to any gas mixture

  13. Metal-modified and vertically aligned carbon nanotube sensors array for landfill gas monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penza, M; Rossi, R; Alvisi, M; Serra, E

    2010-03-12

    demonstrates high sensitivity by providing minimal sub-ppm level detection, e.g., download up to 100 ppb NO(2), at the sensor temperature of 150 degrees C. The gas sensitivity of the CNT sensor array depends on operating temperature, showing a lower optimal temperature of maximum sensitivity for the metal-decorated CNT sensors compared to unmodified CNT sensors. Results indicate that the recovery mechanisms in the CNT chemiresistors can be altered by a rapid heating pulse from room temperature to about 110 degrees C. A comparison of the NO(2) gas sensitivity for the chemiresistors based on disorderly networked CNTs and vertically aligned CNTs is also reported. Cross-sensitivity towards relative humidity of the CNT sensors array is investigated. Finally, the sensing properties of the metal-decorated and vertically aligned CNT sensor arrays are promising to monitor gas events in the LFG for practical applications with low power consumption and moderate sensor temperature.

  14. Comprehensive applications of the gas flow proportional counters for radiological surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, D.A.R.; Raman, Anand; Ashokkumar, P.; Sharma, D.N.

    2008-01-01

    Gas Flow Proportional Counters (GFPC) have been developed indigenously for various radiation protection applications. These detectors can be fabricated for 2 inches diameter filter paper sample counting applications to large area (∼1500 cm 2 ) detectors for surface contamination applications. Thin entrance windows allow non penetrating type of radiations like alpha and low energy beta particles, Efficiencies (for alpha and beta radiations) are comparable to conventional detectors used to measure these radiations. Poor gamma efficiency ( 2 /γ ratio, a high figure of merit and enables efficient gamma background rejection. These detectors are quite suitable for Indian environmental conditions. Three systems have been developed and successfully incorporated in to the radiation surveillance program at various nuclear facilities. The systems based on GFPC detectors include: a) Multiple sample gross alpha counting system; b) Laundry monitoring system; c) Alpha hand contamination monitoring system. The first of these enables simultaneous gross alpha counting of five air activity filter paper samples. The area of the detector surface is optimized to cover the 2 inches sized filter paper samples routinely used for the purpose. Five numbers of GFPC 's are arranged sequentially coupled to five individual amplifiers - micro controller modules to process the signal from the five counters. The laundry monitor which is micro controller based system consists of four large area multiwire GFPC detectors (700 cm 2 sensitive area) used to monitor alpha contamination of decontaminated laundry, Each detector uses a charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to I 2 C counter. The alpha hand monitoring system consists of four large area multiwire gas flow proportional detectors (330 cm 2 sensitive area each). A micro controller-based module is employed to initiate the counting process automatically when the hands are inserted in to the suitably designed window slots and provides audio and

  15. Pilot plant experience in electron-beam treatment of iron-ore sintering flue gas and its application to coal boiler flue gas cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, K.

    1984-01-01

    The present development status of the electron-beam flue gas treatment process, which is a dry process capable of removing SOx and NOx simultaneously, is described. The most advanced demonstration of this process was accomplished with a pilot plant in Japan where the maximum gas flow rate of 10,000 Nm 3 /h of an iron-ore sintering machine flue gas was successfully treated. The byproduct produced in this process is collected as a dry powder which is a mixture of ammonia sulfate and ammonium nitrate and is saleable as a fertilizer or a fertilizer component. A preliminary economic projection showed that this process costs less than the lime scrubber which removes SOx but does not remove NOx. Tests using simulated coal combustion gases suggest that this process will be applicable to coal-fired boiler flue gas treatment as well. However, tests on actual coal-fired flue gases are still required for commercial application decisions. A process development unit program consisting of the design, construction and testing of actual coal-fired power station flue gases is underway in the U.S.A. The design and engineering of the test plant is far advanced and the construction phase will be launched in the very near future. (author)

  16. Selective catalytic oxidation: a new catalytic approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas for fuel cell reformer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, J.

    In both natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), sulfur degrades the performance of the catalysts used in fuel reformers and fuel cells. In order to improve system performance, the sulfur must be removed to concentrations of less than 200 ppbv (in many applications to less than 20 ppbv) before the fuel reforming operation. Engelhard Corporation presents a unique approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and LPG. This new method catalytically converts the organic and inorganic sulfur species to sulfur oxides. The sulfur oxides are then adsorbed on a high capacity adsorbent. The sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted to sulfur oxides by combining the fuel with a small amount of air. The mixture is then heated from 250 to 270 °C, and contacted with a monolith supported sulfur tolerant catalyst at atmospheric pressure. When Engelhard Corporation demonstrated this catalytic approach in the laboratory, the result showed sulfur breakthrough to be less than 10 ppbv in the case of natural gas, and less than 150 ppbv for LPG. We used a simulated natural gas and LPG mixture, doped with a 50-170 ppmv sulfur compound containing equal concentrations of COS, ethylmercaptan, dimethylsulfide, methylethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene. There is no need for recycled H 2 as in the case for hydrodesulfurization.

