WorldWideScience

Sample records for gas emissions related

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions related to Dutch food consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, KJ; Moll, HC; Nonhebel, S; Wilting, HC

    The consumption of food products involves emissions of greenhouse gases. Emissions occur in the various stages of the life cycle of food products. In this paper we discuss the greenhouse gas emissions, CO2, CH4, and N2O, related to Dutch household food consumption. Combinations of greenhouse gas

  2. Total greenhouse gas emissions related to the Dutch crop production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.; Nonhebel, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article discusses the greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, CH4, N2O) related to Dutch agricultural crop production. Emissions occur during agricultural processes (direct emissions) as well as in the life cycle of the required inputs (indirect emissions). An integrated approach assesses the total

  3. A comparative analysis of vehicle-related greenhouse gas emissions between organic and conventional dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggestam, Vivianne; Buick, Jon

    2017-08-01

    Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods. The findings show organic and conventional production methods have different vehicle-related emission outputs that vary according to a reliance on either road transportation or increased farmyard machinery use. Mechanical weeding is more fuel demanding than conventional agrichemical sprayers. However, artificial fertilising is one of the highest farmyard vehicle-related emitters. The general findings show organic milk production emits higher levels of farm vehicle-related emissions that fail to be offset by reduced emissions occurring from international transport emissions. This paper does not propose to cover a comprehensive supply chain carbon footprint for milk production or attempt to determine which method of production has the largest climatic impact. However, it does demonstrate that Sweden's legal requirements for organic producers to produce more feed on-farm to reduce transport emissions have brought emissions back within Sweden's greenhouse gas inventory and raises questions around the effectiveness of policies to reduce vehicle-related emissions. Further research is needed into the effectiveness of climate change mitigation on food production policies, in particular looking at various trade-offs that affects the entire food supply chain.

  4. Inventories and reduction scenarios of urban waste-related greenhouse gas emissions for management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Xu, Lingxing; Gao, Xueli; Guo, Qinghai; Huang, Ning

    2018-06-01

    Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO 2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO 2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Are greenhouse gas emissions and cognitive skills related? Cross-country evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanbayev, Bekhzod; Salahodjaev, Raufhon; Lynn, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Are greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) and cognitive skills (CS) related? We attempt to answer this question by exploring this relationship, using cross-country data for 150 countries, for the period 1997-2012. After controlling for the level of economic development, quality of political regimes, population size and a number of other controls, we document that CS robustly predict GHG. In particular, when CS at a national level increase by one standard deviation, the average annual rate of air pollution changes by nearly 1.7% (slightly less than one half of a standard deviation). This significance holds for a number of robustness checks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effort Optimization in Minimizing Food Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions, a look at "Organic" and "Local"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, E.; Martin, P. A.; Eshel, G.

    2008-12-01

    The adverse environmental effects, especially energy use and resultant GHG emissions, of food production and consumption are becoming more widely appreciated and increasingly well documented. Our insights into the thorny problem of how to mitigate some of those effects, however, are far less evolved. Two of the most commonly advocated strategies are "organic" and "local", referring, respectively, to growing food without major inputs of fossil fuel based synthetic fertilizers and pesticides and to food consumption near its agricultural origin. Indeed, both agrochemical manufacture and transportation of produce to market make up a significant percentage of energy use in agriculture. While there can be unique environmental benefits to each strategy, "organic" and "local" each may potentially result in energy and emissions savings relative to conventionally grown produce. Here, we quantify the potential energy and greenhouse gas emissions savings associated with "organic" and "local". We take note of energy use and actual GHG costs of the major synthetic fertilizers and transportation by various modes routinely employed in agricultural distribution chains, and compare them for ~35 frequently consumed nutritional mainstays. We present new, current, lower-bound energy and greenhouse gas efficiency estimates for these items and compare energy consumption and GHG emissions incurred during producing those food items to consumption and emissions resulting from transporting them, considering travel distances ranging from local to continental and transportation modes ranging from (most efficient) rail to (least efficient) air. In performing those calculations, we demonstrate the environmental superiority of either local or organic over conventional foods, and illuminate the complexities involved in entertaining the timely yet currently unanswered, and previously unanswerable, question of "Which is Environmentally Superior, Organic or Local?". More broadly, we put forth a

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions related to landscape elements in the subarctic environment at Churchill, Manitoba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, J.; Tenuta, M.; Bello, R.; Papakyriakou, T.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, landscape elements and major environmental regulators was studied. The hydrologic regimes of the Hudson Bay Lowlands are expected to change along with the extent of permafrost and composition of vegetation due to increased levels of GHGs associated with global warming. Two transects were created at a Polygonized-Peat Plateau (PPP) and a Spruce Forest (SF) site in 2005. A sub-set on 4 dominant landscape elements of each transect were used to estimate emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitric oxide (N 2 O) on a weekly basis from June to August. In order to obtain a good sampling representation of environmental conditions and of the gradients in plant communities, the entire transect at PPP was sampled monthly. In order to examine the role of soil conditions on the production and consumption of GHG leading to surface fluxes, soil gas samplers were installed at 2 depths at both sites. N 2 O production and consumption were found to be inconsequential at both sites. However, high methane emissions were observed when the volumetric moisture content (VMC) rose higher than 80 per cent at the edge of the ponds. Methane consumption was found to be related to low VMC values (20-40 per cent) for the tops of peat polygons. Soil atmosphere concentrations for CO 2 and CH 4 at PPP were typically much higher at depths of 23-32 cm compared to depths of 5-9 cm. Some of the wettest landscape elements had very high CH 4 content, but had no corresponding CH 4 flux from the soil surface, suggesting that the gas was consumed under aerobic conditions at the soil surface. It was concluded that GHG emissions from both sites were altered by both landscape elements and environmental regulators such as temperature and moisture. Future work will focus on identifying the association of these relationships to processes responsible for GHG emissions in subarctic environments. The impact of global warming on these

  8. Boreal forests can have a remarkable role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions locally: Land use-related and anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks at the municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhala, Pekka, E-mail: pekka.vanhala@ymparisto.fi [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Bergström, Irina [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland); Haaspuro, Tiina [University of Helsinki, Department of Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 65, Viikinkaari 1, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kortelainen, Pirkko; Holmberg, Maria; Forsius, Martin [Finnish Environment Institute, Natural Environment Centre, P.O. Box 140, Mechelininkatu 34 a, FI-00251 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-01

    Ecosystem services have become an important concept in policy-making. Carbon (C) sequestration into ecosystems is a significant ecosystem service, whereas C losses can be considered as an ecosystem disservice. Municipalities are in a position to make decisions that affect local emissions and therefore are important when considering greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. Integrated estimations of fluxes at a regional level help local authorities to develop land use policies for minimising GHG emissions and maximising C sinks. In this study, the Finnish national GHG accounting system is modified and applied at the municipal level by combining emissions and sinks from agricultural land, forest areas, water bodies and mires (land use-related GHG emissions) with emissions from activities such as energy production and traffic (anthropogenic GHG emissions) into the LUONNIKAS calculation tool. The study area consists of 14 municipalities within the Vanajavesi catchment area located in Southern Finland. In these municipalities, croplands, peat extraction sites, water bodies and undrained mires are emission sources, whereas forests are large carbon sinks that turn the land use-related GHG budget negative, resulting in C sequestration into the ecosystem. The annual land use-related sink in the study area was 78 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 2.8 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Annual anthropogenic GHG emissions from the area amounted to 250 t CO{sub 2} eq km{sup −2} and 9.2 t CO{sub 2} eq per capita. Since forests are a significant carbon sink and the efficiency of this sink is heavily affected by forest management practices, forest management policy is a key contributing factor for mitigating municipal GHG emissions. - Highlights: • The significance of natural landscapes in the regional C budgets is shown. • Boreal forests can be remarkable C sinks enabling net C sequestration in ecosystems. • The large area of forest may compensate for all C emissions in the municipality.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions related to agriculture and land-use practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.M.; Lashof, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of increasing trace gas concentrations and concomitant climate change on agriculture which are likely to be substantial. With cropland and pasture now covering 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O. Land clearing for agriculture and other purposes is responsible for 10 to 30% of total net CO 2 emissions; the rest is due to fossil fuel combustion. In addition, intentional burning of agricultural wastes, grasslands, and forests makes a significant contribution to global emissions of CO, CH 4 , NO x and N 2 O. Methane emissions from anaerobic respiration in rice (Oryza sativa L.) paddies and domestic animal remains account for 30 to 50% of the global total, making agriculture the dominant anthropogenic source of this gas. The amount of N 2 O emitted as a result of N fertilizer applications is highly uncertain, but may be on the order of 10% of total N 2 O emissions. Future agricultural greenhouse gas emissions will be affected by population growth, economic development, and agricultural practices. Greenhouse gas emissions are likely to increase substantially in the future unless steps are taken to control them. Investigating potential approaches to reducing these emissions while expanding production presents a major challenge to the agricultural research community

  10. Methane oxidation over noble metal catalysts as related to controlling natural gas vehicle exhaust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Mitchell, P.J.; Siewert, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas has considerable potential as an alternative automotive fuel. This paper reports on methane, the principal hydrocarbon species in natural-gas engine exhaust, which has extremely low photochemical reactivity but is a powerful greenhouse gas. Therefore, exhaust emissions of unburned methane from natural-gas vehicles are of particular concern. This laboratory reactor study evaluates noble metal catalysts for their potential in the catalytic removal of methane from natural-gas vehicle exhaust. Temperature run-up experiments show that the methane oxidation activity decreases in the order Pd/Al 2 O 3 > Rh/Al 2 O 3 > Pt/Al 2 O 3 . Also, for all the noble metal catalysts studied, methane conversion can be maximized by controlling the O 2 concentration of the feedstream at a point somewhat rich (reducing) of stoichiometry

  11. Relating landfill gas emissions to atmospheric pressure using numerical modeling and state-space analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T.G.; Christophersen, Mette; Moldrup, P.

    2003-01-01

    were applied: (I) State-space analysis was used to identify relations between gas flux and short-term (hourly) variations in atmospheric pressure. (II) A numerical gas transport model was fitted to the data and used to quantify short-term impacts of variations in atmospheric pressure, volumetric soil......-water content, soil gas permeability, soil gas diffusion coefficients, and biological CH4 degradation rate upon landfill gas concentration and fluxes in the soil. Fluxes and concentrations were found to be most sensitive to variations in volumetric soil water content, atmospheric pressure variations and gas...... permeability whereas variations in CH4 oxidation rate and molecular coefficients had less influence. Fluxes appeared to be most sensitive to atmospheric pressure at intermediate distances from the landfill edge. Also overall CH4 fluxes out of the soil over longer periods (years) were largest during periods...

  12. Livestock-related greenhouse gas emissions: impacts and options for policy makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, Tara

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that livestock account for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and global consumption of livestock products is growing rapidly. This paper reviews the life cycle analysis (LCA) approach to quantifying these emissions and argues that, given the dynamic complexity of our food system, it offers a limited understanding of livestock's GHG impacts. It is argued that LCA's conclusions need rather to be considered within a broader conceptual framework that incorporates three key additional perspectives. The first is an understanding of the indirect second order effects of livestock production on land use change and associated CO 2 emissions. The second compares the opportunity cost of using land and resources to rear animals with their use for other food or non-food purposes. The third perspective is need-the paper considers how far people need livestock products at all. These perspectives are used as lenses through which to explore both the impacts of livestock production and the mitigation approaches that are being proposed. The discussion is then broadened to consider whether it is possible to substantially reduce livestock emissions through technological measures alone, or whether reductions in livestock consumption will additionally be required. The paper argues for policy strategies that explicitly combine GHG mitigation with measures to improve food security and concludes with suggestions for further research.

  13. National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory contains information on direct emissions of greenhouse gases as well as indirect or potential emissions of greenhouse...

  14. Star formation and its relation to free-free emission from ionized gas and far-infrared emission from dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezger, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author reviews the physical state of the galactic disk and especially of the thin layer of interstellar matter (ISM) out of which stars form today. The characteristics of OB stars and the HII regions which these stars form are summarized. Dust emission characteristics are also summarized. The author shows how the Lyc photon production rate of all O stars, and the total IR luminosity of all dust grains in the galactic disk can be estimated from radio and FIR surveys of the galactic plane. Star formation rates are derived for a constant initial mass function. The concept of bimodal star formation, where about equal fractions of O stars form in spiral arms and interarm region but low mass stars form only in the interarm region, is introduced. The relation between the 2.4 μm emission from M giants and supergiants is discussed qualitatively, lending support to the process of bimodal star formation. (Auth.)

  15. Modeling of energy consumption and related GHG (greenhouse gas) intensity and emissions in Europe using general regression neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antanasijević, Davor; Pocajt, Viktor; Ristić, Mirjana; Perić-Grujić, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the estimation of energy-related GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions at the national level that combines the simplicity of the concept of GHG intensity and the generalization capabilities of ANNs (artificial neural networks). The main objectives of this work includes the determination of the accuracy of a GRNN (general regression neural network) model applied for the prediction of EC (energy consumption) and GHG intensity of energy consumption, utilizing general country statistics as inputs, as well as analysis of the accuracy of energy-related GHG emissions obtained by multiplying the two aforementioned outputs. The models were developed using historical data from the period 2004–2012, for a set of 26 European countries (EU Members). The obtained results demonstrate that the GRNN GHG intensity model provides a more accurate prediction, with the MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) of 4.5%, than tested MLR (multiple linear regression) and second-order and third-order non-linear MPR (multiple polynomial regression) models. Also, the GRNN EC model has high accuracy (MAPE = 3.6%), and therefore both GRNN models and the proposed approach can be considered as suitable for the calculation of GHG emissions. The energy-related predicted GHG emissions were very similar to the actual GHG emissions of EU Members (MAPE = 6.4%). - Highlights: • ANN modeling of GHG intensity of energy consumption is presented. • ANN modeling of energy consumption at the national level is presented. • GHG intensity concept was used for the estimation of energy-related GHG emissions. • The ANN models provide better results in comparison with conventional models. • Forecast of GHG emissions for 26 countries was made successfully with MAPE of 6.4%

  16. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Independent analysis details quantifying the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  17. Quantification of seep-related methane gas emissions at Tommeliten, North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider von Deimling, J.S.; Rehder, G.; Greinert, J.; McGinnnis, D.F.; Boetius, A.; Linke, P.

    2011-01-01

    Tommeliten is a prominent methane seep area in the Central North Sea. Previous surveys revealed shallow gas-bearing sediments and methane gas ebullition into the water column. In this study, the in situ methane flux at Tommeliten is re-assessed and the potential methane transport to the atmosphere

  18. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bristow

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs; however there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy the northern quarter of the continent, a region of increasing interest for further exploitation of land and water resources. Land use decisions across this vast biome have the potential to influence the national greenhouse gas budget. To better quantify emissions from savanna deforestation and investigate the impact of deforestation on national GHG emissions, we undertook a paired site measurement campaign where emissions were quantified from two tropical savanna woodland sites; one that was deforested and prepared for agricultural land use and a second analogue site that remained uncleared for the duration of a 22-month campaign. At both sites, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured using the eddy covariance method. Observations at the deforested site were continuous before, during and after the clearing event, providing high-resolution data that tracked CO2 emissions through nine phases of land use change. At the deforested site, post-clearing debris was allowed to cure for 6 months and was subsequently burnt, followed by extensive soil preparation for cropping. During the debris burning, fluxes of CO2 as measured by the eddy covariance tower were excluded. For this phase, emissions were estimated by quantifying on-site biomass prior to deforestation and applying savanna-specific emission factors to estimate a fire-derived GHG emission that included both CO2 and non-CO2 gases. The total fuel mass that was consumed during the debris burning was 40.9 Mg C ha−1 and included above- and below-ground woody biomass, course woody debris, twigs, leaf litter and C4 grass fuels. Emissions from the burning were added to the net CO2 fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance tower for other post-deforestation phases to

  19. Quantifying the relative importance of greenhouse gas emissions from current and future savanna land use change across northern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Mila; Hutley, Lindsay B.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.; Edwards, Andrew C.; Arndt, Stefan K.

    2016-11-01

    The clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs); however there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas occupy the northern quarter of the continent, a region of increasing interest for further exploitation of land and water resources. Land use decisions across this vast biome have the potential to influence the national greenhouse gas budget. To better quantify emissions from savanna deforestation and investigate the impact of deforestation on national GHG emissions, we undertook a paired site measurement campaign where emissions were quantified from two tropical savanna woodland sites; one that was deforested and prepared for agricultural land use and a second analogue site that remained uncleared for the duration of a 22-month campaign. At both sites, net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was measured using the eddy covariance method. Observations at the deforested site were continuous before, during and after the clearing event, providing high-resolution data that tracked CO2 emissions through nine phases of land use change. At the deforested site, post-clearing debris was allowed to cure for 6 months and was subsequently burnt, followed by extensive soil preparation for cropping. During the debris burning, fluxes of CO2 as measured by the eddy covariance tower were excluded. For this phase, emissions were estimated by quantifying on-site biomass prior to deforestation and applying savanna-specific emission factors to estimate a fire-derived GHG emission that included both CO2 and non-CO2 gases. The total fuel mass that was consumed during the debris burning was 40.9 Mg C ha-1 and included above- and below-ground woody biomass, course woody debris, twigs, leaf litter and C4 grass fuels. Emissions from the burning were added to the net CO2 fluxes as measured by the eddy covariance tower for other post-deforestation phases to provide a total GHG emission from

  20. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile isotopic methane analysis based on Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Chris; Winkler, Renato; Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Crosson, Eric

    2014-05-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the isotopic carbon signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of methane using a mobile spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Performance of the CRDS isotope analyzer is presented, including precision, calibration, stability, and the potential for measurement bias due to other atmospheric constituents. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to

  1. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado and Utah using mobile stable isotope (13CH4) analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, Chris; Jacobson, Gloria; Crosson, Eric; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Sweeney, Colm

    2013-04-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation. However, given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Solomon et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying the fugitive emissions of methane throughout the natural gas production and distribution process becomes clear (Howarth et al. 2011). A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the 13CH4 signature of natural gas (-35 to -40 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-45 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of mobile field 13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in two intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, and the Uintah basin in Utah. Mobile isotope measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total path of 100s of km throughout the regions, allowing spatially resolved measurements of the regional isotope signature. Secondly, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in these regions, by making measurements of the isotope ratio directly in the downwind plume from each source. These

  2. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Weld County Colorado using δ13CH4 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Jacobson, G. A.; Crosson, E.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.; Petron, G.

    2012-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Given that the global warming potential of methane is many times greater than that of carbon dioxide (Forster et al. 2007), the importance of quantifying methane emissions becomes clear. Companion presentations at this meeting describe efforts to quantify the overall methane emissions in two separate gas producing areas in Colorado and Utah during intensive field campaigns undertaken in 2012. A key step in the process of assessing the emissions arising from natural gas production activities is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis. In particular, the δ13CH4 signature of natural gas (-37 permil) is significantly different that the signature of other significant sources of methane, such as landfills or ruminants (-50 to -70 permil). In this paper we present measurements of δ13CH4 in Colorado in Weld County, a region of intense natural gas production, using a mobile δ13CH4¬ analyzer capable of high-precision measurements of the stable isotope ratio of methane at ambient levels. This analyzer was used to make stable isotope measurements at a fixed location near the center of the gas producing region, from which an overall isotope ratio for the regional emissions is determined. In addition, mobile measurements in the nocturnal boundary layer have been made, over a total distance of 150 km throughout Weld County, allowing spatially resolved measurements of this isotope signature. Finally, this analyzer was used to quantify the isotopic signature of those individual sources (natural gas fugitive emissions, concentrated animal feeding operations, and landfills) that constitute the majority of methane emissions in this region, by making

  3. Quantifying the relative contribution of natural gas fugitive emissions to total methane emissions in Colorado, Utah, and Texas using mobile δ13CH4 analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, C.; Crosson, E.; Petron, G.; Sweeney, C.; Karion, A.

    2013-12-01

    Fugitive emissions of methane into the atmosphere are a major concern facing the natural gas production industry. Because methane is more energy-rich than coal per kg of CO2 emitted into the atmosphere, it represents an attractive alternative to coal for electricity generation, provided that the fugitive emissions of methane are kept under control. A key step in assessing these emissions in a given region is partitioning the observed methane emissions between natural gas fugitive emissions and other sources of methane, such as from landfills or agricultural activities. One effective method for assessing the contribution of these different sources is stable isotope analysis, using the δ13CH4 signature to distinguish between natural gas and landfills or ruminants. We present measurements of mobile field δ13CH4 using a spectroscopic stable isotope analyzer based on cavity ringdown spectroscopy, in three intense natural gas producing regions of the United States: the Denver-Julesburg basin in Colorado, the Uintah basin in Utah, and the Barnett Shale in Texas. Mobile isotope measurements of individual sources and in the nocturnal boundary layer have been combined to establish the fraction of the observed methane emissions that can be attributed to natural gas activities. The fraction of total methane emissions in the Denver-Julesburg basin attributed to natural gas emissions is 78 +/- 13%. In the Uinta basin, which has no other significant sources of methane, the fraction is 96% +/- 15%. In addition, results from the Barnett shale are presented, which includes a major urban center (Dallas / Ft. Worth). Methane emissions in this region are spatially highly heterogeneous. Spatially-resolved isotope and concentration measurements are interpreted using a simple emissions model to arrive at an overall isotope ratio for the region. (left panel) Distribution of oil and gas well pads (yellow) and landfills (blue) in the Dallas / Ft. Worth area. Mobile nocturnal measurements

  4. The CO2-tax and its ability to reduce CO2 emissions related to oil and gas production in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roemo, F.; Lund, M.W.

    1994-01-01

    The primary ambition of the paper is to illustrate some relevant effects of the CO 2 -tax, and draw the line from company adaptation via national ambitions and goals to global emission consequences. The CO 2 -tax is a success for oil and gas production only to the extent that the CO 2 emission per produced unit oil/gas is reduced as a consequence of the tax. If not, the CO 2 -tax is a pure fiscal tax and has no qualitative impact on the CO 2 emissions. The reduction potential is then isolated to the fact that some marginal fields will not be developed, and the accelerated close down of fields in production. The paper indicates that a significant replacement of older gas turbines at a certain level of the CO 2 -tax could be profitable for the companies. This is dependent on change in turbine energy utilization, and the investment cost. The CO 2 -tax is a political success for the nation if it is a significant contributor to achieve national emission goals. Furthermore, is the CO 2 -tax an environmental success only to the extent it contributes to reductions in the CO 2 emissions globally. The paper indicates that there are possibilities for major suboptimal adaptations in connection with national CO 2 -taxation of the oil and gas production. 13 refs., 6 figs

  5. Use of the Edmonds-Reilly Model to model energy-related greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barns, D.W.; Edmonds, J.A.; Reillyn, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the results of our application of the Edmonds-Reilly Model (ERM) using several scenarios provided for an Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) project comparing global models. Because the output of this exercise is data-rich, most of this exposition is in graphical form, with the narrative serving mainly as a roadmap for moving from one highlight to the next. The first two sections of the paper briefly describe the model and some of the special modifications made for this effort. The case-by-case discussion is contained in Section IV, followed by a summary of the potential pitfalls involved in attempting to assess the cost of emissions reduction from the model data

  6. Effect of feed-related farm characteristics on relative values of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; Van Arendonk, J A M; De Boer, I J M

    2015-07-01

    Breeding has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from dairy farming. Evaluating the effect of a 1-unit change (i.e., 1 genetic standard deviation improvement) in genetic traits on GHG emissions along the chain provides insight into the relative importance of genetic traits to reduce GHG emissions. Relative GHG values of genetic traits, however, might depend on feed-related farm characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed-related farm characteristics on GHG values by comparing the values of milk yield and longevity for an efficient farm and a less efficient farm. The less efficient farm did not apply precision feeding and had lower feed production per hectare than the efficient farm. Greenhouse gas values of milk yield and longevity were calculated by using a whole-farm model and 2 different optimization methods. Method 1 optimized farm management before and after a change in genetic trait by maximizing labor income; the effect on GHG emissions (i.e., from production of farm inputs up to the farm gate) was considered a side effect. Method 2 optimized farm management after a change in genetic trait by minimizing GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and milk production at least at the level before the change in trait; the effect on labor income was considered a side effect. Based on maximizing labor income (method 1), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 279 and 143kg of CO2 equivalents (CO2e)/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 247 and 210kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Based on minimizing GHG emissions (method 2), GHG values of milk yield and longevity were, respectively, 538 and 563kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the less efficient farm, and 453 and 441kg of CO2e/unit change per cow per year on the efficient farm. Sensitivity analysis showed that, for both methods, the absolute effect of a

  7. The Use of Satellite Data to Relate Waterbody Surface Area and Temperature to Greenhouse Gas Emissions Across a Subarctic Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C.; Palace, M. W.; Wik, M.; Burke, S. A.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    High latitude lakes and ponds are significant sources of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Increased near-surface air temperature has linked these water bodies to large increases in methane emissions due to longer ice-free seasons, impacting climate change and further changing air temperature as a feedback mechanism. The impacts of changes in lake surface temperatures cannot be assessed until we know more about the baseline mechanistic biogeochemical controls that influence these emissions. Using a combination of image-based atmospheric corrections and image fusion models, thermal data from Landsat and MODIS satellites were used to characterize the temperature regimes of artic lakes in northern Sweden. This analysis provides insight into the temporal attributes of individual lakes in regard to temperature shifts and variability, as well as provides a rich temporal dataset where in situ temperature data is unavailable. Field-based measurements of temperature and associated methane release were used for calibration and correlation. This enabled the creation of emissions estimates over the broader pan-arctic landscape, including inter-seasonal and inter-annual variabilities. The result is a multi-year snapshot of temperature and emissions, allowing for future estimates of greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Methane emissions from the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, M.R.; Cowgill, R.M.; Campbell, L.M.; Lott, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. EPA and the United Nation's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) have suggested that global warming could be reduced if more energy was generated using natural gas rather than fuels such as coal. An increased use of natural gas instead of coal would decrease global warming since methane emits less carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) than any fossil fuel. However, methane is a more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO 2 , and leakage from the gas system could reduce or eliminate the inherent advantage of natural gas. For this reason, methane emissions must be quantified before a national policy on preferred fuels is developed. Therefore, GRI and EPA have developed this confunded program to quantify methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry. This paper presents, for general industry review, the approach and methodology that the project is using to determine the emissions. The study will measure or calculate all gas industry methane emissions - from production at the wellhead, through the system, to the customer's meter. When these data are combined with data from other studies, a definitive comparison of the relative environmental impact of using methane versus other fuels will be possible. The study will also provide data that can be used by the industry to identify cost-effective mitigation techniques to reduce losses. The methane emissions project is being conducted in three phases: the first two phases have identified and ranked all known potential methane-emitting sources and established methods for measuring, calculating, and extrapolating emissions from those sources. The third phase, which is currently in progress, will gather sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal. This paper briefly summarizes the methodology being used for the completion of the third phase

  9. Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Raposo, Sara E; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-02-09

    The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth's surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies assess the environmental impact of different food items. We linked LCA data expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per kg food product to data on food intake assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) Meal-Q and validated it against a 7-day weighed food record (WFR). 166 male and female volunteers aged 20-63 years completed Meal-Q and the WFR, and their food intake was linked to LCA data. The mean GHGE assessed with Meal-Q was 3.76 kg CO2e per day and person, whereas it was 5.04 kg CO2e using the WFR. The energy-adjusted and deattenuated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. Moreover, compared to the WFR, Meal-Q provided a good ranking ability, with 90 % of the participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile according to their daily average CO2e. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable level of agreement between the two methods and the reproducibility of Meal-Q was high. This is the first study validating the assessment of diet-related GHGE by a questionnaire. The results suggest that Meal-Q is a useful tool for studying the link between food habits and CO2e in future epidemiological studies.

  10. Power station stack gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunwick, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  11. Carbon stocks, greenhouse gas emissions and water balance of Sudanese savannah woodlands in relation to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the carbon (C) sequestration potential of drylands requires knowledge of the stocks of C in soils and biomass and on the factors affecting them. The overall aim of the study was to determine and evaluate the variation in the C stocks and water balance of Acacia savannah woodlands across the dryland (arid and semi-arid) region (10-16 deg N; 21-36 deg E) of the former Sudan (now mainly in the Republic of the Sudan) and how they are related to climatic factors and may be affected by climate change. The role played by small but numerous brick making industries on woodland deforestation in the region and greenhouse gas production was also investigated. The study region is often referred to as the gum belt because it is the world's major source of gum Arabic, which is harvested from Acacia trees. The soils in the centre and west of the region are mainly Arenosols (sandy soils) and those in the eastern part are mainly Vertisols (clay soils). The soils are C poor and often in a degraded state. This dissertation consists of a summary section and four articles (Study I, II, III and IV). Study I focuses on fuelwood consumption by the brick making industries (BMIs) and associated deforestation and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In Study II the C densities (g C m-2) of the woodland tree biomass and soil (1 m) for 39 map sheets covering the study region were determined from national forest inventory data and global soil databases and the dependence on mean annual precipitation (MAP) and mean annual temperature (MAT) determined. The water balance of savannah woodlands for the same 39 map sheets was modelled in Study III and the variation in water balance components across the region evaluated. The potential impacts of climate change on woodland biomass C density and water-use (actual evapotranspiration, AET) was analysed for eight of the map sheets in Study IV. Sudanese BMIs consume a considerable amount of fuelwood that mainly comes from unsustainably managed

  12. Modeling greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotz, C Alan

    2017-11-15

    Dairy farms have been identified as an important source of greenhouse gas emissions. Within the farm, important emissions include enteric CH 4 from the animals, CH 4 and N 2 O from manure in housing facilities during long-term storage and during field application, and N 2 O from nitrification and denitrification processes in the soil used to produce feed crops and pasture. Models using a wide range in level of detail have been developed to represent or predict these emissions. They include constant emission factors, variable process-related emission factors, empirical or statistical models, mechanistic process simulations, and life cycle assessment. To fully represent farm emissions, models representing the various emission sources must be integrated to capture the combined effects and interactions of all important components. Farm models have been developed using relationships across the full scale of detail, from constant emission factors to detailed mechanistic simulations. Simpler models, based upon emission factors and empirical relationships, tend to provide better tools for decision support, whereas more complex farm simulations provide better tools for research and education. To look beyond the farm boundaries, life cycle assessment provides an environmental accounting tool for quantifying and evaluating emissions over the full cycle, from producing the resources used on the farm through processing, distribution, consumption, and waste handling of the milk and dairy products produced. Models are useful for improving our understanding of farm processes and their interacting effects on greenhouse gas emissions. Through better understanding, they assist in the development and evaluation of mitigation strategies for reducing emissions and improving overall sustainability of dairy farms. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article

  13. Scenarios for cutting down energy-related climate gas emissions in Germany; Szenarien zur Minderung energiebedingten Klimagasemissionen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hake, J.F.; Kuckshinrichs, W. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Programmgruppe Systemforschung und Technologische Entwicklung (STE)

    1998-12-31

    Developing successful strategies for cutting down climate gas emissions is an extremely complex task. This goal can be aimed at by a combination of measures. But the results of individual scenarios are no immediate clue to their practicability. The results of scenarios must always be discussed within the context of the assumptions made and, where applicable, the targets set. Consequently, their informative value is limited. The contribution of scenarios to the answering of energy-political issues is that they define possible scope for action. (orig.)

  14. Variability of Disk Emission in Pre-Main Sequence and Related Stars. II. Variability in the Gas and Dust Emission of the Herbig Fe Star SAO 206462

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Day, Amanda N.; Kimes, Robin L.; Beerman, Lori C.; Martus, Cameron; Lynch, David K.; Russell, Ray W.; Grady, Carol A.; Schneider, Glenn; Lisse, Carey M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present thirteen epochs of near-infrared (0.8-5 microns) spectroscopic observations of the pre-transitional, "gapped" disk system in SAO 206462 (=HD 135344B). In all, six gas emission lines (Br(alpha) , Br(gamma), Pa(beta), Pa(delta), Pa(epsilon), and the 0.8446 microns line of O I) along with continuum measurements made near the standard J, H, K, and L photometric bands were measured. A mass accretion rate of approximately 2 x 10(exp 8)Solar Mass/yr was derived from the Br(gamma) and Pa(beta) lines. However, the fluxes of these lines varied by a factor of over two during the course of a few months. The continuum also varied, but by only approx.30%, and even decreased at a time when the gas emission was increasing. The H I line at 1.083 microns was also found to vary in a manner inconsistent with that of either the hydrogen lines or the dust. Both the gas and dust variabilities indicate significant changes in the region of the inner gas and the inner dust belt that may be common to many young disk systems. If planets are responsible for defining the inner edge of the gap, they could interact with the material on time scales commensurate with what is observed for the variations in the dust, while other disk instabilities (thermal, magneto-rotational) would operate there on longer time scales than we observe for the inner dust belt. For SAO 206462, the orbital period would likely be 1-3 years. If the changes are being induced in the disk material closer to the star than the gap, a variety of mechanisms (disk instabilities, interactions via planets) might be responsible for the changes seen. The He I feature is most likely due to a wind whose orientation changes with respect to the observer on time scales of a day or less. To further constrain the origin of the gas and dust emission will require multiple spectroscopic and interferometric observations on both shorter and longer time scales that have been sampled so far.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions increase global warming

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the greenhouse gas emissions which cause the global warming in the atmosphere. In the 20th century global climate change becomes more sever which is due to greenhouse gas emissions. According to International Energy Agency data, the USA and China are approximately tied and leading global emitters of greenhouse gas emissions. Together they emit approximately 40% of global CO2 emissions, and about 35% of total greenhouse gases. The developed and developing industrialized co...

  16. Methods to determine the relative value of genetic traits in dairy cows to reduce greenhouse gas emissions along the chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Middelaar, C E; Berentsen, P B M; Dijkstra, J; van Arendonk, J A M; de Boer, I J M

    2014-01-01

    Current decisions on breeding in dairy farming are mainly based on economic values of heritable traits, as earning an income is a primary objective of farmers. Recent literature, however, shows that breeding also has potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this paper was to compare 2 methods to determine GHG values of genetic traits. Method 1 calculates GHG values using the current strategy (i.e., maximizing labor income), whereas method 2 is based on minimizing GHG per kilogram of milk and shows what can be achieved if the breeding results are fully directed at minimizing GHG emissions. A whole-farm optimization model was used to determine results before and after 1 genetic standard deviation improvement (i.e., unit change) of milk yield and longevity. The objective function of the model differed between method 1 and 2. Method 1 maximizes labor income; method 2 minimizes GHG emissions per kilogram of milk while maintaining labor income and total milk production at least at the level before the change in trait. Results show that the full potential of the traits to reduce GHG emissions given the boundaries that were set for income and milk production (453 and 441kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively) is about twice as high as the reduction based on maximizing labor income (247 and 210kg of CO2 equivalents/unit change per cow per year for milk yield and longevity, respectively). The GHG value of milk yield is higher than that of longevity, especially when the focus is on maximizing labor income. Based on a sensitivity analysis, it was shown that including emissions from land use change and using different methods for handling the interaction between milk and meat production can change results, generally in favor of milk yield. Results can be used by breeding organizations that want to include GHG values in their breeding goal. To verify GHG values, the effect of prices and emissions

  17. A guidance manual for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from fuel combustion and process-related sources for primary base metals smelting and refining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-01

    This technical guidance manual is a useful resource for helping the metals industry compile inventories of its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The guidance is consistent with Canada's national GHG accounting methodologies. It provides information to smelters and refiners of base metals on how to estimate their GHG emissions from fuel combustion and specific process-related activities. The base metals group in this manual included copper, nickel, lead, zinc, and cobalt. Fuel combustion includes all stationary combustion activities for generating heat or work, and includes waste incineration if the waste heat is used for energy. It also includes mobile fuel combustion activities such as on-site transportation of raw materials from one process to another. Guidance is provided for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O). Process-related activities include specific industrial processes that contribute to GHG emissions. For base metal smelting, this includes CO{sub 2} emissions from use of carbonate reagents, use of reducing agents, electrode consumption, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) emissions from use in refrigeration systems. This document also included sections on quality assurance; aspects of uncertainty assessment; verification; and, reporting of emissions information. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Simultaneous Photoacoustic and Photopyroelectric Detection of Trace Gas Emissions from Some Plant Parts and Their Related Essential Oils in a Combined Detection Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Abu-Teir, M. M.; Al-Jamal, A. J.; Eideh, H.

    The aim of this work was to establish the feasibility of the combined photoacoustic (PA) and photopyroelectric (PPE) detection of the vapours emitted from essential oils and their corresponding uncrushed leaves or flowers. Gas traces of jasmine (Jessamine (Jasminum)), mint (Mentha arvensis L.) and Damask rose (Rosa damascena Miller) and their essential oils were tested using a combined cell fitted with both a photopyroelectric film (PVDF) and a microphone in conjunction with a pulsed wideband infrared source (PWBS) source. Infrared PA and PPE absorbances were obtained simultaneously at room temperatures with excellent reproducibility and high signal-to-noise ratios. Significant similarities found between the PA and PPE spectra of the trace gas emissions of plant parts, i.e., flowers or leaves and their related essential oils show the good correlation of their emissions and that both effects are initiated by the same absorbing molecules.

  19. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  20. OPIC Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    Overseas Private Investment Corporation — Summary project inventory with independent analysis to quantify the greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions directly attributable to projects to which the Overseas Private...

  1. Assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The study, 'Assesment of greenhouse gas emission from natural gas' by independent consultants Energetics Pty Ltd, shows that natural gas has significantly fewer greenhouses gas emissions than either black or brown cola for the defined life cycle stages. The life cycle emissions from natural gas use by an Australian Major User are approximately 50% less than the emissions from Victorian brown coal and approximately 38% less than the emissions from Australian average black coal. Australian Best Practice gas fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 514 and 658 kg CO 2 e/MWh. By comparison, Australian Best Practice coal-fired electricity generation is estimated to emit between 907 and 1,246 kg CO 2 e/MWh for black and brown coal respectively. Greenhouse gas emissions from Australian Best Practice gas-fired electricity generation using combined cycle gas turbines (including full fuel cycle emissions) vary from 41% to 46% of the emissions from brown coal-fired electricity generation and 57% to 64% of emissions from black coal-fired electricity generation. Greenhouse gas emissions from direct gas supply water heating range from 1,470 to 2,042 kilograms per annum. This compares with emissions of 1,922 to 2,499 kg for electric heating from gas-fired electricity generation and 3,975 to 5,393 kg for coal-fired electricity generation. The implications for greenhouse policy nationally are also discussed, emphasising the need to review national energy policy, currently tied to 'fuel neutrality' doctrine

  2. Stakeholder resource information on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Some of the many measures which have already been taken by the petroleum industry to safeguard the air, land and water were described in a background paper produced by the Petroleum Communication Foundation. It is entitled 'Canada's oil and gas industry and our global environment'. This complementary report includes a brief review of greenhouse gases and related issues such as the nature of global warming, Canadian emissions in a global context, the relationship between the economy and the environment, mitigation possibilities and successes achieved by actions such as those undertaken by the Voluntary Challenge and Registry (VCR) program. Also included are notes and quotes from authoritative sources regarding emissions, emissions control and success stories. A sample presentation was also provided that could be used to discuss global warming issues with general audiences and other communication activities. figs

  3. Energy efficiency and the influence of gas burners to the energy related carbon dioxide emissions of electric arc furnaces in steel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschen, Marcus; Risonarta, Victor; Pfeifer, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    Determining the complete energy balance of an electric arc furnace (EAF) provides an appropriate method to examine energy efficiency and identify energy saving potentials. However, the EAF energy balance is complex due to the combined input of electrical energy and chemical energy resulting from natural gas (NG) combustion and oxidation reactions in the steel melt. In addition, furnace off-gas measurements and slag analysis are necessary to reliably determine energy sinks. In this paper 70 energy balances and energy efficiencies from multiple EAFs are presented, including data calculated from plant measurements and compiled from the literature. Potential errors that can be incorporated in these calculations are also highlighted. The total energy requirement of these modern EAFs analysed ranged from 510 to 880 kWh/t, with energy efficiency values (η = ΔH Steel /E Total ) of between 40% and 75%. Furthermore, the focus was placed on the total energy related CO 2 emissions of EAF processes comprising NG combustion and electrical energy input. By assessing multiple EAF energy balances, a significant correlation between the total energy requirement and energy related specific CO 2 emissions was not evident. Whilst the specific consumption of NG in the EAF only had a minor impact on the EAF energy efficiency, it decreased the specific electrical energy requirement and increased EAF productivity where transformer power was restricted. The analysis also demonstrated that complementing and substituting electrical energy with NG was beneficial in reducing the total energy related CO 2 emissions when a certain level of substitution efficiency was achieved. Therefore, the appropriate use of NG burners in modern EAFs can result in an increased EAF energy intensity, whilst the total energy related CO 2 emissions remain constant or are even decreased.

  4. CO Emissions from Gas Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, T. K.; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2004-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. CO emissions from engines operating on biomass producer gases are high, especially at very lean conditions where...

  5. Greenhouse gas emission reduction options and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the energy-related components of the Clinton Administration's Climate Change Action Plan. The Action Plan was formulated to meet the Administration's commitment of returning US emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The paper discusses what the energy industry and energy consumers will be requested to do in order to meet this commitment. Several themes addressed in this paper include: (1) the largely voluntary nature of the actions identified in the Action Plan; (2) consideration of diverse opportunities to reduce emissions; (3) the outlook for US greenhouse gas emissions after 2000; and (4) actions involved for speeding the utilization of new, energy efficient technologies both domestically and abroad. The value of employing a diverse set of activities and the important role of technology improvements will be explored further in section 10 of this volume: ''Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Strategies.'' Papers presented there include the utilization of more efficient fossil energy technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management programs, renewable energy and reforestation, and carbon dioxide capture and disposal

  6. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Francis Martin; Paltsev, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during 2010. Data from each of the approximately 4000 horizontal shale gas wells brought online that year are used to show that about 900 Gg CH[subscript 4] of potential fugitive emissions were generated by these operations, or 228 Mg CH[subscript 4] per well—a figure inappropriately ...

  7. Relative impact of short-term emissions controls on gas and particle-phase oxidative potential during the 2015 China Victory Day Parade in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Fang, Dongqing; Shang, Jing; Li, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Yang; Huo, Peng; Liu, Zhaoying; Schauer, James J.; Zhang, Yuanxun

    2018-06-01

    A field observation focusing on reactive oxygen species (ROS) was conducted before, during, and after the 2015 China Victory Day Parade to understand the influence of short-term emissions controls on atmospheric oxidative activity. The hourly average concentrations of PM2.5, SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3, as well as gas and particle-phase ROS, were measured using a series of online instruments. PM2.5 concentrations during control days were significantly lower than non-control days, which directly lead to the "Parade Blue", yet reductions of most gaseous pollutants except SO2 were not so obvious as PM. Similarly, the control measures also led to a great loss of particle-phase ROS throughout the control period, while the reduction of ROS in gas phase was not obvious until the more stringent measures implemented since September 1. Furthermore, only weak positive correlations were observed among ROS and some other measured species, indicating ROS concentrations were affected by a number of comprehensive factors that single marker could not capture. Meanwhile, meteorological condition and regional transportation were also shown to be the minor factors affecting atmospheric oxidizing capacity. The results of this observation mainly revealed the control measures were conducive to reducing particle-related ROS. However, the reduction of gas-phase ROS activity was less effective given the menu of controls employed for the 2015 China Victory Day Parade. Therefore, short-term emissions controls only aimed to PM reduction and visibility improvement will produce the blue sky but will not equivalently reduce the gas-phase ROS. Supplemental control measures will be needed to further reduce gas-phase ROS concentrations.

  8. NOx emission reduction from gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppi, G.; Lietti, L.; Forzatti, P.

    2001-01-01

    NO x emissions from gas turbines are a serious environmental concern. Primary control technologies significantly reduce NO x formation, which however is still too high to match increasingly strict emission laws. Catalytic processes can provide lower NO x emissions both as primary and secondary control methods, but their economics should be carefully addressed [it

  9. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R.; Levine, Joel S.; Winstead, Edward L.; Lebel, Peter J.; Koller, Albert M.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-02-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases are presented that were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide (CO2) normalized emission ratios (ΔX/ΔCO2; V/V; where X is trace gas) for carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), methane (CH4), total nonmethane hydrocarbons (TNMHC), and nitrous oxide (N2O) were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak (Quercus spp) and saw palmetto (Screnoa repens) were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. We believe that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes (both small-size fuels) burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly diminished.

  10. Dedicated natural gas vehicle with low emission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, A. de; Weide, J. van der; Konig, A.; Wegener, R.

    1995-01-01

    In the introduction an overview is given of international activities in the field of natural gas vehicles. The main incentives for the use of natural gas in vehicles are: emission reduction in urban areas, fuel diversification, and long term availability. Heavy duty natural gas engines are mainly

  11. Potential Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions from Optimizing Urban Transit Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Public transit systems with efficient designs and operating plans can reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to low-occupancy transportation modes, but many current transit systems have not been designed to reduce environmental impacts. This ...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, L.P.; Schaeffer, R.

    1994-01-01

    In a recent paper, Rudd et al. have suggested that, per unit of electrical energy produced, greenhouse-gas emissions from some hydroelectric reservoirs in northern Canada may be comparable to emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. The purpose of this comment is to elaborate these issues further so as to understand the potential contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to the greenhouse effect. More than focusing on the total budget of carbon emissions (be they in the form of CH 4 or be they in the form of CO 2 ), this requires an evaluation of the accumulated greenhouse effect of gas emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs and fossil-fuelled power plants. Two issues will be considered: (a) global warming potential (GWP) for CH 4 ; and (b) how greenhouse-gas emissions from hydroelectric power plants stand against emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants with respect to global warming

  13. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  14. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University (Russian Federation); Savvichev, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, S. N. Vinogradskii Institute of Microbiology (Russian Federation); Zinchenko, A. V. [A. I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory (Russian Federation)

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions from the energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbuthi, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study quantifies greenhouse gas emissions from Kenya's energy activities. It is organised in four major sections, namely, an overview of the energy sector; data sources and methodology of analysis; results and recommendations for future climate change mitigation

  16. Embodied greenhouse gas emission by Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.S.; Chen, G.Q.; Lai, T.M.; Ahmad, B.; Chen, Z.M.; Shao, L.; Ji, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive inventory of cities' greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) is the basis for cities to make appropriate mitigation plans. However, previous studies on cities' GHG emissions consider emissions occurring within the city boundary (Scope 1) and out of boundary electricity emissions (Scope 2), but neglect indirect emissions associated with commodities consumed by cities (Scope 3), resulting in emission leakage. To cope with this problem, a systematic accounting covering all 3 scopes is presented in a case study of Macao for the years 2005–2009, based on the latest embodied emission intensity databases for China and for the world. The results show that total emissions are dominated by indirect emissions mainly embodied in imports, which is 3–4 times direct emissions during the period concerned. It is verified that accounting under Scopes 1 and 2 cannot capture the full picture of cities' emissions, especially cities like Macao which are dominated by service industry and inevitably sustained by massive materials and services from other regions. Our study suggests that Macao should adjust its current GHG mitigation policies which consider only its emissions occurring within its border, as Macao is a net GHG emissions importer. This work is the first assessment of Macao's embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: • A systematic accounting procedure is presented to inventory a city's GHG emissions. • A comprehensive review of GHG emissions is performed for Macao. • Indirect GHG emissions dominate Macao's embodied GHG emissions. • Macao induced large amount of GHG emissions in other regions through trade. • The variation in GHG emission structure against socio-economic changes is revealed

  17. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Enteric Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebreab, E.; Tedeschi, L.; Dijkstra, J.; Ellis, J.L.; Bannink, A.; France, J.

    2016-01-01

    Livestock directly contribute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mainly through methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. For cost and practicality reasons, quantification of GHG has been through development of various types of mathematical models. This chapter addresses the utility and

  18. The EU Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerdman, Edwin; Woerdman, Edwin; Roggenkamp, Martha; Holwerda, Marijn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains how greenhouse gas emissions trading works, provides the essentials of the Directive on the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) and summarizes the main implementation problems of the EU ETS. In addition, a law and economics approach is used to discuss the dilemmas

  19. Modelling emissions from natural gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ezaina Umukoro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The world today recognizes the significance of environmental sustainability to the development of nations. Hence, the role oil and gas industry plays in environmental degrading activities such as gas flaring is of global concern. This study presents material balance equations and predicts results for non-hydrocarbon emissions such as CO2, CO, NO, NO2, and SO2 etc. from flaring (combustion of 12 natural gas samples representing composition of natural gas of global origin. Gaseous emission estimates and pattern were modelled by coding material balance equations for six reaction types and combustion conditions with a computer program. On the average, anticipated gaseous emissions from flaring natural gas with an average annual global flaring rate 126 bcm per year (between 2000 and 2011 in million metric tonnes (mmt are 560 mmt, 48 mmt, 91 mmt, 93 mmt and 50 mmt for CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 respectively. This model predicted gaseous emissions based on the possible individual combustion types and conditions anticipated in gas flaring operation. It will assist in the effort by environmental agencies and all concerned to track and measure the extent of environmental pollution caused by gas flaring operations in the oil and gas industry.

