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Sample records for gas desulfurization products

  1. Method of treating final products from flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloss, W.; Mohn, U.

    1984-01-01

    A method of treating final products from a flue gas desulfurization. The flue gas desulfurization is carried out by the absorption of sulfur oxide in a spray dryer with a suspension which contains lime, or in a reactor with a dry, fine-grained, absorbent which contains lime. Prior to desulfurization, the fly ash carried along by the flue gas which is to be desulfurized is separated entirely, partially, or not at all from the flue gas, and the final products from the flue gas desulfurization, prior to any further treatment thereof, amount to 1-99% by weight, preferably 1-70% by weight, of fly ash, and 1-99% by weight, preferably 30-99% by weight, of the sum of the desulfurization products, preferably calcium sulfite hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfite, and/or calcium sulfate dyhydrate, and/or calcium sulfate hemihydrate, and/or calcium sulfate, as well as residue of the absorbent. The reduction of the amount of calcium sulfite is implemented by a dry oxidation with air

  2. Desulfurized gas production from vertical kiln pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Harry A.; Jones, Jr., John B.

    1978-05-30

    A gas, formed as a product of a pyrolysis of oil shale, is passed through hot, retorted shale (containing at least partially decomposed calcium or magnesium carbonate) to essentially eliminate sulfur contaminants in the gas. Specifically, a single chambered pyrolysis vessel, having a pyrolysis zone and a retorted shale gas into the bottom of the retorted shale zone and cleaned product gas is withdrawn as hot product gas near the top of such zone.

  3. GRANULATION AND BRIQUETTING OF SOLID PRODUCTS FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan J. Hycnar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most flue gas desulfurization products can be characterized by significant solubility in water and dusting in dry state. These characteristics can cause a considerable pollution of air, water, and soil. Among many approaches to utilization of this waste, the process of agglomeration using granulation or briquetting has proved very effective. Using desulfurization products a new material of aggregate characteristics has been acquired, and this material is resistant to water and wind erosion as well as to the conditions of transportation and storage. The paper presents the results of industrial trials granulation and briquetting of calcium desulphurization products. The granulation of a mixture of phosphogypsum used with fly ash (in the share 1:5. The resulting granules characterized by a compressive strength of 41.6 MPa, the damping resistance of 70% and 14.2% abrasion. The granulate was used for the production of cement mix. The produced concrete mortar have a longer setting and hardening time, as compared to the traditional ash and gypsum mortar, and have a higher or comparable flexural and compressive strength during hardening. Briquetting trials made of a product called synthetic gypsum or rea-gypsum both in pure form and with the addition of 5% and 10% of the limestone dust. Briquettes have a high initial strength and resistance to abrasion. The values ​​of these parameters increased after 72 hours of seasoning. It was found that higher hardiness of briquettes with rea-gypsum was obtained with the impact of atmospheric conditions and higher resistance to elution of water-soluble components in comparison to ash briquettes.

  4. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  5. Biological flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H.; Wijte, G.; Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P.; Hartog, H.A.J. den [Paper B.V. Blak (Netherlands)

    1995-08-01

    A new biological flue gas desulfurization process (BIO-FGD) producing sulphur as a by-product was invented by Paques BV and Hoogens Technical Services in 1993. Sulphur dioxide is absorbed from flue gas using a combination of a sodium based scrubber and two biological reactors, an anaerobic and an aerobic biological reactor. The article describes the process and its evaluation in a pilot plant at 2 MW scale, designed to remove 6 kg/hr SO{sub 2} of the 2 million m{sup 3}/hr of flue gas produced at the 600 MW coal fired power station Amer-8 situated in Geertruidenberg in the south of the Netherlands. Research so far has proved the process works successfully and at low cost. A second pilot plant due to start-up in May 1995 will provide data on scale up and further information on sulphur recovery. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Biological (flue) gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buisman, C.J.N.; Dijkman, H. [PAQUES, Balk (Netherlands); Prins, W.L.; Verbraak, P. [Biostar CV, Balk (Netherlands); Den Hartog, A.J. [Hoogovens Groep BV, IJmuiden (Netherlands)

    1995-12-31

    Biotechnological research has been carried out to find new micro-organisms and processes to make useful products, and to reveal new ways and biotechnological mechanisms to produce elemental sulfur in waste water treatment. Biotechnological development work has been carried out and the first commercial installation (on 300 m{sup 3}/hr scale) to produce sulfur from polluted waste water was started up in 1992. The importance of this recent research and development in the area of waste water treatment was recognized. In an intensive cooperation between Hoogovens Technical Services and PACQUES the concept for a totally new Biological Flue Gas Desulfurization process (BIO-FGD), producing sulfur as by-product, was invented. It consists of the combination of a sodium scrubber with two biological reactors resulting in a very attractive new concept for a gas cleaning process. A description of the process is given and the pilot plant results are outlined. 4 figs., 5 refs.

  7. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum: Its effectiveness as an alternative bedding material for broiler production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) may be a viable low-cost alternative bedding material for broiler production. In order to evaluate FGD gypsum’s viability, three consecutive trials were conducted to determine its influence on live performance (body weight, feed consumption, feed efficiency, an...

  8. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  9. ABB wet flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niijhawan, P.

    1994-12-31

    The wet limestone process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is outlined. The following topics are discussed: wet flue gas desulfurization, wet FGD characteristics, wet scrubbers, ABB wet FGD experience, wet FGD forced oxidation, advanced limestone FGD systems, key design elements, open spray tower design, spray tower vs. packed tower, important performance parameters, SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, influence by L/G, limestone utilization, wet FGD commercial database, particulate removal efficiencies, materials of construction, nozzle layout, spray nozzles, recycle pumps, mist elimination, horizontal flow demister, mist eliminator washing, reagent preparation system, spray tower FGDS power consumption, flue gas reheat options, byproduct conditioning system, and wet limestone system.

  10. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create several types of by-products. This project focused primarily on by-product materials obtained from what are commonly called ''dry scrubbers'' which produce a dry, solid material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Prior to this project, dry FGD by-products were generally treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing; The major objective of this project was to develop beneficial uses, via recycling, capable of providing economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD by-product. It is equally important, however, that the environmental impacts be carefully assessed so that the new uses developed are not only technically feasible but socially acceptable. Specific objectives developed for this project were derived over an 18-month period during extensive discussions with personnel from industry, regulatory agencies and research institutions. These were stated as follows: Objective 1: To characterize the material generated by dry FGD processes. Objective 2: To demonstrate the utilization of dry FGD by-product as a soil amendment on agricultural lands and on abandoned and active surface coal mines in Ohio. Objective 3: To demonstrate the use of dry FGD by-product as an engineering material for soil stabilization. Objective 4: To determine the quantities of dry FGD by-product that can be utilized in each of these applications. Objective 5. To determine the environmental and economic impacts of utilizing the material. Objective 6. To calibrate environmental, engineering, and economic models that can be used to determine the applicability and costs of utilizing these processes at other sites.

  11. Amelioration of alkali soil using flue gas desulfurization byproducts: productivity and environmental quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.J.; Chen, C.H.; Xu, X.C.; Li, Y.J. [Tsing Hua University, Beijing (China). Ministry of Education

    2008-01-15

    In this study, flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts are used to ameliorate alkali soil. The average application rates for soils with low exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), mid ESP, and high ESP are 20.9, 30.6, and 59.3 Mg ha{sup -1} respectively. The experimental results obtained for 3 consecutive years reveal that the emergence ratios and yields of the crops were 1.1-7.6 times and 1.1-13.9 times those of the untreated control, respectively. The concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cd, As, and Hg in the treated soils are far below the background values stipulated by the Environmental Quality Standard for Soils (GB 15618-1995). Their concentrations in the seeds of corn and alfalfa grown in the treated soils are far below the tolerance limits regulated by National Food Standards of China. The results of this research demonstrate that the amelioration of alkali soils using FGD byproducts is promising.

  12. Recovery of SO2 and MgO from By-Products of MgO Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liyun; Lu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Quanhai; Guo, Qiang

    2014-11-01

    An industrial demonstration unit using natural gas as a heat source was built to calcine the by-products of MgO wet flue gas desulfurization from power plants; influencing factors on the SO 2 content in calciner gas were comprehensively analyzed; and an advantageous recycling condition of MgO and SO 2 from by-products was summarized. Results showed that the SO 2 content in the calciner gas was increased by more than 10 times under a lower excess air coefficient, a higher feed rate, a lower crystal water in by-products, and a higher feed port position. For the tests conducted under the excess air coefficient above and below one, the effect of the furnace temperature on the SO 2 content in the calciner gas was reversed. Results of activity analysis indicate that particles of MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 900-1,000°C had a high activity. In contrast, due to the slight sintering, MgO generated under the calcination temperature of 1,100°C had a low activity. To recycle SO 2 as well as MgO, a temperature range of 900-927°C for TE103 is proposed. These studies will prompt the desulfurization market diversification, reduce the sulfur's dependence on imports for making sulfuric acid, be meaningful to balance the usage of the natural resource in China, and be regarded as a reference for the development of this technology for other similar developing countries.

  13. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chugh, Y.P.; Dutta, D.; Esling, S. [and others

    1995-10-01

    On September 30, 1993, the U.S. Department of Energy-Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE-METC) and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale (SIUC) entered into a cooperative research agreement entitled {open_quotes}Management of Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products in Underground Mines{close_quotes} (DE-FC21-93MC30252). Under the agreement Southern Illinois University at Carbondale will develop and demonstrate several technologies for the placement of coal combustion residues (CCBs) in abandoned coal mines, and will assess the environmental impact of such underground CCB placement. This report describes progress in the following areas: environmental characterization, mix development and geotechnical characterization, material handling and system economics, underground placement, and field demonstration.

  14. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Anirban Mukherjee; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-03-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing ceria and zirconia have been studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents with the objective of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S in the product gas. The research was justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and was postulated to have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that were exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S were constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time was determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations from approximately 0.1 to 10 ppmv, and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, were obtained

  15. Dry flue gas desulfurization by-product application effects on plant uptake and soil storage changes in a managed grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess-Conforti, Jason R; Brye, Kristofor R; Miller, David M; Pollock, Erik D; Wood, Lisa S

    2018-02-01

    Environmental regulations mandate that sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) be removed from the flue gases of coal-fired power plants, which results in the generation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. These FGD by-products may be a viable soil amendment, but the large amounts of trace elements contained in FGD by-products are potentially concerning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of land application of a high-Ca dry FGD (DFGD) by-product on trace elements in aboveground biomass and soil. A high-Ca DFGD by-product was applied once at a rate of 9 Mg ha -1 on May 18, 2015 to small plots with mixed-grass vegetation. Soil and biomass were sampled prior to application and several times thereafter. Aboveground dry matter and tissue As, Co, Cr, Hg, Se, U, and V concentrations increased (P  0.05) from pre-application levels or the unamended control within 3 to 6 months of application. Soil pH in the amended treatment 6 months after application was greater (P by-product application compared to the unamended control. High-Ca DFGD by-products appear to be useful as a soil amendment, but cause at least a temporary increase in tissue concentrations of trace elements, which may be problematic for animal grazing situations.

  16. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  17. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anirban Mukherjee; Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv of less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} has been developed and the products have been characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} have been prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Phase separation did not occur when the solid solutions were heat treated at 700 C. A flow reactor system constructed of quartz and teflon has been constructed, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) suitable for measuring sub-ppmv levels of H{sub 2}S has been purchased with LSU matching funds. Preliminary desulfurization tests using commercial CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} in highly reducing gas compositions has confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} is more effective than CeO{sub 2} in removing H{sub 2}S. At 700 C the product H{sub 2}S concentration using CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbent was near the 0.1 ppmv PFPD detection limit during the prebreakthrough period.

  18. Mineral concentrations of forage legumes and grasses grown in acidic soil amended with flue gas desulfurization products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.B.; Baligar, V.C. [USDA ARS, Beltsville, MD (USA). Beltsville Agricultural Research Center West

    2003-07-01

    Considerable quantities of flue gas desulfurization products (FGDs) are generated when coal is burned for production of electricity, and these products have the potential to be reused rather than discarded. Use of FGDs as soil amendments could be important in overall management of these products, especially on acidic soils. Glasshouse studies were conducted to determine shoot concentrations of calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), sodium (Na), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), white clover (Trifolium repens), orchardgrass (Dacrylis glomerata), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), and eastern gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides) grown in acidic (pH 4) soil (Typic Hapludult) amended with various levels of three FGDs and the control compounds CaCO{sub 3}, CaSO{sub 3}, and CaSO{sub 4}. Shoot concentrations of Ca, S, Mg, and B generally increased as levels of soil applied FGD increased. Concentrations of Mn, Fe, Zn, Cu were lower in shoots, especially when soil pH was high ({gt}7). Shoot concentrations of the trace elements Mo, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Pb were not above those reported as normal for foliage. Overall concentrations of most minerals remained near normal for shoots when plants were grown in FGD amended acidic soil.

  19. MARKETING OF BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the 1985 marketing potential of byproduct gypsum from utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD), for the area east of the Rocky Mountains, using the calculated gypsum production rates of 14 selected power plants. The 114 cement plants and...

  20. Methods for dry desulfurization of flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjondahl, F.

    2002-01-01

    In this report different types of dry desulfurization processes are de-scribed. These processes are utilized for the removal of SO 2 from flue gases. Basic process descriptions, information on different sorbent types and their properties and some comments based on the authors own experience are included. Information on disposal or use of the end product from these processes is also provided. (orig.)

  1. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S. [National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur (India)

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  2. Management of dry flue gas desulfurization by-products in underground mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevim, H.

    1997-06-01

    Disposal of coal combustion by-products (CCBs) in an environmentally sound manner is a major issue facing the coal and utility industries in the US today. Disposal into abandoned sections of underground coal mines may overcome many of the surface disposal problems along with added benefits such as mitigation of subsidence and acid mine drainage. However, many of the abandoned underground coal mines are located far from power plants, requiring long distance hauling of by-products which will significantly contribute to the cost of disposal. For underground disposal to be economically competitive, the transportation and handling cost must be minimized. This requires careful selection of the system and optimal design for efficient operation. The materials handling and system economics research addresses these issues. Transportation and handling technologies for CCBs were investigated from technical, environmental and economic points of view. Five technologies were found promising: (1) Pneumatic Trucks, (2) Pressure Differential Rail Cars, (3) Collapsible Intermodal Containers, (4) Cylindrical Intermodal Tanks, and (5) Coal Hopper Cars with Automatic Retractable Tarping. The first two technologies are currently being utilized in transporting by-products from power plants to disposal sites, whereas the next three are either in development or in conceptualization phases. In this research project, engineering design and cost models were developed for the first four technologies. The engineering design models are in the form of spreadsheets and serve the purpose of determining efficient operating schedules and sizing of system components.

  3. Surface coal mine land reclamation using a dry flue gas desulfurization product: Short-term and long-term water responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liming; Stehouwer, Richard; Tong, Xiaogang; Kost, Dave; Bigham, Jerry M; Dick, Warren A

    2015-09-01

    Abandoned coal-mined lands are a worldwide concern due to their potential negative environmental impacts, including erosion and development of acid mine drainage. A field study investigated the use of a dry flue gas desulfurization product for reclamation of abandoned coal mined land in USA. Treatments included flue gas desulfurization product at a rate of 280 Mg ha(-1) (FGD), FGD at the same rate plus 112 Mg ha(-1) yard waste compost (FGD/C), and conventional reclamation that included 20 cm of re-soil material plus 157 Mg ha(-1) of agricultural limestone (SOIL). A grass-legume sward was planted after treatment applications. Chemical properties of surface runoff and tile water (collected from a depth of 1.2m below the ground surface) were measured over both short-term (1-4 yr) and long-term (14-20 yr) periods following reclamation. The pH of surface runoff water was increased from approximately 3, and then sustained at 7 or higher by all treatments for up to 20 yr, and the pH of tile flow water was also increased and sustained above 5 for 20 yr. Compared with SOIL, concentrations of Ca, S and B in surface runoff and tile flow water were generally increased by the treatments with FGD product in both short- and long-term measurements and concentrations of the trace elements were generally not statistically increased in surface runoff and tile flow water over the 20-yr period. However, concentrations of As, Ba, Cr and Hg were occasionally elevated. These results suggest the use of FGD product for remediating acidic surface coal mined sites can provide effective, long-term reclamation. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  5. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  6. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ortiz, A.; Harrison, D.P.; Groves, F.R.; White, J.D.; Zhang, S.; Huang, W.N.; Zeng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500C to 700C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in a

  7. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}), calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}), calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH){sub 2}], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments.

  8. Reclamation of acid, toxic coal spoils using wet flue gas desulfurization by-product, fly ash and sewage sludge. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kost, D.A.; Vimmerstedt, J.P.; Stehouwer, R.C.

    1997-03-01

    Establishment of vegetation on acid abandoned minelands requires modification of soil physical and chemical conditions. Covering the acid minesoil with topsoil or borrow soil is a common practice but this method may be restricted by availability of borrow soil and cause damage to the borrow site. An alternative approach is to use waste materials as soil amendments. There is a long history of using sewage sludge and fly ash as amendments for acid minesoils. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are newer materials that are also promising amendments. Most flue gas sludges are mixtures of Calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 ), calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 ), calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ), calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH) 2 ], and fly ash. Some scrubbing processes produce almost pure gypsum (CaSO 4 2H 2 O). The primary purpose of the project is to evaluate two wet FGD by-products for effects on vegetation establishment and surface and ground water quality on an acid minesoil. One by-product from the Conesville, OH power plant (American Electric Power Service Corporation) contains primarily calcium sulfite and fly ash. The other by-product (Mg-gypsum FGD) from an experimental scrubber at the Zimmer power plant (Cincinnati Gas and Electric Company) is primarily gypsum with 4% magnesium hydroxide. These materials were compared with borrow soil and sewage sludge as minesoil amendments. Combinations of each FGD sludge with sewage sludge were also tested. This report summarizes two years of measurements of chemical composition of runoff water, ground water at two depths in the subsoil, soil chemical properties, elemental composition and yield of herbaceous ground cover, and elemental composition, survival and height of trees planted on plots treated with the various amendments. The borrow soil is the control for comparison with the other treatments

  9. Desulfurization kinetics of molten copper by gas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaka, Y.; Nishikawa, K.; Sohn, H. S.; Asaki, Z.

    1991-02-01

    Molten copper with 0.74 wt pct sulfur content was desulfurized at 1523 K by bubbling Ar-O2 gas through a submerged nozzle. The reaction rate was significantly influenced not only by the oxygen partial pressure but also by the gas flow rate. Little evolution of SO2 gas was observed in the initial 10 seconds of the oxidation; however, this was followed by a period of high evolution rate of SO2 gas. The partial pressure of SO2 gas decreased with further progress of the desulfurization. The effect of the immersion depth of the submerged nozzle was negligible. The overall reaction is decomposed to two elementary reactions: the desulfurization and the dissolution rate of oxygen. The assumptions were made that these reactions are at equilibrium and that the reaction rates are controlled by mass transfer rates within and around the gas bubble. The time variations of sulfur and oxygen contents in the melt and the SO2 partial pressure in the off-gas under various bubbling conditions were well explained by the mathematical model combined with the reported thermodynamic data of these reactions. Based on the present model, it was anticipated that the oxidation rate around a single gas bubble was mainly determined by the rate of gas-phase mass transfer, but all oxygen gas blown into the melt was virtually consumed to the desulfurization and dissolution reactions before it escaped from the melt surface.

  10. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, December 11, 1992--March 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-12-31

    This report describes the potential of sulfate reducing bacteria to fix sulfur derived from flue gas desulfurization. The first section reviews the problem, the second section reviews progress of this study to use desulfovibrio desulfuricans for this purpose. The final section related progress during the current reporting period. This latter section describes studies to immobilize the bacteria in co-culture with floc-forming anaerobes, use of sewage sludges in the culture media, and sulfate production from sulfur dioxide.

  11. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, W.; Jordan, S.; Maetzing, H.; Paur, H.R.; Schikarski, W.; Wiens, H.

    1987-05-01

    The simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by the irradiation with 300 keV electrons in the presence of stoichiometric amounts of ammonia yields removal efficiencies of more than 90%. NO X -removal efficiencies depend on the absorbed dose, NO X -concentration and NH 3 -stoichiometry. SO 2 -removal proceeds by thermal and radiation induced mechanisms. The efficiency of the SO 2 -removal process is highest for low temperatures and high NH 3 -stoichiometries. By recycling of scrubbed gas into the reaction chamber (multiple irradiation) the efficiency of the process is increased by 50%. The product aerosol has mass median diameters of 2 and NO x removals in the absence of NH 3 are predicted with reasonable accuracy by the computer model. In the presence of NH 3 experimental data show higher SO 2 removal efficiencies than calculated. This is probably due to additional heterogeneous reactions on particles, which are not covered by the computer model. With 119 figs., 86 refs [de

  12. Radiation methods for demercaptanization and desulfurization of oil products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaykina, R.F.; Zaykin, Yu.A.; Mamonova, T.B.; Nadirov, N.K.

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for the desulfurization of oil is presented. The first stage strongly oxidizes sulfuric material to do away with its chemical aggressiveness and promote its removal. Desulfurization of the overall product is reached at the second stage by means of conventional methods

  13. Radiation methods for demercaptanization and desulfurization of oil products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaykina, R. F.; Zaykin, Yu. A.; Mamonova, T. B.; Nadirov, N. K.

    2002-03-01

    A two-stage method for the desulfurization of oil is presented. The first stage strongly oxidizes sulfuric material to do away with its chemical aggressiveness and promote its removal. Desulfurization of the overall product is reached at the second stage by means of conventional methods.

  14. Results using flue gas desulfurization gypsum in soilless substrates for greenhouse crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent availability of Flue Gas Desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) has led to interested in its possible use in horticulture greenhouse production. Three studies were conducted to determine the effects of increasing rates of FGDG on six greenhouse crops. In the first study, substrates (6:1 pine bark:san...

  15. Thermal preparation effects on the x-ray diffractograms of compounds produced during flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wertz, D.L.; Burns, K.H.; Keeton, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The diffractograms of syn-gypsum and of flue gas desulfurization products indicate that CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O is converted to other phase(s) when heated to 100 degrees C. Syn-hannebachite CaSO 3 ·0.5H 2 O is unaffected by similar thermal treatment. 6 refs., 3 figs

  16. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  17. Mechanical, Hygric and Thermal Properties of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Tesárek

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference measurements of basic mechanical, thermal and hygric parameters of hardened flue gas desulfurization gypsum are carried out. Moisture diffusivity, water vapor diffusion coefficient, thermal conductivity, volumetric heat capacity and linear thermal expansion coefficient are determined with the primary aim of comparison with data obtained for various types of modified gypsum in the future. 

  18. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  19. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a hot-gas desulfurization process scheme for control of H 2 S in HTHP coal gas that can be more simply and economically integrated with known regenerable sorbents in DOE/METC-sponsored work than current leading hot-gas desulfurization technologies. In addition to being more economical, the process scheme to be developed must yield an elemental sulfur byproduct. The Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading process for producing an elemental sulfur byproduct in hot-gas desulfurization systems, incurs a coal gas use penalty, because coal gas is required to reduce the SO 2 in regeneration off-gas to elemental sulfur. Alternative regeneration schemes, which avoid coal gas use and produce elemental sulfur, will be evaluated. These include (i) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using SO 2 ; (ii) partial oxidation of sulfided sorbent in an O 2 starved environment; and (iii) regeneration of sulfided sorbent using steam to produce H 2 S followed by direct oxidation of H 2 S to elemental sulfur. Known regenerable sorbents will be modified to improve the feasibility of the above alternative regeneration approaches. Performance characteristics of the modified sorbents and processes will be obtained through lab- and bench-scale testing. Technical and economic evaluation of the most promising processes concept(s) will be carried out

  20. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  1. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  2. Growing Cu2S Thin Films by Exposing a Copper Substrate to Gas-Phase Products of Brown Coal Hydrothermal Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitskii, D. P.; Stanishevskii, Ya. M.

    2018-01-01

    Thin films of copper(I) sulfide (Cu2S) are synthesized on a copper substrate by exposing it to vapor-phase sulfur-containing products resulting from the hydrothermal desulfurization of brown coal. The synthesized 0.1-mm-thick films have grain sizes in the range of 10‒20 μm, electrical resistivity ρ = 0.92 Ω cm at T = 300 K, and bang gap E g = 1.91 eV. The roughness of the films, in terms of the arithmetic mean deviation of the assessed profile, is R a = 2.46 μm.

  3. Experimental study on desulfurization efficiency and gas-liquid mass transfer in a new liquid-screen desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhongwei; Wang, Shengwei; Zhou, Qulan; Hui, Shi'en

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a new liquid-screen gas-liquid two-phase flow pattern with discarded carbide slag as the liquid sorbent of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system. On the basis of experimental data, the correlations of the desulfurization efficiency with flue gas flow rate, slurry flow rate, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio were investigated. A non-dimensional empirical model was developed which correlates the mass transfer coefficient with the liquid Reynolds number, gas Reynolds number and liquid-gas ratio (L/G) based on the available experimental data. The kinetic reaction between the SO 2 and the carbide slag depends on the pressure distribution in this desulfurizing tower, gas liquid flow field, flue gas component, pH value of slurry and liquid-gas ratio mainly. The transient gas-liquid mass transfer involving with chemical reaction was quantified by measuring the inlet and outlet SO 2 concentrations of flue gas as well as the characteristics of the liquid-screen two-phase flow. The mass transfer model provides a necessary quantitative understanding of the hydration kinetics of sulfur dioxide in the liquid-screen flue gas desulfurization system using discarded carbide slag which is essential for the practical application. (author)

  4. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  5. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  6. Progress on flue gas desulfurization and denitration with electron beam irradiation in CAEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Min; Wang Baojian; Yang Ruizhuang; Huang Wenfeng; He Xiaohai; Mao Benjiang

    2005-01-01

    The first pilot plant with electron beam irradiation for desulfurization and denitration of flue gas in China and the experimental results based on the pilot plant are briefly introduced in this paper. The FGD (flue gas desulfurization) demonstration installation designed by CAEP (China Academy of Engineering Physics) in Beijing Jingfeng Thermal Powe Co., Ltd. is recommended. (author)

  7. Shell launches its Claus off-gas desulfurization process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenendaal, W; van Meurs, H C.A.

    1972-01-01

    The Shell Flue Gas Desulfurization (SFGD) Process was developed for removal of sulfur oxides from flue gases originating from oil-fired boilers or furnaces. It can also be used to remove sulfur dioxide from Claus sulfur recovery tail gases if they are combined with boiler/furnace flue gases. For Claus tail gas only, the Shell Claus off-gas desulfurization process was developed. Claus unit operation and desulfurization by low temperature Claus processes and conversion/concentration processes are discussed. The new Shell process consists of a conversion/concentration process involving a reduction section and an amine absorption section. In the reduction section, all sulfur compounds and free sulfur are completely reduced to hydrogen sulfide with hydrogen, or hydrogen plus carbon monoxide, over a cobalt/molybdenum-on-alumina catalyst at a temperature of about 300/sup 0/C. Extensive bench scale studies on the reduction system have been carried out. A life test of more than 4000 hr showed a stable activity of the reduction catalyst, which means that in commercial units, very long catalyst lives can be expected. The commercial feasibility of the reduction section was further demonstrated in the Godorf refinery of Deutsche Shell AG. More than 80 absorption units using alkanolamine (AIDP) solutions have been installed. Bench scale studies of the ADIP absorption units were compared to commercial experience.The total capital investment of the new Shell process is 0.7, 2.0, and 3.2 $ times 10 to the 6th power for 100, 500, and 1000 tons of sulfur/sd capacity Claus units, respectively. The total operating costs for these units are, respectively, 610, 1930 and 3310 $/stream day. The capital investment corresponds to about 75% of the capital investment of the preceding Claus unit.

  8. Gas cleaning and hydrogen sulfide removal for COREX coal gas by sorption enhanced catalytic oxidation over recyclable activated carbon desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tonghua; Shen, Yafei; Jia, Jinping

    2014-02-18

    This paper proposes a novel self-developed JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 alkaline adsorbent for H2S removal and gas cleaning of the COREX coal gas in small-scale and commercial desulfurizing devices. JTS-01 desulfurizer was loaded with metal oxide (i.e., ferric oxides) catalysts on the surface of activated carbons (AC), and the catalyst capacity was improved dramatically by means of ultrasonically assisted impregnation. Consequently, the sulfur saturation capacity and sulfur capacity breakthrough increased by 30.3% and 27.9%, respectively. The whole desulfurizing process combined selective adsorption with catalytic oxidation. Moreover, JZC-80 adsorbent can effectively remove impurities such as HCl, HF, HCN, and ash in the COREX coal gas, stabilizing the system pressure drop. The JTS-01 desulfurizer and JZC-80 adsorbent have been successfully applied for the COREX coal gas cleaning in the commercial plant at Baosteel, Shanghai. The sulfur capacity of JTS-01 desulfurizer can reach more than 50% in industrial applications. Compared with the conventional dry desulfurization process, the modified AC desulfurizers have more merit, especially in terms of the JTS-01 desulfurizer with higher sulfur capacity and low pressure drop. Thus, this sorption enhanced catalytic desulfurization has promising prospects for H2S removal and other gas cleaning.

  9. Hot-Gas Desulfurization with Sulfur Recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Damle, Ashok S.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a second generation HGD process that regenerates the sulfided sorbent directly to elemental sulfur using SO 2 , with minimal consumption of coal gas. The goal is to have better overall economics than DSRP when integrated with the overall IGCC system

  10. Increasing draft capability for retrofit flue gas desulfurization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, R.D.; Basel, B.E.; Mosier, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    The retrofit installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems results in significantly higher draft losses for existing generating stations. Consequently, the means for increasing draft capability must be included in many FGD retrofit projects. Consideration is given to several alternatives for increasing draft capability. Alternatives are developed for new induced draft (ID) fans to replace the existing ID fans and for new booster fans to supplement the existing ID fans. Both centrifugal and axial fans are evaluated, as are different means of fan volume control. Each alternative is evaluated on the basis of technical merit and economics. Presented are the development of fan alternatives and results of the technical and economic evaluations

  11. Advanced fuel gas desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project. Technical progress report No. 19, July 1, 1994--September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The {open_quotes}Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project{close_quotes} is a $150.5 million cooperative effort between the U.S. Department of Energy and Pure Air, a general partnership of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc. The AFGD process is one of several alternatives to conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) being demonstrated under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. The AFGD demonstration project is located at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station, about 12 miles northeast of Gary, Indiana.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The Cumberland Fossil Plant (CUF) is located in Stewart County, Tennessee, and began commercial operation in 1972. This is the Tennessee Valley Authority's newest fossil (coal-burning) steam electric generating plant. Under current operating conditions, the plant burns approximately seven million tons of coal annually. By-products from the combustion of coal are fly ash, approximately 428,000 tons annually, and bottom ash, approximately 115,000 tons annually. Based on historical load and projected ash production rates, a study was initially undertaken to identify feasible alternatives for marketing, utilization and disposal of ash by-products. The preferred alternative to ensure that facilities are planned for all by-products which will potentially be generated at CUF is to plan facilities to handle wet FGD gypsum and dry fly ash. A number of different sites were evaluated for their suitability for development as FGD gypsum and ash storage facilities. LAW Engineering was contracted to conduct onsite explorations of sites to develop information on the general mature of subsurface soil, rock and groundwater conditions in the site areas. Surveys were also conducted on each site to assess the presence of endangered and threatened species, wetlands and floodplains, archaeological and cultural resources, prime farmland and other site characteristics which must be considered from an environmental perspective

  13. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2H(sub 2)S(yields) 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 2H(sub 2)O; Regeneration: 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 3O(sub 2)(yields) Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2SO(sub 2) The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  14. Two-Phase Phenomena In Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minzer, U.; Moses, E.J.; Toren, M.; Blumenfeld, Y.

    1998-01-01

    In order to reduce sulfur oxides discharge, Israel Electric Corporation (IEC) is building a wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) facility at Rutenberg B power station. The primary objective of IEC is to minimize the occurrence of stack liquid discharge and avoid the discharge of large droplets, in order to prevent acid rain around the stack. Liquid discharge from the stack is the integrated outcome of two-phase processes, which are discussed in this work. In order to estimate droplets discharge the present investigation employs analytical models, empirical tests, and numerical calculations of two-phase phenomena. The two-phase phenomena are coupled and therefore cannot be investigated separately. The present work concerns the application of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) as an engineering complementary tool in the IEC investigation

  15. Applying ACF to desulfurization process from flue gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yi; Zhang Zhigang; Tang Qiang; Cao Zidong

    2004-01-01

    Inasmuch as the status of environmental pollution caused by SO 2 is more and more serious and the policy of environmental protection is executed more and more strictly, desulfurization from flue gas (FGD) is introduced to a wide-spread field of national economy. By a comparison with lime-limestone method, the application of adsorption method in FGD is more effective in desulfurization and more adapted to the situation of our country in respect of its more valuable byproduct. However, the technique of adsorption method is limited by the large amount of adsorbent used. In this paper, activated carbon fiber (ACF) is proposed as a new type of adsorbent to apply in FGD. A series of experiments have been made in order to compare the performances between ACF and granular activated carbon (GAC) which has been mostly used. Experiments show that under the same working conditions ACF's adsorption capacity is 16.6 times as high as that of GAC, mass loss rate is 1/12 of GAC's, desorption efficiency of ACF can reach 99.9%. The theory of micropore adsorption dynamics is adopted to analyze the characteristics of both adsorbents. It is indicated that adsorbability and perfectibility of desorption are tightly related to the distribution of pores and the surface micromechanism of adsorbent surface. The accessibility of pores for specified adsorptive and the effects of capillary condensation are crucial factors to influence the process of FGD. According to the research of different adsorbents, conclusion can be drawn that ACF is a kind of good material with a strong selectivity for SO 2 . Compared with the traditional methods of FGD, the use of ACF can greatly economize the consumption of adsorbent and obviously reduce the introduction of new adsorbent, and at the same time keep down the equipment investment and operating cost. (authors)

  16. Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuan C.

    1977-03-08

    A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

  17. Potential Agricultural Uses of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum in the Northern Great Plains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeSutter, T.M.; Cihacek, L.J. [North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND (United States). Department of Soil Science

    2009-07-15

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a byproduct from the combustion of coal for electrical energy production. Currently, FGDG is being produced by 15 electrical generating stations in Alabama, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Ohio, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Wisconsin. Much of this byproduct is used in the manufacturing of wallboard. The National Network for Use of FGDG in Agriculture was initiated to explore alternative uses of this byproduct. In the northern Great Plains (North Dakota, South Dakota, and Montana), FGDG has the potential to be used as a Ca or S fertilizer, as an acid soil ameliorant, and for reclaiming or mitigating sodium-affected soils. Greater than 1.4 million Mg of FGDG could initially be used in these states for these purposes. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum can be an agriculturally important resource for helping to increase the usefulness of problem soils and to increase crop and rangeland production. Conducting beneficial use audits would increase the public awareness of this product and help identify to coal combustion electrical generating stations the agriculturally beneficial outlets for this byproduct.

  18. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artiola, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO 4 ) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques

  19. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  20. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  1. Production and performance of desulfurized rubber asphalt binder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Sheng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Asphalt rubber binder typically exhibits disadvantages like segregation and high viscosity; however, this can be improved by the incorporation of desulfurized rubber powder. This study examined the swelling principle of desulfurized rubber asphalt (DRA. In addition, it evaluated the performance of DRA fabricated with various rubber powder contents under different shear conditions and development time. Superpave binders tests, including Brookfield viscosity, dynamic shear rheometer (DSR and bending beam rheometer (BBR tests, were applied on three control binders (i.e., neat, 20 mesh asphalt rubber binder, 40 mesh asphalt rubber binder and a DRA binder. Binder testing results indicated that rubber powder swelled into the base binder and resulted in enhanced stability. Optimum performance of the DRA binder was achieved by adding 20% (by weight of rubber powder into the base binder at shear rate, shear temperature, shear time and development time of 7000 r/min, 170 °C, 60 min and 45 min, respectively. Modified ranges of production conditions were also provided to widen the application of DRA in field construction. It appeared that DRA binder benefited from the recovered plasticity and viscosity of the rubber and consequently, exhibited superior performance over the neat and conventional asphalt rubber binders. Preliminary mixture evaluation was also conducted and the DRA binder was found to significantly improve the mixture resistance to permanent deformation and water damage. Overall, the DAR binder is encouraged to be used as a modified binder for flexible pavements. Keywords: Desulfurized rubber asphalt, Swelling model, Production process, Asphalt performance, Rubber asphalt

  2. Evaluation of Synthetic Gypsum Recovered via Wet Flue-Gas Desulfurization from Electric Power Plants for Use in Foundries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biernacki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates possible use of waste gypsum (synthetic, recovered via flue-gas desulfurization from coal-fired electric powerplants, in foundries. Energy sector, which in Eastern Europe is mostly composed from coal-fired electric power plants, is one of the largestproducers of sulfur dioxide (SO2.In order to protect the environment and reduce the amount of pollution flue-gas desulfurization (FGD is used to remove SO2 fromexhaust flue gases of fossil-fuel power plants. As a result of this process gypsum waste is produced that can be used in practicalapplications.Strength and permeability tests have been made and also in-depth analysis of energy consumption of production process to investigateways of preparing the synthetic gypsum for casting moulds application. This paper also assesses the chemical composition, strength andpermeability of moulds made with synthetic gypsum, in comparison with moulds made with traditional GoldStar XL gypsum and withceramic molds. Moreover examination of structure of synthetic gypsum, the investigations on derivatograph and calculations of energyconsumption during production process of synthetic gypsum in wet flue-gas desulfurization were made.After analysis of gathered data it’s possible to conclude that synthetic gypsum can be used as a material for casting mould. There is nosignificant decrease in key properties, and on the other hand there is many additional benefits including low energy consumption,decreased cost, and decreased environmental impact.

  3. A novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with the magnetically fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Gui Keting

    2009-01-01

    The magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) was used as the reactor in a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency. Experiments in a laboratory-scale apparatus were conducted to reveal the effects of approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, Ca/S molar ratio and applied magnetic field intensity on SO 2 removal. Results showed that SO 2 removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by decreasing approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, increasing Ca/S molar ratio, or increasing applied magnetic field intensity. At a magnetic field intensity of 300 Oe and a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.0, the desulfurization efficiency (excluding desulfurization efficiency in the fabric filter) was over 80%, while spent sorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. With the SEM, XRD and EDX research, it can be found that the increase of DC magnetic field intensity can make the surface morphology on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles loose and enhance the oxidation of S(IV), hence reducing the liquid phase mass transfer resistance of the slurry droplets and increasing desulfurization reaction rate, respectively. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency increased obviously with the increase of DC field intensity.

  4. Numerical Investigation of Desulfurization Kinetics in Gas-Stirred Ladles by a Quick Modeling Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Nastac, Laurentiu; Pitts-Baggett, April; Yu, Qiulin

    2018-03-01

    A quick modeling analysis approach for predicting the slag-steel reaction and desulfurization kinetics in argon gas-stirred ladles has been developed in this study. The model consists of two uncoupled components: (i) a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting the fluid flow and the characteristics of slag-steel interface, and (ii) a multicomponent reaction kinetics model for calculating the desulfurization evolution. The steel-slag interfacial area and mass transfer coefficients predicted by the CFD simulation are used as the processing data for the reaction model. Since the desulfurization predictions are uncoupled from the CFD simulation, the computational time of this uncoupled predictive approach is decreased by at least 100 times for each case study when compared with the CFD-reaction kinetics fully coupled model. The uncoupled modeling approach was validated by comparing the evolution of steel and slag compositions with the experimentally measured data during ladle metallurgical furnace (LMF) processing at Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa, Inc. Then, the validated approach was applied to investigate the effects of the initial steel and slag compositions, as well as different types of additions during the refining process on the desulfurization efficiency. The results revealed that the sulfur distribution ratio and the desulfurization reaction can be promoted by making Al and CaO additions during the refining process. It was also shown that by increasing the initial Al content in liquid steel, both Al oxidation and desulfurization rates rapidly increase. In addition, it was found that the variation of the initial Si content in steel has no significant influence on the desulfurization rate. Lastly, if the initial CaO content in slag is increased or the initial Al2O3 content is decreased in the fluid-slag compositional range, the desulfurization rate can be improved significantly during the LMF process.

  5. Numerical Investigation of Desulfurization Kinetics in Gas-Stirred Ladles by a Quick Modeling Analysis Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Nastac, Laurentiu; Pitts-Baggett, April; Yu, Qiulin

    2018-06-01

    A quick modeling analysis approach for predicting the slag-steel reaction and desulfurization kinetics in argon gas-stirred ladles has been developed in this study. The model consists of two uncoupled components: (i) a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting the fluid flow and the characteristics of slag-steel interface, and (ii) a multicomponent reaction kinetics model for calculating the desulfurization evolution. The steel-slag interfacial area and mass transfer coefficients predicted by the CFD simulation are used as the processing data for the reaction model. Since the desulfurization predictions are uncoupled from the CFD simulation, the computational time of this uncoupled predictive approach is decreased by at least 100 times for each case study when compared with the CFD-reaction kinetics fully coupled model. The uncoupled modeling approach was validated by comparing the evolution of steel and slag compositions with the experimentally measured data during ladle metallurgical furnace (LMF) processing at Nucor Steel Tuscaloosa, Inc. Then, the validated approach was applied to investigate the effects of the initial steel and slag compositions, as well as different types of additions during the refining process on the desulfurization efficiency. The results revealed that the sulfur distribution ratio and the desulfurization reaction can be promoted by making Al and CaO additions during the refining process. It was also shown that by increasing the initial Al content in liquid steel, both Al oxidation and desulfurization rates rapidly increase. In addition, it was found that the variation of the initial Si content in steel has no significant influence on the desulfurization rate. Lastly, if the initial CaO content in slag is increased or the initial Al2O3 content is decreased in the fluid-slag compositional range, the desulfurization rate can be improved significantly during the LMF process.