  17. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  18. A Study on the Evaluation of Real Gas vs. Ideal Gas for its Application to the CO2 Leak Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hwa-Young; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2015-01-01

    The leak can cause various mechanical and thermal problems. Moreover, CO 2 also reacts with sodium by producing some solid reaction products (i.e. Na 2 CO 3 , Na 2 O, etc.), toxic gas (i.e. CO) and heat. Prior to applying the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle to the SFRs, the important safety issues that can occur in the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger should be evaluated. For this, it is essential to predict a CO 2 leak mechanism when the pressure boundary fails. The degree of sodium-CO 2 reaction is determined by several factors; a crack or rupture size, the interfacial area between sodium and CO 2 , the amount of released CO 2 , and so on. In order to simulate more reasonable and realistic CO 2 leak flow, one needs to evaluate and improve some limitations found from the previous studies. The dynamic response in the CO 2 side should be considered for varying mass flux at the nozzle exit over time. Thus, it is necessary to investigate more practical flow model to evaluate the system condition change and its consequences during the CO 2 leak. For the flow modeling, it is obvious that a real gas effect and friction force should be considered. However, due to its complexity and difficulty, it is generally assumed that CO 2 behaves as an ideal gas, and an isentropic critical flow without considering the friction force was applied for the analysis so far. In this paper, before incorporating the real gas effect and friction force to the model, gas properties are evaluated as the first step. The fluid properties of CO 2 is studied to observe how strong the real gas effect can be under SFR operating conditions. From this result, it is determined that which gas model is applicable to the CO 2 leak flow model for simulating the accident scenario in the given conditions of Na-CO 2 heat exchanger. The ideal gas law and the isentropic critical flow model are generally applied to predict the state and the flow rate of CO 2 leak in the Na-CO 2 heat exchanger previously. However, to simulate a

  19. Estimation of Internal Flooding Frequency for Screening Analysis of Flooding PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Jun Eon

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimate the internal frequency for the quantitative screening analysis of the flooding PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) with the appropriate data and estimation method. In the case of the existing flood PSA for domestic NPPs (Nuclear Power Plant), the screening analysis was performed firstly and then detailed analysis was performed for the area not screened out. For the quantitative screening analysis, the plant area based flood frequency by MLE (Maximum Likelihood Estimation) method was used, while the component based flood frequency is used for the detailed analysis. The existing quantitative screening analysis for domestic NPPs have used data from all LWRs (Light Water Reactor), namely PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) and BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) for the internal flood frequency of the auxiliary building and turbine building. However, in the case of the primary auxiliary building, the applicability of the data from all LWRs needs to be examined carefully because of the significant difference in equipments between the PWR and BWR structure. NUREG/CR-5750 suggested the Bayesian update method with Jeffrey's noninformative prior to estimate the initiating event frequency for the flood. It, however, did not describe any procedure of the flood PSA. Recently, Fleming and Lydell suggested the internal flooding frequency in the unit of the plant operation year-pipe length (in meter) by pipe size of each specific system which is susceptible to the flooding such as the service water system and the circulating water system. They used the failure rate, the rupture conditional probability given the failure to estimate the internal flooding frequency, and the Bayesian update to reduce uncertainties. To perform the quantitative screening analysis with the method, it requires pipe length by each pipe size of the specific system per each divided area to change the concept of the component based frequency to the concept of the plant area

  20. Evaluation of various modelling approaches in flood routing simulation and flood area mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, George; Loukas, Athanasios; Vasiliades, Lampros; Aronica, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    An essential process of flood hazard analysis and mapping is the floodplain modelling. The selection of the modelling approach, especially, in complex riverine topographies such as urban and suburban areas, and ungauged watersheds may affect the accuracy of the outcomes in terms of flood depths and flood inundation area. In this study, a sensitivity analysis implemented using several hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches (1D, 2D, 1D/2D) and the effect of modelling approach on flood modelling and flood mapping was investigated. The digital terrain model (DTMs) used in this study was generated from Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) point cloud data. The modelling approaches included 1-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (1D), 2-dimensional hydraulic-hydrodynamic models (2D) and the coupled 1D/2D. The 1D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: HECRAS, MIKE11, LISFLOOD, XPSTORM. The 2D hydraulic-hydrodynamic models used were: MIKE21, MIKE21FM, HECRAS (2D), XPSTORM, LISFLOOD and FLO2d. The coupled 1D/2D models employed were: HECRAS(1D/2D), MIKE11/MIKE21(MIKE FLOOD platform), MIKE11/MIKE21 FM(MIKE FLOOD platform), XPSTORM(1D/2D). The validation process of flood extent achieved with the use of 2x2 contingency tables between simulated and observed flooded area for an extreme historical flash flood event. The skill score Critical Success Index was used in the validation process. The modelling approaches have also been evaluated for simulation time and requested computing power. The methodology has been implemented in a suburban ungauged watershed of Xerias river at Volos-Greece. The results of the analysis indicate the necessity of sensitivity analysis application with the use of different hydraulic-hydrodynamic modelling approaches especially for areas with complex terrain.