  20. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T

    2011-01-01

    emissions. In reality, estimates of international scientific organizations such as the International Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are in close agreement, with variation mainly arising on how GHG emissions are allocated to land use and land use...... change. Other estimates involve major deviations from international protocols, such as estimated global warming potential of CH4 or including respired CO2 in GHG emissions. These approaches also fail to differentiate short-term CO2 arising from oxidation of plant C by ruminants from CO2 released from...

  1. A partial life cycle assessment approach to evaluate the energy intensity and related greenhouse gas emission in dairy farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelia Murgia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is constantly evolving towards more intensive levels of mechanization and automation which demand more energy consumption and result in higher economic and environmental costs. The usage of fossil energy in agricultural processes contributes to climate change both with on-farm emissions from the combustion of fuels, and by off-farm emissions due to the use of grid power. As a consequence, a more efficient use of fossil resources together with an increased use of renewable energies can play a key role for the development of more sustainable production systems. The aims of this study were to evaluate the energy requirements (fuels and electricity in dairy farms, define the distribution of the energy demands among the different farm operations, identify the critical point of the process and estimate the amount of CO2 associated with the energy consumption. The inventory of the energy uses has been outlined by a partial Life Cycle Assessment (LCA approach, setting the system boundaries at the farm level, from cradle to farm gate. All the flows of materials and energy associated to milk production process, including crops cultivation for fodder production, were investigated in 20 dairy commercial farms over a period of one year. Self-produced energy from renewable sources was also accounted as it influence the overall balance of emissions. Data analysis was focused on the calculation of energy and environmental sustainability indicators (EUI, CO2-eq referred to the functional units. The production of 1 kg of Fat and Protein Corrected Milk (FPCM required on average 0.044 kWhel and 0.251 kWhth, corresponding to a total emission of 0.085 kg CO2-eq. The farm activities that contribute most to the electricity requirements were milk cooling, milking and slurry management, while feeding management and crop cultivation were the greatest diesel fuel consuming operation and the largest in terms of environmental impact of milk production (73% of

  2. Greenhouse Gas and Noxious Emissions from Dual Fuel Diesel and Natural Gas Heavy Goods Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stettler, Marc E J; Midgley, William J B; Swanson, Jacob J; Cebon, David; Boies, Adam M

    2016-02-16

    Dual fuel diesel and natural gas heavy goods vehicles (HGVs) operate on a combination of the two fuels simultaneously. By substituting diesel for natural gas, vehicle operators can benefit from reduced fuel costs and as natural gas has a lower CO2 intensity compared to diesel, dual fuel HGVs have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the freight sector. In this study, energy consumption, greenhouse gas and noxious emissions for five after-market dual fuel configurations of two vehicle platforms are compared relative to their diesel-only baseline values over transient and steady state testing. Over a transient cycle, CO2 emissions are reduced by up to 9%; however, methane (CH4) emissions due to incomplete combustion lead to CO2e emissions that are 50-127% higher than the equivalent diesel vehicle. Oxidation catalysts evaluated on the vehicles at steady state reduced CH4 emissions by at most 15% at exhaust gas temperatures representative of transient conditions. This study highlights that control of CH4 emissions and improved control of in-cylinder CH4 combustion are required to reduce total GHG emissions of dual fuel HGVs relative to diesel vehicles.

  3. Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of shale gas, natural gas, coal, and petroleum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Andrew; Han, Jeongwoo; Clark, Corrie E; Wang, Michael; Dunn, Jennifer B; Palou-Rivera, Ignasi

    2012-01-17

    The technologies and practices that have enabled the recent boom in shale gas production have also brought attention to the environmental impacts of its use. It has been debated whether the fugitive methane emissions during natural gas production and transmission outweigh the lower carbon dioxide emissions during combustion when compared to coal and petroleum. Using the current state of knowledge of methane emissions from shale gas, conventional natural gas, coal, and petroleum, we estimated up-to-date life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we developed distribution functions for key parameters in each pathway to examine uncertainty and identify data gaps such as methane emissions from shale gas well completions and conventional natural gas liquid unloadings that need to be further addressed. Our base case results show that shale gas life-cycle emissions are 6% lower than conventional natural gas, 23% lower than gasoline, and 33% lower than coal. However, the range in values for shale and conventional gas overlap, so there is a statistical uncertainty whether shale gas emissions are indeed lower than conventional gas. Moreover, this life-cycle analysis, among other work in this area, provides insight on critical stages that the natural gas industry and government agencies can work together on to reduce the greenhouse gas footprint of natural gas.

  4. Agricultural sources of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochette, P.

    2003-01-01

    The author described different sources of greenhouse gas emissions resulting from agricultural activities and the process by which carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are generated on Canadian farms. The author also proposed some practices that would contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A brief description of the greenhouse effect was also provided with special emphasis on the agricultural sector. In 1996, the Canadian agricultural sector was responsible for approximately 10 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in the country. Given the increase in farm animals and more intensive agricultural activities, it is estimated that greenhouse gas emissions generated by the agricultural sector will increase by 20 per cent by 2010 if current practices remain in effect. The most optimistic scenarios indicate that the agricultural sector could achieve or even exceed Canada's Kyoto Protocol commitments mainly through organic material sequestration in soils. The possibility for farmers to sell greenhouse gas credits could motivate farmers into adopting various practices that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. However, the author indicated that the best motivation for farmers is the fact that adopting such practices would also lead to more efficient agricultural production. 5 refs., 4 figs

  5. Greenhouse gas emission from Australian coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1998-01-01

    Since 1997, when the Australian Coal Association (ACA) signed a letter of Intent in respect of the governments Greenhouse Challenge Program, it has encouraged its member companies to participate. Earlier this year, the ACA commissioned an independent scoping study on greenhouse gas emissions in the black coal mining industry This was to provide background information, including identification of information gaps and R and D needs, to guide the formulation of a strategy for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions associated with the mining, processing and handling of black coals in Australia. A first step in the process of reducing emission levels is an appreciation of the source, quantity and type of emissions om nine sites. It is shown that greenhouse gas emissions on mine sites come from five sources: energy consumption during mining activities, the coal seam gas liberated due to the extraction process i.e. fugitive emissions, oxidation of carbonaceous wastes, land use, and embodied energy. Also listed are indications of the degree of uncertainty associated with each of the estimates

  6. Measuring and controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; LAFONT, Bruno; Fischer, Severin; Leonard, Damien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2011-05-01

    As providing a reporting of their greenhouse gas emissions has become mandatory for a large number of French companies, this publication proposes a methodology to perform an assessment or measurement, and a control of such emissions. In its first part, it explains why measurements are required: indication of concerned gases, international consensus to limit temperature rise, definition and chronology of the main steps adopted at the international level and which must be considered in the approach adopted by enterprises in this respect. It outlines the benefits of such a measurement for the enterprise in terms of competitiveness, personnel commitment, new markets and products, image, compliance with the law, operational and financial aspects, and so on. It identifies the various stakeholders to be informed: civil society, financial community, public authorities, clients and consumers, personnel, suppliers. It outlines the diversity and evolution of legal frameworks at the international level as well as at national levels. While evoking many examples of French companies (SNCF, EDF, Seche Environnement, RTE, Michelin, Arcelormittal, AREVA, Air France, EADS-Airbus, AXA, Veolia, and so on), the next part addresses how to measure emissions. It outlines the complexity of the methodological landscape with its various criteria, evokes the various existing standards, outlines the distinction between organisation-based, product-based and project-based approaches, and the distinction between direct and indirect emissions in relationship with the notion of scope. It comments the existence of sector-based methodologies and guidelines, and discusses some difficulties and methodological decisions. The third part proposes some lessons learned from the experience which could lead to a harmonisation of methodologies, proposes a synthesis of reporting approaches, outlines risks and opportunities related to communication

  7. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  8. Accouting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Deemer, B. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Nietch, C. T.; Waldo, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a `basis for future methodological development' due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions linked to the National Lakes Assessment.

  9. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from shale gas and coal for electricity generation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Cohen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest, both in South Africa and globally, in the use of shale gas for electricity and energy supply. The exploitation of shale gas is, however, not without controversy, because of the reported environmental impacts associated with its extraction. The focus of this article is on the greenhouse gas footprint of shale gas, which some literature suggests may be higher than what would have been expected as a consequence of the contribution of fugitive emissions during extraction, processing and transport. Based on some studies, it has been suggested that life-cycle emissions may be higher than those from coal-fired power. Here we review a number of studies and analyse the data to provide a view of the likely greenhouse gas emissions from producing electricity from shale gas, and compare these emissions to those of coal-fired power in South Africa. Consideration was given to critical assumptions that determine the relative performance of the two sources of feedstock for generating electricity � that is the global warming potential of methane and the extent of fugitive emissions. The present analysis suggests that a 100-year time horizon is appropriate in analysis related to climate change, over which period the relative contribution is lower than for shorter periods. The purpose is to limit temperature increase in the long term and the choice of metric should be appropriate. The analysis indicates that, regardless of the assumptions about fugitive emissions and the period over which global warming potential is assessed, shale gas has lower greenhouse gas emissions per MWh of electricity generated than coal. Depending on various factors, electricity from shale gas would have a specific emissions intensity between 0.3 tCO2/MWh and 0.6 tCO2/MWh, compared with about 1 tCO2/MWh for coal-fired electricity in South Africa.

  11. Perceptions of Health Co-Benefits in Relation to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions: A Survey among Urban Residents in Three Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinghong; Xu, Guozhang; Ma, Wenjun; Zhang, Yong; Woodward, Alistair; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Kovats, Sari; Wilkinson, Paul; He, Tianfeng; Lin, Hualiang; Liu, Tao; Gu, Shaohua; Wang, Jun; Li, Jing; Yang, Jun; Liu, Xiaobo; Li, Jing; Wu, Haixia; Liu, Qiyong

    2017-01-01

    Limited information is available on the perceptions of stakeholders concerning the health co-benefits of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of urban residents on the health co-benefits involving GHG abatement and related influencing factors in three cities in China. Beijing, Ningbo and Guangzhou were selected for this survey. Participants were recruited from randomly chosen committees, following quotas for gender and age in proportion to the respective population shares. Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests were employed to examine the associations between socio-demographic variables and individuals’ perceptions of the health co-benefits related to GHG mitigation. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the influencing factors of respondents’ awareness about the health co-benefits. A total of 1159 participants were included in the final analysis, of which 15.9% reported that they were familiar with the health co-benefits of GHG emission reductions. Those who were younger, more educated, with higher family income, and with registered urban residence, were more likely to be aware of health co-benefits. Age, attitudes toward air pollution and governmental efforts to improve air quality, suffering from respiratory diseases, and following low carbon lifestyles are significant predictors of respondents’ perceptions on the health co-benefits. These findings may not only provide information to policy-makers to develop and implement public welcome policies of GHG mitigation, but also help to bridge the gap between GHG mitigation measures and public engagement as well as willingness to change health-related behaviors. PMID:28335404

  12. State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Emissions 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provides an overview of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for Australia's States and Territories. Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2004 amounted to 564.7 million tonnes. The State and Territory breakdown was: New South Wales: 158.7 million tonnes (Mt); Queensland: 158.5 Mt; Victoria: 123.0 Mt; Western Australia: 68.5 Mt; South Australia: 27.6 Mt; Northern Territory: 15.6 Mt; Tasmania: 10.7 Mt; ACT: 1.2 Mt. The summary of State and Territory inventories presented in this document reports estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for each State and Territory for the period 1990 to 2004. It is the first time that a complete annual time-series has been reported

  13. Projections of multi-gas emissions and carbon sinks, and marginal abatement cost functions modelling for land-use related sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveland C; Bouwman AF; Vries B de; Eickhout B; Strengers BJ; MNV

    2003-01-01

    This report presents estimates of the costs of abatement of greenhouse gas emissions associated with landfills as a source of methane (CH4), sewage as a source of methane and nitrous oxide (CH4 and N2O, respectively) and carbon (C) sequestration in forest plantations. This is done in the form of

  14. Flue gas emissions from gas-fired cogeneration units <25 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, M.; Wit, J. de

    1997-01-01

    A total of 900 MW e gas driven combined heat and power (CHP) has now been established in Denmark based on gas engines and gas turbine units less than 25 MW e each. Of the 900 MW e approx. 750 MW e are based on gas engines. Biogas is used as fuel for some 32 MW e of these. Emission limits for NO x and CO are 650 mg/nm 3 (ref. 5% O 2 and electrical efficiency 30% LCV). There is at present no limit for unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) for gas engines or gas turbines. The average emission of unburned hydrocarbons for the Danish gas engine driven CHP units is equal to approx. 3,5% of the fuel used. It is the target of this report to provide the basis for evaluating the planned UHC limit and possible adjustments of the present limit for NO x emission. The average NO x emission from gas turbines slightly exceeds the NO x emission from gas engines. This is due to a number of older gas turbines. Modern gas turbines can achieve significantly lower NO x emission compared to engines. The NO x emission from biogas driven engines is significantly higher than that of natural gas driven units. This is mainly due to NO x -unfavourable engine settings and the use of older units, as there are no legislation concerning NO x emission for the majority of these biogas driven units. The emission of CO and UHC is lower from gas turbines than from gas engines. The NO x emission can be reduced by SCR Catalyst systems. In Denmark 3 gas engine installations use this commercially available technology. Oxidation catalyst for UHC reduction at modern gas engine installations has proven relatively unsuccesful in Denmark until now. Only limited reductions are achieved and many catalysts are toxificated in less than 100 hours of operation. However, long-term field testing of promising UHC reducing catalysts is now being made. UHC reduction by incineration is at the prototype stage. No such plant has yet been set up in Denmark. (Abstract Truncated)

  15. Cogeneration, renewables and reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naughten, B.; Dlugosz, J.

    1996-01-01

    The MENSA model is used to assess the potential role of cogeneration and selected new renewable energy technologies in cost-effectively reducing Greenhouse gas emissions. The model framework for analyzing these issues is introduced, together with an account of relevant aspects of its application. In the discussion of selected new renewable energy technologies, it is shown how microeconomic reform may encourage these technologies and fuels, and thereby reduce sector wide carbon dioxide emissions. Policy scenarios modelled are described and the simulation results are presented. Certain interventions in microeconomic reform may result in economic benefits while also reducing emissions: no regrets' opportunities. Some renewable energy technologies are also shown to be cost-effective in the event that targets and timetables for reducing Greenhouse gas emissions are imposed. However, ad hoc interventions in support of particular renewables options are unlikely to be consistent with a least cost approach to achieving environmental objectives. (author). 5 tabs., 5 figs., 21 refs

  16. Rough surface mitigates electron and gas emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-ion beams impinging on surfaces near grazing incidence (to simulate the loss of halo ions) generate copious amounts of electrons and gas that can degrade the beam. We measured emission coefficients of η e (le) 130 and η 0 ∼ 10 4 respectively, with 1 MeV K + incident on stainless steel. Electron emission scales as η e ∝ 1/cos(θ), where θ is the ion angle of incidence relative to normal. If we were to roughen a surface by blasting it with glass beads, then ions that were near grazing incidence (90 o ) on smooth surface would strike the rims of the micro-craters at angles closer to normal incidence. This should reduce the electron emission: the factor of 10 reduction, Fig. 1(a), implies an average angle of incidence of 62 o . Gas desorption varies more slowly with θ (Fig. 1(b)) decreasing a factor of ∼2, and along with the electron emission is independent of the angle of incidence on a rough surface. In a quadrupole magnet, electrons emitted by lost primary ions are trapped near the wall by the magnetic field, but grazing incidence ions can backscatter and strike the wall a second time at an azimuth where magnetic field lines intercept the beam. Then, electrons can exist throughout the beam (see the simulations of Cohen, HIF News 1-2/04). The SRIM (TRIM) Monte Carlo code predicts that 60-70% of 1 MeV K + ions backscatter when incident at 88-89 o from normal on a smooth surface. The scattered ions are mostly within ∼10 o of the initial direction but a few scatter by up to 90 o . Ion scattering decreases rapidly away from grazing incidence, Fig. 1(c ). At 62 deg. the predicted ion backscattering (from a rough surface) is 3%, down a factor of 20 from the peak, which should significantly reduce electrons in the beam from lost halo ions. These results are published in Phys. Rev. ST - Accelerators and Beams

  17. Particle emissions from compressed natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristovski, Z.D.; Morawska, L.; Hitchins, J.; Thomas, S.; Greenaway, C.; Gilbert, D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the results of measurements conducted to determine particle and gas emissions from two large compressed natural gas (CNG) spark ignition (SI) engines. Particle size distributions in the range from 0.01-30 μm, and gas composition were measured for five power settings of the engines: 35, 50, 65, 80 and 100% of full power. Particle emissions in the size range between 0.5 and 30 μm, measured by the aerodynamic particle sizer (APS), were very low at a level below two particles cm -3 . These concentrations were comparable with average ambient concentration, and were not considered in the succeeding analysis. Both engines produce significant amounts of particles in the size range between 0.015 and 0.7 μm, measured by the scanning mobility particle size (SMPS). Maximum number of concentrations of about 1 x 10 7 particles cm -3 were very similar for both engines. The CMDs were in the range between 0.020 and 0.060 μm. The observed levels of particulate emission are in terms of number of the same order as emissions from heavy duty diesel engines (Morawska et al., Environ. Sci. Tech. 32, 2033-2042). On the other hand, emissions of CO and NO x of 5.53 and 3.33 g k W h -1 , respectively, for one of the tested engines, were considerably lower than set by the standards. According to the specifications for the gas emissions, provided by the US EPA (US EPA, 1997), this engine can be considered as a 'low-emission' engine, although emissions of submicrometer particles are of the same order as heavy-duty vehicles. (Author)

  18. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  19. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  20. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo [Shanghai Univ. of Electric Power (China); Cao, Yan; Pan, Weiping [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of flue gas contents on the mercury speciation transformation process. Mercury emission control methods, such as existing APCDs (air pollution control devices) at power stations, sorbent injection, additives in coal combustion and photo-catalytic methods are introduced in detail. Lab-scale, pilot-scale and full-scale experimental studies of sorbent injection conducted by the authors are presented systematically, helping researchers and engineers to understand how this approach reduces the mercury emissions in flue gas and to apply the methods in mercury emission control at coal-fired power stations.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podkówka Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cattle produce greenhouse gases (GHG which lead to changes in the chemical composition of the atmosphere. These gases which cause greenhouse effect include: methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, nitrogen oxides (NOx, sulphur dioxide (SO2, ammonia (NH3, dust particles and non-methane volatile organic compounds, commonly described as other than methane hydrocarbons. Fermentation processes taking place in the digestive tract produce ‘digestive gases’, distinguished from gases which are emitted during the decomposition of manure. Among these digestive gases methane and non-methane volatile organic compounds are of particular relevance importance. The amount of gases produced by cows can be reduced by choosing to rear animals with an improved genetically based performance. A dairy cow with higher production efficiency, producing milk with higher protein content and at the same time reduced fat content emits less GHG into the environment. Increasing the ratio of feed mixtures in a feed ration also reduces GHG emissions, especially of methane. By selection of dairy cows with higher production efficiency and appropriate nutrition, the farm's expected milk production target can be achieved while at the same time, the size of the herd is reduced, leading to a reduction of GHG emissions.

  2. Coal fired flue gas mercury emission controls

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Pan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals, harmful to both the environment and human health. Hg is released into the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources and its emission control has caused much concern. This book introduces readers to Hg pollution from natural and anthropogenic sources and systematically describes coal-fired flue gas mercury emission control in industry, especially from coal-fired power stations. Mercury emission control theory and experimental research are demonstrated, including how elemental mercury is oxidized into oxidized mercury and the effect of

  3. Monitoring greenhouse gas emissions from landfill sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eade, G.

    2001-01-01

    Methane is the chief component of natural gas, but also occurs naturally by the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in swamp areas, at landfill sites, in fact at any location where organic deposits are present. Carbon dioxide is also produced by the decomposition of organic material as well as being the primary by-product of combustion. This article focuses on techniques to test a wide variety of combustible and toxic gases, including surface emission testing of landfill sites. Specifically, it describes the Methane Emission Monitoring System (MEMS) developed by Hetek Solutions Inc., whose primary objective is to to effectively locate surface emissions of methane gas from active landfill sites using flame ionization (FI) technology, and to plot the 'hot spots' using a Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS), which provides sub-metre accuracy for plotting emissions locations at landfill sites. The FI equipment is installed on all-terrain vehicles (ATVs). Several thousand kilometers of pipeline inspections have been performed in Alberta and Saskatchewan using this system in the mid-1990s. The mobile FI/ATV units have been redesigned for landfill gas emission testing, equipped with new DGPS equipment and interface software. They meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) drafted in the United States in 1996, which requires all landfill sites to be inspected for methane gas emissions. Using the FI/ATV combination, productivity over conventional walking inspection procedures increased some 400 per cent, while monitoring accuracy is equivalent to or better than those provided by previous conventional methods. The company can also provide the Optical Methane Detector (OMD) system using infrared technology. They are capable of performing 14,000 measurements per second, thus providing immediate response. To date, ATV emissions testing has been proven to be very effective in various types of gas detection. When interfaced with DGPS technology, computer

  4. Emissions credits from natural gas vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.F.; Kodjak, D.

    1997-01-01

    Dedicated natural gas vehicles (NGVs) often are capable of testing to lower than federally required engine certification standards. NGVs often meet inherently low emission vehicle (ILEV) and ultra low emission vehicle (ULEV) standards. Over the useful life of the vehicle, a significant amount of mobile source emission reduction credits (MSERCs) can be generated. This paper will discuss key elements of establishing a workable methodology to quantify the emissions benefits generated through the purchase and use of heavy-duty natural gas vehicles instead of heavy-duty diesel vehicles. The paper will focus on a public fleet of transit buses owned by the Massachusetts Bay Transit Agency, the Massachusetts Port Authority, and a private fleet of waste haulers. Public fleets may generate emission credits as a key compliance option to offset emission shortfalls from changes to the Employee Commute Options (ECO) program, the Inspection and Maintenance program, and facilitate annual surface transportation conformity. Private fleets may generate emission credits for open market trading to area and stationary sources seeking to buy credits from mobile sources, where allowed by EPA and state policy

  5. Canada`s greenhouse gas emissions inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaques, A. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    In 1994, Canada was the seventh largest global emitter of CO{sub 2}. The Kyoto Protocol has made it necessary to continue to improve methods for developing emissions inventories. An emissions inventory was defined as `a comprehensive account of air pollutant emissions and associated data from sources within the inventory area over a specified time frame that can be used to determine the effect of emissions on the environment`. The general approach is to compile large-scale emission estimates under averaged conditions for collective sources and sectors, using data that is available on a sectoral, provincial and national basis. Ideally, continuous emission monitors should be used to develop emissions inventories. Other needed improvements include additional research on emissions data, and increased support for international negotiations on reporting policies and related methodologies, verification procedures and adjustments. 1 ref., 5 figs.

  6. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Seiner, J.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production and to waste

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2015-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products "from cradle to grave": from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  8. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Chen, W.-Y.; Suzuki, T.; Lackner, M.

    2017-01-01

    Life cycle assessments of greenhouse gas emissions have been developed for analyzing products “from cradle to grave”: from resource extraction to waste disposal. Life cycle assessment methodology has also been applied to economies, trade between countries, aspects of production, and waste

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from industrial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinyanjui, L.N.

    1998-01-01

    This study considers greenhouse gas emissions stemming from industrial activities such as cement production; limestone use and lime production. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) (1995a) methodology for industrial sector was applied for the three components selected. Limitations hindering the handling of other industrial process are listed as budgetary and time. Data sources and recommendations are listed

  10. Detecting gas leaks by ultrasonic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Henriksen, Eigil

    1997-01-01

    The emission of noise in the frequency range 10 kHz to 25.6 kHz from an experimental gas leak in a flanged joint has been experimentally investigated. The overall conclusion is that the emitted noise is almost frequency independent in level within the considered frequency range.A small PC program...

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available of CO2. These gases included 350 Tg CO2 (65.6% of the effect), 183 Tg CH4 (34.2%) and 1.2 Tg N2O (0.2%). The mining and burning of coal contributed more than 80% of the greenhouse gas emissions from South African territory....

  12. Particle Emissions from Domestic Gas Cookers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Livbjerg, Hans; Wagner, Ayten Yilmaz

    2010-01-01

    The authors experimentally studied the formation of submicron particles from a domestic gas cooker in a compartment free from external particle sources. The effects of fuel (methane, natural gas, odorant-free natural gas), primary aeration, flow rate, and fuel sulphur content on particle emissions...... of the emitted particles were found to have a mean value of about 7 nm for partially premixed flames, increasing to ∼10 nm for nonpremixed flames. The quantity of primary air had a strong impact on the particle emissions, showing a minimum at a primary aeration level of 60-65%. Presence of sulphur in small...... quantities may enhance particle formation under some conditions, but results were not conclusive....

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    unit. This dissertation presents results and comprehensions from my PhD study on the basis of three papers. The overall aim has been to develop a new identity-based framework, the KPI, to estimate and analyse GHG emissions from agriculture and LUC and apply this on national, regional and global level....... The KPI enables combined analyses of changes in total emissions, emissions per area and emissions per product. Also, the KPI can be used to assess how a change in each GHG emission category affects the change in total emissions; thus pointing to where things are going well and where things are going less...... well in relation to what is actually produced. The KPI framework is scale independent and can be applied at any level from field and farm to global agricultural production. Paper I presents the first attempt to develop the KPI identity framework and, as a case study, GHG emissions from Danish crop...

  14. REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE INFLUENCES ON ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGHELUȚĂ PETRICĂ SORIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, there has been observed a degradation of the environment. This has negative effects on human activities. Besides the influence of the environment on people, also the economic crisis had a negative contribution. The imbalances manifested in the environment influence the economic systems. This article presents an analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions. Also, there is a link between the greenhouse gas emissions and the economic development. In the situation in which the environmental pollution is increasingly affecting humanity, the transition to an economy with reduced greenhouse gas emissions appears to be a viable solution. This transition provides a number of opportunities, as well. Therefore, one of these opportunities is the one related to the employment. In this regard, retraining people working in polluting industries is very important

  15. Modeling of greenhouse gas emission from livestock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjo eJose

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of climate change on humans and other living ecosystems is an area of on-going research. The ruminant livestock sector is considered to be one of the most significant contributors to the existing greenhouse gas (GHG pool. However the there are opportunities to combat climate change by reducing the emission of GHGs from ruminants. Methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O are emitted by ruminants via anaerobic digestion of organic matter in the rumen and manure, and by denitrification and nitrification processes which occur in manure. The quantification of these emissions by experimental methods is difficult and takes considerable time for analysis of the implications of the outputs from empirical studies, and for adaptation and mitigation strategies to be developed. To overcome these problems computer simulation models offer substantial scope for predicting GHG emissions. These models often include all farm activities while accurately predicting the GHG emissions including both direct as well as indirect sources. The models are fast and efficient in predicting emissions and provide valuable information on implementing the appropriate GHG mitigation strategies on farms. Further, these models help in testing the efficacy of various mitigation strategies that are employed to reduce GHG emissions. These models can be used to determine future adaptation and mitigation strategies, to reduce GHG emissions thereby combating livestock induced climate change.

  16. Deep greenhouse gas emission reductions in Europe: Exploring different options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deetman, Sebastiaan; Hof, Andries F.; Pfluger, Benjamin; Vuuren, Detlef P. van; Girod, Bastien; Ruijven, Bas J. van

    2013-01-01

    Most modelling studies that explore emission mitigation scenarios only look into least-cost emission pathways, induced by a carbon tax. This means that European policies targeting specific – sometimes relatively costly – technologies, such as electric cars and advanced insulation measures, are usually not evaluated as part of cost-optimal scenarios. This study explores an emission mitigation scenario for Europe up to 2050, taking as a starting point specific emission reduction options instead of a carbon tax. The purpose is to identify the potential of each of these policies and identify trade-offs between sectoral policies in achieving emission reduction targets. The reduction options evaluated in this paper together lead to a reduction of 65% of 1990 CO 2 -equivalent emissions by 2050. More bottom-up modelling exercises, like the one presented here, provide a promising starting point to evaluate policy options that are currently considered by policy makers. - Highlights: ► We model the effects of 15 climate change mitigation measures in Europe. ► We assess the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential in different sectors. ► The measures could reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 60% below 1990 levels in 2050. ► The approach allows to explore arguably more relevant climate policy scenarios

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions - a global challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarebrot, Eivind; Langvik, Sveinung

    2000-01-01

    The article describes some greenhouse gas emission challenges in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Some of the conclusions are that the national taxation policies are insufficient and that international co-operation is essential in order to obtain significant pollution abatement. The mechanisms for this are not yet in place. Some possible measures are mentioned. The main solution to the problems internationally seems to be international co-operation projects generally with quota trade in order to meet the Kyoto agreement obligations

  18. Air quality and greenhouse gas emissions (Chapter 3)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas development (SGD) presents opportunities and risks with regards to air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. There is a potential opportunity to reduce emissions, if shale gas replaces ‘dirtier’ (more emissions-intensive) fuels...

  19. Improving the technology of purification of gas emissions petrochemical industries

    OpenAIRE

    USMANOVA R.R.; ZAIKOV G.E.

    2014-01-01

    The technology of cleaning of gas emissions flares in the production of synthetic rubber. Developed dynamic scrubber for scrubbing gas emissions. Complex studies served as the basis for the design of an air purification system of industrial premises. Purification of gas emissions before combustion in flares has significantly reduced air pollution by toxic substances.

  20. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucks Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Wisconsin Reduces Emissions With Natural Gas Trucks on Twitter Bookmark

  1. Incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long range transportation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be an important focus area for state, local, and federal : agencies. The transportation sector is the second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in the U.S., and : Texas contributes the highest emissions am...

  2. Addressing biogenic greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower in LCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertwich, Edgar G

    2013-09-03

    The ability of hydropower to contribute to climate change mitigation is sometimes questioned, citing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide resulting from the degradation of biogenic carbon in hydropower reservoirs. These emissions are, however, not always addressed in life cycle assessment, leading to a bias in technology comparisons, and often misunderstood. The objective of this paper is to review and analyze the generation of greenhouse gas emissions from reservoirs for the purpose of technology assessment, relating established emission measurements to power generation. A literature review, data collection, and statistical analysis of methane and CO2 emissions are conducted. In a sample of 82 measurements, methane emissions per kWh hydropower generated are log-normally distributed, ranging from micrograms to 10s of kg. A multivariate regression analysis shows that the reservoir area per kWh electricity is the most important explanatory variable. Methane emissions flux per reservoir area are correlated with the natural net primary production of the area, the age of the power plant, and the inclusion of bubbling emissions in the measurement. Even together, these factors fail to explain most of the variation in the methane flux. The global average emissions from hydropower are estimated to be 85 gCO2/kWh and 3 gCH4/kWh, with a multiplicative uncertainty factor of 2. GHG emissions from hydropower can be largely avoided by ceasing to build hydropower plants with high land use per unit of electricity generated.

  3. Specific emissions analysis for a combustion engine in dynamometer operation in relation to the thermal state of the exhaust gas aftertreatment systems in a modified NRSC test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merkisz Jerzy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exhaust gas aftertreatment systems have been present in motor vehicles for decades and have contributed to reducing their impact on the environment and people. Most of them for oxidation or reduction of harmful emissions of particulates and fumes require a certain temperature to be reached that changes with the exhaust temperature, i.e. the points of engine operation. The article describes the effect of oxidation reactor and particulate filter temperatures on specific emissions of gaseous compounds and particulate matter during the modified NRSC engine test. Before the first measurement cycle, the engine was idling, before the second measurement cycle, the exhaust system was heated with exhaust gases at full engine load until passive regeneration of the particle filter occurred (noticeable decrease in instantaneous particle concentration.

  4. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Ia Rue du Can, Stephane; Price, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Integrated assessment models have been used to project both baseline and mitigation greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Results of these scenarios are typically presented for a number of world regions and end-use sectors, such as industry, transport, and buildings. Analysts interested in particular technologies and policies, however, require more detailed information to understand specific mitigation options in relation to business-as-usual trends. This paper presents sectoral trend for two of the scenarios produced by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios. Global and regional historical trends in energy use and carbon dioxide emissions over the past 30 years are examined and contrasted with projections over the next 30 years. Macro-activity indicators are analyzed as well as trends in sectoral energy and carbon demand. This paper also describes a methodology to calculate primary energy and carbon dioxide emissions at the sector level, accounting for the full energy and emissions due to sectoral activities. (author)

  5. Portuguese agriculture and the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions-can vegetables control livestock emissions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourao, Paulo Reis; Domingues Martinho, Vítor

    2017-07-01

    One of the most serious externalities of agricultural activity relates to greenhouse gas emissions. This work tests this relationship for the Portuguese case by examining data compiled since 1961. Employing cointegration techniques and vector error correction models (VECMs), we conclude that the evolution of the most representative vegetables and fruits in Portuguese production are associated with higher controls on the evolution of greenhouse gas emissions. Reversely, the evolution of the output levels of livestock and the most representative animal production have significantly increased the level of CO 2 (carbon dioxide) reported in Portugal. We also analyze the cycle length of the long-term relationship between agricultural activity and greenhouse gas emissions. In particular, we highlight the case of synthetic fertilizers, whose values of CO 2 have quickly risen due to changes in Portuguese vegetables, fruit, and animal production levels.

  6. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  7. Leveling the playing field of transportation fuels: Accounting for indirect emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton, Steven; Eyer, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Natural gas transportation fuels are credited in prior studies with greenhouse gas emissions savings relative to petroleum-based fuels and relative to the total emissions of biofuels. These analyses, however, overlook a source of potentially large indirect emissions from natural gas transportation fuels, namely the emissions from incremental coal-fired generation caused by price-induced substitutions away from natural-gas-fired electricity generation. Because coal-fired generation emits substantially more greenhouse gases and criteria air pollutants than natural-gas-fired generation, this indirect coal-use change effect diminishes potential emissions savings from natural gas transportation fuels. Estimates from a parameterized multi-market model suggest the indirect coal-use change effect rivals in magnitude the indirect land-use change effect of biofuels and renders natural gas fuels as carbon intensive as petroleum fuels. - Highlights: •Natural gas used in transport causes indirect emissions in the electricity sector. •These emissions result from increased coal use in electricity generation. •They rival in magnitude indirect land use change (ILUC) emissions of biofuels. •Natural gas fuels are estimated to be as carbon intensive as the petroleum fuels. •Policy ignores indirect emissions from natural gas.

  8. Assessing the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas Fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajny, K. D.; Shepson, P. B.; Rudek, J.; Stirm, B. H.; Kaeser, R.; Stuff, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Natural gas is often discussed as a "bridge fuel" to transition to renewable energy as it only produces 51% the amount of CO2 per unit energy as coal. This, coupled with rapid increases in production fueled by technological advances, has led to a near tripling of natural gas used for electricity generation since 2005. One concern with this idea of a "bridge fuel" is that methane, the primary component of natural gas, is itself a potent greenhouse gas with 28 and 84 times the global warming potential of CO2 based on mass over a 100 and 20 year period, respectively. Studies have estimated that leaks from the point of extraction to end use of 3.2% would offset the climate benefits of natural gas. Previous work from our group saw that 3 combined cycle power plants emitted unburned CH4 from the stacks and leaked additional CH4 from equipment on site, but total loss rates were still less than 2.2%. Using Purdue's Airborne Laboratory for Atmospheric Research (ALAR) we completed additional aircraft based mass balance experiments combined with passes directly over power plant stacks to expand on the previous study. In this work, we have measured at 12 additional natural gas fired power plants including a mix of operation types (baseload, peaking, intermediate) and firing methods (combined cycle, simple thermal, combustion turbine). We have also returned to the 3 plants previously sampled to reinvestigate emissions for each of those, to assess reproducibility of the results. Here we report the comparison of reported continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) data for CO2 to our emission rates calculated from mass balance experiments, as well as a comparison of calculated CH4 emission rates to estimated emission rates based on the EPA emission factor of 1 g CH4/mmbtu natural gas and CEMS reported heat input. We will also discuss emissions from a coal-fired plant which has been sampled by the group in the past and has since converted to natural gas. Lastly, we discuss the

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions of hydropower in the Mekong River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Timo A.; Varis, Olli; Scherer, Laura; Kummu, Matti

    2018-03-01

    The Mekong River Basin in Southeast Asia is undergoing extensive hydropower development, but the magnitudes of related greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) are not well known. We provide the first screening of GHG emissions of 141 existing and planned reservoirs in the basin, with a focus on atmospheric gross emissions through the reservoir water surface. The emissions were estimated using statistical models that are based on global emission measurements. The hydropower reservoirs (119) were found to have an emission range of 0.2-1994 kg CO2e MWh-1 over a 100 year lifetime with a median of 26 kg CO2e MWh-1. Hydropower reservoirs facilitating irrigation (22) had generally higher emissions reaching over 22 000 kg CO2e MWh-1. The emission fluxes for all reservoirs (141) had a range of 26-1813 000 t CO2e yr-1 over a 100 year lifetime with a median of 28 000 t CO2e yr-1. Altogether, 82% of hydropower reservoirs (119) and 45% of reservoirs also facilitating irrigation (22) have emissions comparable to other renewable energy sources (equalling even the emission from fossil fuel power plants (>380 kg CO2e MWh-1). These results are tentative and they suggest that hydropower in the Mekong Region cannot be considered categorically as low-emission energy. Instead, the GHG emissions of hydropower should be carefully considered case-by-case together with the other impacts on the natural and social environment.

  10. Request for Correction 12003 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Request for Correction by the U.S. Chamber of Commerce for information in Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum Gas Industry that regarding methane emissions, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  12. Multi-sectorial convergence in greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Guilherme de; Bourscheidt, Deise Maria

    2017-07-01

    This paper uses the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to test the hypothesis of per capita convergence in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a multi-sectorial panel of countries. The empirical strategy applies conventional estimators of random and fixed effects and Arellano and Bond's (1991) GMM to the main pollutants related to the greenhouse effect. For reasonable empirical specifications, the model revealed robust evidence of per capita convergence in CH 4 emissions in the agriculture, food, and services sectors. The evidence of convergence in CO 2 emissions was moderate in the following sectors: agriculture, food, non-durable goods manufacturing, and services. In all cases, the time for convergence was less than 15 years. Regarding emissions by energy use, the largest source of global warming, there was only moderate evidence in the extractive industry sector-all other pollutants presented little or no evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Canadian options for greenhouse gas emission reduction (COGGER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, J.; Fraser, M.; Haites, E.; Harvey, D.; Jaccard, M.; Reinsch, A.; Torrie, R.

    1993-09-01

    A panel was formed to assess the feasibility and cost of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction in Canada. The panel studies focused on the potential for increased energy efficiency and fuel switching and their effect in reducing CO 2 emissions by reviewing the extensive literature available on those topics and assessing their conclusions. Economically feasible energy savings are estimated mostly in the range of 20-40% savings by the year 2010 relative to a reference-case projection, with a median of 23%. The panel concluded that achieving the identified economic potential for increased energy efficiency by 2010 will depend on development of additional demand-side management or energy efficiency programs that go well beyond current policies and programs. Fuel switching will play a much smaller role in stabilizing energy-related CO 2 emissions than improved energy efficiency. Technology substitution and broader structural change would enable Canada to achieve significant reductions in CO 2 emissions; however, more research is needed on achieving emission reductions that would approach the levels estimated to be required globally for stabilization of atmospheric CO 2 concentrations. Achieving such emissions reductions would likely require a combination of significant improvements in energy efficiency, major changes in energy sources, and substantial changes in economic activity and life styles, relative to that projected in most reference-case forecasts. 5 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs

  14. Assessing the difference. Greenhouse gas emissions of electricity generation chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, J.V.; Langlois, L.; Hamilton, B.

    2000-01-01

    Greenhouse gases have to the potential to influence global climate change by interfering with the natural process of heat exchange between the earth's atmosphere and outer space. Reducing atmospheric GHG concentrations have become an international priority as evidenced by the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, which would reduce emissions from industrialized countries (Annex 1) by about 5% below 1990 levels during the commitment period 2008-12. There are a number of technical options that could be implemented in order to achieve the proposed reduction target. As for emissions related to electricity generation, perhaps the most important factor over the near term is the improvement in efficiency of using energy at all the stages of the fuel cycle, including fuel preparation and transportation, fuel-to-electricity conversion at the power plant and at the point of end-use (which has not been considered here). Strategies for reducing methane releases during fuel mining and during gas transmission are very relevant. Switching to less carbon intensive or low carbon fuels, such as gas, nuclear power and renewables, will play a major role in reducing emissions. These changes are technically feasible using present day knowledge and experience, require minimal changes in consumer lifestyle, and represent reasonable capital turnover (gas and nuclear for baseload generation and renewables in niche markets or for peak load applications). This article has presented information on GHG emission factors for different fuels using a Full Energy Chain approach, which attempts to quantify the environmental emissions from all stages of electricity generation, i.e. 'cradle-to-grave'. Fossil-fueled technologies have the highest emission factors, with coal typically twice as high as natural gas. Considering the large variations in fuel- to-electricity conversion technology, it can be said that GHG emission factors can be an order of magnitude higher than current solar PV systems and up to two

  15. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R.M. [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  16. Does Increased Extraction of Natural Gas Reduce Carbon Emissions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, F.R.; Golombek, R.; Kittelsen, S.A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Without an international climate agreement, extraction of more natural gas could reduce emissions of CO2 as more 'clean' natural gas may drive out ''dirty'' coal and oil. Using a computable equilibrium model for the Western European electricity and natural gas markets, we examine whether increased extraction of natural gas in Norway reduces global emissions of CO2. We find that both in the short run and in the long run total emissions are reduced if the additional quantity of natural gas is used in gas power production in Norway. If instead the additional quantity is exported directly, total emissions increase both in the short run and in the long run. However, if modest CO2-taxes are imposed, increased extraction of natural gas will reduce CO2 emissions also when the additional natural gas is exported directed

  17. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowgill, R M [Radian Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH{sub 4}. Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  18. Opportunities to reduce methane emissions in the natural gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowgill, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Gas Research Institute (GRI) cofunded a project to quantify methane (CH 4 ) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry. Methane, the major constituent of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas that is believed to increase the effect of global warming when released to the atmosphere. Reducing emissions from natural gas systems would lessen the greenhouse gas effect attributable to atmospheric CH 4 . Further, mitigation methods to reduce emissions of natural gas, a marketable resource, could save money and increase energy efficiency. This presentation summarizes the major sources and quantity of methane being emitted to the atmosphere for all segments of the U.S. gas industry: production; processing; storage; transmission; and distribution. A description of how those emissions were determined is included here, as well as a discussion of which sources are potential candidates for reducing emissions. (author)

  19. The marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of the marginal costs of greenhouse gas emissions are on important input to the decision how much society would want to spend on greenhouse gas emission reduction. Marginal cost estimates in the literature range between $5 and $25 per ton of carbon. Using similar assumptions, the FUND model finds marginal costs of $9--23/tC, depending on the discount rate. If the aggregation of impacts over countries accounts for inequalities in income distribution or for risk aversion, marginal costs would rise by about a factor of 3. Marginal costs per region are an order of magnitude smaller than global marginal costs. The ratios between the marginal costs of CO 2 and those of CH 4 and N 2 O are roughly equal to the global warming potentials of these gases. The uncertainty about the marginal costs is large and right-skewed. The expected value of the marginal costs lies about 35% above the best guess, the 95-percentile about 250%

  20. CO and PAH emissions from engines operating on producer gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from gas engine based power plants in most EU countries are so ...

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from Savanna ( Miombo ) woodlands ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Natural vegetation represents an important sink for greenhouse gases (GHGs); however, there is relatively little information available on emissions from southern African savannas. The effects of clearing savanna woodlands for crop production on soil fluxes of N2O, CO2 and CH4 were studied on clay (Chromic luvisol) and ...

  2. Agriculture and the greenhouse gas emissions: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulmala, A.; Esala, M.

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture contributes to the greenhouse effect by increasing carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane emissions. This literature review examines agricultural sources and sinks of greenhouse gases as well as factors affecting emissions. Options for mitigating emissions are presented as well the results of greenhouse gas emission measurements on Finnish agricultural soils. In addition, some basic information is given about Finnish agriculture, and the estimation of emissions using the IPCC Guidelines is described. Carbon dioxide sources include decomposition of soil organic matter, combustion and liming. The agricultural sector can mitigate CO 2 emissions by increasing carbon stocks in soils and vegetation, reducing fossil fuel consumption, and increasing the production of bioenergy. There is little opportunity to decrease the amount of liming in Finland. The main nitrous oxide sources are nitrification and denitrification. N 2 O emissions can be reduced by enhancing plants' ability to compete for soil nitrogen and by keeping the rate of emission processes as low and the duration of emissions as short as possible. Special attention should be paid to manure management because manure contains abundant nitrogen that can be lost as N 2 O. Improvements in the protein feeding of livestock could also reduce potential N 2 O emissions from manure. Methane is emitted, for example, in the course of enteric fermentation and the anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in manure. The emission of CH 4 from soils depends on the relative amounts of methane production and consumption. Cattle with high productivity emit less methane per unit of milk or meat than do animals with low productivity. The number of breeding animals could be reduced by improving animal reproduction efficiency. Methane emitted from manure should be utilized as an energy source, or the formation of it should be prevented by keeping manure under aerobic conditions

  3. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At high leakage levels, these methane emissions could outweigh the benefits of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is asked to meet a specific CO2 reduction target and the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production. While the total CO2 emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total greenhouse gas emissions show an increase or no change when both natural gas availability and methane emissions from natural gas production are high. Article presents summary of results from an analyses of natural gas resource availability and power sector emissions reduction strategies under different estimates of methane leakage rates during natural gas extraction and production. This was study was undertaken as part of the Energy Modeling Forum Study #31:

  4. CANDU reactors and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andseta, S.; Thompson, M.J.; Jarrell, J.P.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper was originally presented at the 11th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, Banff, Alberta, Canada, May 3-7, 1998. It has been updated to include additional lifecycle data on chemical releases from ore treatment and CANDU fuel fabrication. It is sometimes stated that nuclear power plants can supply electricity with zero emissions of greenhouse gases. In fact, consideration of the entire fuel cycle indicates that some greenhouse gases are generated during their construction and decommissioning and by the preparation of fuel and other materials required for their operation. This follows from the use of fossil fuels in the preparation of materials and during the construction and decommissioning of the plants. This paper reviews life cycle studies of several different kinds of power plants. Greenhouse gases generated by fossil fuels during the preparation of fuel and heavy water used by operating CANDU power plants are estimated. The total greenhouse gas emissions from CANDU nuclear plants, per unit of electricity ultimately produced, are very small in comparison with emissions from most other types of power plants. (author)

  5. CANDU reactors and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andseta, S.; Thompson, M.J.; Jarrell, J.P.; Pendergast, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper was originally presented at the 11th Pacific Basin Nuclear Conference, Banff, Alberta, Canada, May 3-7, 1998. It has been updated to include additional lifecycle data on chemical releases from ore treatment and CANDU fuel fabrication. It is sometimes stated that nuclear power plants can supply electricity with zero emissions of greenhouse gases. In fact, consideration of the entire fuel cycle indicates that some greenhouse gases are generated during their construction and decommissioning and by the preparation of fuel and other materials required for their operation. This follows from the use of fossil fuels in the preparation of materials and during the construction and decommissioning of the plants. This paper reviews life cycle studies of several different kinds of power plants. Greenhouse gases generated by fossil fuels during the preparation of fuel and heavy water used by operating CANDU power plants are estimated. The total greenhouse gas emissions from CANDU nuclear plants, per unit of electricity ultimately produced, are very small in comparison with emissions from most other types of power plants. (author)

  6. Forecasting energy consumption and energy related CO2 emissions in Greece. An evaluation of the consequences of the Community Support Framework II and natural gas penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, N.M.; Kalyvitis, S.C.; Lalas, D.P.; Pesmajoglou, S.