  6. Sulfur transformations related to revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge disposal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barlas, S.A.; Artiola, J.F.; Salo, L.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Sciences

    1999-10-01

    This study investigated factors controlling redox conditions in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge and identified ways to minimize the production of phytotoxic reduced sulfur species at FGD sludge disposal sites. The oxidation of reduced FGD sludge (Eh-385 mV) appears to be a two-step process mostly controlled by water content. Eighty percent of total sulfide in reduced sludge was oxidized within 20 h of exposure to air with constant water evaporation. When organic carbon (OC) was added to saturated oxidized sludge, the Eh dropped exponentially. Sulfate reduction began at an Eh of about -75 mV and reached a maximum at -265 to -320 mV. Water content, degree of mixing, concentration of OC, and temperature control the rate and extent of reduction of FGD sludge. This suggests that water saturation and OC inputs to revegetated disposal sites should be controlled, especially during warm temperatures, to prevent production of phytotoxic levels of sulfides.

  7. The desulfurization mechanism of iron-manganese compound oxide desulfurizer for removal of COS from coal gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fang-fang; Zhao Hai; Zhang De-xiang; Gao Jin-sheng [East China University of Science and Technology. Shanghai (China). School of Resource and Environmental Engineering

    2008-02-15

    The sorbent, atmospheric and components of outlet gas were analyzed by mass spectra, XRD, SEM, EDS etc. Desulfurisation performance of sorbents is good at 240 - 400 {sup o}C, atmospheric pressure and space speed of 500 - 2,000 h {sup -1}. The possible mechanism of desulfurisation reactions was obtained by analyzing the reduction- adsorption-sulfidation process. Carbon oxysulfide (COS) was converted to H{sub 2}S by hydrogen in strongly reducing atmosphere firstly. Then H{sub 2}S was adsorbed on the surface of desulfurizers, reacted with active component and transformed metal sulfides and water. Efficiency of removal of carbonyl sulfur is better in an atmosphere without carbonaceous oxide than in one with it, under test conditions. The existence of carbonaceous oxide restrains hydrogenation and the hydrolytic process of COS, which leads to a higher concentration of COS in the outlet. It is shown that chemical conversion is the main pathway in the reaction system of COS. Hydrogenation is the main process in the removal of COS from syngas. COS is preferentially catalyzed with active components n desulfurization sorbents, and generates H{sub 2}S which is subsequently absorbed. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A modeling and experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a dense phase tower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Guanqin; Song, Cunyi; Wang, Li

    2011-01-01

    We used a dense phase tower as the reactor in a novel semi-dry flue gas desulfurization process to achieve a high desulfurization efficiency of over 95% when the Ca/S molar ratio reaches 1.3. Pilot-scale experiments were conducted for choosing the parameters of the full-scale reactor. Results show that with an increase in the flue gas flow rate the rate of the pressure drop in the dense phase tower also increases, however, the rate of the temperature drop decreases in the non-load hot gas. We chose a water flow rate of 0.6 kg/min to minimize the approach to adiabatic saturation temperature difference and maximize the desulfurization efficiency. To study the flue gas characteristics under different processing parameters, we simulated the desulfurization process in the reactor. The simulated data matched very well with the experimental data. We also found that with an increase in the Ca/S molar ratio, the differences between the simulation and experimental data tend to decrease; conversely, an increase in the flue gas flow rate increases the difference; this may be associated with the surface reactions caused by collision, coalescence and fragmentation between the dispersed phases.

  9. Subsequent flue gas desulfurization of coal-fired power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willibal, U.; Braun, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    The presently operating coal-fired power plant in Hungary do not satisfy the pollution criteria prescribed by the European Union norms. The main polluting agent is the sulfur dioxide emitted by some of the power plants in Hungary in quantities over the limit standards. The power plant units that are in good operating state could be made competitive by using subsequent desulfurization measures. Various flue gas desulfurization technologies are presented through examples that can be applied to existing coal-fired power plants. (R.P.)

  10. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  11. Rare earth oxides in gaseous desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, D.A.R.; Wilson, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Phase stability diagrams are used to predict the abilities of lanthanum and cerium oxides to desulfurize coal gasification products in the temperature range 800-1000 C. Results of desulfurization studies in laboratory fixed bed reactors illustrate the effects of sorbent preparation, input gas quality and temperature, on the desulfurization reaction: 2CeO( 2 - x )(s) + H 2 S(g) + (1-2x)H 2 = Ce 2 O 2 S(s) + 2(1 - x)H 2 O(g). The results of desulfurization/oxidation regeneration cycles are also reported

  12. Design considerations for wet flue gas desulfurization systems - wet scrubber hardware issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurwitz, H.

    1994-12-31

    About 20 years ago the first wet flue gas desulfurization systems installed on coal fired utility boilers in the United States were experiencing extreme operating problems. In addition to their failure to achieve the necessary SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, these FGD systems required a major investment in maintenance, both material and labor, just to remain operational. These first generation systems demonstrated that a lack of understanding of the chemistry and operating conditions of wet flue gas desulfurization can lead to diastrous results. As the air pollution control industry developed, both in the United States and in Japan, a second generation of FGD systems was introduced. These designs incorporated major improvements in both system chemistry control and in the equipment utilized in the process. Indeed, the successful introduction of utility gas desulfurization systems in Germany was possible only through the transfer of the technology improvements developed in the US and in Japan. Today, technology has evolved to a third generation of wet flue gas desulfurication systems and these systems are now offered worldwide through a series of international licensing agreements. The rapid economic growth and development in Asia and the Pacific Rim combined with existing problems in ambient air quality in these same geographic areas, has resulted in the use of advanced air pollution control systems; including flue gas desulfurization both for new utility units and for many retrofit projects. To meet the requirements of the utility industry, FGD systems must meet high standards of reliability, operability and performance. Key components in achieving these objectives are: FGD System reliability/operability/performance; FGD system supplier qualifications; process design; equipment selection. This paper will discuss each of the essential factors with a concentration on the equipment selection and wet scrubber hardware issues.

  13. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1994-03-01

    The main objective of this research was to investigate microorganisms capable of fossil fuel flue gas desulfurization and denitrification. The study used municipal sewage sludge as a carbon and energy source for SO{sub 2}-reducing cultures. The individual tasks developed a consortium of sulfate-reducing bacteria, investigated the design parameters for a continuous process, preformed a cost analysis, and screened sulfate-reducing bacteria. In the investigation of microbial reduction of NO{sub x} to nitrogen, tasks included screening denitrifying bacteria for NO and NO{sub 2} activity, developing optimum NO-reducing cultures, and investigating design parameters for a continuous system. This final report reviews the work previous to the current project, describes project objectives and the specific work plan, and reports results from the work completed during the previous reporting periods.

  14. Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jia-Jia; Pan, Liang-Ming; Chen, De-Qi; Dong, Yu-Quan; Wang, Cheng-Mu; Liu, Hang; Kang, Mei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of nozzles, the spray droplet size and flue gas temperature limitation have been obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation results show that a longer duct, smaller diameter and higher flue gas temperature could help to increase the evaporation rate. The optimal DWETS design of Shangdu plant is 100 μm droplet sprayed by two nozzles located at the long duct when the flue gas temperature is 130 °C. Field tests were carried out based on the simulation results. The effects of running DWETS on the downstream devices have been studied. The results show that DWETS has a positive impact on ash removal efficiency and does not have any negative impact on the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), flue gas heat exchanger and WFGD. The pH values of the slurry of WFGD slightly increase when the DWETS is running. The simulation and field test of the DWETS show that it is a feasible future technology for desulfurization wastewater treatment.

  15. Thermodynamic assessment of IGCC power plants with hot fuel gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Antonio; Romano, Matteo C.; Lozza, Giovanni G.

    2010-01-01

    In IGCC power plants, hot gas desulfurization (HGD) represents an attractive solution to simplify syngas treatments and to improve the efficiency, potentially reducing the final cost of electricity. In the present study, the various consequences of the introduction of a HGD station in the power plant are discussed and evaluated, in comparison with conventional near-ambient temperature clean-up. Attention is paid to the potential improvements of the overall energy balance of the complete power station, along with the requirements of the sorbent regeneration process, to the influence of the desulfurization temperature and to the different solutions needed to control the NO x emissions (altered by the presence of HGD). The net performance of complete IGCC power plants (with HGD or with conventional desulfurization) were predicted, with reference to status-of-the-art solutions based on an entrained flow, dry-feed, oxygen-blown gasifier and on an advanced, FB-class combined cycle. The net efficiency experiences about 2.5% point improvement with HGD, even if a small reduction in the power output was predicted, when using the same combustion turbine. An exhaustive sensitivity analysis was carried out to evaluate the effects of different working conditions at the HGD station, e.g. desulfurization temperature and oxygen content in the gaseous stream for sorbent regeneration. According to the obtained results, these parameters have a weak influence on the efficiency. In particular, a very elevated desulfurization temperature (above 400-500 o C) does not provide decisive thermodynamic advantages. Therefore, the HGD unit optimization can be driven by technical and economical aspects and by emission abatement requirements. For instance, utilization of nitrogen for HGD sorbent regeneration (rather than for syngas dilution) and higher fuel temperature may improve the NO formation. Hence, different strategies to achieve acceptable NO x emissions (e.g. steam dilution) and their

  16. The design of the extraction window of high power electron accelerator used in flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Tongqi; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai; Hu Wei; Sun Guangkui; Shi Weiguo; Li Minxi; Zhang Yutian; Pu Gengqiang

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the pollution caused by industrial exhaust gas, especially, the air pollution and acid rain resulting from the sulfur of exhaust gas, is increasingly drawing people's attention. The flue gas desulfurization by electron beam produced by high-power electron accelerator has the characteristics of high efficiency and non-secondary contamination. As one of the most pivotal part of accelerator, the service lifetime of this extraction window directly effects the stable operation of the device. In this paper, a brief review is given to summarize the advantages, material selecting, structure, replacing, maintaining of the extraction window of high-power electron accelerator developed by SINAP. (authors)

  17. Effects of magnetic fields on improving mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    The effects of magnetic fields on improving the mass transfer in flue gas desulfurization using a fluidized bed are investigated in the paper. In this research, the magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) is used as the reactor in which ferromagnetic particles are fluidized with simulated flue gas under the influence of an external magnetic field. Lime slurry is continuously sprayed into the reactor. As a consequence, the desulfurization reaction and the slurry drying process take place simultaneously in the MFB. In this paper, the effects of ferromagnetic particles and external magnetic fields on the desulphurization efficiency are studied and compared with that of quartz particles as the fluidized particles. Experimental results show that the ferromagnetic particles not only act as a platform for lime slurry to precipitate on like quartz particles, but also take part in the desulfurization reaction. The results also show that the specific surface area of ferromagnetic particles after reaction is enlarged as the magnetic intensity increases, and the external magnetic field promotes the oxidation of S(IV), improving the mass transfer between sulphur and its sorbent. Hence, the efficiency of desulphurization under the effects of external magnetic fields is higher than that in general fluidized beds.

  18. Gas-exfoliated porous monolayer boron nitride for enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcheng; Wu, Peiwen; Chao, Yanhong; He, Jing; Li, Hongping; Lu, Linjie; Jiang, Wei; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Huaming; Zhu, Wenshuai

    2018-01-01

    Hexagonal boron nitride has been regarded to be an efficient catalyst in aerobic oxidation fields, but limited by the less-exposed active sites. In this contribution, we proposed a simple green liquid nitrogen gas exfoliation strategy for preparation of porous monolayer nanosheets (BN-1). Owing to the reduced layer numbers, decreased lateral sizes and artificially-constructed pores, increased exposure of active sites was expected, further contributed to an enhanced aerobic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) performance up to ˜98% of sulfur removal, achieving ultra-deep desulfurization. This work not only introduced an excellent catalyst for aerobic ODS, but also provided a strategy for construction of some other highly-efficient monolayer two-dimensional materials for enhanced catalytic performance.

  19. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, J.G. [Tampella Power Corp., Atlanta, GA (United States); Vilala, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  20. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) demonstration project: Volume 2, Project performance and economics. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    The project objective is to demonstrate removal of 90--95% or more of the SO{sub 2} at approximately one-half the cost of conventional scrubbing technology; and to demonstrate significant reduction of space requirements. In this project, Pure Air has built a single SO{sub 2} absorber for a 528-MWe power plant. The absorber performs three functions in a single vessel: prequencher, absorber, and oxidation of sludge to gypsum. Additionally, the absorber is of a co- current design, in which the flue gas and scrubbing slurry move in the same direction and at a relatively high velocity compared to conventional scrubbers. These features all combine to yield a state- of-the-art SO{sub 2} absorber that is more compact and less expensive than conventional scrubbers. The project incorporated a number of technical features including the injection of pulverized limestone directly into the absorber, a device called an air rotary sparger located within the base of the absorber, and a novel wastewater evaporation system. The air rotary sparger combines the functions of agitation and air distribution into one piece of equipment to facilitate the oxidation of calcium sulfite to gypsum. Additionally, wastewater treatment is being demonstrated to minimize water disposal problems inherent in many high-chloride coals. Bituminous coals primarily from the Indiana, Illinois coal basin containing 2--4.5% sulfur were tested during the demonstration. The Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) process has demonstrated removal of 95% or more of the SO{sub 2} while providing a commercial gypsum by-product in lieu of solid waste. A portion of the commercial gypsum is being agglomerated into a product known as PowerChip{reg_sign} gypsum which exhibits improved physical properties, easier flowability and more user friendly handling characteristics to enhance its transportation and marketability to gypsum end-users.

  1. A complementary and synergistic effect of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁斯灏; 吴幼青

    1996-01-01

    57Fe Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to investigate the evolution of Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent in the process of high-temperature fuel gas desulfurization. The results of phase analyses show that Fe-Zn binary metal oxide sorbent is rapidly reduced in hot fuel gas and decomposed to new phases of highly dispersed microcrystalline elemental iron and zinc oxide, both of which become the active desulfurization constituents. A complementary and synergistic effect between active iron acting as a high sulfur capacity constituent and active zinc oxide acting as a deep refining desulfurization constituent exists in this type of sorbent for hot fuel gas desulfurization.

  2. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project. Technical progress report No. 15, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate that, by combining state-of-the-art technology, highly efficient plant operation and maintenance capabilities and by-product gypsum sales, significant reductions of SO{sub 2} emissions can be achieved at approximately one-half the life cycle cost of a conventional Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system. Further, this emission reduction is achieved without generating solid waste and while minimizing liquid wastewater effluent. Basically, this project entails the design, construction and operation of a nominal 600 MWe AFGD facility to remove SO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plant flue gas at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s Bailly Generating Station.

  3. Desulfurization of the exhaust gas with zeolite synthesized from diatomaceous earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, M

    1975-07-01

    Both A type and X type zeolites were prepared from diatomaceous earth and tested for use in flue gas desulfurization. Several diatomaceous earths of known chemical compositions were mixed to obtain a desired molar ratio of silicates, whose maturation was achieved in two steps; room temperature maturation and reflux maturation by heating. If the second maturation was carried out for more than 12 hr, the X type zeolite formation was low. At the best conditions, 80% pure zeolite could be prepared for both types according to their x-ray diffraction spectra. The synthesized x type zeolite adsorbed sulfur dioxide more efficiently than A type zeolite. When a simulated flue gas containing 680 to 840 ppM sulfur dioxide was passed at a flow rate of 9.0 Nl/min through a 250 g zeolite column, the column breaking time (time required for the SO/sub 2/ concentration of the column effluent to reach 10% of the initial SO/sub 2/ concentration) was 5.3 hr, while that for the commercial zeolite and activated carbon was 6.8 hr and 8.0 hr, respectively. If the flue gas contained more than 1% moisture, the adsorbed water reacted with SO/sub 2/ and the zeolite crystal tended to break down. The use of zeolite for flue gas desulfurization was more costly than the use of activated carbon.

  4. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.

    1996-01-01

    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  5. Highly stable and regenerable Mn-based/SBA-15 sorbents for desulfurization of hot coal gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, F.M.; Liu, B.S.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, Y.H.; Wan, Z.Y.; Subhan, Fazle

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A series of mesoporous Cu x Mn y O z /SBA-15 sorbents were fabricated for hot coal gas desulfurization. ► 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 sorbent with high breakthrough sulfur capacity is high stable and regenerable. ► Utilization of SBA-15 constrained the sintering and pulverization of sorbents. - Abstract: A series of mesoporous xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents with different Cu/Mn atomic ratios were prepared by wet impregnation method and their desulfurization performance in hot coal gas was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor in the range of 700–850 °C. The successive nine desulfurization–regeneration cycles at 800 °C revealed that 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 presented high performance with durable regeneration ability due to the high dispersion of Mn 2 O 3 particles incorporated with a certain amount of copper oxides. The breakthrough sulfur capacity of 1Cu9Mn/SBA-15 observed 800 °C is 13.8 g S/100 g sorbents, which is remarkably higher than these of 40 wt%LaFeO 3 /SBA-15 (4.8 g S/100 g sorbents) and 50 wt%LaFe 2 O x /MCM-41 (5.58 g S/100 g sorbents) used only at 500–550 °C. This suggested that the loading of Mn 2 O 3 active species with high thermal stability to SBA-15 support significantly increased sulfur capacity at relatively higher sulfidation temperature. The fresh and used xCuyMn/SBA-15 sorbents were characterized by means of BET, XRD, XPS, XAES, TG/DSC and HRTEM techniques, confirmed that the structure of the sorbents remained intact before and after hot coal gas desulfurization.

  6. Semi-dry flue gas desulfurization using Ca(OH)2 in a fluidized bed reactor with bed materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Oak; Roh, Hak Jae; Oh, Chang Sup; Kim, Yong Ha

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of present work is to reduce sulfur dioxide emission from power plant for the environment protection. The fluidized bed (FB) was used as the reactor with bed materials in a new semi-dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency (>98%). Fine powder of Ca(OH) 2 as sorbent and water were continuously fed separately to the bed reactor where bed materials (2 mm glass beads) were fluidized vigorously with flue gas (flow 720 Nm 3 / hr) using bench scale plant of stainless steel column. We have investigated different effects of water injection flow rate, Ca/ S molar ratio and weight of bed materials on SO 2 removal. The increments in the Ca/ S molar ratio and water injection flow rate have been resulted higher desulfurization efficiency with certain disadvantages such as higher sorbent cost and lower temperature of the treated flue gas, respectively. (author)

  7. GE`s worldwide experience with IFO based gypsum producing flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, A. [GE Environmental Systems, Lebanon, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The In-Situ Forced Oxidation (IFO) process to produce gypsum in a commercial scale flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system was first demonstrated by GE Environmental Systems in 1980 at the Monticello Generating Station of Texas Utilities. Since then, the IFO technology developed and demonstrated by GE has become the industry standard and is used extensively on a world-wide basis to produce both commercial and disposable-grade gypsum. The paper gives an overview of the development, demonstration, commercial design and current status of the IFO technology.

  8. Durable zinc ferrite sorbent pellets for hot coal gas desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mahesh C.; Blandon, Antonio E.; Hepworth, Malcolm T.

    1988-01-01

    Durable, porous sulfur sorbents useful in removing hydrogen sulfide from hot coal gas are prepared by water pelletizing a mixture of fine zinc oxide and fine iron oxide with inorganic and organic binders and small amounts of activators such as sodium carbonate and molybdenite; the pellets are dried and then indurated at a high temperature, e.g., 1800.degree. C., for a time sufficient to produce crush-resistant pellets.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  10. Testing CO2 Sequestration in an Alkaline Soil Treated with Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y.; Tokunaga, T. K.

    2012-12-01

    Identifying effective and economical methods for increasing carbon storage in soils is of interest for reducing soil CO2 fluxes to the atmosphere in order to partially offset anthropogenic CO2 contributions to climate change This study investigates an alternative strategy for increasing carbon retention in soils by accelerating calcite (CaCO3) precipitation and promoting soil organic carbon (SOC) complexation on mineral surfaces. The addition of calcium ion to soils with pH > 8, often found in arid and semi-arid regions, may accelerate the slow process of calcite precipitation. Increased ionic strength from addition of a soluble Ca source also suppresses microbial activity which oxidizes SOC to gaseous CO2. Through obtaining C mass balances in soil profiles, this study is quantifying the efficiency of gypsum amendments for mitigating C losses to the atmosphere. The objective of this study is to identify conditions in which inorganic and organic C sequestration is practical in semi-arid and arid soils by gypsum treatment. As an inexpensive calcium source, we proposed to use flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG), a byproduct of fossil fuel burning electric power plants. To test the hypothesis, laboratory column experiments have been conducted in calcite-buffered soil with addition of gypsum and FGDG. The results of several months of column monitoring are demonstrating that gypsum-treated soil have lowered amounts of soil organic carbon loss and increased inorganic carbon (calcite) production. The excess generation of FGDG relative to industrial and agricultural needs, FGDG, is currently regarded as waste. Thus application of FGDG application in some soils may be an effective and economical means for fixing CO2 in soil organic and inorganic carbon forms.Soil carbon cycle, with proposed increased C retention by calcite precipitation and by SOC binding onto soil mineral surfaces, with both processes driven by calcium released from gypsum dissolution.

  11. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walawska Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR. Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine impact mill and electromagnetic mill, differing in grinding technology. Grounded sorbent was thermally activated, what caused a significant development of surface area. During the studies of SO2 sorption, a model gas with a temperature of 300°C, of composition: sulfur dioxide at a concentration of 6292 mg/mn3, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrogen as a carrier gas, was used. The best development of surface area and the highest SO2 removal efficiency was obtained for the sorbent treated by electromagnetic grinding, with simultaneous high conversion rate.

  12. Electrochemical flue gas desulfurization: Reactions in a pyrosulfate-based electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, K.; Fannon, T.; Winnick, J.

    1988-01-01

    A new electrolyte has been found suitable for use in an electrochemical membrane cell for flue gas desulfurization (FGD). The electrolyte is primarily K/sub 2/S/sub 2/O/sub 7/ and K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with V/sub 2/O/sub 5/ as oxidation enhancer. This electrolyte has a melting point near 300/sup 0/C which is compatible with flue gas exiting the economizer of coal-burning power plants. Standard electrochemical tests have revealed high exchange current densities around 30 mA/cm/sup 2/, in the free electrolyte. Sulfur dioxide is found to be removed from simulated flue gas in a multiple-step process, the first of which is electrochemical reduction of pyrosulfate

  13. Fractionation of mercury stable isotopes during coal combustion and seawater flue gas desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shuyuan; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Haiying; Sun, Lumin; Lin, Shanshan

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, fractionation of mercury isotopes during coal combustion and seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) in a coal-fired power plant using a SFGD system was investigated. Fourteen samples were collected from the power plant. The samples were pretreated with a combustion-trapping method and were analyzed with a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS). Compared with the raw coal, the bottom ash was enriched with lighter mercury isotopes with δ 202 Hg values ranging from −0.45 to −0.03‰. The fly ash was enriched with lighter mercury isotopes with δ 202 Hg values ranging from −1.49 to −0.73‰ for Chinese coal and from −1.47 to −0.62‰ for Indonesian coal. The δ 202 Hg of fresh seawater and desulfurized seawater was found to be −1.32 and −0.32‰ respectively. These δ 202 Hg values indicated that the desulfurized seawater was enriched with heavier mercury isotopes. Based upon the calculated results obtained from the mass balance equation, it was suggested that the stack emissions were enriched with lighter mercury isotopes. Mass independent fractionation was observed in most of the samples with a Δ 199 Hg/Δ 201 Hg ratio of approximately 0.96. The results help in improving the understanding of mercury isotope fractionation during coal combustion and SFGD, and are also useful in tracing the mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. - Highlights: • Spread of 1.5‰ was observed in δ 202 Hg values of raw coals and coal related samples. • The δ 202 Hg values were more negative in fly ash than those in the raw coal. • The flue gas had a significant Hg fractionation after desulfurization. • The stack emissions were enriched with lighter isotopes compared with the raw coal.

  14. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  15. Technoeconomic Optimization of Waste Heat Driven Forward Osmosis for Flue Gas Desulfurization Wastewater Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Daniel B [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Bartholomew, Timothy V [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mauter, Meagan S [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-06-26

    With the Environmental Protection Agency’s recent Effluent Limitation Guidelines for Steam Electric Generators, power plants are having to install and operate new wastewater technologies. Many plants are evaluating desalination technologies as possible compliance options. However, the desalination technologies under review that can reduce wastewater volume or treat to a zero-liquid discharges standard have a significant energy penalty to the plant. Waste heat, available from the exhaust gas or cooling water from coal-fired power plants, offers an opportunity to drive wastewater treatment using thermal desalination technologies. One such technology is forward osmosis (FO). Forward osmosis utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient to passively pull water from a saline or wastewater stream across a semi-permeable membrane and into a more concentrated draw solution. This diluted draw solution is then fed into a distillation column, where the addition of low temperature waste heat can drive the separation to produce a reconcentrated draw solution and treated water for internal plant reuse. The use of low-temperature waste heat decouples water treatment from electricity production and eliminates the link between reducing water pollution and increasing air emissions from auxiliary electricity generation. In order to evaluate the feasibility of waste heat driven FO, we first build a model of an FO system for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater treatment at coal-fired power plants. This model includes the FO membrane module, the distillation column for draw solution recovery, and waste heat recovery from the exhaust gas. We then add a costing model to account for capital and operating costs of the forward osmosis system. We use this techno-economic model to optimize waste heat driven FO for the treatment of FGD wastewater. We apply this model to three case studies: the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) 550 MW model coal fired power plant without carbon

  16. The Flakt-Hydro process: flue gas desulfurization by use of seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, W.Z. [ABB China Limited, Shanghai (China)

    1999-07-01

    ABB's seawater scrubbing process (the Flakt-Hydro process) for flue gas desulfurization has recently triggered interest among power producers because of its simple operating principle and high reliability. The process uses seawater to absorb and neutralize sulfur dioxide in flue gases. The absorbed gas is oxidized and returned to the ocean in the form it originated in the first place, namely as dissolved sulfate salts. The process uses the seawater downstream of the power plant condensers. This paper gives an introduction to the basic principle of the process and presents some of the recent power plant applications, namely at the Paiton Private Power Project; Phase 1 (2 x 670 MWe) in Indonesia and at the Shenzhen West Power Plant, Unit 2 (300 MWe) in China.

  17. Impact of Leaching Conditions on Constituents Release from Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) and FGDG-Soil Mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The interest in using Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum(FGDG) has increased recently. This study evaluates the leaching characteristics of trace elements in "modern" FGDG (produced after fly ash removal) and FGDG-mixed soil (SF) under different environmental conditions using rece...

  18. Metals in soil and runoff from a piedmont hayfield amended with broiler litter and flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) from coal-fired power plants is available for agricultural use in many US regions. Broiler litter (BL) provides plant available N, P, and K but may be a source of unwanted arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). FGDG provides Ca and S and can reduce runoff lo...

  19. Effects of foaming and antifoaming agents on the performance of a wet flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Siqiang; Hansen, Brian Brun; Kiil, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Foaming is a common phenomenon in industrial processes, including wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants. A systemic investigation of the influence of two foaming agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and egg white albumin (protein), and two commercial antifoams on a wet FGD pilot plant...

  20. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  1. High-Temperature Desulfurization of Heavy Fuel-Derived Reformate Gas Streams for SOFC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2007-01-01

    Desulfurization of the hot reformate gas produced by catalytic partial oxidation or autothermal reforming of heavy fuels, such as JP-8 and jet fuels, is required prior to using the gas in a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Development of suitable sorbent materials involves the identification of sorbents with favorable sulfidation equilibria, good kinetics, and high structural stability and regenerability at the SOFC operating temperatures (650 to 800 C). Over the last two decades, a major barrier to the development of regenerable desulfurization sorbents has been the gradual loss of sorbent performance in cyclic sulfidation and regeneration at such high temperatures. Mixed oxide compositions based on ceria were examined in this work as regenerable sorbents in simulated reformate gas mixtures and temperatures greater than 650 C. Regeneration was carried out with dilute oxygen streams. We have shown that under oxidative regeneration conditions, high regeneration space velocities (greater than 80,000 h(sup -1)) can be used to suppress sulfate formation and shorten the total time required for sorbent regeneration. A major finding of this work is that the surface of ceria and lanthanan sorbents can be sulfided and regenerated completely, independent of the underlying bulk sorbent. This is due to reversible adsorption of H2S on the surface of these sorbents even at temperatures as high as 800 C. La-rich cerium oxide formulations are excellent for application to regenerative H2S removal from reformate gas streams at 650 to 800 C. These results create new opportunities for compact sorber/regenerator reactor designs to meet the requirements of solid oxide fuel cell systems at any scale.

  2. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolinsky, F.T.; Ross, J.; Dennis, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO 2 will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO 2 is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  3. Numerical Simulation of Desulfurization Behavior in Gas-Stirred Systems Based on Computation Fluid Dynamics-Simultaneous Reaction Model (CFD-SRM) Coupled Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wentao; Zhu, Miaoyong

    2014-10-01

    A computation fluid dynamics-simultaneous reaction model (CFD-SRM) coupled model has been proposed to describe the desulfurization behavior in a gas-stirred ladle. For the desulfurization thermodynamics, different models were investigated to determine sulfide capacity and oxygen activity. For the desulfurization kinetic, the effect of bubbly plume flow, as well as oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are considered. The thermodynamic and kinetic modification coefficients are proposed to fit the measured data, respectively. Finally, the effects of slag basicity and gas flow rate on the desulfurization efficiency are investigated. The results show that as the interfacial reactions (Al2O3)-(FeO)-(SiO2)-(MnO)-[S]-[O] simultaneous kinetic equilibrium is adopted to determine the oxygen activity, and the Young's model with the modification coefficient R th of 1.5 is adopted to determine slag sulfide capacity, the predicted sulfur distribution ratio LS agrees well with the measured data. With an increase of the gas blowing time, the predicted desulfurization rate gradually decreased, and when the modification parameter R k is 0.8, the predicted sulfur content changing with time in ladle agrees well with the measured data. If the oxygen absorption and oxidation reactions in slag eyes are not considered in this model, then the sulfur removal rate in the ladle would be overestimated, and this trend would become more obvious with an increase of the gas flow rate and decrease of the slag layer height. With the slag basicity increasing, the total desulfurization ratio increases; however, the total desulfurization ratio changes weakly as the slag basicity exceeds 7. With the increase of the gas flow rate, the desulfurization ratio first increases and then decreases. When the gas flow rate is 200 NL/min, the desulfurization ratio reaches a maximum value in an 80-ton gas-stirred ladle.

  4. On the high-temperature desulfurization of coal gas: The development of a regenerable absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Yperen, Renee

    1994-05-18

    There is actually no solid absorbent based on bulk metal oxides available that meets the conditions for application in high-temperature desulfurization processes. This research was aimed to develop an absorbent that fulfills all the specifications for employment in hot-gas clean up. Chapter 2 deals with the development of amorphous aluminium phosphate as a support material. The influence of the preparation conditions onto the specific surface area, pore structure, thermal and chemical stability, and acidity of amorphous aluminium phosphate was investigated. The application of iron oxide onto amorphous aluminium phosphate by means of deposition-precipitation from a homogeneous solution is discussed in chapter 3. The influence of amorphous aluminium phosphate onto the stability, activity, and capacity of the iron oxide is described in detail. Chapter 4 surveys the activity and capacity of several active materials in the absorption of hydrogen sulphide. It is shown that the most promising active material is a mixture of iron oxide and molybdenum oxide. In chapter 5 the properties of iron-molybdenum mixed oxide absorbents are discussed. The effect of the iron to molybdenum ratio onto the formation of iron-(III)-sulphates and the stability of the molybdenum compound is examined. Chapter 6 deals with the preparation of iron-molybdenum mixed oxide absorbents by means of impregnation of modified pre-shaped alumina support bodies. In chapter 7 the effect of the hydrogen and carbon monoxide concentration and in chapter 8 the effect of the water concentration in the coal gas on the activity and the capacity of the iron-molybdenum mixed oxide absorbents is described. Regeneration of the loaded absorbents is an important part of the desulfurization process, dealt with in chapter 9. A number of regeneration procedures have been tested. (Abstract Truncated)

  5. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification of flue gas by ·OH radicals produced from O2+ and water vapor in a duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Mindi; Zhang, Zhitao; Bai, Mindong

    2012-09-18

    In the present study, simultaneous flue gas desulfurization and denitrification are achieved with ·OH radicals generated from O(2)(+) reacting with water vapor in a duct. The O(2)(+) ions are generated by a strong ionization dielectric barrier discharge and then injected into the duct. Compared with conventional gas discharge treatment, the present method does not need a plasma reaction reactor, additional catalysts, reductants, or oxidants. The main recovered products are the liquids H(2)SO(4) and HNO(3), which can be used in many processes. Removal rates of 97% for NO and 82% for SO(2) are obtained under the following optimal experimental conditions: molar ratio of reactive oxygen species (O(2)(+), O(3)) to SO(2) and NO, 5; inlet flue gas temperature, 65 °C; reaction time, 0.94 s; and H(2)O volume fraction, 8%. Production of O(2)(+) and the plasma reaction mechanisms are discussed, and the recovered acid is characterized. The experimental results show that the present method performs better for denitrification than for desulfurization. Compared with conventional air discharge flue gas treatments, the present method has lower initial investment and operating costs, and the equipment is more compact.

  6. Removal of fine particles in wet flue gas desulfurization system by heterogeneous condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L.J.; Bao, J.J.; Yan, J.P.; Liu, J.H.; Song, S.J.; Fan, F.X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China). School of Energy & Environment

    2010-01-01

    A novel process to remove fine particles with high efficiency by heterogeneous condensation in a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system is presented. A supersaturated vapor phase, necessary for condensational growth of fine particles, was achieved in the SO{sub 2} absorption zone and at the top of the wet FGD scrubber by adding steam in the gas inlet and above the scrubbing liquid inlet of the scrubber, respectively. The condensational grown droplets were then removed by the scrubbing liquid and a high-efficiency demister. The results show that the effectiveness of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles is related to the SO{sub 2} absorbent employed. When using CaCO{sub 3} and NH{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas, the fine particle removal efficiencies are lower than those for Na2CO{sub 3} and water, and the morphology and elemental composition of fine particles are changed. This effect can be attributed to the formation of aerosol particles in the limestone and ammonia-based FGD processes. The performance of the WFGD system for removal of fine particles can be significantly improved for both steam addition cases, for which the removal efficiency increases with increasing amount of added steam. A high liquid to gas ratio is beneficial for efficient removal of fine particles by heterogeneous condensation of water vapor.

  7. Desulfurization reaction of high sulfur content flue gas treated by electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirosawa, Shojiro; Suzuki, Ryoji; Aoki, Shinji; Kojima, Takuji; Hashimoto, Shoji

    2002-01-01

    Experiments of flue gas treatment by electron beam were carried out, using simulated ligniteburning flue gas containing SO 2 (5500 ppm), NO (390 ppm) and H 2 O (22%). Removal efficiency of SO 2 was more than 90% at a dose of 1-2 kGy. It shows applicability of electron beam for treatment of lignite-burning flue gas. Another removal reaction besides the radiation-induced radical reaction and the thermal reaction occurring without irradiation was suggested by the facts that removal of SO 2 by the radical reaction is only a few hundreds of ppm and the removal amounts by thermal reaction under irradiation is lower than a half of total desulfurization. The mechanism similar to thermal reaction was proposed, assuming simultaneous uptake reaction of SO 2 and NH 3 on the surface of liquid aerosol. It was suggested that ammonium nitrate having deliquescence relative humidity (DRH) of 60% at 25 deg C plays an important role in producing liquid aerosols. Decrease of DRH of ammonium nitrate with elevating temperature and with formation of double salt of ammonium sulfate results in enhancement of formation of liquid aerosols. (author)

  8. Desulfurization of petroleum by Co-60 gamma irradiation and analysis of products using GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathuthu, M.; Tshivhase, V.M.; Olobatoke, R.Y.; Gaxela, N.N.

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur is an undesirable hetero-atom that has negative on motor engines if present in quantities between 50 and 180.000 ppm. Research has shown that sour petroleum can be 'sweetened' by gamma irradiation to de-sulfurize the crude oil. In this research we will report experimental results of desulfurizing petroleum locally procured. The objective is to improve the quality of product delivered to the motor market and also reduce the environmental pollution due to SO 2 emissions from engines. The gamma irradiated (de-sulfurized petroleum was chemically analyzed using GC-MS. The preliminary results show that the petroleum is polymerized by gamma radiation to higher molecular mass. The un-irradiated petroleum had a sulfur concentration of 3.24% and 0.020% wt after gamma irradiation. The sulfur content was reduced by a factor of about 160 when dose was increased from zero to 50 kGys. GC-MS Chromatographs are presented for the identified hydrocarbons after gamma irradiation. (authors)

  9. Simulation of the operation of an industrial wet flue gas desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallinikos, L.E.; Farsari, E.I.; Spartinos, D.N.; Papayannakos, N.G.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the simulation of a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) unit with spray tower of a power plant is presented, aiming at an efficient follow-up and the optimization of the FGD system operation. The dynamic model developed to simulate the performance of the system has been validated with operation data collected over a long period of time. All the partaking physical and chemical processes like the limestone dissolution, the crystallization of calcium sulfite and gypsum and the oxidation of sulfite ions have been taken into account for the development of the simulation model while the gas absorption by the liquid droplets was based on the two-film theory. The effect of the mean diameter of the slurry droplets on the performance of the system was examined, as it was used as an index factor of the normal operation of the system. The operation limits of the system were investigated on the basis of the model developed. It is concluded that the model is capable of simulating the system for significantly different SO 2 loads and that the absorption rate of SO 2 is strongly affected by the liquid dispersion in the tower. (author)

  10. The Study of the Desulfurization Process of Oil and Oil Products of "Zhanazhol" Oil Field Using the Approaches of Green Chemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaksyntay K. Kairbekov; Zhannur K. Myltykbaeva; Nazym T. Smagulova; Dariya K. Kanseitova

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we studied sono catalytic oxidative desulfurization of oil and diesel fraction from “Zhanazhol” oil deposits. We have established that the combined effect of the ultrasonic field and oxidant (ozone-air mixture) in the presence of the catalyst on the oil is potentially very effective method of desulfurization of oil and oil products. This method allows increasing the degree of desulfurization of oil by 62%.

  11. Research improvement in Zn-based sorbent for hot gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    X. Bu; Y. Ying; C. Zhang; W. Peng [China Coal Research Institute (CCRI), Beijing (China). Beijing Research Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Two Zn-based sorbents, named as L-991 and L-992, used for hot gas desulfurization were developed. The L-992, which was prepared by changing the Zn/Ti ratio and adding a certain proportion of Cu and Mn metal oxide, acquired better performance than L-991. The suitable desulfurisation temperature was 600-700{sup o}C for the L-991 and 600-800{sup o}C for the L-992. The sulfur capacity was about 16 g/100 g and 19-21 g/100 g of L-991 and L-992 respectively. After 17 multi-cycles sulfidation/regeneration tests, the sulfur capacity of the L-991 decreased greatly, while that of the L-992 still remained at 17 g/100 g. Both the sorbents showed orderly crystalline orientation and the particle size did not change. Sulfidation and regeneration tests were done both on lab micro-fixed bed reactor and SMOVEN equipment. During the continuous tests, the H{sub 2}S concentration can be reduced from about 10 g/m{sup 3} to less than 20 mg/m{sup 3}, the H{sub 2}S removal efficiency being {gt} 99%. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Selected species and amendments for revegetating saline flue gas desulfurization sludge: greenhouse study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, L.F.; Artiola, J.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. [University of Arizona, Tuscon, AZ (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water and Environmental Science

    1997-07-01

    Codisposing low-volume wastes from electrical generating stations with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber sludge simplifies waste disposal but produces a saline waste that presents unique challenges to revegetation. This greenhouse study identified plants and amendments for revegetating a saline FGD sludge disposal pond in eastern Arizona. Survival and growth of 16 sown accessions plus two vegetatively propagated accessions of inland saltgrass were investigated in saline FGD sludge. Amendments used included two soils from the disposal site, Claysprings gravelly clay and Sheppard sand, composted steer manure, and N-P-K fertilizers. Sols and manure were added at 2:1 sludge/amendment (v/v). Plants were irrigated with a 1:1 mixture of disposal pond water and untreated well water. One accession of inland saltgrass, two cultivars of tall wheatgrass, Altai wildrye tall fescue and alkali sacaton show promise for revegetating saline FGD sludge disposal sites. Survival rates were the same in unamended sludge and in sludge amended with the clay soil or with N-P-K fertilizer. Plant dry matter produced was the same in unamended sludge and in sludge amended with either of the soils or with N-P-K. Although survival rates were significantly lower with manure than with any other amendment, growth was significantly greater by all measurements, due to the high fertility of this treatment. 34 refs., 5 tabs.