  1. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  2. The effects of adaptation and mitigation on coastal flood impacts during the 21st century. An application of the DIVA and IMAGE models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hinkel, J.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Nicholls, R.J.; Klein, R.J.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of mitigation and adaptation on coastal flood impacts. We focus on a scenario that stabilizes concentrations at 450 ppm-CO 2-eq leading to 42 cm of global mean sea-level rise in 1995-2100 (GMSLR) and an unmitigated one leading to 63 cm of GMSLR. We also consider

  3. An Observation Task Chain Representation Model for Disaster Process-Oriented Remote Sensing Satellite Sensor Planning: A Flood Water Monitoring Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate and comprehensive representation of an observation task is a prerequisite in disaster monitoring to achieve reliable sensor observation planning. However, the extant disaster event or task information models do not fully satisfy the observation requirements for the accurate and efficient planning of remote-sensing satellite sensors. By considering the modeling requirements for a disaster observation task, we propose an observation task chain (OTChain representation model that includes four basic OTChain segments and eight-tuple observation task metadata description structures. A prototype system, namely OTChainManager, is implemented to provide functions for modeling, managing, querying, and visualizing observation tasks. In the case of flood water monitoring, we use a flood remote-sensing satellite sensor observation task for the experiment. The results show that the proposed OTChain representation model can be used in modeling process-owned flood disaster observation tasks. By querying and visualizing the flood observation task instances in the Jinsha River Basin, the proposed model can effectively express observation task processes, represent personalized observation constraints, and plan global remote-sensing satellite sensor observations. Compared with typical observation task information models or engines, the proposed OTChain representation model satisfies the information demands of the OTChain and its processes as well as impels the development of a long time-series sensor observation scheme.

  4. Applications of the automatic meter reading techniques at the Brazilian gas domestic market; Application des techniques de releve automatique des compteurs sur le marche domestique Bresilien du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, J.; Monteiro, F. [Comgas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); D' Oliveira, R.D. [ORBIS, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This article will describe applications of the automation and automatic meter reading techniques at the internal gas pipes installations design, considering residential and commercial buildings, and taking in account the tendency of rapid growth of the activities related to the natural gas industry in Brazil, as well as the recently development of new technologies that can be applied with affordable prices. It will be analysed the application of an automatic meter reading technology in a building of several floors in Sao Paulo, which gas installations design is being carried up, with be purpose of making a comparative cost-effectiveness study with the traditional constructive methods applied in Brazil. As a result, it will be purposed a new commercialization model for the gas in Brazil at the residential and commercial market. (authors)

  5. Advances in the application of molecular microbiological methods in the oil and gas industry and links to microbiologically influenced corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckert, Rickard; Skovhus, Torben Lund

    2018-01-01

    While the oil and gas industry has witnessed increased applications of molecular microbiological methods (MMMs) for diagnosing and managing microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) in the past decade, the process for establishing clear links between microbiological conditions and corrosion...... mechanisms is still emerging. Different MMMs provide various types of information about microbial diversity, abundance, activity and function, all of which are quite different from the culture-based results that are familiar to oil and gas industry corrosion professionals. In addition, a multidisciplinary...

  6. Study on CFD approach for gas entrainment phenomenon. Evaluation of applicability of finite element flow analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Yuzuru

    2005-07-01

    The report is concerned with the evaluation of applicability of numerical modelling methods for the prediction of gas entrainment in an upper plenum of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor (FBR). Special attention was paid to applicability of variational multiscale (VMS) modelling in the context of the Finite Element Method. Two flow problems, which were experimentally shown to induce gas entrainment, are solved by a VMS code (MISTRAL). First, computing a benchmark problem of a gas entrainment swirl flow in a cylindrical vessel has led to the following results; (1) the VMS solution is able to resolve the precise vortex core structure more accurately than the non-VMS solution computed by Smart-fem. The circumferential velocity obtained from VMS computation rises almost double in comparison with the non-VMS solution, though it still underestimates the experimental values. (2) the half-value radius of the negative region of the second invariant of velocity gradient matches well between the VMS solution and non-VMS solution. (3) the negative/positive boundary of the second invariant of velocity gradient obtained from the VMS solution is closer to the vortex core radius observed in the experiment than that of the non-VMS solution, though the vortex dip length computed from the VMS result is shorter than the experimental value. Second, computing a benchmark problem of open channel flow with a square pillar and downstream suction pipe has led to the following results; (4) 2Δx-type spatial oscillation was observed due to lack of mesh subdivisions. (5) the distributional profile of the second invariant of velocity gradient is similar to that of the first problem (swirl flow in a cylindrical vessel), characterized by a strong negative region surrounded by a weak positive region. As a possible future plan, it may be necessary to analyze more precisely the features of unsteady vortices obtained in the second benchmark problem and to identify the difference (if any) from the

  7. The application of a coupled artificial neural network and fault tree analysis model to predict coal and gas outbursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruilin, Zhang [School of Safety Science and Engineering, Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, Henan Province, 454003, PR (China); Lowndes, Ian S. [Process and Environmental Research Division, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-01