    2000-01-01

    This study seeks to assess the future demand for energy and the trajectory of CO2 emissions level in Greece, taking into account the impact of the Community Support Framework (CSF) II on the development process and the penetration of natural gas, which is one of the major CSF II interventions, in the energy system. Demand equations for each sector of economic activity (traded, non-traded, public and agricultural sector) and for each type of energy (oil, electricity and solid fuels) are derived. The energy system is integrated into a fully developed macroeconometric model, so that all interactions between energy, prices and production factors are properly taken into account. Energy CO2 forecasts are then derived based on alternative scenarios for the prospects of the Greek economy. According to the main findings of the paper the growth pattern of forecast total energy consumption closely follows that of forecast output showing no signs of decoupling. As regards CO2 emissions, they are expected to increase with an annual average rate, which is higher than world forecasts. 17 refs

  7. Effect of hydraulic retention time and sludge recirculation on greenhouse gas emission and related microbial communities in two-stage membrane bioreactor treating solid waste leachate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuansawan, Nararatchporn; Boonnorat, Jarungwit; Chiemchaisri, Wilai; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2016-06-01

    Methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and responsible microorganisms during the treatment of municipal solid waste leachate in two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR system, consisting of anaerobic and aerobic stages, were operated at hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 5 and 2.5days in each reactor under the presence and absence of sludge recirculation. Organic and nitrogen removals were more than 80% under all operating conditions during which CH4 emission were found highest under no sludge recirculation condition at HRT of 5days. An increase in hydraulic loading resulted in a reduction in CH4 emission from anaerobic reactor but an increase from the aerobic reactor. N2O emission rates were found relatively constant from anaerobic and aerobic reactors under different operating conditions. Diversity of CH4 and N2O producing microorganisms were found decreasing when hydraulic loading rate to the reactors was increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing organic and conventional olive groves relative to energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the cultivation of two varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taxidis, Efstratios T.; Menexes, George C.; Mamolos, Andreas P.; Tsatsarelis, Constantinos A.; Anagnostopoulos, Christos D.; Kalburtji, Kyriaki L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Multivariate statistical methods were applied to evaluate 88 olive groves. • Three main groups (high, medium, low energy inputs) were revealed. • The grouping was based on management practices and geographical location. • Best farming practices regulate the balance between environment and agriculture. - Abstract: Organic farming is applied in olive groves in Lesvos Island the last 20 years. “Kolovi” and “Adramitiani”, two dominant varieties are cultivated. Since there is limited research for energy inputs in olive groves, 62 conventional and 26 organic farms were selected during 2011–2013 in order to (a) determine the differences in energy flow among farming systems and varieties, (b) group olive groves based on energy flow indicators, (c) compare the CO 2 -equivalent emissions among farming systems and varieties. A combination of univariate and multivariate statistical methods was applied. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed three farm groups, all consisted of conventional and/or organic olive groves and included both varieties. Group 1 had the lowest energy inputs, while Group 3 the highest. Fuels and transportation, as energy inputs, had the highest contribution in farms’ grouping. A large number of external variables was studied, most of which (fruit production, olive oil production, pomace production, shoot production, olive oil energy production, pomace energy production, shoot energy production, total energy inputs, total energy outputs, intensity, energy efficiency, and energy productivity) had statistically significant differences among the three Groups. Management practices along with geographical location could be a reasonable explanation for the differences between the groups of studied olive groves. Group 3 had the highest non-renewable energy inputs (14,683.5 MJ ha −1 ) and consumption (2.4 MJ kg −1 ) and gas emissions (1.27 Mg ha −1 CO 2 , 0.17 kg ha −1 CH 4 , and 10.31 g ha −1 N 2 O). Group 2 had

  9. Trace gas emissions from burning Florida wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofer, Wesley R., III; Levine, Joel S.; Lebel, Peter J.; Winstead, Edward L.; Koller, Albert M., Jr.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of biomass burn-produced trace gases were obtained using a helicopter at low altitudes above burning Florida wetlands on November 9, 1987, and from both helicopter and light-aircraft samplings on November 7, 1988. Carbon dioxide normalized emission ratios for carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, total nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitrous oxide were obtained over burning graminoid wetlands consisting primarily of Spartina bakeri and Juncus roemerianus. Some interspersed scrub oak and saw palmetto were also burned. No significant differences were observed in the emission ratios determined for these gases from samples collected over flaming, mixed, and smoldering phases of combustion during the 1987 fire. Combustion-categorized differences in emission ratios were small for the 1988 fire. Combustion efficiency was relatively good (low emission ratios for reduced gases) for both fires. It is believed that the consistently low emission ratios were a unique result of graminoid wetlands fires, in which the grasses and rushes burned rapidly down to standing water and were quickly extinguished. Consequently, the efficiency of the combustion was good and the amount and duration of smoldering combustion was greatly deminished.

  10. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of corn production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-15

    Nitrogen fertilizer plays an important role in corn cultivation in terms of both economic and environmental aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer positively affects corn yield and the soil organic carbon level, but it also has negative environmental effects through nitrogen-related emissions from soil (e.g., N20, NOx, NO3(-) leaching, etc.). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain are investigated via life cycle assessment. Ecoefficiency analysis is also used to determine an economically and environmentally optimal nitrogen application rate (NAR). The ecoefficiency index in this study is defined as the ratio of economic return due to nitrogen fertilizer to the greenhouse gas emissions of corn cultivation. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain decrease as NAR increases at a lower NAR until a minimum greenhouse gas emission level is reached because corn yield and soil organic carbon level increase with NAR. Further increasing NAR after a minimum greenhouse gas emission level raises greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Increased greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to nitrous oxide emissions from soil are much higher than reductions of greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to corn yield and changes in soil organic carbon levels at a higher NAR. Thus, there exists an environmentally optimal NAR in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The trends of the ecoefficiency index are similar to those of economic return to nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Therefore, an appropriate NAR could enhance profitability as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain.

  11. A plasma process controlled emissions off-gas demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battleson, D.; Kujawa, S.T.; Leatherman, G.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal technologies are currently identified as playing an important role in the treatment of many DOE waste streams, and emissions from these processes will be scrutinized by the public, regulators, and stakeholders. For some time, there has been a hesitancy by the public to accept thermal treatment of radioactive contaminated waste because of the emissions from these processes. While the technology for treatment of emissions from these processes is well established, it is not possible to provide the public complete assurance that the system will be in compliance with air quality regulations 100% of the operating time in relation to allowing noncompliant emissions to exit the system. Because of the possibility of noncompliant emissions and the public's concern over thermal treatment systems, it has been decided that the concept of a completely controlled emissions off-gas system should be developed and implemented on Department of Energy (DOE) thermal treatment systems. While the law of conservation of mass precludes a completely closed cycle system, it is possible to apply the complete control concept to emissions

  12. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  13. Suggested guidelines for gas emission monitoring at danish landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Peter; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Landfill gas is produced on waste disposal sites receiving organic waste resulting in emission of methane. Regulation requires that the landfill gas is managed in order to reduce emissions, but very few suggestions exist to how the landfill gas management activities are monitored, what requirements...... to the ability of the landfill gas management to reduce the emission should be set up, and how criteria are developed for when the monitoring activities can be terminated. Monitoring procedures are suggested centred on a robust method for measuring the total methane emission from the site, and quantitative...

  14. Impact of cutting meat intake on hidden greenhouse gas emissions in an import-reliant city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Y. Y.; Thibodeau, B.; Not, C.

    2018-06-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions embodied in trade is a growing concern for the international community. Multiple studies have highlighted drawbacks in the territorial and production-based accounting of greenhouse gas emissions because it neglects emissions from the consumption of goods in trade. This creates weak carbon leakage and complicates international agreements on emissions regulations. Therefore, we estimated consumption-based emissions using input-output analysis and life cycle assessment to calculate the greenhouse gas emissions hidden in meat and dairy products in Hong Kong, a city predominately reliant on imports. We found that emissions solely from meat and dairy consumption were higher than the city’s total greenhouse gas emissions using conventional production-based calculation. This implies that government reports underestimate more than half of the emissions, as 62% of emissions are embodied in international trade. The discrepancy emphasizes the need of transitioning climate targets and policy to consumption-based accounting. Furthermore, we have shown that dietary change from a meat-heavy diet to a diet in accordance with governmental nutrition guidelines could achieve a 67% reduction in livestock-related emissions, allowing Hong Kong to achieve the Paris Agreement targets for 2030. Consequently, we concluded that consumption-based accounting for greenhouse gas emissions is crucial to target the areas where emissions reduction is realistically achievable, especially for import-reliant cities like Hong Kong.

  15. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiello, Francesco N; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961–2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961–2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO 2 yr −1 in 2010 (up to 5.4–5.8 Gt CO 2 yr −1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade

  16. Evaluating measurements of carbon dioxide emissions using a precision source--A natural gas burner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Rodney; Bundy, Matthew; Zong, Ruowen

    2015-07-01

    A natural gas burner has been used as a precise and accurate source for generating large quantities of carbon dioxide (CO2) to evaluate emissions measurements at near-industrial scale. Two methods for determining carbon dioxide emissions from stationary sources are considered here: predicting emissions based on fuel consumption measurements-predicted emissions measurements, and direct measurement of emissions quantities in the flue gas-direct emissions measurements. Uncertainty for the predicted emissions measurement was estimated at less than 1%. Uncertainty estimates for the direct emissions measurement of carbon dioxide were on the order of ±4%. The relative difference between the direct emissions measurements and the predicted emissions measurements was within the range of the measurement uncertainty, therefore demonstrating good agreement. The study demonstrates how independent methods are used to validate source emissions measurements, while also demonstrating how a fire research facility can be used as a precision test-bed to evaluate and improve carbon dioxide emissions measurements from stationary sources. Fossil-fuel-consuming stationary sources such as electric power plants and industrial facilities account for more than half of the CO2 emissions in the United States. Therefore, accurate emissions measurements from these sources are critical for evaluating efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This study demonstrates how a surrogate for a stationary source, a fire research facility, can be used to evaluate the accuracy of measurements of CO2 emissions.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  18. Methane Emissions from the Natural Gas Transmission and Storage System in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerle, Daniel J; Williams, Laurie L; Vaughn, Timothy L; Quinn, Casey; Subramanian, R; Duggan, Gerald P; Willson, Bryan; Opsomer, Jean D; Marchese, Anthony J; Martinez, David M; Robinson, Allen L

    2015-08-04

    The recent growth in production and utilization of natural gas offers potential climate benefits, but those benefits depend on lifecycle emissions of methane, the primary component of natural gas and a potent greenhouse gas. This study estimates methane emissions from the transmission and storage (T&S) sector of the United States natural gas industry using new data collected during 2012, including 2,292 onsite measurements, additional emissions data from 677 facilities and activity data from 922 facilities. The largest emission sources were fugitive emissions from certain compressor-related equipment and "super-emitter" facilities. We estimate total methane emissions from the T&S sector at 1,503 [1,220 to 1,950] Gg/yr (95% confidence interval) compared to the 2012 Environmental Protection Agency's Greenhouse Gas Inventory (GHGI) estimate of 2,071 [1,680 to 2,690] Gg/yr. While the overlap in confidence intervals indicates that the difference is not statistically significant, this is the result of several significant, but offsetting, factors. Factors which reduce the study estimate include a lower estimated facility count, a shift away from engines toward lower-emitting turbine and electric compressor drivers, and reductions in the usage of gas-driven pneumatic devices. Factors that increase the study estimate relative to the GHGI include updated emission rates in certain emission categories and explicit treatment of skewed emissions at both component and facility levels. For T&S stations that are required to report to the EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program (GHGRP), this study estimates total emissions to be 260% [215% to 330%] of the reportable emissions for these stations, primarily due to the inclusion of emission sources that are not reported under the GHGRP rules, updated emission factors, and super-emitter emissions.

  19. Role of natural gas in meeting an electric sector emissions reduction strategy and effects on greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenox, Carol; Kaplan, P. Ozge

    2016-01-01

    With advances in natural gas extraction technologies, there is an increase in the availability of domestic natural gas, and natural gas is gaining a larger share of use as a fuel in electricity production. At the power plant, natural gas is a cleaner burning fuel than coal, but uncertainties exist in the amount of methane leakage occurring upstream in the extraction and production of natural gas. At higher leakage levels, the additional methane emissions could offset the carbon dioxide emissions reduction benefit of switching from coal to natural gas. This analysis uses the MARKAL linear optimization model to compare the carbon emissions profiles and system-wide global warming potential of the U.S. energy system over a series of model runs in which the power sector is required to meet a specific carbon dioxide reduction target across a number of scenarios in which the availability of natural gas changes. Scenarios are run with carbon dioxide emissions and a range of upstream methane emission leakage rates from natural gas production along with upstream methane and carbon dioxide emissions associated with production of coal and oil. While the system carbon dioxide emissions are reduced in most scenarios, total carbon dioxide equivalent emissions show an increase in scenarios in which natural gas prices remain low and, simultaneously, methane emissions from natural gas production are higher. - Highlights: • MARKAL analysis of energy system GHG emissions reduction scenarios. • High methane leakage can eliminate the benefit that natural gas brings over coal. • A robust GHG reduction strategy takes into account upstream emissions for all fuels.

  20. Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions of coal, conventional and unconventional natural gas for electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of the lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with natural gas use recently published by Howarth et al. (2011) stated that use of natural gas produced from shale formations via hydraulic fracturing would generate greater lifecycle GHG emissions than petro...

  1. Measuring Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks Across California Land Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, M. L.

    2017-12-01

    Significant reductions in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are needed to limit rising planetary temperatures that will otherwise limit Earth's capacity to support life, introducing geopolitical instability. To help mitigate this threat, California has legislated landmark reductions in state-level greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that set an example for broader action. Beginning with relatively assured reduction of current emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, future goals are much more challenging with 40% and 80% reductions below 1990 emissions by 2030 and 2050, respectively. While the majority of the reductions must focus on fossil fuels, inventory estimates of non-CO2 GHG emissions (i.e., CH4, N2O, and industrial compounds) constitute 15% of the total, suggesting reductions are required across multiple land use sectors. However, recent atmospheric inversion studies show methane and nitrous oxide (CH4 & N2O) emissions exceed current inventory estimates by factors of 1.2-1.8 and 1.6-2.6 (at 95% confidence), respectively, perhaps constituting up to 30% of State total emissions. The discrepancy is likely because current bottom-up models used for inventories do not accurately capture important management or biophysical factors. In the near term, process level experiments and sector-specific inversions are being planned to quantify the factors controlling non-CO2 GHG emissions for several of the dominant emission sectors. For biosphere carbon, California forests lands, which also depend on the combination of management, climate, and weather, lost above ground carbon from 2001-2010, and may be expected to lose soil and root carbon as a longer-term result. Here, it is important to identify and apply the best principles in forestry and agriculture to increase carbon stocks in depleted forest and agricultural areas, focusing on approaches that provide resilience to future climate and weather variations. Taken together, improved atmospheric, plant, and soil observations, together

  2. Toxic fluoride gas emissions from lithium-ion battery fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Fredrik; Andersson, Petra; Blomqvist, Per; Mellander, Bengt-Erik

    2017-08-30

    Lithium-ion battery fires generate intense heat and considerable amounts of gas and smoke. Although the emission of toxic gases can be a larger threat than the heat, the knowledge of such emissions is limited. This paper presents quantitative measurements of heat release and fluoride gas emissions during battery fires for seven different types of commercial lithium-ion batteries. The results have been validated using two independent measurement techniques and show that large amounts of hydrogen fluoride (HF) may be generated, ranging between 20 and 200 mg/Wh of nominal battery energy capacity. In addition, 15-22 mg/Wh of another potentially toxic gas, phosphoryl fluoride (POF 3 ), was measured in some of the fire tests. Gas emissions when using water mist as extinguishing agent were also investigated. Fluoride gas emission can pose a serious toxic threat and the results are crucial findings for risk assessment and management, especially for large Li-ion battery packs.

  3. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M; Majid, A

    2013-01-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO 2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO 2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO 2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants

  4. Analysis of carbon dioxide emission of gas fuelled cogeneration plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Adzuieen; Amin, M.; Majid, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gas turbines are widely used for power generation. In cogeneration system, the gas turbine generates electricity and the exhaust heat from the gas turbine is used to generate steam or chilled water. Besides enhancing the efficiency of the system, the process assists in reducing the emission of CO2 to the environment. This study analyzes the amount of CO2 emission by Universiti Teknologi Petronas gas fuelled cogeneration system using energy balance equations. The results indicate that the cogeneration system reduces the CO2 emission to the environment by 60%. This finding could encourage the power plant owners to install heat recovery systems to their respective plants.

  5. Measurement of fugitive emissions from gas processing plants in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, A. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a new gas visualization camera created to detect leaks. An outline of the device's projected entry into the oil and gas industry was provided, and included: a demonstration of Differential Absorption Light Detection and Ranging (DIAL) and leak cameras to measure and reduce fugitive emissions; a comparison of DIAL measured emissions with estimated emissions; and a review of methods to measure particulate emissions. In addition, a background of gas leak visualisation technology was presented along with an an overview of DIAL and its results from sour gas plants. The results of a survey conducted in 2003 were presented, including leaks identified and repaired as well as a follow up leak survey. An analysis of pre and post-repair hydrocarbon emissions from the Deepcut area revealed a 60 per cent reduction with savings of $140,000 as well as additional savings from reduced carbon emissions. A similar survey conducted in another plant measured emissions from condensate tanks before and after cooler installation as well as from surrounding well sites, quantifying an 80 per cent reduction in methane emissions. Tasks identified for future research concerned particulate emissions and the development of Lidar methods which can currently identify particulates, but are not yet able to quantify them. Other tasks included a complete DIAL data workup and reporting; the quantification of both methane and carbon emissions reduction at a sour gas plant; a comparison of measured emissions with methods that estimate fugitives; and a complete review of particulate measurements. tabs, figs.

  6. Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emission of Korean Offshore Fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihoon; Kim, Taeho; Ellingsen, Harald; Hognes, Erik Skontorp; Hwang, Bokyu

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission assessments of Korean offshore fisheries. The consumption of energy by fisheries is a significant concern because of its attendant environmental effect, as well as the cost of the fuel consumed in fishing industry. With the global attention of reducing GHG emission and increasing energy efficiency of fuel, the seafood industry needs to further understand its energy use and reduce its GHG emission. In the present study, the amount of energy consumed and the GHG emission of Korean offshore fisheries in a period from 2009 to 2013 were examined. Offshore fisheries accounted for 24% of Korean production in 2013 and 60% of fuel consumption related GHG emission. Whereas the total GHG emission intensity of this sector improved slightly between 2009 and 2012; as such emission decreased by approximately 1.9%, which increased again in 2013. The average amount of total GHG emission in this five years period was 1.78 × 106 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent/year (t CO2 eq. y-1). Active fishing gear was found to consume 20% more fuel than passive gear. However, the production from passive gear was 28%, lower than 72% from active gear. The reason for this is that less abundant stationary resources are harvested using passive gear. Furthermore, the consumption of fuel was significantly influenced by the fishing method. Implementation and development of new fishing technologies and methods are important for improving energy efficiency and reducing the climate impact on fisheries. To realize these purposes, the fishery management system needs to be established by centralizing on energy efficiency and climate effect.

  7. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions through operations and supply chain management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plambeck, Erica L.

    2012-01-01

    The experiences of the largest corporation in the world and those of a start-up company show how companies can profitably reduce greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains. The operations management literature suggests additional opportunities to profitably reduce emissions in existing supply chains, and provides guidance for expanding the capacity of new “zero emission” supply chains. The potential for companies to profitably reduce emissions is substantial but (without effective climate policy) likely insufficient to avert dangerous climate change. - Highlights: ► Describes how firms are profitably reducing greenhouse gas emissions in their supply chains ► Highlights academic literature relevant to supply chain emission reduction

  8. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNicol, Gavin [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. Proceedings - CATEP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms for greenhouse gas reduction are emerging market-based instruments for climate change policy. This book presents a selection of papers from an international workshop co-sponsored by the OECD and Concerted Action on Tradeable Emissions Permits (CATEP), to discuss key research and policy issues relating to the design and implementation of these instruments. The papers cover the experience of developing and transition countries with greenhouse gas emissions trading and project-based mechanisms. In addition, the papers examine the use of tradeable permits in policy mixes and harmonisation of emissions trading schemes, as well as transition issues relating to greenhouse gas emissions trading markets.

  10. Assessing Embodied Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Infrastructure Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krantz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from construction processes are a serious concern globally. Of the several approaches taken to assess emissions, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA based methods do not just take into account the construction phase, but consider all phases of the life cycle of the construction. However, many current LCA approaches make general assumptions regarding location and effects, which do not do justice to the inherent dynamics of normal construction projects. This study presents a model to assess the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions, which is specifically adapted to address the dynamics of infrastructure construction projects. The use of the model is demonstrated on the superstructure of a prefabricated bridge. The findings indicate that Building Information Models/Modeling (BIM and Discrete Event Simulation (DES can be used to efficiently generate project-specific data, which is needed for estimating the embodied energy and associated GHG emissions in construction settings. This study has implications for the advancement of LCA-based methods (as well as project management as a way of assessing embodied energy and associated GHG emissions related to construction.

  11. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  12. Canada's nuclear industry, greenhouse gas emissions, and the Kyoto Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendergast, D.R.; Duffey, R.B.; Tregunno, D.

    1998-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, dated December 10, 1997 committed Canada to reduce greenhouse gases to 6% below 1990 levels by 2008-2012. Other nations also committed to varying degrees of reduction. The Protocol includes provisions for credit to the 'developed' counties for initiatives which lead to greenhouse gas reduction in the 'developing' countries and for the sharing of credit between 'developed' countries for projects undertaken jointly. The rules and details for implementation of these guidelines remain to be negotiated. We begin our study by establishing the magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions already avoided by the nuclear industry in Canada since the inception of commercial power plants in 1971. We then review projections of energy use in Canada and anticipated increase in electricity use up to the year 2020. These studies have anticipated no (or have 'not permitted') further development of nuclear electricity production in spite of the clear benefit with respect to greenhouse gas emission. The studies also predict a relatively small growth of electricity use. In fact the projections indicate a reversal of a trend toward increased per capita electricity use which is contrary to observations of electricity usage in national economies as they develop. We then provide estimates of the magnitude of greenhouse gas reduction which would result from replacing the projected increase in fossil fuel electricity by nuclear generation through the building of more plants and/or making better use of existing installations. This is followed by an estimate of additional nuclear capacity needed to avoid CO 2 emissions while providing the electricity needed should per capita usage remain constant. Canada's greenhouse gas reduction goal is a small fraction of international commitments. The Kyoto agreement's 'flexibility mechanism' provisions provide some expectation that Canada could obtain some credit for greenhouse gas

  13. How to reduce emissions related to consumption: which public policies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, Meike; Gautier, Celia

    2014-05-01

    This report proposes an assessment of greenhouse gas emissions related to consumption in the world. It examines which are currently the world emission flows which come with trade exchanges (intermediate and final goods) between countries. The first part tries to highlight hidden emissions present in our imports and exports. It presents the different methods of greenhouse gas accounting, discusses the emission flows at the planet level, and the challenge of the limitation of 'carbon leaks', and discusses what makes a country a net emission importer or exporter. The second part discusses how France can reduce its consumption-based emissions, how to reach a factor 4 of reduction on these emissions, how to act against leaks and inflows of emissions through measures at the world level (international agreement, reduction of emissions by sea and air transport, reduction of industry emissions) or at the national level (relocation of polluting industries in France or Europe, promotion of short circuits, eco-design, changes in consumption modes, measures on groups of products which import emissions)

  14. Aspects related to 'emission trading'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutuianu, Ovidiu

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the aspects of international GHG (greenhouse gases) emission trading, such as: quality of GHG emission data, possible partners, monitoring activity, market mechanisms and difficulties. The following conclusions are drown: - debates on international trade with GHG emissions are currently in a very early stage; - actions are possible and feasible, particularly after Kyoto Conference, as versatile mechanism (besides the Joint Implementation Projects) which have in view the lowering of the global emission costs in different zones of the planet; - difficulties concerning monitoring, reporting and verification, practically preclude implementing a system of emission trading covering all the GHG, all the sources and reservoirs; - an international viable system of emission trading could initiate with a limited number of participants and consideration of only emission categories easy to be confined and surveyed; - existence of a national market and corresponding institutions for monitoring which could booster an international system development

  15. Mobile measurement of methane emissions from natural gas developments in northeastern British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Emmaline; Risk, David; Fougère, Chelsea; Lavoie, Martin; Marshall, Alex; Werring, John; Williams, James P.; Minions, Christina

    2017-10-01

    North American leaders recently committed to reducing methane emissions from the oil and gas sector, but information on current emissions from upstream oil and gas developments in Canada are lacking. This study examined the occurrence of methane plumes in an area of unconventional natural gas development in northwestern Canada. In August to September 2015 we completed almost 8000 km of vehicle-based survey campaigns on public roads dissecting oil and gas infrastructure, such as well pads and processing facilities. We surveyed six routes 3-6 times each, which brought us past over 1600 unique well pads and facilities managed by more than 50 different operators. To attribute on-road plumes to oil- and gas-related sources we used gas signatures of residual excess concentrations (anomalies above background) less than 500 m downwind from potential oil and gas emission sources. All results represent emissions greater than our minimum detection limit of 0.59 g s-1 at our average detection distance (319 m). Unlike many other oil and gas developments in the US for which methane measurements have been reported recently, the methane concentrations we measured were close to normal atmospheric levels, except inside natural gas plumes. Roughly 47 % of active wells emitted methane-rich plumes above our minimum detection limit. Multiple sites that pre-date the recent unconventional natural gas development were found to be emitting, and we observed that the majority of these older wells were associated with emissions on all survey repeats. We also observed emissions from gas processing facilities that were highly repeatable. Emission patterns in this area were best explained by infrastructure age and type. Extrapolating our results across all oil and gas infrastructure in the Montney area, we estimate that the emission sources we located (emitting at a rate > 0.59 g s-1) contribute more than 111 800 t of methane annually to the atmosphere. This value exceeds reported bottom

  16. Unpaid ecological costs related to emissions in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Nauroy, Frederic; Boitard, Corinne; Bird, Geoffrey; David, Michel; Greffet, Pierre; Mordant, Guillaume; Moreau, Sylvain; Nirascou, Francoise; Le Moullec, Aurelie; Berthier, Jean-Pierre; Hassan, Marie-Elizabeth; Curri-Lemaitre, Elen; Lagarenne, Christine; Devaux, Jeremy; Nicklaus, Doris; Puydarrieux, Philippe; Vanoli, Andre; Schucht, Simone

    2014-05-01

    This study proposes an analysis of unpaid ecological terms based on the use of new economic indicators related to sustainable development (going beyond the GDP, adjusted accounting aggregates, accounting unpaid ecological costs), an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to climate change (context, used results and data, definitions of trajectories associated with greenhouse gas emissions, cost to be applied to emissions to get rid of, assessment of unpaid ecological costs), and an analysis of unpaid ecological costs related to air pollution (objectives, standard to be adopted, towards more ambitious emission reduction and re-assessed costs, unpaid ecological costs in 2010)

  17. Evaluation of green house gas emissions models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the project is to evaluate the GHG emissions models used by transportation agencies and industry leaders. Factors in the vehicle : operating environment that may affect modal emissions, such as, external conditions, : vehicle fleet c...

  18. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing...... and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported...

  19. Understanding Emissions from Control-Related Equipment used in Oil and Gas Production Operations to Support EPA’s Air Quality Modeling of Ozone Non-attainment Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and gas production has increased significantly in the United States over the past ten years. Improperly maintained and controlled oil and gas extraction and production (E&P) processes have the potential to emit significant amounts of pollutants that can impact human health an...

  20. Research on forecast technology of mine gas emission based on fuzzy data mining (FDM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Chang-kai; Wang Yao-cai; Wang Jun-wei [CUMT, Xuzhou (China). School of Information and Electrical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    The safe production of coalmine can be further improved by forecasting the quantity of gas emission based on the real-time data and historical data which the gas monitoring system has saved. By making use of the advantages of data warehouse and data mining technology for processing large quantity of redundancy data, the method and its application of forecasting mine gas emission quantity based on FDM were studied. The constructing fuzzy resembling relation and clustering analysis were proposed, which the potential relationship inside the gas emission data may be found. The mode finds model and forecast model were presented, and the detailed approach to realize this forecast was also proposed, which have been applied to forecast the gas emission quantity efficiently.

  1. 2012 Stakeholder Workshop on Natural Gas in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page describes EPA's September 2012 stakeholder workshop on key aspects of the estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from the natural gas sector in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks.

  2. The importance of addressing methane emissions as part of a comprehensive greenhouse gas management strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bylin, Carey [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Washington, DC (United States); Robinson, Donald; Cacho, Mariella; Russo, Ignacio; Stricklin, Eric [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Rortveit, Geir Johan [Statoil, Stavanger (Norway); Chakraborty, A.B. [Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltda. (ONGC), Dehradun (India); Pontiff, Mike [Newfield, The Woodlands, TX, (United States); Smith, Reid [British Petroleum (BP), London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Given the climate forcing properties of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the current state of the global economy, it is imperative to mitigate emissions of GHGs cost-effectively. Typically, CO{sub 2} is the main focus of most companies' and governments' GHG emissions reductions strategies. However, when considering near-term goals, it becomes clear that emissions reductions of other GHGs must be pursued. One such GHG is methane, the primary component of natural gas. Reducing GHG emissions and generating profits are not necessarily a mutually exclusive endeavor as illustrated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Natural Gas STAR Program. The Program is a worldwide voluntary, flexible partnership of oil and gas companies which promotes cost-effective technologies and practices to reduce methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations. In an effort to meet environmental goals without sacrificing profitability, Natural Gas STAR partner companies have identified over 60 cost-effective best practices to reduce their methane emissions, which they report to the EPA. This paper discusses: 1) the importance of reducing methane emissions and its economic impact, 2) a comparison of methane emission reduction projects relative to other greenhouse gas reduction projects in the oil and gas industry, 3) the value of source-specific methane emissions inventories, and 4) methane emission reduction opportunities from hydraulically fractured gas well completions and centrifugal compressor wet seals. From the analyses and examples in this paper, it can be concluded that methane emission reduction projects can be readily identified, profitable, and effective in mitigating global climate change. (author)

  3. Unregulated greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from current technology heavy-duty vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiruvengadam, Arvind; Besch, Marc; Carder, Daniel; Oshinuga, Adewale; Pasek, Randall; Hogo, Henry; Gautam, Mridul

    2016-11-01

    The study presents the measurement of carbonyl, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, and xylene), ammonia, elemental/organic carbon (EC/OC), and greenhouse gas emissions from modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas vehicles. Vehicles from different vocations that included goods movement, refuse trucks, and transit buses were tested on driving cycles representative of their duty cycle. The natural gas vehicle technologies included the stoichiometric engine platform equipped with a three-way catalyst and a diesel-like dual-fuel high-pressure direct-injection technology equipped with a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR). The diesel vehicles were equipped with a DPF and SCR. Results of the study show that the BTEX emissions were below detection limits for both diesel and natural gas vehicles, while carbonyl emissions were observed during cold start and low-temperature operations of the natural gas vehicles. Ammonia emissions of about 1 g/mile were observed from the stoichiometric natural gas vehicles equipped with TWC over all the driving cycles. The tailpipe GWP of the stoichiometric natural gas goods movement application was 7% lower than DPF and SCR equipped diesel. In the case of a refuse truck application the stoichiometric natural gas engine exhibited 22% lower GWP than a diesel vehicle. Tailpipe methane emissions contribute to less than 6% of the total GHG emissions. Modern heavy-duty diesel and natural gas engines are equipped with multiple after-treatment systems and complex control strategies aimed at meeting both the performance standards for the end user and meeting stringent U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulation. Compared to older technology diesel and natural gas engines, modern engines and after-treatment technology have reduced unregulated emissions to levels close to detection limits. However, brief periods of inefficiencies related to low exhaust thermal energy have been shown to

  4. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabisi, Laura Schmitt; Reich, Peter B; Johnson, Kris A; Kapuscinski, Anne R; Su, Sangwon H; Wilson, Elizabeth J

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term.

  5. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate stabilization: framing regional options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laura Schmitt Olabisi; Peter B. Reich; Kris A. Johnson; Anne R. Kapuscinski; Sangwon Suh; Elizabeth J. Wilson [University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, MN (United States). Ecosystem Science and Sustainability Initiative

    2009-03-15

    The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has stated that stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations will require reduction of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by as much as 80% by 2050. Subnational efforts to cut emissions will inform policy development nationally and globally. We projected GHG mitigation strategies for Minnesota, which has adopted a strategic goal of 80% emissions reduction by 2050. A portfolio of conservation strategies, including electricity conservation, increased vehicle fleet fuel efficiency, and reduced vehicle miles traveled, is likely the most cost-effective option for Minnesota and could reduce emissions by 18% below 2005 levels. An 80% GHG reduction would require complete decarbonization of the electricity and transportation sectors, combined with carbon capture and sequestration at power plants, or deep cuts in other relatively more intransigent GHG-emitting sectors. In order to achieve ambitious GHG reduction goals, policymakers should promote aggressive conservation efforts, which would probably have negative net costs, while phasing in alternative fuels to replace coal and motor gasoline over the long-term. 31 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Mobil emission reduction credits for natural gas vehicle programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, G.F.

    1993-01-01

    Since the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, there has been increasing interest among regulators and business interests alike in innovative, market-based strategies to air quality control. In particular, larger metropolitan areas have begun to examine marketable emission reduction credit (ERC) programs. These programs limit the total allowable emissions in a non-attainment area, allocate these emission open-quotes creditsclose quotes among sources in the region, and allow the sources to redistribute their allowances through trading. This approach provides for the most cost-effective distribution of control burdens among affected sources, taking advantage of the differences in marginal control costs. Some control measures applied to mobile sources may be significantly less expensive than those applied to stationary sources, making mobile sources an excellent candidate for inclusion in an ERC program. However, there are several potential problems involving quantification, enforcement, and credit trading issues that hinder the development of mobile source ERC programs. This paper will evaluate those obstacles and discuss how they are being addressed in a Natural Gas Vehicle (NGV) program currently under development for the Houston ozone non-attainment area. Specifically, the study will outline the credit validation (i.e., quantification) procedure, including baseline emission determination and emission testing for each NGV in the program. In addition, the study will describe the vehicle/fuel consumption tracking system, and discuss issues related to credit trading with stationary sources. Finally, observations are made concerning the applicability of mobile ERC programs for other emission control measures such as old vehicle scrappage and vehicle Inspection and Maintenance programs

  7. Evaluation of strategies for utilizing rice husk based on life cycle cost analysis in relation to Greenhouse Gas emissions in An Giang province, Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mai Thao, Pham Thi; Kurisu, Kiyo H.; Hanaki, Keisuke

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of rice husk utilization, a life cycle cost analysis was conducted for 18 scenarios developed in a previous study. The allocation of fuels other than rice husks was decided on the basis of current demand for and supply of rice husks. The production of rice husk briquettes is also discussed as a means of circumventing problems arising from the bulk of the material. In the power generation scenarios, differences between two generating capacities (5 and 30 MW) were analyzed. Costs savings are possible by using rice husk to replace fossil fuels for cooking. With regard to power generation, operation on a 30-MW scale by combustion of all available rice husk was identified as the most economically efficient scenario, followed by small-scale gasification scenarios (5 MW). The combustion of rice husk briquettes for power generation appeared to be less cost-efficient than direct combustion, whereas large-scale gasification scenarios and pyrolysis scenarios give rise to increases in cost compared with the baseline. When both GHG abatement and costs are taken into consideration, suitable scenarios that are practicable involve the use of rice husk for cooking, for large-scale combustion power generation, and for small-scale gasification. -- Highlights: ► Life cycle cost analysis was conducted to evaluate potentiality of rice husk use. ► The scenarios used rice husk for cooking showed a better cost effectiveness. ► While large-scale gasification and pyrolysis is less. ► In relation to GHG emission, the win–win scenarios are to use rice husk for cooking. ► Large-scale combustion and small-scale gasification also showed practical scenarios.

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Hydroelectric Reservoirs in Tropical Regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinguelli Rosa, L.; Aurelio dos Santos, M.; Oliveira dos Santos, E.; Matvienko, B.; Sikar, E.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses emissions by power-dams in the tropics. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical power-dams are produced underwater through biomass decomposition by bacteria. The gases produced in these dams are mainly nitrogen, carbon dioxide and methane. A methodology was established for measuring greenhouse gases emitted by various power-dams in Brazil. Experimental measurements of gas emissions by dams were made to determine accurately their emissions of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases through bubbles formed on the lake bottom by decomposing organic matter, as well as rising up the lake gradient by molecular diffusion. The main source of gas in power-dams reservoirs is the bacterial decomposition (aerobic and anaerobic) of autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter that basically produces CO2 and CH4. The types and modes of gas production and release in the tropics are reviewed

  9. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Passenger Cars and Trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  10. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of carsharing in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a study evaluating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission changes that result from individuals participating in a carsharing organization. In this study, the authors conducted a survey of carsharing members across the c...

  11. Methane emission from naturally ventilated livestock buildings can be determined from gas concentration measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, B; Zhang, Guoqiang; Madsen, J

    2012-01-01

    Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat pr...... to investigate the influence of feed composition on methane emission in a relative large number of operating cattle buildings and consequently it can support a development towards reduced greenhouse gas emission from cattle production.......Determination of emission of contaminant gases as ammonia, methane, or laughing gas from natural ventilated livestock buildings with large opening is a challenge due to the large variations in gas concentration and air velocity in the openings. The close relation between calculated animal heat...... ventilated, 150 milking cow building. The results showed that the methane emission can be determined with much higher precision than ammonia or laughing gas emissions, and, for methane, relatively precise estimations can be based on measure periods as short as 3 h. This result makes it feasible...

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from nitrogen fertilizer use in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Li, Yunju; Su, Yufang; Tennigkeit, Timm; Wilkes, Andreas; Xu, Jianchu

    2010-01-01

    The use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers is an important driver of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China. This paper develops a GHG emission factor for synthetic N fertilizer application in China. Using this emission factor, we estimate the scale of GHG emissions from synthetic nitrogen fertilizer use in Chinese agriculture and explore the potential for GHG emission reductions from efficiency improvements in N fertilizer production and use. The paper concludes with a discussion on costs and financing for a large-scale fertilizer efficiency improvement program in China, and how a GHG mitigation framework might contribute to program design.

  13. HEAVY-DUTY GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS MODEL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Class 2b-8 vocational truck manufacturers and Class 7/8 tractor manufacturers would be subject to vehicle-based fuel economy and emission standards that would use a truck simulation model to evaluate the impact of the truck tires and/or tractor cab design on vehicle compliance with any new standards. The EPA has created a model called “GHG Emissions Model (GEM)”, which is specifically tailored to predict truck GHG emissions. As the model is designed for the express purpose of vehicle compliance demonstration, it is less configurable than similar commercial products and its only outputs are GHG emissions and fuel consumption. This approach gives a simple and compact tool for vehicle compliance without the overhead and costs of a more sophisticated model. Evaluation of both fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from heavy-duty highway vehicles through a whole-vehicle operation simulation model.

  14. Methane emissions from U.S. natural gas operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Gas Research Institute and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are cofunding and comanaging a program to evaluate methane emissions from U.S. natural gas operations. The purpose of the program is to provide an emissions inventory accurate enough for global climate modeling and for addressing the policy question of ''whether encouraging the increased use of natural gas is a viable strategy for reducing the U.S. contribution to global warming''. The program is comprised of three phases: Scoping, Methods Development, and Implementation. The purpose of Phase I was to define the problem. Phase II of the program concentrated on developing techniques for measuring steady state or fugitive emissions and for calculating the highly variable unsteady emissions from the variety of sources that comprise the gas industry. Because of the large number of sources within each source type, techniques were also developed for extrapolating emissions data to similar sources within the industry. Phase III of the program was started in early 1992 and should be completed in early 1994. The purpose of the current phase of the program is to collect sufficient data to achieve the accuracy goal of determining emissions to within ± 0.5 percent of production. Based on the limited amount of data collected to date, methane emissions from the U.S. gas industry appear to be in the range of 1 percent of production. (au) (19 refs.)

  15. Modelling combustion reactions for gas flaring and its resulting emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Saheed Ismail

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flaring of associated petroleum gas is an age long environmental concern which remains unabated. Flaring of gas maybe a very efficient combustion process especially steam/air assisted flare and more economical than utilization in some oil fields. However, it has serious implications for the environment. This study considered different reaction types and operating conditions for gas flaring. Six combustion equations were generated using the mass balance concept with varying air and combustion efficiency. These equations were coded with a computer program using 12 natural gas samples of different chemical composition and origin to predict the pattern of emission species from gas flaring. The effect of key parameters on the emission output is also shown. CO2, CO, NO, NO2 and SO2 are the anticipated non-hydrocarbon emissions of environmental concern. Results show that the quantity and pattern of these chemical species depended on percentage excess/deficiency of stoichiometric air, natural gas type, reaction type, carbon mass content, impurities, combustion efficiency of the flare system etc. These emissions degrade the environment and human life, so knowing the emission types, pattern and flaring conditions that this study predicts is of paramount importance to governments, environmental agencies and the oil and gas industry.

  16. Australia’s Consumption-based Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitt, Clinton J.; Saaby, Morten; Sørensen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    We use data from the World Input-Output Database in a multiregional input–output model to analyse Australian consumption-based greenhouse gas emissions for the years 1995 to 2009. We find that the emission content of Australian macroeconomic activity has changed over the 15-year period. Consumption...

  17. Decarbonising meat : Exploring greenhouse gas emissions in the meat sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aan Den Toorn, S. I.; Van Den Broek, M. A.; Worrell, E.

    Consumption of meat is an important source of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and deep decarbonisation of the whole meat production chain is required to be able to meet global climate change (CC) mitigation goals. Emissions happen in different stages of meat production ranging from agricultural

  18. Improving material management to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hekkert, Marko Peter

    2000-01-01

    Climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions caused by human actions is probably one of the major global environmental problems that we face today. In order to reduce the risk of climate change and the potential effects thereof, the emission of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2) and

  19. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from u.s. transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This report examines the prospects for substantially reducing the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the U.S. transportation sector, which accounts for 27 percent of the GHG emissions of the entire U.S. economy and 30 percent of the world's transpor...

  20. Modeling of municipal greenhouse gas emissions. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions and the reduction possibilities of Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries de, Willem

    2011-01-01

    Summary Municipalities represent an active governmental layer in the Netherlands. They often have ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this way the municipalities take responsibility to reduce the threat of global warming. To implement effect

  1. Combining policy instruments to curb greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.

    2001-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has set greenhouse gas emission reduction targets for selected countries. To comply with these reduction requirements, decision-makers may use market-based instruments on a national or international basis. This paper advocates the combining of national emission taxes with international trade of emission permits. As a numerical application, this paper analyses macro-economic impacts of such a strategy for Switzerland. (Author)

  2. Bayesian Learning and the Regulation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Karp, Larry; Zhang, Jiangfeng

    2001-01-01

    We study the importance of anticipated learning - about both environmental damages and abatement costs - in determining the level and the method of controlling greenhouse gas emissions. We also compare active learning, passive learning, and parameter uncertainty without learning. Current beliefs about damages and abatement costs have an important effect on the optimal level of emissions, However, the optimal level of emissions is not sensitive either to the possibility of learning about damag...

  3. Energy market reform and greenhouse gas emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The report reviews micro-economic reform in the energy market and measures the impact that energy market reform is expected to have on greenhouse gas outcomes. It indicates that reform in the electricity and gas industries is delivering what was promised, an efficient market with lower energy prices and, over the longer term, will deliver a gradually reducing rate of greenhouse gas emissions per unit of energy produced. It also recognises that energy market reform has removed some barriers to the entry of less greenhouse gas intense fuels. These trends will result in reduced greenhouse gas intensity in the supply of energy and significant reductions in the growth in greenhouse gas emissions compared to what may have been expected without the reforms

  4. Use of natural gas as a contribution to reducing emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrovski, Dame [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, ' Ss. Cyril and Methodius' University, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of); Dimeski, Goran [Toplifikacija Inzhenering AD, Skopje (Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Air quality is one of the conditions that affect both humans health also extend to natural ecosystems, stratospheric ozone, biosphere, changing weather conditions and climate. Imbalance in the atmosphere, the appearance of the greenhouse effect, as well as damage the ozone layer is due to the release of large amounts of polluting substances, which give the effect of acidification and ruin the biosphere, soil and affect others. Pollutants emitted into the air from various sources, mix it, and transported on greater distances and affect on air quality. The polluting substances emitted and remain part of the troposphere that is one part of the air that people breathe, with negative effect on human health, especially respiratory. Given the rapid growth of the industry and the growing need for energy, it is necessary to consider the possibilities for the application of alternative fuels as a proposal to reduce emissions. This paper is considered part of the urban area and thus created a comparative analysis of the work of one plant (which is mainly supplying the area with heat energy), in terms of the type of fuel and related emissions. Also consider the possibility and benefits of the use of natural gas as an alternative fuel to meet the needs of households. Prepared analysis is presented also with the benefits of replacing the electrical and thermal energy (taken from the district heating system) with the use of natural gas as energy terms, and the financial and environmental. (Author)

  5. Quantifying and reporting greenhouse gas emissions at local level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sόwka Izabela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities as global centers of consumption and production often are a significant and growing source of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. At the same time, local authorities are increasingly taking action on climate change by focusing on reducing GHG emissions and efficiency improvement opportunities. To assess and reduce the overall greenhouse gas emission level from an urban area, it is necessary to identify all the activities and processes which generate these emissions. GHG inventory gives an opportunity to get wider knowledge for city’s community about spatial emission processes and emissions contribution of key sources categories at the local scale. Inventory is being used for decision-making purposes and strategic planning in emission reduction policy. The goal of this paper was to clarify the major methodological challenges of GHG monitoring at the urban level. The paper is based on the discussion of different methods and approaches to assessing GHG emissions at the local level. It is presented sectoral GHGs emission trends in selected urban areas and compared CO2 emission level in different countries and metropolises and variable European cities guidance. The study determines the inventory tools of GHGs emission taking into account the characteristics of main sources at local levels.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. RESULTS: The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher...... selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e......BACKGROUND: Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider...

  7. Towards a comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions inventory for biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Gaitan, J P; Short, Michael D; Lundie, Sven; Stuetz, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Effective handling and treatment of the solids fraction from advanced wastewater treatment operations carries a substantial burden for water utilities relative to the total economic and environmental impacts from modern day wastewater treatment. While good process-level data for a range of wastewater treatment operations are becoming more readily available, there remains a dearth of high quality operational data for solids line processes in particular. This study seeks to address this data gap by presenting a suite of high quality, process-level life cycle inventory data covering a range of solids line wastewater treatment processes, extending from primary treatment through to biosolids reuse in agriculture. Within the study, the impacts of secondary treatment technology and key parameters such as sludge retention time, activated sludge age and primary-to-waste activated sludge ratio (PS:WAS) on the life cycle inventory data of solids processing trains for five model wastewater treatment plant configurations are presented. BioWin(®) models are calibrated with real operational plant data and estimated electricity consumption values were reconciled against overall plant energy consumption. The concept of "representative crop" is also introduced in order to reduce the uncertainty associated with nitrous oxide emissions and soil carbon sequestration offsets under biosolids land application scenarios. Results indicate that both the treatment plant biogas electricity offset and the soil carbon sequestration offset from land-applied biosolids, represent the main greenhouse gas mitigation opportunities. In contrast, fertiliser offsets are of relatively minor importance in terms of the overall life cycle emissions impacts. Results also show that fugitive methane emissions at the plant, as well as nitrous oxide emissions both at the plant and following agricultural application of biosolids, are significant contributors to the overall greenhouse gas balance and combined are

  8. Low-Emission combustion of fuel in aeroderivative gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulysova, L. A.; Vasil'ev, V. D.; Berne, A. L.

    2017-12-01

    The paper is the first of a planned set of papers devoted to the world experience in development of Low Emission combustors (LEC) for industrial Gas Turbines (GT). The purpose of the article is to summarize and analyze the most successful experience of introducing the principles of low-emission combustion of the so-called "poor" (low fuel concentration in air when the excess air ratio is about 1.9-2.1) well mixed fuelair mixtures in the LEC for GTs and ways to reduce the instability of combustion. The consideration examples are the most successful and widely used aero-derivative GT. The GT development meets problems related to the difference in requirements and operation conditions between the aero, industrial, and power production GT. One of the main problems to be solved is the LEC development to mitigate emissions of the harmful products first of all the Nitrogen oxides NOx. The ways to modify or convert the initial combustors to the LEC are shown. This development may follow location of multiburner mixers within the initial axial envelope dimensions or conversion of circular combustor to the can type one. The most interesting are Natural Gas firing GT without water injection into the operating process or Dry Low emission (DLE) combustors. The current GT efficiency requirement may be satisfied at compressor exit pressure above 3 MPa and Turbine Entry temperature (TET) above 1500°C. The paper describes LEC examples based on the concept of preliminary prepared air-fuel mixtures' combustion. Each combustor employs its own fuel supply control concept based on the fuel flow-power output relation. In the case of multiburner combustors, the burners are started subsequently under a specific scheme. The can type combustors have combustion zones gradually ignited following the GT power change. The combustion noise problem experienced in lean mixtures' combustion is also considered, and the problem solutions are described. The GT test results show wide ranges of stable

  9. Self-reported neurological symptoms in relation to CO emissions due to problem gas appliance installations in London: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreis Irene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR, Immediately Dangerous (ID or Not to Current Standards (NCS. Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15. Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration

  10. Green house gas emissions from termite ecosystem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    sink for chlorine (Cl) molecules and a source of water vapor, which is a dominant greenhouse gas. Analysis has .... termite gut harbors different kinds of bacteria, fungi and protozoa. ..... responses to the presence of oxygen and their sensitivity.

  11. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from waste treatment facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster, Jacob

    to be in-stalled in any vehicle and thereby enabling measurements wherever there were roads. The validation of the measurement method was done by releasing a controlled amount of methane and quantifying the emission using the release of tracer gas. The validation test showed that even in areas with large...... treatment plants. The PhD study reviewed and evaluated previously used methane measurement methods and found the tracer dispersion method promising. The method uses release of tracer gas and the use of mobile equipment with high analytical sensitivity, to measure the downwind plumes of methane and tracer...... ranged from 10 to 92 kg per hour and was found to change in even short timescales of a few hours. The periods with large emissions correlated with a drop in methane utilization, indicating that emissions came from the digesters tanks or gas storage/use. The measurements indicated that the main emissions...