  13. Evaluation of revegetation techniques of a saline flue gas desulfurization sludge pond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salo, L.F.; Artiola, J.F.; Goodrich-Mahoney, J.W. [University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States). Renewable National Resources

    1999-01-01

    Codisposal of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge with low-volume generating station waste simplifies disposal but creates a saline, high boron (B) waste that may be difficult to revegetate after site closure. Studies on a delta of waste material in a codisposal pond at the coal-fired Coronado Generating Station in eastern Arizona evaluated management techniques, amendments, and plants for revegetating this material. One study investigated leaching and ridging techniques and a second evaluated amendment with manure, wood shavings, and fly ash, Four salt-tolerant grass species and four saltbushes (A triplex spp,) were evaluated in the two studies. Criteria for success were high survival rates and growth, as measured by grass height and shrub height x width. Leaching salts and B from the waste was not necessary for establishment and growth of transplanted shrubs and grasses. Ridging was not a successful technique, due to limited moisture and high levels of salinity and B on these structures. Gardner saltbush (A, gardneri (Moq.) D, Dietr.) and a fourwing saltbush (A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt,) accession from the site were the most successful shrubs and alkali sactonn (Sporobolus airoides (Torr,) Torr. `Saltalk`) was the most successful grass at this disposal pond. Amendment with manure, wood shavings, or fly ash did not increase plant survival. Growth of grasses was improved with all amendments and was greatest with manure, but growth of shrubs was not improved with any amendment. 33 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report

  15. A model for dry sodium bicarbonate duct injection flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Changfa Wu; Soon-Jai Khang; Tim C. Keener; Sang-Kwun Lee [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2004-03-01

    A mathematical model is developed for simulation of dry sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO{sub 3}) duct injection for the removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in flue gases across a fabric filter (baghouse). The model employs parallel reaction kinetics and assumes that the sodium bicarbonate injection process can be separated into two stages. The first stage is a transport duct section where NaHCO{sub 3} particles are injected into the sulfur dioxide laden gas stream. The second stage is the fabric filter section where sodium sorbents are collected and behave as a variable depth fixed bed reactor. The process simulation for the efficiency of desulfurization in flue gas is performed and evaluated for a variety of operating conditions. It is found that the removal of SO{sub 2} within the duct section is small and negligible for most practical conditions, with a contribution normally less than 5% of total SO{sub 2} removal. The major removal of SO{sub 2} occurs across the filter cake, which accumulates the sorbent particles on the fabric filter. These particles are periodically disposed as the filter is cleaned. The major factors for the process are temperature, particle size and SO{sub 2} gas concentration for all operating conditions. At low temperatures, the removal of SO{sub 2} increases as temperature increases, but the removal decreases at higher temperatures due to the impact of the thermal decomposition reaction of NaHCO{sub 3} on SO{sub 2} removal. It was found that the temperature for the highest removal of SO{sub 2} is within the range of 127-150{sup o}C and the removal efficiency also depends on particle size.

  16. Sulfur equilibrium desulfurization of sulfur containing products of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Abichandani, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the method for the combustion of a carbon- and sulfur-containing fuel for substantially reducing emission of gaseous sulfur compounds formed during combustion of the fuel in a combustion zone. The zone having one or more fuel inlets and one or more oxidizer inlets, and having a combustion products outlet spaced therefrom, and having one or more inorganic sorbent inlets downstream of the fuel inlet(s) and oxidizer inlet(s) and upstream of the combustion products outlet

  17. Intensification of oxidative desulfurization of gas oil by ultrasound irradiation: Optimization using Box–Behnken design (BBD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalali, Mohammad Reza; Sobati, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) of gas oil was studied. • The influences of the different operating parameters were investigated. • Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to find the best operating parameters. • An accurate correlation was developed for the sulfur removal. • Ultrasound-assisted desulfurization process was compared with conventional process. - Abstract: In the present work, ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) of gas oil as the feedstock with sulfur content of 2210 ppmw was investigated using a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid as the oxidant and catalyst, respectively. The influences of main process variables such as sonication time (2–30 min), oxidation temperature (40–70 °C), hydrogen peroxide to sulfur molar ratio (10–50), formic acid to oxidant molar ratio (2–4), ultrasound power per gas oil volume (5.56–8.89 W/mL), and number of extraction stages (1–4) on the sulfur removal of gas oil were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box–Behnken design (BBD) and single-factor experiments were employed. The best performance of UAOD process for gas oil was achieved at 50 °C of reaction temperature, oxidant to sulfur molar ratio of 46.36, formic acid to oxidant molar ratio of 3.22, sonication time of 19.81 min, and 7.78 W/mL as the ultrasound power per gas oil volume. The sulfur removal of UAOD process was evaluated after oxidation under the abovementioned conditions followed by (a) one stage extraction and (b) four stages extraction using acetonitrile as solvent. The observed sulfur removal was 87 for case (a) and 96.2% for case (b). The UAOD process was also compared with conventional ODS process. Considerable improvement on the sulfur removal was observed specially in lower reaction time in the case of using ultrasound irradiation in comparison with conventional mixing.

  18. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline–alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation. PMID:26064038

  19. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Amendments on Heavy Metal Distribution in Reclaimed Sodic Soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qun; Wang, Shujuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Bo; Zhuo, Yuqun; Chen, Changhe

    2015-06-01

    Although flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum has become an effective soil amendment for sodic soil reclamation, it carries extra heavy metal contamination into the soil environment. The fate of heavy metals introduced by FGD gypsum in sodic or saline-alkali soils is still unclear. This work aims to investigate the effects of FGD gypsum addition on the heavy metal distributions in a sodic soil. Original soil samples were collected from typical sodic land in north China. Soil column leaching tests were conducted to investigate the influence of FGD gypsum addition on the soil properties, especially on distribution profiles of the heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, As, and Hg) in the soil layers. Results showed that pH, electrical conductivity, and exchangeable sodium percentage in amended soils were significantly reduced from 10.2 to 8.46, 1.8 to 0.2 dS/m, and 18.14% to 1.28%, respectively. As and Hg concentrations in the soils were found to be positively correlated with FGD gypsum added. The amount of Hg in the leachate was positively correlated with FGD gypsum application ratio, whereas a negative correlation was observed between the Pb concentration in the leachate and the FGD gypsum ratio. Results revealed that heavy metal concentrations in soils complied well with Environmental Quality Standard for Soils in China (GB15618-1995). This work helps to understand the fate of FGD gypsum-introduced heavy metals in sodic soils and provides a baseline for further environmental risk assessment associated with applying FGD gypsum for sodic soil remediation.

  20. Dry flue gas desulfurization byproducts as amendments for reclamation of acid mine spoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, W.A.; Stehouwer, R.C.; Beeghly, J.H.; Bigham, J.M.; Lal, R.

    1994-01-01

    Development of beneficial reuses of highly alkaline, dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts can impact the economics of adopting these FGD technologies for retrofit on existing powerplants. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the use of two dry FGD byproducts for reclamation of acid mine spoil (pH, 3.1 to 5.8). Treatment rates of FGD ranges from 0% to 32% by dry weight and most treatments also included 6% by dry weight of sewage sludge. Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was harvested monthly for a total of six harvests. Plant tissue composition and root growth were determined after the sixth harvest. Leachate analyses and pH determination of mixes were done at the beginning and end of the experiments. Both FGD byproducts were effective in raising the spoil pH and in improving fescue growth. At the highest FGD application rate, fescue growth decreased from the optimum due to high pH and reduced rooting volume caused by cementation reactions between the FGD and spoil. Trace elements, with the exception of B, were decreased in the fescue tissue when FGD was applied. Leachate pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved organic carbon, Ca, Mg, and S tended to increase with increased FGD application rate; Al, Fe, Mn, and Zn decreased. pH was the most important variable controlling the concentrations of these elements in the leachate. Concentrations of elements of environmental concern were near or below drinking water standard levels. These results indicate that FGD applied at rates equivalent to spoil neutralization needs can aid in the revegetation of acid spoil revegetation with little potential for introduction of toxic elements into the leachate water or into the food chain

  1. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, June 11, 1992--September 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO{sub 2}/No{sub x} removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O{sub 2} in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O{sub 2} partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O{sub 2} inhibition of SO{sub 2} reduction. These inhibiting levels of O{sub 2} are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  2. Microbial reduction of SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] as a means of by- product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-01-01

    Based on the work described simultaneous SO[sub 2]/No[sub x] removal from flue gas based on direct contact of the gas with SRB and T. denitrificans co-cultures or cultures-in-series has been eliminated as a viable process concept at this time. The technical reasons are as follows: (1) NO inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction by D. desulfuricans - Although the NO concentrations used in the experiments described above are somewhat higher than that found in a typical flue gas, it is quite possible that at lower NO concentrations (or partial pressures) the inhibiting effects will simply take longer to become apparent. (2) Nitrate suppression of NO removal - As noted previously, the cultivation of T. denitrificans in a microbial flue gas treatment system (either one or two stages) would require sulfide-limiting conditions. Therefore, the electron acceptor must be in excess, requiring nitrate in the T. denitrificans process culture. As shown in experiments described above, nitrate significantly suppresses the removal of NO from a feed gas making simultaneous SO[sub 2]/NO[sub x] removal impractical by microbial means. (3) O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] and NO reduction - It has been demonstrated that D. desulfuricans working cultures are tolerant of up to 1.7% O[sub 2] in the feed gas. However, further increases in the O[sub 2] partial pressure in the feed gas resulted in O[sub 2] inhibition of SO[sub 2] reduction. These inhibiting levels of O[sub 2] are comparable to those concentrations found in flue gases (3). Therefore, in any process in which raw flue gas contacts a D. desulfuricans culture marginal stability at best can be expected.

  3. Retrofit flue gas desulfurization system at Indianapolis Power and Light Co. Petersburg Station Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.K.; Wolsiffer, S.R.; Youmans, J.; Martin, J.E.; Wedig, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the status of the retrofit wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system (FGDS) project at Indianapolis Power and Light Company (IPL), Petersburg Units 1 and 2. This project was initiated by IPL in response to the Clean Air Act of 1990 and is intended to treat the flue gas from two base load units with a combined capacity of approximately 700 MW gross electrical output. IPL is the owner and operator of the Petersburg Station located in southwestern Indiana. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (Stone and Webster) is the Engineer and Constructor for the project. Radian Corporation is a subcontractor to Stone and Webster in the area of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. General Electric Environmental Systems, Inc. (GEESI) is the supplier of the FGDS. The project is organized as a team with each company providing services. The supplier of the new stack is scheduled to be selected and join the team in early 1992. Other material suppliers and field contractors will be selected in 1992

  4. Comparison of Corrosion Behavior of Low-Alloy Steel Containing Copper and Antimony with 409L Stainless Steel for a Flue Gas Desulfurization System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun-Ah; Shin, Su-Bin; Kim, Jung-Gu [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The corrosion behavior of low alloy steel containing Cu, Sb and 409L stainless steel was investigated for application in the low-temperature section of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. The electrochemical properties were evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization testing and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 16.9 vol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.35 vol% HCl at 60 ℃. The inclusions in these steels ere identified by electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The corrosion products of the steels were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The corrosion rate of the low alloy steel containing Cu, Sb was about 100 times lower than that of 409L stainless steel. For stainless steel without passivation, active corrosion behavior was shown. In contrast, in the low alloy steel, the Cu, Sb compounds accumulated on the surface improved the corrosion resistance by suppressing the anodic dissolution reaction.

  5. The Clean Coal Technology Program 100 MWe demonstration of gas suspension absorption for flue gas desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, F.E.; Hedenhag, J.G. [AirPol Inc., Teterboro, NJ (United States); Marchant, S.K.; Pukanic, G.W. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Norwood, V.M.; Burnett, T.A. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    AirPol Inc., with the cooperation of the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) under a Cooperative Agreement with the United States Department of Energy, installed and tested a 10 MWe Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Demonstration system at TVA`s Shawnee Fossil Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. This low-cost retrofit project demonstrated that the GSA system can remove more than 90% of the sulfur dioxide from high-sulfur coal-fired flue gas, while achieving a relatively high utilization of reagent lime. This paper presents a detailed technical description of the Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. Test results and data analysis from the preliminary testing, factorial tests, air toxics texts, 28-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and 14-day continuous demonstration run of GSA/pulse jet baghouse (PJBH) are also discussed within this paper.

  6. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, September 11, 1992--December 11, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sublette, K.L.

    1992-12-31

    With the continual increase in the utilization of high sulfur and high nitrogen containing fossil fuels, the release of airborne pollutants into the environment has become a critical problem. The fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 2} during combustion. Fuel nitrogen and a fraction of the nitrogen from the combustion air are converted to nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide, NO{sub x}. For the past five years Combustion Engineering (now Asea Brown Boveri or ABB) and, since 1986, the University of Tulsa (TU) have been investigating the oxidation of H{sub 2}S by the facultatively anaerobic and autotrophic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans and have developed a process, concept for the microbial removal of H{sub 2}S from a gas stream the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO by D. desulfuricans and T. denitrificans co-cultures and cultures-in-series was demonstrated. These systems could not be sustained due to NO inhibition of D. desulfuricans. However, a preliminary economic analysis has shown that microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} to H{sub 2}S with subsequent conversion to elemental sulfur by the Claus process is both technically and economically feasible if a less expensive carbon and/or energy source can be found. It has also been demonstrated that T. denitrificans can be grown anaerobically on NO(g) as a terminal electron acceptor with reduction to elemental nitrogen. Microbial reduction of NO{sub x} is a viable process concept for the disposal of concentrated streams of NO{sub x} as may be produced by certain regenerable processes for the removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} from flue gas.

  7. Preparation of Active Absorbent for Flue Gas Desulfurization From Coal Bottom Ash: Effect of Absorbent Preparation Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Chin Li, Lee Keat Teong, Subhash Bhatia and Abdul Rahman Mohamed

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An active absorbent for flue gas desulfurization was prepared from coal bottom ash, calcium oxide (CaO and calcium sulfate by hydro-thermal process. The absorbent was examined for its micro-structural properties. The experiments conducted were based on Design Of Experiments (DOE according to 23 factorial design. The effect of various absorbent preparation variables such as ratio of CaO to bottom ash (A, hydration temperature (B and hydration period (C towards the BET (Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area of the absorbent were studied. At a CaO to bottom ash ratio = 2, hydration temperature = 200 ?C and hydration period = 10 hrs, absorbent with a surface area of 90.1 m2/g was obtained. Based on the analysis of the factorial design, it was concluded that factor A and C as well as the interaction of factors ABC and BC are the significant factors that effect the BET surface area of the absorbent. A linear mathematical model that describes the relation between the independent variables and interaction between variables towards the BET specific surface area of the absorbent was also developed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA showed that the model was significant at 1% level.Key Words: Absorbent, Bottom Ash, Design Of Experiments, Desulfurization, Surface Area.

  8. A Green Desulfurization Technique: Utilization of Flue Gas SO2 to Produce H2 via a Photoelectrochemical Process Based on Mo-Doped BiVO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Han

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A green photoelectrochemical (PEC process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost three times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32− after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  9. A green desulfurization technique: utilization of flue gas SO2 to produce H2 via a photoelectrochemical process based on Mo-doped BiVO4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin; Li, Kejian; Cheng, Hanyun; Zhang, Liwu

    2017-12-01

    A green photoelectrochemical (PEC) process with simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production has attracted an increasing attention. The proposed process uses flue gas SO2 to improve H2 production. The improvement of the efficiency of this process is necessary before it can become industrial viable. Herein, we reported a Mo modified BiVO4 photocatalysts for a simultaneous SO2 removal and H2 production. And the PEC performance could be significantly improved with doping and flue gas removal. The evolution rate of H2 and removal of SO2 could be enhanced by almost 3 times after Mo doping as compared with pristine BiVO4. The enhanced H2 production and SO2 removal is attributed to the improved bulk charge carrier transportation after Mo doping, and greatly enhanced oxidation reaction kinetics on the photoanode due to the formation of SO32- after SO2 absorption by the electrolyte. Due to the utilization of SO2 to improve the production of H2, the proposed PEC process may become a profitable desulfurization technique.

  10. Increasing the production of desulfurizing biocatalysts by means of fed - batch culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdugo, C I; Mena, J A; Acero, J R; Mogollon, L

    2001-01-01

    Over the past years, environmental regulations have driven a lot of effort for the development of new technologies for the upgrading of fossil fuels. Biotechnology offers an alternative way to process fossil fuels by means of a biodesulfurization technology where the production of the biocatalyst is one of the key topics. Traditionally, the production is carried out in batch culture where the maximum cellular concentration is restricted by inherent limitations of the culture type and the microorganism growth rate. This work addresses the production of two desulfurizing microorganisms: Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 and gordona rubropertinctus ICP172 using fed-batch culture. Fed-batch cultures were conducted in a 12 L fermentor using ICP 4 medium containing glucose and DMSO as carbon and sulfur sources. As a result, cell concentration was increased 1.5 and 3 times with fed-batch cultures using constant and exponential flow respectively, achieving a maximum cell concentration of 7.3 g DCW/L of biocatalyst igts8 and 12.85 gGDCW/L of the new biocatalyst ICP172. Both biocatalysts presented biodesulfurization activity in a spiked matrix DBT/HXD and in diesel matrix with the detection of 2-HBP which is the end-product of DBT degradation pathway

  11. Utilization of a by-product produced from oxidative desulfurization process over Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyeonjoo; Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Do Heui; Jeon, Jong-Ki

    2011-02-01

    We investigated the use of Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts to upgrade a by-product of oxidative desulfurization (ODS). Cs-mesoporous silica catalysts were characterized through N2 adsorption, XRD, CO2-temperature-programmed desorption, and XRF. Cs-mesoporous silica prepared by the direct incorporation method showed higher catalytic performance than a Cs/MCM-41 catalyst by impregnation method for the catalytic decomposition of sulfone compounds produced from ODS process.

  12. A briefing paper for the status of the flue gas desulfurization system at Indianapolis Power ampersand Light Company Petersburg Station Units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutledge, C.K.; Wolsiffer, S.R.; Gray, S.M.; Martin, J.E.; Wedig, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a brief description of the status of the retrofit wet limestone flue gas desulfurization system project at Indianapolis Power ampersand Light Company (IPL) Petersburg Units 1 and 2. This project was initiated by IPL in response to the Clean Air Act of 1990 and is intended to treat the flue gas from two base load units with a combined capacity of approximately 700 MW gross electrical output

  13. (18)O(2) label mechanism of sulfur generation and characterization in properties over mesoporous Sm-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B S; Wan, Z Y; Wang, F; Zhan, Y P; Tian, M; Cheung, A S C

    2014-02-28

    Using a sol-gel method, SmMeOx/MCM-41 or SBA-15 (Me=Fe, Co and Zn) and corresponding unsupported sorbents were prepared. The desulfurization performance of these sorbents was evaluated over a fixed-bed reactor and the effects of reaction temperature, feed and sorbent composition on desulfurization performance were studied. Samarium-based sorbents used to remove H2S from hot coal gas were reported for the first time. The results of successive sulfidation/regeneration cycles revealed that SmFeO3/SBA-15 sorbent was suitable for desulfurization of hot coal gas in the chemical industry. The formation of elemental sulfur during both sulfidation and regeneration processes depended strongly on the catalytic action of Sm2O2S species, which was confirmed for the first time via high sensitive time of flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) using 6%vol(18)O2/Ar regeneration gas and can reduce markedly procedural complexity. The sorbents were characterized using N2-adsorption, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction of H2 (H2-TPR), thermogravimetry (TG) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective catalytic oxidation: a new catalytic approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and liquid petroleum gas for fuel cell reformer applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, J.

    In both natural gas and liquid petroleum gas (LPG), sulfur degrades the performance of the catalysts used in fuel reformers and fuel cells. In order to improve system performance, the sulfur must be removed to concentrations of less than 200 ppbv (in many applications to less than 20 ppbv) before the fuel reforming operation. Engelhard Corporation presents a unique approach to the desulfurization of natural gas and LPG. This new method catalytically converts the organic and inorganic sulfur species to sulfur oxides. The sulfur oxides are then adsorbed on a high capacity adsorbent. The sulfur compounds in the fuel are converted to sulfur oxides by combining the fuel with a small amount of air. The mixture is then heated from 250 to 270 °C, and contacted with a monolith supported sulfur tolerant catalyst at atmospheric pressure. When Engelhard Corporation demonstrated this catalytic approach in the laboratory, the result showed sulfur breakthrough to be less than 10 ppbv in the case of natural gas, and less than 150 ppbv for LPG. We used a simulated natural gas and LPG mixture, doped with a 50-170 ppmv sulfur compound containing equal concentrations of COS, ethylmercaptan, dimethylsulfide, methylethylsulfide and tetrahydrothiophene. There is no need for recycled H 2 as in the case for hydrodesulfurization.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization under simulated oxyfiring fluidized bed combustion conditions: The influence of limestone attrition and fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, F.; Salatino, P. [CNR, Naples (Italy)

    2010-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization by means of limestone injection under simulated fluidized bed oxyfiring conditions was investigated, with a particular focus on particle attrition and fragmentation phenomena. An experimental protocol was applied, based on the use of complementary techniques that had been previously developed for the characterization of attrition of sorbents in air-blown atmospheric fluidized bed combustors. The extent and pattern of limestone attrition by surface wear in the dense phase of a fluidized bed were assessed in bench scale fluidized bed experiments under simulated oxyfiring conditions. Sorbent samples generated during the oxyfiring tests were further characterized from the standpoint of fragmentation upon high velocity impact by means of a particle impactor. The experimental results were compared with those previously obtained with the same limestone under air-blown atmospheric fluidized bed combustion conditions. The profound differences in the attrition and fragmentation extents and patterns associated with oxyfiring as compared to air-blown atmospheric combustion and the role played by the different attrition/fragmentation paths were highlighted. In particular, it was noted that attrition could effectively enhance particle sulfation under oxyfiring conditions by continuously disclosing unconverted calcium to the sulfur-bearing atmosphere.

  16. Remediation of saline-sodic soil with flue gas desulfurization gypsum in a reclaimed tidal flat of southeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yumei; Li, Xiaping; Dick, Warren A; Chen, Liming

    2016-07-01

    Salinization and sodicity are obstacles for vegetation reconstruction of coastal tidal flat soils. A study was conducted with flue gas desulfurization (FGD)-gypsum applied at rates of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60Mg/ha to remediate tidal flat soils of the Yangtze River estuary. Exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP), exchangeable sodium (ExNa), pH, soluble salt concentration, and composition of soluble salts were measured in 10cm increments from the surface to 30cm depth after 6 and 18months. The results indicated that the effect of FGD-gypsum is greatest in the 0-10cm mixing soil layer and 60Mg/ha was the optimal rate that can reduce the ESP to below 6% and decrease soil pH to neutral (7.0). The improvement effect was reached after 6months, and remained after 18months. The composition of soluble salts was transformed from sodic salt ions mainly containing Na(+), HCO3(-)+CO3(2-) and Cl(-) to neutral salt ions mainly containing Ca(2+) and SO4(2-). Non-halophyte plants were survived at 90%. The study demonstrates that the use of FGD-gypsum for remediating tidal flat soils is promising. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Flue-gas desulfurization gypsum effects on urea-degrading bacteria and ammonia volatilization from broiler litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Christopher D; Cabrera, Miguel L; Rothrock, Michael J; Kissel, D E

    2017-08-01

    A major concern of the broiler industry is the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) from the mixture of bedding material and broiler excretion that covers the floor of broiler houses. Gypsum has been proposed as a litter amendment to reduce NH3 volatilization, but reports of NH3 abatement vary among studies and the mechanism responsible for decreasing NH3 volatilization is not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding 20 or 40% flue-gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) to broiler litter on pH, electrical conductivity (EC), water potential, urea-degrading bacteria abundance, NH3 and carbon dioxide (CO2) evolution, and nitrogen (N) mineralization in several 21-d experiments. The addition of FGDG to broiler litter increased EC by 24 to 33% (P mineralization by 10 to 11% (P = 0.0001) as compared to litters not amended with FGDG. Furthermore, the addition of FGDG to broiler litter decreased NH3 volatilization by 18 to 28% (P litter pH values compared to un-amended litter (P litter with 20% FGDG can decrease NH3 volatilization and increase the fertlizer value of broiler litter. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    This article introduces a predictive capability for Hg retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given mercury (Hg) speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections clearly signal that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO2 absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO2 capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O2 levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO2 capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl2, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO3 levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg(O) but only for inlet O2 levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs.

  19. Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Using a New O-Element Design Which Replaces the Venturi Scrubber

    OpenAIRE

    P. Lestinsky; D. Jecha; V. Brummer; P. Stehlik

    2015-01-01

    Scrubbing by a liquid spraying is one of the most effective processes used for removal of fine particles and soluble gas pollutants (such as SO2, HCl, HF) from the flue gas. There are many configurations of scrubbers designed to provide contact between the liquid and gas stream for effectively capturing particles or soluble gas pollutants, such as spray plates, packed bed towers, jet scrubbers, cyclones, vortex and venturi scrubbers. The primary function of venturi scrubb...

  20. Investigation of the chemical pathway of gaseous nitrogen dioxide formation during flue gas desulfurization with dry sodium bicarbonate injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Antoinette Weil

    The chemical reaction pathway for the viable flue gas desulfurization process, dry sodium bicarbonate injection, was investigated to mitigate undesirable plume discoloration. Based on a foundation of past findings, a simplified three-step reaction pathway was hypothesized for the formation of the plume-discoloring constituent, NO2. As the first step, it was hypothesized that sodium sulfite formed by sodium bicarbonate reaction with flue gas SO 2. As the second step, it was hypothesized that sodium nitrate formed by sodium sulfite reaction with flue gas NO. And as the third step, it was hypothesized that NO2 and sodium sulfate formed by sodium nitrate reaction with SO2. The second and third hypothesized steps were experimentally investigated using an isothermal fixed bed reactor. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium sulfite was found to be un-reactive with NO and O2. Freshly prepared sodium sulfite, maintained unexposed to moist air, was shown to react with NO and O2 resulting in a mixture of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate together with a significant temperature rise. This reaction was found to proceed only when oxygen was present in the flue gas. As reported in the past, technical grade sodium nitrate was shown to be un-reactive with SO2. But freshly formed sodium nitrate kept unexposed to humidity was found to be reactive with SO2 and O 2 resulting in the formation of NO2 and sodium sulfate polymorphic Form I. The NO2 formation by this reaction was shown to be temperature dependent with maximum formation at 175°C. Plume mitigation methods were studied based on the validated three-step reaction pathway. Mitigation of NO2 was exhibited by limiting oxygen concentration in the flue gas to a level below 5%. It was also shown that significant NO2 mitigation was achieved by operating below 110°C or above 250°C. An innovative NO2 mitigation method was patented as a result of the findings of this study. The patented process incorporated a process step of

  1. Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Demonstration Project, A DOE Assessment; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2001-01-01

    The AFGD process as demonstrated by Pure Air at the Bailly Station offers a reliable and cost-effective means of achieving a high degree of SO(sub 2) emissions reduction when burning high-sulfur coals. Many innovative features have been successfully incorporated in this process, and it is ready for widespread commercial use. The system uses a single-loop cocurrent scrubbing process with in-situ oxidation to produce wallboard-grade gypsum instead of wet sludge. A novel wastewater evaporation system minimizes effluents. The advanced scrubbing process uses a common absorber to serve multiple boilers, thereby saving on capital through economies of scale. Major results of the project are: (1) SO(sub 2) removal of over 94 percent was achieved over the three-year demonstration period, with a system availability exceeding 99.5 percent; (2) a large, single absorber handled the combined flue gas of boilers generating 528 MWe of power, and no spares were required; (3) direct injection of pulverized limestone into the absorber was successful; (4) Wastewater evaporation eliminated the need for liquid waste disposal; and (5) the gypsum by-product was used directly for wallboard manufacture, eliminating the need to dispose of waste sludge

  2. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    SYSTEMS ALKALI- LIME/LIMESTONE AMMONIA SCRUBBING LIME OR LIMESTONE HC SCRUBBER INJECTION DRY SYSTEMS NAHCOLITE INJECTION BOILER INJECTION...requirements, and flexibility. Single-alkali flue gas scrubbers are gas-Hquid contacting devices that use the chemical reactions between soluble alkali... scrubbers are gas-liquid contacting devices that use the chemical reactions between limestone (mostly CaC03) and SOp to remove the oxides of sulfur from

  3. Effect of byproducts of flue gas desulfurization on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinman Wang

    Full Text Available The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD are a useful external source of Ca(2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments using two different sodic soils (sodic soil I and sodic soil II and two BFGD rates. After the application of BFGD and leaching, the soil soluble salts were transformed from sodic salts containing Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 to neutral salts containing NaCl and Na2SO4. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, pH and electrical conductivity (EC decreased at all soil depths, and more significantly in the top soil depth. At a depth of 0-40 cm in both sodic soil I and sodic soil II, the SAR, EC and pH were less than 13, 4 dS m(-1 and 8.5, respectively. The changes in the chemical properties of the sodic soils reflected the changes in the ion composition of soluble salts. Leaching played a key role in the reclamation process and the reclamation effect was positively associated with the amount of leaching. The soil salts did not accumulate in the top soil layer, but there was a slight increase in the middle and bottom soil depths. The results demonstrate that the reclamation of sodic soils using BFGD is promising.

  4. Influence of Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum on Reducing Soluble Phosphorus in Successive Runoff Events from a Coastal Plain Bermudagrass Pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Dexter B; Torbert, H Allen

    2016-05-01

    Controlling the threat that pastures intensively managed with poultry litter (PL) pose to accelerating eutrophication is a major issue in the southeastern United States. Gypsum (CaSO) has been identified as a promising management tool for ameliorating litter P losses to runoff. Thus, research was conducted to elucidate gypsum's residual effects on P losses from a bermudagrass ( L.) pasture. Runoff events (60 min) were created using rainfall simulations. Treatments consisted of applying four flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum rates (0, 2.2, 4.4, and 8.9 Mg ha) to bermudagrass fertilized with 13.4 Mg ha PL plus a nonfertilized check (no litter or gypsum) and 8.9 Mg ha FGD gypsum only as controls. Rainfall simulations (∼ 85 mm h) were conducted immediately, 5 wk, and 6 mo (i.e., at the end of growing season) after PL application to determine gypsum's effectiveness at controlling P loss over successive runoff events. The greatest dissolved P (DP) in runoff occurred immediately after PL application. Gypsum effectively reduced cumulative DP concentration losses (54%) compared with PL alone in initial runoff events. Gypsum reduced DP concentrations in succeeding runoff events also regardless of timing, suggesting that its effect is persistent and will not diminish over a growing season. Generally, maximum DP reductions were achieved with 8.9 Mg ha. However, it was surmised from this study that optimal P reduction in a bermudagrass pasture can be achieved with 4.4 Mg ha. Information ascertained from this study may be useful in aiding land managers making prescriptions for management practices that reduce DP losses from agricultural fields. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Factors affecting the precipitation of pure calcium carbonate during the direct aqueous carbonation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kyungsun; Jang, Young-Nam; Kim, Wonbaek; Lee, Myung Gyu; Shin, Dongbok; Bang, Jun-Hwan; Jeon, Chi Wan; Chae, Soo Chun

    2014-01-01

    The mineral carbonation of FGD (flue gas desulfurization) gypsum was carried out through CO 2 sorption into ammonia solution containing FGD gypsum. High-purity calcium carbonate was precipitated from DCC (dissolved calcium carbonate) solution which was extracted during the induction period. The factors affecting the preparation of pure calcium carbonate were examined under the following conditions: CO 2 flow rate (1–3 L/min), ammonia content (4–12%), and S/L (solid-to-liquid) ratio (5–300 g/L). X-Ray diffraction study revealed that the PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) was round-shaped vaterite. The induction time for PCC decreased as the CO 2 flow rate increased. The maximum formation efficiency for pure PCC was seen to increase linearly with the ammonia content. The formation efficiency for pure PCC was the highest (90%) for S/L ratio of 5 g/L but it decreased as S/L ratio increased. On the other hand, S/L ratio didn't affect the maximum solubility limit of DCC. It is believed that the pure PCC would add an economic value to the FGD gypsum carbonation for industrial CO 2 sequestration. - Highlights: • Pure and white CaCO 3 was synthesized using induction period during direct carbonation of FGD gypsum. • Its formation efficiency was increased with ammonia content but decreased with solid-to-liquid ratio. • This method is expected to extend to other industrial CO 2 sequestration for the enhanced economic value of precipitated CaCO 3

  6. Metals in Soil and Runoff from a Piedmont Hay Field Amended with Broiler Litter and Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomberg, Harry H; Endale, Dinku M; Jenkins, Michael B; Chaney, Rufus L; Franklin, Dorcas H

    2018-03-01

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) from coal-fired power plants is readily available for agricultural use in many US regions. Broiler litter (BL) provides plant available N, P, and K but can be a source of unwanted As, Cu, and Zn. As a source of Ca and S, FGDG can reduce losses of P and other elements in runoff from BL-amended areas. Rainfall simulation plots (2.0 m) were established on a Piedmont Cecil soil growing 'Coastal' bermudagrass ( L.) for hay. Accumulation and transport of As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Zn were evaluated after annual BL applications (13.5 Mg ha) with four FGDG rates (0, 2.2, 4.5, 9.0 Mg ha) and two FGDG treatments (0 and 9 Mg ha) without BL. Runoff As concentrations were sixfold greater with BL than without ( ≤ 0.01) and were similar to BL with FGDG at 2.2, 4.5 or 9.0 Mg ha ( ≤ 0.10). Runoff concentrations of target elements did not increase where FGDG was applied alone. After three annual applications of FGDG and BL, soil concentrations of As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Cu were well below levels of environmental concern. Our findings indicate that runoff losses of As from BL application are not reduced with FGDG but support other research indicating no identifiable environmental risks from FGDG beneficial use in agricultural systems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Dry desulfurization product as raw material for building components. Afsvovlingstoerprodukt som raavare fortrinsvis i byggematerialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, J P; Tram, B

    1988-05-01

    The report describes a number of investigations carried out with the purpose of finding useful applications for a waste product form the flue-gas cleaning process at coal-fired power plants, especially applications in the field of industrial building components. The waste product originates from a cleaning device, where the content of sulphur dioxide is removed from the flue-gas by the so called spray absorption method, developed by the Danish company Niro Atomizer A/S. The product is a finely divided, dry powder, consisting of a mix of calcium sulfite, calcium sulfate, calcium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, calcium chloride and fly ash. Trials were made, using the waste product mainly as a filler in the following products: Brick mortar, flue for ceramic tiles, stopping, filler for plastic paint, filler for plastics, filler for paper and paper-coating, autoclaved light-weight concrete, autoclaved fibre-cement sheets. The investigations has shown some interesting possiblilities for the use of named waste product in light-weight concrete, where good mechanical properties could be obtained, using a raw material mix, consisting mainly of the sulfuric waste product and fly ash. Also used as a filler in fibre-cement sheets, the waste material showed some interesting abilities. The waste product affects the properties of cellulosefibre reinforced sheets with a cementsilica matrix in a way, that leads to increased toughness of these, often rather brittle sheets. The MOR however will decrease slightly. (EG).

  8. Desulfurization Sorbents for Transport-Bed Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Raghubir P.; Turk, Brian S.; Vierheilig, Albert A.

    1997-01-01

    This project extends the prior work on the development of fluidizable zinc titanate particles using a spray-drying technique to impart high reactivity and attrition resistance. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop highly reactive and attrition-resistant zinc titanate sorbents in 40- to 150-(micro)m particle size range for transport reactor applications; (2) To transfer sorbent production technology to private sector; and (3) To provide technical support to Sierra Pacific Clean Coal Technology Demonstration plant and FETC's Hot-Gas Desulfurization Process Development Unit (PDU), both employing a transport reactor system

  9. Desulfurization of Jordanian oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Jdayil, B. M.

    1990-01-01

    Oxy desulfurization process and caustic treatment were applied in this work to remove sulfur from Jordanian oil shale. The oxy desulfurization process has been studied in a batch process using a high pressure autoclave, with constant stirring speed, and oxygen and water were used as desulfurizing reagents. Temperature, oxygen pressure, batch time, and particle size were found to be important process variables, while solid/liquid ratio was found to have no significant effect on the desulfurization process. The response of different types of oil shale to this process varied, and the effect of the process variables on the removal of total sulfur, pyritic sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon were studied. An optimum condition for oxy desulfurization of El-Lajjun oil shale, which gave maximum sulfur removal with low loss of carbon, was determined from the results of this work. The continuous reaction model was found to be valid, and the rate of oxidation for El-Lajjun oil shale was of the first order with respect to total sulfur, organic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon. For pyritic sulfur oxidation, the shrinking core model was found to hold and the rate of reaction controlled by diffusion through product ash layer. An activation energy of total sulfur, organic sulfur, pyritic sulfur, total carbon, and organic carbon oxidation was calculated for the temperature range of 130 -190 degrees celsius. In caustic treatment process, aqueous sodium hydroxide at 160 degrees celsius was used to remove the sulfur from El-Lajjun oil shale. The variables tested (sodium hydroxide concentration and treatment time) were found to have a significant effect. The carbon losses in this process were less than in the oxy desulfurization process. 51 refs., 64 figs., 121 tabs. (A.M.H.)

  10. Practical use of dry desulfurization equipment using coal ash and effective use of used desulfurizer. Sekitanbai riyo kanshiki datsuryu sochi no jitsuyoka to shiyozumi datsuryuzai no yukoriyo ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, T.; Ueno, T. (The Hokkaido Electric Power CO. Inc., Hokkaido (Japan))

    1992-01-30

    Practical use of dry desulfurization equipment using coal ash installed in Atsuma power plant no.1 is explained. Outline of dry desulferization process is consisted of basic principles and structure of the process which includes desulfurizer production equipment and absorption equipment. When compared with conventional wet process, equipments for waste water and for reheating of exhaust gas are not necessary, and operation maintenance has been more convenient with the simplification of the system and absorber has graded up the elimination function. Advantages of simplification of treatment of used desulfurizer, and absorption of sulfurdioxide by desulfurizer together with characteristics of desulfurizer production are given. As far as practical macineries are concerned, outline of instrument facilities, construction technology and results of experimental operation are reported. Effective Use of desulfurizer using deodorant and hedro treatment has been verified from ammonium absorption experiment and practical investigation results. However use of hedro material has required, conformity of surface caking technology, under water caking technology, under water covering technology and effect on under water living environment. 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Mercury isotope signatures of seawater discharged from a coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Haiying; Peng, Jingji; Yuan, Dongxing; Lu, Bingyan; Lin, Kunning; Huang, Shuyuan

    2016-07-01

    Seawater flue gas desulfurization (SFGD) systems are commonly used to remove acidic SO2 from the flue gas with alkaline seawater in many coastal coal-fired power plants in China. However, large amount of mercury (Hg) originated from coal is also transferred into seawater during the desulfurization (De-SO2) process. This research investigated Hg isotopes in seawater discharged from a coastal plant equipped with a SFGD system for the first time. Suspended particles of inorganic minerals, carbon residuals and sulfides are enriched in heavy Hg isotopes during the De-SO2 process. δ(202)Hg of particulate mercury (PHg) gradually decreased from -0.30‰ to -1.53‰ in study sea area as the distance from the point of discharge increased. The results revealed that physical mixing of contaminated De-SO2 seawater and uncontaminated fresh seawater caused a change in isotopic composition of PHg isotopes in the discharging area; and suggested that both De-SO2 seawater and local background contributed to PHg. The impacted sea area predicted with isotopic tracing technique was much larger than that resulted from a simple comparison of pollutant concentration. It was the first attempt to apply mercury isotopic composition signatures with two-component mixing model to trace the mercury pollution and its influence in seawater. The results could be beneficial to the coal-fired plants with SFGD systems to assess and control Hg pollution in sea area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Quarterly report No. 8, August 17, 1992--November 16, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-27

    The CZD process involves injecting a finely atomized slurry of reactive lime into the flue gas duct work of a coal-fired utility boiler. The principle of the confined zone is to form a wet zone of slurry droplets in the middle of the duct confined in an envelope of hot gas between the wet zone and the duct walls. The lime slurry reacts with part of the SO{sub 2} in the gas, and the reaction products dry to form solid particles. A solids collector, typically an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) downstream from the point of injection, captures the reaction products along with the fly ash entrained in the flue gas. The goal of this demonstration is to prove the technical and economic feasibility of the CZD technology on a commercial scale. The process is expected to achieve 50% SO{sub 2} removal at lower capital and O&M costs than other systems. To achieve its objectives, the project is divided into the following three phases: Phase 1: Design and Permitting, Phase 2: Construction and Start-up, Phase 3: Operation and Disposition. Phase 1 activities were completed on January 31, 1991. Phase 2 activities were essentially concluded on July 31, 1991, and Phase 3a, Parametric Testing, was initiated on July 1, 1991. This Quarterly Technical Progress Report covers Phase 3b activities from August 17, 1992 through November 16, 1992.