    This paper proposes the use of a coupled fault tree analysis (FTA) and artificial neural network (ANN) model to improve the prediction of the potential risk of coal and gas outburst events during the underground mining of thick and deep Chinese coal seams. The model developed has been used to investigate the gas emission characteristics and the geological conditions that exist within the Huaibei coal mining region, Anhui province, China. The coal seams in this region exhibit a high incidence of coal and gas outbursts. An analysis of the results obtained from an initial application of an FTA model, identified eight dominant model parameters related to the gas content or geological conditions of the coal seams, which characterize the potential risk of in situ coal and gas outbursts. The eight dominant model parameters identified by the FTA method were subsequently used as input variables to an ANN model. The results produced by the ANN model were used to develop a qualitative risk index to characterize the potential risk level of occurrence of coal and gas outburst events. Four different potential risk alarm levels were defined: SAFE, POTENTIAL, HIGH and STRONG. Solutions to the prediction model were obtained using a combination of quantitative and qualitative data including the gas content or gas pressure and the geological and geotechnical conditions of coal seams. The application of this combined solution method identified more explicit and accurate model relationships between the in situ geological conditions and the potential risk of coal and gas outbursts. An analysis of the model solutions concluded that the coupled FTA and ANN model may offer a reliable alternative method to forecast the potential risk of coal and gas outbursts. (author)

  8. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  9. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Omran, Hesham; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Shekhah, Osama; Salama, Khaled N.

    2015-01-01

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  10. Water mobility key to improved floods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamenter, C B

    1967-03-01

    The use of polymer floods in the U.S. and Canada is discussed. A 2-yr laboratory study conducted by Dow Chemical Co. early in the life of polymer flooding showed that polymers improved the mobility ratio without damage to porosity or permeability of reservoir rock. A pilot test was made in the Niagara Field, Ky., and the results of this pilot compared to the performance of a waterflood that had been operating in this field for about 4 yr. The results showed that polymer flooding was superior to conventional waterflooding and had a distinct behavior. Another pilot flood conducted by Dow in the Albrecht Field, Starr County, Tex., showed similar results. Union Oil Co. of California also conducted pilot tests in 4 of their California reservoirs. Additional recoverable reserves resulting from polymer flooding for 2 of these reservoirs were estimated at 95,000 and 70,000 bbl. The other 2 tests were not as satisfactory, but this behavior is thought to be the result of not using enough polymer. Two other projects discussed are the NE. Hallsville Field unit in East Texas and the Squirrel sand reservoir in Woodson County, Kans., which were conducted by Hunt Oil Co. and Brazos Oil and Gas Co., respectively.

  11. Application of epifluorescence scanning for monitoring the efficacy of protein removal by RF gas-plasma decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Helen C; Richardson, Patricia R; Campbell, Gaynor A; Jones, Anita C; Baxter, Robert L; Kovalev, Valeri I; Maier, Robert; Barton, James S; DeLarge, Greg; Casey, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The development of methods for measuring the efficiency of gas-plasma decontamination has lagged far behind application. An approach to measuring the efficiency of protein removal from solid surfaces using fluorescein-labelled bovine serum albumin and epifluorescence scanning (EFSCAN) is described. A method for fluorescently labelling proteins, which are adsorbed and denatured on metal surfaces, has been developed. Both approaches have been used to evaluate the efficiency of radio frequency (RF) gas-plasma decontamination protocols. Examples with 'real' surgical instruments demonstrate that an argon-oxygen RF gas-plasma treatment can routinely reduce the protein load by about three orders of magnitude beyond that achieved by current decontamination methods.

  12. Report of study group 7.1: natural gas in competition with electric power in industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youssef, Ch.; Tatsuda, T.

    2000-07-01

    This report consists of three sections. The first section is a brief general overview of all the issues that impact the competition between natural gas and electricity in industrial applications. The second section of this report focus on the all the marketing issues and provides detail analysis of the status of these issues in Europe, Japan and United States. The third section of this report is a detail review of the current status of the competition between gas technologies and electro-technologies, it also make recommendation for developing new gas technologies. The fourth section is a contribution from M. Pettersson and S. Stenstroem, Sweden, on infrared dryers. (authors)

  13. Precipitation Thresholds for Triggering Floods in the Corgo Basin, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Santos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thresholds based on critical combinations of amount/duration of precipitation and flood events were estimated for the Corgo hydrographic basin, in northern Portugal. Thirty-one flood events in the Corgo basin were identified between 1865 and 2011 from a database of hydrometeorological disasters in Portugal. The minimum, maximum, and pre-warning thresholds that define the boundaries for flood occurrence were determined. The results show that the ratio between the total number of floods and precipitation events exceeding the minimum threshold denotes a relatively low probability of successful forecasting. This result may be due to the reduced number of flooding events in the floods database, which only include floods that caused damage as reported by the media. The estimated maximum threshold is not adequate for use in floods, since the majority of true positives are below this limit. However, and more interestingly, the retrospective verification of the estimated thresholds suggests that the minimum and pre-warning thresholds are well adjusted. Therefore, the application of these precipitation thresholds may contribute to minimize possible situations of pre-crisis or immediate crisis by reducing the flood consequences and the resources involved in emergency response to flood events.

  14. On the reliable use of satellite-derived surface water products for global flood monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirpa, F. A.; Revilla-Romero, B.; Thielen, J.; Salamon, P.; Brakenridge, R.; Pappenberger, F.; de Groeve, T.