  12. Strategies to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Laparoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Cassandra L; Woods, Noe C; Bilec, Melissa M

    2018-04-01

    To determine the carbon footprint of various sustainability interventions used for laparoscopic hysterectomy. We designed interventions for laparoscopic hysterectomy from approaches that sustainable health care organizations advocate. We used a hybrid environmental life cycle assessment framework to estimate greenhouse gas emissions from the proposed interventions. We conducted the study from September 2015 to December 2016 at the University of Pittsburgh (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania). The largest carbon footprint savings came from selecting specific anesthetic gases and minimizing the materials used in surgery. Energy-related interventions resulted in a 10% reduction in carbon footprint per case but would result in larger savings for the whole facility. Commonly implemented approaches, such as recycling surgical waste, resulted in less than a 5% reduction in greenhouse gases. To reduce the environmental emissions of surgeries, health care providers need to implement a combination of approaches, including minimizing materials, moving away from certain heat-trapping anesthetic gases, maximizing instrument reuse or single-use device reprocessing, and reducing off-hour energy use in the operating room. These strategies can reduce the carbon footprint of an average laparoscopic hysterectomy by up to 80%. Recycling alone does very little to reduce environmental footprint. Public Health Implications. Health care services are a major source of environmental emissions and reducing their carbon footprint would improve environmental and human health. Facilities seeking to reduce environmental footprint should take a comprehensive systems approach to find safe and effective interventions and should identify and address policy barriers to implementing more sustainable practices.

  13. The life cycle greenhouse gas emissions implications of power and hydrogen production for oil sands operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, J.M.; Bergerson, J.A.; MacLean, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' The Alberta Oil Sands represent a major economic opportunity for Canada, but the industry is also a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of the sources of these emissions is the use of natural gas for the production of electricity, steam and hydrogen. Due to concerns around resource availability and price volatility, there has been considerable discussion regarding the potential replacement of natural gas with an alternative fuel. While some of the options are non-fossil and could potentially reduce GHG emissions (e.g., nuclear, geothermal, biomass), others have the potential to increase emissions. A comparative life cycle assessment was completed to investigate the relative GHG emissions, energy consumption and financial implications of replacing natural gas with coal, coke, asphaltenes or bitumen for the supply of electricity, steam and hydrogen to oil sands operations. The potential use of carbon capture and storage (CCS) was also investigated as a means of reducing GHG emissions. Preliminary results indicate that, without CCS, the natural gas systems currently in use have lower life cycle GHG emissions than gasification systems using any of the alternative fuels analysed. However, when CCS is implemented in both the coke gasification and natural gas systems, the coke systems have lower GHG emissions and financial costs than the natural gas systems (assuming a 30-year project life and a natural gas price of 6.5 USD/gigajoule). The use of CCS does impose a financial penalty though, indicating that it is unlikely to be implemented without some financial incentive. While this study has limitations and uncertainties, the preliminary results indicate that although the GHG emissions of oil sands development pose a challenge to Canada, there are opportunities available for their abatement. (author)

  14. Life Cycle Energy Consumption and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Analysis of Natural Gas-Based Distributed Generation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the life-cycle analysis (LCA method to evaluate the energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of natural gas (NG distributed generation (DG projects in China. We took the China Resources Snow Breweries (CRSB NG DG project in Sichuan province of China as a base scenario and compared its life cycle energy consumption and GHG emissions performance against five further scenarios. We found the CRSB DG project (all energy input is NG can reduce GHG emissions by 22%, but increase energy consumption by 12% relative to the scenario, using coal combined with grid electricity as an energy input. The LCA also indicated that the CRSB project can save 24% of energy and reduce GHG emissions by 48% relative to the all-coal scenario. The studied NG-based DG project presents major GHG emissions reduction advantages over the traditional centralized energy system. Moreover, this reduction of energy consumption and GHG emissions can be expanded if the extra electricity from the DG project can be supplied to the public grid. The action of combining renewable energy into the NG DG system can also strengthen the dual merit of energy conservation and GHG emissions reduction. The marginal CO2 abatement cost of the studied project is about 51 USD/ton CO2 equivalent, which is relatively low. Policymakers are recommended to support NG DG technology development and application in China and globally to boost NG utilization and control GHG emissions.

  15. Agricultural opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jane M.-F.; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Weyers, Sharon Lachnicht; Reicosky, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture is a source for three primary greenhouse gases (GHGs): CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O. It can also be a sink for CO 2 through C sequestration into biomass products and soil organic matter. We summarized the literature on GHG emissions and C sequestration, providing a perspective on how agriculture can reduce its GHG burden and how it can help to mitigate GHG emissions through conservation measures. Impacts of agricultural practices and systems on GHG emission are reviewed and potential trade-offs among potential mitigation options are discussed. Conservation practices that help prevent soil erosion, may also sequester soil C and enhance CH 4 consumption. Managing N to match crop needs can reduce N 2 O emission and avoid adverse impacts on water quality. Manipulating animal diet and manure management can reduce CH 4 and N 2 O emission from animal agriculture. All segments of agriculture have management options that can reduce agriculture's environmental footprint. - Management options can be used to reduce agriculture's environmental impacts

  16. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology

  17. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading for the Transport Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmgren, Kristina; Belhaj, Mohammed; Gode, Jenny; Saernholm, Erik; Zetterberg, Lars; Aahman, Markus

    2006-12-01

    In this study we have analysed different options to apply emissions trading for greenhouse gas emissions to the transport sector. The main focus has been on the EU transport sector and the possibility to include it in the current EU ETS in the trading period beginning in 2013. The purpose was to study how different alternatives will affect different actors. Focus has been on three sub-sectors; road transport, aviation and shipping. The railway sector has only been treated on a general level. The study includes the following three parts: 1. An economic analysis of the consequences of greenhouse gas emissions trading for the transport sector including an analysis of how the total cost for reaching an emission target will be affected by an integrated emissions trading system for the transport sector and the industry (currently included sectors) compared to separate systems for the sectors, 2. An analysis of design possibilities for the different sub-sectors. Discussion of positive and negative aspects with different choices of design parameters, such as trading entity, covered greenhouse gases, allocation of emission allowances and monitoring systems, 3. Examination of the acceptance among different actors for different options of using greenhouse gas emissions trading in the transport sector. When setting up an emissions trading scheme there are a number of design parameters that have to be analysed in order to find an appropriate system, with limited administrative and transaction costs and as small distortions as possible to competitiveness

  18. Gas Emissions in Combustion of Biofuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitázek Ivan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, biomass or more precisely biofuel is more and more being exploited as a substitute for fossil fuels for heating as well as for example for heating a drying environment. This contribution focuses on assessing a heat source by combusting various types of solid biofuels. It is a boiler VIGAS 25 with AK 2000 regulation for heating a family house. Gaseous emissions were measured using a device TESTO 330-2LL. Firewood, peat briquettes, bark briquettes and hardwood briquettes were burnt. Results of experimental measurements concerning the production of gaseous emissions are processed in tables and graphs depending on boiler performance and combustion time.

  19. Panorama 2009 - greenhouse gas emissions and the transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The fact that the transport sector is growing quickly brings advantages, such as quick access to any geographical location on earth, but also disadvantages: noise, congestion and polluting emissions such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), the greenhouse gas (GHG) primarily responsible for global warming. In the effort to bring GHG emissions under control, improving results in the transport sector is a prime long-term objective. What proportion of CO 2 emissions generated at global and national level are due to the road, air, maritime and rail transport sectors, respectively? What mechanisms can be used to reduce GHG emissions in the transport sector at large?

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strebl, F.; Gebetsroither, E.; Orthofer, R.

    2002-07-01

    This report documents the calculations of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Austria of the IPCC-sector 'Agricultural Soils' for the period 1980 to 2001. According to available information, CH 4 emissions from agricultural soils are very small and thus irrelevant. N 2 O emissions were calculated according to the IPCC method; emission sources considered include direct emissions from nitrogen inputs to soils (mineral and organic fertilizers, crop residues, sewage sludge application, biological fixation) as well as indirect emissions (from atmospheric nitrogen deposition and nitrogen leaching) plus emissions from nitrogen input through grazing animal excreta. NH 3 and NO x emissions were calculated according to the CORINAIR method; sources considered were nitrogen inputs through fertilization as well as emissions from unfertilized cultures. In the year 1990 total emissions were 5.680 t N 2 O-N, 24.628 t NH 3 -N and 1.376 t NO x N. In the period 1980-2001 there were considerable fluctuations of emissions, caused by an inter annual variability of crop production and fertilizer consumption data. However, there are no significant emission trends in the past 20 years. Uncertainties were determined through a Monte-Carlo-based simulation; the standard deviation of a normal uncertainty distribution is 24 % for N 2 O, 13 % for NH 3 , and 18 % for NO x . (author)

  1. Papers of the Canadian Institute conference: Reduction, management and trading of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This conference provided an opportunity for experts from various fields to discuss and exchange views and the latest information on a wide range of topics related to the reduction, management and trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The papers dealt with pertinent issues such as: (1) short and long term impacts of the Kyoto Protocol ratification for industries operating in Quebec, necessary changes and required investment, (2) calculation mechanisms for the allocation of permits, audit systems for the reduction and registration of emissions, (3) Canadian and international emission trading market, opportunities and associated risks, (4) preparation of an emission trading contract, (5) the establishment of a greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction and management system within companies, and (6) measures implemented by governments to assist industry in meeting emission reduction targets. Of the sixteen papers presented at the conference, 4 have been processed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  2. Flue Gas Emissions from Fluidized Bed Combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bramer, E.A.; Valk, M.

    1995-01-01

    During the past decades fluidized bed coal combustion was developed as a technology for burning coal in an effective way meeting the standards for pollution control. During the earlier years of research on fluidized bed combustion, the potential for limiting the S02 emission by adding limestone to

  3. Greenhouse gas emission reduction by means of fuel switching in electricity generation: Addressing the potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; D'haeseleer, William

    2008-01-01

    Many countries committed themselves in the Kyoto protocol to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Some of these targeted emission reductions could result from a switch from coal-fired to gas-fired electricity generation. The focus in this work lies on Western Europe, with the presence of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). For the switching to occur, several conditions have to be fulfilled. First, an economical incentive must be present, i.e. a sufficiently high European Union Allowance (EUA) price together with a sufficiently low natural gas price. Second, the physical potential for switching must exist, i.e. at a given load, there must remain enough power plants not running to make switching possible. This paper investigates what possibilities exist for switching coal-fired plants for gas-fired plants, dependent on the load level (the latter condition above). A fixed allowance cost and a variable natural gas price are assumed. The method to address GHG emission reduction potentials is first illustrated in a methodological case. Next, the GHG emission reduction potentials are addressed for several Western European countries together with a relative positioning of their electricity generation. GHG emission reduction potentials are also compared with simulation results. GHG emission reduction potentials tend to be significant. The Netherlands have a very widespread switching zone, so GHG emission reduction is practically independent of electricity generation. Other counties, like Germany, Spain and Italy could reduce GHG emissions significantly by switching. With an allowance cost following the switch level of a 50% efficient gas-fired plant and a 40% efficient coal-fired plant in the summer season (like in 2005), the global GHG emission reduction (in the electricity generating sector) for the eight modeled zones could amount to 19%

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Forsythe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to be considered more fully in terms of impact on the environment. This is particularly important when steeply sloping sites are involved and for different soil types. The paper undertakes a study that quantitatively assesses the cumulative greenhouse gas emissions caused by cut and fill excavation on 52 residential projects in Australia for a range of slope and soil types. The paper presents results from the study and concludes that greenhouse gas emissions increase as site slope increases; the building footprint area (as distinct from Gross Floor Area, exposes the need to reduce the area of the building to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; excavation of rock soils creates higher emissions than other soil types; and cut and fill excavation on steeply slope sites increase emissions. Potential alternative construction includes suspended floor construction systems which involve less excavation. 

  6. Urban form and greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmaajaervi, Irmeli

    2003-01-01

    Finland's regional form is becoming more concentrated, while urban sprawl is causing growth centres to become fragmented. The effects caused by these changes on greenhouse gas emissions were studied up to the year 2010, when, in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, Finland's greenhouse gas emissions should be reduced to the 1990 level. The urban form affects especially transportation inside regions, the potential to utilise district heating and the need for infrastructure. By preventing urban sprawl and by encouraging teleworking and some lifestyle changes, it would be possible to reduce annual transportation emissions by the year 2010 by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 27%, the emissions from residential and service buildings by 1.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 5%, and the emissions from municipal infrastructure by 0.1 million tonnes CO 2 eq., i.e. 6%. Altogether, it is possible to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions by 2.3 million tonnes, which amounts to 15% of Finland's target for emissions reductions in 2010. If the target-oriented scenario is realised, the subsequent decrease of emissions would accelerate. To stop urban sprawl, measures are required in planning, land use and housing policy as well as in transportation and tax policies. Additionally, more needs to be done in regard to co-operation, interaction and information dissemination. This paper introduces a report which estimates, for the first time, the effects caused by changes in the regional and urban forms on the levels of greenhouse gas emissions in Finland

  7. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management approaches in the islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Chu

    2017-07-01

    Concerns about waste generation and climate change have attracted worldwide attention. Small islands, which account for more than one-sixth of the global land area, are facing problems caused by global climate change. This study evaluated the greenhouse gas emissions from five small islands surrounding Taiwan. These islands - Penghu County, Liuqui Island, Kinmen County, Matsu Island and Green Island - have their own waste management approaches that can serve as a guideline for waste management with greenhouse gas mitigation. The findings indicate that the total annual greenhouse gas emissions of the islands ranged from 292.1 to 29,096.2 [metric] tonne CO 2 -equivalent. The loading waste volumes and shipping distances were positively related to greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. The greenhouse gas emissions from waste-to-energy plants, mainly carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide, can be offset by energy recovery (approximately 38.6% of greenhouse gas emissions from incineration). In addition, about 34% and 11% of waste generated on the islands was successfully recycled and composted, respectively. This study provides valuable insights into the applicability of a policy framework for waste management approaches for greenhouse gas mitigation.

  8. Future forecast for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of LNG and city gas 13A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tomohito; Furukawa, Michinobu; Ishitani, Hisashi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the most up-to-date data available on total greenhouse-gas emissions of a LNG fuel supply chain and life-cycle of city gas 13A based on surveys of the LNG projects delivering to Japan, which should provide useful basic-data for conducting life-cycle analyses of other product systems as well as future alternative energy systems, because of highly reliable data qualified in terms of its source and representativeness. In addition, the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 were also predicted, taking into account not only the improvement of technologies, but also the change of composition of LNG projects. As a result of this analysis, the total amount of greenhouse-gas emissions of the whole city-gas 13A chain at present was calculated to be 61.91 g-CO 2 /MJ, and the life-cycle greenhouse-gas emissions of LNG and city-gas 13A in 2010 could be expected to decrease by about 1.1% of the current emissions

  9. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called 'greenhouse gases.' Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth's atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hawaii. Household and visitor expenditure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konan, Denise Eby; Chan, Hing Ling

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on petroleum use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with economic activities in Hawaii. Data on economic activity, petroleum consumption by type (gasoline, diesel, aviation fuel, residual, propane), and emissions factors are compiled and analyzed. In the baseline year 1997, emissions are estimated to total approximately 23.2 million metric tons of carbon, 181 thousand metric tons of nitrous oxide, and 31 thousand metric tons of methane in terms of carbon-equivalent global warming potential over a 100-year horizon. Air transportation, electricity, and other transportation are the key economic activity responsible for GHG emissions associated with fossil fuel use. More than 22% of total emissions are attributed to visitor expenditures. On a per person per annum basis, emission rates generated by visitor demand are estimated to be higher than that of residents by a factor of 4.3 for carbon, 3.2 for methane, and 4.8 for nitrous oxide. (author)

  11. Fuel use and greenhouse gas emissions of world fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert W. R.; Blanchard, Julia L.; Gardner, Caleb; Green, Bridget S.; Hartmann, Klaas; Tyedmers, Peter H.; Watson, Reg A.

    2018-04-01

    Food production is responsible for a quarter of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. Marine fisheries are typically excluded from global assessments of GHGs or are generalized based on a limited number of case studies. Here we quantify fuel inputs and GHG emissions for the global fishing fleet from 1990-2011 and compare emissions from fisheries to those from agriculture and livestock production. We estimate that fisheries consumed 40 billion litres of fuel in 2011 and generated a total of 179 million tonnes of CO2-equivalent GHGs (4% of global food production). Emissions from the global fishing industry grew by 28% between 1990 and 2011, with little coinciding increase in production (average emissions per tonne landed grew by 21%). Growth in emissions was driven primarily by increased harvests from fuel-intensive crustacean fisheries. The environmental benefit of low-carbon fisheries could be further realized if a greater proportion of landings were directed to human consumption rather than industrial uses.

  12. Wellbeing Impacts of City Policies for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what ‘wellbeing’ is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  13. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  15. Fugitive emission inventory from Brazilian oil and gas industry (2000-2005) and discussion of mitigation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carloni, Flavia A.; D' Avignon, Alexandre; La Rovere, Emilio L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Centro Clima

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate current emissions of GHGs within the Brazilian oil and gas industry, specifically the fugitive emissions arising from exploration and production. Besides, projects for mitigating these emissions and opportunities for the national industry are investigated. Results show that N{sub 2}O contributes little to fugitive emissions from the oil and gas industry, principally from gas sector. NMVOC emissions are significant, principally from the oil sector. In relation to CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions, the oil sector emits more CO{sub 2} while the gas sector contributes more to CH{sub 4} emissions. In both sectors flaring is the activity that emits most CO{sub 2}. In relation to CH{sub 4} the principal contribution to emissions are from exploration and production onshore, although offshore activities as a whole play a greater part in the national industry. The results make it clear that the use of gas from flaring activity is a great opportunity for emission mitigation projects. From a business point of view, methane emissions could mean lost opportunities in selling natural gas. The Kyoto Protocol mechanisms, as the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation actions, provide the opportunity to stimulate investments in projects for reducing flaring and venting of associated gas. (author)

  16. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  17. Estimation of methane emission from California natural gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Jeff; Hicks, Travis C; Drake, Brian; Chan, Tat Fu

    2015-07-01

    Energy generation and consumption are the main contributors to greenhouse gases emissions in California. Natural gas is one of the primary sources of energy in California. A study was recently conducted to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) that could be used to establish a more accurate methane emission inventory for the California natural gas industry. Twenty-five natural gas facilities were surveyed; the surveyed equipment included wellheads (172), separators (131), dehydrators (17), piping segments (145), compressors (66), pneumatic devices (374), metering and regulating (M&R) stations (19), hatches (34), pumps (2), and customer meters (12). In total, 92,157 components were screened, including flanges (10,101), manual valves (10,765), open-ended lines (384), pressure relief valves (358), regulators (930), seals (146), threaded connections (57,061), and welded connections (12,274). Screening values (SVs) were measured using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. For a given SV range, the measured leak rates might span several orders of magnitude. The correlation equations between the leak rates and SVs were derived. All the component leakage rate histograms appeared to have the same trend, with the majority of leakage ratesGas Research Institute (EPA/GRI) study. Twenty-five natural gas facilities in California were surveyed to develop current, reliable, and California-specific source emission factors (EFs) for the natural gas industry. Screening values were measured by using portable monitoring instruments, and Hi-Flow samplers were then used to quantify fugitive emission rates. The component-level average EFs derived in this study are often smaller than the corresponding ones in the 1996 EPA/GRI study. The smaller EF values from this study might be partially attributable to the employment of the leak detection and repair program by most, if not all

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the Ontario automotive sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    A variety of options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the automotive sector in Ontario over the next decade were discussed. Each option was assessed in terms of practicality and implications for implementation. I was concluded that improvements in fuel economy anticipated from advancing technology, with or without new mandated standards, will not be enough to offset the impact of growth in vehicle fleet size and kilometres driven. If the goal is to stabilize greenhouse gas emissions, other measures such as reducing the fleet size and vehicle kilometres travelled and accelerated vehicle retirement (scrappage) programs must be considered. Key constraints on expansion of the alternative fuel fleet were identified. These include: (1) limited availability of an adequate range of alternative fuel vehicles at competitive prices, (2) limited refuelling facility infrastructure in the case of natural gas, limited range and fuel storage capacity for natural gas; (3)current limited fuel ethanol production capacity, and (4) market perceptions of performance, reliability and safety. tabs

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S

    2004-03-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  1. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  2. Accounting for time-dependent effects in biofuel life cycle greenhouse gas emissions calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alissa; Chang, Brenda; Sharpe, Benjamin

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a time correction factor (TCF) to properly account for the timing of land use change-derived greenhouse gas emissions in the biofuels life cycle. Land use change emissions occur at the outset of biofuel feedstock production, and are typically amortized over an assumed time horizon to assign the burdens of land use change to multiple generations of feedstock crops. Greenhouse gas intensity calculations amortize emissions by dividing them equally over a time horizon, overlooking the fact that the effect of a greenhouse gas increases with the time it remains in the atmosphere. The TCF is calculated based on the relative climate change effect of an emission occurring at the outset of biofuel feedstock cultivation versus one amortized over a time horizon. For time horizons between 10 and 50 years, the TCF varies between 1.7 and 1.8 for carbon dioxide emissions, indicating that the actual climate change effect of an emission is 70-80% higher than the effect of its amortized values. The TCF has broad relevance for correcting the treatment of emissions timing in other life cycle assessment applications, such as emissions from capital investments for production systems or manufacturing emissions for renewable energy technologies.

  3. UK emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiba, U.; Jones, S. K.; Dragosits, U.; Drewer, J.; Fowler, D.; Rees, R. M.; Pappa, V. A.; Cardenas, L.; Chadwick, D.; Yamulki, S.; Manning, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    Signatories of the Kyoto Protocol are obliged to submit annual accounts of their anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which include nitrous oxide (N2O). Emissions from the sectors industry (3.8 Gg), energy (14.4 Gg), agriculture (86.8 Gg), wastewater (4.4 Gg), land use, land-use change and forestry (2.1 Gg) can be calculated by multiplying activity data (i.e. amount of fertilizer applied, animal numbers) with simple emission factors (Tier 1 approach), which are generally applied across wide geographical regions. The agricultural sector is the largest anthropogenic source of N2O in many countries and responsible for 75 per cent of UK N2O emissions. Microbial N2O production in nitrogen-fertilized soils (27.6 Gg), nitrogen-enriched waters (24.2 Gg) and manure storage systems (6.4 Gg) dominate agricultural emission budgets. For the agricultural sector, the Tier 1 emission factor approach is too simplistic to reflect local variations in climate, ecosystems and management, and is unable to take into account some of the mitigation strategies applied. This paper reviews deviations of observed emissions from those calculated using the simple emission factor approach for all anthropogenic sectors, briefly discusses the need to adopt specific emission factors that reflect regional variability in climate, soil type and management, and explains how bottom-up emission inventories can be verified by top-down modelling. PMID:22451103

  4. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.

  5. Atmospheric emissions from the upstream oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, B.G.S.

    1994-01-01

    The results are presented of a study set up to determine the nature and levels of atmospheric emissions resulting from United Kingdom oil and gas exploration and production activities. The study was commissioned by the UK Offshore Operators Association. Emissions by the upstream oil and gas industry of common pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide, and ozone depletion chemicals were shown in each case to be less than 1% of total UK emissions. Greenhouse gas emissions in the industry arise mainly from production operations with a small but significant contribution from onshore activities. Carbon dioxide is the major component followed in descending order by nitrogen oxides, methane and volatile organic compounds. In 1991, these emissions formed 3.2%, 4.6%, 2.9% and 2.8% of the UK totals respectively; overall this represented only about 3% of UK global warming emissions. The evidence of this study illustrates that the industry, which produces 67% of the UK's primary energy, is successfully managing its operations in an environmentally responsible way. (3 figures, 3 tables) (UK)

  6. Global initiatives to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helme, N.; Gille, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Joint implementation (JI) is a provision, included in the Framework Convention on Climate Change, that allows for two or more nations to jointly plan and implement a greenhouse gas or offsetting project. Joint implementation is important environmentally for two principal reasons: (1) it provides an opportunity to select projects on a global basis that maximize both greenhouse gas reduction benefits and other environmental benefits such as air pollution reduction while minimizing cost, and (2) it creates incentives for developing countries as well as multinational companies to begin to evaluate potential investments through a climate-friendly lens. While the debate on how to establish the criteria and institutional capacity necessary to encourage joint implementation projects continues in the international community, the US government is creating new incentives for US companies to develop joint implementation pilot projects now. While delegates to the United Nations' International Negotiating Committee (INC) debate whether to permit all Parties to the convention to participate in JI, opportunities in Eastern and Central Europe and the former Soviet states abound. The US has taken a leadership role in joint implementation, establishing two complementary domestic programs that allow US companies to measure, track and score their net greenhouse gas reduction achievements now. With a financial investment by three US utilities, the Center for Clean Air Policy is developing a fuel-switching and energy efficiency project in the city of Decin in the Czech Republic which offers a concrete example of what a real-world JI project could look like. The Decin project provides an ideal test case for assessing the adequacy and potential impact of the draft criteria for the US Initiative on Joint Implementation, as well as for the draft criteria prepared by the INC Secretariat

  7. METHANE EMISSIONS FROM THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 15: GAS-ASSISTED GLYCOL PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 15-volume report summarizes the results of a comprehensive program to quantify methane (CH4) emissions from the U.S. natural gas industry for the base year. The objective was to determine CH4 emissions from the wellhead and ending downstream at the customer's meter. The accur...

  8. 6.1 Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Austria, greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) have increased by about 10 % between 1990 and 2001. This means that already in 2001 the emissions reached the level projected with current measures for 2010. Thus Austria is far from complying with the 13 % reduction required under the Kyoto Protocol, meaning that GHG emissions will have to be reduce annually by 1.4 million tons of CO 2 -equivalents to fulfill its protocol obligation. It is shown that 2001 GHG emissions had increased by 9.6 % since the base year 1990, the main reason for this increase is the growing use of fossil fuels and the resulting increase in CO 2 emissions. The highest growth rates can be observed in the transport sector by almost half (+ 49 %). Basically, greenhouse gas emission trends depend on a number of factors, about two thirds of them are caused by energy production, so the most important parameters affecting GHG are the trends of energy consumption, the energy mix and the following factors: population growth, economic growth, outdoor temperature and the resulting heating requirements, improvement of energy efficiency, the proportion of renewable energy sources such as electricity generation in hydroelectric power stations (which influences the need for supplementary power production in thermal power plants), the mix of fossil fuels, for example in caloric power plants (natural gas combustion produces about 40 % less CO 2 per energy unit than coal combustion), the structure and price effects of energy market liberalization, which influence the use of various fuels in electricity production and the import of electricity, world market prices for energy, structural changes in the economy and in the behavior of consumers. Changes in important driving forces and in GHG emissions, sector emissions trends and Austrian, European and global emissions projections are provided. (nevyjel)

  9. Compendium of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimation Methodologies for the Oil and Gas Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shires, T.M.; Loughran, C.J. [URS Corporation, Austin, TX (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This document is a compendium of currently recognized methods and provides details for all oil and gas industry segments to enhance consistency in emissions estimation. This Compendium aims to accomplish the following goals: Assemble an expansive collection of relevant emission factors for estimating GHG emissions, based on currently available public documents; Outline detailed procedures for conversions between different measurement unit systems, with particular emphasis on implementation of oil and gas industry standards; Provide descriptions of the multitude of oil and gas industry operations, in its various segments, and the associated emissions sources that should be considered; and Develop emission inventory examples, based on selected facilities from the various segments, to demonstrate the broad applicability of the methodologies. The overall objective of developing this document is to promote the use of consistent, standardized methodologies for estimating GHG emissions from petroleum industry operations. The resulting Compendium documents recognized calculation techniques and emission factors for estimating GHG emissions for oil and gas industry operations. These techniques cover the calculation or estimation of emissions from the full range of industry operations - from exploration and production through refining, to the marketing and distribution of products. The Compendium presents and illustrates the use of preferred and alternative calculation approaches for carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions for all common emission sources, including combustion, vented, and fugitive. Decision trees are provided to guide the user in selecting an estimation technique based on considerations of materiality, data availability, and accuracy. API will provide (free of charge) a calculation tool based on the emission estimation methodologies described herein. The tool will be made available at http://ghg.api.org/.

  10. Health and exposure assessment of flare gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Byrne-Lewis, C.; Probert, S.

    2000-01-01

    The incomplete combustion of flare gases produces pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are cause for concern for public health. Some of the concerns relate to potential long-term cumulative health effects from exposure to hazardous air pollutants including benzene, styrene, naphthalene, and benzopyrene. This study demonstrated that several factors should be taken into account when considering the importance of flaring and human exposure to flare gas emissions. Most flare stacks are located in rural areas, but most time-availability studies have been done on urban populations where the majority of people spend their time indoors. It was recommended that more time-activity studies are needed to emphasize the behaviour of rural populations which are most susceptible to exposure from pollutants from flaring. It was concluded that higher indoor air concentrations exist for many VOCs and PAHs compared to outdoors, but in these instances, indoor sources are the major contributors to indoor air concentrations. It was recommended that health assessments of hazardous air pollutants emitted from gas flaring has to take into account the indoor setting and other background exposures in order to provide useful information for decision makers. 49 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions of pilot buildings in 2009-2011; Pilottikiinteistoejen kasvihuonekaasupaeaestoet vuosina 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riihimaki, M.

    2012-07-01

    The Julia 2030 use of premises project sought to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions of selected pilot buildings by 10 per cent over the period from 2009 to 2011 by changing patterns of use. The project also provided an opportunity for further refinement of a climate calculator developed and maintained by WWF for reckoning greenhouse gas emissions of this kind. The use of premises project covered a total of 32 pilot buildings in Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Kauniainen, Kirkkonummi and Kerava. These buildings included nurseries and schools, swimming baths, offices, multi-purpose activity buildings, depots, a sports hall and a health centre. The combined greenhouse gas emissions of the pilot buildings in 2011 amounted to 10,416 tCO{sub 2}e, which was 8 per cent lower than the total of 11,293 tCO{sub 2}e recorded in 2009. This means that the project fell slightly short of its targeted 10 per cent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. The total greenhouse gas emissions of the pilot buildings adjusted for heating requirement amounted to 10,733 tCO{sub 2}e in 2011, which was about 7 per cent lower than in 2009. Reckoned on a per capita basis for employees or visitors, the total greenhouse gas emissions adjusted for heating requirement fell in 25 buildings, but increased in seven buildings over the period from 2009 to 2011. Particularly significant emission reductions were achieved in Vantaa, where all buildings were able to cut their emissions by between 9 and 45 per cent. The principal cause of greenhouse gas emissions in the pilot buildings was heating consumption, which also accounts for the increase in their unadjusted greenhouse gas emissions over the cold winters of 2009 and 2010. The second most important emission source in the pilot buildings was electricity consumption. Air travel contributed significantly to the overall greenhouse gas emissions of the pilot buildings used by employees taking work-related flights, whereas the contribution of paper consumption and

  12. Liability rules for international trading of greenhouse gas emissions quotas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haites, E.; Missfeldt, F.

    2001-01-01

    To reduce the costs of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in accordance with the Kyoto protocol, international trades of emissions quotas are allowed. The revenue from the sale of quotas may exceed the sanctions for non-compliance if these penalties are weak or poorly enforced. Under...... these circumstances emissions trading enables a country to benefit financially through non-compliance. To counter non-compliance due to trading a range of liability proposals have been suggested. Using a simple global model, we analyze the economic and environmental performance of these proposals for the first...

  13. The role of process intensification in cutting greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reay, David

    2008-01-01

    Between 1900 and 1955 the average rate of global energy use rose from about 1 TW to 2 TW. Between 1955 and 1999 energy use rose from 2 TW to about 12 TW, and to 2006 a further 16% growth in primary energy use was recorded world-wide. There are recommendations by the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, subsequently supported by others in the UK, that we need to reduce CO 2 emissions by over 50% in order to stabilise their impact on global warming (CO 2 being the principal gas believed to be contributing to this phenomenon). One way in which we can address this is by judicious use of process intensification technology. Process intensification may be defined as: 'Any engineering development that leads to a substantially smaller, cleaner, safer and more energy-efficient technology.' It is most often characterised by a huge reduction in plant volume - orders of magnitude - but its contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions may also be significant. Potential energy savings due to investment in process intensification were studied by several UK organisations in the mid 1990s, to assist the UK Government in formulating a strategy on intensification. It is relevant to the themes of the PRES 07 Conference that process integration features in these analyses. Overall plant intensification in the UK was identified as having a technical potential of 40 PJ/year (about 1 million tonnes of oil equivalent/annum). The total potential energy savings due to investment in process intensification in a range of process unit operations were predicted to be over 74 PJ/year (1 PJ = 10 15 J). Projections for The Netherlands suggest that savings of 50-100 PJ/year should be achieved across chemicals and food processing by 2050. Substantial benefits to industry in the USA are highlighted by US Department of Energy studies. This paper relates by discussion and example process intensification to the main themes of the PRES 07 Conference, including process integration. It also

  14. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostalova, M.; Suk, J.; Kolar, S.

    1991-12-01

    In this paper are presented important findings on the potential for energy conservation and carbon emissions reduction over the coming decades in Czechoslovakia. The authors describe the state of the energy use in Czechoslovakia today and the measures required to transform its energy system to a market-based economy oriented towards the environmental goal of decreased energy intensity. This work furthers our understanding of the need for energy efficiency in the newly forming market economies of East and Central Europe. This paper is part of a series of country studies sponsored by the Global Climate Division of the Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). We have completed similar studies in Canada, the former Soviet Union, France, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Poland the United Kingdom, and the United States. Research is currently underway or planned in Bulgaria, Romania, and Ukraine

  15. Reducing the Green House Gas Emissions from the Transportation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewande Akinnikawe

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, two thirds of the carbon monoxide and about one third of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transportation sector. Ways to reduce these emissions in the future include replacing gasoline and diesel by biofuels, or by blend of biofuels with conventional gasoline and diesel, or by compressed natural gas (CNG, or by replacing internal combustion engines by electric motors powered by hydrogen fuel cells or battery-powered electric vehicles recharged from the electric grid. This presentation will review these technologies the fuel production pathways, when they are likely to be available, and by what fraction transportation sector green house gas emissions could be reduced by each. A well-to-wheels (WTW analysis is performed on each vehicle/ fuel technology using the GREET model and the total energy use, the CO 2 emissions, NO x emissions, SO x emissions for the life cycle of the vehicle technologies are calculated. Prospects for reducing foreign oil dependence as well as mitigating green house gases emission from the transportation sector will be considered in the analysis.

  16. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis....

  17. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions for the EU in four future scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesschen, J.P.; Rienks, W.; Staritsky, I. [Alterra, Wageningen-UR, Wageningen (Netherlands); Eickhout, B.; Prins, A.G. [Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency PBL, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    The European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) will be revised in the near future. A proposed agricultural policy reform will affect many dimensions of the sustainable development of agriculture. One of these dimensions are greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of four scenarios of the future, from the Eururalis study, and the effects of CAP options on GHG emissions from agriculture. The results provide an indication of the range of GHG emissions between the four diverging base scenarios and the differences with current emission levels in Member States and on EU level. Analysis of the possible impact of the measures on GHG emissions showed that this would be much larger from mitigation measures than from CAP options. Full implementation of the mitigation measures could lead to a reduction in GHG emissions from agriculture of 127 Mt CO2 equivalents. This is about a quarter of current GHG emissions from agriculture. Promoting mitigation measures, therefore, is more effective for reducing GHG emissions from agriculture, than influencing income and price subsidies within the CAP. On the global scale, CAP options hardly play a role in total GHG emissions from land use. Much more important are developments in global population, economic growth, policies and technological developments, as depicted in the various scenarios.

  19. Reduction of NOx emissions when burning low heating value gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, R.; Oskarsson, J.; Waldheim, L.

    1993-09-01

    On the gasification of nitrogen-rich fuel the nitrogen from the fuel goes into the gas phase in the form of ammonia and hydrogen cyanide and also nitrogen containing tars. When the gas is combusted the nitrogen compounds are oxidized to a great extent to NO x and, therefore, high NO x emissions can be found on the combustion of low heating value gas produced from energy forest wood chips as is also the case with direct combustion of nitrogen rich fuels. An experimental study has been carried out where the important parameters for designing a combustion chamber for low heating value gases have been studied in order to obtain maximum reduction of NO x emissions. The effect of tar cracking using dolomite on these emissions and the effect of parameters such as the addition of steam has also been tested. The tests were carried out with energy forest wood chips with 0.3% nitrogen. The gasification was carried out in a pyrolysis reactor, operated to yield a low heating value gas, and which was coupled to a simplified gas turbine combustion chamber at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the main part of the nitrogen in the fuel is found as ammonia in the low heating value gas. With this type of gasification the conversion of fuel nitrogen to ammonia in the gas is equivalent to 500-600 mg/MJ, calculated as NO 2 . Only very low amounts of hydrogen cyanide have been noted and no nitrogen containing tar components have been found. No apparent effect of steam additions has been noted. On the other hand the distribution of air in the combustion chamber and residence time during the under stoichiometric conditions are of great importance for the NO x reduction. Depending on the air distribution the emissions of NO 2 varied between 100 and 250 mg/MJ, calculated as NO 2 . 23 refs, 11 figs, 2 tabs

  20. The development of an ultra-low-emission gas-fired cyclonic combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Tian-yu; Khinkis, M.J.; Coppin, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    A gas-fired cyclonic combustor has been developed for relatively low-temperature direct-air heating applications that require ultra-low pollutant emissions. High-lean premixed combustion with a flame stabilizer is adopted to achieve ultra-low emissions and high turndown operation. On the basis of analytical studies and cold modeling, a 350-kW test combustor was designed and successfully tested. Experimental results obtained using natural gas and ambient air demonstrated that the test combustor can operate steadily at high excess air up to 80% to 100% over a large turndown range up to 40:1. At design operating conditions, NO x emissions as low as 0.6 vppm and CO and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions below 3 vppm were achieved. Over the full operating range, NO x emissions from 0.3 to 1.0 vppm and CO and THC emissions below 4 vppm were demonstrated. In all tests, concentrations of NO 2 were less than 40% of the total NO x emissions -- lower than the level of NO 2 emissions from combustion processes required for good indoor air quality (0.5 vppm). This paper presents the concept of high-lean premixed ultra-low-emission cyclonic combustion, design specifications for the combustion system, and the major experimental results, including flame stability, emissions, and turndown performance. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab

  1. Revised emission factors for gas engines including start/stop emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Malene; Boll Illerup, J.; Birr-Petersen, K.

    2008-06-15

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has led to Danish gas engine plants increasingly converting to the spot and regulating power markets. In order to offer regulating power, plants need to be able to start and stop the engines at the plants quickly. The liberalisation causes a considerable change of operation practice of the engines e.g. less full load operation hours /year. The project provides an inventory determining the scale of the emissions during the start and stop sequence as well as proposals for engine modifications aimed at reducing start/stop emissions. This report includes calculation of emission factors as well as an inventory of total emissions and reduction potentials. (au)

  2. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis; Crijns-Graus, Wina; Vuuren, Van Detlef P.; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of

  3. Aligning corporate greenhouse-gas emissions targets with climate goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Oskar; Linthorst, Giel; Blok, Kornelis|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07170275X; Crijns-Graus, Wina|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/308005015; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; Höhne, Niklas; Faria, Pedro; Aden, Nate; Pineda, Alberto Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Corporate climate action is increasingly considered important in driving the transition towards a low-carbon economy. For this, it is critical to ensure translation of global goals to greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets at company level. At the moment, however, there is a lack of clear

  4. Scenarios for a Nordic Power System without Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graabak, Ingeborg; Nilsson, Måns; Wu, Qiuwei

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents scenarios for power production without greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden by 2050. The Nordic region already has a high share of renewables in its power production portfolio (about 60% in 2010), and possibilities for further deployment are very...

  5. Emission of gaseous organic pollutants and flue gas treatment technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Sun, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Gaseous organic pollutants are emitted into atmosphere from various sources, creating a threat to the environment and man. New, economical technologies are needed for flue gas treatment. Emission sources of pollutants are reviewed and different treatment technologies are discussed in this report. (authors)

  6. Greenhouse-gas emissions from soils increased by earthworms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; Groenigen, van K.J.; Fonte, S.J.; Six, J.; Brussaard, L.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms play an essential part in determining the greenhouse-gas balance of soils worldwide, and their influence is expected to grow over the next decades. They are thought to stimulate carbon sequestration in soil aggregates, but also to increase emissions of the main greenhouse gases carbon

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from integrated urban drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannina, Giorgio; Butler, David; Benedetti, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, integrated urban drainage systems (IUDSs) (i.e., sewer systems, wastewater treatment plants and receiving water bodies) contribute to climate change. This paper, produced by the International Working Group on Data and Models, which works under the IWA...

  8. Mitigating gas emissions at signalised intersections using wireless vehicle detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Kwasi Torkudzor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion on roads wastes travel times and increases fuel consumption as well as gas emissions which are dangerous to human health. This has led to growing concern about environmental protection and energy conservation and a number of studies to increase fuel economy and reduce gas emissions. To increase travel times so as to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions, traffic signals at intersections must be well implemented. It is therefore necessary to employ the current technology of wireless sensor networks to enhance the optimisation of the signalised intersections so as to address such a concern. In this study, a vehicular traffic control model was developed to optimise a signalised intersection, using wireless vehicle detectors. Real-time traffic volume gathered were analysed to obtain the peak hour traffic volume causing congestion. The intersection was modelled and simulated in Synchro7 as an actuated signalised model using results from the analysed data. The model for morning peak and evening peak periods gave optimal cycle lengths which result in the reduction of gas emissions, fuel consumption and delay at the intersection.

  9. Effects of treated poultry litter on potential greenhouse gas emission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different treatments of poultry faecal waste on potential greenhouse gas emission and inherent agronomic potentials. Sugar solution at 100g/l salt solution at 350g/l and oven-drying were the various faecal treatments examined using a completely randomized design.

  10. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Fred; Boothroyd, Ian; Davies, Richard

    2017-04-01

    The impact of unconventional natural gas production using hydraulic fracturing methods from shale gas basins has been assessed using life-cycle emissions inventories, covering areas such as pre-production, production and transmission processes. The transmission of natural gas from well pad to processing plants and its transport to domestic sites is an important source of fugitive CH4, yet emissions factors and fluxes from transmission processes are often based upon ver out of date measurements. It is important to determine accurate measurements of natural gas losses when compressed and transported between production and processing facilities so as to accurately determine life-cycle CH4 emissions. This study considers CH4 emissions from the UK National Transmission System (NTS) of high pressure natural gas pipelines. Mobile surveys of CH4 emissions using a Picarro Surveyor cavity-ring-down spectrometer were conducted across four areas in the UK, with routes bisecting high pressure pipelines and separate control routes away from the pipelines. A manual survey of soil gas measurements was also conducted along one of the high pressure pipelines using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from these joints. When scaled up to the UK's National Transmission System pipeline length of 7600 km gives a fugitive CH4 flux of 4700 ± 2864 kt CH4/yr - this fugitive emission from high pressure pipelines is 0.016% of the annual gas supply.

  11. Technological substitution options for controlling greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Burgess, J.C.; Pearce, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with technological options for greenhouse gas substitution. The authors interpret the term substitution to exclude energy conservation/efficiency measures, investments in afforestation (sinks), and greenhouse gas removal or abatement technologies. Their working definition of greenhouse gas substitution includes (1) replacement technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with a nongreenhouse gas technology; and (2) reduction technologies, for example, substituting a greenhouse gas technology with an alternative technology that reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Essentially, replacement technologies involve 100 percent reduction in CO 2 ; reduction technologies involve a partial reduction in CO 2 . Of the man-made sources of greenhouse gases, energy is the most important and is expected to contribute to at least half of the global warming effect in the near future. The majority of this impact is from fossil fuel combustion as a source of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), although fossil fuels also contribute significantly to methane (CH 4 ), to nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and to low-level ozone (O 3 ) through production of various nitrogen gases (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO). This study analyzes the available greenhouse gas substitutions and their costs. The authors concentrate particularly on substitutions for fossil-fuel combustion and CFC production and consumption. They conclude by summarizing the potential for greenhouse gas substitution, the cost-effectiveness of the various options and the design of incentives for substitution

  12. Greenhouse gas and livestock emissions and climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caro, Dario

    2018-01-01

    The paper summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of livestock sector on climate change. The main sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from livestock are described and the contribution of livestock sector to the global GHG emissions is presented on the basis of the latest results...... obtained from the scientific research. The most recent mitigation strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from livestock sector are also discussed. The paper aims to provide a general overview of an emergent environmental issue such as the impact of livestock sector on climate change. While...... the paper is easy to understand for non-expert readers, it may also be a relevant reference point for academic researchers and for policy makers aimed at achieving the sustainability of livestock/food sector....

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon ...... throughout the value chain – from cow to consumer.......Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...... footprint (CF) of milk and dairy products, namely; estimating CH4 and N2O emissions; accounting for land use change; co-product handling; and defining the functional unit. In addition, the CF is calculated for different types of dairy products, and suggestions on various mitigation measures are presented...

  14. Use of landfill gas will save money and reduce emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    The City of Glendale, California has commenced on a project to transport landfill gas (LFG) from the Scholl Canyon Landfill to the Grayson Power Plant. At the plant the LFG will be used to produce electricity in existing steam electric generating units and combustion turbines. The LFG will reduce the natural gas consumed at the plant resulting in a substantial cost savings for the City. This project also offers significant environmental improvements. First, the elimination of flaring at the landfill will reduce emissions. Second, the LFG will reduce NO x emissions from the power plant. This paper will describe the existing collection system at the landfill as well as the design of the compression and piping system to transport the LFG to the power plant. It will also outline the in-plant modifications to the fuel delivery system and examine some of the emission implications of how the fuel is utilized

  15. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on the status of activities by European and American business enterprises related to greenhouse gas emissions trading; 1999 nendo onshitsu koka gas haishutsu ken torihiki ni kansuru Obei minkan kigyo no katsudo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Emissions trading of greenhouse gases is going to be introduced to give flexibility to the method of achieving reduction of the greenhouse gas emission established in the Kyoto Protocol. The emissions trading is an institution intended to achieve the environmental targets by using the 'market mechanism' in the environmental policies, which is expected to accomplish the effect of reducing greenhouse gas emission. The U.S.A. has adopted since 1990 the policy utilizing the emissions trading on SO2 and NOx, creating cases of successfully achieving the initial regulation targets in a short time. The history of this SO2 emissions trading showed that the emissions trading that makes the market mechanism to function can function as a policy even in the environmental policy. The representative of business enterprises working actively on this issue is BP Amco. BP Amco has started January 2000 full-fledged greenhouse gas right-to-emit institution inside the company. Among electric power companies, Ontario Power of Canada has executed about ten greenhouse gas emissions tradings yearly. Enron International has structured a system in order to participate positively in the greenhouse gas trading. (NEDO)

  16. Report on a survey in fiscal 1999. Survey on the status of activities by European and American business enterprises related to greenhouse gas emissions trading; 1999 nendo onshitsu koka gas haishutsu ken torihiki ni kansuru Obei minkan kigyo no katsudo chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Emissions trading of greenhouse gases is going to be introduced to give flexibility to the method of achieving reduction of the greenhouse gas emission established in the Kyoto Protocol. The emissions trading is an institution intended to achieve the environmental targets by using the 'market mechanism' in the environmental policies, which is expected to accomplish the effect of reducing greenhouse gas emission. The U.S.A. has adopted since 1990 the policy utilizing the emissions trading on SO2 and NOx, creating cases of successfully achieving the initial regulation targets in a short time. The history of this SO2 emissions trading showed that the emissions trading that makes the market mechanism to function can function as a policy even in the environmental policy. The representative of business enterprises working actively on this issue is BP Amco. BP Amco has started January 2000 full-fledged greenhouse gas right-to-emit institution inside the company. Among electric power companies, Ontario Power of Canada has executed about ten greenhouse gas emissions tradings yearly. Enron International has structured a system in order to participate positively in the greenhouse gas trading. (NEDO)

  17. Emission Characteristics of Gas-Fired Boilers based on Category-Specific Emission Factor from Field Measurements in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.; Yan, X.; Song, G.; Yan, J.; Xue, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Gas-fired boilers will become the main stationary sources of NOx in Beijing. However, the knowledge of gas-fired boilers in Beijing is limited. In the present study, the emission characteristics of NOx, SO2, and CO from gas-fired boilers in Beijing were established using category-specific emission factors (EFs) from field measurements. In order to obtain category-specific EFs, boilers were classified through influence analysis. Factors such as combustion mode, boiler type, and installed capacity were considered critical for establishing EFs because they play significant roles in pollutant formation. The EFs for NOx, CO, and SO2 ranged from 1.42-6.86 g m-3, 0.05-0.67 g m-3 and 0.03-0.48 g m-3. The emissions of NOx, SO2, and CO for gas-fired boilers in Beijing were 11121 t, 468 t, and 222 t in 2014, respectively. The emissions were spatially allocated into grid cells with a resolution of 1 km × 1 km, and the results indicated that top emitters were in central Beijing. The uncertainties were quantified using a Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicated high uncertainties in CO (-157% to 154%) and SO2 (-127% to 182%) emissions, and relatively low uncertainties (-34% to 34%) in NOx emission. Furthermore, approximately 61.2% and 96.8% of the monitored chamber combustion boilers (CCBs) met the standard limits for NOx and SO2, respectively. Concerning NOx, low-NOx burners and NOx emission control measures are urgently needed for implementing of stricter standards. Adopting terminal control measures is unnecessary for SO2, although its concentration occasionally exceeds standard limits, because reduction of its concentration can be achieved thorough control of the sulfur content of natural gas at a stable low level. Furthermore, the atmospheric combustion boilers (ACBs) should be substituted with CCBs, because ACBs have a higher emission despite lower gross installed capacity. The results of this study will enable in understanding and controlling emissions from gas

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from tropical forest degradation: an underestimated source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R. H. Pearson

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degradation of forests in developing countries, particularly those within tropical and subtropical latitudes, is perceived to be an important contributor to global greenhouse gas emissions. However, the impacts of forest degradation are understudied and poorly understood, largely because international emission reduction programs have focused on deforestation, which is easier to detect and thus more readily monitored. To better understand and seize opportunities for addressing climate change it will be essential to improve knowledge of greenhouse gas emissions from forest degradation. Results Here we provide a consistent estimation of forest degradation emissions between 2005 and 2010 across 74 developing countries covering 2.2 billion hectares of forests. We estimated annual emissions of 2.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide, of which 53% were derived from timber harvest, 30% from woodfuel harvest and 17% from forest fire. These percentages differed by region: timber harvest was as high as 69% in South and Central America and just 31% in Africa; woodfuel harvest was 35% in Asia, and just 10% in South and Central America; and fire ranged from 33% in Africa to only 5% in Asia. Of the total emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, forest degradation accounted for 25%. In 28 of the 74 countries, emissions from forest degradation exceeded those from deforestation. Conclusions The results of this study clearly demonstrate the importance of accounting greenhouse gases from forest degradation by human activities. The scale of emissions presented indicates that the exclusion of forest degradation from national and international GHG accounting is distorting. This work helps identify where emissions are likely significant, but policy developments are needed to guide when and how accounting should be undertaken. Furthermore, ongoing research is needed to create and enhance cost-effective accounting approaches.