  13. Boosting the IGCLC process efficiency by optimizing the desulfurization step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamers, H.P.; Romano, M.C.; Spallina, V.; Chiesa, P.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pre-CLC hot gas desulfurization and post-CLC desulfurization are assessed. • Process efficiency increases by 0.5–1% points with alternative desulfurization methods. • Alternative desulfurization methods are more beneficial for CFB configurations. - Abstract: In this paper the influence of the desulfurization method on the process efficiency of an integrated gasification chemical-looping combustion (IGCLC) systems is investigated for both packed beds and circulating fluidized bed CLC systems. Both reactor types have been integrated in an IGCLC power plant, in which three desulfurization methods have been compared: conventional cold gas desulfurization with Selexol (CGD), hot gas desulfurization with ZnO (HGD) and flue gas desulfurization after the CLC reactors (post-CLC). For CLC with packed bed reactors, the efficiency gain of the alternative desulfurization methods is about 0.5–0.7% points. This is relatively small, because of the relatively large amount of steam that has to be mixed with the fuel to avoid carbon deposition on the oxygen carrier. The HGD and post-CLC configurations do not contain a saturator and therefore more steam has to be mixed with a negative influence on the process efficiency. Carbon deposition is not an issue for circulating fluidized bed systems and therefore a somewhat higher efficiency gain of 0.8–1.0% point can be reached for this reactor system, assuming that complete fuel conversion can be reached and no sulfur species are formed on the solid, which is however thermodynamically possible for iron and manganese based oxygen carriers. From this study, it can be concluded that the adaptation of the desulfurization method results in higher process efficiencies, especially for the circulating fluidized bed system, while the number of operating units is reduced.

  14. The rationalization of desulfurization by on-line analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Y; Kohmura, S; Taketomi, H; Matsumura, S; Sasaki, Y

    1986-01-01

    Nippon Kokan uses the Takahax and Sulfiban processes for the desulfurization of coke oven gas. The authors outline the Sulfiban Process and describe a recently developed system for the on-line determination of H/sub 2/S in coke oven gas, and of CO/sub 2/ and monoethanolamine (MEA) in the wash oil. This new on-line analysis system has proved effective in rationalizing the Sulfiban Process via lower MEA production costs and decreased power consumption. The introduction of a computerized control system is now being studied. 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Enhanced Hg{sup 2+} removal and Hg{sup 0} re-emission control from wet fuel gas desulfurization liquors with additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tingmei Tang; Jiang Xu; Rongjie Lu; Jingjing Wo; Xinhua Xu [Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-12-15

    Secondary atmospheric pollutions may result from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems caused by the reduction of Hg{sup 2+} to Hg{sup 0}. The present study employed three agents: Na{sub 2}S, 2,4,6-trimercaptotiazine, trisodium salt nonahydrate (TMT) and sodium dithiocarbamate (DTCR) to precipitate aqueous Hg{sup 2+} in simulated desulfurization solutions. The effects of the precipitator's dosing quantity, the initial pH value, the reaction temperature, the concentrations of Cl{sup -} and other metal ions (e.g. Cu{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+}) on Hg{sup 2+} removal were studied. A linear relationship was observed between Hg{sup 2+} removal efficiency and the increasing precipitator's doses along with initial pH. The addition of chloride and metal ions impaired the Hg{sup 2+} removal from solutions due to the complexation of Cl{sup -} and Hg{sup 2+} as well as the chelating competition between Hg{sup 2+} and other metal ions. Based on a comprehensive comparison of the treatment effects, DTCR was found to be the most effective precipitating agent. Moreover, all the precipitating agents were potent enough to inhibit Hg{sup 2+} reduction as well as Hg{sup 0} re-emission from FGD liquors. More than 90% Hg{sup 2+} was captured by precipitating agents while Hg{sup 2+} reduction efficiency decreased from 54% to just less than 3%. The additives could efficiently control the secondary Hg{sup 0} pollution from FGD liquors. 21 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Impact of operating state changes on the behaviour of mercury in wet fuel gas desulfurization plants; Auswirkung von Betriebszustandsaenderungen auf das Verhalten von Quecksilber in nassen Rauchgasentschwefelungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidel, Barna; Farr, Silvio; Brechtel Kevin [Institut fuer Feuerungs- und Kraftwerkstechnik (IFK), Universitaet Stuttgart (Germany); Scheffknecht, Guenter [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Thorwarth, Harald

    2011-07-01

    During the combustion of coal, mercury is released in its elemental form and is oxidized by existing flue gas purification plants. Changing operating conditions may result in a re-emission of elemental mercury. With regard to future demands, knowledge of the operation stability is necessary in order to prevent re-emissions from wet flue gas desulphurisation plants. With this in mind, the authors of the contribution under consideration investigate the behaviour of sulfur dioxide and mercury at laboratory scale and pilot plant scale. At first, the effects of load changes, the starting and stopping of flue gas desulfurization systems and the fuel switch on the deposition of sulfur dioxide and mercury are presented. Furthermore, the changes in the suspension solution with regard to the composition, the pH value and the redox potential will be described. In addition, operating conditions resulting in the re-emission of elemental mercury are discussed in detail. Finally, measures such as the change in the L/G value, the adjustment of the addition of air oxidation as well as the possibility of an early process adaptation and their influences on the re-emission of elemental mercury are considered.

  17. Gas process technology for fuel cells. Desulfurization and other key problems; Gasprozesstechnik fuer Brennstoffzellen. Entschwefelung und andere Kernfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzel, A.; Kalk, T.; Kvasnicka, A.; Roes, J.; Steffen, M.; Witzany, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., (Germany). ZBT Duisburg

    2008-07-01

    Fuel cells as Micro-CHP units for residential energy supply are one important technology option to improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. Starting from natural gas as energy carrier, hydrogen is generated by catalytic processes. Prototypes are operated in field test in the meanwhile, but there are still important technical and scientific questions to deal with, as there are e.g. the desulfurisation of natural gas, the optimisation of heat integration in order to improve the efficiency of the complete system, the realisation of a closed water loop and last but not least the formation and impact of ammonia. At the same time, cost aspects and production technology have to be considered. (orig.)

  18. The effect of carbon dioxide during the desulfurization of flue gas with Mardin-Mazidagi phosphate rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melike Sinirkaya; Hatice Bayrakceken; A. Kadir Ozer; M. Sahin Gulaboglu [Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2008-11-15

    The effects of temperature, CO{sub 2} concentration and particle size on simultaneous calcination/sulfation of Mardin-Mazidagi phosphate rock in fluidized-bed reactor were investigated. For this, a raw sample was exposed to calcination and sulfation processes in a fluidized-bed reactor to determine the effects of parameters by using a model gas mixture similar to the flue gas composition. The calcination ratio increased with increasing temperature and decreasing particle size, but decreased with increasing CO{sub 2} concentration. In sulfation process, however, sulphate conversion ratio increased with increasing CO{sub 2} ratio and decreased with decreasing particle size. The sulfation reaction is well represented by the shrinking core model and can be divided into two regions with different rate controlling step. For low conversions, the controlling step was found to be chemical reaction at the interface, but the diffusion through the product layer for high conversion. The activation energies for the chemical reaction at the interface and diffusion through the product layer cases were calculated as 100 and 296 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively. 23 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Biocatalytic desulfurization of petroleum and middle distillates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monticello, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) represents an alternative approach to the reduction of sulfur in fossil fuels. The objective is to use bacteria to selectively remove sulfur from petroleum and middle distillate fractions, without the concomitant release of carbon. Recently, bacteria have been developed which have the ability to desulfurize dibenzothiophene (DBT) and other organosulfur molecules. These bacteria are being developed for use in a biocatalyst-based desulfurization process. Analysis of preliminary conceptual engineering designs has shown that this process has the potential to complement conventional technology as a method to temper the sulfur levels in crude oil, or remove the recalcitrant sulfur in middle distillates to achieve the deep desulfurization mandated by State and Federal regulations. This paper describes the results of initial feasibility studies, sensitivity analyses and conceptual design work. Feasibility studies with various crude oils and middle distillates achieved unoptimized desulfurization levels of 40-80%. Sensitivity analyses indicate that total desulfurization costs of about $3.00 per barrel for crude oil and less than $2.00 per barrel for diesel are possible. Key criteria for commercial success of the process include the cost and half-life of the biocatalyst, residence time in the reactor, oil/water ratios required to extract the sulfur and the disposition of the separated sulfur products. 9 refs., 3 figs

  20. Union Gas and Ontario gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, C.

    2001-01-01

    A step-by-step review of the tie-in process of new production wells into the Union Gas System is described. Requirements of the producer and those of Union Gas are explained. Also described are the choices available to the producer to sell his gas. He can sell either to Union Gas directly at an agreed upon price, or the producer has the option to have what is called an M13 contract which allows him to sell his gas at Dawn, where it can be stored within parameters of the contract, and sold to any buyer at Dawn at a negotiated rate. This arrangement, while entailing a much greater administrative load than direct sale to Union Gas, nevertheless, allows the producer to take advantage of market fluctuations. A third option provided by Union Gas is to make available to the producer storage space greater than the provisions of the M13 contract at current market rate, thereby opening up the opportunity to the producer to capture additional value in later winter months (when gas is in greater demand)

  1. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Simultaneous removal of Ni(II and fluoride from a real flue gas desulfurization wastewater by electrocoagulation using Fe/C/Al electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinian Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of anions and heavy metals coexist in flue gas desulfurization (FGD wastewater originating from coal-fired power plants, which cause serious environmental pollution. Electrocoagulation (EC with Fe/C/Al hybrid electrodes was investigated for the separation of fluoride and nickel ions from a FGD wastewater. The study mainly focused on the technology parameters including anode electrode type, time, inter-electrode distance (5–40 mm, current density (1.88–6.25 mA/cm2 and initial pH (4–10. The results showed that favorable nickel and fluoride removal were obtained by increasing the time and current density, but this led to an increase in energy consumption. Eighty-six percent of fluoride and 98% of Ni(II were removed by conducting the Fe/C/Al EC with a current density of 5.00 mA/cm2 and inter-electrode distance of 5 mm at pH 4 for 25 min and energy consumption was 1.33 kWh/m3. Concomitant pollutants also achieved excellent treatment efficiency. The Hg, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, SS and chemical oxygen demand were reduced by 90%, 89%, 92%, 88%, 98%, 99.9% and 89%, respectively, which met stringent environmental regulations.

  3. Stack gas desulfurization using adsorbent materials based on copper oxide; Desulfuracion de gases de combustion usando materiales adsorbentes basados en oxido de cobre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Velazquez, Roberto; Rodas Grapain, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    One of main fossil fuels used to date in Mexico for power generation is the fuel oil, with a total participation of 32%. The Mexican fuel oil is constituted in average by 84% in weight of carbon, 11% hydrogen, 0.4% nitrogen, 0.2% oxygen, 4% sulfur and the remaining is assumed to be metals such as vanadium, nickel, calcium, magnesium among others. The purpose of the present paper is to show a new route of preparation of materials impregnated through the application of ultrasonic energy and to evaluate its performance in the stack gas desulfurization. [Spanish] Uno de los principales combustibles fosiles empleados actualmente en Mexico para la generacion de energia electrica es el combustoleo, con una participacion total del 32%. El combustoleo mexicano esta constituido en promedio por 84% en peso de carbono, 11% de hidrogeno, 0.4% de nitrogeno, 0.2% de oxigeno, 4% de azufre y el resto se asume a metales como vanadio, niquel, calcio, magnesio entre otros. El proposito del presente trabajo es mostrar una nueva ruta de preparacion de materiales impregnados a traves de la aplicacion de energia ultrasonica y evaluar su desempeno en la desulfuracion de gases de combustion.

  4. Influence of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installations on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jingkun; Ma, Zizhen; Fajardo, Oscar A; Deng, Jianguo; Duan, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technologies have been widely used to control the emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs). Field measurements of emission characteristics of four conventional CFPPs indicated a significant increase in particulate ionic species, increasing PM 2.5 emission with FGD and SCR installations. The mean concentrations of PM 2.5 from all CFPPs tested were 3.79 ± 1.37 mg/m 3 and 5.02 ± 1.73 mg/m 3 at the FGD inlet and outlet, respectively, and the corresponding contributions of ionic species were 19.1 ± 7.7% and 38.2 ± 7.8%, respectively. The FGD was found to enhance the conversion of NH 3 slip from the SCR to NH 4 + in the PM 2.5 , together with the conversion of SO 2 to SO 4 2- , and increased the primary NH 4 + and SO 4 2- aerosol emissions by approximately 18.9 and 4.2 times, respectively. This adverse effect should be considered when updating the emission inventory of CFPPs and should draw the attention of policy-makers for future air pollution control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gas reserves, discoveries and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2004, new discoveries, located mostly in the Asia/Pacific region, permitted a 71% produced reserve replacement rate. The Middle East and the offshore sector represent a growing proportion of world gas production Non-conventional gas resources are substantial but are not exploited to any significant extent, except in the United States, where they account for 30% of U.S. gas production. (author)

  6. Desulfurization of chalcopyrite and molybdenite by atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, V.R.; Kosoyan, A.Zh.; Niazyan, O.M.

    1989-01-01

    Molybdenite (MoS 2 ) desulfurization by monatomic hydrogen in 625-800 K range was studied using helium as diluent gas. Desulfurization degree at 680 K equals 9%. Temperature growth elevates sulfur content in molybdenite. The effect of initial molybdenite enrichment with temperature growth up to 800 K is probably caused by removal of reduced molybdenum capable to form oxide in the presence of traces of oxygen contained in inert diluent gas

  7. Productivity improvements in gas distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.R.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the Hilmer Report resulted in the introduction of the National Competition Policy which, in the case of the gas industry, aims to promote gas-on-gas competition where to date it has been excluded. In response, and to prepare for wide gas industry reform, Gas and Fuel formed three fundamentally different core businesses on 1 July 1996 - Energy Retail, Network, and Contestable Services. In one productivity improvement initiative which is believed to be unique, Gas and Fuel appointed three companies as strategic alliance partners for distribution system maintenance. Gas and Fuel can now concentrate on its core role as asset manager which owns and operates the distribution system while procuring all services from what will become non-regulated businesses. This Paper details this initiative and the benefits which have resulted from overall changes and improvements, and outlines the challenges facing Gas and Fuel in the future. (au)

  8. Exhaust circulation into dry gas desulfurization process to prevent carbon deposition in an Oxy-fuel IGCC power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Nakao, Yoshinobu; Oki, Yuso

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Power plant with semi-closed gas turbine and O 2 –CO 2 coal gasifier was studied. • We adopt dry gas sulfur removal process to establish the system. • The exhaust gas circulation remarkably prevented carbon deposition. • Efficiency loss for exhaust gas circulation is quite small. • Appropriate operating condition of sulfur removal process is revealed. - Abstract: Semi-closed cycle operation of gas turbine fueled by oxygen–CO 2 blown coal gasification provides efficient power generation with CO 2 separation feature by excluding pre-combustion type CO 2 capture that usually brings large efficiency loss. The plant efficiency at transmission end is estimated as 44% at lower heating value (LHV) providing compressed CO 2 with concentration of 93 vol%. This power generation system will solve the contradiction between economical resource utilization and reduction of CO 2 emission from coal-fired power plant. The system requires appropriate sulfur reduction process to protect gas turbine from corrosion and environment from sulfur emission. We adopt dry gas sulfur removal process to establish the system where apprehension about the detrimental carbon deposition from coal gas. The effect of circulation of a portion of exhaust gas to the process on the retardation of carbon deposition was examined at various gas compositions. The circulation remarkably prevented carbon deposition in the sulfur removal sorbent. The impact of the circulation on the thermal efficiency is smaller than the other auxiliary power consumption. Thus, the circulation is appropriate operation for the power generation

  9. Alkaline hydrothermal de-ashing and desulfurization of low quality coal and its application to hydrogen-rich gas generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mursito, Anggoro Tri; Hirajima, Tsuyoshi; Sasaki, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experimental research and a fundamental study of alkaline hydrothermal treatment of high-sulfur, high-ash coal from Banten, Java-Indonesia. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale 0.5 L batch reactor. The alkaline hydrothermal treatment gave upgraded clean coal with low sulfur content (about 0.3 wt.%) and low ash content (about 2.1 wt.%). A zero carbon dioxide and pure hydrogen gas were produced at 330 o C by introducing an alkali (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) to the hydrothermal treatment of raw coal. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques were used to test for the removal or reduction of major inorganic elements in the coal, and changes in carbon-functional groups and their properties were determined by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Carbon-13 of nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13 C NMR) tests on the product of the hydrothermal upgrading and demineralization process.

  10. Experimental research on bypass evaporation tower technology for zero liquid discharge of desulfurization wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuangchen; Chai, Jin; Wu, Kai; Xiang, Yajun; Jia, Shaoguang; Li, Qingsong

    2018-03-20

    Zero liquid discharge (ZLD) of wastewater has become the trend of environmental governance after the implementation of 'The Action Plan for Prevention and Treatment of Water Pollution' in China, desulfurization wastewater has gained more attention due to its complex composition and heavy metals. However, current technologies for ZLD have some shortcomings such as high cost and insufficient processing capacity, ZLD cannot be achieved actually. This paper proposes a new evaporation drying technology. An independent bypass evaporation tower was built, part of the hot flue gas before the air preheater was introduced into the evaporation tower for desulfurization wastewater evaporation, and the generated dust after evaporation was discharged back to the flue duct before electrostatic precipitator. This paper reports on the performance of desulfurization wastewater evaporation and the characteristics of evaporation products in depth and makes a comprehensive discussion of the impact on the existing equipment based on the self-designed evaporation tower. Research suggests that this technology has high system reliability and little effect on subsequent equipment and provides theoretical and practical data. Due to environmental policies and huge market demand for ZLD of desulfurization wastewater, bypass evaporation tower technology has a great application prospect in the future.

  11. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  12. Prediction of desulfurization in torpedo gas from laboratory scale simulation; Previsao da dessulfuracao do gusa em carro-torpedo a partir de simulacoes em escala de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza Costa, Sergio L. de [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Figueira, Renato M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia

    1996-12-31

    A general criterion for laboratory scale data transposing to industrial practice, based on Navier-Stokes equation is developed. The criterion is a dimensional relation between the rate of energy dissipation, dimensions such as the height and diameter of the reactor and the inertial forces. The criterion was used to predict the evolution of the pig iron desulfurization reaction in torpedo car from results obtained in laboratory scale. The agreement between values predicted from laboratory experiments and data generated from actual industrial desulfurization operation is excellent. (author) 10 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Scenarios for remote gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangen, Grethe; Molnvik, Mona J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of natural gas resources accessible via proven production technology and existing infrastructure is declining. Therefore, smaller and less accessible gas fields are considered for commercial exploitation. The research project Enabling production of remote gas builds knowledge and technology aiming at developing competitive remote gas production based on floating LNG and chemical gas conversion. In this project, scenarios are used as basis for directing research related to topics that affect the overall design and operation of such plants. Selected research areas are safety, environment, power supply, operability and control. The paper summarises the scenario building process as a common effort among research institutes and industry. Further, it documents four scenarios for production of remote gas and outlines how the scenarios are applied to establish research strategies and adequate plans in a multidisciplinary project. To ensure relevance of the scenarios, it is important to adapt the building process to the current problem and the scenarios should be developed with extensive participation of key personnel.

  14. Extension of the possibilities for disposal of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum by the development of a process for the production of FGD gypsum. Final report. Erweiterung der Entsorgungsmoeglichkeiten von REA-Gips durch Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur Herstellung von REA-Anhydrit aus REA-Gips. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limmer, B.; Hueller, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the course of this research project a completly new transformation of FGD-gypsum into FGD-anhydrite has been studied. The reaction is catalysed by small quantities of sulphuric acid resulting in a FGD-anhydrite without combined water and with an orthorhombic crystal lattice. The course of reaction was thoroughly investigated by laboratory test and hypothesis have been put forward. The process engineering has been developed from laboratory to pilot plant scale. The FGD-anhydrite is technologically a novel product. The idea was to create it for cement industry as well as to put it on the filler market as a raw product. In principle, FGD-anhdrite will be suitable for the use in the cement industry due to its characteristics. However, it is not interesting for this market in this moment. With respect to the filler industry, this application will enable a further-reaching usability of the FGD-gypsum than the traditional scope of the gypsum industry. First experiments show that the specific properties of processed FGD-anhydrite may qualify it as a high-grade filler. (orig.) With 18 refs., 21 tabs., 41 figs.

  15. System evaluation and microbial analysis of a sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process for Co-treatment of simple wet flue gas desulfurization wastes with freshwater sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Liu, Rulong; Wei, Li; Lu, Hui; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2015-09-01

    A sulfur cycle-based wastewater treatment process, namely the Sulfate reduction, Autotrophic denitrification and Nitrification Integrated process (SANI(®) process) has been recently developed for organics and nitrogen removal with 90% sludge minimization and 35% energy reduction in the biological treatment of saline sewage from seawater toilet flushing practice in Hong Kong. In this study, sulfate- and sulfite-rich wastes from simple wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) were considered as a potential low-cost sulfur source to achieve beneficial co-treatment with non-saline (freshwater) sewage in continental areas, through a Mixed Denitrification (MD)-SANI process trialed with synthetic mixture of simple WFGD wastes and freshwater sewage. The system showed 80% COD removal efficiency (specific COD removal rate of 0.26 kg COD/kg VSS/d) at an optimal pH of 7.5 and complete denitrification through MD (specific nitrogen removal rate of 0.33 kg N/kg VSS/d). Among the electron donors in MD, organics and thiosulfate could induce a much higher denitrifying activity than sulfide in terms of both NO3(-) reduction and NO2(-) reduction, suggesting a much higher nitrogen removal rate in organics-, thiosulfate- and sulfide-based MD in MD-SANI compared to sulfide alone-based autotrophic denitrification in conventional SANI(®). Diverse sulfate/sulfite-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera dominated in the bacterial community of sulfate/sulfite-reducing up-flow sludge bed (SRUSB) sludge without methane producing bacteria detected. Desulfomicrobium-like species possibly for sulfite reduction and Desulfobulbus-like species possibly for sulfate reduction are the two dominant groups with respective abundance of 24.03 and 14.91% in the SRB genera. Diverse denitrifying genera were identified in the bacterial community of anoxic up-flow sludge bed (AnUSB) sludge and the Thauera- and Thiobacillus-like species were the major taxa. These results well explained the successful operation of the lab

  16. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions

  17. Inhibition of carbon disulfide on bio-desulfurization in the process of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological desulfurization is a novel technology for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from some biogas or sour gas, in which there are always a certain amounts of carbon disulfide together with much hydrogen sulfide. Nowadays, carbon disulfide is found to have negative effect on the biological desulfurization, but seldom ...

  18. Natural gas production verification tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to fund, through a contract with Petroleum Consulting Services, Inc. of Canton, Ohio, the testing of the effectiveness of a non-water based hydraulic fracturing treatment to increase gas recovery from low-pressure, tight, fractured Devonian Shale formations. Although Devonian Shales are found in the Appalachian, Michigan, and Illinois Basins, testing will be done only in the dominant, historical five state area of established production. The objective of this proposed project is to assess the benefits of liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 )/sand stimulations in the Devonian Shale. In addition, this project would evaluate the potential nondamaging (to the formation) properties of this unique fracturing treatment relative to the clogging or chocking of pores and fractures that act as gas flow paths to the wellbore in the target gas-producing zones of the formation. This liquid CO 2 /sand fracturing process is water-free and is expected to facilitate gas well cleanup, reduce the time required for post-stimulation cleanup, and result in improved production levels in a much shorter time than is currently experienced

  19. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  20. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO 3 · 1/2 H 2 O), calcium sulfate (CaSO 4 · 2H 2 O), unreacted limestone (CaCO 3 ), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column

  1. Caspian Oil and Gas: Production and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gelb, Bernard A

    2005-01-01

    .... The Caspian Sea region historically has been an oil and natural gas producer, but many believe that the region contains large reserves of oil and gas capable of much greater production than at present...

  2. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  3. Desulfurization performance of azole-based ionic liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubei CHENG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the addition of functional groups in ionic liquid anion and cation to achieve better absorbing of SO2, the 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine triazole ( is synthesized using 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine and triazole as raw materials. The desulfurization performance of the synthesized is systematically studied. The desulfurization performance and desulfurization mechanism of the are discussed. The results show that the has good performance of desulfurization and regeneration. At the atmospheric pressure, 1 mol of the absorbs 2.964 mol of SO2 at 20 ℃. With the increase of temperature, the desulfurization capacity of the decreases gradually. The molar absorption ratio increases with the increase of SO2 partial pressure, and under the conditions of 130 ℃, the desorption rate of the ionic liquid after saturated adsorption reaches over 95%. The mechanism investigation results show that the interaction of SO2 and is the combination of chemical absorption and physical absorption. The results have a certain reference value to improve the efficiency of flue gas treatment.

  4. 湿法脱硫运行情况总结%Operation Summary of Wet Desulfurization Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文斌

    2013-01-01

    因栲胶法脱硫效果差,采用添加NDC脱硫剂进行改进,改进后,脱硫效果好,但存在变脱效果差,副盐高等问题。针对这些问题,提出改进方法。%The tanin extract desulfurization unit runs poorly in our company , after dosing NDC desulfurization agent , the desulfurization effects are good . But the problems of the shift gas poor desulfurization and the high secondary salt content have not been solved , some improving methods are put forward .

  5. Process for desulfurizing hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-04-12

    A process is described for the desulfurization of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and in particular hydrocarbons containing less than 7 atoms of carbon and sulfur compounds of the type of sulfur carbonyl, characterized by the fact that the mixture, preferably in the liquid phase, is brought in contact with a solution of caustic alkali, essentially anhydrous or preferably with a solution of alkali hydroxide in an organic hydroxy nonacid solvent, for example, an alcohol, or with an alkaline alcoholate, under conditions suitable to the formation of hydrogen sulfide which produces a hydrocarbon mixture free from sulfur compounds of the sulfur carbonyl type but containing hydrogen sulfide, and that it is treated, following mixing, having beem submitted to the first treatment, by means of aqueous alkaline hydroxide to eliminate the hydrogen sulfide.

  6. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  7. Selection tests of rubber coatings for the purpose of washing towers and other components in flue gas desulfurization installations. Selectietesten van rubberdeklagen ten behoeve van wastorens en andere componenten in rookgasontzwavelingsinstallaties; Deel 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, B.A.; Van Manen, J. (KEMA Inspecties en Materialen, Arnhem (Netherlands))

    1993-01-01

    It has appeared that the service life of chloroprene-based rubber coatings in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installations in coal-fired power plants in the Netherlands is short. A number of rubber coating types, applied in washing towers, pipelines, pumps and boilers of FGD installations, is tested on a laboratory scale. Use has been made of the KEMA-developed accelerated test method, the Delta-T-Tube Test. In this test a rubber foil is attached to the outside of a tube. The tube is internally cooled and the outside is exposed to a test medium. Also use has been made of the KEMA-FGD test facility to expose the pipes in the washing tank and in the flue gas canal. Plates, coated with a rubber foil, are tested in so-called Atlas cells. The tubes and the plates were controlled for blister and crack formation and for erosion. Thermal analyses methods and mechanical tests were carried out to characterize the plates and the tubes before and after the exposures. It is concluded that butyl-based rubbers show better results than chloroprene-based rubbers

  8. Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Francis Martin; Paltsev, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during 2010. Data from each of the approximately 4000 horizontal shale gas wells brought online that year are used to show that about 900 Gg CH[subscript 4] of potential fugitive emissions were generated by these operations, or 228 Mg CH[subscript 4] per well—a figure inappropriately ...

  9. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it's decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs

  10. Barriers to the increased utilization of coal combustion/desulfurization by-products by government and commercial sectors - Update 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pflughoeft-Hassett, D.F.; Sondreal, E.A.; Steadman, E.N.; Eylands, K.E.; Dockter, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    ;'Federal Acquisition, Recycling and Waste Prevention,'' in October 1993 was a positive step toward getting CCBs accepted in the marketplace. Industry needs to continue to work with EPA to develop additional procurement guidelines for products containing CCBs--and to take advantage of existing guidelines to encourage the use of CCBs in high-profile projects. (6) Accelerated progress toward increased utilization of CCBs can be made only if there is an increased financial commitment and technical effort by industry and government. The framework for this has been set by the successful cooperation of industry and government under DOE leadership. Cooperation should continue, with DOE fulfilling its lead role established in the RTC. It is clear that the RTC recommendations continue to have validity with respect to increasing CCB utilization and continue to provide guidance to industry and government agencies.

  11. Utilisation des écumes de sucrerie pour la désulfuration des fumées Using Sugar Factory Carbonatation Lime for Flue-Gas Desulfurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolignier J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des études ont été réalisées par l'Institut français du pétrole et Babcock Entreprise pour montrer que l'écume de sucrerie pouvait être utilisée comme agent de désulfuration dans la chaudière Aude, un nouvel équipement de combustion permettant l'emploi de combustibles à haute teneur en soufre. Les tests ont été effectués en laboratoire et sur une chaudière semi-industrielle de 10 MW. L'écume de sucrerie donne des rendements de désulfuration supérieurs à ceux obtenus avec des calcaires naturels finement broyés. De plus, l'azote contenu dans l'écume permet de réduire les émissions de NOx selon le mécanisme de la réduction sélective non catalytique. Les utilisateurs de combustibles à haute teneur en soufre, qui devront faire face à une législation de plus en plus sévère, pourraient réduire leur coût annuel d'absorbants en utilisant l'écume de sucrerie. Par ailleurs, les producteurs de sucre auraient l'opportunité de mettre en place une nouvelle filière de valorisation pour leurs écumes. La teneur en eau élevée de l'écume n'autorise pas un transport sur de longues distances et des calculs ont été effectués pour définir la distance à partir de laquelle l'écume devient moins rentable que le calcaire. Studies have been carried out by the Institut français du pétrole and Babcock Entreprise to demonstrate that sugar factory carbonatation lime can be used as a desulfurization agent in the Aude boiler, which is a new combustion apparatus designed to use high sulfur fuels. Tests have been conducted both in the laboratory and on a near-industrial-scale 10 MW boiler. Sugar factory carbonatation lime provides greater desulfurization efficiency than that obtained using finely crushed natural limestone. Furthermore, the nitrogen contained in the carbonatation lime reduces NOx, emissions through selective non-catalytic reduction. Those who use high sulfur content fuels, and who are faced with increasingly

  12. 3D CFD Modeling of the LMF System: Desulfurization Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Pitts, April; Zhang, Daojie; Nastac, Laurentiu; Williams, Robert

    A fully transient 3D CFD modeling approach capable of predicting the three phase (gas, slag and steel) fluid flow characteristics and behavior of the slag/steel interface in the argon gas bottom stirred ladle with two off-centered porous plugs (Ladle Metallurgical Furnace or LMF) has been recently developed. The model predicts reasonably well the fluid flow characteristics in the LMF system and the observed size of the slag eyes for both the high-stirring and low-stirring conditions. A desulfurization reaction kinetics model considering metal/slag interface characteristics is developed in conjunction with the CFD modeling approach. The model is applied in this study to determine the effects of processing time, and gas flow rate on the efficiency of desulfurization in the studied LMF system.

  13. Landfill gas powers brick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CADDET UK National Team.

    1997-01-01

    Marshalls plc produce high-quality facing bricks using tunnel kilns at the company's Stairfoot Brickworks site, in the UK. The company extracts clay from the adjacent quarries, which are subsequently filled with domestic waste. In 1981 Marshalls decided to exploit the landfill gas (LFG) resource 'on its doorstep'. (author)

  14. Desulfurization of waste gases of the incinerator after petroleum refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Ladomersky, J.

    2001-01-01

    Desulfurization of waste gases of the incinerator after petroleum refining was developed. Mixing of wastes with lime (10% of additive of total volume of waste) was proved before introduction into incinerator. Concentrations of CO, CO 2 , O 2 , NO 2 , SO 2 and temperature of combustion products were measured by automatic analyser

  15. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoderbek, David [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Farrell, Helen [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Howard, James [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Raterman, Kevin [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Silpngarmlert, Suntichai [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Martin, Kenneth [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, Bruce [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Klein, Perry [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  16. Ultrasound-Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niran K. Ibrahim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the dramatic environmental impact of sulfur emissions associated with the exhaust of diesel engines, last environmental regulations for ultra-low-sulfur diesel require a very deep desulfurization (up to 15 ppm, which cannot be met by the conventional hydrodesulfurization units alone. The proposed method involves a batch ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAODS of a previously hydrotreated diesel (containing 480 ppm sulfur so as to convert the residual sulfur-bearing compounds into their corresponding highly polar oxides, which can be eliminated easily by extraction with a certain highly polar solvent. The oxidizing system utilized was H2O2 as an oxidant, CH3COOH as a promoter, with FeSO4 as a catalyst; whereas acetonitrile was used as extractant. The major influential parameters related to UAODS process have been investigated, namely: ratio of oxidant/fuel, ratio of the promoter/oxidant, dose of catalyst, reaction temperature, and intensity of ultrasonic waves. Kinetics of the reaction has been also studied; it was observed that the UAODS of diesel fuels fitted pseudo-first-order kinetics under the best experimental conditions, whereas values of the apparent rate constant and activation energy were 0.373 min-1 and 24 KJ/mol, respectively. The oxidation treatment, in combination with ultrasonic irradiation, revealed a synergistic effect for diesel desulfurization. The experimental results showed that sulfur removal efficiency could amount to 98% at mild operating conditions (70 ○C and 1 bar. This indicates that the process is efficient and promising for the production of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuels.

  17. Natural gas: reserves keep ahead of production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hough, G V

    1983-08-01

    World production of natural gas in 1982 fell only 1.6% below 1981 levels, while proven recoverable reserves were up by 3.6% for a total of 3.279 quadrillion CF, which is 32.4% higher than had been estimated in 1978. Gas consumption, however, has experienced greater changes, with most of the industrialized countries (except for Japan) reporting declines in gas demand resulting from falling oil prices, reduced energy demand, and a slack world economy. Although gas seems to be holding its own in energy markets, further progress will not be easy to achieve.

  18. Results of the desulfurization programme at coal-fired power plants operated by CEZ a.s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The Czech utility CEZ, which is the major power plant operator in the Czech Republic, is running an extensive coal-fired power plant desulfurization programme to improve the environmental situation in the region. Flue gas desulfurization is achieved in 2 ways: by augmenting the existing units with desulfurization equipment, and by replacing old boilers with new, fluidized-bed combustion facilities. Both wet limestone scrubbing and the dry limestone method are applied. A survey of the power plants, desulfurized power, desulfurization equipment suppliers, and contract prices is presented in a tabular form. Plots showing the contribution of CEZ's power plants to sulfur dioxide emissions in the Czech Republic are reproduced. (P.A.). 1 tab., 3 figs

  19. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate

  20. Desulfurization technology in the blast furnace raceway by MgO-SiO{sub 2} flux injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orimoto, T.; Noda, T.; Ichida, M.; Nagasaka, T. [Hokkai Iron & Coke Corporation, Hokkaido (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a study on desulfurization technology in the steel industry, with attention focused on the removal of sulfur that forms acid rain, which has been creating various global problems. The study was confined to the technology that injects a mixture of serpentine and pulverized coals. Thermodynamically, a magnesium gas producing reaction occurs when magnesium oxide is turned into a hot strongly reducing atmosphere and the resulting magnesium gas forms magnesium sulfide by reaction with the sulfur in the molten iron. By dividing this desulfurization process into a magnesium gas producing reaction and a desulfurization reaction by the magnesium gas, the desulfurization effect of the magnesium oxide flux was confirmed through laboratory experiment. A thermodynamic study on the desulfurization reaction in which SiO gas resulting from the reduction of SiO{sub 2} produces a silicon sulfide gas by reaction with the sulfur in the molten iron revealed that the possibility of desulfurization of the molten iron by the silicon sulfide gas is not negligible.

  1. Suppression of charmonium production in hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of J/ψ charmonium production suppression under heavy ion collisions is investigated. The processes of charmonium disintegration in hadron gas are considered: π+J/ψ → π+c+c-bar and ρ+J/ψ → D+D. Based on the results obtained one can assume that charmonium disintegration contribution to J/ψ production suppression under collisions with gas hadrons and the contribution conditioned by the production of quark-gluon plasma, appear to be the effects of similar order of magnitude

  2. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaoliang Ma; Michael Sprague; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2002-10-01

    In order to reduce the sulfur level in liquid hydrocarbon fuels for environmental protection and fuel cell applications, deep desulfurization of a model diesel fuel and a real diesel fuel was conducted by our SARS (selective adsorption for removing sulfur) process using the adsorbent A-2. Effect of temperature on the desulfurization process was examined. Adsorption desulfurization at ambient temperature, 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over A-2 is efficient to remove dibenzothiophene (DBT) in the model diesel fuel, but difficult to remove 4-methyldibenzothiophene (4-MDBT) and 4,6-dimethyl-dibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT). Adsorption desulfurization at 150 C over A-2 can efficiently remove DBT, 4-MDBT and 4,6-DMDBT in the model diesel fuel. The sulfur content in the model diesel fuel can be reduced to less than 1 ppmw at 150 C without using hydrogen gas. The adsorption capacity corresponding to the break-through point is 6.9 milligram of sulfur per gram of A-2 (mg-S/g-A-2), and the saturate capacity is 13.7 mg-S/g-A-2. Adsorption desulfurization of a commercial diesel fuel with a total sulfur level of 47 ppmw was also performed at ambient temperature and 24 h{sup -1} of LHSV over the adsorbent A-2. The results show that only part of the sulfur compounds existing in the low sulfur diesel can be removed by adsorption over A-2 at such operating conditions, because (1) the all sulfur compounds in the low sulfur diesel are the refractory sulfur compounds that have one or two alkyl groups at the 4- and/or 6-positions of DBT, which inhibit the approach of the sulfur atom to the adsorption site; (2) some compounds coexisting in the commercial low sulfur diesel probably inhibit the interaction between the sulfur compounds and the adsorbent. Further work in determining the optimum operating conditions and screening better adsorbent is desired.

  3. Natural gas product and strategic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layne, A.W.; Duda, J.R.; Zammerilli, A.M.

    1993-12-31

    Product and strategic analysis at the Department of Energy (DOE)/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) crosscuts all sectors of the natural gas industry. This includes the supply, transportation, and end-use sectors of the natural-gas market. Projects in the Natural Gas Resource and Extraction supply program have been integrated into a new product focus. Product development facilitates commercialization and technology transfer through DOE/industry cost-shared research, development, and demonstration (RD&D). Four products under the Resource and Extraction program include Resource and Reserves; Low Permeability Formations; Drilling, Completion, and Stimulation: and Natural Gas Upgrading. Engineering process analyses have been performed for the Slant Hole Completion Test project. These analyses focused on evaluation of horizontal-well recovery potential and applications of slant-hole technology. Figures 2 and 3 depict slant-well in situ stress conditions and hydraulic fracture configurations. Figure 4 presents Paludal Formation coal-gas production curves used to optimize the hydraulic fracture design for the slant well. Economic analyses have utilized data generated from vertical test wells to evaluate the profitability of horizontal technology for low-permeability formations in Yuma County, Colorado, and Maverick County, Texas.

  4. Oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Favennec, J.P.; Bauquis, P.R.; Bret-Rouzaut, N.; Guirauden, D.

    2004-01-01

    The steps that lead to the production of oil and gas are diverse, complex and costly. They are diverse, because the detection of oil and gas involves input from many specialties, ranging from geology to reservoir engineering. They are complex, as shown by the development of the job of the petroleum architect, who coordinates all the operations. They are costly, as the investments for exploration and production represent more than half of all investments in the oil and gas sector. Moreover, exploration is a risky activity, both from the technical and financial viewpoint: only one well in five produces marketable oil. Meanwhile, the areas for exploration and production are spread throughout the world. This book provides a complete overview of the stakes and challenges involved in oil and gas exploration and production. Following a historical review and a survey of the markets, the technical phases are covered, as are the evaluation of reserves, the estimation of investments and costs, the decision-making and control processes, and the accounting, legal and contractual environment for these activities. The book concludes with a discussion of the role of safety, and of environmental and ethical issues. This work, which is designed for readers concerned with the various aspects of the oil and gas upstream sector, is accessible to all. Contents: 1. Petroleum: a strategic product. 2. Oil and gas exploration and production. 3. Hydrocarbon reserves. 4. Investments and costs. 5. Legal, fiscal and contractual framework. 6. Decision-making on exploration and production. 7. Information, accounting and competition analysis. 8. Health, safety, the environment, ethics. Bibliography. Glossary. Index

  5. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Xinai; Yao, Dongdong [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Li, Hong [College of Environment and Chemical Engineering, Xi' an Polytechnic University, Xi' an 710048 (China); Yang, Juxiang [Department of Chemistry, Xi' an University of Arts and Science, Xi' an 710065 (China); Hu, Daodao, E-mail: daodaohu@snnu.edu.cn [Engineering Research Center of Historical and Cultural Heritage Protection, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2012-02-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  6. Nano-magnetic particles as multifunctional microreactor for deep desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Xinai; Yao, Dongdong; Li, Hong; Yang, Juxiang; Hu, Daodao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An easy-separated amphiphilic catalyst with small size was prepared for deep desulfurization. ► The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. ► The catalyst demonstrates high performance in the deep desulfurization. ► The material could make integration of micro-reactor and micro-extractor into one system. - Abstract: Oxidation of dibenzothiophene with hydrogen peroxide using a recyclable amphiphilic catalyst has been studied. The catalyst was synthesized by surfacely covering magnetic silica nanospheres (MSN) with the complexes between 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (AEM) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA). The morphology and components of the composite material were characterized by TEM, EDX, XPS, FT-IR, and VSM, respectively. The effects of several factors on desulfurization reactivity were systematically investigated. The results showed that the composite nanospheres have core/shell structure with the properties of amphiphilicity and superparamagnetism. The composite nanospheres have high catalytic activity in the oxidation of dibenzothiophene to corresponding sulfones by hydrogen peroxide under mild reaction conditions. The sulfur level could be lowered from 487 ppm to less than 0.8 ppm under optimal conditions. Additionally, the amphiphilic catalyst and the oxidized product could be simultaneously separated from medium by external magnetism, and the recovered composite material could be recycled for three times with almost constant activity.