    2015-12-01

    Early flood warning and real-time monitoring systems play a key role in flood risk reduction and disaster response management. To this end, real-time flood forecasting and satellite-based detection systems have been developed at global scale. However, due to the limited availability of up-to-date ground observations, the reliability of these systems for real-time applications have not been assessed in large parts of the globe. In this study, we performed comparative evaluations of the commonly used satellite-based global flood detections and operational flood forecasting system using 10 major flood cases reported over three years (2012-2014). Specially, we assessed the flood detection capabilities of the near real-time global flood maps from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS), and from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the operational forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS) for the major flood events recorded in global flood databases. We present the evaluation results of the global flood detection and forecasting systems in terms of correctly indicating the reported flood events and highlight the exiting limitations of each system. Finally, we propose possible ways forward to improve the reliability of large scale flood monitoring tools.

  15. Metabolic profiles of flooding-tolerant mechanism in early-stage soybean responding to initial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhu, Wei; Hashiguchi, Akiko; Nishimura, Minoru; Tian, Jingkui; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-08-01

    Metabolomic analysis of flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic acid-treated soybeans suggests that accumulated fructose might play a role in initial flooding tolerance through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase. Soybean is sensitive to flooding stress, which markedly reduces plant growth. To explore the mechanism underlying initial-flooding tolerance in soybean, mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis was performed using flooding-tolerant mutant and abscisic-acid treated soybeans. Among the commonly-identified metabolites in both flooding-tolerant materials, metabolites involved in carbohydrate and organic acid displayed same profile at initial-flooding stress. Sugar metabolism was highlighted in both flooding-tolerant materials with the decreased and increased accumulation of sucrose and fructose, respectively, compared to flooded soybeans. Gene expression of hexokinase 1 was upregulated in flooded soybean; however, it was downregulated in both flooding-tolerant materials. Metabolites involved in carbohydrate/organic acid and proteins related to glycolysis/tricarboxylic acid cycle were integrated. Increased protein abundance of phosphofructokinase was identified in both flooding-tolerant materials, which was in agreement with its enzyme activity. Furthermore, sugar metabolism was pointed out as the tolerant-responsive process at initial-flooding stress with the integration of metabolomics, proteomics, and transcriptomics. Moreover, application of fructose declined the increased fresh weight of plant induced by flooding stress. These results suggest that fructose might be the critical metabolite through regulation of hexokinase and phosphofructokinase to confer initial-flooding stress in soybean.

  16. Health impacts of floods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Weiwei; FitzGerald, Gerard Joseph; Clark, Michele; Hou, Xiang-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Floods are the most common hazard to cause disasters and have led to extensive morbidity and mortality throughout the world. The impact of floods on the human community is related directly to the location and topography of the area, as well as human demographics and characteristics of the built environment. The aim of this study is to identify the health impacts of disasters and the underlying causes of health impacts associated with floods. A conceptual framework is developed that may assist with the development of a rational and comprehensive approach to prevention, mitigation, and management. This study involved an extensive literature review that located >500 references, which were analyzed to identify common themes, findings, and expert views. The findings then were distilled into common themes. The health impacts of floods are wide ranging, and depend on a number of factors. However, the health impacts of a particular flood are specific to the particular context. The immediate health impacts of floods include drowning, injuries, hypothermia, and animal bites. Health risks also are associated with the evacuation of patients, loss of health workers, and loss of health infrastructure including essential drugs and supplies. In the medium-term, infected wounds, complications of injury, poisoning, poor mental health, communicable diseases, and starvation are indirect effects of flooding. In the long-term, chronic disease, disability, poor mental health, and poverty-related diseases including malnutrition are the potential legacy. This article proposes a structured approach to the classification of the health impacts of floods and a conceptual framework that demonstrates the relationships between floods and the direct and indirect health consequences.

  17. Application of the Coasting Trade Act to offshore oil and gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    The main features of the 1992 Coasting Trade Act are summarized. The main purpose of the Act is to protect Canadian ship owners and to ensure they have an opportunity to recover their investments in having Canadian built and crewed vessels. The Coasting Trade Act replaces provisions of the Canada Shipping Act which prohibited non-British ships from entering into Canadian domestic trade. The intention for the Coasting Trade Act is to reserve the coasting trade of Canada to Canadian-registered ships. However, when a Canadian ship is not available, a suitable foreign ship may be temporarily permitted to engage in the Canadian coasting trade as long as Canadian safety standards are met and duties are paid. The Canada Customs and Revenue Agency deals with licence applications while the Canadian Transportation Agency deals with unfair practices and enforcement. The provisions relating to the Coasting Trade License applications are examined along with how they are administered with particular reference to offshore oil and gas operations. The paper also presents recent decisions regarding application licences for Tycom (US) Inc., the Norwegian Polar Ship Management, and the Cyprus-registered seismic vessel, the Northern Access. It is noted that in evaluating the suitability and availability of a Canadian vessel for an activity proposed to be performed by a foreign vessel, the Canadian Transportation Agency examines the technical, financial and commercial elements brought by the parties

  18. Application of metal foam heat exchangers for a high-performance liquefied natural gas regasification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Yeon; Sung, Tae Hong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2016-01-01