  19. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Wetlands in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, H.; Fatah, L.; Nursyamsi, D.; Kazuyuki, I.

    2011-12-01

    At the forum G20 meeting in 2009, Indonesian President delivered Indonesia's commitment to reduce national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 26% in 2020 by unilateral action and by 41% with support of other countries. To achieve the target, Indonesian government has put forestry, agriculture (including peatlands), energy, industry and transportation as main responsible sectors. Development of crop with low GHG emissions, increasing C sequestration and the use of organic fertilizers are among the activities to be carried out in 2010-2020 period to minimize GHG emissions from agricultural sectors. Three experiments have been carried out to elucidate the reflectivity of crop selection, soil ameliorants and organic fertilizers on GHG emissions from agricultural wetlands in Borneo. Firstly, gas samples were collected in weekly basis from oil palm, paddy, and vegetables fields and analyzed for methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations by a gas chromatography. Secondly, coal fly ash, dolomite and ZnSO4 were incorporated into a pot containing peat and/or alluvial soils taken from wetlands in South Kalimantan. The air samples were taken and analyzed for CH4 by a gas chromatography. Finally, microbial consortium are isolated from soil, sediment and cow dung. The microbes were then propagated and used in a rice straw composting processes. The CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from composting vessel were measured at one, two and four weeks of composting processes. The results showed that shifting the use of peatlands for oil palm to vegetable field reduced the GHG emissions by about 74% and that to paddy field reduce the GHG emissions by about 82%. The CH4 emissions from paddy field can be further reduced by applying dolomite. However, the use of coal fly ash and ZnSO4 increased CH4 emissions from peat soil cultivated to rice. The use of microbe isolated from saline soil could reduce GHG emissions during the composting of rice straw. The social aspect of GHG reduction in

  20. Forgotten carbon: indirect CO2 in greenhouse gas emission inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2008-01-01

    National governments that are Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are required to submit greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories accounting for the emissions and removals occurring within their geographic territories. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) provides inventory methodology guidance to the Parties of the UNFCCC. This methodology guidance, and national inventories based on it, omits carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) from the atmospheric oxidation of methane, carbon monoxide, and non-methane volatile organic compounds emissions that result from several source categories. The inclusion of this category of 'indirect' CO 2 in GHG inventories increases global anthropogenic emissions (excluding land use and forestry) between 0.5 and 0.7%. However, the effect of inclusion on aggregate UNFCCC Annex I Party GHG emissions would be to reduce the growth of total emissions, from 1990 to 2004, by 0.2% points. The effect on the GHG emissions and emission trends of individual countries varies. The paper includes a methodology for calculating these emissions and discusses uncertainties. Indirect CO 2 is equally relevant for GHG inventories at other scales, such as global, regional, organizational, and facility. Similarly, project-based methodologies, such as those used under the Clean Development Mechanism, may need revising to account for indirect CO 2

  1. Gas emissions from mining voids in Lorraine iron-bearing basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Pokryszka, Z.

    2003-01-01

    A study carried out in the iron basin of Lorraine (France) put the spot on the existence of under-oxygenated and noxious gas emissions (carbon dioxide, radon..) in built-up areas related to former mining works. Site investigations showed that the gas flow was mainly due to natural ventilation mechanisms. A further study is in progress in order to better understand the origin of the atmosphere modification within the old mine workings. (authors)

  2. A forward looking, actor based, indicator for climate gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, Torgeir; Randers, Joergen

    2011-04-15

    The most commonly used Norwegian indicator for climate change displays historical emissions and compare with Norway's Kyoto target. This indicator says little about future emissions, about the ongoing Norwegian effort to reduce climate gas emissions, or about its effect on sustainability. In this paper we propose an indicator that improves on these weaknesses. We present a forward looking climate indicator that in addition to historic data includes business as usual scenarios, different proposals for future domestic emissions, and national or international commitments and agreements. This indicator presents - in one graph - a broad diversity of views on how the climate challenge should be handled from now and into the future. This indicator-graph may contribute to a more transparent discussion of available policy options. (Author)

  3. The factor 4 in France: dividing by 4 greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunetiere, Jean-Rene; Alexandre, Sylvie; D'Aubreby, Marc; Debiesse, Georges; Guerin, Andre-Jean; Perret, Bernard; Schwartz, Dominique

    2013-02-01

    After a methodological presentation (reason for a sector-based approach, implemented method, global economic approaches and models), this voluminous report discusses the French commitments in terms of greenhouse gas emission and the monitoring system: commitment status and predictions, measurement sources and methods, emission levels and evolution trajectories, prospective approach. Then, the author address the different sectors: transports (current status of emissions, prospective studies, sub-sector issues), industry (current status of emissions and prospective, economic tools), agriculture, land uses and their changes and forest (emissions, prospective studies and emission evolution trajectories, specific issues), building (current status and objectives, issues related to housing and office building) and energy (prospective and choices for the future). A last chapter addresses inter-sector issues: biomass and CO 2 , land and urban planning, innovation or energy 2.0, evolution of behaviour (building use, mobility)

  4. Marine energy consumption, national economic activity, and greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ching-Chih

    2012-01-01

    The causal relationships among marine energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping, and economic growth for Kyoto Protocol Annex I countries for the period of 1990 to 2006 are discussed. The real gross domestic product is used as a proxy for economic activity. The United States is also discussed because it was the main global polluter before 2006. The co-integration methodology and an error-correction model are used to examine the causal relationships. The empirical results show that marine energy consumption and GDP are the main factors of increased GHG emissions in the short-run, and that economic activity significantly increased emissions in the long-run. Emissions from shipping are more closely related to marine energy consumption than to economic activity. Hence, policies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from marine shipping need to focus on greater energy efficiency in the design of ship engines and hulls. - Highlights: ► Energy consumption and GDP are the main causes to increased GHG emissions in the shipping industry. ► Emissions from shipping are more closely related to energy consumption than to GDP. ► Policies to mitigate GHG emissions from shipping industry should focus on the engine and hull design.

  5. Breakdown voltage reduction by field emission in multi-walled carbon nanotubes based ionization gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheed, M. Shuaib M.; Muti Mohamed, Norani; Arif Burhanudin, Zainal, E-mail: zainabh@petronas.com.my [Centre of Innovative Nanostructures and Nanodevices, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-03-24

    Ionization gas sensors using vertically aligned multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are demonstrated. The sharp tips of the nanotubes generate large non-uniform electric fields at relatively low applied voltage. The enhancement of the electric field results in field emission of electrons that dominates the breakdown mechanism in gas sensor with gap spacing below 14 μm. More than 90% reduction in breakdown voltage is observed for sensors with MWCNT and 7 μm gap spacing. Transition of breakdown mechanism, dominated by avalanche electrons to field emission electrons, as decreasing gap spacing is also observed and discussed.

  6. Potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through the use of mobility services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grischkat, Sylvie; Hunecke, Marcel; Böhler, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    gas emissions per person and year was found to be 78 kg in an optimistic scenario and 25 kg in a pessimistic scenario. Extrapolated to the German metropolitan population, behaviour-related measures alone could result in a 1.8 million ton (optimistic scenario) or 0.6 million ton (pessimistic scenario......This study evaluates potential for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the passenger transport sector achievable through the use of mobility services. Beside car-sharing and -pooling, six services targeted at improving and encouraging the use of urban public transportation were considered......) reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, respectively. In order to exploit this potential fully, however, target group specific information should be obtained and communication strategies developed, as addressed in this paper. This study further presents the limitation of reduction potential quantification...

  7. Marginal greenhouse gas emissions displacement of wind power in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, R. Camilla; Harrison, Gareth P.; Chick, John P.

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty over the effect of wind power on the operation of power systems, and the consequent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions displacement; this is used to project emissions reductions that inform energy policy. Currently, it is approximated as the average emissions of the whole system, despite an acknowledgement that wind will actually displace only the generators operating on the margin. This article presents a methodology to isolate the marginal emissions displacement of wind power from historical empirical data, taking into account the impact on the operating efficiency of coal and CCGT plants. For Great Britain over 2009–2014, it was found that marginal emissions displacement has generally been underestimated with, for example, the emissions displacement factor for wind being 21% higher than that the average emissions factor in 2010. The actual displacement depends upon the relative merit of coal and CCGT, with a greater discrepancy between marginal displacement and average emissions during more normal system operation, suggesting that policies to penalise high-carbon generation can increase the effectiveness of wind at reducing GHG emissions. Furthermore, it was also identified that wind power is almost as technically effective as demand-side reductions at decreasing GHG emissions from power generation. - Highlights: • Marginal emissions displacement was calculated from operational data for 2009–2014. • Existing estimates of emissions displacement are generally low. • Emissions displacement is a function of the relative merit of coal and CCGT plants. • Policies to penalise high-carbon generation should increase emissions displacement. • Wind almost as effective as demand-reduction at reducing emissions.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission quantification from wastewater treatment plants, using a tracer gas dispersion method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Plant-integrated methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission quantifications were performed at five Scandinavian wastewater treatment plants, using a ground-based remote sensing approach that combines a controlled release of tracer gas from the plant with downwind concentration measurements. CH4...... emission factors were between 1 and 21% of CH4 production, and between 0.2 and 3.2% of COD influent. The main CH4 emitting sources at the five plants were sludge treatment and energy production units. The lowest CH4 emission factors were obtained at plants with enclosed sludge treatment and storage units...... in international guidelines. This study showed that measured CH4 and N2O emission rates from wastewater treatment plants were plant-specific and that emission rates estimated using models in current guidelines, mainly meant for reporting emissions on the country scale, were unsuitable for Scandinavian plant...

  9. Experimental investigation on the influences of exhaust gas recirculation coupling with intake tumble on gasoline engine economy and emission performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Jianqin; Zhu, Guohui; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Jingping; Xia, Yan; Wang, Shuqian

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In-cylinder residual gas fraction almost increases linearly with exhaust gas recirculation rate. • Heat transfer loss and exhaust gas energy loss decrease with exhaust gas recirculation rate. • Engine indicated thermal efficiency can be increased by 4.29% at 1600 r/min and 2.94 bar. • The effective range of exhaust gas recirculation rate can be extended by intake tumble. - Abstract: To improve the economy and emission performance of gasoline engine under part load, the approach of exhaust gas recirculation coupling with intake tumble was investigated by bench testing. Based on a naturally aspirated gasoline engine, the sweeping test of exhaust gas recirculation rate was conducted in two intake modes (with/without intake tumble), and the parameters related to engine heat-work conversion process and emission performance were measured. Through comparing and analyzing the measured data, the effects of exhaust gas recirculation coupling with intake tumble on gasoline engine economy and emission performance were revealed. The results show that pumping loss decreases gradually while in-cylinder residual gas fraction increases linearly with the exhaust gas recirculation rate increasing; the high-pressure cycle efficiency ascends with exhaust gas recirculation rate increasing due to the decrease of heat transfer loss and exhaust gas energy loss. Thus, the improvement of indicated thermal efficiency is the superposition of double benefits of low-pressure cycle and high-pressure cycle. At 1600 r/min and 2.94 bar, the indicated thermal efficiency can be increased by 4.29%. With the increase of exhaust gas recirculation rate, nitrogen oxide emissions almost fall linearly, but hydrocarbon and carbonic oxide emissions have no obvious change in the effective range of exhaust gas recirculation rate. The biggest advantage of intake tumble is that it can extend the effective range of exhaust gas recirculation rate. As a result, the potential of energy

  10. Methodology for inventorying greenhouse gas emissions from global cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Christopher; Steinberger, Julia; Gasson, Barrie; Hansen, Yvonne; Hillman, Timothy; Havranek, Miroslav; Pataki, Diane; Phdungsilp, Aumnad; Ramaswami, Anu; Mendez, Gara Villalba

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology and data used to determine greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions attributable to ten cities or city-regions: Los Angeles County, Denver City and County, Greater Toronto, New York City, Greater London, Geneva Canton, Greater Prague, Barcelona, Cape Town and Bangkok. Equations for determining emissions are developed for contributions from: electricity; heating and industrial fuels; ground transportation fuels; air and marine fuels; industrial processes; and waste. Gasoline consumption is estimated using three approaches: from local fuel sales; by scaling from regional fuel sales; and from counts of vehicle kilometres travelled. A simplified version of an intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) method for estimating the GHG emissions from landfill waste is applied. Three measures of overall emissions are suggested: (i) actual emissions within the boundary of the city; (ii) single process emissions (from a life-cycle perspective) associated with the city's metabolism; and (iii) life-cycle emissions associated with the city's metabolism. The results and analysis of the study will be published in a second paper.

  11. Policy Considerations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Freshwater Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Mäkinen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging concern over greenhouse gas (GHG emissions from wetlands has prompted calls to address the climate impact of dams in climate policy frameworks. Existing studies indicate that reservoirs can be significant sources of emissions, particularly in tropical areas. However, knowledge on the role of dams in overall national emission levels and abatement targets is limited, which is often cited as a key reason for political inaction and delays in formulating appropriate policies. Against this backdrop, this paper discusses the current role of reservoir emissions in existing climate policy frameworks. The distance between a global impact on climate and a need for local mitigation measures creates a challenge for designing appropriate mechanisms to combat reservoir emissions. This paper presents a range of possible policy interventions at different scales that could help address the climate impact of reservoirs. Reservoir emissions need to be treated like other anthropogenic greenhouse gases. A rational treatment of the issue requires applying commonly accepted climate change policy principles as well as promoting participatory water management plans through integrated water resource management frameworks. An independent global body such as the UN system may be called upon to assess scientific information and develop GHG emissions policy at appropriate levels.

  12. Emission reductions through precombustion chamber design in a natural gas, lean burn engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, M.E.; King, S.R.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various precombustion chamber design, operating and control parameters on the exhaust emissions of a natural gas engine. Analysis of the results showed that engine-out total hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) can be reduced, relative to conventional methods, through prechamber design. More specifically, a novel staged prechamber yielded significant reductions in NO x and total hydrocarbon emissions by promoting stable prechamber and main chamber ignition under fuel-lean conditions. Precise fuel control was also critical when balancing low emissions and engine efficiency (i.e., fuel economy). The purpose of this paper is to identify and explain positive and deleterious effects of natural gas prechamber design on exhaust emissions

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions in China 2007: Inventory and input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.Q.; Zhang Bo

    2010-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 with the most recent statistics availability, a concrete inventory covering CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O is composed and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the emission embodiment in final consumption and international trade. The estimated total direct GHG emission amounts to 7456.12 Mt CO 2 -eq by the commonly referred IPCC global warming potentials, with 63.39% from energy-related CO 2 , 22.31% from non-energy-related CO 2 , 11.15% from CH 4 and 3.15% from N 2 O. Responsible for 81.32% of the total GHG emissions are the five sectors of the Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, with distinctive emission structures. The sector of Construction holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and consumption, and the emission embodied in gross capital formation is prominently more than those in other components of the final consumption characterized by extensive investment in contrast to limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with emissions embodied in exports of 3060.18 Mt CO 2 -eq, in magnitude up to 41.04% of the total direct emission.

  14. Better greenhouse gas emissions accounting for biofuels : A key to biofuels sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Marjan; Yue, Taotao

    2016-01-01

    Biofuels are promoted by governments as a replacement for fossil fuels in the transport sector. However, according to current scientific evidence, their use does not necessarily significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines issues related to the regulation of biofuels’

  15. Full-energy-chain analysis of greenhouse gas emissions for solar thermal electric power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, B.; Lawson, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Technical attributes and environmental impacts of solar thermal options for centralized electricity generation are discussed. In particular, the full-energy-chain, including embodied energy and energy production, is considered in relation to greenhouse gas emission arising from solar thermal electricity generation. Central receiver, parabolic dish, parabolic trough and solar pond systems are considered. (author)

  16. Effects of manure storage additivies on manure composition and greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Storage of dairy manure slurry allows for flexibility in the timing of land application of manure to reduce environmental impacts related to water quality. Yet, manure storage can increase greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions and cause operational issues due to the buildup of slurry ...

  17. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact of SCK

  18. Direct greenhouse gas emissions of the game industry in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Direct greenhouse gas emissions of the game industry in South Africa. ... Previous greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories did not include game as an emissions source. Recently game farming has ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...

  19. Exergy analysis of waste emissions from gas flaring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Saheed ISMAIL

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas flaring produces a stream of waste gases at high temperature and pressure which contains carbon monoxide, Hydrogen Sulphide etc. The resultant effect of which is detrimental to our planet and, consequently, to the life of both the living and the non-living things. It’s well known that gas flaring contributes in no small measure to the global warming. Exergy analysis is applied in this work to analyze waste emissions from gas flaring so as to have a model through which impact of gas flaring can be measured. The study considers both the thermo-mechanical exergy and the chemical exergy of these gases. Relevant data on gas flaring activities in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria between the periods of fifteen (15 years was obtained from the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC. A computer program (Exergy Calculator was developed based on the equations generated in the Model. Exergy associated with gas flaring activities in Nigeria between the periods of 1998 through 2012 was calculated. The results show that 1 mscf (in thousand cubic feet of flared gases generate 0.000041 MWh of energy leading to a value of 440158.607 MWh of energy for the period under review.The analysis provides important conclusions and recommendations for improving oil platforms operationsin in order to safeguard the environment, health of the populace, and maximize recovered exergy from gas flaring.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions from high demand, natural gas-intensive energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Since coal and oil emit 70% and 30% more CO 2 per unit of energy than natural gas (methane), fuel switching to natural gas is an obvious pathway to lower CO 2 emissions and reduced theorized greenhouse warming. However, methane is, itself, a strong greenhouse gas so the CO 2 advantages of natural gas may be offset by leaks in the natural gas recovery and supply system. Simple models of atmospheric CO 2 and methane are used to test this hypothesis for several natural gas-intensive energy scenarios, including the work of Ausubel et al (1988). It is found that the methane leaks are significant and may increase the total 'greenhouse effect' from natural gas-intensive energy scenarios by 10%. Furthermore, because methane is short-lived in the atmosphere, leaking methane from natural gas-intensive, high energy growth scenarios effectively recharges the concentration of atmospheric methane continuously. For such scenarios, the problem of methane leaks is even more serious. A second objective is to explore some high demand scenarios that describe the role of methane leaks in the greenhouse tradeoff between gas and coal as energy sources. It is found that the uncertainty in the methane leaks from the natural gas system are large enough to consume the CO 2 advantages from using natural gas instead of coal for 20% of the market share. (author)

  1. Possibilities for the reduction of CO2- and CH4-emissions of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muessig, S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of fossil fuels increases the portion of greenhouse gases, especially CO 2 and CH 4 . In this paper firstly the specific emission rates of these greenhouse gases for the various fuels are compared. Secondly possibilities for the reduction of CO 2 and CH 4 for natural gas which are relatively small anyhow are discussed. Thirdly the use of renewable energy within the gas industry and the ocean and into depleted reservoirs are discussed. It is shown that the efficient use of energy of the fossil fuel natural gas is most successful in all branches of gas consumption to decrease emission. Combined-cycle processes, cogeneration as well as modern domestic heating systems are described. Fuel cells and the application of hydrogen is shortly discussed. (orig.)

  2. Uncertainties in the Norwegian greenhouse gas emission inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flugsrud, Ketil; Hoem, Britta

    2011-11-15

    The national greenhouse gas (GHG) emission inventory is compiled from estimates based on emission factors and activity data and from direct measurements by plants. All these data and parameters will contribute to the overall inventory uncertainty. The uncertainties and probability distributions of the inventory input parameters have been assessed based on available data and expert judgements.Finally, the level and trend uncertainties of the national GHG emission inventory have been estimated using Monte Carlo simulation. The methods used in the analysis correspond to an IPCC tier 2 method, as described in the IPCC Good Practice Guidance (IPCC 2000) (IPCC 2000). Analyses have been made both excluding and including the sector LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry). The uncertainty analysis performed in 2011 is an update of the uncertainty analyses performed for the greenhouse gas inventory in 2006 and 2000. During the project we have been in contact with experts, and have collected information about uncertainty from them. Main focus has been on the source categories where changes have occured since the last uncertainty analysis was performed in 2006. This includes new methodology for several source categories (for example for solvents and road traffic) as well as revised uncertainty estimates. For the installations included in the emission trading system, new information from the annual ETS reports about uncertainty in activity data and CO2 emission factor (and N2O emission factor for nitric acid production) has been used. This has improved the quality of the uncertainty estimates for the energy and manufacturing sectors. The results show that the uncertainty level in the total calculated greenhouse gas emissions for 2009 is around 4 per cent. When including the LULUCF sector, the total uncertainty is around 17 per cent in 2009. The uncertainty estimate is lower now than previous analyses have shown. This is partly due to a considerable work made to improve

  3. Biomass energy: Sustainable solution for greenhouse gas emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadrul Islam, A. K. M.; Ahiduzzaman, M.

    2012-06-01

    Biomass is part of the carbon cycle. Carbon dioxide is produced after combustion of biomass. Over a relatively short timescale, carbon dioxide is renewed from atmosphere during next generation of new growth of green vegetation. Contribution of renewable energy including hydropower, solar, biomass and biofuel in total primary energy consumption in world is about 19%. Traditional biomass alone contributes about 13% of total primary energy consumption in the world. The number of traditional biomass energy users expected to rise from 2.5 billion in 2004 to 2.6 billion in 2015 and to 2.7 billion in 2030 for cooking in developing countries. Residential biomass demand in developing countries is projected to rise from 771 Mtoe in 2004 to 818 Mtoe in 2030. The main sources of biomass are wood residues, bagasse, rice husk, agro-residues, animal manure, municipal and industrial waste etc. Dedicated energy crops such as short-rotation coppice, grasses, sugar crops, starch crops and oil crops are gaining importance and market share as source of biomass energy. Global trade in biomass feedstocks and processed bioenergy carriers are growing rapidly. There are some drawbacks of biomass energy utilization compared to fossil fuels viz: heterogeneous and uneven composition, lower calorific value and quality deterioration due to uncontrolled biodegradation. Loose biomass also is not viable for transportation. Pelletization, briquetting, liquefaction and gasification of biomass energy are some options to solve these problems. Wood fuel production is very much steady and little bit increase in trend, however, the forest land is decreasing, means the deforestation is progressive. There is a big challenge for sustainability of biomass resource and environment. Biomass energy can be used to reduce greenhouse emissions. Woody biomass such as briquette and pellet from un-organized biomass waste and residues could be used for alternative to wood fuel, as a result, forest will be saved and

  4. Greenhouse gas emission measurement and economic analysis of Iran natural gas fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahsavari Alavijeh, H.; Kiyoumarsioskouei, A.; Asheri, M.H.; Naemi, S.; Shahsavari Alavije, H.; Basirat Tabrizi, H.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the natural gas fired power plants in Iran. The required data from natural gas fired power plants were gathered during 2008. The characteristics of thirty two gas turbine power plants and twenty steam power plants have been measured. Their emission factor values were then compared with the standards of Energy Protection Agency, Euro Union and World Bank. Emission factors of gas turbine and steam power plants show that gas turbine power plants have a better performance than steam power plants. For economic analysis, fuel consumption and environmental damages caused by the emitted pollutants are considered as cost functions; and electricity sales revenue are taken as benefit functions. All of these functions have been obtained according to the capacity factor. Total revenue functions show that gas turbine and steam power plants are economically efficient at 98.15% and 90.89% of capacity factor, respectively; this indicates that long operating years of power plants leads to reduction of optimum capacity factor. The stated method could be implemented to assess the economic status of a country’s power plants where as efficient capacity factor close to one means that power plant works in much better condition. - Highlights: • CO 2 and NO x emissions of Iran natural gas fired power plants have been studied. • CO 2 and NO x emission factors are compared with EPA, EU and World Bank standards. • Costs and benefit as economic functions are obtained according to capacity factor. • Maximum economic profit is obtained for gas turbine and steam power plants. • Investment in CO 2 reduction is recommended instead of investment in NO x reduction

  5. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions from poultry fat biodiesel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Andreas; Bikker, Paul; Herrmann, Ivan Tengbjerg

    2012-01-01

    This article attempts to answer the question: What will most likely happen in terms of emitted greenhouse gases if the use of poultry fat for making biodiesel used in transportation is increased? Through a well-to-wheel assessment, several different possible scenarios are assessed, showing...... that under average conditions, the use of poultry fat biodiesel instead of diesel leads to a slight reduction (6%) in greenhouse gas emissions. The analysis shows that poultry fat is already used for different purposes and using poultry fat for biodiesel will therefore remove the poultry fat from its...... original use. This implies that even though the use of biodiesel is assumed to displace petrochemical diesel, the ‘original user’ of the poultry fat will have to find a substitute, whose production leads to a greenhouse gas emissions comparable to what is saved through driving on poultry fat biodiesel...

  6. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P. [GE-Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Gilmer, L. [Equilon Enterprises, Bellaire, TX (United States); Seebold, J.G. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States); Lev-On, M. [ARCO, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO{sub x} emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  7. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from gas-fired combustion sources: emissions and the effects of design and fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, G.C.; McGrath, T.P.; Gilmer, L.; Seebold, J.G.; Lev-On, M.; Hunt, T.

    2001-01-01

    Air emissions from gas-fired combustion devices such as boilers, process heaters, gas turbines and stationary reciprocating engines contain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) subjected to consideration under the federal clean air act (CAA). This work presents a recently completed major research project to develop an understanding of HAP emissions from gas-fired boilers and process heaters and new HAP emission factors based on field emission tests of gas-fired external combustion devices used in the petroleum industry. The effect of combustion system design and operating parameters on HAP emissions determined by both field and research tests are discussed. Data from field tests of gas-fired petroleum industry boilers and heaters generally show very low emission levels of organic HAPs. A comparison of the emission data for boilers and process heaters, including units with and without various forms of NO x emission controls, showed no significant difference in organic HAP emission characteristics due to process or burner design. This conclusion is also supported by the results of research tests with different burner designs. Based on field tests of units fired with natural gas and various petroleum industry process gases and research tests in which gas composition was intentionally varied, organic HAP emissions were not determined to be significantly affected by the gas composition. Research data indicate that elevated organic HAP emission levels are found only under extreme operating conditions (starved air or high excess air combustion) associated with poor combustion. (author)

  8. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting through Integrated Business Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D.

    2010-12-01

    Given the risks posed by global climate change, it is important that society as a whole responds in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gas (GHG) into the atmosphere. Whether you are an environmentalist, a small-to-medium business owner, or a corporate risk manager - the need to act is now in order to reduce future environmental damage. While this sounds overwhelming, it’s really quite simple. Carbon Management is the process of understanding where your commercial activities generate GHG emissions, so that you can reduce those emissions in a planned, financially responsible way. Specifically, governments have the capacity to lead in this area and reduce these costs throughout their cities. Village Green Global develops and manages demonstration projects for the government that act as exemplar models to assist in gathering verifiable GHG reporting within selected regions and cities. This model highlights opportunities for the capture of conservation and energy credit commodities for local financial markets to use in global trading. Information gathered will prepare government for the ongoing changing global requirements and mitigate risk of unnecessary market exposure and cost; allow government to take a measured, responsible approach to its environmental responsibilities; reduce operational costs, improving the government’s asset utilization and more effectively streamlining its operations; and establish the government as responsible and proactive due to its creative approach to environmental challenges. Village Green Global’s government partnership model aims to deliver new jobs and technologies in the emerging “green economy;” a linkage to education at both at College and University levels, then assisting industry and community needs; and the involvement of industry leaders ensures training is targeted to job creation and local capacity building opportunities, in turn creating new skills and career pathways for the displaced workforce from the

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from on-site wastewater treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somlai-Haase, Celia; Knappe, Jan; Gill, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Nearly one third of the Irish population relies on decentralized domestic wastewater treatment systems which involve the discharge of effluent into the soil via a percolation area (drain field). In such systems, wastewater from single households is initially treated on-site either by a septic tank and an additional packaged secondary treatment unit, in which the influent organic matter is converted into carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by microbial mediated processes. The effluent from the tanks is released into the soil for further treatment in the unsaturated zone where additional CO2 and CH4 are emitted to the atmosphere as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) from the partial denitrification of nitrate. Hence, considering the large number of on-site systems in Ireland and internationally, these are potential significant sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and yet have received almost no direct field measurement. Here we present the first attempt to quantify and qualify the production and emissions of GHGs from a septic tank system serving a single house in the County Westmeath, Ireland. We have sampled the water for dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O and measured the gas flux from the water surface in the septic tank. We have also carried out long-term flux measurements of CO2 from the drain field, using an automated soil gas flux system (LI-8100A, Li-Cor®) covering a whole year semi-continuously. This has enabled the CO2 emissions from the unsaturated zone to be correlated against different meteorological parameters over an annual cycle. In addition, we have integrated an ultraportable GHG analyser (UGGA, Los Gatos Research Inc.) into the automated soil gas flux system to measure CH4 flux. Further, manual sampling has also provided a better understanding of N2O emissions from the septic tank system.

  10. Terahertz-Radiation-Enhanced Emission of Fluorescence from Gas Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingle; Zhang, X.-C.

    2009-01-01

    We report the study of femtosecond laser-induced air plasma fluorescence under the illumination of terahertz (THz) pulses. Semiclassical modeling and experimental verification indicate that time-resolved THz radiation-enhanced emission of fluorescence is dominated by the electron kinetics and the electron-impact excitation of gas molecules or ions. We demonstrate that the temporal waveform of the THz field could be retrieved from the transient enhanced fluorescence, making omnidirectional, coherent detection available for THz time-domain spectroscopy.

  11. Globally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Bouillon, Steven

    2017-04-01

    The relevance of inland waters to global biogeochemical cycles is increasingly recognized, and of particular importance is their contribution of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The latter remain largely unreported in African inland waters. Here we report dissolved CO2, CH4 and N2O from 12 rivers in Sub-Saharan Africa acquired during >30 field expeditions and additional seasonally resolved sampling at >30 sites between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from reported gas transfer velocity values, and upscaled using available spatial datasets, with an estimated uncertainty of about ±19%. CO2 equivalent emissions ( 0.4±0.1 PgC yr-1) match 2/3 of the overall net carbon sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo, the putative total emission ( 0.9±0.1 PgC yr-1) is about half of the global oceanic or land carbon sinks. In-situ respiration supported <14% of riverine CO2 emissions, which must therefore largely be driven by mineralization in wetlands or uplands. Riverine CO2 and CH4 emissions were directly correlated to wetland coverage and aboveground vegetation biomass, implying that future changes in wetland and upland vegetation cover will strongly impact GHG emissions from African inland waters.

  12. Opportunities for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in tropical peatlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdiyarso, D; Hergoualc'h, K; Verchot, L V

    2010-11-16

    The upcoming global mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries should include and prioritize tropical peatlands. Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are rapidly being converted into production systems by introducing perennial crops for lucrative agribusiness, such as oil-palm and pulpwood plantations, causing large greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Guidelines for GHG Inventory on Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Uses provide an adequate framework for emissions inventories in these ecosystems; however, specific emission factors are needed for more accurate and cost-effective monitoring. The emissions are governed by complex biophysical processes, such as peat decomposition and compaction, nutrient availability, soil water content, and water table level, all of which are affected by management practices. We estimate that total carbon loss from converting peat swamp forests into oil palm is 59.4 ± 10.2 Mg of CO(2) per hectare per year during the first 25 y after land-use cover change, of which 61.6% arise from the peat. Of the total amount (1,486 ± 183 Mg of CO(2) per hectare over 25 y), 25% are released immediately from land-clearing fire. In order to maintain high palm-oil production, nitrogen inputs through fertilizer are needed and the magnitude of the resulting increased N(2)O emissions compared to CO(2) losses remains unclear.

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions from cities and regions: International implications revealed by Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Paul G.; Chow, Alice S.Y.; Symons, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The diversity of greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting methodologies currently utilized by cities around the world make meaningful comparisons of their emissions almost impossible. Consequently, the 2010 United Nations International Standard for Determining Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Cities promotes a “harmonized protocol for quantifying the GHG emissions attributable to cities and local regions.” The UN's common standard has important implications for comparison, benchmarking and policy assessment related to energy policies. This paper uses Hong Kong as a case study to illustrate these implications. Hong Kong's per capita contribution to GHG emissions are among the highest in the world, yet the local government's official statistics indicate emissions that are far below those reported by most affluent economies. This discrepancy arises from a reporting methodology that does not require inclusion of GHG emissions linked to consumption of imported goods or emissions from aviation and shipping. The Hong Kong case reveals that current inventories do not provide sufficient information to guide policymaking related to energy and climate change. They also do not provide adequate information for comparing policies of cities internationally. Alternative emissions-reporting standards that focus more on pollution from consumption will create avenues for more effective climate-related policies. - Highlights: ► Flawed GHG inventory methodologies can lead cities to adopt misguided policies. ► Diverse GHG inventory methodologies make meaningful comparisons among cities difficult. ► A Hong Kong case study highlights that GHG inventories can misrepresent cities' climate impacts. ► City inventories often exclude GHG emissions linked to imports, aviation and shipping. ► The International Standard for Determining GHG Emissions for Cities can assist climate policy.

  14. ICT and greenhouse gas emissions; IKT og klimagassutslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    ICT can go from being a part of the climate challenge to be an important part of the solution by simplify, rationalize and replace a variety of features and services. ICT's contribute through production and operation for approx. 2.5 % of global greenhouse gas emissions. At the same time estimates show that ICT could help to reduce total greenhouse gas emissions by up to 15 % by 2020 through a series of measures. ICT can, for example. contribute to reduce travel activity through remote collaboration, the transition from material to virtual products and by greater energy efficiency in buildings and vehicles. Through remote collaboration, green tender rounds and change of focus from products to services, can authorities reduce their own emissions. In addition, the authorities go ahead as good examples by illustrating how environment benefits from governmental ICT investments. If we assume that video conferencing can replace 1 of 5 flights among the 140 000 state employees, this can lead to a reducted emission of 14 600 tonnes of CO{sub 2} per year. (AG)

  15. State and Territory Greenhouse Gas Emissions. An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This document is a summary of the latest available estimates of greenhouse gas emissions for the States and Territories. They are taken from the national inventory and show emissions for 2002, the latest year for which national statistics on fuel and electricity consumption are available. The report shows that Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions in 2002 amounted to 541.8 million tonnes. The State and Territory breakdown was: New South Wales: 151.5 million tonnes (Mt); Queensland: 145.1 Mt; Victoria: 117.0 Mt; Western Australia: 70.4 Mt; South Australia: 30.9 Mt; Northern Territory: 17.7 Mt; Tasmania: 7.2 Mt; ACT: 1.3 Mt. The State and Territory inventories are the first of what will be an annual series. The national inventory and State and Territory inventories are all prepared according to the international rules and procedures applicable to Australia's Kyoto 108% emissions target. The national inventory undergoes regular independent international review

  16. Methodology for reporting 2011 B.C. public sector greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-12-15

    In order to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, British Columbia promulgated legislation under which the public sector is expected to become carbon neutral starting in 2010 and provincial public sector organizations (PSOs) must report their emissions annually. The aim of this report is to present the emission factors and methodology for calculating and reporting PSO emissions used in 2011. Emission factors represent the amount of greenhouse gas emitted from a specific activity. This document provides emission factors for all in scope categories: stationary sources, indirect emissions, mobile sources and business travel; it also presents a sample calculation of greenhouse gas emissions. The government of British Columbia developed SMARTTool, a web-based program which calculates and reports emissions from stationary sources, indirect emissions and mobile sources. In addition the SMART Travel Emissions Calculator was created to report business travel greenhouse gas emissions through SMARTTool.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from aviation and marine transportation : mitigation potential and policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This paper provides an overview of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions : from aviation and marine transportation and the various mitigation options to reduce these emissions. Reducing global emissions by 50 to 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050reduct...

  18. Incorporating time-corrected life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in vehicle regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Alissa; Price, Lindsay

    2012-03-06

    Beginning with model year 2012, light-duty vehicles sold in the U.S. are subject to new rules that regulate tailpipe greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on grams of CO(2)-equivalent per mile (gCO(2)e/mi). However, improvements in vehicle technology, lower-carbon fuels, and improvements in GHG accounting practices which account for distortions related to emissions timing all contribute to shifting a greater portion of life cycle emissions away from the vehicle use phase and toward the vehicle production phase. This article proposes methods for calculating time-corrected life cycle emissions intensity on a gCO(2)e/mi basis and explores whether regulating only tailpipe CO(2) could lead to an undesirable regulatory outcome, where technologies and vehicle architectures with higher life cycle GHGs are favored over technologies with lower life cycle emissions but with higher tailpipe GHG emissions. Two life cycle GHG assessments for future vehicles are presented in addition to time correction factors for production and end-of-life GHG emissions. Results demonstrate that, based on the vehicle designs considered here, there is a potential for favoring vehicles with higher life cycle emissions if only tailpipe emissions are regulated; moreover, the application of time correction factors amplifies the importance of production emissions and the potential for a perverse outcome.

  19. Bridging greenhouse gas emissions and renewable energy deployment target: Comparative assessment of China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittal, Shivika; Dai, Hancheng; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • India and China’s latest renewable energy targets toward 2030 are assessed. • Carbon emission cap is in line with 2-degree target and governmental commitment. • The impacts of renewable energy on emissions and mitigation costs are quantified. - Abstract: Renewable energy has a critical role in limiting the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper assesses the implication of aligning renewable energy deployment target with national emission reduction target for mitigation cost. The assessment methodology uses Asia-Pacific Integrated Assessment/computable general equilibrium (AIM/CGE) model to determine the mitigation cost in terms of GDP and welfare loss under alternative renewable targets in different climate-constrained scenarios. A range of country-specific emission constraints is taken to address the uncertainties related to global emission pathway and emission entitlement scheme. Comparative results show that China needs to increase its share of non-fossil fuel significantly in the primary energy mix to achieve the stringent emission reduction target compared to India. The mitigation cost in terms of economic and welfare loss can be reduced by increasing the penetration of the renewable energy to achieve the same emission reduction target. The modeling results show that coordinated national climate and renewable energy policies help to achieve the GHG emission reduction target in an efficient and cost-effective manner.

  20. Contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas emissions. An estimation based on typical farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Martin; Ndambi, Asaah; Hemme, Torsten; Latacz-Lohmann, Uwe

    2012-02-01

    Studies on the contribution of milk production to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are rare (FAO 2010) and often based on crude data which do not appropriately reflect the heterogeneity of farming systems. This article estimates GHG emissions from milk production in different dairy regions of the world based on a harmonised farm data and assesses the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions. The methodology comprises three elements: (1) the International Farm Comparison Network (IFCN) concept of typical farms and the related globally standardised dairy model farms representing 45 dairy regions in 38 countries; (2) a partial life cycle assessment model for estimating GHG emissions of the typical dairy farms; and (3) standard regression analysis to estimate GHG emissions from milk production in countries for which no typical farms are available in the IFCN database. Across the 117 typical farms in the 38 countries analysed, the average emission rate is 1.50 kg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)-eq.)/kg milk. The contribution of milk production to the global anthropogenic emissions is estimated at 1.3 Gt CO(2)-eq./year, accounting for 2.65% of total global anthropogenic emissions (49 Gt; IPCC, Synthesis Report for Policy Maker, Valencia, Spain, 2007). We emphasise that our estimates of the contribution of milk production to global GHG emissions are subject to uncertainty. Part of the uncertainty stems from the choice of the appropriate methods for estimating emissions at the level of the individual animal.

  1. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from China's cities: Case study of Suzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hongsheng; Wang, Yunxia; Wang, Haikun; Liu, Miaomiao; Zhang, Yanxia; Zhang, Rongrong; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the factors driving greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from cities is crucial to mitigating China's anthropogenic emissions. In this paper, the main drivers increasing GHG emissions from the Chinese city of Suzhou between 2005 and 2010 were identified and quantitatively analyzed using the Kaya identity and the log-mean Divisia index method. We found that economy and population were the major drivers of GHG emissions in Suzhou, having contributed 162.20% and 109.04%, respectively, to the increase in emissions. A decline in carbon intensity, which was caused by the declining energy intensity and an adjustment to the mixture of power and industrial structures, was the major determinant and accounted for a reduction of 171.24% in GHG emissions. Slowing and maintaining healthy growth rates of economy and population could be the primary and most effective means if Suzhou tries to curb the total emissions over the short term. It may be more realistic for Suzhou to control emissions by optimizing the economic structure for low-carbon industrial development because of the city's relative high energy requirements and low potential to mitigate GHGs by adjusting the energy mixture. - Highlights: • Per capita carbon emissions in Suzhou kept stable at 15 tons/year during period 2005–2010. • Slowing down growth rates of GDP and population could effectively control Suzhou's emissions. • Low carbon development policies were also recommended for other Chinese cities

  2. NOAA Mobile Laboratory Measures Oil and Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, J. D.; Petron, G.; Dube, W. P.; Edwards, P. M.; Brown, S. S.; Geiger, F.; Patrick, L.; Crepinsek, S.; Chen, H.; Miller, B. R.; Montzka, S. A.; Lang, P. M.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Sweeney, C.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Wolter, S.; Williams, J.; Jordan, A.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    A van capable of continuous real time measurements of CH4 , CO2, CO, Water Vapor, Ozone, NO, NO2, Volatile Organic Compounds VOCs including aromatics and other traces gases was driven in the oil and gas fields of the Uintah Basin in northeastern Utah. Compressor Stations, processing plants, oil and gas well heads. Separators, condensate tanks, evaporation pond disposal facilities, holding tanks, hydraulic fracturing sites, gas pipelines and more were studied using the van. The mobile measurements provide a powerful tool to get to the source of the emissions and reveal the unique chemical signature of each of the stages and components of oil and gas production as well as the overall basin and background gas concentrations. In addition to a suite of gas analyzers, the van includes a meteorological system (temperature, humidity, and wind speed and direction), GPS tracking, flask sampling system and a batter power system. Aspects of the vans hardware, sampling methods and operations are discussed along with a few highlights of the measurements.

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions from Thailand’s transport sector: Trends and mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongthanaisawan, Jakapong; Sorapipatana, Chumnong

    2013-01-01

    Rapid growth of population and economy during the past two decades has resulted in continuing growth of transport’s oil demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The objectives of this study are to examine pattern and growth in energy demand as well as related GHG emissions from the transport sector and to analyze potential pathways of energy demand and GHG emissions reduction from this sector of the measures being set by the Thai Government. A set of econometric models has been developed to estimate the historical trend of energy demand and GHG emissions in the transport sector during 1989–2007 and to forecast future trends to 2030. Two mitigation option scenarios of fuel switching and energy efficiency options have been designed to analyze pathways of energy consumption and GHG emissions reduction potential in Thailand’s transport sector compared with the baseline business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, which assumed to do nothing influences the long-term trends of transport energy demand. It has been found that these two mitigation options can reduce the GHG emissions differently. The fuel-switching option could significantly reduce the amount of GHG emissions in a relatively short time frame, albeit it will be limited by its supply resources, whereas the energy efficiency option is more effective for GHG emissions mitigation in the long term. Therefore, both measures should be implemented simultaneously for both short and long term mitigation effects in order to more effectively achieve GHG emissions reduction target.

  4. Emission characterization and evaluation of natural gas-fueled cogeneration microturbines and internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Aldo; Chicco, Gianfranco; Genon, Giuseppe; Mancarella, Pierluigi

    2008-01-01

    The increasing diffusion of small-scale energy systems within the distributed generation (DG) paradigm is raising the need for studying the environmental impact due to the different DG solutions in order to assess their sustainability. Addressing the environmental impact calls for building specific models for studying both local and global emissions. In this framework, the adoption of natural gas-fueled DG cogeneration technologies may provide, as a consequence of cogeneration enhanced overall energy efficiency and of natural gas relatively low carbon content, a significant reduction of global impact in terms of CO 2 emissions with respect to the separate production of electricity and heat. However, a comprehensive evaluation of the DG alternatives should take into account as well the impact due to the presence of plants spread over the territory that could increase the local pollution, in particular due to CO and NO x , and thus could worsen the local air quality. This paper provides an overview on the characterization of the emissions from small-scale natural gas-fueled cogeneration systems, with specific reference to the DG technologies nowadays most available in the market, namely, microturbines and internal combustion engines. The corresponding local and global environmental impacts are evaluated by using the emission balance approach. A numerical case study with two representative machines highlights their different emission characteristics, also considering the partial-load emission performance

  5. Simulating the Impact of Carbon Taxes on Greenhouse Gas Emission and Nutrition in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Revoredo-Giha

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions associated with food consumption have become particularly pertinent issues given recent warnings that the planet recently has experienced its hottest year. One way proposed to reduce those emissions is through a carbon consumption taxes. This study uses consumption, nutrient and GHG emission data to estimate the impact of two ad-valorem taxes: one applied by food category and another by the carbon emission of the products. The results suggest that the carbon consumption tax scenarios would reduce GHG emissions by a greater quantity relative to the ad-valorem tax scenario; however, the intake of important nutrients will also decrease in these scenarios. Therefore, creating an environmentally sustainable and nutritious diet through taxation is challenging and requires compromise between the nutrition and environmental sustainability.

  6. Intertemporal Permit Trading for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiby, P.; Rubin, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper integrates two themes in the intertemporal permit literature through the construction of an intertemporal banking system for a pollutant that creates both stock and flow damages. A permit banking system for the special case of a pollutant that only causes stock damages is also developed. This latter, simpler case corresponds roughly to the greenhouse gas emission reduction regime proposed by the U.S. Department of State as a means of fulfilling the U.S. commitment to the Framework Convention on Climate Change. This paper shows that environmental regulators can achieve the socially optimal level of emissions and output through time by setting the correct total sum of allowable emissions, and specifying the correct intertemporal trading ratio for banking and borrowing. For the case of greenhouse gases, we show that the optimal growth rate of permit prices, and therefore the optimal intertemporal trading rate, has the closed-form solution equal to the ratio of current marginal stock damages to the discounted future value of marginal stock damages less the decay rate of emissions in the atmosphere. Given a non-optimal negotiated emission path we then derive a permit banking system that has the potential to lower net social costs by adjusting the intertemporal trading ratio taking into account the behavior of private agents. We use a simple numerical simulation model to illustrate the potential gains from various possible banking systems. 24 refs

  7. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottrill, C.; Liverman, D.; Boykoff, M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors—such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities—have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO2e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO2e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO2e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  8. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bottrill, C [Centre for Environmental Strategy, School of Engineering (D3), University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Liverman, D [Institute of the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Boykoff, M, E-mail: c.bottrill@surrey.ac.u, E-mail: liverman@u.arizona.ed, E-mail: boykoff@colorado.ed [CIRES Center for Science and Technology Policy, Environmental Studies and Geography, University of Colorado - Boulder, 1333 Grandview Ave, Campus Box 488, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO{sub 2}e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  9. Carbon soundings: greenhouse gas emissions of the UK music industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottrill, C; Liverman, D; Boykoff, M

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, questions regarding how to reduce human contributions to climate change have become more commonplace and non-nation state actors-such as businesses, non-government organizations, celebrities-have increasingly become involved in climate change mitigation and adaptation initiatives. For these dynamic and rapidly expanding spaces, this letter provides an accounting of the methods and findings from a 2007 assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the UK music industry. The study estimates that overall GHG emissions associated with the UK music market are approximately 540 000 t CO 2 e per annum. Music recording and publishing accounted for 26% of these emissions (138 000 t CO 2 e per annum), while three-quarters (74%) derived from activities associated with live music performances (400 000 t CO 2 e per annum). These results have prompted a group of music industry business leaders to design campaigns to reduce the GHG emissions of their supply chains. The study has also provided a basis for ongoing in-depth research on CD packaging, audience travel, and artist touring as well as the development of a voluntary accreditation scheme for reducing GHG emissions from activities of the UK music industry.