  7. The extent of the influence and flux estimation of volatile mercury from the aeration pool in a typical coal-fired power plant equipped with a seawater flue gas desulfurization system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lumin; Feng, Lifeng; Yuan, Dongxing; Lin, Shanshan; Huang, Shuyuan; Gao, Liangming; Zhu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Before being discharged, the waste seawater from the flue gas desulfurization system of coal-fired power plants contains a large amount of mercury, and is treated in aeration pools. During this aeration process, part of the mercury enters the atmosphere, but only very limited impact studies concerning this have been carried out. Taking a typical Xiamen power plant as an example, the present study targeted the elemental mercury emitted from the aeration pool. Concentrations of dissolved gaseous mercury as high as 1.14 ± 0.17 ng·L −1 were observed in the surface waste seawater in the aeration pool, and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) as high as 10.94 ± 1.89 ng·m −3 was found in the air above the pool. To investigate the area affected by this GEM through air transfer, the total mercury in the dust and topsoil samples around the aeration pool were analyzed. Much higher values were found compared to those at a reference site. Environmental factors other than solar radiation had limited influence on the concentrations of the mercury species in the pool. A simulation device was built in our laboratory to study the flux of mercury from the aeration pool into the air. The results showed that more than 0.59 kg of mercury was released from the aeration pool every year, occupying 0.3% of the total mercury in the waste seawater. The transfer of mercury from water to air during the aeration pool and its environmental influence should not be ignored. - Highlights: ► High concentration of volatile mercury was observed in the aeration pool. ► More than 0.3% of total discharged Hg emitted from the pool into the air. ► Higher aeration rate resulted in more mercury emitted into the air. ► The dust and topsoil around the pool were polluted with the mercury

  8. Gas Mitigation in Paper Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, AS; Bittencourt, C.

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian paper industry has competitive advantages offered by the favorable climate, which favors an increase in the yield of forest restoration, and consequently, in the productive process. On the other hand, following the greenhouse gases (GHG), we can see our constantly changing sun, causing the solar storms, allowing their prevention or mitigating measures. The objective of this work is to contribute to the construction of the understanding necessary for the reduction of GHG emission from a preliminary analysis of the pulp and paper sector. As a secondary objective, the text preliminarily analyzes a company’s behavior against the backdrop of the Paris Accord, which strengthens the global response to the threat of climate change and strengthens the capacity of countries to deal with the impacts of such changes. The identification of best practices in the pulp and paper industry is understood, focusing on environmental sustainability, such as the adoption of reforestation, obtaining significant results. In the case of the paper industry, the management of public forests for sustainable production, within the structure of the Ministry of the Environment, establishes the promotion of public awareness about the importance of conservation, recovery and sustainable management of forest resources.

  9. Natural gas and production of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    2005-01-01

    The forthcoming power supply shortage in Switzerland due to increasing consumption is discussed, as are the possibilities for securing the future supply. Today, the main sources are hydroelectric (roughly 55 %) and nuclear (40 %) power. The share of electricity from natural gas amounts to only 1.4 %. The possibilities of further economic production of hydropower are practically exhausted. Therefore, further electric power has to be either imported or generated from other energy sources (renewable, nuclear, fossil) in the country itself. Due to the low acceptance of nuclear energy and the limited potential of renewable energy sources, natural gas is the most favoured candidate. The advantages of distributed production in cogeneration plants are compared with the centralized production in larger plants using combined cycles. Finally, a project currently under development is presented: an existing thermal power plant fueled with heavy fuel oil shall be refurbished and converted to natural gas as the new fuel

  10. Oil and gas leasing/production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heimberger, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    As the Congress declared in the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act the natural gas and oil production from the Outer Continental Shelf constitutes an important part of the Nation's domestic energy supply. Federal offshore minerals are administered within the Department of the Interior by the Minerals Management Service (MMS), which provides access to potential new sources of natural gas and oil offshore by conducting lease sales. Each year, on or before March 31, the MMS presents to Congress a fiscal year annual report on the Federal offshore natural gas and oil leasing and production program. In FY 1991, this program was the third largest producer of non-tax revenue for the US Treasury, contributing more than $3 billion. This report presents Federal offshore leasing, sales, production, and exploration activities, and environmental monitoring activities

  11. Novel Methods for Desulfurization of Fuel Oils

    OpenAIRE

    H. Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Because of the requirement for low sulfur content of fuel oils, it is necessary to develop alternative methods for desulfurization of heavy fuel oil. Due to the disadvantages of HDS technologies such as costs, safety and green environment, new methods have been developed. Among these methods is ultrasoundassisted oxidative desulfurization. Using ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization, compounds such as benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene can be oxidized. As an alterna...

  12. Comments on "Design of Entrained-Flow and Moving-, Packed-, and Fluidized-Bed Sorption Systems: Grain-Model Kinetics for Hot Coal-Gas Desulfurization with Limestone"

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Svoboda, Karel; Trnka, Otakar

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2002), s. 1914-1915 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * calcium oxide * coal gas Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.247, year: 2002

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conventional Natural Gas Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center : Conventional Natural Gas Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Conventional Natural Gas Production

  14. Metal powder production by gas atomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, E. Y.; Grant, N. J.

    1986-01-01

    The confined liquid, gas-atomization process was investigated. Results from a two-dimensional water model showed the importance of atomization pressure, as well as delivery tube and atomizer design. The atomization process at the tip of the delivery tube was photographed. Results from the atomization of a modified 7075 aluminum alloy yielded up to 60 wt pct. powders that were finer than 45 microns in diameter. Two different atomizer designs were evaluated. The amount of fine powders produced was correlated to a calculated gas-power term. An optimal gas-power value existed for maximized fine powder production. Atomization at gas-power greater than or less than this optimal value produced coarser powders.

  15. Démonstration du procédé IFP de désulfuration des fumées de centrales Demonstration of the Ifp Stack-Gas Desulfurization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busson C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits pétroliers et le charbon continueront à couvrir les besoins énergétiques pendant plusieurs décennies. La pollution par le SOZ, provenant de la combustion de ces combustibles fossiles, devient une préoccupation pour la population et les Pouvoirs publics. La désulfuration des fumées de combustion devrait, à plus ou moins longue échéance, se développer. L'Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP, mettant à profit ses travaux dans le domaine de la désulfuration, a développé un procédé de traitement des fumées. L'IFP, en collaboration avec Électricité de France (EDF, a effectué en 1976 une opération de démonstration à une échelle pilote (30 MW dans la Centrale de Champagne-sur-Oise. Le procédé consiste à éliminer le S02 des fumées par lavage avec une solution ammoniacale, à produire du soufre à partir de la liqueur obtenue et à recycler l'ammoniaque dans l'étape de lavage. Après quelques modifications d'ordre technologique, l'unité de démonstration a fonctionné d'une manière continue pendant une période de trois mois, correspondant à l'objectif fixé. Les résultats obtenus permettent, actuellement, d'envisager une application de cette technique à une échelle de 250 MW. Oil and coal productswill continue to fulfill energy needs for several more decades. Pollution by SO2 coming from the combustion of such fossil fuels is becoming a preoccupation for the population and the public authorities. The desulfurization of combustion fumes should continue ta develop in the more or less long run. Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP has taken advantage of its research in the fixed of desulfurization to develop a stock-gas treating process. In collaboration with Électricite de Fronce (EDF, IFP carried out a demonsiration operation in 1976 on a pilot-plant scale (30MW in a power plant at Champagne-sur-Oise. The process consists in removing S02 from stock gases by scrubbing them with an ammonia solution

  16. Oil and gas products and energy equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The planned activities of the Canadian oil and gas products and energy equipment industry for 1996-1997, were presented. The sector is made up of approximately 1500 small and medium sized enterprises. The Canadian oil field manufacturing and servicing industry holds only a small 2.5% share of the world export market, but it is recognized internationally as one of the leading suppliers of advanced petroleum equipment. Their exports include specialized equipment for extracting oil sands, gathering and treatment facilities for sour gas, underbalanced drilling technologies, equipment for wells experiencing declining production rates, top motor drives, winter drilling rigs, and horizontal drilling technologies. They also offer petroleum industry software products. Most exploration and production equipment sold abroad by Canadian firms is manufactured in Canada, but there is an increasing trend toward manufacturing in the country of operation. 2 tabs

  17. Desulfurization sorbent regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalan, V.M.; Frost, D.G.

    1982-07-07

    A spent solid sorbent resulting from the removal of hydrogen sulfide from a fuel gas flow is regenerated with a steam-air mixture. The mixture of steam and air may also include additional nitrogen or carbon dioxide. The gas mixture contacts the spent sorbent containing metal sulfide at a temperature above 500/sup 0/C to regenerate the sulfide to metal oxide or carbonate. Various metal species including the period four transition metals and the lanthanides are suitable sorbents that may be regenerated by this method. In addition, the introduction of carbon dioxide gas permits carbonates such as those of strontium, barium and calcium to be regenerated. The steam permits regeneration of spent sorbent without formation of metal sulfate. Moreover, the regeneration will proceed with low oxygen concentrations and will occur without the increase in temperature to minimize the risk of sintering and densification of the sorbent. This method may be used for high-temperature fuel cells.

  18. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  19. Experimental study of desulfurization of Zhong Liang Shau high sulfur coal by flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Z.; Huang, B.; Cao, J. [China University of Mining and Technology (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1994-12-01

    Emission of large amount of SO{sub 2} from combustion of high sulfur coal causes serious environmental pollution. Pre-combustion desulfurization of high sulfur coal has become a necessity. This paper reports test results of fine coal desulfurization with different flotation technology and the effect of pyrite depressant. Test work showed that when the coal sample from Zhong Liang Shau was processed with a Free Jet Flotation Column its pyritic sulfur content was reduced from 3.08% to 0.84%, with 72.22% recovery of combustible matter in clean coal. The concept of Desulfurization Efficiency Index E{sub ds} for comprehensive evaluation of desulfurization process is proposed, which is defined as the product of the ratio of sulfur content reduction of clean coal and the recovery of combustible matters. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. JENDL gas-production cross section file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo; Narita, Tsutomu

    1992-05-01

    The JENDL gas-production cross section file was compiled by taking cross-section data from JENDL-3 and by using the ENDF-5 format. The data were given to 23 nuclei or elements in light nuclei and structural materials. Graphs of the cross sections and brief description on their evaluation methods are given in this report. (author)

  1. Natural gas production from underground nuclear explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-01-01

    A remote location in Rio Arriba County, NW. New Mexico, is being considered as the site for an experiment in the use of a nuclear explosive to increase production from a natural gas field. A feasibility study has been conducted by the El Paso Natural Gas Co., the U.S. Atomic Energy commission, and the U.S. Bureau of Mines. As presently conceived, a nuclear explosive would be set in an emplacement hole and detonated. The explosion would create a cylinder or ''chimney'' of collapsed rock, and a network of fractures extending beyond the chimney. The fractures are the key effect. These would consist of new fractures, enlargement of existing ones, and movement along planes where strata overlap. In addition, there are a number of intangible but important benefits that could accrue from the stimulating effect. Among these are the great increase in recoverable reserves and the deliverability of large volumes of gas during the periods of high demand. It is believed that this type of well stimulation may increase the total gas production of these low permeability natural gas fields by about 7 times the amounts now attainable.

  2. Price impact on Russian gas production and export

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kononov, Y.D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper examines the prospects for Russian gas output and export under different price development. Growth of gas production and transportation costs, following an increase of gas export and production, is estimated. An attempt is made to determine the relation of efficient (from the point of view of gas companies) gas export volumes to prices on external energy markets. The paper presents a quantitative estimate of the possible impact of domestic gas price policy on gas output in Western Siberia. (author)

  3. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, P.; Boogerd, F.C.; Kuenen, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, studies have been initiated to explore the possibilities of the use of biological systems in coal technology. This chapter discusses the principles behind the bioprocessing of coal, the advantages and disadvantages, and the economic feasibility of the process. For large-scale, coal-using, energy-producing plants, stack gas cleaning should be the treatment of choice. Biodesulfurization is preferable with industrial, small-scale, energy-producing plants. Treatment of the stack gases of these plants is not advisable because of high investment costs. Finally, it should be realized that biodesulfurization produces a waste stream that needs further treatment. 91 refs

  4. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Gao, Ruimin [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Zhao, Jianshe, E-mail: jszhao@nwu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Synthetic and Natural Functional Molecule Chemistry of Ministry of Education, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Physico-Inorganic Chemistry, College of Chemistry & Material Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710069, Shaanxi (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China); Wang, Junlong [Research Institute of Shaanxi Yanchang Petroleum Group Corp. Ltd., Xi’an 710075 (China); Composites Research Institute, Weinan Normal University, Weinan 714000 (China)

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.

  5. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-01-01

    M 2 (PcAN) 2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M 2 (PcAN) 2 –W-HZSM-5) or the M 2 (PcTN) 2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M 2 (PcTN) 2 /W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu 2 (PcAN) 2 –W-HZSM-5 and Cu 2 (PcTN) 2 /W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu 2 (PcTN) 2 /W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N 2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu 2 (PcAN) 2 –W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed

  6. Construction of clay sealings for dumping of brown coal ash and residues from gas desulfurization units. Herstellung von Tonabdichtungen zur Deponierung von Braunkohleaschen und REA-Rueckstaenden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, W

    1989-07-01

    With the putting into operation of flue gas scrubbers at the brown coal-fired power stations of the RWE not only 5 to 6 Mt conventional power station ash but also up to 2 Mt gypsum and water from the flue gas desulphurisation units are obtained annually, and these residues together with the ash are tipped on mixed dumps. These dumps are enclosed on all sides by a mineral sealing of clay with a thickness of at least 0.6 m. In keeping with the detailed plans for the construction and operation of mixed dumps as submitted to the competent authorities for approval, the sealing must have a permeability of K < 5x10{sup -10} m/s for the dump base and of K < 1x10{sup -10} m/s for the cover of the dump. In order to meet these high quality requirements the clay, which is obtained by opencast working with the aid of bucket wheel excavators, must first of all be crushed for construction of the sealings. In addition to the crushing of the clay to as small a lump size as possible, the adjustment of the correct sealing moisture content of the clay is of primary importance. Conditioning of the clay is effected in the conventional way by means of a pulvimixer, but also by means of a processing plant in pilot operation in the construction of clay sealings for dumps. With the aid of the processing plant clay of a high homogenisation grade is constantly available for sealing construction. The clay is spread on the base and slopes of the dump layer by layer with the aid of scraper dozers, each layer having a compacted thickness of about 20 cm. Compaction of the sealing layers is effected by heavy rammer butt rollers. In the case of highly plastic earth materials of the type used here in the construction of dumps the weight of the compacting roller and also the shape of the rammer butt are of importance. Compaction in the 1:2.5 steep dump slopes by means of a detachable roller steered by a cable has proved very satisfactory.

  7. Multi-objective optimization of oxidative desulfurization in a sono-photochemical airlift reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behin, Jamshid; Farhadian, Negin

    2017-09-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize ultrasound/ultraviolet-assisted oxidative desulfurization in an airlift reactor. Ultrasonic waves were incorporated in a novel-geometry reactor to investigate the synergistic effects of sono-chemistry and enhanced gas-liquid mass transfer. Non-hydrotreated kerosene containing sulfur and aromatic compounds was chosen as a case study. Experimental runs were conducted based on a face-centered central composite design and analyzed using RSM. The effects of two categorical factors, i.e., ultrasound and ultraviolet irradiation and two numerical factors, i.e., superficial gas velocity and oxidation time were investigated on two responses, i.e., desulfurization and de-aromatization yields. Two-factor interaction (2FI) polynomial model was developed for the responses and the desirability function associate with overlay graphs was applied to find optimum conditions. The results showed enhancement in desulfurization ability corresponds to more reduction in aromatic content of kerosene in each combination. Based on desirability approach and certain criteria considered for desulfurization/de-aromatization, the optimal desulfurization and de-aromatization yields of 91.7% and 48% were obtained in US/UV/O 3 /H 2 O 2 combination, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Biological production of gas from farmyard manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-08

    Under anaerobic conditions of farmyard-manure storage, the products include organic acids from which methane is formed. The Schmidt-Eggersgluss method is described in which 5 to 7m/sup 3/ of gas is formed per 100 kg of fresh manure, without loss of N, P, K, or Ca from the residual sludge which is of high nutrient content. Large N losses occur if the sludge comes long in contact with atmosphere.

  9. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE FROM INSTALLATION OF SEMI-DRY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION OF INDUSTRIAL CHP PLANT IN JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Plaskacz-Dziuba

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis of waste from semi-dry flue gas desulphurisation installation called Integrated Novel Desulphurisation (NID. A comprehensive analysis of the physicochemical properties was conducted, including analyzes of the content of ions SO32- and SO42- (relating to 2CaSO3·H2O i CaSO4·2H2O, moisture, SiO2 and R2O3 and SEM-EDX analysis. The original method for the determination of sulphates (IV using a potentiometric titrator was designed. Determined that the main component of both studied wastes was 2CaSO3·H2O, and its content is for NID 1 – 41,24±0,63%, for NID 2 – 45,53±0,33%. The content of CaSO4·2H2O, which was determined by gravimetric method amounted for the NID 1 – 8,92±0,12%, for the NID 2 – 8,27±0,08%. The moisture content for both tested materials was about 4%, the content of SiO2 was in the range of 8–10%, and R2O3 content was about 1%. It was also shown that the test material is not homogenous. Images from scanning electron microscope showed that in the waste occured irregularly agglomerates with a diameter between 30 and 100 microns. EDX analysis revealed that elements constituted NID wastes are oxygen, sulfur, calcium, chlorine, silicon, aluminum, copper and carbon.

  10. Desulfurization and denitrogenation in copyrolysis of coal with hydrogen-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Li, B.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1999-06-01

    Desulfurization and denitrogenation were systematically investigated by analyzing the chars and tars from copyrolysis of Yanzhou high sulfur bituminous coal with coke-oven gas (COG), synthesis gas (SG) and hydrogen. The results indicated that under the conditions of 3MPa, up to 650{degree}C with a heating rate of 10{degree}C/min, the desulfurization of coal pyrolysis with COG, SG and hydrogen were almost equal (about 80%, w%, ad), the order of denitrogenation were: hydrogen (41%) {gt} SG(35%) {gt} COG(30%). The distributions of sulfur in char, oil and gas was very similar under the three reactive gases, i.e., about 205 in char, 105 in tar and 70% (diff.) in gas, respectively. Compared with hydropyrolysis at the same hydrogen partial pressure, the desulfurization of coal pyrolysis with coke oven gas was increased by about 4.5%, while the denitrogenation was decreased by about 3.5%. There is an important desulfurization advantage for hydropyrolysis using COG and SG instead of pure hydrogen. Compared with the copyrolysis of coal with COG, Yanzhou coal pyrolysis under SG can achieve the same level of desufurization but higher denitrogenation. 11 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Oxidative desulfurization: kinetic modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhir, S; Uppaluri, R; Purkait, M K

    2009-01-30

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H(2)O(2) over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel.

  12. Oxidative desulfurization: Kinetic modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, S.; Uppaluri, R.; Purkait, M.K.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing environmental legislations coupled with enhanced production of petroleum products demand, the deployment of novel technologies to remove organic sulfur efficiently. This work represents the kinetic modeling of ODS using H 2 O 2 over tungsten-containing layered double hydroxide (LDH) using the experimental data provided by Hulea et al. [V. Hulea, A.L. Maciuca, F. Fajula, E. Dumitriu, Catalytic oxidation of thiophenes and thioethers with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of W-containing layered double hydroxides, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 313 (2) (2006) 200-207]. The kinetic modeling approach in this work initially targets the scope of the generation of a superstructure of micro-kinetic reaction schemes and models assuming Langmuir-Hinshelwood (LH) and Eley-Rideal (ER) mechanisms. Subsequently, the screening and selection of above models is initially based on profile-based elimination of incompetent schemes followed by non-linear regression search performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm (LMA) for the chosen models. The above analysis inferred that Eley-Rideal mechanism describes the kinetic behavior of ODS process using tungsten-containing LDH, with adsorption of reactant and intermediate product only taking place on the catalyst surface. Finally, an economic index is presented that scopes the economic aspects of the novel catalytic technology with the parameters obtained during regression analysis to conclude that the cost factor for the catalyst is 0.0062-0.04759 US $ per barrel

  13. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-01-01

    to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down the production decline curve

  14. Catalysts for petroleum desulfurization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, A.; Diemann, E.; Baumann, F.W.

    1988-01-01

    In order to obtain marketable products from low-quality oils, efficient hydrogenation processes are required for removing sulfur (hydrodesulfurization, HDS), nitrogen (hydrodenitrification, HDN), and oxygen (hydrodeoxygenation, HDO), which would poison the noble metal catalysts of the downstream petrochemical processes. Hydrogenation will produce low-sulfur, low-nitrogen fuels and thus contribute to the reduction of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions which is long overdue from the ecological point of view (forest decline, acidification of surface bodies of water, etc.).

  15. Review of desulfurization process for biogas purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Cong; Ma, Yunqian; Ji, Dandan; Zang, Lihua

    2017-12-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a toxic and odorous compound present in biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of biosolids and other organic materials. Elimination of H2S is necessary as it is extremely hazardous to human health, poisonous to process catalysts and corrosive to equipment. The desulfurization technology is an important part for efficient utilization of biogas. In this paper, the traditional wet and dry desulfurization technology for biogas was reviewed, and the new research progress of biological desulfurization technologies are also introduced.

  16. Removal of Sulfur from CaF2 Containing Desulfurization Slag Exhausted from Secondary Steelmaking Process by Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Takehito; Kobayashi, Junichi; Urushibata, Satomi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-08-01

    The oxidation behavior of sulfur in desulfurization slag generated from the secondary steelmaking process with air has been investigated in the temperature range of 973 K to 1373 K (700 °C to 1100 °C). Although a high removal rate of sulfur is not achieved at temperatures lower than 1273 K (1000 °C) because of the formation of CaSO4, most of the sulfur is rapidly removed from slag as SO2 gas in the 1273 K to 1373 K (700 °C to 1100 °C) range. This finding indicates that the desulfurization slag generated from the secondary steelmaking process can be reused as a desulfurized flux through air oxidation, making it possible to reduce significantly the amount of desulfurization slag for disposal.

  17. Synthesis gas production from various biomass feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Conesa

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The decomposition of five different biomass samples was studied in a horizontal laboratory reactor. The samples consisted of esparto grass, straw, Posidonea Oceanic seaweed, waste from urban and agricultural pruning and waste from forest pruning. Both pyrolysis in inert atmosphere and combustion in the presence of oxygen were studied. Different heating rates were used by varying the input speed. Major gas compounds were analyzed. The experimental results show that the amount of CO formed is lower in less dense species. It is also found that there is an increase of hydrocarbons formed at increasing feeding rates, in particular methane, while there is a decrease in the production of hydrogen.

  18. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei Zaishan [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)], E-mail: weizaishan98@163.com; Lin Zhehang; Niu Hejingying; He Haiming; Ji Yongfeng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} and zeolite could reduce SO{sub 2} to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO{sub x} to nitrogen with the best NO{sub x} purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO{sub x} concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO{sub 2} concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent.

  19. Simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification by microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zaishan; Lin Zhehang; Niu Hejingying; He Haiming; Ji Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Microwave reactor with ammonium bicarbonate (NH 4 HCO 3 ) and zeolite was set up to study the simultaneous removal of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ) from flue gas. The results showed that the microwave reactor filled with NH 4 HCO 3 and zeolite could reduce SO 2 to sulfur with the best desulfurization efficiency of 99.1% and reduce NO x to nitrogen with the best NO x purifying efficiency of 86.5%. Microwave desulfurization and denitrification effect of the experiment using ammonium bicarbonate and zeolite together is much higher than that using ammonium bicarbonate or zeolite only. NO x concentration has little effect on denitrification but has no influence on desulfurization, SO 2 concentration has no effect on denitrification. The optimal microwave power and empty bed residence time (EBRT) on simultaneous desulfurization and dentrification are 211-280 W and 0.315 s, respectively. The mechanism for microwave reduced desulfurization and denitrification can be described as the microwave-induced catalytic reduction reaction between SO 2 , NO x and ammonium bicarbonate with zeolite being the catalyst and microwave absorbent

  20. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debdutta

    controlled by mass transfer in the metal and slag phase mass transfer has a minor effect on the overall desulfurization kinetics. The model results are in agreement with the experimental data for the change in sulfur, silicon and aluminum contents with time which renders credibility to the underlying hypothesis of the kinetic model. Although the change of sulfur content with time is not very sensitive to the activity data source, the change of aluminum and silicon contents with time depend on the activity data source. The experimental results demonstrate that if the silicon content in the steel is high enough, the silicon can reduce the alumina from the slag and thus the steel melt will pick up aluminum. This can cause significant savings in aluminum consumption. For most of the slag compositions used in the experiments, the overall mass transfer is only limited by the steel phase and the slag phase mass transfer can be neglected for most practical cases. Mass balance calculations in the experiments support the basis of the model and also show that with respect to aluminum consumption, silica reduction is the main aluminum consuming (or production) reaction and the desulfurization reaction is only a secondary consumer of aluminum. Results from the plant trials conducted to test the effect of silicon on ladle desulfurization show that the rate and extent of desulfurization increase with the increase of the initial Si content, so in the ladle refining process, adding all the silicon in the beginning with the aluminum and the fluxes will be beneficial and could save considerable processing time at the ladle. The aluminum consumption for the heats with silicon added in the beginning (both in terms of the Al added to the steel and as slag deoxidants) is considerably lower compared to the cases where the silicon is added at the end. However, on a relative cost term, aluminum and silicon are similarly priced so substitution would not offer a major cost advantage.

  1. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This is the fifth quarterly report for this project. This project is divided into three phases. Phase 1, which has been completed, involved design, engineering, and procurement for the CZD system, duct and facility modifications, and supporting equipment. Phase 2, also completed, included equipment acquisition and installation, facility construction, startup, and operator training for parametric testing. Phase 3 broadly covers testing, operation and disposition, but only a portion of Phase 3 was included in Budget Period 1. That portion was concerned with parametric testing of the CZD system to establish the optimum conditions for an extended, one-year, continuous demonstration. As of December 31, 1991, the following goals have been achieved. (1) Nozzle Selection - A modified Spraying Systems Company (SSC) atomizing nozzle has been selected for the one-year continuous CZD demonstration. (2) SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] Reduction - Preliminary confirmation of 50% SO[sub 2] reduction has been achieved, but the NO[sub x] reduction target cannot be confirmed at this time. (3) Lime Selection - Testing indicated an injection rate of 40 to 50 gallons per minute with a lime slurry concentration of 8 to 10% to achieve 50% SO[sub 2] reduction. There has been no selection of the lime to be used in the one year demonstration. (4) ESP Optimization - Tests conducted to date have shown that lime injection has a very beneficial effect on ESP performance, and little adjustment may be necessary. (5) SO[sub 2] Removal Costs - Testing has not revealed any significant departure from the bases on which Bechtel's original cost estimates (capital and operating) were prepared. Therefore, SO[sub 2] removal costs are still expected to be in the range of $300/ton or less.

  2. Process for desulfurizing shale oil, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escherich, F

    1922-12-17

    A process is described for the desulfurizing of shale oil or tar, with recovery of valuable oils and hydrocarbons, characterized in that the raw material is heated in an autoclave to a pressure of 100 atmospheres or more.

  3. Expanding Canadian natural gas production will strengthen growth of LP-gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    In 1992, over 86% of Canadian propane and 70% of Canadian butane production originated in gas plants. Propane and butane production not recovered at gas plants is recovered in other processing facilities, primarily refineries and heavy oil upgraders. As a result, supplies of both products are largely tied to natural gas production, and the outlook for natural gas therefore provides the basis for any discussion on the outlook for gas processing and NGL industry infrastructure. The paper discusses gas processing, economies of scale, NGL supply, expected declines, industry structure and infrastructure, the two major centers of the Canadian NGL industry, new shippers, and required pipeline expansion

  4. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Shahzad; Ahmad Muhammad Imran; Naeem Khawar; Humayun Muhammad; Sebt-E-Zaeem; Faheem Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure a...

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Oxidative Desulfurization of Diesel

    OpenAIRE

    Niran K. Ibrahim; Walla A. Noori; Jaffar M. Khasbag

    2016-01-01

    Due to the dramatic environmental impact of sulfur emissions associated with the exhaust of diesel engines, last environmental regulations for ultra-low-sulfur diesel require a very deep desulfurization (up to 15 ppm), which cannot be met by the conventional hydrodesulfurization units alone. The proposed method involves a batch ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAODS) of a previously hydrotreated diesel (containing 480 ppm sulfur) so as to convert the residual sulfur-bearing comp...

  6. Study of variation grain size in desulfurization process of calcined petroleum coke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintowantoro, Sungging; Setiawan, Muhammad Arif; Abdul, Fakhreza

    2018-04-01

    Indonesia is a country with abundant natural resources, such as mineral mining and petroleum. In petroleum processing, crude oil can be processed into a source of fuel energy such as gasoline, diesel, oil, petroleum coke, and others. One of crude oil potentials in Indonesia is petroleum coke. Petroleum coke is a product from oil refining process. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum cokes can be done by desulfurization process. The industries which have potential to become petroleum coke processing consumers are industries of aluminum smelting (anode, graphite block, carbon mortar), iron riser, calcined coke, foundry coke, etc. Sulfur reducing process in calcined petroleum coke can be done by thermal desulfurization process with alkaline substance NaOH. Desulfurization of petroleum coke process can be done in two ways, which are thermal desulfurization and hydrodesulphurization. This study aims to determine the effect of various grain size on sulfur, carbon, and chemical bond which contained by calcined petroleum coke. The raw material use calcined petroleum coke with 0.653% sulfur content. The grain size that used in this research is 50 mesh, then varied to 20 mesh and 100 mesh for each desulfurization process. Desulfurization are tested by ICP, UV-VIS, and FTIR to determine levels of sulfur, carbon, chemical bonding and sulfur dissolved water which contained in the residual washing of calcined petroleum coke. From various grain size that mentioned before, the optimal value is on 100 mesh grain size, where the sulfur content in petroleum coke is 0.24% and carbon content reaches the highest level of 97.8%. Meanwhile for grain size 100 mesh in the desulfurization process is enough to break the chemical bonds of organic sulfur in petroleum coke.

  7. Oxidative desulfurization of tire pyrolysis oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Shahzad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a low cost method for the purification of oils obtained from the pyrolysis of used tires. Oxidative desulfurization is a promising route for purification of tire pyrolysis oils as hydro-desulfurization may not be affordable for small scale industries. Different additives and acids have been employed for the enhancement of properties of pyrolytic oils. The experimental conditions were kept identical throughout, i.e. atmospheric pressure and 50°C temperature for comparison of performance of various additives. The use of hydrogen peroxide-acetic acid mixture (10 wt.% was found more economical and effective in desulfurization and improvement of fuel properties of sample oils. The contribution of sulfuric acid in desulfurization and decreasing viscosity was also satisfactory but due to high price of concentrated sulfuric acid its use may not be economical. Calcium oxide and Fuller’s earth was not found to be effective in desulfurization. Results indicate that oxidative desulfurization could render tire pyrolysis oils suitable for blending as heating fuel.

  8. Radiation-induced desulfurization of Arabian crude oil and straight-run diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basfar, A.A.; Mohamed, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation-induced desulfurization of four types of Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) and straight-run diesel (SRD) was investigated over the range of 10-200 kGy. Results show that gamma radiation processing at absorbed doses up to 200 kGy without further treatment is not sufficient for desulfurization. However, the combination of gamma-irradiation with other physical/chemical processes (i.e. L/L extraction, adsorption and oxidation) may be capable of removing considerable levels of sulfur compounds in the investigated products. Currently, this approach of combined radiation/physical/chemical processes is under investigation. The findings of these attempts will be reported in the future. - Highlights: → Irradiation effect on desulfurization in Arabian crude oils and straight-run diesel was investigated. → No noticeable changes in sulfur content after irradiation up to 200 kGy were observed. → Stricter regulations on sulfur levels in fuels motivate search for improved desulfurization processes. → Limited investigations on radiation-induced desulfurization of oil products are conducted.

  9. European energy security: The future of Norwegian natural gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederbergh, Bengt; Jakobsson, Kristofer; Aleklett, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is expected to meet its future growing demand for natural gas by increased imports. In 2006, Norway had a 21% share of EU gas imports. The Norwegian government has communicated that Norwegian gas production will increase by 25-40% from today's level of about 99 billion cubic meters (bcm)/year. This article shows that only a 20-25% growth of Norwegian gas production is possible due to production from currently existing recoverable reserves and contingent resources. A high and a low production forecast for Norwegian gas production is presented. Norwegian gas production exported by pipeline peaks between 2015 and 2016, with minimum peak production in 2015 at 118 bcm/year and maximum peak production at 127 bcm/year in 2016. By 2030 the pipeline export levels are 94-78 bcm. Total Norwegian gas production peaks between 2015 and 2020, with peak production at 124-135 bcm/year. By 2030 the production is 96-115 bcm/year. The results show that there is a limited potential for increased gas exports from Norway to the EU and that Norwegian gas production is declining by 2030 in all scenarios. Annual Norwegian pipeline gas exports to the EU, by 2030, may even be 20 bcm lower than today's level.

  10. Sulfur gained from flue gas, a demonstration unit of the Wellman-Lord process annexed to a black coal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, H

    1977-12-16

    Details of reducing air pollution by desulfurization of flue gases are presented. The demonstration unit is annexed to a 115 MW block at the Gary power plant in Indiana, USA. A second unit is being installed at the larger coal power plant in San Juan, New Mexico. The Wellman-Lord technology achieves a higher than 90% desulfurization of industrial waste gases. The technology is based on washing the gases with sodium sulfide. The resulting concentrated sulfur dioxide gas is used for pure sulfur and sulfuric acid production. Sodium sulfate is another commercial by-product obtained from the sodium sulfide regeneration cycle. Chemical details and the technological flow sheet are discussed. Electricity production costs in the power plants due to desulfurization of waste gases will increase by an estimated 15%. Advantages, in addition to reducing air pollution and marketing sulfur products, are also seen in the absence of sulfur containing wastes for disposal. (In German)

  11. Gas production strategy of underground coal gasification based on multiple gas sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tianhong, Duan; Zuotang, Wang; Limin, Zhou; Dongdong, Li

    2014-01-01

    To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification), create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  12. Gas Production Strategy of Underground Coal Gasification Based on Multiple Gas Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Tianhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To lower stability requirement of gas production in UCG (underground coal gasification, create better space and opportunities of development for UCG, an emerging sunrise industry, in its initial stage, and reduce the emission of blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas, this paper, for the first time, puts forward a new mode of utilization of multiple gas sources mainly including ground gasifier gas, UCG gas, blast furnace gas, converter gas, and coke oven gas and the new mode was demonstrated by field tests. According to the field tests, the existing power generation technology can fully adapt to situation of high hydrogen, low calorific value, and gas output fluctuation in the gas production in UCG in multiple-gas-sources power generation; there are large fluctuations and air can serve as a gasifying agent; the gas production of UCG in the mode of both power and methanol based on multiple gas sources has a strict requirement for stability. It was demonstrated by the field tests that the fluctuations in gas production in UCG can be well monitored through a quality control chart method.

  13. Technology and products of gas companies; Gas gaisha no Technology and Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-10

    This paper presents the latest technology and products of gas companies. `Newly developed gas table for one-push automatic fish broiling` of Tokyo Gas Co. `Catalytic technology for decomposing dioxin generated by incinerator to make it harmless` of Osaka Gas Co. `Newly developed strong and kindly shower head` of Tokyo Gas Co. By laying fish on a sensor in a grill and appropriately setting upper and lower heating levers, user can skillfully broil fish only by pushing an ignition button. A temperature sensor attached to the center of a grill catches a change in surface temperature of fish, and automatically sets an appropriate broiling time according to the kind and volume of fish. A finish buzzer and automatic extinction mechanism are prepared. The technology decomposes dioxin in exhaust gas of incinerators to make it harmless. The catalyst is prepared by dispersing noble metal or oxide of several angstroms into activated carbon fibers. The shower head can switch hot water power by a control handle

  14. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  15. Gas-phase transport of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.N.; Munkelwitz, H.R.

    1982-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation to show the importance of nuclear aerosol formation as a mechanism for semi-volatile fission product transport under certain postulated HTGR accident conditions. Simulated fission product Sr and Ba as oxides are impregnated in H451 graphite and released at elevated temperatures into a dry helium flow. In the presence of graphite, the oxides are quantitatively reduced to metals, which subsequently vaporize at temperatures much lower than required for the oxides alone to vaporize in the absence of graphite. A substantial fraction of the released material is associated with particulate matter, which is collected on filters located downstream at ambient temperatures. Increasing carrier-gas flow rate greatly enhances the extent of particulate transport. The release and transport of simulated fission product Ag as metal are also investigated. Electron microscopic examinations of the collected Sr and Ag aerosols show large agglomerates composed of primary particles roughly 0.06 to 0.08 μm in diameter

  16. Nitrogen oxides in the combustion products of gas cookers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benes, M.; Zahourek, J.

    1981-07-01

    The combustion of town gas and natural gas in two types of gas ranges manufactured in Czechoslovakia resulted in measurable amounts of NO/sub x/ in both the combustion products and the surrounding air. In all the cases tested, the amounts of NO/sub x/ given off exceeded levels permitted by current Czech standards. These results indicate that before the widespread use of any new gas ranges, their combustion products should be tested for NO/sub x/.

  17. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  18. Superoxide radical and UV irradiation in ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD): A potential alternative for greener fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ngo Yeung

    stream from becoming reactive or even explosive. High energy consumption is another drawback in the UAOD process. A typical 10 minutes ultrasonication applied in the UAOD process to achieve 95% desulfurization for 20g of diesel requires 450 kJ of energy, which is equivalent to approximately 50% of the energy that can be provided by the treated diesel. This great expenditure of energy is impractical for industries to adopt. In this study, modifications of the UAOD process, including the application of superoxide and selection of catalysts, were applied to lower the oxidant dosage and to improve the applicability towards heavy-distillates such as residual oil. The results demonstrated that the new system required 80% less oxidant as compared to previous generations of UAOD process without the loss of desulfurization efficiency. The new system demonstrated its suitability towards desulfurizing commercial mid-distillates including jet fuels, marine gas oil and sour diesel. This process also demonstrated a new method to desulfurize residual oil with high desulfurization yields. The new process development has been supported by Eco Energy Solutions Inc., Reno, Nevada and Intelligent Energy Inc., Long Beach, California. A feasibility study on UV assisted desulfurization by replacing ultrasound with UV irradiation was also conducted. The study demonstrated that the UV assisted desulfurization process consumes 90% less energy than the comparable process using ultrasonication. These process modifications demonstrated over 98% desulfurization efficiency on diesel oils and more than 75% on residual oils with significantly less oxidant and energy consumption. Also the feasibility to desulfurize commercial sour heavy oil was demonstrated. Based on the UAOD process and the commercialized modifications by Wan and Cheng, the feasible applications of superoxide and UV irradiation in the UAOD process could provide deep-desulfurization on various fuels with practical cost.

  19. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  20. Effect of potassium hydroxide activation in the desulfurization process of activated carbon prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fan; Liao, Xiaofeng; Hu, Hui; Liao, Li

    2018-03-01

    Series sludge straw-based activated carbons were prepared by sewage sludge and corn straw with potassium hydroxide (KOH) activation, and the desulfurization performance of activated carbons was studied. To obtain the best desulfurization performance, the optimum ratio between the raw materials and the activator was investigated. The results showed that when the mass ratio of sewage sludge, corn straw, and KOH was 3:7:2, the activated carbon obtained the best breakthrough and saturation sulfur sorption capacities, which were 12.38 and 5.74 times, respectively, those of samples prepared by the nonactivated raw materials. The appropriate KOH could improve the microporosity and alkaline groups, meanwhile reducing the lactone groups, which were all beneficial to desulfurization performance. The chemical adsorption process of desulfurization can be simplified to four main steps, and the main desulfurization products are elemental sulfur and sulfate. Sewage sludge (SS) and corn straw (CS) both have great production and wide distribution and are readily available in China. Much attention has been paid on how to deal with them effectively. Based on the environment protection idea of waste treatment with waste and resource recycling, low-cost adsorbents were prepared by these processes. The proposed method can be expanded to the municipal solid waste recycling programs and renewable energy plan. Thus, proceeding with the study of preparing activated carbon by SS and straw as a carbon-based dry desulfurization agent could obtain huge social, economic, and environmental benefits.

  1. Reusing pretreated desulfurization slag to improve clinkerization and clinker grindability for energy conservation in cement manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Chang, Juu-En; Shih, Pai-Haung; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Choung

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine the physical pretreatments of grinding, sieving, and magnetic-separation processes to reclaim iron-rich materials from the desulfurization slag, and to use the remainder for cement clinker production. The iron-rich materials can be separated out efficiently by grinding for 30 min and sieving with a 0.3 mm mesh. The non-magnetic fraction of the particles smaller than 0.3 mm was in the majority, and proved to be suitable for use as a cement raw material. The raw mixes prepared with a pretreated desulfurization slag had a relatively high reactivity, and the temperature at which alite forms was significantly reduced during the clinkerization process. The clinkers produced with 10% desulfurization slag had a high level of alite and good grindability. Generally, the improvements in clinkerization and clinker grindability are beneficial to energy conservation in cement manufacture. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Started the gas production; Carare - Opon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    A deposit with special characteristic and commercial reserves of the order of the 700 jig cubic feet of gas, 100 kilometers of pipe of 16 inches of diameter and a processing plant with capacity of 125 million cubic feet of gas per day, they entered in operation, to unite to the National Plan Massive of Gas; it is the Project Carare - Opon in Colombia

  3. Liquid oil production from shale gas condensate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, James J.

    2018-04-03

    A process of producing liquid oil from shale gas condensate reservoirs and, more particularly, to increase liquid oil production by huff-n-puff in shale gas condensate reservoirs. The process includes performing a huff-n-puff gas injection mode and flowing the bottom-hole pressure lower than the dew point pressure.