    The intermediate fluid vaporizer has wide applications in the regasification of LNG (liquefied natural gas). The heat exchanger performance is one of the main contributors to the thermodynamic and cost effectiveness of the entire LNG regasification system. Within the paper, the authors discuss a new concept for a compact heat exchanger with a micro-cellular structure medium to minimize volume and mass and to increase thermal efficiency. Numerical calculations have been conducted to design a metal-foam filled plate heat exchanger and a shell-and-tube heat exchanger using published experimental correlations. The geometry of both heat exchangers was optimized using the conditions of thermolators in LNG regasification systems. The heat transfer and pressure drop performance was predicted to compare the heat exchangers. The results show that the metal-foam plate heat exchanger has the best performance at different channel heights and mass flow rates of fluid. In the optimized configurations, the metal-foam plate heat exchanger has a higher heat transfer rate and lower pressure drop than the shell-and-tube heat exchanger as the mass flow rate of natural gas is increased. - Highlights: • A metal foam heat exchanger is proposed for LNG regasification system. • Comparison was made with a shell and tube heat exchanger. • Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics were estimated. • The geometry of both heat exchangers is optimized for thermolators. • It can be used as a compact and high performance thermolators.

  19. Microporous Organic Polymers Based on Hyper-Crosslinked Coal Tar: Preparation and Application for Gas Adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Ding, Lei; Bai, Hua; Li, Lei

    2017-02-08

    Hyper-crosslinked polymers (HCPs) are promising materials for gas capture and storage, but high cost and complicated preparation limit their practical application. In this paper, a new type of HCPs (CTHPs) was synthesized through a one-step mild Friedel-Crafts reaction with low-cost coal tar as the starting material. Chloroform was utilized as both solvent and crosslinker to generate a three-dimensional crosslinked network with abundant micropores. The maximum BET surface area of the prepared CTHPs could reach up to 929 m 2  g -1 . Owing to the high affinity between the heteroatoms on the coal-tar building blocks and the CO 2 molecules, the adsorption capacity of CTHPs towards CO 2 reached up to 14.2 wt % (1.0 bar, 273 K) with a high selectivity (CO 2 /N 2 =32.3). Furthermore, the obtained CTHPs could adsorb 1.27 wt % H 2 at 1.0 bar and 77.3 K, and also showed capacity for the capture of high organic vapors at room temperature. In comparison with other reported porous organic polymers, CTHPs have the advantages of low-cost, easy preparation, and high gas-adsorption performance, making them suitable for mass production and practical use in the future. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Application of partially diabatic divided wall column to floating liquefied natural gas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Han

    2014-01-01

    The offshore operation of chemical plant requires the compactness of process equipments due to its harsh environment. A DWC (divided wall column), a compact ternary separator, is a good candidate for distillation process in the offshore operation. In this study the DWC is applied to the offshore FLNG (floating liquefied natural gas) plant, but high utility cost is required in the application because of the large difference of boiling points among feed components. A partially diabatic DWC is proposed for the reduction of the operating cost here, and its design procedure is presented along with performance and economic evaluations and the examination of thermodynamic efficiency as well. The heating duty of the proposed DWC including tray heat transfer is 35% less than that of the conventional system, and the cooling duty is 18% less. The evaluation indicates that some 16% less utility cost is used in the DWC compared with the conventional system, though 7% more investment is required. The exergy loss is reduced by 12%, and the thermodynamic efficiency is improved by 3.3 percentage point over the conventional system. - Highlights: • Diabatic divided wall column for FLNG (floating liquefied natural gas) plant. • Compact column for offshore operation. • 35% less heating duty required. • 16% lower utility necessary. • Exergy loss reduced by 12%

  1. Environmentally friendly drive for gas compression applications: enhanced design of high-speed induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Karina Velloso; Pradurat, Jean Francois; Mercier, Jean Charles [Institut National Polytechncique, Lorrain (France). Converteam Motors Div.; Truchot, Patrick [Nancy Universite (France). Equipe de Recherche sur les Processus Innovatifs (ERPI)

    2008-07-01

    Taking into account the key issues faced by gas compressors users, this paper aims to help optimize the choice of the drive equipment as well as the driven equipment, in function of the cost of the whole installation life cycle. The design of the enhanced high-speed induction motor (MGV-Moteuer a Grande Vitesse) represents a technological breakthrough for the industry, it allows the direct coupling to the compressor, without using a gearbox making the system more efficient and reliable. From both micro and macro-economic viewpoints, the high-speed electric driver becomes a more efficient use of natural gas energy resources. This new technology associated with the electric option offers challenging and rewarding work to those responsible for the operation and maintenance of the compressor station. The electric option is not only conceptually viable but has a proven track record that justifies serious consideration as an alternative for reliably powering. Once an operator becomes comfortable with the prospects of motor-driven compression, the analysis of machine options requires only a few new approaches to fairly evaluate the alternatives. The application of this reasoning in projects using compression units is especially opportune, in view of the great variations of operational conditions and environmental issues. (author)

  2. Continuous-wave terahertz by photomixing: applications to gas phase pollutant detection and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Francis; Cuisset, Arnaud; Bocquet, Robin; Mouret, Gaël

    2008-03-01

    Recent advances in the development of monochromatic continuous-wave terahertz sources suitable for high resolution gas phase spectroscopy and pollution monitoring are reviewed. Details of a source using an ultra fast opto-electronic photomixing element are presented. The construction of a terahertz spectrometer using this source has allowed spectroscopic characterisation and application studies to be completed. Analysis of H 2S and OCS under laboratory conditions are used to demonstrate the spectrometer performance, and the determination of the transition line strengths and pressure self broadening coefficients for pure rotational transitions of OCS. The spectral purity 5 MHz, tunability 0.3 to 3 THz, and long wavelength ≈200 μm of this source have been exploited to identify and quantify numerous chemical species in cigarette smoke. The key advantages of this frequency domain are its high species selectivity and the possibility to make reliable measurements of gas phase samples heavily contaminated by aerosols and particles. To cite this article: F. Hindle et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  3. The application of release models to the interpretation of rare gas coolant activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, C.