  10. Upscaling of greenhouse gas emissions in upland forestry following clearfell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toet, Sylvia; Keane, Ben; Yamulki, Sirwan; Blei, Emanuel; Gibson-Poole, Simon; Xenakis, Georgios; Perks, Mike; Morison, James; Ineson, Phil

    2016-04-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions caused by forest management activities are limited. Management such as clearfelling may, however, have major impacts on the GHG balance of forests through effects of soil disturbance, increased water table, and brash and root inputs. Besides carbon dioxide (CO2), the biogenic GHGs nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) may also contribute to GHG emissions from managed forests. Accurate flux estimates of all three GHGs are therefore necessary, but, since GHG emissions usually show large spatial and temporal variability, in particular CH4 and N2O fluxes, high-frequency GHG flux measurements and better understanding of their controls are central to improve process-based flux models and GHG budgets at multiple scales. In this study, we determined CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions following felling in a mature Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) stand in an upland forest in northern England. High-frequency measurements were made along a transect using a novel, automated GHG chamber flux system ('SkyLine') developed at the University of York. The replicated, linear experiment aimed (1) to quantify GHG emissions from three main topographical features at the clearfell site, i.e. the ridges on which trees had been planted, the hollows in between and the drainage ditches, and (2) to determine the effects of the green-needle component of the discarded brash. We also measured abiotic soil and climatic factors alongside the 'SkyLine' GHG flux measurements to identify drivers of the observed GHG emissions. All three topographic features were overall sources of GHG emissions (in CO2 equivalents), and, although drainage ditches are often not included in studies, GHG emissions per unit area were highest from ditches, followed by ridges and lowest in hollows. The CO2 emissions were most important in the GHG balance of ridges and hollows, but CH4 emissions were very high from the drainage ditches, contributing to over 50% of their overall net GHG emissions

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions in Norway: do carbon taxes work?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruvoll, Annegrete; Larsen, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, Norway has carried out an ambitious climate policy. The main policy tool is a relatively high carbon tax, which was implemented already in 1991. Data for the development in CO 2 emissions since then provide a unique opportunity to evaluate carbon taxes as a policy tool. To reveal the driving forces behind the changes in the three most important climate gases, CO 2 , methane and N 2 O in the period 1990-1999, we decompose the actually observed emissions changes, and use an applied general equilibrium simulation to look into the specific effect of carbon taxes. Although total emissions have increased, we find a significant reduction in emissions per unit of GDP over the period due to reduced energy intensity, changes in the energy mix and reduced process emissions. Despite considerable taxes and price increases for some fuel-types, the carbon tax effect has been modest. While the partial effect from lower energy intensity and energy mix changes was a reduction in CO 2 emissions of 14 percent, the carbon taxes contributed to only 2 percent reduction. This relatively small effect relates to extensive tax exemptions and relatively inelastic demand in the sectors in which the tax is actually implemented

  12. Assessing fugitive emissions of CH4 from high-pressure gas pipelines in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, S.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Almond, S.; Boothroyd, I.

    2016-12-01

    Concern over the greenhouse gas impact of the exploitation of unconventional natural gas from shale deposits has caused a spotlight to be shone on to the entire hydrocarbon industry. Numerous studies have developed life-cycle emissions inventories to assess the impact that hydraulic fracturing has upon greenhouse gas emissions. Incorporated within life-cycle assessments are transmission and distribution losses, including infrastructure such as pipelines and compressor stations that pressurise natural gas for transport along pipelines. Estimates of fugitive emissions from transmission, storage and distribution have been criticized for reliance on old data from inappropriate sources (1970s Russian gas pipelines). In this study, we investigate fugitive emissions of CH4 from the UK high pressure national transmission system. The study took two approaches. Firstly, CH4 concentration is detected by driving along roads bisecting high pressure gas pipelines and also along an equivalent distance along a route where no high pressure gas pipeline was nearby. Five pipelines and five equivalent control routes were driven and the test was that CH4 measurements, when adjusted for distance and wind speed, should be greater on any route with a pipe than any route without a pipe. Secondly, 5 km of a high pressure gas pipeline and 5 km of equivalent farmland, were walked and soil gas (above the pipeline where present) was analysed every 7 m using a tunable diode laser. When wind adjusted 92 km of high pressure pipeline and 72 km of control route were drive over a 10 day period. When wind and distance adjusted CH4 fluxes were significantly greater on routes with a pipeline than those without. The smallest leak detectable was 3% above ambient (1.03 relative concentration) with any leaks below 3% above ambient assumed ambient. The number of leaks detected along the pipelines correlate to the estimated length of pipe joints, inferring that there are constant fugitive CH4 emissions from

  13. Geostatistical modeling of the gas emission zone and its in-place gas content for Pittsburgh-seam mines using sequential Gaussian simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C.O.; Olea, R.A.; Goodman, G.

    2012-01-01

    Determination of the size of the gas emission zone, the locations of gas sources within, and especially the amount of gas retained in those zones is one of the most important steps for designing a successful methane control strategy and an efficient ventilation system in longwall coal mining. The formation of the gas emission zone and the potential amount of gas-in-place (GIP) that might be available for migration into a mine are factors of local geology and rock properties that usually show spatial variability in continuity and may also show geometric anisotropy. Geostatistical methods are used here for modeling and prediction of gas amounts and for assessing their associated uncertainty in gas emission zones of longwall mines for methane control.This study used core data obtained from 276 vertical exploration boreholes drilled from the surface to the bottom of the Pittsburgh coal seam in a mining district in the Northern Appalachian basin. After identifying important coal and non-coal layers for the gas emission zone, univariate statistical and semivariogram analyses were conducted for data from different formations to define the distribution and continuity of various attributes. Sequential simulations performed stochastic assessment of these attributes, such as gas content, strata thickness, and strata displacement. These analyses were followed by calculations of gas-in-place and their uncertainties in the Pittsburgh seam caved zone and fractured zone of longwall mines in this mining district. Grid blanking was used to isolate the volume over the actual panels from the entire modeled district and to calculate gas amounts that were directly related to the emissions in longwall mines.Results indicated that gas-in-place in the Pittsburgh seam, in the caved zone and in the fractured zone, as well as displacements in major rock units, showed spatial correlations that could be modeled and estimated using geostatistical methods. This study showed that GIP volumes may

  14. Net greenhouse gas emissions at Eastmain-1 reservoir, Quebec, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tremblay, Alain; Bastien, Julie; Bonneville, Marie-Claude; del Giorgio, Paul; Demarty, Maud; Garneau, Michelle; Helie, Jean-Francois; Pelletier, Luc; Prairie, Yves; Roulet, Nigel; Strachan, Ian; Teodoru, Cristian

    2010-09-15

    The growing concern regarding the long-term contribution of freshwater reservoirs to atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG), led Hydro-Quebec, to study net GHG emissions from Eastmain 1 reservoir, which are the emissions related to the creation of a reservoir minus those that would have been emitted or absorbed by the natural systems over a 100-year period. This large study was realized in collaboration with University du Quebec a Montreal, McGill University and Environnement IIlimite Inc. This is a world premiere and the net GHG emissions of EM-1 will be presented in details.

  15. Indicators for Danish greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 to 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyck, E.; Nielsen, Malene; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Winther, M.; Hoffmann, L.; Thomsen, M.

    2009-12-15

    The indicators defined according to the obligations under decisions of the EU Monitoring Mechanism have been worked out for 1990-2007. Discussions and comments on the definitions and the guidance of the indicators and their numerator and denominator were worked out. For many indicators the definitions and guidance were clear, for some indicators further text as definition and guidance would have been appropriate. Explanations on the data collection for the indicators for Denmark are given in this report. For the greenhouse gas emissions the source is the Danish inventories and the Danish inventory databases. For Economic data the source is Eurostat and for building data the source is Statistics Denmark. Only the energy, industry and transport sectors and only emissions of CO{sub 2} are covered by the indicators defined. A major result is that the main indicator (macro indicator 1) shows that the steady increase of gross domestic product is decoupled from the trend of the Danish national emissions of CO{sub 2}, since the indicator (the emissions divided by the GDP) in 2005-2007 decreased by 23-30 % compared to 1990. This decrease is mainly caused by higher efficiency in the heat and electricity production, a gradual shift to lesser CO{sub 2} emitting fuels, e.g. from coal to gas, and an increased use of biomass fuels. An important indicator for the industry sector is the CO{sub 2} emission over gross value added (priority indicator 4). The overall trend is a decrease from 1996 to 2007 after slightly fluctuating levels for the years 1990 to 1996. The rather steady increase of gross value added of industry, in 2007 27% above the 1990 level, simultaneously with an increase of CO{sub 2} emission of 5% only, is as for the macro indicator a decoupling. This causes the indicator in 2007 to be at 83 % of the 1990 level. The change to lower emitting fuels plays a role probably interplaying with the changes in industry structure towards less energy demanding industry. For

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    by a person in Germany or Austria (10.6 t CO2e/p/a, UBA, 2016). The results indicate that GHG emissions from WWTP have at global scale a small impact, as also highlighted by the Austrian national inventory report (NIR, 2015), where the estimated CO2e emissions from WWTPs account for only 0.23% of the total CO2e emission in Austria. References IPCC (2006). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Prepared by the National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Program, Eggleston H.S., Buendia L., Miwa K., Ngara T. and Anabe K. (eds). Published: IGES, Japan. http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/2006gl/. NIR (2015). Austria's National Inventory Report 2015. Submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and under the Kyoto Protocol. Reports, Band 0552, ISBN: 978-3-99004-364-6, Umweltbundesamt, Wien. Parravicini V., Valkova T., Haslinger J., Saracevic E., Winkelbauer A., Tauber J., Svardal K., Hohenblum P., Clara M., Windhofer G., Pazdernik K., Lampert C. (2015). Reduktionspotential bei den Lachgasemissionen aus Kläranlagen durch Optimierung des Betriebes (ReLaKO). The research project was financially supported by the Ministry for agriculture, forestry, Environment and Water Management. Project leader: TU Wien, Institute for Water Quality, Ressources and Waste Management; Project partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH. Final report: http://www.bmlfuw.gv.at/service/publikationen/wasser/Lachgasemissionen---Kl-ranlagen.html. UBA (2016). German average carbon footprint. Umweltbundesamt, Januar 2016, http://uba.klimaktiv-co2-rechner.de/de_DE/page/footprint/

  17. Multispectral Observations of Explosive Gas Emissions from Santiaguito, Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carn, S. A.; Watson, M.; Thomas, H.; Rodriguez, L. A.; Campion, R.; Prata, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, has been persistently active for decades, producing frequent explosions from its actively growing lava dome. Repeated release of volcanic gases contains information about conduit processes during the cyclical explosions at Santiaguito, but the composition of the gas phase and the amount of volatiles released in each explosion remains poorly constrained. In addition to its persistent activity, Santiaguito offers an exceptional opportunity to investigate lava dome degassing processes since the upper surface of the active lava dome can be viewed from the summit of neighboring Santa Maria. In January 2016 we conducted multi-spectral observations of Santiaguito's explosive eruption plumes and passive degassing from multiple perspectives as part of the first NSF-sponsored `Workshop on Volcanoes' instrument deployment. Gas measurements included open-path Fourier-Transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy from the Santa Maria summit, coincident with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) camera and UV Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) from the El Mirador site below Santiaguito's active Caliente lava dome. Using the OP-FTIR in passive mode with the Caliente lava dome as the source of IR radiation, we were able to collect IR spectra at high temporal resolution prior to and during two explosions of Santiaguito on 7-8 January, with volcanic SO2 and H2O emissions detected. UV and IR camera data provide constraints on the total SO2 burden in the emissions (and potentially the volcanic ash burden), which coupled with the FTIR gas ratios provides new constraints on the mass and composition of volatiles driving explosions at Santiaguito. All gas measurements indicate significant volatile release during explosions with limited degassing during repose periods. In this presentation we will present ongoing analysis of the unique Santiaguito gas dataset including estimation of the total volatile mass released in explosions and an

  18. The impact of soil amendments on greenhouse gas emissions: a comprehensive life cycle assessment approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Ryals, R.; Silver, W. L.

    2011-12-01

    Soil amendments, such as compost and manure, can be applied to grasslands to improve soil conditions and enhance aboveground net primary productivity. Applying such amendments can also lead to soil carbon (C) sequestration and, when materials are diverted from waste streams (e.g., landfills, manure lagoons), can offset greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, amendment production and application is also associated with GHG emissions, and the net impact of these amendments remains unclear. To investigate the potential for soil amendments to reduce net GHG emissions, we developed a comprehensive, field-scale life cycle assessment (LCA) model. The LCA includes GHG (i.e., CO2, CH4, N2O) emissions of soil amendment production, application, and ecosystem response. Emissions avoided by diverting materials from landfills or manure management systems are also considered. We developed the model using field observations from grazed annual grassland in northern California (e.g., soil C; above- and belowground net primary productivity; C:N ratios; trace gas emissions from soils, manure piles, and composting), CENTURY model simulations (e.g., long-term soil C and trace gas emissions from soils under various land management strategies), and literature values (e.g., GHG emissions from transportation, inorganic fertilizer production, composting, and enteric fermentation). The LCA quantifies and contrasts the potential net GHG impacts of applying compost, manure, and commercial inorganic fertilizer to grazing lands. To estimate the LCA uncertainty, sensitivity tests were performed on the most widely ranging or highly uncertain parameters (e.g., compost materials, landfill emissions, manure management system emissions). Finally, our results are scaled-up to assess the feasibility and potential impacts of large-scale adoption of soil amendment application as a land-management strategy in California. Our base case results indicate that C sinks and emissions offsets associated with

  19. The development of an ultra-low-emission gas-fired combustor for space heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Tian-yu; Khinkis, M.J.; Coppin, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    An ultra-low-emission as-fired combustor has been developed for relatively low-temperature direct-air heating applications. High-lean premixed cyclonic combustion with a flame stabilizer is employed to achieve ultra-low emissions and high turndown operation. On the basis of analytical studies and cold modeling a 350-kW test combustor was designed and successfully tested. Experimental results obtained using natural gas and ambient air demonstrated that the test combustor can operate steadily at high excess air up to 80% to 100% over a large turndown range up to 40:1. At design operating conditions, NO x emissions as low as 0.6 vppm and CO and total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions below 3 vppm were achieved. Over the full operating range, NO x emissions from 0.3 to 1.0 vppm and CO and THC emissions below 4 vppm were demonstrated. In all tests, concentrations of NO 2 were less than 40% of the total NO 2 emissions from combustion processes required for good indoor air quality (0.5 vppm). This paper presents the concept of high-lean premixed ultra-low-emission cyclonic combustion, design specifications for the combustion system, and the major experimental results, including flame stability, emissions, and turndown performance. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  20. Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of anesthetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jodi; Le, Cathy; Lamers, Vanessa; Eckelman, Matthew

    2012-05-01

    Anesthesiologists must consider the entire life cycle of drugs in order to include environmental impacts into clinical decisions. In the present study we used life cycle assessment to examine the climate change impacts of 5 anesthetic drugs: sevoflurane, desflurane, isoflurane, nitrous oxide, and propofol. A full cradle-to-grave approach was used, encompassing resource extraction, drug manufacturing, transport to health care facilities, drug delivery to the patient, and disposal or emission to the environment. At each stage of the life cycle, energy, material inputs, and emissions were considered, as well as use-specific impacts of each drug. The 4 inhalation anesthetics are greenhouse gases (GHGs), and so life cycle GHG emissions include waste anesthetic gases vented to the atmosphere and emissions (largely carbon dioxide) that arise from other life cycle stages. Desflurane accounts for the largest life cycle GHG impact among the anesthetic drugs considered here: 15 times that of isoflurane and 20 times that of sevoflurane on a per MAC-hour basis when administered in an O(2)/air admixture. GHG emissions increase significantly for all drugs when administered in an N(2)O/O(2) admixture. For all of the inhalation anesthetics, GHG impacts are dominated by uncontrolled emissions of waste anesthetic gases. GHG impacts of propofol are comparatively quite small, nearly 4 orders of magnitude lower than those of desflurane or nitrous oxide. Unlike the inhaled drugs, the GHG impacts of propofol primarily stem from the electricity required for the syringe pump and not from drug production or direct release to the environment. Our results reiterate previous published data on the GHG effects of these inhaled drugs, while providing a life cycle context. There are several practical environmental impact mitigation strategies. Desflurane and nitrous oxide should be restricted to cases where they may reduce morbidity and mortality over alternative drugs. Clinicians should avoid

  1. The Importance of Policy Neutrality for Lowering Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Tombe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The drive by Canadian governments, at the provincial and federal level, to lower greenhouse gas emissions has resulted in a hodgepodge of different policy approaches. Some governments have opted for energy taxes, others for regulated limits on total emissions or emission intensity. Unfortunately, not all policy solutions are created equal; some are more effective than others in lowering total emissions and, worse still, may exact a heavy price on the economy. Policy-makers require a better understanding of how various policies affect the health of an economy and of how to mitigate the most pernicious costs. Key to gaining this improved understanding is to recognize one simple fact: some firms are more productive than others. As a consequence, it matters how workers, machines, energy, and other inputs are distributed between these firms. More productive firms should be larger — it is that simple. Some policies, however, increase input costs differently across firms and create costly distortions. Energy intensity targets are a clear example of a policy that disproportionately burdens lower productivity firms, changing firm sizes for the worse and even leading some to shut down altogether. Using a detailed model of production and energy use that matches the Canadian economy, we explore the consequences of the several forms that energy intensity regulations can take. We find the best approach to lowering greenhouse gas emissions is one that is neutral across firms — one that affects the cost of energy for smaller firms no more, or less, than larger ones. The only policy that fulfils this criterion is a flat energy tax. However, a flat tax on energy could well be politically unsellable in Canada, leaving governments to resort to politically palatable but economically risky intensity targets instead. Recognizing this, we explore a number of ways to improve the performance of intensity targets. First, governments should allow firms the option to

  2. Investigating animal health effects of sour gas acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, W.C.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas well blowout emissions on livestock are reviewed. Guidelines for safe drilling operations in hydrogen sulfide environments, general hazards and characteristics of hydrogen sulfide, and guidelines for field investigation into the effects of sour gas and acid emissions on livestock are discussed. A case history involving the Ross No. 2 gas well blowout of July 1985 in Rankin County, Mississippi is presented. The blowout lasted for 72 days, and at peak discharge the 500 ppM radius was ca 3.5 miles. A cattle embryo transplant operation located one half mile from the well was affected by the blowout. Examination by a local veterinarian of the cattle demonstrated eye irritation, epiphora, nasal discharge and coughing. After one and a half months of exposure, most animals showed clinical signs of a severe dry hacking cough, epiphora, dry rales over the thoracic inlet, and a bronchial popping sound over the lateral thorax. All animals had eye irritation. Of 55 animals showing signs of respiratory distress and eye irritations, 15 were still clinically ill in May of 1986. 7 refs., 1 tab

  3. Possibilities of Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Hotels and Camps Along the Adriatic Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurek, J.

    1998-01-01

    The article presents a possibility of reducing greenhouse gas emissions in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast, through equipment modernisation, efficient use of various energy forms (electric energy, oil, gas) including solar energy. An elaborate quantitative analysis the greenhouse gas emissions and possible ways of reducing them have been carried out in 180 hotels with their own boiler rooms and 70 camps with solar hot water system. The representatives of the two specified groups were chosen in order to perform the quantitative analysis. Considering that the reduction of the carbon emission is the basic condition for the prevention of climate changes, the assumptions were made in line with their reducing. The starting point is that the combustion of a litre of fuel causes 2,5 kg CO 2 , while the generation of 1 kWh of electric energy and use of 1 m 3 of water emit 0,5 kg of CO 2 respectively. Thereby it is necessary to bear in mind that the reduction of emissions can be achieved directly in hotel boiler rooms and, in a wider perspective, in plants through the reduction of the electric energy and water consumption, i.e. solar energy consumption The article ends with a review of possible emission reductions which are to be carried out. According to the calculation presented, the share of the reduction of greenhouse gas emission in hotels and camps along the Adriatic Coast principate with 1% in the obligatory 5% emission reduction of the Republic of Croatia till the year 2012 related to the Kyoto Protocol. (author)

  4. Indicators for the international comparison of energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, R.; Steiner, S.; Koch, P.

    2007-11-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the energy consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions of various Swiss economical sectors including industry, services, households and traffic. Comparisons are made with the corresponding areas in the European Union and other countries. In spite of the relatively good situation in the Swiss industrial sector, further investigation is recommended. Room for improvement in the services sector is mentioned and average performance as far as energy consumption in households is concerned is noted. It is estimated that a considerable potential for improvement is available in this sector. Motorised traffic is quoted as being the main source of greenhouse-gas emissions, Switzerland being the second worst European country in this respect. Estimates are made concerning the potential for emission reductions in the various areas

  5. Unregulated emissions from compressed natural gas (CNG) transit buses configured with and without oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Robert A; Kado, Norman Y; Kuzmicky, Paul A; Ayala, Alberto; Kobayashi, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The unregulated emissions from two in-use heavy-duty transit buses fueled by compressed natural gas (CNG) and equipped with oxidation catalyst (OxiCat) control were evaluated. We tested emissions from a transit bus powered by a 2001 Cummins Westport C Gas Plus 8.3-L engine (CWest), which meets the California Air Resources Board's (CARB) 2002 optional NOx standard (2.0 g/bhp-hr). In California, this engine is certified only with an OxiCat, so our study did not include emissions testing without it. We also tested a 2000 New Flyer 40-passenger low-floor bus powered by a Detroit Diesel series 50G engine (DDCs50G) that is currently certified in California without an OxiCat. The original equipment manufacturer (OEM) offers a "low-emission" package for this bus that includes an OxiCat for transit bus applications, thus, this configuration was also tested in this study. Previously, we reported that formaldehyde and other volatile organic emissions detected in the exhaust of the DDCs50G bus equipped with an OxiCat were significantly reduced relative to the same DDCs50G bus without OxiCat. In this paper, we examine othertoxic unregulated emissions of significance. The specific mutagenic activity of emission sample extracts was examined using the microsuspension assay. The total mutagenic activity of emissions (activity per mile) from the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus was generally lower than that from the DDC bus without the OxiCat. The CWest bus emission samples had mutagenic activity that was comparable to that of the OxiCat-equipped DDC bus. In general, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions were lower forthe OxiCat-equipped buses, with greater reductions observed for the volatile and semivolatile PAH emissions. Elemental carbon (EC) was detected in the exhaust from the all three bus configurations, and we found that the total carbon (TC) composition of particulate matter (PM) emissions was primarily organic carbon (OC). The amount of carbon emissions far exceeded the

  6. Mitigating the greenhouse gas emissions embodied in food through realistic consumer choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoolohan, C.; Berners-Lee, M.; McKinstry-West, J.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2013-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions embodied in 66 different food categories together with self-reported dietary information are used to show how consumer choices surrounding food might lead to reductions in food-related GHG emissions. The current UK-average diet is found to embody 8.8 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 . This figure includes both food eaten and food wasted (post-purchase). By far the largest potential reduction in GHG emissions is achieved by eliminating meat from the diet (35% reduction), followed by changing from carbon-intensive lamb and beef to less carbon-intensive pork and chicken (18% reduction). Cutting out all avoidable waste delivers an emissions saving of 12%. Not eating foods grown in hot-houses or air-freighted to the UK offers a 5% reduction in emissions. We show how combinations of consumer actions can easily lead to reductions of 25% in food related GHG emissions. If such changes were adopted by the entire UK population this would be equivalent to a 71% reduction in the exhaust pipe emissions of CO 2 from the entire UK passenger car fleet (which totalled 71 Mt CO 2 e year −1 in 2009). - Highlights: • UK-average diet embodies 8.8 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 (including avoidable waste). • Eliminating meat from the diet reduces food-related GHG emissions by 35%. • Changing from GHG-intensive meats to less intensive meats reduces emissions by 18%. • Cutting out all avoidable food waste reduces emissions by 12%. • Avoiding hot-housed food or food air-freighted to the UK reduces emissions by 5%

  7. Simulating greenhouse gas (GHG) allowance cost and GHG emission reduction in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delarue, Erik; Lamberts, Hans; D'haeseleer, William

    2007-01-01

    Due to the growing concern for global warming, the EU25 have implemented the European Union Greenhouse Gas Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS). In the first trading period (2005-2007), part of the targeted GHG emission reductions presumably will have to result from a switch from coal fired electricity generation to gas fired electricity generation. It is possible to calculate the allowance cost necessary to switch a certain coal fired plant with a certain gas fired plant in the merit order. The allowance cost obtained is a so called switching point. When comparing historic European Union Allowance (EUA) prices (2005) with the corresponding historic switching points, the EUA prices were found high enough to cause a certain switch in the summer season. This finding leads to the use of switching points in establishing allowance cost profiles for several scenarios. A variable gas price profile is used in the simulation tool E-Simulate to simulate electricity generation and related GHG emissions in an eight zonal model representing Western Europe. Several GHG allowance cost profile scenarios are examined. For each scenario, electricity generation in the considered countries is clarified. The focus however lies on the GHG emission reduction potentials. These potentials are addressed for each scenario

  8. Hydrocarbon emissions from gas engine CHP-units. 2011 measurement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dijk, G.H.J. [KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    In December 2009, the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment (IandM) issued the Decree on Emission Limits for Middle Sized Combustion Installations (BEMS). This decree imposes a first-time emission limit value (ELV) of 1500 mg C/m{sup 3}{sub o} at 3% O{sub 2} for hydrocarbons emitted by gas engines. IandM used the findings of two hydrocarbon emission measurement programs, executed in 2007 and 2009, as a guideline for this initial ELV. The programs did reveal substantial variation in the hydrocarbon emissions of the gas engines tested. This variation, and especially the uncertainty as to the role of engine and/or other parameters causing such variation, was felt to hamper further policy development. IandM therefore commissioned KEMA to perform follow-up measurements on ten gas engine CHP-units in 2011. Aim of this 2011 program is to assess hydrocarbon emission variation in relation to engine parameters and process conditions including maintenance status, and to atmospheric conditions. The 2011 program comprised two identical measurement sessions, one in spring and one in winter.

  9. The Impact of a Potential Shale Gas Development in Germany and the United Kingdom on Pollutant and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, L.; Cremonese, L.; Bartels, M. P.; Butler, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    Several European countries with domestic shale gas reserves are considering extracting this natural gas resource to complement their energy transition agenda. Natural gas, which produces lower CO2 emissions upon combustion compared to coal or oil, has the potential to serve as a bridge in the transition from fossil fuels to renewables. However, the generation of shale gas leads to emissions of CH4 and pollutants such as PM, NOx and VOCs, which in turn impact climate as well as local and regional air quality. In this study, we explore the impact of a potential shale gas development in Europe, specifically in Germany and the United Kingdom, on emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants. In order to investigate the effect on emissions, we first estimate a range of wells drilled per year and production volume for the two countries under examination based on available geological information and on regional infrastructural and economic limitations. Subsequently we assign activity data and emissions factors to the well development, gas production and processing stages of shale gas generation to enable emissions quantification. We then define emissions scenarios to explore different storylines of potential shale gas development, including low emissions (high level of regulation), high emissions (low level of regulation) and middle emissions scenarios, which influence fleet make-up, emission factor and activity data choices for emissions quantification. The aim of this work is to highlight important variables and their ranges, to promote discussion and communication of potential impacts, and to construct possible visions for a future shale gas development in the two study countries. In a follow-up study, the impact of pollutant emissions from these scenarios on air quality will be explored using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) model.

  10. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  11. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  12. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  13. Tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions in the design of urban transit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griswold, Julia B; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Recent investments in the transit sector to address greenhouse gas emissions have concentrated on purchasing efficient replacement vehicles and inducing mode shift from the private automobile. There has been little focus on the potential of network and operational improvements, such as changes in headways, route spacing, and stop spacing, to reduce transit emissions. Most models of transit system design consider user and agency cost while ignoring emissions and the potential environmental benefit of operational improvements. We use a model to evaluate the user and agency costs as well as greenhouse gas benefit of design and operational improvements to transit systems. We examine how the operational characteristics of urban transit systems affect both costs and greenhouse gas emissions. The research identifies the Pareto frontier for designing an idealized transit network. Modes considered include bus, bus rapid transit (BRT), light rail transit (LRT), and metro (heavy) rail, with cost and emissions parameters appropriate for the United States. Passenger demand follows a many-to-many travel pattern with uniformly distributed origins and destinations. The approaches described could be used to optimize the network design of existing bus service or help to select a mode and design attributes for a new transit system. The results show that BRT provides the lowest cost but not the lowest emissions for our large city scenarios. Bus and LRT systems have low costs and the lowest emissions for our small city scenarios. Relatively large reductions in emissions from the cost-optimal system can be achieved with only minor increases in user travel time. (letter)

  14. Structural decomposition analysis of Australia's greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A complex system of production links our greenhouse gas emissions to our consumer demands. Whilst progress may be made in improving efficiency, other changes in the production structure may easily annul global improvements. Utilising a structural decomposition analysis, a comparative-static technique of input-output analysis, over a time period of around 30 years, net greenhouse emissions are decomposed in this study into the effects, due to changes in industrial efficiency, forward linkages, inter-industry structure, backward linkages, type of final demand, cause of final demand, population affluence, population size, and mix and level of exports. Historically, significant competing forces at both the whole of economy and industrial scale have been mitigating potential improvements. Key sectors and structural influences are identified that have historically shown the greatest potential for change, and would likely have the greatest net impact. Results clearly reinforce that the current dichotomy of growth and exports are the key problems in need of address.

  15. Reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from vinasse through anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moraes, Bruna S.; Petersen, Søren O.; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    Vinasse is a residue from bioethanol production that is produced in large quantities in Brazil and Europe and is applied to fields as a source of plant nutrients (fertirrigation). A side effect of this use is greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during storage and transport in open channels to fields...... with digestate, ranging from 0.173 to 0.193 kg CO2eq m−2 in the former and from 0.045 to 0.100 kg CO2eq m−2 in the latter. Extrapolation of the results to a Brazilian case indicated that AD treatment prior to storage/transport and field application could reduce GHG emissions from the vinasse management chain...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions trading - implications for the coal industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua, F. [Arthur Andersen, London (United Kingdom). Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading Services

    2000-07-01

    The Kyoto Protocol has initiated a process whereby greenhouse gas emissions markets are beginning to emerge and risks can be assessed at the corporate level. The talk discussed the three flexible market mechanisms to be available to companies for the management of carbon risk. It explained how a carbon-constrained environment will increase the emphasis on an efficient risk management strategy and infrastructure. The 'Clean Development Mechanism market place' may provide business opportunities. Recent increases in energy use and emissions, and forecasts to 2020, were discussed. Issues to be tackled at the next conference of the parties, COP6, in finalising the Kyoto Protocol are outlined. The proceedings contain only overheads/viewgraphs presented at the conference.

  17. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Hirschberg, S.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-01-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study 'Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems' are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  18. Greenhouse gas emission inventory based on full energy chain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R; Hirschberg, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Knoepfel, I [Federal Inst. of Technology Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-07-01

    Methodology, characteristics, features and results obtained for greenhouse gases within the recent Swiss LCA study `Environmental Life-Cycle Inventories of Energy Systems` are presented. The focus of the study is on existing average Full Energy Chains (FENCHs) in the electricity generation mixes in Europe and in Switzerland. The systems, including coal (hard coal and lignite), oil, natural gas, nuclear and hydro, are discussed one by one as well as part of the electricity mixes. Photovoltaic systems are covered separately since they are not included in the electricity mixes. A sensitivity analysis on methane leakage during long-range transport via pipeline is shown. Whilst within the current study emissions are not attributed to specific countries, the main sectors contributing to the total GHGs emissions calculated for the various FENCHs are specified. (author). 10 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs.

  19. Investigation into the emission of greenhouse effect gases; Onshitsu koka gas no haishutsu ni kansuru chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The paper grasped the situation of greenhouse effect gas emissions of advanced countries based on the reports from them. The advanced countries which concluded the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change (OECD member countries, the former U.S.S.R., and East European countries) are to be reported to the office concerned with work for the framework the situation of their greenhouse effect gas emissions according to the obligation of the framework. In and after April 1997, they made the second report. The paper summarized changes in emission amount, the future trend, and the policies/measures mainly taken of nine countries which have already presented the second report (the U.S., the U.K., Germany, Holland, Italy, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and New Zealand) and one country (Russia) which has made only the first report. Moreover, the literature was collected and summed up concerning the mechanism and coefficients of the emission of nitrous oxide and methane. The collected literature was classified into all fields/plural number of fields, energy relation, industrial process relation, relation with the use of organic solvent and other products, agricultural relation, relation with changes in land use and forests, and waste relation. 4 figs., 228 tabs.

  20. Towards a Novel Integrated Approach for Estimating Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Support of International Agreements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Henne, S.; Brunner, D.; Emmenegger, L.; Manning, A.; Fraser, P. J.; Krummel, P. B.; Dunse, B. L.; DeCola, P.; Tarasova, O. A.

    2016-12-01

    In the recently adopted Paris Agreement the community of signatory states has agreed to limit the future global temperature increase between +1.5 °C and +2.0 °C, compared to pre-industrial times. To achieve this goal, emission reduction targets have been submitted by individual nations (called Intended Nationally Determined Contributions, INDCs). Inventories will be used for checking progress towards these envisaged goals. These inventories are calculated by combining information on specific activities (e.g. passenger cars, agriculture) with activity-related, typically IPCC-sanctioned, emission factors - the so-called bottom-up method. These calculated emissions are reported on an annual basis and are checked by external bodies by using the same method. A second independent method estimates emissions by translating greenhouse gas measurements made at regionally representative stations into regional/global emissions using meteorologically-based transport models. In recent years this so-called top-down approach has been substantially advanced into a powerful tool and emission estimates at the national/regional level have become possible. This method is already used in Switzerland, in the United Kingdom and in Australia to estimate greenhouse gas emissions and independently support the national bottom-up emission inventories within the UNFCCC framework. Examples of the comparison of the two independent methods will be presented and the added-value will be discussed. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and partner organizations are currently developing a plan to expand this top-down approach and to expand the globally representative GAW network of ground-based stations and remote-sensing platforms and integrate their information with atmospheric transport models. This Integrated Global Greenhouse Gas Information System (IG3IS) initiative will help nations to improve the accuracy of their country-based emissions inventories and their ability to evaluate the

  1. The emission of fluorine gas during incineration of fluoroborate residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yuheng, E-mail: fengyh@tongji.edu.cn [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Jiang, Xuguang [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Chen, Dezhen [Thermal & Environmental Engineering Institute, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-05

    Highlights: • Gaseous fluorine products were identified when combusting fluoroborate residue. • BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} tend to be hydrolyzed into HF with the increase of temperature. • The emission of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} from the chamber could be negligible at 1100 °C. - Abstract: The emission behaviors of wastes from fluorine chemical industry during incineration have raised concerns because multiple fluorine products might danger human health. In this study, fluorine emission from a two-stage incineration system during the combustion of fluoroborate residue was examined. In a TG-FTIR analysis BF{sub 3}, SiF{sub 4} and HF were identified as the initial fluorine forms to be released, while fluorine gases of greenhouse effect such as CF{sub 4} and SF{sub 6} were not found. Below 700 °C, NaBF{sub 4} in the sample decomposed to generate BF{sub 3}. Then part of BF{sub 3} reacted with SiO{sub 2} in the system to form SiF{sub 4} or hydrolyzed to HF. At higher temperatures, the NaF left in the sample was gradually hydrolyzed to form HF. A lab-scale two-stage tube furnace is established to simulate the typical two-stage combustion chamber in China. Experimental tests proved that HF was the only fluorine gas in the flue gas, and emissions of BF{sub 3} and SiF{sub 4} can be negligible. Thermodynamic equilibrium model predicted that all SiF{sub 4} would be hydrolyzed at 1100 °C in the secondary-chamber, which agreed well with the experimental results.

  2. Potential of greenhouse gas emission reductions in soybean farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Ali; Dalgaard, Tommy; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2013-01-01

    Joint implementation of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has recently showed to be a suitable tool for measuring efficiency in agri-food systems. In the present study, LCA + DEA methodologies were applied for a total of 94 soybean farms in Iran to benchmark the leve...... residue in the field generate significantly more greenhouse gas emissions than other farms. The raising of operational input efficiency and limiting of crop residue burning in the field are recommended options to ensure more environmental friendly soybean farming systems in the region....

  3. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, Federico [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-10-01

    This report serves as the technology basis of a needed national climate change technology strategy, with the confidence that a strong technology R&D program will deliver a portfolio of technologies with the potential to provide very substantial greenhouse gas emission reductions along with continued economic growth. Much more is needed to define such a strategy, including identification of complementary deployment policies and analysis to support the seeping and prioritization of R&D programs. A national strategy must be based upon governmental, industrial, and academic partnerships.

  4. Communicating the Uncertainty in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Whitmore, Andy

    2014-05-01

    Effective communication of the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions is important. It allows an individual, whether they are a scientist, policy maker or member of the public, to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. Communicating uncertainty is challenging, however. There is no single best method for communicating uncertainty and the success of a particular method will depend on the subject matter and the target audience. Our interest is in communicating the uncertainty in estimates of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture to those who might directly use the results from a national inventory. We tested six methods of communication. These were: calibrated phrases such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely'; probabilities, whereby the probability of being within a defined range of values is given; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots and shaded arrays. We asked 64 individuals who use results from the greenhouse gas inventory for their opinions on how successfully these methods communicated uncertainty. We analysed the results to see which methods were preferred and to see whether this preference was affected either by the professional group to which individuals belonged or the level of mathematics to which they were educated. The professional groups represented in our study were categorised as (i) those who influence policy (ii) research scientists (iii) those representing the environment and (iv) those representing the agricultural industry. The responses to our questionnaire were varied but some clear messages came through. Our analysis showed that although calibrated phrases were thought to be a good method of communication they did not convey enough information and were open to misinterpretation. Shaded arrays were similarly criticized for being open to misinterpretation, but proved to give the best indication of uncertainty when individuals were asked to interpret results from the greenhouse gas

  5. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions using emission factors from the Sugarcane Development Company, Ahvaz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Zahedi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are increasing worldwide. They have harmful effects on human health, animals, and plants and play a major role in global warming and acid rain. Methods: This research investigated carbon dioxide (CO2 and CH4 emissions obtained from different parts of the Hakim Farabi, Dobal Khazaei, and Ramin factories which produce ethanol and yeast. Seasonal rates of CO2 at the soil surface at the studied sites were estimated from measurements made on location and at intervals with manual chambers. This study aimed to assess the production rate of GHG emissions (CH4, CO2 in the sugar production units of Hakim Farabi, Dobal Khazaei, and Ramin factories. Results: Mean concentrations of CO2 and CH4 emissions are respectively 279 500.207 and 3087.07 tons/ year from the Hakim Farabi agro-industry, 106 985.24 and 1.14 tons/year at the Dobal Khazaei ethanol producing factory, and 124 766.17 and 1.93 tons/year at the Ramin leavening producing factory. Conclusion: Sugar plant boilers and the burning of sugarcane contributed the most CO2 and CH4 emissions, respectively. Moreover, lime kilns and diesel generators showed the least carbon dioxide and methane emissions, respectively.

  6. Embodiment Analysis for Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Chinese Economy Based on Global Thermodynamic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijie Wang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the Global Thermodynamic Potential (GTP indicator to perform a unified assessment of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, and to systematically reveal the emission embodiment in the production, consumption, and international trade of the Chinese economy in 2007 as the most recent year available with input-output table and updated inventory data. The results show that the estimated total direct GHG emissions by the Chinese economy in 2007 amount to 10,657.5 Mt CO2-eq by the GTPs with 40.6% from CH4 emissions in magnitude of the same importance as CO2 emissions. The five sectors of Electric Power/Steam and Hot Water Production and Supply, Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals, Nonmetal Mineral Products, Agriculture, and Coal Mining and Dressing, are responsible for 83.3% of the total GHG emissions with different emission structures. The demands of coal and coal-electricity determine the structure of emission embodiment to an essential extent. The Construction sector holds the top GHG emissions embodied in both domestic production and domestic consumption. The GHG emission embodied in gross capital formation is more than those in other components of final demand characterized by extensive investment and limited household consumption. China is a net exporter of embodied GHG emissions, with a remarkable share of direct emission induced by international trade, such as textile products, industrial raw materials, and primary machinery and equipment products exports. The fractions of CH4 in the component of embodied GHG emissions in the final demand are much greater than those fractions calculated by the Global Warming Potentials, which highlight the importance of CH4 emissions for the case of China and indicate the essential effect of CH4 emissions on global climate change. To understand the full context to achieve GHG emission mitigation, this study provides a new insight to address China’s GHG emissions status and

  7. Historical and future emission of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from gas-fired combustion in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Nie, Lei; Zhou, Zhen; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Wu, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Linglong

    2017-07-01

    The consumption of natural gas in Beijing has increased in the past decade due to energy structure adjustments and air pollution abatement. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emitted from gas-fired combustion in Beijing was developed for the period from 2000 to 2014 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends were projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. We found that emissions of primary HAPs exhibited an increasing trend with the rapid increase in natural gas consumption. Our estimates indicated that the total emissions of NO X , particulate matter (PM) 10 , PM 2.5 , CO, VOCs, SO 2 , black carbon, Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and benzo[a]pyrene from gas-fired combustion in Beijing were approximately 22,422 t, 1042 t, 781 t, 19,097 t, 653 t, 82 t, 19 t, 0.6 kg, 0.1 kg, 43 kg, 52 kg, 0.3 kg, 0.03 kg, 4.3 kg, 0.6 kg, 216 μg, and 242 g, respectively, in 2014. To mitigate the associated air pollution and health risks caused by gas-fired combustion, stricter emission standards must be established. Additionally, combustion optimization and flue gas purification system could be used for lowering NO X emissions from gas-fired combustion, and gas-fired facilities should be continuously monitored based on emission limits. Graphical abstract Spatial distribution and typical live photos of gas-fired boiler in Beijing.

  8. Monitoring soil greenhouse gas emissions from managed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Pinés, Eugenio; Lu, Haiyan; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Kiese, Ralf

    2014-05-01

    Grasslands in Central Europe are of enormous social, ecological and economical importance. They are intensively managed, but the influence of different common practices (i.e. fertilization, harvesting) on the total greenhouse gas budget of grasslands is not fully understood, yet. In addition, it is unknown how these ecosystems will react due to climate change. Increasing temperatures and changing precipitation will likely have an effect on productivity of grasslands and on bio-geo-chemical processes responsible for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). In the frame of the TERENO Project (www.tereno.net), a long-term observatory has been implemented in the Ammer catchment, southern Germany. Acting as an in situ global change experiment, 36 big lysimeters (1 m2 section, 150 cm height) have been translocated along an altitudinal gradient, including three sites ranging from 600 to 860 meters above sea level. In addition, two treatments have been considered, corresponding to different management intensities. The overall aim of the pre-alpine TERENO observatory is improving our understanding of the consequences of climate change and management on productivity, greenhouse gas balance, soil nutritional status, nutrient leaching and hydrology of grasslands. Two of the sites are equipped with a fully automated measurement system in order to continuously and accurately monitor the soil-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange. Thus, a stainless steel chamber (1 m2 section, 80 cm height) is controlled by a robotized system. The chamber is hanging on a metal structure which can move both vertically and horizontally, so that the chamber is able to be set onto each of the lysimeters placed on the field. Furthermore, the headspace of the chamber is connected with a gas tube to a Quantum Cascade Laser, which continuously measures CO2, CH4, N2O and H2O mixing ratios. The chamber acts as a static chamber and sets for 15 minutes onto each lysimeter

  9. Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, C.; Ryerson, T. B.; Karion, A.; Peischl, J.; Petron, G.; Schnell, R. C.; Tsai, T.; Crosson, E.; Rella, C.; Trainer, M.; Frost, G. J.; Hardesty, R. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Tans, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

  10. Emissions of CH4 from natural gas production in the United States using aircraft-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Colm; Karion, Anna; Petron, Gabrielle; Ryerson, Thomas; Peischl, Jeff; Trainer, Michael; Rella, Chris; Hardesty, Michael; Crosson, Eric; Montzka, Stephen; Tans, Pieter; Shepson, Paul; Kort, Eric

    2014-05-01

    New extraction technologies are making natural gas from shale and tight sand gas reservoirs in the United States (US) more accessible. As a result, the US has become the largest producer of natural gas in the world. This growth in natural gas production may result in increased leakage of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, offsetting the climate benefits of natural gas relative to other fossil fuels. Methane emissions from natural gas production are not well quantified because of the large variety of potential sources, the variability in production and operating practices, the uneven distribution of emitters, and a lack of verification of emission inventories with direct atmospheric measurements. Researchers at the NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) have used simple mass balance approaches in combination with isotopes and light alkanes to estimate emissions of CH4 from several natural gas and oil plays across the US. We will summarize the results of the available aircraft and ground-based atmospheric emissions estimates to better understand the spatial and temporal distribution of these emissions in the US.

  11. Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Transport: All in One Basket?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Rivers

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis after analysis has shown consistently that if policy-makers aiming to meet climate goals are looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth, there is simply nothing better than abandoning all emissions regulations except for one: A straight, revenue-neutral carbon tax. Nothing works through more channels, at a lower cost. Alas, policy-makers are not always looking for the most-efficient, least-distortionary way to target emissions growth. That’s because many of those same analyses show that in order to reach emissions targets, the price on carbon would have to be so punitive as to be politically unbearable, raising the price of gasoline, for example, by about a dollar a litre. That leads politicians to mix in other policies that are less visible to the consumer but also less efficient, less effective and more expensive in abating carbon dioxide. The recently negotiated Pan-Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change intends to follow that model, relying on a blend of different policies to help reach Canada’s Paris climate targets. But while the government seems therefore determined to rule out the possibility of a nothing-but-a-carbon-tax plan, it is possible, through the careful application of just the right sort of emission-reduction approaches, to reduce the costs of abatement in a key policy target — namely, road transportation — to a level that at least approaches the lower cost of a carbon tax. The government will likely consider several options in trying to reduce emissions from road transportation. Typical tools include requiring manufacturers to meet standards for new vehicles that mandate fuel economy and greenhouse gas emissions; gasoline taxes; taxes on emissions-intensive vehicles; subsidies for low-emission or zero-emission vehicles; and subsidies for public transit. Indications are that a low-carbon fuel standard (LCFS will play a significant role in the Pan

  12. Energy crops as a strategy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    The current Danish energy plan stipulates a production of 5 PI from energy crops in 2010. This may be attained through growing of either annual (e.g., cereal) or perennial energy crops (e.g., willow or Miscanthus). Existing Danish data and the IPCC methodology was used to calculate nitrous oxide emissions from and carbon sequestration in soils cropped with an annual energy crop (triticale) or a perennial energy crop (Miscanthus). The calculations for Miscanthus were performed separately for harvest in November or April, since the harvest time affects both yields and emissions. The estimates for Miscanthus were based on a 20-year duration of the cultivation period. The energy use for growing the crops was included in the energy budgets, as was the reduction in CO 2 emission that will result from substitution of fossil fuel (natural gas). The calculations were performed for both a coarse sandy soil and a loamy sand. The results were compared with current (reference) practice for growing cereals. There were only minor differences in production data and emissions between the two soil types. The area required to produce 5 PI was smallest for Miscanthus harvested in November (c. 25,000 ha), and about equal for triticale and Miscanthus harvested in April (c. 32,000 ha). The reduction in nitrous oxide emissions compared with cereal production was smallest for triticale (20 kt CO 2 equivalents /eq] yr -1 ) and about equal for Miscanthus at the two harvest times (30-36 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ). Growing Miscanthus resulted in a carbon sequestration, with the highest rates (100 kt CO 2 eq yr -1 ) for Miscanthus harvested in April. The energy use for production of triticale was slightly lower than for normal cereal growing, whereas growing Miscanthus for harvest in April resulted in a smaller energy use which corresponded to an emission reduction of 20 kt CO 2 yr -1 . The substitution of fossil fuel corresponded to 285 kt CO 2 yr -1 . Summing all items, growing 5 PI worth of

  13. Energy-saving options for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from the Mongolian energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorjpurev, J.; Purevjal, O.; Erdenechimeg, Ch. [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Energy sector is the largest contributor to GHG emission in Mongolia. The Energy sector emits 54 percent of CO2 and 4 percent of methane. All emissions of other greenhouse gases are accounted from energy related activities. The activities in this sector include coal production, fuel combustion, and biomass combustion at the thermal power stations and in private houses (stoves) for heating purposes. This paper presents some important Demand-side options considered for mitigation of CO2 emissions from energy sector such as Energy Conservation in Industrial Sector and in Buildings. Changes in energy policies and programmes in the Mongolian situation that promote more efficient and sustainable practices are presented in the paper. These energy saving measures will not only help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but will also promote economic development and alleviate other environmental problems.