  4. GASCAP: Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model documentation, June 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Wellhead Gas Productive Capacity Model (GASCAP) has been developed by EIA to provide a historical analysis of the monthly productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead and a projection of monthly capacity for 2 years into the future. The impact of drilling, oil and gas price assumptions, and demand on gas productive capacity are examined. Both gas-well gas and oil-well gas are included. Oil-well gas productive capacity is estimated separately and then combined with the gas-well gas productive capacity. This documentation report provides a general overview of the GASCAP Model, describes the underlying data base, provides technical descriptions of the component models, diagrams the system and subsystem flow, describes the equations, and provides definitions and sources of all variables used in the system. This documentation report is provided to enable users of EIA projections generated by GASCAP to understand the underlying procedures used and to replicate the models and solutions. This report should be of particular interest to those in the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas

  5. Experimental study on the mechanism of SO2 emission and calcium-based desulfurization in the coal oxygen-enriched combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Luning; Chen, Hanping; Yang, Haiping; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Shihong

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The emission of SO 2 , CO 2 brings serious harm to the ecological environment, human health and the global climate change. The largest source of SO 2 , CO 2 is the combustion of fossil fuels for power generation. So developing the new technology for controlling pollutants emissions from coal combustion was imperative. Oxygen-enriched combustion technology is such a new technology which can realize CO 2 zero emission, enhance the combustion efficiency and reduce pollutants emission. Due to the high concentration of CO 2 , it has many different aspects in the SO 2 emission and calcium-based desulfurization compare with the conventional combustion. In this article, experiments have been done to investigate the behavior and mechanism of SO 2 emissions and removal in oxygen-enriched combustion. First, in TGA and fixed bed reactor, the SO 2 emission characteristics were investigated under various bed temperature, particle size and O 2 / CO 2 concentration. It was observed that SO 2 released faster and the emission peak was higher than air atmosphere. SO 2 emission concentration increased with the reaction temperature increasing. Simultaneously, the mechanism of SO 2 emission was obtained by analyzing the sulfur compounds in the gas products and solid products in different reaction times. Then, the impacts of reaction temperature, particle size, O 2 / CO 2 concentration and SO 2 concentration etc. on the efficiency of SO 2 removal were analyzed. The phase analysis, pore diameter distribution and microstructure of the solid product were investigated. The experimental results showed that the sulphur capture takes place by direct sulphation reaction at high CO 2 concentration which attributes to light sinter, better porous structure, higher optimal desulfurization temperature and high desulfurization efficiency of calcium-based sorbent. (author)

  6. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.

    2017-12-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green\\'s function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  7. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Marder, M.; Eftekhari, Behzad; Patzek, Tadeusz W

    2017-01-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history of gas absorption. We find a solution to this model using Green's function techniques, and apply the solution to three absorbing networks of increasing complexity.

  8. Desulfurization and denitrogenation of coal during multi-stage hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, N.; Li, W.; Li, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab of Coal Conversion

    2001-02-01

    The elemental composition of char of high sulfur Hongmiao coal in multi-stage hydropyrolysis (MHyPy) with different heating rates were analysed and compared with that from normal hydropyrolysis (HyPy). The results illustrated that the sulfur removal in MHyPy was greater than that in HyPy, and more sulfur was evolved as the easily recycled gas H{sub 2}S. Similar with the situation of sulfur, more nitrogen transferred to the gas phase easily to be dealt with and the clean char was obtained. During MHyPy the extent of desulfurization and denitrogenation was more remarkable at high rate than that at slow heating rate. 8 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of bitumen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Wan Mohamad Ikhwan bin Wan; Okawa, Hirokazu; Kato, Takahiro; Sugawara, Katsuyasu

    2017-07-01

    Bitumen contains a high percentage of sulfur (about 4.6 wt %). A hydrodesulfurization method is used to remove sulfur from bitumen. The drawback of this method is the requirement for a high temperature of >300 °C. Most of the sulfur in bitumen exists as thiophene. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS), involving oxidizing sulfur using H2O2, then removing it using NaOH, allows the removal of sulfur in thiophene at low temperatures. We removed sulfur from bitumen using ODS treatment under ultrasound irradiation, and 52% of sulfur was successfully removed. Additionally, the physical action of ultrasound assisted the desulfurization of bitumen, even at low H2O2 concentrations.

  10. Lattice Model for Production of Gas

    KAUST Repository

    Marder, M.; Eftekhari, Behzad; Patzek, Tadeusz

    2017-01-01

    We define a lattice model for rock, absorbers, and gas that makes it possible to examine the flow of gas to a complicated absorbing boundary over long periods of time. The motivation is to deduce the geometry of the boundary from the time history

  11. Relationship between gas production and starch degradation in feed samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, W.Z.; Gelder, van A.H.; Cone, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    An investigation was completed of the possibilities to estimate starch fermentation in rumen fluid using the gas production technique by incubating the total sample. Gas production from six starchy feed ingredients and eight maize silage samples were recorded and related to starch degradation

  12. China's natural gas: Resources, production and its impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jianliang; Feng, Lianyong; Zhao, Lin; Snowden, Simon

    2013-01-01

    In order to achieve energy consumption targets, and subsequently reduce carbon emissions, China is working on energy strategies and policies aimed at actively increasing the consumption of natural gas—the lowest carbon energy of the fossil fuels, and to enhance the proportion of gas in total primary energy consumption. To do this, it is a necessary prerequisite that China must have access to adequate gas resources and production to meet demand. This paper shows that the availability of domestic gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities due to differences in classification and definitions of gas resources/reserves between China and those accepted internationally. Based on official gas resource figures, China's gas production remains low with respect to the projected demand, and will only be 164.6 bcm in 2020, far lower than the 375 bcm of forecast demand. The gap between gas production and demand will reach 210.4 bcm by 2020. Existing plans for the importation of gas and the development of unconventional gas will not close this gap in the next 10 years, and this situation will therefore present a severe challenge to China's gas security, achievement of targets in improving energy consumption structure and reducing carbon emissions. - Highlights: ► We show that available gas resources are overestimated by China's authorities. ► We forecast China's future gas production under different resource scenarios. ► This paper shows that China's gas production will not meet the soaring demand. ► The gap between supply and demand will continue to increase rapidly in future. ► China's gas security will meet a severe challenge because of this increasing gap

  13. Removal of Sulfur Dioxide from Flue Gas Using the Sludge Sodium Humate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the ability of sodium humate from alkaline treatment sludge on removing sulfur dioxide (SO2 in the simulated flue gas. Experiments were conducted to examine the effect of various operating parameters, like the inlet SO2 concentration or temperature or O2, on the SO2 absorption efficiency and desulfurization time in a lab-scale bubbling reactor. The sludge sodium humate in the supernatant after alkaline sludge treatment shows great performance in SO2 absorption, and such efficiency can be maintained above 98% with 100 mL of this absorption solution at 298 K (flue gas rate of 0.12 m3/h. The highest SO2 absorption by 1.63 g SHA-Na is 0.946 mmol in the process, which is translated to 0.037 g SO2 g−1 SHA-Na. The experimental results indicate that the inlet SO2 concentration slightly influences the SO2 absorption efficiency and significantly influences the desulfurization time. The pH of the absorption solution should be above 3.5 in this process in order to make an effective desulfurization. The products of this process were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. It can be seen that the desulfurization products mainly contain sludge humic acid sediment, which can be used as fertilizer components.

  14. Role of coal combustion products in sustainable construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, T.R.; Siddique, R.; Vaniker, S. [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (USA). UWM Center for Products Utilization, College of Engineering and Applied Science

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes various coal combustion products, CCPs produced in the process of power generation. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and flue gas desulfurization products. Typical test protocol used for testing, analysis and evaluation of CCPs, as well as the current best recycling use options for these materials are discussed. Materials, productions, properties, and potential applications in the manufacture of emerging materials for sustainable construction, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed. 47 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Problems of radiation safety of petroleum and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibov, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    Oil and gas production is the basis of economy of the Azerbaijan Republic and its cause in ecological and radioecology problems. One form this problem is the pollution by radionuclides of environment at the time of gas and petroleum production. At the time of petroleum and gas production the three-phase radionuclides are emitted in atmosphere: Emissions consisted from solid U-238, Ra-226, Th-232, K-40 discharged to atmosphere at the time of production, exploring and exploitation of petroleum and gas. They are presented in compounds of sand, clay, and petroleum residues; During the drilling and production the gross quantities of water flows out and collects. These water areas consist of radium, uranium, Th and K-40 dissolved in water salts; There are the radionuclides being in 902 condition emitted in atmosphere at the places of petroleum and gas production. The radon and its isotopes are emitted at this time; At the places of petroleum and gas production it is observed at local pollution areas polluted by solid emissions that at this territories the doze of exposition power variable 100 - 1000 micro/hour. The radioactivity at this system according to 2-1000 year/k consists from Ra, K-40, and U. At this areas the value of total background changes 5 - 1000 micro R/hour. The total radioactivity of water polls formed at the places of petroleum and gas production consisted 50 -150 Bq/L. In the case of gas the separated radionuclides are mainly consisted from Radon and its isotopes. In the compound of produced gas the concentration of radon varied 20 - 1700 Bq/m 3 . Thus, at the places of petroleum and gas production radioactive pollutants emitted to atmosphere, forms the polluted environment for working and living people at the same territory. This problem's status haven't been investigated thoroughly, the sources of pollution hasn't been uncovered concretely, the cleaning technology for polluted areas is unknown

  16. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  17. Climatic impact of Norwegian gas power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.; Rosendal, Knut Einar

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses model calculations of the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant on the total carbon dioxide emission in Western Europe. The authors have set up a model that is based on the assumption that the European markets for electricity and gas be liberalized as defined in various EU directives. The model calculates all energy prices and the energy produced and consumed in Western Europe within a time horizon where all the capacities of the energy sector are given. If gas power plants are built in Norway after such liberalization, the model predicts a reduction of CO 2 emissions in Western Europe even if the gas power plant increases the local emission in Norway. This is primarily because of the phasing-out of the coal-fired power plants in other countries. Alternative calculations using different assumptions about taxes, transportation capacity, minimum run-off years in Norway give the same type of results. Thus, the principal result about the climatically beneficial effect of a Norwegian gas power plant is robust within the model. However, alternative assumptions about the extent of the liberalization and the time horizon may lead to other conclusions. In any case, the impact of a Norwegian gas power plant (6 TWh) is so small on the European scale as to be rather symbolic

  18. Efficient Air Desulfurization Catalysts Derived from Pig Manure Liquefaction Char

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Wallace

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biochar from the liquefaction of pig manure was used as a precursor of H2S desulfurization adsorbents. In its inorganic matter, it contains marked quantities of calcium, magnesium and iron, which are known as hydrogen sulfide oxidation catalysts. The char was used either as-received or mixed with 10% nanographite. The latter was added to increase both the content of the carbon phase and conductivity. ZnCl2 in two different ratios of char to an activation agent (1:1 and 1:2 was used to create the porosity in the carbon phase. The content of the later was between 18–45%. The activated samples adsorbed 144 mg/g H2S. Sulfur was the predominant product of reactive adsorption. Its deposition in the pore system and blockage of the most active pores ceased the materials’ activity. The presence of the catalytic phase was necessary but not sufficient to guarantee good performance. The developed porosity, which can store oxidation products in the resulting composite, is essential for the good performance of the desulfurization process. The surface of the composite with nanographite showed the highest catalytic activity, similar to that of the commercial Midas® carbon catalyst. The results obtained indicate that a high quality reactive adsorbent/catalyst for H2S removal can be obtained from pig manure liquefaction wastes.

  19. Accumulative effect of food residues on intestinal gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mego, M; Accarino, A; Malagelada, J-R; Guarner, F; Azpiroz, F

    2015-11-01

    As mean transit time in the colon is longer than the interval between meals, several consecutive meal loads accumulate, and contribute to colonic biomass. Our aim was to determine the summation effect of fermentable food residues on intestinal gas production. In eight healthy subjects, the volume of endogenous intestinal gas produced in the intestine over a 4-h period was measured by means of a wash-out technique, using an exogenous gas infusion into the jejunum (24 mL/min) and collection of the effluent via a rectal Foley catheter. The exogenous gas infused was labeled (5% SF6 ) to calculate the proportion of endogenous intestinal gas evacuated. In each subject, four experiments were performed ≥1 week apart combining a 1-day high- or low-flatulogenic diet with a test meal or fast. Basal conditions: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production during fasting over the 4-h study period was 609 ± 63 mL. Effect of diet: during fasting, intestinal gas production on the high-flatulogenic diet was 370 ± 146 mL greater than on the low-flatulogenic diet (p = 0.040). Effect of test meal: on the low-flatulogenic diet, intestinal gas production after the test meal was 681 ± 114 mL greater than during fasting (p = 0.001); a similar effect was observed on the high-flatulogenic diet (599 ± 174 mL more intestinal gas production after the test meal than during fasting; p = 0.021). Our data demonstrate temporal summation effects of food residues on intestinal gas production. Hence, intestinal gas production depends on pre-existing and on recent colonic loads of fermentable foodstuffs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Explosively fracturing a productive oil and gas formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandon, C W

    1966-06-23

    In this method of fracturing an oil- or gas-producing strata, a portion of the formation adjacent to, but separated from, the producing strata is fractured. Explosives are then introduced into the fracture in this portion of the formation and thereafter detonated to fracture the productive strata. Also claimed are a method of variably controlling the extent and force of the explosives used, and a method of increasing oil and gas production from a productive strata.

  1. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  2. World natural gas supply and demand: Brief pause in production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coccia, G.

    1993-01-01

    With reference to the 1992 CEDIGAZ (Centre International sur le Gas Naturel et tous Hydrocarbures Gazeux) report on world natural gas supply and demand, this paper assesses current market and production trends in this industry. The slight drop in production in 1992, the first which has which has occurred after many consecutive years of steady increases, is ascribed to ownership disputes among the former-USSR republics and major changes in the organizational structure of the former-USSR's natural gas industry. Strong increases in demand are forecasted due to expected strong population growth and increased industrialization to take place in China and India. Price trends in natural gas should remain steady as a result of plentiful supplies of this fuel and coal, a major competitor. The use of relatively clean natural gas is suggested as a practical alternative to energy taxes now being proposed as a means for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  3. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  4. Numerical Simulation of Shale Gas Production with Thermodynamic Calculations Incorporated

    KAUST Repository

    Urozayev, Dias

    2015-06-01

    In today’s energy sector, it has been observed a revolutionary increase in shale gas recovery induced by reservoir fracking. So-called unconventional reservoirs became profitable after introducing a well stimulation technique. Some of the analysts expect that shale gas is going to expand worldwide energy supply. However, there is still a lack of an efficient as well as accurate modeling techniques, which can provide a good recovery and production estimates. Gas transports in shale reservoir is a complex process, consisting of slippage effect, gas diffusion along the wall, viscous flow due to the pressure gradient. Conventional industrial simulators are unable to model the flow as the flow doesn’t follow Darcy’s formulation. It is significant to build a unified model considering all given mechanisms for shale reservoir production study and analyze the importance of each mechanism in varied conditions. In this work, a unified mathematical model is proposed for shale gas reservoirs. The proposed model was build based on the dual porosity continuum media model; mass conservation equations for both matrix and fracture systems were build using the dusty gas model. In the matrix, gas desorption, Knudsen diffusion and viscous flow were taken into account. The model was also developed by implementing thermodynamic calculations to correct for the gas compressibility, or to obtain accurate treatment of the multicomponent gas. Previously, the model was built on the idealization of the gas, considering every molecule identical without any interaction. Moreover, the compositional variety of shale gas requires to consider impurities in the gas due to very high variety. Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to com- pute and correct for the gas density to pressure relation by solving the cubic equation to improve the model. The results show that considering the compressibility of the gas will noticeably increase gas production under given reservoir conditions and slow down

  5. Preparation of MoO2/g-C3N4 composites with a high surface area and its application in deep desulfurization from model oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Liang-pei; Zhao, Rong-xiang; Li, Xiu-ping; Gao, Xiao-han

    2018-03-01

    A series of catalysts of composition X-MoO2/g-C3N4 (X = 0, 0.5, 1, 3, 5 wt.%) were successfully synthesized by calcination of a mixture of (NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O and g-C3N4. Oxidative desulfurization experiments were conducted using X-MoO2/g-C3N4 as a catalyst, H2O2 as an oxidant, and ionic liquids (ILs) as extraction agents. Catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis (BET). Characterization results suggested that MoO2 was present in the catalyst and its crystallinity improved with increased Mo-loading. The catalysts had a larger specific surface area due to the presence of MoO2 dispersed on g-C3N4. Experimental results showed that 3%-MoO2/g-C3N4 had the highest catalytic activity among all the catalysts tested. A desulfurization rate of 96.0% was achieved under optimal conditions. Through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, it was shown that dibenzothoiphene sulfone was the sole product of the oxidation desulfurization reaction. An apparent activation energy of 61.1 kJ/mol was estimated based on Arrhenius equation. The activity of 3%-MoO2/g-C3N4 slightly decreased after six runs. A possible mechanism for the reaction has been proposed.

  6. Preliminary report on the commercial viability of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M.R.; Hancock, S.H.; Wilson, S.J.; Patil, S.L.; Moridis, G.J.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.S.; Koh, C.A.; Sloan, E.D.

    2009-01-01

    Economic studies on simulated gas hydrate reservoirs have been compiled to estimate the price of natural gas that may lead to economically viable production from the most promising gas hydrate accumulations. As a first estimate, $CDN2005 12/Mscf is the lowest gas price that would allow economically viable production from gas hydrates in the absence of associated free gas, while an underlying gas deposit will reduce the viability price estimate to $CDN2005 7.50/Mscf. Results from a recent analysis of the simulated production of natural gas from marine hydrate deposits are also considered in this report; on an IROR basis, it is $US2008 3.50-4.00/Mscf more expensive to produce marine hydrates than conventional marine gas assuming the existence of sufficiently large marine hydrate accumulations. While these prices represent the best available estimates, the economic evaluation of a specific project is highly dependent on the producibility of the target zone, the amount of gas in place, the associated geologic and depositional environment, existing pipeline infrastructure, and local tariffs and taxes. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Natural Gas Reserves, Development and Production in Qatar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, Abi-Aad.

    1998-01-01

    Qatar entered the club of natural gas exporters in early 1997 when the first shipment of liquefied natural gas left the state for Japan. Qatar was helped by the discovery in 1971 of supergiant North Field gas field, the country's suitable location between the established gas consuming markets in Europe and Southeast Asia, and its proximity to developing markets in the Indian subcontinent and in neighbouring countries. All that have combined to make gas export projects from Qatar economically viable and commercially attractive. In addition to export-oriented development, increased gas production from the North Field is planned for meeting a growing domestic demand for gas as fuel and feedstock for power generation and desalination plants, as well as value-added petrochemical and fertilizer industries

  8. Combined production og energy by vapor-gas unit on natural gas in Skopje (Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armenski, Slave; Dimitrov, Konstantin; Tashevski, Done

    1998-01-01

    The steam and gas turbine power plant for combine heat (for district heating of Skopje - the capital of Macedonia) and power (connected to the grid) production is analyzed and determined. Two variants of power plants are analyzed: power plant with gas turbine, heat recovery steam generator and a back pressure steam turbine; and power plant with two gas turbines, two heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and one back pressure steam turbine. The power plant would operate on natural gas as the main fuel source. It will be burnt in the gas turbine as well in the HRSG as an auxiliary fuel.The backup fuel for the gas turbine would be light oil. In normal operation, the HRSG uses the waste heat of the exhaust gases from the gas turbine. During gas turbine shutdowns, the HRSG can continue to generate the maximum steam capacity. The heat for district heating would be produce in HRSG by flue gases from the gas turbine and in the heat exchanger by condensed steam from back pressure turbine. The main parameters of the combined power plant, as: overall energy efficiency, natural gas consumption, natural gas saving are analyzed and determined in comparison with separated production of heat (for district heating) and power (for electrical grid). (Author)

  9. Controlled PVTS oil and gas production stimulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina-Racines, E

    1970-02-01

    By completing oil- or gas-producing wells according to the PVTS method and energizing the flow of the oil-gas fluids in the reservoir with a small horse-power gas compressor at the wellhead, the following oil and gas production features are attained: (1) Original reservoir story energy conditions are restored, improved, used, and conserved while producing oil and/or gas. (2) The flow of oil or gas in the pay formation to the well bore is stimulated by gas compressor energy, outside of the reservoir system. The pressure drawdown is developed by gas-compressor energy in the well casing and not in the pay formation. (3) The stored energy of the reservoir is conserved while producing oil or gas. The potential energy (pressure) of the reservoir can be used to advantage up to bubble point of the virgin crude. (4) Producible reserves are increased from 4-to 5-fold by the conservation of reservoir energy. Present-day primary oil production practice yields a maximum of 20% of the oil in place by depleting the original reservoir energy. The PVTS system will yield over 80% + of oil in place. (5) Producible gas reserves can be increased greatly by establishing a low abandonment pressure at will. The principal features of the PVTS well mechanism and energy injection method are illustrated by a schematic diagram.

  10. Liquefied natural gas production at Hammerfest: A transforming marine community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bets, van L.K.J.; Tatenhove, van J.P.M.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Global energy demand and scarce petroleum resources require communities to adapt to a rapidly changing Arctic environment, but as well to a transforming socio-economic environment instigated by oil and gas development. This is illustrated by liquefied natural gas production by Statoil at Hammerfest,

  11. Natural gas for power production in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The third and last part of the Sub-Committee's study on natural gas for power generation is reprinted in this issue. This part addresses gas consumption in electricity production until the year 2010. The first part of the study dealing with combined cycle power plants was published in September and the 2nd part on regulatory and environmental issues in October 1992

  12. Challenges, uncertainties and issues facing gas production from gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswell, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.

    2010-11-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas hydrate petroleum system, to discuss advances, requirement and suggested practices in gas hydrate (GH) prospecting and GH deposit characterization, and to review the associated technical, economic and environmental challenges and uncertainties, including: the accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource, the development of methodologies for identifying suitable production targets, the sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments and sample analysis, the analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs, well testing methods and interpretation of the results, geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns, well design, operation and installation, field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs, monitoring production and geomechanical stability, laboratory investigations, fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior, the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates, and the associated environmental concerns.

  13. World statistics on natural gas reserves, production and utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raikaslehto, S.

    2001-01-01

    By reviewing the statistics of BP Amoco on natural gas reserves, production and usage, it is easy to see that Russia and USA, both being large natural gas producers, differ significantly from each other. The natural gas reserves of USA are 6th largest in the world, simultaneously the natural gas consumption and import are largest in the world. About one third of the known natural gas reserves of the world are in Russia. The known natural gas reserves of both USA and Canada have decreases, but they have potential gas reserves left. Known natural gas reserves of the USA have been calculated to be sufficient for 9 years consumption at present usage and those of Canada for 11 years. The reserves of Algeria correspond to the usage of 55 years, and the Russian reserves for are about 83 years. Annual production figures of both Russia and the USA are nearly the same. Russia is the largest exporter (125.5 billion m 3 ) of natural gas and the USA the largest importer (96 billion m 3 ). The natural gas reserves of the largest European producers, the Netherlands and Norway have been estimated to be sufficient for use of about 20 years, but those of Great Britain only for about 10 years. The annual production of Russia has varied in the 1990s between nearly 600 billion m 3 and present 550 billion m 3 , the minimum being in 1997 only about 532 billion m 3 . Ten largest natural gas consumers use 67% of the natural gas consumed annually in the world. USA consumes about 27% of the total natural gas produced in the world, the amount of Russia being 364 billion m 3 (16%). Other large natural gas consumers are Great Britain, Germany, Japan, Ukraine, Canada, Italy, Iran and Uzbekistan. The share of these countries of the total consumption varied in between 2-4%. Only Japan has no natural gas production of its own. The foreign trade between Japan and Indonesia is trade on LNG. On the other hand the natural gas consumption of the world's 10th largest producer Norway is nearly zero, so

  14. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-05-01

    M2(PcAN)2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5) or the M2(PcTN)2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5 and Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV-Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization.

  15. Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil and Gas Production, Environmental Health and Livelihood Vulnerability in the West Coast of Ghana. ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... Respondents' level of education significantly influences their level of knowledge about ...

  16. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  17. Preliminary report on the economics of gas production from natural gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, M.; Wilson, S.; Patil, S.; Moridis, G.; Boswell, R.; Koh, C.; Sloan, D.

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds in which gas molecules reside inside cages that are formed by hydrogen-bonded water molecules in a crystal lattice. At particularly low temperatures and high pressures, a guest molecule will combine with water to form gas hydrates. Gas hydrates are found in two different settings in which the temperature and pressure conditions are suitable for their existence, notably in Arctic permafrost regions and below the seafloor. Because of the size of this possible future resource, if any of the gas in hydrates can be proven to be economically recoverable, then production from gas hydrates could become an important portion of the world's energy portfolio as demand for natural gas increases along with the technology to compress and distribute natural gas to distant markets. This paper presented a compilation of economic research that was conducted on the resource potential of gas hydrates. The paper reported a preliminary estimate of the price of natural gas that may lead to economically-viable production from North American Arctic region hydrates. The paper also discussed the implications of a recent study on the production of class 3 marine hydrate deposits from the Gulf of Mexico. The state of the art technologies and methods in hydrate reservoir modeling and hydrate reservoir production and petrophysical testing were also discussed. It was concluded that the somewhat optimistic results presented in this report should be interpreted with caution, however, the economically-viable gas production from hydrates was not an unreasonable scenario. 23 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs

  18. Desulfurization from thiophene by SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) catalytic oxidation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Zhu, Jianpeng; Ma, Hongzhu

    2009-05-15

    Thiophene, due to its poison, together with its combustion products which causes air pollution and highly toxic characteristic itself, attracted more and more attention to remove from gasoline and some high concentration systems. As the purpose of achieving the novel method of de-thiophene assisted by SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) (SZ), three reactions about thiophene in different atmosphere at room temperature and atmospheric pressure were investigated. SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) catalyst were synthesized and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The products were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). XP spectra show that ozone-catalyst system (SZO) have two forms of sulfur element (S(6+) and S(2-)) on the catalyst surface, which distinguished from that of air-catalyst system (SZA) and blank-catalyst system (SZB) (S(6+)). And the results of GC-MS exhibited that some new compounds has been produced under this extremely mild condition. Especially, many kinds of sulfur compounds containing oxygen, that is easier to be extracted by oxidative desulfurization (ODS), have been detected in the SZA-1.5h and SZB-3h system. In addition, some long chain hydrocarbons have also been detected. While in SZO-0.5h system, only long chain hydrocarbons were found. The results show that total efficiency of desulfurization from thiophene with ozone near to 100% can be obtained with the SO(4)(2-)/ZrO(2) catalytic oxidation reaction.

  19. Desulfurization from thiophene by SO42-/ZrO2 catalytic oxidation at room temperature and atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Zhu Jianpeng; Ma Hongzhu

    2009-01-01

    Thiophene, due to its poison, together with its combustion products which causes air pollution and highly toxic characteristic itself, attracted more and more attention to remove from gasoline and some high concentration systems. As the purpose of achieving the novel method of de-thiophene assisted by SO 4 2- /ZrO 2 (SZ), three reactions about thiophene in different atmosphere at room temperature and atmospheric pressure were investigated. SO 4 2- /ZrO 2 catalyst were synthesized and characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The products were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). XP spectra show that ozone-catalyst system (SZO) have two forms of sulfur element (S 6+ and S 2- ) on the catalyst surface, which distinguished from that of air-catalyst system (SZA) and blank-catalyst system (SZB) (S 6+ ). And the results of GC-MS exhibited that some new compounds has been produced under this extremely mild condition. Especially, many kinds of sulfur compounds containing oxygen, that is easier to be extracted by oxidative desulfurization (ODS), have been detected in the SZA-1.5 h and SZB-3 h system. In addition, some long chain hydrocarbons have also been detected. While in SZO-0.5 h system, only long chain hydrocarbons were found. The results show that total efficiency of desulfurization from thiophene with ozone near to 100% can be obtained with the SO 4 2- /ZrO 2 catalytic oxidation reaction

  20. Greenhouse gas mitigation in animal production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Boer, IJM; Cederberg, C; Eady, S

    2011-01-01

    The animal food chain contributes significantly to emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs). We explored studies that addressed options to mitigate GHG emissions in the animal production chain and concluded that most studies focused on production systems in developed countries and on a single GHG...

  1. Gas Fermentation using Thermophilic Moorella Species for production of Biochemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Redl, Stephanie Maria Anna

    Gas fermentation is a promising technology which gained increasing attention over the last years. In this process, acetogenic bacteria convert gases rich in H2, CO2, and CO, into compounds of higher value. The gas can derive from industrial off-gas or from waste streams via gasification. In the gas...... fermentation processes that are nearly on commercial level, mesophilic acetogens are used to mainly produce ethanol and butanediol. However, thermophilic acetogens, such as Moorella thermoacetica would allow for easy downstream processing when producing volatile products such as acetone. This thesis starts...... with a review of the feedstock potential for gas fermentation and how thermophilic production strains as well as unconventional fermentation processes such as mixotrophy can help to exploit this potential. I analyzed a process with respect to thermodynamic and economic considerations, in which acetone...

  2. NOVEL REACTOR FOR THE PRODUCTION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilis Papavassiliou; Leo Bonnell; Dion Vlachos

    2004-12-01

    Praxair investigated an advanced technology for producing synthesis gas from natural gas and oxygen This production process combined the use of a short-reaction time catalyst with Praxair's gas mixing technology to provide a novel reactor system. The program achieved all of the milestones contained in the development plan for Phase I. We were able to develop a reactor configuration that was able to operate at high pressures (up to 19atm). This new reactor technology was used as the basis for a new process for the conversion of natural gas to liquid products (Gas to Liquids or GTL). Economic analysis indicated that the new process could provide a 8-10% cost advantage over conventional technology. The economic prediction although favorable was not encouraging enough for a high risk program like this. Praxair decided to terminate development.

  3. Planning of optimum production from a natural gas field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dam, J

    1968-03-01

    The design of an optimum development plan for a natural gas field always depends on the typical characteristics of the producing field, as well as those of the market to be served by this field. Therefore, a good knowledge of the field parameters, such as the total natural gas reserves, the well productivity, and the dependence of production rates on pipeline pressure and depletion of natural gas reserves, is required prior to designing the development scheme of the field, which in fact depends on the gas-sales contract to be concluded in order to commit the natural gas reserves to the market. In this paper these various technical parameters are discussed in some detail, and on this basis a theoretical/economical analysis of natural gas production is given. For this purpose a simplified economical/mathematical model for the field is proposed, from which optimum production rates at various future dates can be calculated. The results of these calculations are represented in a dimensionless diagram which may serve as an aid in designing optimum development plans for a natural gas field. The use of these graphs is illustrated in a few examples.

  4. Britain's North Sea oil and gas production: a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    The size and longevity of Britain's offshore hydrocarbons resources have been underestimated. Gas reserves were seriously under-exploited for almost 20 years from the late 1960s, given a belief that gas should be used only as a premium fuel and in the context of an uncompetitive market. Oil reserves' development and production has suffered from time to time from inappropriate politico-economic conditions. Nevertheless, offshore oil and gas has come to dominate the UK's energy production over the past 20 years and currently accounts for 85% of the country's total energy output. Fears for resources' exhaustion remain unjustified, as the industry continues to replace oil and gas reserves used each year. The North Sea is still not comprehensively explored: the continuation of the process will enable oil production to remain at high levels and that of gas to expand further. Supplementary output from the new west of Shetland province will become progressively more important after 2000. But continued intensive production overall depends on the maintenance of attractive politico-economic conditions and on present oil prices. It also requires the European gas market to remain firm but, ironically, the planned flow of UK gas to the mainland constitutes a threat to this condition. (Author)

  5. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid biomass because of their logistic advantages, better mineral balance, and better processability. Especially the ease of pressurization, which is required for large scale synthesis gas production, is...

  6. Effects of gas composition in headspace and bicarbonate concentrations in media on gas and methane production, degradability, and rumen fermentation using in vitro gas production techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Amlan Kumar; Yu, Zhongtang

    2013-07-01

    Headspace gas composition and bicarbonate concentrations in media can affect methane production and other characteristics of rumen fermentation in in vitro gas production systems, but these 2 important factors have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, these 2 factors were investigated with respect to gas and methane production, in vitro digestibility of feed substrate, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile using in vitro gas production techniques. Three headspace gas compositions (N2+ CO2+ H2 in the ratio of 90:5:5, CO2, and N2) with 2 substrate types (alfalfa hay only, and alfalfa hay and a concentrate mixture in a 50:50 ratio) in a 3×2 factorial design (experiment 1) and 3 headspace compositions (N2, N2 + CO2 in a 50:50 ratio, and CO2) with 3 bicarbonate concentrations (80, 100, and 120 mM) in a 3×3 factorial design (experiment 2) were evaluated. In experiment 1, total gas production (TGP) and net gas production (NGP) was the lowest for CO2, followed by N2, and then the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas after fermentation was greater for CO2 than for N2 and the gas mixture, whereas total methane production (TMP) and net methane production (NMP) were the greatest for CO2, followed by the gas mixture, and then N2. Headspace composition did not affect in vitro digestibility or the VFA profile, except molar percentages of propionate, which were greater for CO2 and N2 than for the gas mixture. Methane concentration in headspace gas, TGP, and NGP were affected by the interaction of headspace gas composition and substrate type. In experiment 2, increasing concentrations of CO2 in the headspace decreased TGP and NGP quadratically, but increased the concentrations of methane, NMP, and in vitro fiber digestibility linearly, and TMP quadratically. Fiber digestibility, TGP, and NGP increased linearly with increasing bicarbonate concentrations in the medium. Concentrations of methane and NMP were unaffected by bicarbonate concentration, but

  7. Productivity changes in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushdi, A.

    1994-01-01

    The study reveals that the total factor productivity in the Gas and Fuel Corporation of Victoria (GFCV) continued to increase throughout the study period except for a brief period between 1983-84 and 1984-85 which was mainly the result of the decline in the industrial demand for gas and a decelerated growth rate in residential demand. The productivity gains were found to be highly sensitive to the rates of depreciation and discount rates assumed. The estimated terms of trade suggest that the increase in gas prices was lower that the increase in the aggregate input prices the GFCV paid, particularly to capital and labour. However, while the price index of reticulated gas increased to 2.17, the purchase price declined to 0.96 over the study period. The productivity gains by GFCV seem to have been shared with its customers. (Author)

  8. Financing of gas production expansion at Taipo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, R.T.H.

    1991-01-01

    Financing strategies applied to Phase I and Phase II were quite different. In Phase I, the project was more sophisticated and involved investments in different types of assets: Site acquisition; site formation and foundations; gas-making plants and associated equipment; naptha tanks; naptha pipeline; twin submarine gas pipeline connected to the existing distribution network; and workshop and offices. For Phase II, the tenderers demanded payment in foreign currencies because of their international procurement and their concern over Hong Kong currency at the time of submitting the tender. The Phase II financing package consists of: (1) ECGD facilities with a fixed interest rate at 9.15% p.a.--8 years with repayment in 10 semiannual installments over the last 5 years. (2) Fixed rate bank borrowings at 9% p.a. with repayment at the end of 5 years (use of swaps to obtain long-term money at lower interest rate). (3) Foreign currency deposits to cover exposure in two other currencies. (4) Forward contract to cover repayment installments in Sterling in the last 5 years at much lower rates of exchange. In a nutshell, by using a combination of different financing instruments, HKCG was able to eliminate foreign exchange and interest rate risks and reduce the overall capital cost of the plant

  9. High-BTU gas production from tar-bearing hot coke oven gas over iron catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L.Y. Li; K. Morishita; T. Takarada [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Department of Biological and Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    To utilize the tar-bearing hot coke oven gas (the by-product of coke making process) more effectively, a process was developed by converting the hot coke oven gas into a methane rich high-BTU gas over iron-bearing catalysts. The catalytic behaviour of Indonesian limonite ore was mainly discussed. For a reference, a conventional nickel catalyst (Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was employed. Laboratory scale tests were carried out in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor at ambient pressure. A bituminous coal sample was heated at first stage, the volatiles was carried by feed gas and decomposed at second stage. The limonite promoted hydropyrolysis of coal volatiles similar to Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. High yields of total product gas and methane were obtained at 50 vol.% hydrogen atmosphere with a feed gas of 60 ml min{sup -1} hydrogen and 60 ml min{sup -1} nitrogen. After experiments, hydrocarbons heavier than ethane were not observed. Also that, carbon balance was more than 99.8% in coal char, product gases and carbon deposits. It was considered that coal volatiles converted into light gases and carbon almost completely in catalyst bed. Yields of product gas and methane depended upon catalytic temperature. At 923 K, the maximum yield of product gas was achieved at 74.3% for limonite catalyst on carbon balance with methane 83.2 vol.% of the carbonaceous gas products. Comparing with limonite, Fe/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and BOF dust samples showed low activities on coal volatiles catalytic decomposition. 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Improving productivity in the gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, F F; Portsmouth, D J

    1982-05-01

    A study course designed to help BGC managers improve employee productivity reflected four main themes: evaluating quality and performance standards, examining new technologies, exploiting manpower resources, and improving usage of equipment and materials. Visiting speakers' contributions included 1) BGC's broad objectives and its methods of deploying financial resources effectively, 2) creativity as it relates to productivity and to the need for forecasts of risk and catastrophes, and 3) the paramount importance of management's commitment to formally stated objectives.

  11. US production of natural gas from tight reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    For the purposes of this report, tight gas reservoirs are defined as those that meet the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) definition of tight. They are generally characterized by an average reservoir rock permeability to gas of 0.1 millidarcy or less and, absent artificial stimulation of production, by production rates that do not exceed 5 barrels of oil per day and certain specified daily volumes of gas which increase with the depth of the reservoir. All of the statistics presented in this report pertain to wells that have been classified, from 1978 through 1991, as tight according to the FERC; i.e., they are ''legally tight'' reservoirs. Additional production from ''geologically tight'' reservoirs that have not been classified tight according to the FERC rules has been excluded. This category includes all producing wells drilled into legally designated tight gas reservoirs prior to 1978 and all producing wells drilled into physically tight gas reservoirs that have not been designated legally tight. Therefore, all gas production referenced herein is eligible for the Section 29 tax credit. Although the qualification period for the credit expired at the end of 1992, wells that were spudded (began to be drilled) between 1978 and May 1988, and from November 5, 1990, through year end 1992, are eligible for the tax credit for a subsequent period of 10 years. This report updates the EIA's tight gas production information through 1991 and considers further the history and effect on tight gas production of the Federal Government's regulatory and tax policy actions. It also provides some high points of the geologic background needed to understand the nature and location of low-permeability reservoirs

  12. Behaviour of gas production from type 3 hydrate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pooladi-Darvish, M. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering]|[Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Zatsepina, O. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering; Hong, H. [Fekete Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    The possible role of gas hydrates as a potential energy resource was discussed with particular reference to methods for estimating the rate of gas production from hydrate reservoirs under different operating conditions. This paper presented several numerical simulations studies of gas production from type 3 hydrate reservoirs in 1-D and 2-D geometries. Type 3 reservoirs include gas production from hydrate-reservoirs that lie totally within the hydrate stability zone and are sandwiched by impermeable layers on top and bottom. The purpose of this study was to better understand hydrate decomposition by depressurization. The study questioned whether 1-D modeling of type 3 hydrate reservoirs is a reasonable approximation. It also determined whether gas rate increases or decreases with time. The important reservoir characteristics for determining the rate of gas production were identified. Last, the study determined how competition between fluid and heat flow affects hydrate decomposition. This paper also described the relation and interaction between the heat and fluid flow mechanisms in depressurization of type 3 hydrate reservoirs. All results of 1-D and 2-D numerical simulation and analyses were generated using the STARS simulator. It was shown that the rate of gas production depends on the initial pressure/temperature conditions and permeability of the hydrate bearing formation. A high peak rate may be achieved under favourable conditions, but this peak rate is obtained after an initial period where the rate of gas production increases with time. The heat transfer in the direction perpendicular to the direction of fluid flow is significant, requiring 2D modeling. The hydraulic diffusivity is low because of the low permeability of hydrate-bearing formations. This could result in competition between heat and fluid flow, thereby influencing the behaviour of decomposition. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs.

  13. [Effects of desulfurization waste on calcium distribution, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and antioxidant characteristics of rice leaf under alkali stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gui-Lian; Xu, Xing; Zeng, Jin; Yue, Zi-Hui; Yang, Shu-Juan

    2012-02-01

    To approach the action mechanisms of desulfurization waste on alleviating alkali stress-induced injury of rice, a pot experiment was conducted to study the variations of leaf total calcium content, calcium distribution, plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, and reactive oxygen content of rice seedlings under alkali stress after the application of desulfurization waste. In the control, a few calcium particulates scattered in the cell wall and chloroplasts, while applying desulfurization waste or CaSO4 increased the calcium particulates in the plasma membrane, intercellular space, cell wall, and vacuole significantly. With the increasing application rate of desulfurization waste or CaSO4, the leaf total calcium content increased, Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in plasma membrane and tonoplast presented an increasing trend, plasma membrane relative permeability, MDA content, and O2 production rate decreased, and SOD and POD activities increased. The desulfurization waste could relieve the alkali stress to rice in some extent, and the main reactive compound in the waste could be CaSO4.