    1985-01-01

    Much research is carried out into the release of fission products from UO 2 fuel and from failed pins. A significant application of this data is to define models of release which can be used to interpret measured coolant activities of rare gas isotopes. Such interpretation is necessary to extract operationally relevant parameters, such as the number and size of failures in the core and the 131 I that might be released during depressurization faults. The latter figure forms part of the safety case for all operating CAGRs. This paper describes and justifies the models which are used in the ANAGRAM program to interpret CAGR coolant activities, highlighting any remaining uncertainties. The various methods by which the program can extract relevant information from the measurements are outlined, and examples are given of the analysis of coolant data. These analyses point to a generally well understood picture of fission gas release from low temperature failures. Areas of higher temperature release are identified where further research would be beneficial to coolant activity analysis. (author)

  4. Prospects for applications of electron beams in processing of gas and oil hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A. V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry (Russian Federation); Pershukov, V. A. [ROSATOM National Nuclear Corporation (Russian Federation); Smirnov, V. P. [CJSC “Nauka i Innovatsii” (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    Waste-free processing of oil and oil gases can be based on electron-beam technologies. Their major advantage is an opportunity of controlled manufacturing of a wide range of products with a higher utility value at moderate temperatures and pressures. The work considers certain key aspects of electron beam technologies applied for the chain cracking of heavy crude oil, for the synthesis of premium gasoline from oil gases, and also for the hydrogenation, alkylation, and isomerization of unsaturated oil products. Electronbeam processing of oil can be embodied via compact mobile modules which are applicable for direct usage at distant oil and gas fields. More cost-effective and reliable electron accelerators should be developed to realize the potential of electron-beam technologies.

  5. Materials and Structures Research for Gas Turbine Applications Within the NASA Subsonic Fixed Wing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Janet

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of the current materials and structures research geared toward propulsion applications for NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing Project one of four projects within the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of the NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. The Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project has selected challenging goals which anticipate an increasing emphasis on aviation s impact upon the global issue of environmental responsibility. These goals are greatly reduced noise, reduced emissions and reduced fuel consumption and address 25 to 30 years of technology development. Successful implementation of these demanding goals will require development of new materials and structural approaches within gas turbine propulsion technology. The Materials and Structures discipline, within the SFW project, comprise cross-cutting technologies ranging from basic investigations to component validation in laboratory environments. Material advances are teamed with innovative designs in a multidisciplinary approach with the resulting technology advances directed to promote the goals of reduced noise and emissions along with improved performance.

  6. Modelling of associating mixtures for applications in the oil & gas and chemical industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Folas, Georgios; Muro Sunè, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria of associating mixtures cannot often be satisfactorily modelled using conventional models such as cubic equations of state. CPA (cubic-plus-association) is an equation of state (EoS), which combines the SRK EoS with the association term of SAFT. For non......-alcohol (glycol)-alkanes and certain acid and amine-containing mixtures. Recent results include glycol-aromatic hydrocarbons including multiphase, multicomponent equilibria and gas hydrate calculations in combination with the van der Waals-Platteeuw model. This article will outline some new applications...... thermodynamic models especially those combining cubic EoS with local composition activity coefficient models are included. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for Clean Power and Syngas Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy, Fabrice [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Hufton, Jeffrey [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Bhadra, Shubhra [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Weist, Edward [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Lau, Garret [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States); Jonas, Gordon [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Air Products has developed an acid gas removal technology based on adsorption (Sour PSA) that favorably compares with incumbent AGR technologies. During this DOE-sponsored study, Air Products has been able to increase the Sour PSA technology readiness level by successfully operating a two-bed test system on coal-derived sour syngas at the NCCC, validating the lifetime and performance of the adsorbent material. Both proprietary simulation and data obtained during the testing at NCCC were used to further refine the estimate of the performance of the Sour PSA technology when expanded to a commercial scale. In-house experiments on sweet syngas combined with simulation work allowed Air Products to develop new PSA cycles that allowed for further reduction in capital expenditure. Finally our techno economic analysis of the use the Sour PSA technology for both IGCC and coal-to-methanol applications suggests significant improvement of the unit cost of electricity and methanol compared to incumbent AGR technologies.