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  15. The relative greenhouse gas impacts of realistic dietary choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berners-Lee, M.; Hoolohan, C.; Cammack, H.; Hewitt, C.N.

    2012-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions embodied in 61 different categories of food are used, with information on the diet of different groups of the population (omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan), to calculate the embodied GHG emissions in different dietary scenarios. We calculate that the embodied GHG content of the current UK food supply is 7.4 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 , or 2.7 t CO 2 e person −1 y −1 . This gives total food-related GHG emissions of 167 Mt CO 2 e (1 Mt=10 6 metric tonnes; CO 2 e being the mass of CO 2 that would have the same global warming potential, when measured over 100 years, as a given mixture of greenhouse gases) for the entire UK population in 2009. This is 27% of total direct GHG emissions in the UK, or 19% of total GHG emissions from the UK, including those embodied in goods produced abroad. We calculate that potential GHG savings of 22% and 26% can be made by changing from the current UK-average diet to a vegetarian or vegan diet, respectively. Taking the average GHG saving from six vegetarian or vegan dietary scenarios compared with the current UK-average diet gives a potential national GHG saving of 40 Mt CO 2 e y −1 . This is equivalent to a 50% reduction in current exhaust pipe emissions from the entire UK passenger car fleet. Hence realistic choices about diet can make substantial differences to embodied GHG emissions. - Highlights: ► We calculate the greenhouse gas emissions embodied in different diets. ► The embodied GHG content of the current UK food supply is 7.4 kg CO 2 e person −1 day −1 . ► Changing to a vegetarian or vegan diet reduces GHG emissions by 22–26%. ► Changing to a vegetarian or vegan diet would reduce UK GHG emissions by 40 Mt CO 2 e y −1 .

  16. Near-Zero Emissions Oxy-Combustion Flue Gas Purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minish Shah; Nich Degenstein; Monica Zanfir; Rahul Solunke; Ravi Kumar; Jennifer Bugayong; Ken Burgers

    2012-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to carry out an experimental program to enable development and design of near zero emissions (NZE) CO{sub 2} processing unit (CPU) for oxy-combustion plants burning high and low sulfur coals and to perform commercial viability assessment. The NZE CPU was proposed to produce high purity CO{sub 2} from the oxycombustion flue gas, to achieve > 95% CO{sub 2} capture rate and to achieve near zero atmospheric emissions of criteria pollutants. Two SOx/NOx removal technologies were proposed depending on the SOx levels in the flue gas. The activated carbon process was proposed for power plants burning low sulfur coal and the sulfuric acid process was proposed for power plants burning high sulfur coal. For plants burning high sulfur coal, the sulfuric acid process would convert SOx and NOx in to commercial grade sulfuric and nitric acid by-products, thus reducing operating costs associated with SOx/NOx removal. For plants burning low sulfur coal, investment in separate FGD and SCR equipment for producing high purity CO{sub 2} would not be needed. To achieve high CO{sub 2} capture rates, a hybrid process that combines cold box and VPSA (vacuum pressure swing adsorption) was proposed. In the proposed hybrid process, up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in the cold box vent stream would be recovered by CO{sub 2} VPSA and then it would be recycled and mixed with the flue gas stream upstream of the compressor. The overall recovery from the process will be > 95%. The activated carbon process was able to achieve simultaneous SOx and NOx removal in a single step. The removal efficiencies were >99.9% for SOx and >98% for NOx, thus exceeding the performance targets of >99% and >95%, respectively. The process was also found to be suitable for power plants burning both low and high sulfur coals. Sulfuric acid process did not meet the performance expectations. Although it could achieve high SOx (>99%) and NOx (>90%) removal efficiencies, it could not produce by

  17. Stepwise multiple regression method of greenhouse gas emission modeling in the energy sector in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasa-Wiecek, Alicja

    2015-04-01

    The energy sector in Poland is the source of 81% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Poland, among other European Union countries, occupies a leading position with regard to coal consumption. Polish energy sector actively participates in efforts to reduce GHG emissions to the atmosphere, through a gradual decrease of the share of coal in the fuel mix and development of renewable energy sources. All evidence which completes the knowledge about issues related to GHG emissions is a valuable source of information. The article presents the results of modeling of GHG emissions which are generated by the energy sector in Poland. For a better understanding of the quantitative relationship between total consumption of primary energy and greenhouse gas emission, multiple stepwise regression model was applied. The modeling results of CO2 emissions demonstrate a high relationship (0.97) with the hard coal consumption variable. Adjustment coefficient of the model to actual data is high and equal to 95%. The backward step regression model, in the case of CH4 emission, indicated the presence of hard coal (0.66), peat and fuel wood (0.34), solid waste fuels, as well as other sources (-0.64) as the most important variables. The adjusted coefficient is suitable and equals R2=0.90. For N2O emission modeling the obtained coefficient of determination is low and equal to 43%. A significant variable influencing the amount of N2O emission is the peat and wood fuel consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollak, Melisa, E-mail: mpollak@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Meyer, Bryn, E-mail: meye1058@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Wilson, Elizabeth, E-mail: ewilson@umn.edu [Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota, 301 19th Avenue South, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: > This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. > Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. > Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. > Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. > Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  19. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions: Lessons from state climate action plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, Melisa; Meyer, Bryn; Wilson, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    We examine how state-level factors affect greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction policy preference across the United States by analyzing climate action plans (CAPs) developed in 11 states and surveying the CAP advisory group members. This research offers insights into how states approach the problem of choosing emissions-abatement options that maximize benefits and minimize costs, given their unique circumstances and the constellation of interest groups with power to influence state policy. The state CAPs recommended ten popular GHG reduction strategies to accomplish approximately 90% of emissions reductions, but they recommended these popular strategies in different proportions: a strategy that is heavily relied on in one state's overall portfolio may play a negligible role in another state. This suggests that any national policy to limit GHG emissions should encompass these key strategies, but with flexibility to allow states to balance their implementation for the state's unique geographic, economic, and political circumstances. Survey results strongly support the conclusion that decisions regarding GHG reductions are influenced by the mix of actors at the table. Risk perception is associated with job type for all strategies, and physical and/or geographic factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain GHG reduction strategies across states. - Highlights: → This study analyzed climate action plans from 12 states and surveyed the advisory group members. → Ten strategies supply 90% of recommended emission reductions, but states weigh them differently. → Advisory group members perceived different opportunities and risks in the top-ten strategies. → Both geographic and socio-political factors may underlie the varying reliance on certain strategies. → Cost, business practices and consumer behavior were ranked as the top barriers to reducing emissions.

  20. Air pollution from industrial waste gas emissions is associated with cancer incidences in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaowei

    2018-05-01

    Outdoor air pollution may be associated with cancer risk at different sites. This study sought to investigate outdoor air pollution from waste gas emission effects on multiple cancer incidences in a retrospective population-based study in Shanghai, China. Trends in cancer incidence for males and females and trends in waste gas emissions for the total waste gas, industrial waste gas, other waste gas, SO 2 , and soot were investigated between 1983 and 2010 in Shanghai, China. Regression models after adjusting for confounding variables were constructed to estimate associations between waste gas emissions and multiple cancer incidences in the whole group and stratified by sex, Engel coefficient, life expectancy, and number of doctors per 10,000 populations to further explore whether changes of waste gas emissions were associated with multiple cancer incidences. More than 550,000 new cancer patients were enrolled and reviewed. Upward trends in multiple cancer incidences for males and females and in waste gas emissions were observed from 1983 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. Waste gas emissions came mainly from industrial waste gas. Waste gas emissions was significantly positively associated with cancer incidence of salivary gland, small intestine, colorectal, anus, gallbladder, thoracic organs, connective and soft tissue, prostate, kidney, bladder, thyroid, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lymphatic leukemia, myeloid leukemia, and other unspecified sites (all p emissions and the esophagus cancer incidence was observed (p emissions was associated with multiple cancer incidences.

  1. Perspectives on greenhouse gas emission estimates based on Australian wastewater treatment plant operating data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, D W; Pepperell, C; Foley, J

    2014-01-01

    Primary operating data were collected from forty-six wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located across three states within Australia. The size range of plants was indicatively from 500 to 900,000 person equivalents. Direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions were calculated using a mass balance approach and default emission factors, based on Australia's National Greenhouse Energy Reporting (NGER) scheme and IPCC guidelines. A Monte Carlo-type combined uncertainty analysis was applied to the some of the key emission factors in order to study sensitivity. The results suggest that Scope 2 (indirect emissions due to electrical power purchased from the grid) dominate the emissions profile for most of the plants (indicatively half to three quarters of the average estimated total emissions). This is only offset for the relatively small number of plants (in this study) that have significant on-site power generation from biogas, or where the water utility purchases grid electricity generated from renewable sources. For plants with anaerobic digestion, inventory data issues around theoretical biogas generation, capture and measurement were sometimes encountered that can skew reportable emissions using the NGER methodology. Typically, nitrous oxide (N(2)O) emissions dominated the Scope 1 (direct) emissions. However, N(2)O still only accounted for approximately 10 to 37% of total emissions. This conservative estimate is based on the 'default' NGER steady-state emission factor, which amounts to 1% of nitrogen removed through biological nitrification-denitrification processing in the plant (or indicatively 0.7 to 0.8% of plant influent total nitrogen). Current research suggests that true N(2)O emissions may be much lower and certainly not steady-state. The results of this study help to place in context research work that is focused on direct emissions from WWTPs (including N(2)O, methane and carbon dioxide of non-biogenic origin). For example, whereas non-biogenic CO(2

  2. Greenhouse gas emission accounting for EU member states from 1991 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Yin, Xuemei; Zheng, Ying; Chen, Shaoqing; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions for the EU28 during 1991–2012 are accounted. • The EU28 are classified into four groups based on GHG emission structure. • It can facilitate classified management of GHG emissions. • The EU case shows the common but differentiated principle in emission reduction. - Abstract: Collectively, the EU is among the world’s largest greenhouse gas (GHG) emitters, though remarkable decreases in GHG emissions have been observed in recent years. In this work the GHG emissions for the 28 EU member states between 1991 and 2012 are accounted for and compared according to the inventory method of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The structure of GHG emissions at a national level, their distribution between countries, and trends across the period are then analyzed. National emission sources and sinks are decomposed for each country to elucidate the contribution of each sector (energy, industrial processes, solvents and other product use, agriculture, land use/land-use change and forestry, and waste) to the national totals. Germany was the largest emitter, with net emissions totaling 939 Tg CO_2 equivalent in 2012, 60% more than the UK and 89% more than France, the second and third biggest emitters, respectively. The energy sector and agriculture were found to be the largest sources of emissions in most countries. Four quadrants were established to compare countries’ performance in emission intensity, carbon removal rate, and net reduction rate of GHG emissions. Slovenia, Portugal, Sweden, and Finland were located in Quadrant II as they displayed relatively low emission intensities and high carbon removal rates. Conversely, Hungary, Greece, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, and Poland were located in Quadrant IV because of their relatively high emission intensities and low carbon removal rates. Some suggestions for integrating the annual results and the trends both within and among countries into national and regional emissions

  3. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon budgeting in a short-hydroperiod floodplain wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Jackie; Noe, Gregory B.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Krauss, Ken W.; Rybicki, Nancy B.; Schenk, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the controls on floodplain carbon (C) cycling is important for assessing greenhouse gas emissions and the potential for C sequestration in river-floodplain ecosystems. We hypothesized that greater hydrologic connectivity would increase C inputs to floodplains that would not only stimulate soil C gas emissions but also sequester more C in soils. In an urban Piedmont river (151 km2 watershed) with a floodplain that is dry most of the year, we quantified soil CO2, CH4, and N2O net emissions along gradients of floodplain hydrologic connectivity, identified controls on soil aerobic and anaerobic respiration, and developed a floodplain soil C budget. Sites were chosen along a longitudinal river gradient and across lateral floodplain geomorphic units (levee, backswamp, and toe slope). CO2 emissions decreased downstream in backswamps and toe slopes and were high on the levees. CH4 and N2O fluxes were near zero; however, CH4emissions were highest in the backswamp. Annual CO2 emissions correlated negatively with soil water-filled pore space and positively with variables related to drier, coarser soil. Conversely, annual CH4 emissions had the opposite pattern of CO2. Spatial variation in aerobic and anaerobic respiration was thus controlled by oxygen availability but was not related to C inputs from sedimentation or vegetation. The annual mean soil CO2 emission rate was 1091 g C m−2 yr−1, the net sedimentation rate was 111 g C m−2 yr−1, and the vegetation production rate was 240 g C m−2 yr−1, with a soil C balance (loss) of −338 g C m−2 yr−1. This floodplain is losing C likely due to long-term drying from watershed urbanization.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-01-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO 2 e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO 2 e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO 2 e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO 2 e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO 2 e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO 2 e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO 2 e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO 2 e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO 2 e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Majid, E-mail: majid_qau86@yahoo.com [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, University of Haripur, Hattar Road, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Haripur 22620 (Pakistan); Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian [Leaf Agronomy Manager, Pakistan Tobacco Company, Akora Khattak Factory, P.O. and District Nowshera, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan); Malik, Riffat Naseem, E-mail: r_n_malik2000@yahoo.co.uk [Environmental Biology and Ecotoxicology Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Sharma, Benktesh Dash [University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  6. Development of odorous gas model using municipal solid waste emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nahar bin Othman; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Ku Halim Ku Hamid

    2010-01-01

    The impact of ambient odour in the vicinity of the Semenyih MSW processing plant, commonly known as RDF plant, can be very negative to the nearby population, causing public restlessness and consequently affecting the business operation and sustainability of the plant. The precise source of the odour, types, emission level and the meteorological conditions are needed to predict and established the ambient odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant and address it with respect to the ambient standards. To develop the odour gas model for the purpose of treatment is very compulsory because in MSW odour it contain many component of chemical that contribute the smell. Upon modelling using an established package as well as site measurements, the odour level at the perimeter fence of the plant was deduced and found to be marginally high, above the normal ambient level. Based on this issue, a study was made to model odour using Ausplume Model. This paper will address and discuss the measurement of ambient gas odour, the dispersion modelling to establish the critical ambient emission level, as well as experimental validation using a simulated odour. The focus will be made on exploring the use of Ausplume modelling to develop the pattern of odour concentrations for various condition and times, as well as adapting the model for MSW odour controls. (author)

  7. CO and PAH Emissions from Engines Operating on Biomass Producer Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Jensen, Torben Kvist; Henriksen, Ulrik Birk

    2003-01-01

    High carbon monoxide (CO) emission from gas engines fueled by producer gas is a concerning problem in the struggle to make biomass gasification for heat and power production a success. The standing regulations concerning CO emissions from producer gas engine based power plants in most EU countrie...

  8. Effects of Greenhouse Gas Emissions on World Agriculture, Food Consumption, and Economic Welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwin, R.

    2004-01-01

    Because of many uncertainties, quantitative estimates of agriculturally related economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions are often given low confidence. A major source of uncertainty is our inability to accurately project future changes in economic activity, emissions, and climate. This paper focuses on two issues. First, to what extent do variable projections of climate generate uncertainty in agriculturally related economic impacts? Second, to what extent do agriculturally related economic impacts of greenhouse gas emissions depend on economic conditions at the time of impacts? Results indicate that uncertainty due to variable projections of climate is fairly large for most of the economic effects evaluated in this analysis. Results also indicate that economic conditions at the time of impact influence the direction and size of as well as the confidence in the economic effects of identical projections of greenhouse gas impacts. The economic variable that behaves most consistently in this analysis is world crop production. Increases in mean global temperature, for example, cause world crop production to decrease on average under both 1990 and improved economic conditions and in both instances the confidence with respect to variable projections of climate is medium (e.g., 67%) or greater. In addition and as expected, CO2 fertilization causes world crop production to increase on average under 1990 and improved economic conditions. These results suggest that crop production may be a fairly robust indicator of the potential impacts of greenhouse gas emissions. A somewhat unexpected finding is that improved economic conditions are not necessarily a panacea to potential greenhouse-gas-induced damages, particularly at the region level. In fact, in some regions, impacts of climate change or CO2 fertilization that are beneficial under current economic conditions may be detrimental under improved economic conditions (relative to the new economic base). Australia plus

  9. The impact of a pulsing groundwater table on greenhouse gas emissions in riparian grey alder stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Ülo; Maddison, Martin; Soosaar, Kaido; Teemusk, Alar; Kanal, Arno; Uri, Veiko; Truu, Jaak

    2015-02-01

    Floods control greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in floodplains; however, there is a lack of data on the impact of short-term events on emissions. We studied the short-term effect of changing groundwater (GW) depth on the emission of (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in two riparian grey alder (Alnus incana) stands of different age in Kambja, southern Estonia, using the opaque static chamber (five replicates in each site) and gas chromatography methods. The average carbon and total nitrogen content in the soil of the old alder (OA) stand was significantly higher than in the young alder (YA) stand. In both stands, one part was chosen for water table manipulation (Manip) and another remained unchanged with a stable and deeper GW table. Groundwater table manipulation (flooding) significantly increases CH4 emission (average: YA-Dry 468, YA-Manip 8,374, OA-Dry 468, OA-Manip 4,187 μg C m(-2) h(-1)) and decreases both CO2 (average: OA-Dry 138, OA-Manip 80 mg C m(-2) h(-1)) and N2O emissions (average: OA-Dry 23.1, OA-Manip 11.8 μg N m(-2) h(-1)) in OA sites. There was no significant difference in CO2 and CH4 emissions between the OA and YA sites, whereas in OA sites with higher N concentration in the soil, the N2O emission was significantly higher than at the YA sites. The relative CO2 and CH4 emissions (the soil C stock-related share of gaseous losses) were higher in manipulated plots showing the highest values in the YA-Manip plot (0.03 and 0.0030 % C day(-1), respectively). The soil N stock-related N2O emission was very low achieving 0.000019 % N day(-1) in the OA-Dry plot. Methane emission shows a negative correlation with GW, whereas the 20 cm depth is a significant limit below which most of the produced CH4 is oxidized. In terms of CO2 and N2O, the deeper GW table significantly increases emission. In riparian zones of headwater streams, the short-term floods (e.g. those driven by extreme climate events) may significantly enhance

  10. Photon gas with hyperbolic dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohseni, Morteza

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the density of states for a photon gas confined in a nonmagnetic metamaterial medium in which some components of the permittivity tensor are negative. We study the effect of the resulting hyperbolic dispersion relations on the black body spectral density. We show that for both of the possible wavevector space topologies, the spectral density vanishes at a certain frequency. We obtain the partition function and derive some thermodynamical quantities of the system. To leading order, the results resemble those of a one- or two-dimensional photon gas with an enhanced density of states. (paper)

  11. Estimating the Impact of US Agriculture Subsidies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshel, G.; Martin, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    It has been proposed in the popular media that US agricultural subsidies contribute deleteriously to both the American diet and environment. In this view, subsidies render mostly corn-based, animal products and sweeteners artificically cheap, leading to enhanced consumption. Problems accompanying this structure mentioned include enhanced meat, fat and sugar consumption and the associated enhancement of obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type II diabetes and possible various types of cancer, as well as air, soil and water pollution. Often overlooked in these discussions is the potential enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions accompanying this policy-based steering of food consumption toward certain products at the expense of others, possibly more nutritionally and environmentally benign. If such enhancements are in fact borne out by data, the policies that give rise to them will prove to constitute government-sponsored enhancement of greenhouse gas emissions, in contrast to any climate change mitigation efforts. If so, they represent low- hanging fruits in the national effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which may one day be launched. Agriculture subsidies impact the emissions of CO2 (by direct energy consumption), nitrous oxide (by land use alteration and manure management), and methane (by ruminant digestion and manure treatment). Quantifying the impacts of agricultural subsidies is complicated by many compounding and conflicting effects (many related to human behavior rather than the natural sciences) and the relatively short data timeseries. For example, subsidy policies change over time, certain subsidy types are introduced or eliminated, food preferences change as nutritional understanding (or propaganda) shift, etc. Despite the difficulties, such quantification is crucial to better estimate the overall effect and variability of dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions, and ultimately minimize environmental impacts. In this study, we take preliminary

  12. Frameworks for pricing greenhouse gas emissions and the policy objectives they promote

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, Paul A.T.

    2013-01-01

    Four cost-effective frameworks for pricing greenhouse gas emissions currently receive widespread attention: cap-and-trade, emission fees, and hybrid cap-and-trade approaches that include upper or lower limits on permit prices (price ceilings or floors). This paper develops a fifth framework that uses an emission fee with an upper limit on the quantity of emissions—a quantity ceiling—and compares the impact of each framework on emission prices and quantities. Cap-and-trade with a price ceiling minimizes price increases for emitting activities in all cases whereas an emission fee with a quantity ceiling maximizes emissions reductions. Thus, the choice of framework influences policy outcomes because each framework is more or less suited to particular policy goals. Whether pursuing one potential policy goal serves society's interests best depends on the eventual consequences of climate damage and emissions pricing, which are uncertain when policy choices are made. Policy updating over time may reduce but likely cannot entirely eliminate the differences in outcome that arise due to framework choice. Therefore, the “best” framework for emissions pricing depends on subjective preferences regarding the relative importance of different policy objectives, most notably whether one is more risk averse to climate damages or emissions price increases. - Highlights: • This article develops and examines a carbon tax that includes a quantity constraint on emissions. • This approach maximizes climate protection in all cases, unlike existing policy alternatives. • This promotes rapid reductions in emissions if mitigation is easy without risk to long term targets. • This analysis reveals that different policy frameworks promote different policy goals. • The analysis helps round out ongoing policy discussions over how to deal with climate change

  13. Identifying key drivers of greenhouse gas emissions from biomass feedstocks for energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, David R.; Curtright, Aimee E.; Willis, Henry H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Production emissions dominate transportation and processing emissions. • Choice of feedstock, geographic location and prior land use drive emissions profile. • Within scenarios, emissions variability is driven by uncertainty in yields. • Favorable scenarios maximize carbon storage from direct land-use change. • Similarly, biomass production should attempt to minimize indirect land-use change. -- Abstract: Many policies in the United States, at both the federal and state levels, encourage the adoption of renewable energy from biomass. Though largely motivated by a desire to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, these policies do not explicitly identify scenarios in which the use of biomass will produce the greatest benefits. We have modeled “farm-to-hopper” emissions associated with seven biomass feedstocks, under a wide variety of scenarios and production choices, to characterize the uncertainty in emissions. We demonstrate that only a handful of factors have a significant impact on life cycle emissions: choice of feedstock, geographic location, prior land use, and time dynamics. Within a given production scenario, the remaining variability in emissions is driven by uncertainty in feedstock yields and the release rate of N 2 O into the atmosphere from nitrogen fertilizers. With few exceptions, transport and processing choices have relatively little impact on total emissions. These results illustrate the key decisions that will determine the success of biomass programs in reducing the emissions profile of energy production, and our publicly available model provides a useful tool for identifying the most beneficial production scenarios. While model data and results are restricted to biomass production in the contiguous United States, we provide qualitative guidance for identifying favorable production scenarios that should be applicable in other regions

  14. Gas emission from anaerobic decomposition of plant resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available Abstract: Aim The aim of this study was to quantify the emission rates of gases resulting from the anaerobic decomposition of different plant resources under conditions usually found in sediments of tropical aquatic systems and drained organic soils. Methods Incubations were prepared with green leaves, bark, twigs, plant litter, sugarcane stalks and leaves, soybean leaves, grasses, forest leaves and an aquatic macrophyte (Typha domingensis. Over 10 months, the daily volume of gas evolved from decay was measured and a kinetic model was used to describe the anaerobic mineralization. Results Using the mathematical model, it can be observed that the composition of the plant resources is heterogeneous. The temporal variation of the gas rates indicated that the mineralization of the labile fractions of detritus varied, on a carbon basis, from 16.2 (bark to 100% (samples composed of leaves, grasses and sugar cane stalks. High gas emissions were observed during the mineralization of grasses, sugar cane stalks, leaves and plant litter, while low volumes of gases were measured during the mineralization of bark, twigs, forest leaves and T. domingensis, which are the most fibrous and recalcitrant resources (carbon content: 83.8, 78.2, 64.8 and 53.4%, respectively. The mineralization of labile carbon presented half-life values, which varied from 41 (twigs to 295 days (grasses. Conclusions Considering the high amount of remaining recalcitrant fraction, the anaerobic decomposition of these plant resources showed a strong trend towards accumulating organic matter in flooded soils. Despite the higher temperatures found in the tropical environment, these environments represent a sink of particulate detritus due to its slow decomposition.

  15. Localization of fugitive methane emission from natural gas distribution network of Titas Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal Pradip C.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to localize the fugitive leaks from the above ground facilities of the existing system of Titas Gas (TG after developing mathematical model for fugitive emission. Soap screening techniques and Gasurveyor 500 series instrument were used in this study for detecting potential leaks. Leaked gas was quantified using either Hi-Flow gas sampler or bagging measurements system. The results show that the respective potential gas leaking point of City Gate Station (CGS, commercial Regulating and Metering Station (RMS, industrial RMS, residential RMS and Town Bordering Station (TBS/ District Regulating Station (DRS are scrubber dump valve (average leak rate 217.00 L/min, insulating point (average leak rate 4.04 L/min, tube fitting connector (average leak rate 8.00 L/min, connector (average leak rate 1.55 L/min and pressure relief valve (average leak rate 437.92 L/min. Fugitive methane emission can be reduced by stopping leaks of fittings or components having high KLeak value.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, R.L.; Perlack, R.D.; Prasad, A.M.G.; Ranney, J.W.; Waddle, D.B.

    1990-11-01

    Current and future carbon emissions from land-use change and energy consumption were analyzed for Sub-Saharan Africa. The energy sector analysis was based on UN energy data tapes while the land-use analysis was based on a spatially-explicit land-use model developed specifically for this project. The impacts of different energy and land-use strategies on future carbon emissions were considered. (A review of anthropogenic emissions of methane, nitrous oxides, and chlorofluorocarbons in Sub-Saharan Africa indicated that they were probably minor in both a global and a regional context. The study therefore was focused on emissions of carbon dioxide.) The land-use model predicts carbon emissions from land use change and the amount of carbon stored in vegetation (carbon inventory) on a yearly basis between 1985 and 2001. Emissions and inventory are modeled at 9000 regularly-spaced point locations in Sub-Saharan Africa using location-specific information on vegetation type, soils, climate and deforestation. Vegetation, soils, and climate information were derived from continental-scale maps while relative deforestation rates(% of forest land lost each year) were developed from country-specific forest and deforestation statistics (FAO Tropical Forest Resources Assessment for Africa, 1980). The carbon emissions under different land use strategies in Sub-Saharan Africa were analyzed by modifying deforestation rates and altering the amount of carbon stored under different land uses. The considered strategies were: preservation of existing forests, implementation of agroforestry, and establishment of industrial tree plantations. 82 refs., 16 figs., 25 tabs.

  17. Climate change science : high quality greenhouse gas emissions data are a cornerstone of programs to address climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-24

    This testimony focuses on (1) the importance of quality data on emissions in the context of a program intended to limit greenhouse gas emissions, and (2) key considerations in developing reliable data on greenhouse gas emissions. This testimony is ba...

  18. Source limitation of carbon gas emissions in high-elevation mountain streams and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, John T.; Dornblaser, Mark M.; Stanley, Emily H.; Clow, David W.; Striegl, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle through transport, storage, and direct emissions of CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere. Despite predictions of high physical gas exchange rates due to turbulent flows and ubiquitous supersaturation of CO2—and perhaps also CH4—patterns of gas emissions are essentially undocumented for high mountain ecosystems. Much like other headwater networks around the globe, we found that high-elevation streams in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA, were supersaturated with CO2 during the growing season and were net sources to the atmosphere. CO2concentrations in lakes, on the other hand, tended to be less than atmospheric equilibrium during the open water season. CO2 and CH4 emissions from the aquatic conduit were relatively small compared to many parts of the globe. Irrespective of the physical template for high gas exchange (high k), we found evidence of CO2 source limitation to mountain streams during the growing season, which limits overall CO2emissions. Our results suggest a reduced importance of aquatic ecosystems for carbon cycling in high-elevation landscapes having limited soil development and high CO2 consumption via mineral weathering.

  19. Developments in greenhouse gas emissions and net energy use in Danish agriculture - How to achieve substantial CO2 reductions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalgaard, T.; Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Petersen, B.M.; Jorgensen, U.; Kristensen, T.; Hutchings, N.J.; Gyldenkaerne, S.; Hermansen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture are a significant contributor to total Danish emissions. Consequently, much effort is currently given to the exploration of potential strategies to reduce agricultural emissions. This paper presents results from a study estimating agricultural GHG emissions in the form of methane, nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide (including carbon sources and sinks, and the impact of energy consumption/bioenergy production) from Danish agriculture in the years 1990-2010. An analysis of possible measures to reduce the GHG emissions indicated that a 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable, including mitigation measures in relation to the handling of manure and fertilisers, optimization of animal feeding, cropping practices, and land use changes with more organic farming, afforestation and energy crops. In addition, the bioenergy production may be increased significantly without reducing the food production, whereby Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Highlights: → GHG emissions from Danish agriculture 1990-2010 are calculated, including carbon sequestration. → Effects of measures to further reduce GHG emissions are listed. → Land use scenarios for a substantially reduced GHG emission by 2050 are presented. → A 50-70% reduction of agricultural emissions by 2050 relative to 1990 is achievable. → Via bioenergy production Danish agriculture could achieve a positive energy balance. - Scenario studies of greenhouse gas mitigation measures illustrate the possible realization of CO 2 reductions for Danish agriculture by 2050, sustaining current food production.

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions considered responsible for climate change: Environmental indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vialetto, G.; Venanzi, M.; Gaudioso, D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper concerns the more significant environmental indicators related to the emissions of radiatively and chemically/photochemically active trace gases. Reference is made to the preliminary work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and to the proposals made in the framework of the international negotiation on climate change. Aiming to contribute to the definition of a national strategy for the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, this paper proposes a possible application of the indicators. The calculation of the indicators is based on the emission estimate performed by ENEA (Italian National Agency for Energy, New Technologies and the Environment) for the Report on the State of the Environment edited by the Italian Ministry of the Environment. Finally, the paper suggests an application of such indicators for the international negotiation, in the framework of the Italian proposal for the Convention on climate change

  1. Curbing Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industrial Boilers in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Lynn K [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Liu, Xu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Tsen, Katherine [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Xiangyang, Wei [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Yunpeng, Zhang [National Energy Conservation Center (China); Jian, Guan [China Special Equipment Inspection & Test Inst. (China); Rui, Hou [China Machinery Industry Conservation & Resource Utilization Center (China); Junfeng, Zhang [China National Offshore Oil Corp. (China); Yuqun, Zhuo [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Shumao, Xia [China Energy Conservation & Environmental Protection Group (China); Yafeng, Han [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China); Manzhi, Liu [China Univ. of Mining and Technology (China)

    2015-10-28

    China’s industrial boiler systems consume 700 million tons of coal annually, accounting for 18% of the nation’s total coal consumption. Together these boiler systems are one of the major sources of China’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, producing approximately 1.3 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually. These boiler systems are also responsible for 33% and 27% of total soot and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions in China, respectively, making a substantial contribution to China’s local environmental degradation. The Chinese government - at both the national and local level - is taking actions to mitigate the significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and air pollution related to the country’s extensive use of coal-fired industrial boilers. The United States and China are pursuing a collaborative effort under the U.S.-China Climate Change Working Group to conduct a comprehensive assessment of China’s coal-fired industrial boilers and to develop an implementation roadmap that will improve industrial boiler efficiency and maximize fuel-switching opportunities. Two Chinese cities – Ningbo and Xi’an – have been selected for the assessment. These cities represent coastal areas with access to liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports and inland regions with access to interprovincial natural gas pipelines, respectively.

  2. Forest carbon accounting methods and the consequences of forest bioenergy for national greenhouse gas emissions inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKechnie, Jon; Colombo, Steve; MacLean, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Forest carbon accounting influences the national GHG inventory impacts of bioenergy. • Current accounting rules may overlook forest carbon trade-offs of bioenergy. • Wood pellet trade risks creating an emissions burden for exporting countries. - Abstract: While bioenergy plays a key role in strategies for increasing renewable energy deployment, studies assessing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from forest bioenergy systems have identified a potential trade-off of the system with forest carbon stocks. Of particular importance to national GHG inventories is how trade-offs between forest carbon stocks and bioenergy production are accounted for within the Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sector under current and future international climate change mitigation agreements. Through a case study of electricity produced using wood pellets from harvested forest stands in Ontario, Canada, this study assesses the implications of forest carbon accounting approaches on net emissions attributable to pellets produced for domestic use or export. Particular emphasis is placed on the forest management reference level (FMRL) method, as it will be employed by most Annex I nations in the next Kyoto Protocol Commitment Period. While bioenergy production is found to reduce forest carbon sequestration, under the FMRL approach this trade-off may not be accounted for and thus not incur an accountable AFOLU-related emission, provided that total forest harvest remains at or below that defined under the FMRL baseline. In contrast, accounting for forest carbon trade-offs associated with harvest for bioenergy results in an increase in net GHG emissions (AFOLU and life cycle emissions) lasting 37 or 90 years (if displacing coal or natural gas combined cycle generation, respectively). AFOLU emissions calculated using the Gross-Net approach are dominated by legacy effects of past management and natural disturbance, indicating near-term net forest carbon increase but

  3. Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

    1999-10-01

    The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation

  4. Description and application of the EAP computer program for calculating life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of household consumption items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benders, R.M.J.; Wilting, H.C.; Kramer, K.J.; Moll, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Focusing on reduction in energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, a life-cycle-based analysis tool has been developed. The energy analysis program (EAP) is a computer program for determining energy use and greenhouse gas emissions related to household consumption items, using a hybrid calculation

  5. Room chamber assessment of the pollutant emission properties of (nominally) low-emission unflued gas heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, S.K.; Mahoney, K.J., Min Cheng [CSIRO Manufacturing and Infrastructure Technology, Victoria (Australia)

    2004-07-01

    Pollutant emissions from unflued gas heaters were assessed in CSIRO'a Room Dynamic Environmental Chamber. This paper describes the chamber assessment procedure and presents findings for major commercial heaters that are nominally 'low-emission'. The chamber was operated at controlled conditions of temperature, humidity, ventilation and air mixing, representative of those encountered in typical indoor environments. A fixed rate of heat removal from the chamber air ensured that the heaters operated at constant heating rates, typically {approx}6 MJ/h which simulated operation of a heater after warm-up in an insulated dwelling in south-east Australia. The pollutants assessed were nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, VOCs and respirable suspended particulates. One type of heater was lower emitting for nigroen dioxide, but emitted greater amounts of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde (the latter becoming significant to indoor air quality). When operated with low line pressure of slight misalignment of the gas burner, this heater became a hazardous source of these pollutants. Emissions from the heates changed little after continous operation for up to 2 months. (au)

  6. Adherence to dietary recommendations for Swedish adults across categories of greenhouse gas emissions from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Hedenus, Fredrik; Sjölander, Arvid; Tillander, Annika; Bälter, Katarina

    2017-12-01

    To explore associations between diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), nutrient intakes and adherence to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations among Swedish adults. Diet was assessed by 4d food records in the Swedish National Dietary Survey. GHGE was estimated by linking all foods to carbon dioxide equivalents, using data from life cycle assessment studies. Participants were categorized into quartiles of energy-adjusted GHGE and differences between GHGE groups regarding nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations were explored. Sweden. Women (n 840) and men (n 627) aged 18-80 years. Differences in nutrient intakes and adherence to nutrient recommendations between GHGE groups were generally small. The dietary intake of participants with the lowest emissions was more in line with recommendations regarding protein, carbohydrates, dietary fibre and vitamin D, but further from recommendations regarding added sugar, compared with the highest GHGE group. The overall adherence to recommendations was found to be better among participants with lower emissions compared with higher emissions. Among women, 27 % in the lowest GHGE group adhered to at least twenty-three recommendations compared with only 12 % in the highest emission group. For men, the corresponding figures were 17 and 10 %, respectively. The study compared nutrient intakes as well as adherence to dietary recommendations for diets with different levels of GHGE from a national dietary survey. We found that participants with low-emission diets, despite higher intake of added sugar, adhered to a larger number of dietary recommendations than those with high emissions.

  7. Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from 10 biogas plants within the agricultural sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, J; Reinelt, T; Clemens, J; Hafermann, C; Friehe, J; Weiland, P

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing number of biogas plants in Germany the necessity for an exact determination of the actual effect on the greenhouse gas emissions related to the energy production gains importance. Hitherto the life cycle assessments have been based on estimations of emissions of biogas plants. The lack of actual emission evaluations has been addressed within a project from which the selected results are presented here. The data presented here have been obtained during a survey in which 10 biogas plants were analysed within two measurement periods each. As the major methane emission sources the open storage of digestates ranging from 0.22 to 11.2% of the methane utilized and the exhaust of the co-generation units ranging from 0.40 to 3.28% have been identified. Relevant ammonia emissions have been detected from the open digestate storage. The main source of nitrous oxide emissions was the co-generation unit. Regarding the potential of measures to reduce emissions it is highly recommended to focus on the digestate storage and the exhaust of the co-generation.

  8. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, Albert H.; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-01-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  9. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities — Modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baur, Albert H., E-mail: Albert.H.Baur@campus.tu-berlin.de; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. - Highlights: • Two variables determine urban GHG emissions in Europe, assuming equal power generation. • Household size, inner-urban compactness and power generation drive urban GHG emissions. • Climate policies should consider

  10. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  11. 0-6696 : incorporating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in long-range transportation planning : [project summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions continue to be : an important focus area for state, local, and : federal agencies. The transportation sector is the : second biggest contributor to GHG emissions in : the United States, and Texas contributes the : highe...

  12. U.S. Airport Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventories: State of the Practice and Recommendations for Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This document presents highlights from five research reports on airport greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventories. It presents the most salient findings for policy makers and U.S. airports seeking to better understand and inventory airport GHG emiss...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions of Dutch biomass. Quantification of greenhouse gases emission of Dutch biomass for electricity and heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koop, K.; Yildiz, I.

    2010-09-01

    The greenhouse gas emissions of all available flows of the biomass chain have been established. This report has the following aims: (1) to establish the greenhouse gas emission of Dutch biomass available for generating electricity and heat; (2) to obtain insight in the opportunities and threats for using the potential of the biomass chains that have the highest potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This report can be seen as a supplement to the report 'Availability of Dutch biomass for electricity and heat in 2020' (2009) [nl

  14. Relative Greenhouse Gas Abatement Cost Competitiveness of Biofuels in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Millinger

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper, the analysis and modeling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany are carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet-based ethanol for the short- to medium-term least-cost option and substitute natural gas (SNG for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize-based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations, as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid out in policy.

  15. Accounting for greenhouse gas emissions outside the national borders in FENCH-GHG energy planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vate, J.F. van de

    1996-01-01

    This paper aims at providing guidance to the workshop discussion on the accountability of full-energy-chain greenhouse gas emissions from the use of energy sources if emissions did not take place inside the national borders of a country. Examples of such emissions are those from the generation of imported electricity or from mining and transportation of coal and natural gas. The FENCH-GHG approach, if used in energy planning, would automatically take such greenhouse gas emissions, which are inherent to energy systems, into account. The paper raises the basics, practicality and the feasibility of dealing with extra-boundary emissions in energy planning. (author). 3 refs

  16. MAGA, a new database of gas natural emissions: a collaborative web environment for collecting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Carlo; Chiodini, Giovanni; Frigeri, Alessandro; Bagnato, Emanuela; Frondini, Francesco; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    The data on volcanic and non-volcanic gas emissions available online are, as today, are incomplete and most importantly, fragmentary. Hence, there is need for common frameworks to aggregate available data, in order to characterize and quantify the phenomena at various scales. A new and detailed web database (MAGA: MApping GAs emissions) has been developed, and recently improved, to collect data on carbon degassing form volcanic and non-volcanic environments. MAGA database allows researchers to insert data interactively and dynamically into a spatially referred relational database management system, as well as to extract data. MAGA kicked-off with the database set up and with the ingestion in to the database of the data from: i) a literature survey on publications on volcanic gas fluxes including data on active craters degassing, diffuse soil degassing and fumaroles both from dormant closed-conduit volcanoes (e.g., Vulcano, Phlegrean Fields, Santorini, Nysiros, Teide, etc.) and open-vent volcanoes (e.g., Etna, Stromboli, etc.) in the Mediterranean area and Azores, and ii) the revision and update of Googas database on non-volcanic emission of the Italian territory (Chiodini et al., 2008), in the framework of the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing (DECADE) research initiative of the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO). For each geo-located gas emission site, the database holds images and description of the site and of the emission type (e.g., diffuse emission, plume, fumarole, etc.), gas chemical-isotopic composition (when available), gas temperature and gases fluxes magnitude. Gas sampling, analysis and flux measurement methods are also reported together with references and contacts to researchers expert of each site. In this phase data can be accessed on the network from a web interface, and data-driven web service, where software clients can request data directly from the database, are planned to be implemented shortly. This way Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and

  17. The role of transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The potential role of passenger transportation technologies in reducing greenhouse gas emissions was discussed. The technologies considered in the report were those that affect ground transportation of passengers and were in at least the early stages of development in 1995. They were: (1) technologies to improve the fuel efficiency of cars and light trucks, (2) alternative fuels for internal combustion engines, (3) electric hybrid vehicles, (4) advanced technology transit buses, (5) intelligent transportation systems, (6) high speed rail, and (7) bicycles. For each option, the advantages and disadvantages were described. The feasibility of establishing a high-speed rail system serving Canada's most densely populated region, the Windsor to Quebec City corridor, was discussed. Economic and environmental studies of such a proposal are underway. tabs

  18. Statistical polarization in greenhouse gas emissions: Theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen

    2017-11-01

    The current debate on climate change is over whether global warming can be limited in order to lessen its impacts. In this sense, evidence of a decrease in the statistical polarization in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could encourage countries to establish a stronger multilateral climate change agreement. Based on the interregional and intraregional components of the multivariate generalised entropy measures (Maasoumi, 1986), Gigliarano and Mosler (2009) proposed to study the statistical polarization concept from a multivariate view. In this paper, we apply this approach to study the evolution of such phenomenon in the global distribution of the main GHGs. The empirical analysis has been carried out for the time period 1990-2011, considering an endogenous grouping of countries (Aghevli and Mehran, 1981; Davies and Shorrocks, 1989). Most of the statistical polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern that was similar regardless of the number of groups considered. Finally, some policy implications are commented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  20. Emission quantification using the tracer gas dispersion method: The influence of instrument, tracer gas species and source simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delre, Antonio; Mønster, Jacob; Samuelsson, Jerker

    2018-01-01

    The tracer gas dispersion method (TDM) is a remote sensing method used for quantifying fugitive emissions by relying on the controlled release of a tracer gas at the source, combined with concentration measurements of the tracer and target gas plumes. The TDM was tested at a wastewater treatment...... plant for plant-integrated methane emission quantification, using four analytical instruments simultaneously and four different tracer gases. Measurements performed using a combination of an analytical instrument and a tracer gas, with a high ratio between the tracer gas release rate and instrument...... precision (a high release-precision ratio), resulted in well-defined plumes with a high signal-to-noise ratio and a high methane-to-tracer gas correlation factor. Measured methane emission rates differed by up to 18% from the mean value when measurements were performed using seven different instrument...

  1. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauen Ausilio

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy

  2. The possibilities of municipal operations to control greenhouse gas emissions of road traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeily, S.

    2004-07-01

    Kyoto protocol obligates industrialized countries to decrease their greenhouse gas emissions averagely by 5,2 percent from the 1990 level before 2008-2012. Finland is committed to stabilize its greenhouse gas emissions to the level of year 1990 before 2008-2012. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, nitric oxide, sulphur dioxide, particles and carbon dioxide are regarded as hazardous emissions of road traffic. These gases are generated by impure burning which is generally expected. From these gases carbon dioxide is considered to be the actual greenhouse gas. Nitric oxide, vaporizing hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide are considered to be indirect greenhouse gases. 20 percent of Finland's carbon dioxide emissions comes from road traffic. Actions aimed to decrease greenhouse gas emissions can be executed at various levels. The smaller the size of an actor is, the more specific the possible actions are. The actions of public administration are based on controlling economy, traffic systems and maintenance of order. The actions of private companies and communities are based on economical profitability. Decisions of individual persons are still the most significant factor in decreasing green house gases generated by passenger traffic. In this study an operations model was developed for municipalities to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. As a case city of the study was the city of Tampere. Tampere is the third largest city in Finland and has over 15,000 employees. A more specific set of measures was introduced to three different operational units, the University Hospital of Tampere, the primary school of Tammela and the amusement park Saerkaenniemi. For each unit suitable measures were searched by studying the unit's traffic-related significance to help to decrease the unit's greenhouse gas emissions. The traffic generated by municipal operations is mainly related to commuting, work-related, customer and maintenance traffic. Measures which are

  3. Statistical polarization in greenhouse gas emissions: Theory and evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remuzgo, Lorena; Trueba, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    The current debate on climate change is over whether global warming can be limited in order to lessen its impacts. In this sense, evidence of a decrease in the statistical polarization in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could encourage countries to establish a stronger multilateral climate change agreement. Based on the interregional and intraregional components of the multivariate generalised entropy measures (Maasoumi, 1986), Gigliarano and Mosler (2009) proposed to study the statistical polarization concept from a multivariate view. In this paper, we apply this approach to study the evolution of such phenomenon in the global distribution of the main GHGs. The empirical analysis has been carried out for the time period 1990–2011, considering an endogenous grouping of countries (Aghevli and Mehran, 1981; Davies and Shorrocks, 1989). Most of the statistical polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern that was similar regardless of the number of groups considered. Finally, some policy implications are commented. - Highlights: • We study the evolution of global polarization in GHG emissions. • We consider the four main GHGs: CO2, CH4, N2O and F-gases. • We use the multidimensional polarization indices (). • We consider an endogenous grouping of countries (). • Most of the polarization indices showed a slightly increasing pattern.

  4. Advanced fuels for gas turbines: Fuel system corrosion, hot path deposit formation and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seljak, Tine; Širok, Brane; Katrašnik, Tomaž

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Technical feasibility analysis of alternative fuels requires a holistic approach. • Fuel, combustion, corrosion and component functionality are strongly related. • Used approach defines design constraints for microturbines using alternative fuels. - Abstract: To further expand the knowledge base on the use of innovative fuels in the micro gas turbines, this paper provides insight into interrelation between specific fuel properties and their impact on combustion and emission formation phenomena in micro gas turbines for stationary power generation as well as their impact on material corrosion and deposit formation. The objective of this study is to identify potential issues that can be related to specific fuel properties and to propose counter measures for achieving stable, durable, efficient and low emission operation of the micro gas turbine while utilizing advanced/innovative fuels. This is done by coupling combustion and emission formation analyses to analyses of material degradation and degradation of component functionality while interpreting them through fuel-specific properties. To ensure sufficiently broad range of fuel properties to demonstrate the applicability of the method, two different fuels with significantly different properties are analysed, i.e. tire pyrolysis oil and liquefied wood. It is shown that extent of required micro gas turbine adaptations strongly correlates with deviations of the fuel properties from those of the baseline fuel. Through the study, these adaptations are supported by in-depth analyses of impacts of fuel properties on different components, parameters and subsystems and their quantification. This holistic approach is further used to propose methodologies and innovative approaches for constraining a design space of micro gas turbine to successfully utilize wide spectra of alternative/innovative fuels.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss agriculture since 1990: implications for environmental policies to mitigate global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifeld, Jens [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: jens.leifeld@fal.admin.ch; Fuhrer, Juerg [AGROSCOPE, Swiss Federal Research Station for Agroecology and Agriculture, Air Pollution/Climate Group, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2005-08-01

    Agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions contribute significantly to global warming, and environmental protection strategies have thus to integrate emission reduction measures from this source. In Switzerland, legislation together with monetary incentives has forced primarily integrated, and to a lesser extend organic farming, both covering nowadays more than 95% of the agriculturally useful area. Though reducing greenhouse gas emissions was not a primary intention of this reorganisation, the measures were successful in reducing the overall emissions of nitrous oxide and methane by 10% relative to 1990. A reduction of the animal herd, namely of dairy cattle, non-dairy cattle and swine, and decreasing inputs of mineral N are the main contributors to the achieved emission reduction. Crop productivity was not negatively affected and milk productivity even increased, referring to the ecological potential of agricultural reorganisation that has been tapped. Total meat production declined proportional to the animal herd. Stabilised animal numbers and fertiliser use during the last 4 years refer to an exhaustion of future reduction potentials without further legislative action because this stabilisation is most likely due to the adaptation to the production guidelines. A comparison of emission trends and carbon sequestration potentials in the broader context of the EU15 reveals that nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) have been reduced more efficiently most probably due to the measures taken, but that sequestration potentials are smaller than in the EU15 mainly because of differences in the agricultural structure. The change from an intensified towards a more environmental sound integrated production has a significant reduction potential, but in any case, agriculture will remain a net GHG source in spite of emission mitigation and carbon sequestration.