  14. Method for the gasification of carbonaceous fuels for the production of reduction gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paschen, P; Pfeiffer, R; Rao, C

    1977-11-24

    For the gasification of solid, liquid or gaseous fuels to produce reduction gas, the fuel is led beneath the surface of a metallic melting bath together with an oxidating gasification agent. A sulfur-adsorbing slag should be maintained on the melting bath surface, so a desulfurated reduction gas is produced containing mainly CO and H/sub 2/ as used for metallurgical processes (i.e., direct reduction for the production of sponge iron).

  15. The JENDL-3 sublibrary for gas production. Summary of contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, T.; Narita, T.

    1993-01-01

    This document summarizes the contents of the JENDL-3 Sublibrary for Gas Production. This nuclear data library contains neutron-induced production cross-sections of hydrogen and helium nuclei for elements from 3-Li to 41-Nb. The library or retrievals of selected materials are available on magnetic tape from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section upon request. (author)

  16. Investigation of Productivity of Brown’s (HHO Gas Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Brazdžiūnas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There were made tests of productivity of Brown’s gas generator using different potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration changing voltage and amperage. It is described experimental stand that is used to do researches and methodology of experiments performance. Brown’s gas production in electrolyser (electrolyser – the device that is going electrolysis to use stainless steel (AISI 316 electrodes. It was determined after researches that increasing the potassium hydroxide (KOH concentration in the solution and using the same amperage and voltage of the all concentration results are similar. The highest productivity 1.429 l/min was obtained by using a 120 A amperage and 15 V voltage.

  17. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Lennart N.

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  18. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  19. Assessing greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, Patricia; Groen, Evelyne A.; Berg, Werner; Prochnow, Annette; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Heijungs, Reinout; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of food products, such as dairy, require many input parameters that are affected by variability and uncertainty. Moreover, correlations may be present between input parameters, e.g. between feed intake and milk yield. The purpose of this study was to

  20. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  1. Climate impact of potential shale gas production in the EU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, D.; Perks, J. [AEA Technology plc, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Existing estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas production and available abatement options were used to obtain improved estimates of emissions from possible shale gas exploitation in the EU. GHG emissions per unit of electricity generated from shale gas were estimated to be around 4 to 8% higher than for electricity generated by conventional pipeline gas from within Europe. These additional emissions arise in the pre-combustion stage, predominantly in the well completion phase when the fracturing fluid is brought back to the surface together with released methane. If emissions from well completion are mitigated, through flaring or capture, and utilised, then this difference is reduced to 1 to 5%. The analysis suggests that the emissions from shale gas-based power generation (base case) are 2 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from sources of conventional pipeline gas located outside of Europe (in Russia and Algeria), and 7 to 10% lower than those from electricity generated from LNG imported into Europe. However, under our 'worst case' shale gas scenario, where all flow back gases at well completion are vented, emissions from electricity generated from shale gas would be similar to the upper emissions level for electricity generated from imported LNG and for gas imported from Russia.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Agricultural Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann

    unit. This dissertation presents results and comprehensions from my PhD study on the basis of three papers. The overall aim has been to develop a new identity-based framework, the KPI, to estimate and analyse GHG emissions from agriculture and LUC and apply this on national, regional and global level....... The KPI enables combined analyses of changes in total emissions, emissions per area and emissions per product. Also, the KPI can be used to assess how a change in each GHG emission category affects the change in total emissions; thus pointing to where things are going well and where things are going less...... well in relation to what is actually produced. The KPI framework is scale independent and can be applied at any level from field and farm to global agricultural production. Paper I presents the first attempt to develop the KPI identity framework and, as a case study, GHG emissions from Danish crop...

  3. Knowledge based decision making: perspective on natural gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ydstie, B. Erik; Stuland, Kjetil M.

    2009-07-01

    Conclusions (drawn by the author): Decarbonization of energy sources - From coal to renewable. Natural Gas Abundantly available - Norway is no. 3 exporter. Natural gas important as - Hydrogen source for chemicals; - Electricity; - End consumer usage (heating etc). Large potential for application of model based decision making; - Where and when to install platforms and drill wells - How to operate platforms and pipeline systems; - How to operate and optimize chemical production; - Optimization of electricity generation systems. (author)

  4. TBP degradation products. Separation and gas-chromatographic determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuada, T.A.; Alem, C.M.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de; Araujo, J.A de.

    1991-11-01

    A separation method for di butylphosphate, mono butylphosphate and phosphoric acid as degradation products in organic and aqueous streams of the process containing variable amounts of actinides and fission products is described. The products were separated by extraction and after methylation the final determination was carried out by gas chromatography. TPP was used as internal standard and 5 to 500 mg/L concentration range was determined with 1 to 10% deviation depending on the concentration of organo phosphates. (author)

  5. Marble waste characterization as a desulfurizing slag component for steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleti, J.L.; Grillo, F.F.; Tenorio, J.A.S.; De Oliveira, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The current steel market requires from steel plants better quality of its products. As a result, steel plants need to search for improvements and costs reduction in its process. Hence, the residue of marble containing significant quantities of calcium and magnesium carbonates, raw materials of steel refining slag, was characterized in order to replace the conventional lime used. Therefore, it will be possible to reduce the cost and volume of waste produced by the ornamental rock industry. The following methods were applied to test the waste potential: SEM with EDS, x-ray diffraction, x-ray fluorescence (EDX), Thermogravimetry (TG) and analysis of surface area and particle size by the BET method using dispersion leisure. The results indicated the feasibility of waste as raw material in the composition of desulfurizing slags. (author)

  6. Cascade heat recovery with coproduct gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W.R.; Cassano, A.A.; Dunbobbin, B.R.; Rao, P.; Erickson, D.C.

    1986-10-14

    A process for the integration of a chemical absorption separation of oxygen and nitrogen from air with a combustion process is set forth wherein excess temperature availability from the combustion process is more effectively utilized to desorb oxygen product from the absorbent and then the sensible heat and absorption reaction heat is further utilized to produce a high temperature process stream. The oxygen may be utilized to enrich the combustion process wherein the high temperature heat for desorption is conducted in a heat exchange preferably performed with a pressure differential of less than 10 atmospheres which provides considerable flexibility in the heat exchange. 4 figs.

  7. Influence of biogenic gas production on coalbed methane recovery index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyu Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In investigating the effect of biogenic gas production on the recovery of coalbed methane (CBM, coal samples spanning different ranks were applied in the microbial-functioned simulation experiments for biogenic methane production. Based on the biogenic methane yield, testing of pore structures, and the isothermal adsorption data of coals used before and after the simulation experiments, several key parameters related to the recovery of CBM, including recovery rate, gas saturation and ratio of critical desorption pressure to reservoir pressure, etc., were calculated and the corresponding variations were further analyzed. The results show that one of the significant functions of microbial communities on coal is possibly to weaken its affinity for methane gas, especially with the advance of coal ranks; and that by enhancing the pore system of coal, which can be evidenced by the increase of porosity and permeability, the samples collected from Qianqiu (Yima in Henan and Shaqu (Liulin in Shanxi coal mines all see a notable increase in the critical desorption pressure, gas saturation and recovery rate, as compared to the moderate changes of that of Guandi (Xishan in Shanxi coal sample. It is concluded that the significance of enhanced biogenic gas is not only in the increase of CBM resources and the improvement of CBM recoverability, but in serving as an engineering reference for domestic coalbed biogenic gas production.

  8. Compressed gas domestic aerosol valve design using high viscous product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nourian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the current universal consumer aerosol products using high viscous product such as cooking oil, antiperspirants, hair removal cream are primarily used LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas propellant which is unfriendly environmental. The advantages of the new innovative technology described in this paper are: i. No butane or other liquefied hydrocarbon gas is used as a propellant and it replaced with Compressed air, nitrogen or other safe gas propellant. ii. Customer acceptable spray quality and consistency during can lifetime iii. Conventional cans and filling technology There is only a feasible energy source which is inert gas (i.e. compressed air to replace VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds and greenhouse gases, which must be avoided, to improve atomisation by generating gas bubbles and turbulence inside the atomiser insert and the actuator. This research concentrates on using "bubbly flow" in the valve stem, with injection of compressed gas into the passing flow, thus also generating turbulence. The new valve designed in this investigation using inert gases has advantageous over conventional valve with butane propellant using high viscous product (> 400 Cp because, when the valving arrangement is fully open, there are negligible energy losses as fluid passes through the valve from the interior of the container to the actuator insert. The use of valving arrangement thus permits all pressure drops to be controlled, resulting in improved control of atomising efficiency and flow rate, whereas in conventional valves a significant pressure drops occurs through the valve which has a complex effect on the corresponding spray.

  9. Challenges and solutions in natural gas engine development and productions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; Izanloo, Hossein [Irankhodro Powertrain Co. (IPCO) (Iran)

    2008-07-01

    As an alternative fuel, natural gas is generally accepted for internal combustion engines and some developments have been conducted in order to adopt it for the road vehicles and stationary applications. Foresights shows natural gas vehicles will be a part of the future transportation technology regarding to their mid and long-term benefits. Therefore inherent problems of natural gas engine technology should be overcome to produce a competitive engine. In this paper major problems and their possible solutions in developing and producing natural gas engine for passenger cars are detailed and discussed. Challenging materials are sorted and presented in two categorizes: technical and econo-strategical problems. In the technical section major difficulties faced in components or systems of natural gas engine are analysed in different aspects of design, validation, and production. In addition problems arisen from the fuel characteristics which influence the function and durability of engine are argued. Subjects like freezing in gas regulator, cold start fuel injection, gas leakage, impurities within compressed natural gas, variation in fuel composition, thermo-mechanics of cylinder head and block, wear of valve seat inserts, spark plug erosion, back-fire phenomenon, engine oil quality requirement, low power density and mileage are described. In the econo-strategical discussion, challenges like limited gas distribution infrastructure, lack of specific manufacturing standards and codes, and non-dedicated emission standards are explained. In both part of the paper a comprehensive view is extended to clarify the effect, risk and solutions of each problem. Due to the fact that almost all information and analysis presented in this paper are based on the experience of developing a natural gas engine family, and an extensive literature review, discussions and conclusions could be useful as a guide line for future natural gas engine projects. (orig.)

  10. Deep desulfurization of jet fuel for applications in mobile fuel cell systems; Tiefentschwefelung von Flugturbinenkraftstoffen fuer die Anwendung in mobilen Brennstoffzellensystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong

    2012-07-01

    Fuel cell powered APUs are promising for the on-board electricity supply in heavy vehicles, aircraft and ships because of their high efficiency and low emission of pollutants. The catalytical reforming with subsequent gas processing units is applied to operate the fuel cell system with onboard available fuels. Within the reformer the liquid fuel is converted into a hydrogen-rich synthesis gas in the presence of metal catalysts. However, an on-board desulfurization of fuels is required to avoid the deactivation of catalysts in the fuel processing unit as well as in the fuel cell. The present work aims at developing a technically feasible deep desulfurization process for fuel cell powered APUs with theoretical and experimental study as well as procedural analysis. The focus of the work is on the desulfurization of jet fuels in liquid phase, since the reformer currently developed in IEK-3 is designed for aviation applications of fuel cell APUs and it can only be operated by liquid jet fuels. In addition, the desulfurization of marine gas oil was investigated to fulfill the sulfur requirement of the fuels for the application of fuel cell A PUs for inland navigation. In the petroleum industry, low-sulfur fuels are often obtained by hydrodesulfurization and the S-Zorb Process. However, these conventional methods are highly inconvenient for reducing sulfur compounds to the desired level in a mobile fuel cell system, since improvements of the desulfurization efficiency are limited by increasingly severe operating conditions and escalating costs. Moreover, the hydrodesulfurization and the S-Zorb Process are not suitable for mobile applications, since hydrogen recycling is required, which is not possible with H{sub 2} syngas. To this end, a large number of processes discussed in the literature were assessed with regard to their application in fuel cell APUs. Three potentially suitable processes were selected: pervaporation, adsorption, and hydrodesulfurization with pre

  11. Magnesite base desulfurizer of metallurgical physical chemistry research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This topic put carbon thermal vacuum method in combination with magnesium based desulfurization technology with magnesite reduction of magnesium vapor directly on hot metal desulphurization. This is a new type of desulfurization technology, the retrieval related literature at home and abroad was not reported in the recent ten years, according to the relationship between heat of desulfurizer preparation MgO style content can reach 50 %.It was found that the desulfurizer sample with 50 % MgO content was in accordance with the requirements, without adding flux, but its viscosity did not meet the requirements; adding 1 % flux (CaF2, the sample viscosity was significantly reduced, and about 1 400 °C sample viscosity suitable for hot metal pretreatment desulfurization.

  12. Analysis of gob gas venthole production performances for strata gas control in longwall mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, C Özgen

    2015-10-01

    Longwall mining of coal seams affects a large area of overburden by deforming it and creating stress-relief fractures, as well as bedding plane separations, as the mining face progresses. Stress-relief fractures and bedding plane separations are recognized as major pathways for gas migration from gas-bearing strata into sealed and active areas of the mines. In order for strata gas not to enter and inundate the ventilation system of a mine, gob gas ventholes (GGVs) can be used as a methane control measure. The aim of this paper is to analyze production performances of GGVs drilled over a longwall panel. These boreholes were drilled to control methane emissions from the Pratt group of coals due to stress-relief fracturing and bedding plane separations into a longwall mine operating in the Mary Lee/Blue Creek coal seam of the Upper Pottsville Formation in the Black Warrior Basin, Alabama. During the course of the study, Pratt coal's reservoir properties were integrated with production data of the GGVs. These data were analyzed by using material balance techniques to estimate radius of influence of GGVs, gas-in-place and coal pressures, as well as their variations during mining. The results show that the GGVs drilled to extract gas from the stress-relief zone of the Pratt coal interval is highly effective in removing gas from the Upper Pottsville Formation. The radii of influence of the GGVs were in the order of 330-380 m, exceeding the widths of the panels, due to bedding plane separations and stress relieved by fracturing. Material balance analyses indicated that the initial pressure of the Pratt coals, which was around 648 KPa when longwall mining started, decreased to approximately 150 KPa as the result of strata fracturing and production of released gas. Approximately 70% of the initial gas-in-place within the area of influence of the GGVs was captured during a period of one year.

  13. Hazardous Gas Production by Alpha Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaVerne, Jay A.

    2001-01-01

    This project focused on the production of hazardous gases in the radiolysis of solid organic matrices, such as polymers and resins, that may be associated with transuranic waste material. Self-radiolysis of radioactive waste is a serious environmental problem because it can lead to a change in the composition of the materials in storage containers and possibly jeopardize their integrity. Experimental determination of gaseous yields is of immediate practical importance in the engineering and maintenance of containers for waste materials. Fundamental knowledge on the radiation chemical processes occurring in these systems allows one to predict outcomes in materials or mixtures not specifically examined, which is a great aid in the management of the variety of waste materials currently overseen by Environmental Management

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions in milk and dairy product chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flysjö, Anna Maria

    Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon ...... throughout the value chain – from cow to consumer.......Reducing greenhouse gas emissions from dairy products is one important step towards a more sustainable dairy sector. To ensure effective mitigation, reliable assessment methods are required. The present PhD thesis focuses on some of the most critical methodological aspects influencing the carbon...... footprint (CF) of milk and dairy products, namely; estimating CH4 and N2O emissions; accounting for land use change; co-product handling; and defining the functional unit. In addition, the CF is calculated for different types of dairy products, and suggestions on various mitigation measures are presented...

  15. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Rokuhei; Greenfield, Carl; Pogue, Katie; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50%/yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or “fracking”, as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in this shale gas revolution, by allowing for extraction of natural gas from previously unviable shale resources. Although hydraulic fracturing technology had been around for decades, it only recently became commercially attractive for large-scale implementation. As the production of shale gas rapidly increased in the US over the past decade, the wellhead price of natural gas dropped substantially. In this paper we express the relationship between wellhead price and cumulative natural gas output in terms of an experience curve, and obtain a learning rate of 13% for the industry using hydraulic fracturing technology. This learning rate represents a measure for the know-how and skills accumulated thus far by the US shale gas industry. The use of experience curves for renewable energy options such as solar and wind power has allowed analysts, practitioners, and policy makers to assess potential price reductions, and underlying cost decreases, for these technologies in the future. The reasons for price reductions of hydraulic fracturing are fundamentally different from those behind renewable energy technologies – hence they cannot be directly compared – and hydraulic fracturing may soon reach, or maybe has already attained, a lower bound for further price reductions, for instance as a result of its water requirements or environmental footprint. Yet, understanding learning-by-doing phenomena as expressed by an industry-wide experience curve for shale gas production can be useful for strategic planning in the gas sector, as well as assist environmental policy design, and serve more broadly as input for projections of energy system developments. - Highlights: • Hydraulic

  16. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  17. Produced water management - clean and safe oil and gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference contains 22 presentations on topics within pollution sources and abatement, discharge reductions, water analysis and monitoring, water production, treatment and injection, enhanced recovery, condensate water, produced water markets, separation technologies for oil/gas/condensate and water, oil removal from solids, environmental risks of oil and gas production and environmental impacts on ecosystems and fisheries. Some oil field case histories are presented. The main focus is on the northern areas such as the North Sea, the north Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea, and technological aspects (tk)

  18. Impact assessment of concentrate recirculation on the landfill gas production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džolev Nikola M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of concentrate recirculation, as a product of leachate treated by reverse osmosis plant, on the production of landfill gas at the real-scale landfill for municipal solid waste. In an effort to come up with results experimental measurements were carried out at the landfill in Bijeljina. All measurements performed, were divided into 3 groups. The aims of two groups of measurement were to determine landfill gas and methane yield from concentrate and leachate in laboratory conditions (1st group and to find out concentrations of oxidizing matters (COD and BOD5 present in leachate and concentrate at different points of treatment as well as its variability over the time (2nd group which could be used to calculate the potential of landfill gas and methane generation from concentrate by recirculation, theoretically. 3rd group of measurements, carried out in parallel, have goal to determine the quality and quantity of the collected landfill gas at wells throughout the landfill. The results of analysis carried out in this experimental research show the clear evidence of concentrate recirculation impact on methane production by increasing the landfill gas flow, as well as its concentration within the landfill gas composition, at the nearby well. Although results indicated relatively high impact of concentrate recirculation on landfill gas production, comparing to its theoretical potential, the influence on the landfill at whole, is negligible, due to relatively low volumes in recirculation with respect to its size and objectively low potential given by organic matter present in concentrate.

  19. Active-alkali metal promoted reductive desulfurization of dibenzothiophene and its hindered analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Pittalis, Mario; Azzena, Ugo Gavino; Carraro, Massimo; Pisano, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Reductive desulfurisation of organic compounds is of importance both in organic synthesis and in industry. Benzo- and dibenzothiophenes are between the most abundant sulphur containing impurities in crude oils, and their desulfurization is a mandatory issue in the production of non polluting fuels. Following our interest in the development of efficient alkali metal-mediated synthetic procedures and alternative protocols for the chemical transformation of widespread environmental contaminants ...

  20. Displacement of oil by gas in power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, S.; Seng, L.K.; Kow, P.T.A.

    1992-01-01

    After the oil crises, Malaysia unveiled its four fuel diversification policy in the late 1970s towards utilization of gas, oil, coal and hydro. This was to ensure adequate and continuous energy supply for driving economic development and to cushion itself against impact of possible future fluctuations in oil prices. The primary energy supply in 1978 was predominantly oil based, consisting of 75.5% oil. As a result of this diversification policy, the oil component was reduced to about 51.8% in 1988. Due to its inherent ability to adapt and adjust to different fuels, the power sector played a crucial role in this massive shift away from oil. For the corresponding period, the oil component in the electricity generation input mix has decreased from 86.7% oil to 47.4%. Malaysia is endowed with substantial natural gas reserves amounting to 52.5 trillion cubic feet. Gas, therefore constitutes a natural and attractive option for the power sector in diversifying into non-oil indigenous energy resources, as the country's hydro potential has its limitations and the available proven coal reserves are relatively small. The paper addresses the past and current status and issues involved in displacing oil by gas for the power sector. These include the economic, technological and pricing aspects of natural gas development and issues pertaining to power system development. Future gas utilization strategies include the conversion of existing oil-fired plants to gas-fired, and the plant-up of gas turbines and the efficient combined cycle plants to meet the load requirements. These strategies are assessed from the viability and security perspective of increased gas utilization. Oil will continue to be displaced, but the extent to which gas will increase its share in power production is dependent on numerous factors ranging from its economics to supply security

  1. Effects of nano-TiO2 on combustion and desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yi; Wang, Shuqin; Shen, Yanmei; Lu, Xiaojuan

    2013-01-01

    Nanosized titanium oxide powder was prepared via the sol–gel process and characterized by transmission electron microscope. The effects of nano-TiO 2 on combustion characteristics of lignite, desulfurization in combustion and the properties of ashes were investigated. The calorific value of coals and the fusion point of the coal ashes were measured by calorimeter and ash fusion point determination meter; the components of coal ashes and the contents of combustible matters in ash were determined by chemical methods; the pore-size distribution and specific surface area of the coal ash were analyzed by surface area analyzer. A thermogravimetric analyzer was used to investigate the effect of nano-TiO 2 on combustion. The results showed that the calorific value of the coal and the fusion temperature of the coal ash were lowered by adding CaO, while on the other hand adding nano-TiO 2 to coal increased the calorific value and the melting temperature effectively. Meanwhile, the coal combustion efficiency and desulfurization in combustion could be effectively improved by the co-action of TiO 2 . - Highlights: • The burn-off rate of coals was raised and the combustible contents were reduced by adding nano-TiO 2 . • The desulfurization in combustion can be achieved by adding CaO, but the combustion efficiency was inhibited. • Nano-TiO 2 can promote the transfer rate of oxygen from gas phase to the surface of char

  2. In-Vitro gas production technique as for feed evaluation: volume of gas production and feed degradability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asih Kurniawati

    2007-01-01

    In-vitro gas production technique can be used to predict feed quality. The effect of molasses supplementation as a source of degradable carbohydrate to protein source red clover silage has been done using this technique. Data showed there were positive correlation between total volume gas produced and feed degradability (r = 0.96), between total volume gas produced and microbial biomass (r = 0,96). Dry matter degradability, dry matter degraded, microbial biomass production and efficiency of nitrogen utilization, highly significant (P<0,01) increased due to increasing of degradable carbohydrate. The addition of 0.3 g molasses gave the best result whereas the addition of 0.15 g and 0.225 g have better effect than 0.0625 g molasses addition and red clover only. This result suggested that In-vitro production technique can be used as tool for feed evaluation. (author)

  3. Production of bio-synthetic natural gas in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacatoglu, Kevork; McLellan, P James; Layzell, David B

    2010-03-15

    Large-scale production of renewable synthetic natural gas from biomass (bioSNG) in Canada was assessed for its ability to mitigate energy security and climate change risks. The land area within 100 km of Canada's network of natural gas pipelines was estimated to be capable of producing 67-210 Mt of dry lignocellulosic biomass per year with minimal adverse impacts on food and fiber production. Biomass gasification and subsequent methanation and upgrading were estimated to yield 16,000-61,000 Mm(3) of pipeline-quality gas (equivalent to 16-63% of Canada's current gas use). Life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of bioSNG-based electricity were calculated to be only 8.2-10% of the emissions from coal-fired power. Although predicted production costs ($17-21 GJ(-1)) were much higher than current energy prices, a value for low-carbon energy would narrow the price differential. A bioSNG sector could infuse Canada's rural economy with $41-130 billion of investments and create 410,000-1,300,000 jobs while developing a nation-wide low-carbon energy system.

  4. Specific radiological monitoring (SRM) in oil and gas production platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hairul Nizam Idris, Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S.M Ghazi and Fadzley Izwan Abd Manaf

    2007-01-01

    Technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) are present in components of both oil and natural gas production facilities. TENORM can be associated with the presence of crude oil, produced water and natural gas. The radiation exposure pathways to the workers in oil and gas production are similar to those in the uranium and heavy mineral sand mining and processing industry. This paper work provides a short review on the Specific Radiological Monitoring (SRM) program were carried out at oil and gas platforms in the east cost of Peninsular Malaysia. The objective of this paper work is to observe the monitoring parameters levels and to evaluate whether these levels are exceeding the limits set by Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB). The monitoring results showed that the surface contamination, airborne contamination and concentration of radon and thoron are well below the set limit stipulated in LEM/TEK/30 SEM.2, except for external radiation and radioactivity concentration of sludge and scales. About 2 (2.35%) from the 85 external radiation measurements performed were found above the permissible limit. While about 11 (36.6%) and 7 (23.3%) of the 30 collected sludge and scales samples were found containing higher Ra-226 and Ra-228, respectively, than the mean concentrations in normal soils of Peninsular Malaysia. In general, it can be concluded that a few of oil and gas production platform are producing TENORM. (Author)

  5. Environmental Compliance for Oil and Gas Exploration and Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Christine

    1999-10-26

    The Appalachian/Illinois Basin Directors is a group devoted to increasing communication among the state oil and gas regulatory agencies within the Appalachian and Illinois Basin producing region. The group is comprised of representatives from the oil and gas regulatory agencies from states in the basin (Attachment A). The directors met to discuss regulatory issues common to the area, organize workshops and seminars to meet the training needs of agencies dealing with the uniqueness of their producing region and perform other business pertinent to this area of oil and gas producing states. The emphasis of the coordinated work was a wide range of topics related to environmental compliance for natural gas and oil exploration and production.

  6. Utilization of desulfurization gypsum to producing SO{sub 2} and CaO in multi-stage fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Zhu; Wang, Tao; Yang, Hairui; Zhang, Hai; Zhang, Zuyi [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering; Ministry of Education, Beijing (China). Key Lab. for Thermal Science and Power Engineering

    2013-07-01

    With emission control becomes more and more stringent, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) is commonly employed for desulfurization. However, the product of FGD, gypsum, causes the unexpected environmental problems. How to utilize the byproduct of FGD effectively and economically is a challenging task. This paper proposed the new technical process to produce SO{sub 2} and CaO by reducing the gypsum in multi-stage fluidized bed reactor with different atmosphere. In addition, some preliminary experiments were carried out in PTGA. The results show that CO concentration has little effect on the initial decomposing temperature, but affect the decomposing rate of phosphogypsum obviously. The decomposing product composed of CaS and CaO simultaneously. The ratio of the two products was determined by CO concentration. Lower CO content benefits to produce more CO product and more SO{sub 2}. The decomposition reaction of phosphogypsum in reducing atmosphere is parallel competition reaction. Therefore, it is necessary to eliminate the effect of CaS and other byproduct efficiently by the new technology, which utilize multi-atmosphere in multistage fluidized bed reactors.

  7. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, Binoy K.; Khound, Kakoli; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H 2 O 2 and V 2 O 5 . Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO 2 ) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  8. Virginia oil and gas production, exploration and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that although production and drilling declined in Virginia in 1989, there were interesting projects that should impact Virginal's future oil and gas potential. In Dickenson County, Equitable Resources (EREX) began development on two areas of coalbed methane and extended the limits of the Nora Coalbed Methane Field with an exploratory well. In Westmoreland County, Texaco drilled a deep test well in the Taylorsville Basin. While a depressed market caused a decline in natural gas production of four percent, there was significant new production from ten coalbed methane wells in Dickenson County. The coalbed methane wells produced 181,526 Mcf or over one percent of the total production in the state. The 1989 total of 17,935,376 Mcf produced from 752 wells was a four percent decline from the 1988 figure of 18,682,350 Mcf from 728 wells

  9. PVD and gas production: consider local resource access requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delafosse, E.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the natural gas industry worldwide teaches us that its development has sprung mainly from two sources: favorable contingent conditions, such as in the United States, where the discovery of large gas fields coincided favorably with technological progress and the already existing city gas distribution networks, as also happened in Italy and France; and political prodding, as in the Eastern European countries, in Japan, and certain countries of Western Europe too. Today, while natural gas is winning over more and more consumers and the infrastructures now exist, the rise in consumption is being held back by supply-related constraints, and namely the problem of adjusting to the rise in gas prices in the United States, and the distancing of the resources from Europe. In this context, the development of new gas markets in the developing countries could contribute to the continuous growth of the world natural gas industry. The resources do exist, and the possibility of generating electricity with them opens the way to creating or developing this industry in some twenty developing countries, to begin with, and a greater number later. For these countries, this perspective is highly enticing, economically; but development is slow, partly due to the fact that the specific requirements of gas production projects are not satisfied. The contractual and tax structure governing their implementation does not reflect the fact that, in contrast to the petroleum industry, the producer does not have access to a true market, and he is in fact only one of the wheels in an integrated production mechanism bent specifically on putting electrical power on the market. It is easy to see the difficulties that arise from such a situation, since the indispensable steps in the process, performed successively by producer, transporter, and electric company, use two interfaces with fields of business that are in close bilateral dependency. This leads to upstream inefficiency in

  10. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from LPG (Propane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernichowski, A.; Czernichowski, P.; Czernichowski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Small and medium size reformers that run on widely available Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG, containing mostly the propane) can provide Synthesis Gas (or Hydrogen extracted from it) to some Fuel Cell powered cars, boats, homes, farms etc. reducing therefore costs of the pure Hydrogen distribution. We contribute to such idea realization through our simply, plasma-assisted reformer avoiding a need of poison resistant catalysts or prior LPG desulfurizer. In fact, any level of sulphur in LPG is accepted for our non-catalytic reformer based on high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc). The discharges catalytically assist the exothermic partial oxidation process. Electric power assistance is less than 2% of the Lower Heating Value (LHV) of produced SynGas. Recycling such a small portion of the energy is therefore an acceptable compromise. The unique oxidant source is air. This contribution presents our expanded tests with commercial LPG in a 1-L reactor working at atmospheric pressure. At a 0.1 kW electric power assistance we produce a Nitrogen-diluted SynGas containing up to 45% of H 2 +CO at the output flow rate corresponding up to 2.7 m 3 (n)/h of pure H 2 +CO mixture that is equivalent to LHV output power of 8.6 kW. The LPG is totally reformed at more than 70% energetic efficiency and at the total absence of soot. (author)

  11. Elusive prize: enormous coal gas potential awaits production technology breakthrough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2002-01-07

    The expanded gas pipeline grid has excess capacity, and gas resources are declining. There is increasing interest in development of Canada's resources of coalbed methane (CBM). The chairman of the Canadian Coalbed Methane Forum estimates that Canada has more than 3,000 trillion ft{sup 3} of gas awaiting suitable technology. PanCanadian and MGV Energy conducted a CBM exploration and pilot study on the Palliser spread in southern Alberta. Results from 23 of 75 wells are encouraging. The study is being accelerated and expanded to include an additional 50 wells elsewhere in Alberta. Some scientists anticipate commercial CBM production within two years. Problems facing developers include the large land holdings necessary for economic CBM production and the disposal of coal formation water. It is anticipated that U.S. technology will be modified and used. The potential for CBM development at Pictou in Nova Scotia and in British Columbia in the foothills is considered. 3 figs.

  12. Reactions of newly formed fission products in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickert, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    A dynamic gas-flow system was constructed which stopped fission products in the gas phase and rapidly separated (in less than 2 sec) volatile compounds from non-volatile ones. The filter assembly designed and used was shown to stop essentially all non-volatile fission products. Between 5 percent and 20 percent of tellurium fission-product isotopes reacted with several hydrocarbon gases to form volatile compounds, which passed through the filter. With carbon monoxide gas, volatile tellurium compound(s) (probably TeCO) were also formed with similar efficiencies. The upper limits for the yields of volatile compounds formed between CO and tin and antimony fission products were shown to be less than 0.3 percent, so tellurium nuclides, not their precursors, reacted with CO. It was found that CO reacted preferentially with independently produced tellurium atoms; the reaction efficiency of beta-produced atoms was only 27 +- 3 percent of that of the independently formed atoms. The selectivity, which was independent of the over-all reaction efficiency, was shown to be due to reaction of independently formed atoms in the gas phase. The gas phase reactions are believed to occur mainly at thermal energies because of the independence of the yield upon argon moderator mole-fraction (up to 80 percent). It was shown in some experiments that about one-half of the TeCO decomposed in passing through a filter and that an appreciable fraction (approximately 20 percent) of the tellurium atoms deposited on the filter reacted agin with CO. Other tellurium atoms on the filter surface (those formed by beta decay and those formed independently but not reacting in the gas phase) also reacted with CO, but probably somewhat less efficiently than atoms formed by TeCO decomposition. No evidence was found for formation of TeCO as a direct result of beta-decay

  13. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  14. Low Carbon Technology Options for the Natural Gas Electricity Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this task is to perform environmental and economic analysis of natural gas based power production technologies (different routes) to investigate and evaluate strategies for reducing emissions from the power sector. It is a broad research area. Initially, the...

  15. Measurement of plasma production and neutralization in gas neutralizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, D.; Meron, M.; Johnson, B.; Jones, K.; Agagu, A.; Hu, B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need of experimental data for the designing of gas neutralizers we have started a project aimed at measuring all relevant cross sections for the charge exchange of H - , H 0 and H + projectiles, as well as the cross sections for the production of ions in the target. The expected results of these latter measurements are shown schematically

  16. Modelling the association between in vitro gas production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro gas production of four different browse plants (Azadirachta indica, Terminalia catappa, Mangifera indica and Vernonia amygdalina) was investigated under different extractions. The relationship between the forage composition parameters (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, acid detergent fibre, neutral ...

  17. Greenhouse gas footprints of different biofuel production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, E.T.A.; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show the impact of different assumptions and methodological choices on the life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) performance of biofuels by providing the results for different key parameters on a consistent basis. These include co-products allocation or system expansion, N2O

  18. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukui, R.; Greenfield, C.; Pogue, K.; van der Zwaan, B.

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or ``fracking'', as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in

  19. Repeatability and reproducibility of an automated gas production technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, van H.; Straalen, van W.M.; Gelder, van A.H.; Boever, de J.L.; heer, D' B.; Vedder, H.; Kroes, R.; Bot, de P.; Hees, van J.; Cone, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    Two ring tests with five and three laboratories, respectively, were conducted to quantify variation within and among laboratories in an automated gas production technique. Single batches of the feeds soya bean meal (SBM), wheat grain (WG), grass silage (GS) and maize gluten meal (MG) were divided

  20. Investigation on gasoline deep desulfurization for fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.C.; Song, L.F.; Hu, J.Y.; Ong, S.L.; Ng, W.J.; Lee, L.Y.; Wang, Y.H.; Zhao, J.G.; Ma, R.Y.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of adding some amounts of cerium into Zn-Fe-O/Al 2 O 3 sorbent on its performance of removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline by adsorption was studied in this paper. It showed that the ideal compositions for the preparation of Zn-Fe-Ce-O/Al 2 O 3 consisted of 4.54 wt.% ZnO, 2.25 wt.% Fe 2 O 3 and 2.5 wt.% CeO 2 , respectively, shortened as AZFC 0.52 . Further study indicated that this sorbent could be well regenerated at 250 deg. C with gas mixtures containing 6.0 vol.% steam + air and 2400 ml h -1 ml -1 gas space velocity. At those regenerated conditions and 60 deg. C adsorption temperature, the AZFC 0.52 sorbent had better desulfurization stability, which was confirmed by typical characterization results using BET, XRD and SEM apparatus. This implied that the AZFC 0.52 sorbent could be an ideal sorbent for removal of organic sulfur compounds from gasoline

  1. Interpreting Gas Production Decline Curves By Combining Geometry and Topology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, R. P.; Hu, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas production forms an increasing fraction of domestic US energy supplies, but individual gas production wells show steep production declines. Better understanding of this production decline would allow better economic forecasting; better understanding of the reasons behind the decline would allow better production management. Yet despite these incentives, production declines curves remain poorly understood, and current analyses range from Arps' purely empirical equation to new sophisticated approaches requiring multiple unavailable parameters. Models often fail to capture salient features: for example, in log-log space many wells decline with an exponent markedly different from the -0.5 expected from diffusion, and often show a transition from one decline mode to another. We propose a new approach based on the assumption that the rate-limiting step is gas movement from the matrix to the induced fracture network. The matrix is represented as an assemblage of equivalent spheres (geometry), with low matrix pore connectivity (topology) that results in a distance-dependent accessible porosity profile given by percolation theory. The basic theory has just 2 parameters: the sphere size distribution (geometry), and the crossover distance (topology) that characterizes the porosity distribution. The theory is readily extended to include e.g. alternative geometries and bi-modal size distributions. Comparisons with historical data are promising.

  2. Radiation-induced desulfurization of Arabian crude oil and straight-run diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basfar, A. A.; Mohamed, K. A.

    2011-11-01

    Radiation-induced desulfurization of four types of Arabian crude oils (heavy, medium, light and extra light) and straight-run diesel (SRD) was investigated over the range of 10-200 kGy. Results show that gamma radiation processing at absorbed doses up to 200 kGy without further treatment is not sufficient for desulfurization. However, the combination of gamma-irradiation with other physical/chemical processes (i.e. L/L extraction, adsorption and oxidation) may be capable of removing considerable levels of sulfur compounds in the investigated products. Currently, this approach of combined radiation/physical/chemical processes is under investigation. The findings of these attempts will be reported in the future.

  3. The British flue gas desulphurisation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.

    1989-09-01

    Retrofitting UK power plants with flue gas desulfurization equipment should reduce SO{sub 2} emission by around 15%. Three systems appear suitable for UK installations: limestone/gypsum, regenerative Wellman Lord, and spray dry. The CEGB has used limestone/gypsum at Drax A B, West Burton, Fawley and Kingsnorth, and Wellman Lord at Fiddlers Ferry. Despite the environmental benefits, however, there is concern that the negative aspects of the programme (choice of technology, waste disposal, by-product disposal) may delay implementation and thus threaten Britain's aim of 30% reduction by 1999. 3 tabs.

  4. High-volume, high-value usage of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) by-products in underground mines Phase 1: Laboratory investigations. Quarterly report, July 1994--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    During the quarter a second series of samples were collected and partially characterized chemically and mineralogically. The samples were collected at the disposal site operated by Freeman United Coal Co. The second collection was necessary because of deterioration due to hydration of the original samples. A study of the hydration characteristics was completed during the quarter. Important reactions included the immediate formation of ettringite and portlandite. The hydration and transformation was found to be a slow process. A second phase of gypsum formation from ettringite deterioration was identified. The slow hydration of anhydrite with its resultant swell is a potential problem which will be addressed further. Geotechnical characterization, during the quarter included completion of the preliminary characterization, analysis of the findings, experimentation with sample preparation for the final characterization/mix design, and design of the final experimental program. The analysis of the coals collected during the core drilling and hydrologic planning were completed. Also during the quarter a meeting was held with representatives of the shotcrete industry to discuss transport systems for emplacement. The pros and cons of pneumatic and hydraulic systems were discussed and plans formulated for further investigations.

  5. Gas production and decline rates in the province of Alberta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A detailed study was conducted to evaluate the gas production decline rates in Alberta. The study examined the producing gas wells that were place in production between 1990 and 1997. Three major assumptions were used to determine the number of wells necessary to meet future market demand. These were: (1) reserves have been declining at greater rates in the past several years. The current rate of decline is 12 per cent, (2) new reserves added in future will produce at 5.1 E6M3 per year, and (3) the decline rates for new gas wells will be 27 per cent in the first year, 16 per cent in the second year, 12 per cent in the third year and thereafter. With this information, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board estimates that the annual total deliveries of gas from Alberta in the year 2002 will be 177.4 E9M3 compared to 127 E9M3 in 1997. In order to meet this supply, drilling activity for successful gas wells will have to double the 1997 rate because it is predicted that more than 6400 new wells will be needed per year to meet future demand. 2 refs., 2 tabs., 20 figs

  6. Synthesis gas production via hybrid steam reforming of natural gas and bio-liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balegedde Ramachandran, P.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis deals with (catalytic) steam reforming of bio-liquids for the production of synthesis gas. Glycerol, both crude from the biodiesel manufacturing and refined, and pyrolysis oil are tested as bio-based feedstocks. Liquid bio-based feeds could be preferred over inhomogeneous fibrous solid

  7. Microbiological desulfurization and conversion of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, D.R.; Stoner, D.L.; Dugan, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    Bio processing of coal is a young and emerging technology. Until the early 1980's it consisted primarily of coal depyritization using Thiobacillus ferro oxidans to either oxidize pyritic sulfur or to alter particle wettability or floatation properties by binding to exposed pyrite inclusions. Since then, other major avenues of research have been pursued. One of these is the microbiologically mediated liquefaction of coal. Initial work indicated that microorganisms were able to transform low rank coal into a black liquid that was later identified as water solubilized by alkaline substances produced by the microbes and could be enhanced by the removal of multi valent cations from coal. Current work at the INEL involves of the identification and characterization of microorganisms that are able to alter the structure of polymeric desulfurization of coal. This work initially focused on the ability of microorganisms to oxidatively remove organic sulfur from model compounds that were representative of those sulfur containing moieties identified as being in coals (e.g., dibenzo thiophene). The work also focused on those organisms that were could remove the organic sulfur without degrading the carbon structure. While some organisms that are able to perform such these reactions will effectively remove organo sulfur from coal. These concerns stem from steric hindrance considerations and the thermodynamically unfavourable nature of reaction. Current work at the INEL involves the isolation and biochemical characterization of microorganisms that are able to desulfurize and solubilized coals that have high organic sulfur contents. (author)

  8. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport. Refs, figs, tabs.