  8. A unique 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework for efficient gas sorption applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader

    2016-10-03

    A novel 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework with high surface area (1050 m2 g−1) and thermal stability was synthesized. It exhibits relatively high CO2 (3.4 mmol g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar), H2 (7 mmol g−1 at 77 K and 1 bar), and olefin sorption capacity, good CO2/N2 (45) and CO2/CH4 (9.6) selectivity at 273 K and 1 bar, as well as promising C2H4/CH4 and C3H6/CH4 selectivities at 298 K, making it a potential candidate for CO2 capture, H2 storage, and hydrocarbon gas separation applications.

  9. Industrial applications of electron beam flue gas treatment - From laboratory to the practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, Andrzej G.

    2007-01-01

    The electron beam technology for flue gas treatment (EBFGT) has been developed in Japan in the early 1980s. Later on, this process was investigated in pilot scale in the USA, Germany, Japan, Poland, Bulgaria and China. The new engineering and process solutions have been developed during the past two decades. Finally industrial plants have been constructed in Poland and China. The high efficiency of SO x and NO x removal was achieved (up to 95% for SO x and up to 70% for NO x ) and by-product is a high quality fertilizer. Since the power of accelerators applied in industrial installation is over 1 MW and requested operational availability of the plant is equal to 8500 h in year, it is a new challenge for radiation processing applications

  10. Relative merits of duplex and austenitic stainless steels for applications in the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Elisabeth; Wegrelius, Lena; Pettersson, Rachel [Outokumpu Stainless AB, Avesta (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The broad range of available stainless steel grades means that these materials can fulfil a wide variety of requirements within the oil and gas industry. The duplex grades have the advantage of higher strength than standard austenitic grades, while the superaustenitic grades provide a cost-effective alternative to nickel-base alloys in a number of cases. The paper presents the results of various types of laboratory testing to rank the grades in terms of resistance to pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. Results from field testing in actual or simulated service conditions are discussed and a number of application examples, including process piping flexible, heat exchangers and topside equipment are presented. (author)

  11. APPLICATION OF POLYSTYRENE FOAM CORE FUSIBLE PATTERNS IN PRODUCTION OF GAS TURBINES’ CAST PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Shinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of replacing the LVM dissolves polystyrene molding on models is at the present time, technologically, economically and environmentally promising from the point of view of industrial applications for gas turbine plants in Ukraine. The authors proposed and tested manufacturing process of casting ceramic molds way to remove the polystyrene model of the dissolution of her organic solvents. Kinetic parameters of the process of dissolving and removing patterns of degradation products the polystyrene in the group of solvents depending on the type and amount of polystyrene were identified. The absence of surface defects of castings, reduction of roughness, increased their accuracy class in comparison to accepted technological regulations of the process of production, which reduced the cost of machined parts and increased utilization of expensive heat-resistant alloys were produced.

  12. New semiconductor laser technology for gas sensing applications in the 1650nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gordon B.; Sherman, Jes; Estrella, Steven; Moreira, Renan L.; Leisher, Paul O.; Mashanovitch, Milan L.; Stephen, Mark; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart; Riris, Haris

    2017-08-01

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with approximately 25 times the radiative forcing of carbon dioxide (CO2) per molecule. CH4 also contributes to pollution in the lower atmosphere through chemical reactions leading to ozone production. Recent developments of LIDAR measurement technology for CH4 have been previously reported by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). In this paper, we report on a novel, high-performance tunable semiconductor laser technology developed by Freedom Photonics for the 1650nm wavelength range operation, and for LIDAR detection of CH4. Devices described are monolithic, with simple control, and compatible with low-cost fabrication techniques. We present 3 different types of tunable lasers implemented for this application.

  13. Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; DeStefano, J.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1975-12-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 2000 0 F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 1500 0 F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 1600 0 F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 2000 0 F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR

  14. Applications of Seasat to the offshore oil, gas and mining industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, A. G.; Robinson, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA satellite Seasat-A (to be launched in 1978) has applications to the offshore oil, gas, and mining industries including: (1) improvements in weather and wave forecasting, (2) studies of past wind and wave statistics for planning design requirements, and (3) monitoring ice formation, breakup, and movement in arctic regions. The primary geographic areas which will be monitored by Seasat-A include: the Beaufort Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, the U.S. east coast, West Africa, Equatorial East Pacific, the Gulf of Alaska, and the North Sea. Seasat-A instrumentation used in ocean monitoring consists of a radar altimeter, a radar scatterometer, a synthetic aperture radar, a microwave radiometer, and a visible and infrared radiometer. The future outlook of the Seasat program is planned in three phases: measurement feasibility demonstration (1978-1980), data accessibility/utility demonstration (1980-1983), and operational system demonstration (1983-1985).

  15. A unique 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework for efficient gas sorption applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader; Belmabkhout, Youssef; Wang, Yingge; Zhao, Yunfeng; Han, Yu; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Pinnau, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    A novel 3D ultramicroporous triptycene-based polyimide framework with high surface area (1050 m2 g−1) and thermal stability was synthesized. It exhibits relatively high CO2 (3.4 mmol g−1 at 273 K and 1 bar), H2 (7 mmol g−1 at 77 K and 1 bar), and olefin sorption capacity, good CO2/N2 (45) and CO2/CH4 (9.6) selectivity at 273 K and 1 bar, as well as promising C2H4/CH4 and C3H6/CH4 selectivities at 298 K, making it a potential candidate for CO2 capture, H2 storage, and hydrocarbon