  6. Norwegian gas sales and the impacts on European CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, E.; Boug, P.; Kverndokk, S.

    2001-01-01

    This paper has studied the impacts on Western European CO 2 emissions of a reduction in Norwegian gas sales. Such impacts are due to changes in energy demand, energy supply, and environmental and political regulations. The gas supply model DYNOPOLY was used to analyse the effects on Russian and Algerian gas exports of a reduction in Norwegian gas supply. The effects on the demand side and the effects of committing to CO 2 targets were analysed using the energy demand model SEEM. If Western European countries commit to their announced CO 2 emissions targets, reduced Norwegian gas sales will have no impact on emissions. The consumption of oil and coal will increase slightly, while the total energy consumption will go down. Also, a reduction in Norwegian gas sales will have only minor impacts on the CO 2 emissions from Western Europe when no emissions regulations are considered

  7. Benchmarking energy use and greenhouse gas emissions in Singapore's hotel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuchao; Priyadarsini, Rajagopalan; Eang, Lee Siew

    2010-01-01

    Hotel buildings are reported in many countries as one of the most energy intensive building sectors. Besides the pressure posed on energy supply, they also have adverse impact on the environment through greenhouse gas emissions, wastewater discharge and so on. This study was intended to shed some light on the energy and environment related issues in hotel industry. Energy consumption data and relevant information collected from hotels were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. A regression-based benchmarking model was established, which takes into account, the difference in functional and operational features when hotels are compared with regard to their energy performance. In addition, CO 2 emissions from the surveyed hotels were estimated based on a standard procedure for corporate GHG emission accounting. It was found that a hotel's carbon intensity ranking is rather sensitive to the normalizing denominator chosen. Therefore, carbon intensity estimated for the hotels must not be interpreted arbitrarily, and industry specific normalizing denominator should be sought in future studies.

  8. Are greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping a type of marine pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yubing

    2016-01-01

    Whether greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of marine pollution is a controversial issue and is currently open to debate. This article examines the current treaty definitions of marine pollution, and applies them to greenhouse gas emissions from ships. Based on the legal analysis of treaty definitions and relevant international and national regulation on this issue, this article asserts that greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping are a type of ‘conditional’ marine pollution. - Highlights: • Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping are a type of ‘conditional’ marine pollution. • Shipping CO 2 may be treated as marine pollution under the 1972 London Dumping Convention. • Countries have adopted different legislation concerning the legal nature of GHG emissions from ships. • Regulating CO 2 emissions from ships as marine pollution may expedite global GHG emissions reduction.

  9. Reconciling Top-Down and Bottom-Up Estimates of Oil and Gas Methane Emissions in the Barnett Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    Top-down approaches that use aircraft, tower, or satellite-based measurements of well-mixed air to quantify regional methane emissions have typically estimated higher emissions from the natural gas supply chain when compared to bottom-up inventories. A coordinated research campaign in October 2013 used simultaneous top-down and bottom-up approaches to quantify total and fossil methane emissions in the Barnett Shale region of Texas. Research teams have published individual results including aircraft mass-balance estimates of regional emissions and a bottom-up, 25-county region spatially-resolved inventory. This work synthesizes data from the campaign to directly compare top-down and bottom-up estimates. A new analytical approach uses statistical estimators to integrate facility emission rate distributions from unbiased and targeted high emission site datasets, which more rigorously incorporates the fat-tail of skewed distributions to estimate regional emissions of well pads, compressor stations, and processing plants. The updated spatially-resolved inventory was used to estimate total and fossil methane emissions from spatial domains that match seven individual aircraft mass balance flights. Source apportionment of top-down emissions between fossil and biogenic methane was corroborated with two independent analyses of methane and ethane ratios. Reconciling top-down and bottom-up estimates of fossil methane emissions leads to more accurate assessment of natural gas supply chain emission rates and the relative contribution of high emission sites. These results increase our confidence in our understanding of the climate impacts of natural gas relative to more carbon-intensive fossil fuels and the potential effectiveness of mitigation strategies.

  10. Country-Level Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Liquefied Natural Gas Trade for Electricity Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumu, Adebola S; Li, Vivian; Coleman, James W; Liendo, Jeanne; Jordaan, Sarah M

    2018-02-20

    In the determination of the net impact of liquefied natural gas (LNG) on greenhouse gas emissions, life cycle assessments (LCA) of electricity generation have yet to combine the effects of transport distances between exporting and importing countries, country-level infrastructure in importing countries, and the fuel sources displaced in importing countries. To address this, we conduct a LCA of electricity generated from LNG export from British Columbia, Canada with a three-step approach: (1) a review of viable electricity generation markets for LNG, (2) the development of results for greenhouse gas emissions that account for transport to importing nations as well as the infrastructure required for power generation and delivery, and (3) emissions displacement scenarios to test assumptions about what electricity is being displaced in the importing nation. Results show that while the ultimate magnitude of the greenhouse gas emissions associated with natural gas production systems is still unknown, life cycle greenhouse gas emissions depend on country-level infrastructure (specifically, the efficiency of the generation fleet, transmission and distribution losses and LNG ocean transport distances) as well as the assumptions on what is displaced in the domestic electricity generation mix. Exogenous events such as the Fukushima nuclear disaster have unanticipated effects on the emissions displacement results. We highlight national regulations, environmental policies, and multilateral agreements that could play a role in mitigating emissions.

  11. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations

  12. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Meirong [Dongguan University of Technology, School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Dongguan, Guangdong Province (China); Beijing Normal University, State Key Joint Laboratory of Environment Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Beijing (China); Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany); Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao [Technical University of Munich, Strategic Landscape Planning and Management, Freising (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO{sub 2} and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  13. Spectrum analysis of national greenhouse gas emission: a case study of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Pauleit, Stephan; Xu, Chao

    2016-01-01

    It is essential to abstract the key information from accounting results of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions because it can provide a highly generalized and clear picture of GHG emissions, which is especially helpful for the public and policy makers. To clearly display the composition of GHG emissions, the concept of spectrum analysis is introduced and defined in this paper. Next, a multilayer analysis framework for national GHG emissions was proposed, which is represented by a pyramid of three layers: total emissions (first layer), emissions decomposed by gas type or sector (second layer), and emissions decomposed by both gas type and sector (third layer). Based on the analysis results from the first to third layers, the main compositional information of national GHG emissions was gradually summarized and analyzed until a spectrum of GHG emissions was acquired. The spectrum of GHG emissions displays the compositional structure of national GHG emissions in the different layers, which is helpful in identifying priorities for emissions reduction. A case study of Germany's GHG emissions during 1990-2012 was conducted, which indicated that CO_2 and the energy sector were the biggest contributors to the total GHG emissions. Some suggestions for reducing GHG emissions are offered based on the obtained results. And the potential development of spectrum analysis for GHG emissions is also expected from aspects of both research and technology. (orig.)

  14. Estimating greenhouse gas emissions of European cities--modeling emissions with only one spatial and one socioeconomic variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Albert H; Lauf, Steffen; Förster, Michael; Kleinschmit, Birgit

    2015-07-01

    Substantive and concerted action is needed to mitigate climate change. However, international negotiations struggle to adopt ambitious legislation and to anticipate more climate-friendly developments. Thus, stronger actions are needed from other players. Cities, being greenhouse gas emission centers, play a key role in promoting the climate change mitigation movement by becoming hubs for smart and low-carbon lifestyles. In this context, a stronger linkage between greenhouse gas emissions and urban development and policy-making seems promising. Therefore, simple approaches are needed to objectively identify crucial emission drivers for deriving appropriate emission reduction strategies. In analyzing 44 European cities, the authors investigate possible socioeconomic and spatial determinants of urban greenhouse gas emissions. Multiple statistical analyses reveal that the average household size and the edge density of discontinuous dense urban fabric explain up to 86% of the total variance of greenhouse gas emissions of EU cities (when controlled for varying electricity carbon intensities). Finally, based on these findings, a multiple regression model is presented to determine greenhouse gas emissions. It is independently evaluated with ten further EU cities. The reliance on only two indicators shows that the model can be easily applied in addressing important greenhouse gas emission sources of European urbanites, when varying power generations are considered. This knowledge can help cities develop adequate climate change mitigation strategies and promote respective policies on the EU or the regional level. The results can further be used to derive first estimates of urban greenhouse gas emissions, if no other analyses are available. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Techno-Economic Evaluation of Technologies to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emissions at North American Refineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedi, Kavan; Abella, Jessica P; Bergerson, Joule A

    2017-02-07

    A petroleum refinery model, Petroleum Refinery Life-cycle Inventory Model (PRELIM), that estimates energy use and CO 2 emissions was modified to evaluate the environmental and economic performance of a set of technologies to reduce CO 2 emissions at refineries. Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP), carbon capture at fluid catalytic cracker (FCC) and steam methane reformer (SMR) units, and alternative hydrogen production technologies were considered in the analysis. The results indicate that a 3-44% reduction in total annual refinery CO 2 emissions (2-24% reductions in the CO 2 emissions on a per barrel of crude oil processed) can be achieved in a medium conversion refinery that processes a typical U.S. crude slate obtained by using the technologies considered. A sensitivity analysis of the quality of input crude to a refinery, refinery configuration, and prices of natural gas and electricity revealed how the magnitude of possible CO 2 emissions reductions and the economic performance of the mitigation technologies can vary under different conditions. The analysis can help inform decision making related to investment decisions and CO 2 emissions policy in the refining sector.

  16. Life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for electricity generation and supply in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ou, Xunmin; Xiaoyu, Yan; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247 MJ/MJ and 297.688 g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO 2,e )/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470 gCO 2,e /MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014 gCO 2,e /MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. (author)

  17. Life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for electricity generation and supply in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou, Xunmin [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Beijing 100084 (China); School of Public Policy and Management (SPPM), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xiaoyu, Yan [Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 2BQ (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xiliang [Institute of Energy, Environment and Economy (3E), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); China Automotive Energy Research Center (CAERC), Beijing 100084 (China)

    2011-01-15

    The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247 MJ/MJ and 297.688 g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO{sub 2,e})/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470 gCO{sub 2,e}/MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014 gCO{sub 2,e}/MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity. (author)

  18. Measurement and communication of greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. food consumption via carbon calculators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Brent; Neff, Roni

    2009-01-01

    Food consumption may account for upwards of 15% of U.S. per capita greenhouse gas emissions. Online carbon calculators can help consumers prioritize among dietary behaviors to minimize personal 'carbon footprints', leveraging against emissions-intensive industry practices. We reviewed the fitness of selected carbon calculators for measuring and communicating indirect GHG emissions from food consumption. Calculators were evaluated based on the scope of user behaviors accounted for, data sources, transparency of methods, consistency with prior data and effectiveness of communication. We found food consumption was under-represented (25%) among general environmental impact calculators (n = 83). We identified eight carbon calculators that accounted for food consumption and included U.S. users among the target audience. Among these, meat and dairy consumption was appropriately highlighted as the primary diet-related contributor to emissions. Opportunities exist to improve upon these tools, including: expanding the scope of behaviors included under calculations; improving communication, in part by emphasizing the ecological and public health co-benefits of less emissions-intensive diets; and adopting more robust, transparent methodologies, particularly where calculators produce questionable emissions estimates. Further, all calculators could benefit from more comprehensive data on the U.S. food system. These advancements may better equip these tools for effectively guiding audiences toward ecologically responsible dietary choices. (author)

  19. Community system updating and extension concerning greenhouse gas emissions duties trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta-Langarika, I.

    2010-01-01

    Approving 29/2009/CE Directive, that amends Directive 2003/87/EC, relating to a trading system for allowances of greenhouse gas emissions in the Community, the European Union wants to improve this system, and, in that way, providing an appropriate tool for achieving the emissions reduction targets, set for 2020: in particular, reducing the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) in a 20% compared to 1990 levels. Recognizing the virtues of this system as an innovative tool for reducing emissions, it should be harmonized through the use of common standards that ensure equal conditions of the facilities affected and their update, among others, increasing their scope and establishing a system of re-allocation to reduce emissions. At the same time, the regulation adopted by the EU should not address possible competition difficulties, that may arise for the industries affected by this emission trading system, more specifically, the problem of carbon leakage: the phenomenon refers to the risk that European industries must move outside the EU for not being able to cope with competition from other countries with less stringent limitations on this matter. In any case, the regime established by Directive 29/2009/CE is subject to possible changes in function of international countries might conclude. (Author) 8 refs.

  20. Low-Carbon Natural Gas for Transportation: Well-to-Wheels Emissions and Potential Market Assessment in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penev, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bush, Brian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Warner, Ethan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chen, Yuche [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report improves on the understanding of the long-term technology potential of low-carbon natural gas (LCNG) supply pathways by exploring transportation market adoption potential through 2035 in California. Techno-economic assessments of each pathway are developed to compare the capacity, cost, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LCNG production pathways. The study analyzes the use of fuel from these pathways in light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle applications. Economic and life-cycle GHG emissions analysis suggest that landfill gas resources are an attractive and relatively abundant resource in terms of cost and GHG reduction potential, followed by waste water treatment plants and biomass with gasification and methanation. Total LCNG production potential is on the order of total natural gas demand anticipated in a success scenario for future natural gas vehicle adoption by 2035 across light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle markets (110 trillion Btu/year).

  1. Experimental and Numerical Modelling of CO2 Atmospheric Dispersion in Hazardous Gas Emission Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, A.; sainz Gracia, A. S.; Grandia, F.; Bruno, J.

    2015-12-01

    Under stable atmospheric conditions and/or in presence of topographic depressions, CO2 concentrations can reach high values resulting in lethal effect to living organisms. The distribution of denser than air gases released from the underground is governed by gravity, turbulence and dispersion. Once emitted, the gas distribution is initially driven by buoyancy and a gas cloud accumulates on the ground (gravitational phase); with time the density gradient becomes less important due to dispersion or mixing and gas distribution is mainly governed by wind and atmospheric turbulence (passive dispersion phase). Natural analogues provide evidences of the impact of CO2 leakage. Dangerous CO2 concentration in atmosphere related to underground emission have been occasionally reported although the conditions favouring the persistence of such a concentration are barely studied.In this work, the dynamics of CO2 in the atmosphere after ground emission is assessed to quantify their potential risk. Two approaches have been followed: (1) direct measurement of air concentration in a natural emission site, where formation of a "CO2 lake" is common and (2) numerical atmospheric modelling. Two sites with different morphology were studied: (a) the Cañada Real site, a flat terrain in the Volcanic Field of Campo de Calatrava (Spain); (b) the Solforata di Pomezia site, a rough terrain in the Alban Hills Volcanic Region (Italy). The comparison between field data and model calculations reveal that numerical dispersion models are capable of predicting the formation of CO2 accumulation over the ground as a consequence of underground gas emission. Therefore, atmospheric modelling could be included as a valuable methodology in the risk assessment of leakage in natural degassing systems and in CCS projects. Conclusions from this work provide clues on whether leakage may be a real risk for humans and under which conditions this risk needs to be included in the risk assessment.

  2. Laboratory Investigation of Trace Gas Emissions from Biomass Burning on DoD Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.; Griffith, D. W.; Roberts, J. M.; Veres, P. R.; Warneke, C.; Johnson, T. J.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation representing fuels commonly managed with prescribed fires was collected from five DoD bases and burned under controlled conditions at the USFS Firelab in Missoula, MT. The smoke emissions were measured with a large suite of state-of-the-art instrumentation. Seventy-seven fires were conducted and the smoke composition data will improve DoD land managers’ ability to assess the impact of prescribed fires on local air quality. A key instrument used in the measurement of the gas phase species in smoke was an open-path FTIR (OP-FTIR) spectrometer, built and operated by the Universities of Montana and Wollongong. The OP-FTIR has to date detected and quantified 20 gas phase species - CO2, CO, H2O, N2O, NO2, NO, HONO, NH3, HCl, SO2, CH4, CH3OH, HCHO, HCOOH, C2H2, C2H4, CH3COOH, HCN, propylene and furan. The spectra were analyzed using a non-linear least squares fitting routine that included reference spectra recently acquired at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratories. Preliminary results from the OP-FTIR analysis are reported here. Of particular interest, gas-phase nitrous acid (HONO) was detected simultaneously by the OP-FTIR and negative-ion proton-transfer chemical ionization spectrometer (NI-PT-CIMS), with preliminary fire-integrated molar emission ratios (relative to NOx) ranging from approximately 0.03 to 0.20, depending on the vegetation type. HONO is an important precursor in the production of OH, the primary oxidizing species in the atmosphere. There existed little previous data documenting HONO emissions from either wild or prescribed fires. The non-methane organic emissions were dominated by oxygenated species, which can be further oxidized and thus involved in secondary aerosol formation. Elevated amounts of gas-phase HCl were also detected in the smoke, with the amounts varying depending on location and vegetation type.

  3. Natural Gas and CO2 Price Variation: Impact on the Relative Cost-Efficiency of LNG and Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; Ulvestad, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carri...

  4. Nitrogen enriched combustion of a natural gas internal combustion engine to reduce NO.sub.x emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biruduganti, Munidhar S.; Gupta, Sreenath Borra; Sekar, R. Raj; McConnell, Steven S.

    2008-11-25

    A method and system for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from an internal combustion engine. An input gas stream of natural gas includes a nitrogen gas enrichment which reduces nitrous oxide emissions. In addition ignition timing for gas combustion is advanced to improve FCE while maintaining lower nitrous oxide emissions.

  5. Analysis of greenhouse gas emissions in the European Union member states with the use of an agglomeration algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kijewska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of fossil fuels as sources of energy is related to the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The implementation of international commitments on reducing emissions requires their continuous monitoring. The main energy resources for electricity production in the world include fossil fuels, i.e. oil, coal and natural gas, and according to projections their dominant role in the market of energy resources will persist for at least the next two decades. The aim of this article is to analyse the level of differentiation of European Union member states in terms of emissions of four greenhouse gases and to identify groups of similar countries based on these criteria. Such studies will provide information that will enrich our knowledge about the contribution of each European Union country to the emissions of greenhouse gases. This article uses a taxonomic method - cluster analysis, namely the agglomerative algorithm, which enables the extraction of objects that are similar to each other from the data and then to merge them into groups. In this way, a number of homogeneous subsets can be obtained from one heterogeneous set of objects. European Union countries make up the objects of segmentation. Each of them are described by their level of greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxides. Groups of homogeneous countries are distinguished due to total emissions and due to the level of their emissions per capita. Analysis is based on annual Eurostat reports concerning greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Electric-power systems planning and greenhouse-gas emission management under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.P.; Huang, G.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlight: ►A multistage stochastic integer programming model is developed for planning electric-power systems. ►Uncertain and dynamic information can be incorporated within a multilayer scenario tree. ►This can help minimize system cost under random energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) abatement goal. ►Results can support decisions of facility expansion, electricity supply and GHG mitigation. - Abstract: In this study, a multistage interval-stochastic integer programming model is formulated for managing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and planning electric-power systems under uncertainty. The developed model can reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of energy systems. Besides, the model can be used for answering questions related to types, times, demands and mitigations of energy systems planning practices, with the objective of minimizing system cost over a long-time planning horizon. The solutions can help generate electricity-generation schemes and capacity-expansion plans under different GHG-mitigation options and electricity-demand levels. Tradeoffs among system cost, energy security, and emission management can also be tackled. A high system cost will increase renewable energy supply and reduce GHG emission, while a desire for a low cost will run into risks of a high energy deficiency and a high GHG emission.

  7. The analysis of energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of a large-scale commercial building in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reasonable test, diagnosis, and analysis are meaningful for building energy efficiency retrofit and management. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission of a large-scale commercial building are described in this article. Basic information about energy consumption equipment is included in the investigation. Further diagnoses about the operational state of air-conditioning water systems, and ducted systems were implemented. Energy consumption decreased 200 kWh/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009 after energy-saving reconstruction in 2006. Next, a carbon audit was carried out; this comprised CO2 emission statistics associated with the energy use and categorization and structural analysis (categorization refers to energy categorization and structural analysis means the composition and its proportion relationship of all kinds of primary energy and secondary energy in energy production or consumption. Greenhouse gas emissions could be less than 150 kg/m2 per year from 2007 to 2009. An analysis of the correlation between CO2 emissions, building gross domestic product, and energy efficiency is also presented. This article makes an analysis on the energy utilization and energy-saving reconstruction of a public commercial building in Shanghai and then makes an analysis of carbon audit about greenhouse gas emissions related to energy utilization (it analyzes the status of building’s energy utilization and greenhouse gas emissions, to have a more comprehensive understanding on the internal relationship between energy consumption and its greenhouse gas emissions and provide researchful reference data for the development with reduction strategies of greenhouse gas emission in future building.

  8. Impact of emissions from natural gas production facilities on ambient air quality in the Barnett Shale area: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Barbara; Campbell, Dave; Samburova, Vera

    2014-12-01

    Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in the Barnett Shale region of Texas in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. The purpose of this study was to provide a better understanding of the potential contributions of emissions from gas production operations to population exposure to air toxics in the Barnett Shale region. This goal was approached using a combination of chemical characterization of the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from active wells, saturation monitoring for gaseous and particulate pollutants in a residential community located near active gas/oil extraction and processing facilities, source apportionment of VOCs measured in the community using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) receptor model, and direct measurements of the pollutant gradient downwind of a gas well with high VOC emissions. Overall, the study results indicate that air quality impacts due to individual gas wells and compressor stations are not likely to be discernible beyond a distance of approximately 100 m in the downwind direction. However, source apportionment results indicate a significant contribution to regional VOCs from gas production sources, particularly for lower-molecular-weight alkanes (gas production. Implications: Rapid and extensive development of shale gas resources in recent years has created concerns about potential environmental impacts on water and air quality. This study focused on directly measuring the ambient air pollutant levels occurring at residential properties located near natural gas extraction and processing facilities, and estimating the relative contributions from gas production and motor vehicle emissions to ambient VOC concentrations. Although only a small-scale case study, the results may be useful for guidance in planning future ambient air quality studies and human exposure estimates in areas of intensive shale gas production.

  9. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions-weighted clean energy standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffman, Makena; Griffin, James P.; Bernstein, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper quantifies the relative cost-savings of utilizing a greenhouse gas emissions-weighted Clean Energy Standard (CES) in comparison to a Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS). Using a bottom-up electricity sector model for Hawaii, this paper demonstrates that a policy that gives “clean energy” credit to electricity technologies based on their cardinal ranking of lifecycle GHG emissions, normalizing the highest-emitting unit to zero credit, can reduce the costs of emissions abatement by up to 90% in comparison to a typical RPS. A GHG emissions-weighted CES provides incentive to not only pursue renewable sources of electricity, but also promotes fuel-switching among fossil fuels and improved generation efficiencies at fossil-fired units. CES is found to be particularly cost-effective when projected fossil fuel prices are relatively low. - Highlights: ► Proposes a GHG Emissions-Weighted Clean Energy Standard (CES) mechanism. ► Compares CES to RPS using a case study of Hawaii. ► Finds CES is up to 90% more cost-effective as a GHG abatement tool.

  10. The relative magnitude of the impacts and effects of GHG-related emission reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiotti, Q.; Urquizo, N.

    2000-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the current knowledge related to the co-benefits associated with climate change mitigation was provided in this document. One of the benefits of the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is the reduction of other pollutants like sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, particulate matter, ground-level ozone, heavy metals and other toxic pollutants. Since these pollutants have an effect on acid deposition, ozone depletion and air quality, the environment, social welfare and human health, this paper provided an initial outline of the complex processes, interactions and uncertainties associated with this issue. Fossil fuels represent the major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Canada. The reduction of emissions of GHG could have an impact on the Long Range Transport of air toxic substances, would help increase oxygen concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere, and lead to less carbon monoxide being released in the atmosphere, among others effects. Reductions of GHG emissions would also have an impact on ecosystems by reducing ground-level ozone concentrations. There would be less acid deposition and more dissolved organic carbon, allowing less ultraviolet-B penetration in aquatic ecosystems. In the case of human health, improved air quality impacts on the avoidance of premature mortality and reduced morbidity. Numerous other co-benefits were listed and discussed in this document. The first section stated the purpose and objectives. In section 2, that authors described the science and policy context and discussed building an analytical framework in section 3. The impact of GHG emission reductions on atmospheric pollution and ecosystems was dealt with in section 4 and section 5 was devoted to providing an assessment of the relative magnitude of effects. In section 6, the significance of scope was reviewed, and the authors concluded with section 7 in which they discussed the next steps: phase II

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions from energy production in Russia: Current status and possible scenarios for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with the framework Convention on Climate Change that was signed and ratified by Russian Federation, periodical reports about the actions of Russia are published. An inventory of human origin sources of greenhouse gas was prepared. Carbondioxide represented 72% of total greenhouse das emissions. Policy and action plans for limiting of greenhouse gas emissions are developing

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions in an agroforestry system in the southeastern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroforestry systems may provide diverse ecosystem services and economic benefits that conventional agriculture cannot, e.g. potentially mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by enhancing nutrient cycling, since tree roots can capture nutrients not taken up by crops. However, greenhouse gas emission ...

  13. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ...] Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal Acquisition Service... Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on: Whether this... Inventory pilot, and whether it will have practical utility; whether our estimate of the public burden of...

  14. Separate effects of flooding and anaerobiosis on soil greenhouse gas emissions and redox sensitive biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin McNicol; Whendee L. Silver

    2014-01-01

    Soils are large sources of atmospheric greenhouse gases, and both the magnitude and composition of soil gas emissions are strongly controlled by redox conditions. Though the effect of redox dynamics on greenhouse gas emissions has been well studied in flooded soils, less research has focused on redox dynamics without total soil inundation. For the latter, all that is...

  15. CRITERIA POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES IN THE NATURAL GAS INDUSTRY VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes emission factors for criteria pollutants (NOx, CO, CH4, C2H6, THC, NMHC, and NMEHC) from stationary internal combustion engines and gas turbines used in the natural gas industry. The emission factors were calculated from test results from five test campaigns...

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands 1990-1996: Updated methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spakman J; Olivier JGJ; Loon MMJ van; LAE

    1997-01-01

    This inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands has been prepared according to the IPCC Guidelines and complies with the obligations under the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the UN-FCCC for emission reports on greenhouse gases not covered under the Montreal

  17. LANDFILL GAS EMISSIONS MODEL (LANDGEM) VERSION 3.02 USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Landfill Gas Emissions Model (LandGEM) is an automated estimation tool with a Microsoft Excel interface that can be used to estimate emission rates for total landfill gas, methane, carbon dioxide, nonmethane organic compounds, and individual air pollutants from municipal soli...

  18. Implications of greenhouse gas emission mitigation scenarios for the main Asian regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ruijven, B.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834521; van Vuuren, D.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11522016X; van Vliet, J.; Mendoza Beltran, A.; Deetman, S.; den Elzen, M.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to limit global mean temperature increase, long-term greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced. This paper discusses the implications of greenhouse gas emission reductions for major Asian regions (China, India, Indonesia, South-East Asia, Japan and Korea) based on results from the IMAGE

  19. Carbon dioxide emission in hydrogen production technology from coke oven gas with life cycle approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burmistrz Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of Carbon Footprint (CF for technology of hydrogen production from cleaned coke oven gas was performed. On the basis of real data and simulation calculations of the production process of hydrogen from coke gas, emission indicators of carbon dioxide (CF were calculated. These indicators are associated with net production of electricity and thermal energy and direct emission of carbon dioxide throughout a whole product life cycle. Product life cycle includes: coal extraction and its transportation to a coking plant, the process of coking coal, purification and reforming of coke oven gas, carbon capture and storage. The values were related to 1 Mg of coking blend and to 1 Mg of the hydrogen produced. The calculation is based on the configuration of hydrogen production from coke oven gas for coking technology available on a commercial scale that uses a technology of coke dry quenching (CDQ. The calculations were made using ChemCAD v.6.0.2 simulator for a steady state of technological process. The analysis of carbon footprint was conducted in accordance with the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA.

  20. Possibilities of using ISO 1406X standards in the management of greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, G.; Priesol, J.

    2009-01-01

    Aim of this paper is to define and describe using of ISO 1406X standards for organization, which production of greenhouse gas emissions represents an important environmental aspect especially in terms of financial benefits accruing from trading with saved / reduced emissions. Following the main aim of this paper, we have set the following sub-objectives and tasks: - Define and describe the algorithm of implementation of program on greenhouse gas emissions according to the requirements and guidelines of the ISO 1406X in the organization; - Create a model of comprehensive management of greenhouse gas emissions standards as described.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from the combustion of alternative fuels in a gas turbine engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Simon; Raper, David; Lee, David S; Williams, Paul I; Rye, Lucas; Blakey, Simon; Wilson, Chris W; Lobo, Prem; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip D

    2012-06-05

    We report on the particulate-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the exhaust of a test-bed gas turbine engine when powered by Jet A-1 aviation fuel and a number of alternative fuels: Sasol fully synthetic jet fuel (FSJF), Shell gas-to-liquid (GTL) kerosene, and Jet A-1/GTL 50:50 blended kerosene. The concentration of PAH compounds in the exhaust emissions vary greatly between fuels. Combustion of FSJF produces the greatest total concentration of PAH compounds while combustion of GTL produces the least. However, when PAHs in the exhaust sample are measured in terms of the regulatory marker compound benzo[a]pyrene, then all of the alternative fuels emit a lower concentration of PAH in comparison to Jet A-1. Emissions from the combustion of Jet A-1/GTL blended kerosene were found to have a disproportionately low concentration of PAHs and appear to inherit a greater proportion of the GTL emission characteristics than would be expected from volume fraction alone. The data imply the presence of a nonlinear relation between fuel blend composition and the emission of PAH compounds. For each of the fuels, the speciation of PAH compounds present in the exhaust emissions were found to be remarkably similar (R(2) = 0.94-0.62), and the results do provide evidence to support the premise that PAH speciation is to some extent indicative of the emission source. In contrast, no correlation was found between the PAH species present in the fuel with those subsequently emitted in the exhaust. The results strongly suggests that local air quality measured in terms of the particulate-bound PAH burden could be significantly improved by the use of GTL kerosene either blended with or in place of Jet A-1 kerosene.

  2. Assessing Emissions of Volatile Organic Componds from Landfills Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biogas is obtained by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes buried materials used to produce electricity, heat and biofuels. Biogas is at the second place for power generation after hydropower and in 2000 about 6% of the world power generation was allocated to biogas. Biogas is composed of 40–45 vol% CO2, 55–65 vol% CH4, and about 1% non-methaneVOCs, and non-methane volatile organic compounds. Emission rates are used to evaluate the compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. BTEX comounds affect the air quality and may be harmful to human health. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers that are generally called BTEX compounds are the most abundant VOCs in biogas. Methods: Sampling of VOCs in biogas vents was operated passively or with Tedlar bags. 20 samples were collected from 40 wells of old and new biogas sites of Shiraz’ landfill. Immediately after sampling, the samples were transferred to the laboratory. Analysis of the samples was performed with GC-MS. Results: The results showed that in the collection of the old and new biogas sites, the highest concentration of VOCs was observed in toluene (0.85ppm followed by benzene (0.81ppm, ethylbenzene (0.13ppm and xylene (0.08ppm. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that in all samples, most available compounds in biogas vents were aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.These compounds’ constituents originate from household hazardous waste materials deposited in the landfill or from biological/chemical decomposition processes within the landfill.

  3. Implications of the recent reductions in natural gas prices for emissions of CO2 from the US power sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xi; Salovaara, Jackson; McElroy, Michael B

    2012-03-06

    CO(2) emissions from the US power sector decreased by 8.76% in 2009 relative to 2008 contributing to a decrease over this period of 6.59% in overall US emissions of greenhouse gases. An econometric model, tuned to data reported for regional generation of US electricity, is used to diagnose factors responsible for the 2009 decrease. More than half of the reduction is attributed to a shift from generation of power using coal to gas driven by a recent decrease in gas prices in response to the increase in production from shale. An important result of the model is that, when the cost differential for generation using gas rather than coal falls below 2-3 cents/kWh, less efficient coal fired plants are displaced by more efficient natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) generation alternatives. Costs for generation using NGCC decreased by close to 4 cents/kWh in 2009 relative to 2008 ensuring that generation of electricity using gas was competitive with coal in 2009 in contrast to the situation in 2008 when gas prices were much higher. A modest price on carbon could contribute to additional switching from coal to gas with further savings in CO(2) emissions.

  4. Emission of Polychlorinated Naphthalenes during Thermal Related Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Du, Bing; Liu, Wenbin; Zhang, Bing; Xiao, Ke

    2010-05-01

    Due to the structural similarity of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) to those of dioxins, PCNs exhibit toxicological properties similar to dioxins (Olivero-Verbel et al., 2004). Based on their high toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation, and long-distance transmission, PCNs were also selected as a candidate POP for the UN-ECE (United Nations Economic Commission for Europe) POP protocol (Lerche et al., 2002). In addition, some studies suggested that PCNs contributed a greater proportion of the dioxin-like activity than polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) contributed in some locations (Kannan et al., 1998). However, the identification and quantitation for PCN sources are very scarce compared with PCDD/Fs. Understanding the emission levels and developing the emission inventory of PCNs is important for regulatory and source reduction purposes. In this study, several potential sources were preliminarily investigated for PCN release. Coking process (CP), iron ore sintering (IOS), and electric arc furnace steel making units (AF) were selected due to their huge activity level of industrial production in China. Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and medical waste incineration (MWI) were also investigated because of the possible high concentration of PCNs in stack gas. Two plants were investigated for each thermal related process, except for MWI with one incinerator was investigated. The stack gas samples were collected by automatic isokinetic sampling system (Isostack Basic, TCR TECORA, Milan Italy). Isotope dilution high resolution gas chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) technique was used for the identification and quantitation of PCN congeners. The concentrations of PCNs from the selected thermal processes were determined in this study. The average concentrations of total PCNs were 26 ng Nm-3 for CP, 65 ng Nm-3 for IOS, 720 ng Nm-3 for AF, 443 ng Nm-3 for MSWI, and

  5. Uncertainty in estimating and mitigating industrial related GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fadel, M.; Zeinati, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Mezher, T.

    2001-01-01

    Global climate change has been one of the challenging environmental concerns facing policy makers in the past decade. The characterization of the wide range of greenhouse gas emissions sources and sinks as well as their behavior in the atmosphere remains an on-going activity in many countries. Lebanon, being a signatory to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, is required to submit and regularly update a national inventory of greenhouse gas emissions sources and removals. Accordingly, an inventory of greenhouse gases from various sectors was conducted following the guidelines set by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The inventory indicated that the industrial sector contributes about 29% to the total greenhouse gas emissions divided between industrial processes and energy requirements at 12 and 17%, respectively. This paper describes major mitigation scenarios to reduce emissions from this sector based on associated technical, economic, environmental, and social characteristics. Economic ranking of these scenarios was conducted and uncertainty in emission factors used in the estimation process was emphasized. For this purpose, theoretical and experimental emission factors were used as alternatives to default factors recommended by the IPCC and the significance of resulting deviations in emission estimation is presented. (author)

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture without compromising food security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael

    2017-10-01

    To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast

  7. Contingency planning for rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larsson, Nils K.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The current and predicted levels of greenhouse gas (GHG emissions are, according to the best international scientific estimates, leading the world towards climate change that will have serious consequences for all countries. The problem is aggravated by the tendency of people and institutions not to take action until catastrophic consequences emerge. The history of crises in other sectors show us that reactions are likely to focus on ad-hoc reactions or using plans that are readily available, with negative results. However, the alternative of developing public plans for drastic and rapid reductions is not likely to gain support because of their radical nature. The author therefore proposes that large organizations with direct or indirect control over substantial GHG emissions should prepare private contingency plans for very rapid reductions in emissions, so that more rational and less destructive plans will be available when the appropriate moment comes for last-minute action. Examples of the type of specific plans that may be appropriate are suggested.

    Según las estimaciones científicas internacionales más optimistas, los niveles actuales y previstos de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero (GEI están llevando al mundo hacia un cambio climático que tendrá graves consecuencias para todos los países. El problema se ve agravado por la tendencia de personas e instituciones a no tomar medidas hasta que no se perciben las catastróficas consecuencias. El historial de crisis ocurridas en otros sectores nos demuestra que las reacciones probablemente se centren en medidas ad hoc o en emplear planes que ya existían, pero sin resultados. Sin embargo, es poco probable que la alternativa al desarrollo de planes públicos para las reducciones drásticas y rápidas consiga el apoyo necesario, debido precisamente a su radicalidad. El autor recomienda por tanto que las grandes organizaciones que tengan control directo o indirecto sobre un

  8. RE: Request for Correction, Technical Support Document, Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Industrial Energy Consumers of America (IECA) joins the U.S. Chamber of Commerce in its request for correction of information developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in a background technical support document titled Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reporting from the Petroleum and Natural Gas Industry

  9. Estimating Emissions of Toxic Hydrocarbons from Natural Gas Production Sites in the Barnett Shale Region of Northern Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Josette E; Townsend-Small, Amy; Lyon, David R; Tsai, Tracy R; Meinardi, Simone; Blake, Donald R

    2016-10-04

    Oil and natural gas operations have continued to expand and move closer to densely populated areas, contributing to growing public concerns regarding exposure to hazardous air pollutants. During the Barnett Shale Coordinated Campaign in October, 2013, ground-based whole air samples collected downwind of oil and gas sites revealed enhancements in several potentially toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when compared to background values. Molar emissions ratios relative to methane were determined for hexane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX compounds). Using methane leak rates measured from the Picarro mobile flux plane (MFP) system and a Barnett Shale regional methane emissions inventory, the rates of emission of these toxic gases were calculated. Benzene emissions ranged between 51 ± 4 and 60 ± 4 kg h -1 . Hexane, the most abundantly emitted pollutant, ranged from 642 ± 45 to 1070 ± 340 kg h -1 . While observed hydrocarbon enhancements fall below federal workplace standards, results may indicate a link between emissions from oil and natural gas operations and concerns about exposure to hazardous air pollutants. The larger public health risks associated with the production and distribution of natural gas are of particular importance and warrant further investigation, particularly as the use of natural gas increases in the United States and internationally.

  10. Australia's Greenhouse Challenge is a positive step towards abatement of gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Australian industry has responded favourably to the Federal Government's Greenhouse Clallenge Program (GCP) which has focused on curbing greenhouse gas emission from the manufacturing, mining and energy sector. It is a carefully shaped program which prompts companies and groups to thoroughly review their individual operations and identify areas where credible new or addition emission control can be employed. There are now 42 companies and associations that have signed agreements in GCP. Together they account for some 15 % of Australia's total greenhouse gas emissions. It is expected that by 2000 the emission increase will be cut to 7 % and the total emissions cut by 16 million tonnes for the 42 companies concerned

  11. Role of organic amendment application on greenhouse gas emission from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thangarajan, Ramya, E-mail: thary008@mymail.unisa.edu.au [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Bolan, Nanthi S. [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Tian, Guanglong [Environmental Monitoring and Research Division, Monitoring and Research Dep., Metropolitan Water Reclamation District of Greater Chicago, 6001, Pershing Road, Cicero, IL 60804 (United States); Naidu, Ravi [Centre for Environmental Risk Assessment and Remediation, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Cooperative Research Centre for Contamination Assessment and Remediation of the Environment, Adelaide, SA 5095 (Australia); Kunhikrishnan, Anitha [Chemical Safety Division, Department of Agro-Food Safety, National Academy of Agricultural Science,10 Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-01

    Globally, substantial quantities of organic amendments (OAs) such as plant residues (3.8 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr), biosolids (10 × 10{sup 7} Mg/yr), and animal manures (7 × 10{sup 9} Mg/yr) are produced. Recycling these OAs in agriculture possesses several advantages such as improving plant growth, yield, soil carbon content, and microbial biomass and activity. Nevertheless, OA applications hold some disadvantages such as nutrient eutrophication and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Agriculture sector plays a vital role in GHG emission (carbon dioxide— CO{sub 2}, methane— CH{sub 4}, and nitrous oxide— N{sub 2}O). Though CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are emitted in less quantity than CO{sub 2}, they are 21 and 310 times more powerful in global warming potential, respectively. Although there have been reviews on the role of mineral fertilizer application on GHG emission, there has been no comprehensive review on the effect of OA application on GHG emission in agricultural soils. The review starts with the quantification of various OAs used in agriculture that include manures, biosolids, and crop residues along with their role in improving soil health. Then, it discusses four major OA induced-GHG emission processes (i.e., priming effect, methanogenesis, nitrification, and denitrification) by highlighting the impact of OA application on GHG emission from soil. For example, globally 10 × 10{sup 7} Mg biosolids are produced annually which can result in the potential emission of 530 Gg of CH{sub 4} and 60 Gg of N{sub 2}O. The article then aims to highlight the soil, climatic, and OA factors affecting OA induced-GHG emission and the management practices to mitigate the emission. This review emphasizes the future research needs in relation to nitrogen and carbon dynamics in soil to broaden the use of OAs in agriculture to maintain soil health with minimum impact on GHG emission from agriculture. - Highlights: ► A comprehensive overview for the first time on GHG emission from

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from willow-based electricity: a scenario analysis for Portugal and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebelo de Mira, R.; Kroeze, C.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on greenhouse gas emissions from power plants using willow as fuel compared to those using fossil fuels. More specifically, we quantify emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) from soils on which willow is grown, and compare these to emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil

  13. An overview of exhaust emissions regulatory requirements and control technology for stationary natural gas engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, H.N.; Hay, S.C.; Shade, W.N. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a practical overview of stationary natural gas engine exhaust emissions control technology and trends in emissions regulatory requirements is presented. Selective and non-selective catalytic reduction and lean burn technologies are compared. Particular emphasis is focussed on implications of the Clean Air Act of 1990. Recent emissions reduction conversion kit developments and a practical approach to continuous monitoring are discussed

  14. Methane emissions from the global oil and gas supply chain: recent advances and next steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala Araiza, D.; Herndon, S. C.; Roscioli, J. R.; Yacovitch, T. I.; Knighton, W. B.; Johnson, M.; Tyner, D. R.; Hamburg, S.

    2017-12-01

    A wide body of research has characterized methane emissions from the oil and gas system in the US. In contrast, empirical data is limited for other significant oil and gas producing regions across the world. As a consequence, measuring and characterizing methane emissions across global oil and gas operations will be crucial to the design of effective mitigation strategies. Several countries have announced pledges to reduce methane emissions from this system (e.g., North America, Climate and Clean Air Coalition [CCAC] ministers). In the case of Canada, the federal government recently announced regulations supporting a 40-45% reduction of methane emissions from the oil and gas production systems. For these regulations to be effective, it is critical to understand the current methane emission patterns. We present results from a coordinated multiscale (i.e., airborne-based, ground-based) measurement campaign in Alberta, Canada. We use empirically derived emission estimates to characterize site-level emissions and derive an emissions distribution. Our work shows that many major sources of emissions are unmeasured or underreported. Consistent with previous studies in the US, a small fraction of sites disproportionately account for the majority of emissions: roughly 20% of sites accounted for 75% of emissions. An independent airborne-based regional estimate was 40% lower than the ground-based regional estimate, but not statistically different. Finally, we summarize next steps as part of the CCAC Oil and Gas Methane Study: ongoing work that is targeting oil and gas sectors/production regions with limited empirical data on methane emissions. This work builds on the approach deployed in quantifying methane emissions from the oil and gas supply chain in the US, underscoring the commitment to transparency of the collected data, external review, deployment of multiple methodologies, and publication of results in peer-reviewed journals.

  15. Comparative analysis of greenhouse gas emissions of various residential heating systems in the Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pare, D.

    2010-04-01

    The Kyoto Protocol compels signatory countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 5 percent by 2010 as compared to 1990 levels. In Canada, however, questions remain regarding the effects of greenhouse gases as they relate to the adoption of geoexchange systems in certain provinces because of the sources of electricity. This report presented a comprehensive analysis of the specific and strategic role of geoexchange technology, and ground source heat pumps in particular. The purpose was to compare, on a common basis, the greenhouse gas emissions of different residential heating systems utilized in the Canadian provinces. Comparisons were conducted from an environmental standpoint, and excluded the exergy and economic aspect, or other related issues. The report discussed the methodology and hypotheses of the study and presented the results for Canada, and for each province. It was concluded that according to the hypotheses employed for the purposes of this study, geoexchange systems offer a solution for greenhouse gas reduction and climatic change in all of the analyzed scenarios, with few exceptions and for a specific scenario. 32 refs., 37 tabs., 12 figs., 4 appendices.

  16. A global gas flaring black carbon emission rate dataset from 1994 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kan; Fu, Joshua S.

    2016-11-01

    Global flaring of associated petroleum gas is a potential emission source of particulate matters (PM) and could be notable in some specific regions that are in urgent need of mitigation. PM emitted from gas flaring is mainly in the form of black carbon (BC), which is a strong short-lived climate forcer. However, BC from gas flaring has been neglected in most global/regional emission inventories and is rarely considered in climate modeling. Here we present a global gas flaring BC emission rate dataset for the period 1994-2012 in a machine-readable format. We develop a region-dependent gas flaring BC emission factor database based on the chemical compositions of associated petroleum gas at various oil fields. Gas flaring BC emission rates are estimated using this emission factor database and flaring volumes retrieved from satellite imagery. Evaluation using a chemical transport model suggests that consideration of gas flaring emissions can improve model performance. This dataset will benefit and inform a broad range of research topics, e.g., carbon budget, air quality/climate modeling, and environmental/human exposure.

  17. Choosing greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demerse, C.; Bramley, M.; Craig, L.

    2008-10-01

    There is a growing consensus in Canada that climate change needs to be addressed through concrete actions. The implementation of specific policies have been impeded by concerns over economic costs. However, uncertainty over the course of policy creates a cost since businesses have little idea how to factor future environmental policies into their planning. This report examined the policy tools that federal and provincial governments have at their disposal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including carbon pricing (through cap-and-trade systems or carbon taxes), regulated standards, subsidies, infrastructure spending, research and development, and voluntary initiatives. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of these policy options, the study assessed them against a set of criteria that included environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, fairness and cost-effectiveness. The report also reviewed the real-world experience with the implementation of these policy options in Canada and internationally. In particular, the report examined carbon pricing mechanisms in detail and explored the best ways to use revenues raised through carbon pricing, and the best options to mitigate any reduced international competitiveness that Canadian industries may encounter. The report concluded with a discussion of areas for further research. It was concluded that climate policy in Canada raises a host of jurisdictional questions that would benefit from further research. 7 tabs., 2 appendices

  18. Characterization of VOCs Emissions from Industrial Facilities and Natural Gas Production Sites: A Mobile Sensing Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.; Gu, J.; Trask, B.; Lyon, D. R.; Albertson, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    With the recent expansion of U.S. oil and gas (O&G) production, many studies have focused on the quantification of fugitive methane emissions. However, only a few studies have explored the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from O&G production sites that affect human health in adjacent communities, both directly through exposure to toxic chemical compounds and indirectly via formation of ground-level ozone. In this study, we seek to quantify emissions of VOCs from O&G production sites and petrochemical facilities using a mobile sensing approach, with both high-end analyzers and relatively low-cost sensors. A probabilistic source characterization approach is used to estimate emission rates of VOCs, directly taking into account quantitative measure of sensor accuracy. This work will provide data with proper spatiotemporal resolution and coverage, so as to improve the understanding of VOCs emission from O&G production sites, VOCs-exposure of local communities, and explore the feasibility of low-cost sensors for VOCs monitoring. The project will provide an important foundational step to enable large scale studies.

  19. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); De Groot, F. [Univ. of Groningen (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, {+-}2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d {yields}2p emission spectrum of TiCl{sub 4} over the 450 to 470 eV region.

  20. Resonant x-ray emission from gas-phase TiCl4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hague, C.F.; Tronc, M.; De Groot, F.

    1997-01-01

    Resonant x-ray emission spectroscopy (RXES) has proved to be a powerful tool for studying the electronic structure of condensed matter. Over the past few years it has been used mainly for studying the valence bands of solids and condensed molecules. Very recently the advent of high brightness photon beams provided by third generation synchrotron radiation source undulators, associated with efficient x-ray emission spectrometers has made it possible to perform experiments on free diatomic molecular systems. RXE spectra of free molecules are of prime importance to gain insight into their electronic structure and bonding as they reflect the symmetry of orbitals engaged in the two-electron, two-step process with the l = 0, ±2 parity-conserving selection rule, and are free from solid state effects which can introduce difficulties in the interpretation. They provide information (more so than XAS) on the core excited states, and, when performed at fixed incident photon energy as a function of the emitted photon energy, on the electronic excitation (charge transfer, multiplet states). Moreover the anisotropy of the angular distribution of resonant x-ray emission affects the relative intensity of the emission peaks and provides information concerning the symmetries of final states. This is a preliminary report on what are the first RXE spectra of a 3d transition metal complex in the gas phase. The experiment concerns the Ti 3d →2p emission spectrum of TiCl 4 over the 450 to 470 eV region