  9. Fuel performance and fission product behaviour in gas cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    The Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on Validation of Predictive Methods for Fuel and Fission Product Behaviour was organized within the frame of the International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors. This International Working Group serves as a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, provides advice to the IAEA on international co-operative activities in advanced technologies of gas cooled reactors (GCRs), and supports the conduct of these activities. The objectives of this CRP were to review and document the status of the experimental data base and of the predictive methods for GCR fuel performance and fission product behaviour; and to verify and validate methodologies for the prediction of fuel performance and fission product transport

  10. CMS endcap RPC gas gap production for upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S K; Choi, S; Hong, B; Jeng, Y Gun; Kang, M; Lee, K S; Sim, K-S; Colaleo, A; Pugliese, G; Loddo, F; Calabria, C; Maggi, M; Verwillingen, P; Berzano, U; Carrillo, C; Aleksandrov, A; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M

    2012-01-01

    The CMS experiment will install a RE4 layer of 144 new Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) on the existing york YE3 at both endcap regions to trigger high momentum muons from the proton-proton interaction. In this paper, we present the detailed procedures used in the production of new RPC gas gaps adopted in the CMS upgrade. Quality assurance is enforced as ways to maintain the same quality of RPC gas gaps as the existing 432 endcap RPC chambers that have been operational since the beginning of the LHC operation. (technical report)

  11. Review on biofuel oil and gas production processes from microalgae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Sarmidi

    2009-01-01

    Microalgae, as biomass, are a potential source of renewable energy, and they can be converted into energy such as biofuel oil and gas. This paper presents a brief review on the main conversion processes of microalgae becoming energy. Since microalgae have high water content, not all biomass energy conversion processes can be applied. By using thermochemical processes, oil and gas can be produced, and by using biochemical processes, ethanol and biodiesel can be produced. The properties of the microalgae product are almost similar to those of offish and vegetable oils, and therefore, it can be considered as a substitute of fossil oil.

  12. Innovative technologies for greenhouse gas emission reduction in steel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was to present the most significant technological innovations aiming at reduction of greenhouse gas emission in steel production. Reduction of greenhouse gas and dust pollution is a very important aspect in the iron and steel industry. New solutions are constantly being searched for to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG. The article presents the most recent innovative technologies which may be applied in the steel industry in order to limit the emission of GHG. The significance of CCS (CO2 Capture and Storage and CCU (CO2 Capture and Utilization in the steel industry are also discussed.

  13. Development of hydrate risk quantification in oil and gas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Piyush N.

    Subsea flowlines that transport hydrocarbons from wellhead to the processing facility face issues from solid deposits such as hydrates, waxes, asphaltenes, etc. The solid deposits not only affect the production but also pose a safety concern; thus, flow assurance is significantly important in designing and operating subsea oil and gas production. In most subsea oil and gas operations, gas hydrates form at high pressure and low temperature conditions, causing the risk of plugging flowlines, with a undesirable impact on production. Over the years, the oil and gas industry has shifted their perspective from hydrate avoidance to hydrate management given several parameters such as production facility, production chemistry, economic and environmental concerns. Thus, understanding the level of hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines is an important in developing efficient hydrate management techniques. In the past, hydrate formation models were developed for various flow-systems (e.g., oil dominated, water dominated, and gas dominated) present in the oil and gas production. The objective of this research is to extend the application of the present hydrate prediction models for assessing the hydrate risk associated with subsea flowlines that are prone to hydrate formation. It involves a novel approach for developing quantitative hydrate risk models based on the conceptual models built from the qualitative knowledge obtained from experimental studies. A comprehensive hydrate risk model, that ranks the hydrate risk associated with the subsea production system as a function of time, hydrates, and several other parameters, which account for inertial, viscous, interfacial forces acting on the flow-system, is developed for oil dominated and condensate systems. The hydrate plugging risk for water dominated systems is successfully modeled using The Colorado School of Mines Hydrate Flow Assurance Tool (CSMHyFAST). It is found that CSMHyFAST can be used as a screening tool in

  14. In vitro cumulative gas production techniques: history, methodological considerations and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymer, C.; Huntington, J.A.; Williams, B.A.; Givens, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    Methodology used to measure in vitro gas production is reviewed to determine impacts of sources of variation on resultant gas production profiles (GPP). Current methods include measurement of gas production at constant pressure (e.g., use of gas tight syringes), a system that is inexpensive, but may

  15. A novel method to determine simultaneously methane production during in vitro gas production using fully automated equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellikaan, W.F.; Hendriks, W.H.; Uwimanaa, G.; Bongers, L.J.G.M.; Becker, P.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    An adaptation of fully automated gas production equipment was tested for its ability to simultaneously measure methane and total gas. The simultaneous measurement of gas production and gas composition was not possible using fully automated equipment, as the bottles should be kept closed during the

  16. Effects of gas chamber geometry and gas flow on the neutron production in a fast plasma focus neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, Ariel; Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    This work reports that gas chamber geometry and gas flow management substantially affect the neutron production of a repetitive fast plasma focus. The gas flow rate is the most sensitive parameter. An appropriate design of the gas chamber combined with a suitable flow-rate management can lead to improvements in the neutron production of one order of magnitude working in a fast repetitive mode. (paper)

  17. X(3872 production and absorption in a hot hadron gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Abreu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the time evolution of the X(3872 abundance in the hot hadron gas produced in the late stage of heavy ion collisions. We use effective field Lagrangians to obtain the production and dissociation cross sections of X(3872. In this evaluation we include diagrams involving the anomalous couplings πD⁎D¯⁎ and XD¯⁎D⁎ and also the couplings of the X(3872 with charged D and D⁎ mesons. With these new terms the X(3872 interaction cross sections are much larger than those found in previous works. Using these cross sections as input in rate equations, we conclude that during the expansion and cooling of the hadronic gas, the number of X(3872, originally produced at the end of the mixed QGP/hadron gas phase, is reduced by a factor of 4.

  18. Indian gas field development plan aims for quick production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, N.

    1992-01-01

    The development of a new oil or gas field involves construction of various downstream facilities such as field flow lines, trunk lines, oil and gas collecting and processing stations, and transportation to refineries and consuming centers. This paper reports that it is essential that these facilities be built on a schedule that allows the products to be transported and processed as early as possible. Unless such an approach is initiated, the wells producing crude oil or natural gas will need to be shut-in in the absence of the other relative facilities. For quick returns on the investments, a realistic program and careful evaluation of the schedule is needed to ensure that early commissioning of the fields is possible

  19. Challenges, uncertainties, and issues facing gas production from gas-hydrate deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moridis, G.J.; Collett, T.S.; Pooladi-Darvish, M.; Hancock, S.; Santamarina, C.; Boswel, R.; Kneafsey, T.; Rutqvist, J.; Kowalsky, M.B.; Reagan, M.T.; Sloan, E.D.; Sum, A.K.; Koh, C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper complements the Moridis et al. (2009) review of the status of the effort toward commercial gas production from hydrates. We aim to describe the concept of the gas-hydrate (GH) petroleum system; to discuss advances, requirements, and suggested practices in GH prospecting and GH deposit characterization; and to review the associated technical, economic, and environmental challenges and uncertainties, which include the following: accurate assessment of producible fractions of the GH resource; development of methods for identifying suitable production targets; sampling of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS) and sample analysis; analysis and interpretation of geophysical surveys of GH reservoirs; well-testing methods; interpretation of well-testing results; geomechanical and reservoir/well stability concerns; well design, operation, and installation; field operations and extending production beyond sand-dominated GH reservoirs; monitoring production and geomechanical stability; laboratory investigations; fundamental knowledge of hydrate behavior; the economics of commercial gas production from hydrates; and associated environmental concerns. ?? 2011 Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  20. How to discover drivers of gas construction productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, D.; O'Neill, D.

    1991-01-01

    In their continuous pursuit of productivity improvements, gas utilities and pipe line companies have tried to use some of the best data available: comparisons of productivity for different districts or territories. The data are readily available, familiar to operating personnel, and potentially a great source of insight into what drives productivity. This paper reports that the fact is that all these variables do make a difference, but it is hard to know how much of a difference, each one makes and which is most important. Therein lies the problem--and the opportunity. Public Service Electric and Gas Co. (PSE ampersand G) used some simple statistical tools to find out the main determinants of district productivity. The gas business unit of PSE ampersand G serves over 11/2 million customers from northeastern New Jersey to the eastern suburbs of Philadelphia. Its 13 districts include a mix of stable towns and new growth areas. The southern edge of the Wisconsal moraine covers the northern districts, leaving them with stony soil and occasional outcroppings of rock. Paving, spoil removal and other job conditions vary widely by district

  1. Hydrogen rich gas production by thermocatalytic decomposition of kenaf biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmak, Sibel; Oeztuerk, ilker [Department of Chemistry, Cukurova University, Arts and Sciences Faculty, Adana 01330 (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), a well known energy crop and an annual herbaceous plant grows very fast with low lodging susceptibility was used as representative lignocellulosic biomass in the present work. Thermocatalytic conversions were performed by aqueous phase reforming (APR) of kenaf hydrolysates and direct gasification of solid biomass of kenaf using 5% Pt on activated carbon as catalyst. Hydrolysates used in APR experiments were prepared by solubilization of kenaf biomass in subcritical water under CO{sub 2} gas pressure. APR of kenaf hydrolysate with low molecular weight polysaccharides in the presence of the reforming catalyst produced more gas compared to the hydrolysate that had high molecular weight polysaccharides. APR experiments of kenaf biomass hydrolysates and glucose, which was used as a simplest biomass model compound, in the presence of catalyst produced various amounts of gas mixtures that consisted of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The ratios of H{sub 2} to other gases produced were 0.98, 1.50 and 1.35 for 150 C and 250 C subcritical water-treated kenaf hydrolysates and glucose, respectively. These ratios indicated that more the degraded organic content of kenaf hydrolysate the better selectivity for hydrogen production. Although APR of 250 C-kenaf hydrolysate resulted in similar gas content and composition as glucose, the gas volume produced was three times higher in glucose feed. The use of solid kenaf biomass as starting feedstock in APR experiments resulted in less gas production since the activity of catalyst was lowered by solid biomass particles. (author)

  2. Environmental review of natural gas production in Lake Erie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shea, K.

    2002-01-01

    The water of Lake Erie is used as a source of drinking water for Ontario, New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio and Michigan. An environmental review has been conducted to determine the impact of drilling operations on the overall ecology of the lake. Since 1913, 2000 natural gas wells have been drilled in Lake Erie, of which 550 currently produce gas and account for 75 per cent of Ontario's total gas production. 180 wells are shut-in or suspended and the remaining wells have been abandoned. The gas wells are connected to onshore production facilities by approximately 1,600 km of small diameter pipelines that lie buried near shore or on top of the lake bed. Nearly 90 per cent of the in-lake infrastructure is in water depths of more than 20 metres. Talisman Energy is actively involved with the Canadian Coast Guard, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans, and the Ministry of Natural Resources to ensure cooperation between regulators and off-shore personnel. The environmental assessment of natural gas production in Lake Erie included a review of regulatory and best management practices, a biophysical overview of the lake, and a review of drilling practices, well completions, handling of waste streams, materials management, operations inspections, wastewater discharge, air emissions, and oil spills. It was revealed that for most drilling programs, cuttings are washed and discharged to the Lake. Ongoing testing will determine the impact that this practice has on benthic populations. The drill muds used for drilling operations are water based, environmentally friendly, and re-used between well locations. For completion programs, all well activities are closed circuit operations. Wells are abandoned through plugging with cement, removing wellheads and casing below the lake bottom. There has been a reported volume of about 23,000 litres of spilled product from 1990 to 2001, of which 68 per cent has come from 3 industrial companies that operate near Lake Erie. The offshore gas

  3. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) : production, storage and handling. 7. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalra, S; Jaron, K; Adragna, M; Coyle, S; Foley, C; Hawryn, S; Martin, A; McConnell, J [eds.

    2003-07-01

    This Canadian Standard on the production, storage and handling of liquefied natural gas (LNG) was prepared by the Technical Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas under the jurisdiction of the Steering Committee on Oil and Gas Industry Systems and Materials. It establishes the necessary requirements for the design, installation and safe operation of LNG facilities. The Standard applies to the design, location, construction, operation and maintenance of facilities at any location of the liquefaction of natural gas and for the storage, vaporization, transfer, handling and truck transport of LNG. The training of personnel involved is also included as well as containers for LNG storage, including insulated vacuum systems. It includes non-mandatory guidelines for small LNG facilities but does not apply to the transportation of refrigerants, LNG by rail, marine vessel or pipeline. This latest edition contains changes in working of seismic design requirements and minor editorial changes to several clauses to bring the Standard closer to the US National Fire Protection Association's Committee on Liquefied Natural Gas Standard while maintaining Canadian regulatory requirements. The document is divided into 12 sections including: general requirements; plant site provisions; process equipment; stationary LNG storage containers; vaporization facilities; piping system and components; instrumentation and electrical services; transfer of LNG and refrigerants; fire protection, safety and security; and, operating, maintenance and personnel training. This Standard, like all Canadian Standards, was subject to periodic review and was most recently reaffirmed in 2003. 6 tabs., 6 figs., 3 apps.

  4. Biomass pyrolysis/gasification for product gas production: the overall investigation of parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.; Andries, J.; Luo, Z.; Spliethoff, H.

    2003-01-01

    The conventional biomass pyrolysis/gasification process for production of medium heating value gas for industrial or civil applications faces two disadvantages, i.e. low gas productivity and the accompanying corrosion of downstream equipment caused by the high content of tar vapour contained in the gas phase. The objective of this paper is to overcome these disadvantages, and therefore, the effects of the operating parameters on biomass pyrolysis are investigated in a laboratory setup based on the principle of keeping the heating value of the gas almost unchanged. The studied parameters include reaction temperature, residence time of volatile phase in the reactor, physico-chemical pretreatment of biomass particles, heating rate of the external heating furnace and improvement of the heat and mass transfer ability of the pyrolysis reactor. The running temperature of a separate cracking reactor and the geometrical configuration of the pyrolysis reactor are also studied. However, due to time limits, different types of catalysts are not used in this work to determine their positive influences on biomass pyrolysis behaviour. The results indicate that product gas production from biomass pyrolysis is sensitive to the operating parameters mentioned above, and the product gas heating value is high, up to 13-15 MJ/N m 3

  5. The use of vacuum ultraviolet irradiation to oxidize SO2 and NOx for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Junhui; Shang, Jing; Li, Qian; Xu, Weiwei; Liu, Jia; Feng, Xiang; Zhu, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ROS, ·OH, ·HO 2 , ·O, and O 3 were generated by VUV photolysis of water and oxygen. • SO 2 and NO x can react with ROS to offer 90% and 96% removal efficiency, respectively. • The flue gas factors’ influences on SO 2 and NO x removal efficiency were investigated. • Mechanisms were proposed based on the photooxidation reactions and ROS generation. • The final products H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 can be used as industrial raw materials. - Abstract: A simple and efficient method for simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation and with no additional chemicals is presented. The simultaneous removal of 90% SO 2 and 96% NO x (NO + NO 2 ) was achieved from the simulated flue gas under the irradiation from a low-pressure mercury lamp with main wavelengths of 185 and 254 nm, respectively. The composition, flow rate, and temperature of the simulated flue gas, as well as the VUV light intensity, were evaluated as the factors impacting on the efficiency of SO 2 and NO x removal. The ·OH, ·HO 2 , ·O, and O 3 produced from the photolysis of H 2 O and O 2 were concluded as the major reactive oxygen species that oxidized SO 2 and NO x . The additional ·OH and ·HO 2 generated through the reactions of NO + ·HO 2 and SO 2 + ·OH/·HO 2 improved treatment efficiency, while the oxidation products of NO x , e.g., NO 2 , HNO 2 , HNO 3 , and HNO 4 , consumed massive reactive oxygen species (such as ·O, ·OH, and ·HO 2 ) and thereby reducing the removal efficiencies. The main reaction products were characterized as H 2 SO 4 and HNO 3 by ion chromatography, which could be used as chemical or fertilizer raw materials

  6. Trash-to-Gas: Converting Space Trash into Useful Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne J.; Hintze, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    NASA's Logistical Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project is a collaborative effort in which NASA is determined to reduce total logistical mass through reduction, reuse and recycling of various wastes and components of long duration space missions and habitats. LRR is focusing on four distinct advanced areas of study: Advanced Clothing System, Logistics-to-Living, Heat Melt Compactor and Trash to Supply Gas (TtSG). The objective of TtSG is to develop technologies that convert material waste, human waste and food waste into high-value products. High-value products include life support oxygen and water, rocket fuels, raw material production feedstocks, and other energy sources. There are multiple pathways for converting waste to products involving single or multi-step processes. This paper discusses thermal oxidation methods of converting waste to methane. Different wastes, including food, food packaging, Maximum Absorbent Garments (MAGs), human waste simulants, and cotton washcloths have been evaluated in a thermal degradation reactor under conditions promoting pyrolysis, gasification or incineration. The goal was to evaluate the degradation processes at varying temperatures and ramp cycles and to maximize production of desirable products and minimize high molecular weight hydrocarbon (tar) production. Catalytic cracking was also evaluated to minimize tar production. The quantities of CO2, CO, CH4, and H2O were measured under the different thermal degradation conditions. The conversion efficiencies of these products were used to determine the best methods for producing desired products.

  7. Advances on simultaneous desulfurization and denitrification using activated carbon irradiated by microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang-Chen; Gao, Li; Ma, Jing-Xiang; Jin, Xin; Yao, Juan-Juan; Zhao, Yi

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes the research background and chemistry of desulfurization and denitrification technology using microwave irradiation. Microwave-induced catalysis combined with activated carbon adsorption and reduction can reduce nitric oxide to nitrogen and sulfur dioxide to sulfur from flue gas effectively. This paper also highlights the main drawbacks of this technology and discusses future development trends. It is reported that the removal of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide using microwave irradiation has broad prospects for development in the field of air pollution control.

  8. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muradov, N. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas (for example, steam reforming and partial oxidation) are complex, multi-step processes that produce large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The main goal of this project is to develop a technologically simple process for hydrogen production from natural gas (NG) and other hydrocarbon fuels via single-step decomposition of hydrocarbons. This approach eliminates or significantly reduces CO{sub 2} emission. Carbon is a valuable by-product of this process, whereas conventional methods of hydrogen production from NG produce no useful by-products. This approach is based on the use of special catalysts that reduce the maximum temperature of the process from 1400-1500{degrees}C (thermal non-catalytic decomposition of methane) to 500-900{degrees}C. Transition metal based catalysts and various forms of carbon are among the candidate catalysts for the process. This approach can advantageously be used for the development of compact NG reformers for on-site production of hydrogen-methane blends at refueling stations and, also, for the production of hydrogen-rich gas for fuel cell applications. The author extended the search for active methane decomposition catalysts to various modifications of Ni-, Fe-, Mo- and Co-based catalysts. Variation in the operational parameters makes it possible to produce H{sub 2}-CH{sub 4} blends with a wide range of hydrogen concentrations that vary from 15 to 98% by volume. The author found that Ni-based catalysts are more effective at temperatures below 750{degrees}C, whereas Fe-based catalysts are effective at temperatures above 800{degrees}C for the production of hydrogen with purity of 95% v. or higher. The catalytic pyrolysis of liquid hydrocarbons (pentane, gasoline) over Fe-based catalyst was conducted. The author observed the production of a hydrogen-rich gas (hydrogen concentration up to 97% by volume) at a rate of approximately 1L/min.mL of hydrocarbon fuel.

  9. Calculated apparent yields of rare gas fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, A.A.

    1975-01-01

    The apparent fission yield of the rare gas fission products from four mass chains is calculated as a function of separation time for six different fissioning systems. A plot of the calculated fission yield along with a one standard deviation error band is given for each rare gas fission product and for each fissioning system. Those parameters in the calculation that were major contributors to the calculated standard deviation at each separation time were identified and the results presented on a separate plot. To extend the usefulness of these calculations as new and better values for the input parameters become available, a third plot was generated for each system which shows how sensitive the derived fission yield is to a change in any given parameter used in the calculation. (U.S.)

  10. Fuel gas production from animal and agricultural residues and biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wise, D. L; Wentworth, R. L

    1978-05-30

    Progress was reported by all contractors. Topics presented include: solid waste to methane gas; pipeline fuel gas from an environmental cattle feed lot; heat treatment of organics for increasing anaerobic biodegradability; promoting faster anaerobic digestion; permselective membrane control of algae and wood digesters for increased production and chemicals recovery; anaerobic fermentation of agricultural residues; pilot plant demonstration of an anaerobic, fixed-film bioreactor for wastewater treatment; enhancement of methane production in the anaerobic diegestion of sewage; evaluation of agitation concepts for biogasification of sewage sludge; operation of a 50,000 gallon anaerobic digester; biological conversion of biomass to methane; dirt feedlot residue experiments; anaerobic fermentation of livestock and crop residues; current research on methanogenesis in Europe; and summary of EPA programs in digestion technology. (DC)

  11. Unconventional gas experience at El Paso Production Company : tapping into deep, tight gas and coalbed methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, R.L.

    2003-01-01

    The current conditions in the natural gas industry were reviewed, from the excellent current and projected energy prices to low activity and rig count. Various graphs were presented, depicting total proved dry gas reserves and annual production over time for the Gulf of Mexico, including its continental shelf, the Texas coastal plains, and the United States lower 48. Offshore growth of unconventional gas was also displayed. The key elements of the strategy were also discussed. These included: (1) earnings driven, (2) superior science, (3) innovative application of technology, (4) ability to act quickly and decisively, (5) leadership, management, and professional development, and (6) achieve learning curve economics. The core competencies were outlined along with recent discoveries in South Texas and the Upper Gulf Coast. figs

  12. 30 CFR 206.174 - How do I value gas production when an index-based method cannot be used?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to consider include prices received in spot sales of gas, residue gas or gas plant products, other... part, or timely, for a quantity of gas, residue gas, or gas plant product. (j) Non-binding MMS reviews..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT PRODUCT VALUATION Indian Gas § 206.174 How do I value...

  13. Oil and gas production equals jobs and revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimes, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of oil and gas production on jobs and revenue are discussed. Some suggestions are presented that should provide the climate to increase jobs, add revenue and increase efficiency in state agencies within the producing states. Some of the ideas and suggestions are summarized. Some of these ideas include: how to extend the economic limits of marginal properties; how the states can encourage additional drilling without incurring loss of revenue; and the use of investment tax credits

  14. EGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SUDANESE GRASSES AND GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Idris; C. Kijora; A.M. Salih; I. Bushara; H.A.A. Elbukhary

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen plant species, three ingredients, and six diets were studied for their degradation characteristics, using gas production techniques. The palatable grasses were selected during the rainy season from the range land of Kordofan, Sudan. The ingredients were Roselle seeds, Sorghum grain and Groundnut cake. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using rumen inoculum of three of the sheep used for the nylon bag. The results showed a large variation between the differe...

  15. Organic Substances from Unconventional Oil and Gas Production in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, W. H.; Varonka, M.; Crosby, L.; Schell, T.; Bates, A.; Engle, M.

    2014-12-01

    Unconventional oil and gas (UOG) production has emerged as an important element in the US and world energy mix. Technological innovations in the oil and gas industry, especially horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, allow for the enhanced release of oil and natural gas from shale compared to conventional oil and gas production. This has made commercial exploitation possible on a large scale. Although UOG is enormously successful, there is surprisingly little known about the effects of this technology on the targeted shale formation and on environmental impacts of oil and gas production at the surface. We examined water samples from both conventional and UOG shale wells to determine the composition, source and fate of organic substances present. Extraction of hydrocarbon from shale plays involves the creation and expansion of fractures through the hydraulic fracturing process. This process involves the injection of large volumes of a water-sand mix treated with organic and inorganic chemicals to assist the process and prop open the fractures created. Formation water from a well in the New Albany Shale that was not hydraulically fractured (no injected chemicals) had total organic carbon (TOC) levels that averaged 8 mg/L, and organic substances that included: long-chain fatty acids, alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, alkyl benzenes, and alkyl phenols. In contrast, water from UOG production in the Marcellus Shale had TOC levels as high as 5,500 mg/L, and contained a range of organic chemicals including, solvents, biocides, scale inhibitors, and other organic chemicals at thousands of μg/L for individual compounds. These chemicals and TOC decreased rapidly over the first 20 days of water recovery as injected fluids were recovered, but residual organic compounds (some naturally-occurring) remained up to 250 days after the start of water recovery (TOC 10-30 mg/L). Results show how hydraulic fracturing changes the organic

  16. Radiolytic gas production from concrete containing Savannah River Plant waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    To determine the extent of gas production from radiolysis of concrete containing radioactive Savannah River Plant waste, samples of concrete and simulated waste were irradiated by 60 Co gamma rays and 244 Cm alpha particles. Gamma radiolysis simulated radiolysis by beta particles from fission products in the waste. Alpha radiolysis indicated the effect of alpha particles from transuranic isotopes in the waste. With gamma radiolysis, hydrogen was the only significant product; hydrogen reached a steady-state pressure that increased with increasing radiation intensity. Hydrogen was produced faster, and a higher steady-state pressure resulted when an organic set retarder was present. Oxygen that was sealed with the wastes was depleted. Gamma radiolysis also produced nitrous oxide gas when nitrate or nitrite was present in the concrete. With alpha radiolysis, hydrogen and oxygen were produced. Hydrogen did not reach a steady-state pressure at 137 Cs and 90 Sr), hydrogen will reach a steady-state pressure of 8 to 28 psi, and oxygen will be partially consumed. These predictions were confirmed by measurement of gas produced over a short time in a container of concrete and actual SRP waste. The tests with simulated waste also indicated that nitrous oxide may form, but because of the low nitrate or nitrite content of the waste, the maximum pressure of nitrous oxide after 300 years will be 238 Pu and 239 Pu will predominate; the hydrogen and oxygen pressures will increase to >200 psi

  17. Desulfurization of petroleum induced by ionization radiation: benzothiophene behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Luana S.; Calvo, Wilson A.P.; Duarte, Celina L.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is currently the most common method used by refineries; this removes significantly sulfur compounds from petroleum fractions, however, is not highly effective for removing thiophene compounds such as benzothiophene, and generates high costs for the oil industry. Another factor, are the environmental laws, which over the years has become increasingly strict, especially regarding the sulfur content. This compound cause incalculable damage both to the industry and to the environment. Therefore new methods for petroleum desulfurization should be studied in order to minimize the impacts that these compounds cause. In the present study it was used ionizing radiation, a promising method of advanced oxidation in reducing sulfur compounds. The analysis were performed after purge and trap concentration of samples, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Then benzothiophene samples with the same concentration from 27 mg.L -1 to 139 mg.L -1 were irradiated with different absorbed doses of radiation ranging from 1 kGy to 20 kGy in gamma irradiator Cobalt-60, Gammacell. These samples were analyzed by the same procedure used for the calibration curve, and the removals of benzothiophene after ionizing radiation treatment were calculated. It was observed that at higher doses there was a greater degradation of this compound and the formation of fragments, such as 1,2-dimethylbenzene and toluene, which may be removed by simple processes. (author)

  18. Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel by Oxidation and Solvent Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Wadood Taher Mohammed; Raghad Fareed Kassim Almilly; Sheam Bahjat Abdulkareem Al-Ali

    2015-01-01

    This research presents a study in ultra-desulfurization of diesel fuel produced from conventional hydro desulfurization process, using oxidation and solvent extraction techniques. Dibenzothiophene (DBT) was the organosulfur compound that had been detected in sulfur removal. The oxidation process used hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and acetic acid as homogeneous catalyst . The solvent extraction process used acetonitrile (ACN) and N-methyl – 2 - pyrrolidone (NMP) as extractants . Also the ef...

  19. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim; Saja Mohsen Jabbar

    2015-01-01

    Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD) sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content). In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the ...

  20. Radiolytic gas production in the alpha particle degradation of plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Hoh, J.; Emery, J.; Hobbs, D.

    1992-01-01

    Net gas generation due to alpha particle irradiation of polyethylene and polyvinyl chloride was investigated. Experiments were performed in an air environment at 30, 60, and 100 degree C. The predominant radiolytic degradation products of polyethylene were hydrogen and carbon dioxide with a wide variety of trace organic species noted. Irradiation of polyvinyl chloride resulted in the formation of HCl in addition to the products observed for polyethylene. For both plastic materials, a strong enhancement of net yields was noted at 100 degree C

  1. Gas production in the Barnett Shale obeys a simple scaling theory

    OpenAIRE

    Patzek, Tad W.; Male, Frank; Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ten years ago, US natural gas cost 50% more than that from Russia. Now, it is threefold less. US gas prices plummeted because of the shale gas revolution. However, a key question remains: At what rate will the new hydrofractured horizontal wells in shales continue to produce gas? We analyze the simplest model of gas production consistent with basic physics of the extraction process. Its exact solution produces a nearly universal scaling law for gas wells in each shale play, where production f...

  2. Desulfurization of AL-Ahdab Crude Oil using Oxidative Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neran Khalel Ibrahim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Two different oxidative desulfurization strategies based on oxidation/adsorption or oxidation/extraction were evaluated for the desulfurization of AL-Ahdab (AHD sour crude oil (3.9wt% sulfur content. In the oxidation process, a homogenous oxidizing agent comprising of hydrogen peroxide and formic acid was used. Activated carbons were used as sorbent/catalyst in the oxidation/adsorption process while acetonitrile was used as an extraction solvent in the oxidation/extraction process. For the oxidation/adsorption scheme, the experimental results indicated that the oxidation desulfurization efficiency was enhanced on using activated carbon as catalyst/sorbent. The effects of the operating conditions (contact time, temperature, mixing speed and sorbent dose on the desulfurization efficiency were examined. The desulfurization efficiency measured at the best operating conditions(optimum conditions: 60 , 500rpm, 60min contact time and sorbent dose of 0.7g AC/100 ml AHD crude, was 32.8% corresponding to a sulfur content of 2.6 wt%. Applying the same optimum operating conditions and at 3:1 solvent/oil ratio, the oxidation/extraction method gave comparable desulfurization efficiency of 31.5%.

  3. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  4. Optimizing production gas wells by using a dual completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussa, M.; Hebbal, H.

    2006-01-01

    Dual completion has frequently been used in producing oil wells that are perforated on several zones. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the use of dual completion techniques on producing gas wells with 2 and 3 layers in Hassi-R'mel gas field in Algeria. The aim of the study was to improve production in the upper zones of the wells. The advantages and disadvantages of dual completion were discussed. Capital costs and profit ratios after completion were also examined. Hassi R'mel is one of the largest wet gas reservoirs in the world, and has 3 distinct reservoir horizons. Zone A is comprised of fine-grained clay-rich sandstone with anhydritic cementing in places. Zones B and C have permeabilities ranging 300 to 1200 mD. The lower zones contribute to the majority of the gas production. Water influx from Zone C generates an increase in the flow of some wells in Zone A. Three wells were selected that shared the following characteristics: (1) cross-flow; (2) water influx; and (3) low flow from the higher zone. Two computer simulations were prepared to compare the use of well smart completion techniques and dual completion. Hagedorne and Brown correlations were used. Results of the simulation indicated that smart well completion gave the best results when compared with dual completion, and was more cost-effective due to the fact that the completion technique did not need to be altered, and flow at the bottom could be controlled from the surface by valves. The technique prevented cross flow between zones and optimized production from various zones. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 40 figs

  5. Geological evaluation on productibility of coal seam gas; Coal seam gas no chishitsugakuteki shigen hyoka ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K [University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Education

    1996-09-01

    Coal seam gas is also called coal bed methane gas, indicating the gas existing in coal beds. The gas is distinguished from the oil field based gas, and also called non-conventional type gas. Its confirmed reserve is estimated to be 24 trillion m {sup 3}, with the trend of its development seen worldwide as utilization of unused resource. For the necessity of cultivating relevant technologies in Japan, this paper considers processes of production, movement, stockpiling, and accumulation of the gas. Its productibility is controlled by thickness of a coal bed, degree of coalification, gas content, permeability, groundwater flow, and deposition structure. Gas generation potential is evaluated by existing conditions of coal and degree of coalification, and methane production by biological origin and thermal origin. Economically viable methane gas is mainly of the latter origin. Evaluating gas reserve potential requires identification of the whole mechanism of adsorption, accumulation and movement of methane gas. The gas is expected of effect on environmental aspects in addition to availability as utilization of unused energy. 5 figs.

  6. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  7. Variations in composition of farmyard manure in biologic gas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheffer, F; Welte, E; Kemmler, G

    1953-01-01

    The advantages of the ''Bihugas'' method, Schmidt-Eggersgluss system, are discussed. The losses of organic matter and of C are about 33 percent for a gas output of 270 l/kg of organic matter, but 55 percent of the C of the decomposition products is utilized as mixed gas (about 60 percent as methane). The gas output amounts to 3-7 m/sup 3/ per 100 kg fresh manure. The maximum heating value of the mixed gas is 5700 kcal. The loss of N is only 1 percent of the total N; no P, K, and Ca are lost. No formation of humus was observed. The average composition of fermented manure was dry matter 10.56 organic matter 6.9, C 3.47, N 0.36, ammonia N in percentage of total N 38, K/sub 2/O/sub 7/ 0.27, CaO 0.18, and P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ 0.13 percent. The process, compared with the conventional handling of manure, decreases losses in N from 18.5 percent to 1 percent, and those in C from 38 percent to 7.3 percent.

  8. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-06-20

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  9. Process for the production of fuel gas from coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jitendra G.; Sandstrom, William A.; Tarman, Paul B.

    1982-01-01

    An improved apparatus and process for the conversion of hydrocarbonaceous materials, such as coal, to more valuable gaseous products in a fluidized bed gasification reaction and efficient withdrawal of agglomerated ash from the fluidized bed is disclosed. The improvements are obtained by introducing an oxygen containing gas into the bottom of the fluidized bed through a separate conduit positioned within the center of a nozzle adapted to agglomerate and withdraw the ash from the bottom of the fluidized bed. The conduit extends above the constricted center portion of the nozzle and preferably terminates within and does not extend from the nozzle. In addition to improving ash agglomeration and withdrawal, the present invention prevents sintering and clinkering of the ash in the fluidized bed and permits the efficient recycle of fine material recovered from the product gases by contacting the fines in the fluidized bed with the oxygen as it emanates from the conduit positioned within the withdrawal nozzle. Finally, the present method of oxygen introduction permits the efficient recycle of a portion of the product gases to the reaction zone to increase the reducing properties of the hot product gas.

  10. Production of bioplastics and hydrogen gas by photosynthetic microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuo, Asada; Masato, Miyake; Jun, Miyake

    1998-03-01

    Our efforts have been aimed at the technological basis of photosynthetic-microbial production of materials and an energy carrier. We report here accumulation of poly-(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a raw material of biodegradable plastics and for production of hydrogen gas, and a renewable energy carrier by photosynthetic microorganisms (tentatively defined as cyanobacteria plus photosynthetic bateria, in this report). A thermophilic cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. MA19 that accumulates PHB at more than 20% of cell dry wt under nitrogen-starved conditions was isolated and microbiologically identified. The mechanism of PHB accumulation was studied. A mesophilic Synechococcus PCC7942 was transformed with the genes encoding PHB-synthesizing enzymes from Alcaligenes eutrophus. The transformant accumulated PHB under nitrogen-starved conditions. The optimal conditions for PHB accumulation by a photosynthetic bacterium grown on acetate were studied. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms was studied. Cyanobacteria can produce hydrogen gas by nitrogenase or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenase in cyanobacteria was revealed to be in the dark anaerobic degradation of intracellular glycogen. A new system for light-dependent hydrogen production was targeted. In vitro and in vivo coupling of cyanobacterial ferredoxin with a heterologous hydrogenase was shown to produce hydrogen under light conditions. A trial for genetic trasformation of Synechococcus PCC7942 with the hydrogenase gene from Clostridium pasteurianum is going on. The strong hydrogen producers among photosynthetic bacteria were isolated and characterized. Co-culture of Rhodobacter and Clostriumdium was applied to produce hydrogen from glucose. Conversely in the case of cyanobacteria, genetic regulation of photosynthetic proteins was intended to improve conversion efficiency in hydrogen production by the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV. A mutant acquired by

  11. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Mao Zhi-Guo; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed.It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF--4 μF typically charged to 8 kV-30 kV,a triggered gas switch,and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas.With the EEW device,nanosize powders of titanium oxides,titanium nitrides,copper oxides,and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized.The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm-80 nm.The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size.The lower the pressure,the smaller the particle size is.For wire material with relatively high resistivity,such as titanium,whose deposited energy Wd is often less than sublimation energy Ws due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process,the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k =Wd/Ws) increasing.

  12. Nanopowder production by gas-embedded electrical explosion of wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Xiao-Bing; Wang Xin-Xin; Jiang Wei-Hua; Mao Zhi-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A small electrical explosion of wire (EEW) setup for nanopowder production is constructed. It consists of a low inductance capacitor bank of 2 μF–4 μF typically charged to 8 kV−30 kV, a triggered gas switch, and a production chamber housing the exploding wire load and ambient gas. With the EEW device, nanosize powders of titanium oxides, titanium nitrides, copper oxides, and zinc oxides are successfully synthesized. The average particle size of synthesized powders under different experimental conditions is in a range of 20 nm−80 nm. The pressure of ambient gas or wire vapor can strongly affect the average particle size. The lower the pressure, the smaller the particle size is. For wire material with relatively high resistivity, such as titanium, whose deposited energy W d is often less than sublimation energy W s due to the flashover breakdown along the wire prematurely ending the Joule heating process, the synthesized particle size of titanium oxides or titanium nitrides increases with overheat coefficient k (k = W d /W s ) increasing. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  13. Artificial intelligence applications in offshore oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attia, F.G.

    1994-01-01

    The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has gained considerable acceptance in virtually all fields, of engineering applications. Artificial intelligence is now being applied in several areas of offshore oil and gas operations, such as drilling, well testing, well logging and interpretation, reservoir engineering, planning and economic evaluation, process control, and risk analysis. Current AI techniques offer a new and exciting technology for solving problems in the oil and gas industry. Expert systems, fuzzy logic systems, neural networks and genetic algorithms are major AI technologies which have made an impact on the petroleum industry. Presently, these technologies are at different stages of maturity with expert systems being the most mature and genetic algorithms the least. However, all four technologies have evolved such that practical applications were produced. This paper describes the four major Al techniques and their many applications in offshore oil and gas production operations. A summary description of future developments in Al technology that will affect the execution and productivity of offshore operations will be also provided

  14. Catalytic Production of Ethanol from Biomass-Derived Synthesis Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trewyn, Brian G. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Smith, Ryan G. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Heterogeneous catalysts have been developed for the conversion of biomass-derived synthetic gas (syngas) to ethanol. The objectives of this project were to develop a clean synthesis gas from biomass and develop robust catalysts with high selectivity and lifetime for C2 oxygenate production from biomass-derived syngas and surrogate syngas. During the timeframe for this project, we have made research progress on the four tasks: (1) Produce clean bio-oil generated from biomass, such as corn stover or switchgrass, by using fast pyrolysis system, (2) Produce clean, high pressure synthetic gas (syngas: carbon monoxide, CO, and hydrogen, H2) from bio-oil generated from biomass by gasification, (3) Develop and characterize mesoporous mixed oxide-supported metal catalysts for the selective production of ethanol and other alcohols, such as butanol, from synthesis gas, and (4) Design and build a laboratory scale synthesis gas to ethanol reactor system evaluation of the process. In this final report, detailed explanations of the research challenges associated with this project are given. Progress of the syngas production from various biomass feedstocks and catalyst synthesis for upgrading the syngas to C2-oxygenates is included. Reaction properties of the catalyst systems under different reaction conditions and different reactor set-ups are also presented and discussed. Specifically, the development and application of mesoporous silica and mesoporous carbon supports with rhodium nanoparticle catalysts and rhodium nanoparticle with manganese catalysts are described along with the significant material characterizations we completed. In addition to the synthesis and characterization, we described the activity and selectivity of catalysts in our micro-tubular reactor (small scale) and fixed bed reactor (larger scale). After years of hard work, we are proud of the work done on this project, and do believe that this work will provide a solid

  15. Multiphasic analysis of gas production kinetics for in vitro fermentation of ruminant feeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.C.J.; Cone, J.W.; Williams, B.A.; Debersaques, F.M.A.; Lantinga, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed time-related gas production techniques to quantify the kinetics of ruminant feed fermentation have a high resolution. Consequently, fermentation processes with clearly contrasting gas production kinetics can be identified. Parameterization of the separate processes is possible

  16. In vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production of fish-meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-28

    Mar 28, 2011 ... In this study, an in vitro rumen gas production technique was utilized to evaluate fish-meal coated with ... Keywords: fish-meal; gas production; hydrogenated tallow; .... industrial city, Saveh, Iran). ..... commercial dairy rations.

  17. A gas circulation and purification system for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, T.; Wada, M.; Katayama, I.; Kojima, T. M.; Reponen, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tsubota, T. [Tokyo KOATSU Co., Ltd., 1-9-8 Shibuya, Shibuyaku, Tokyo 150-0002 (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    A gas circulation and purification system was developed at the RIKEN Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory that can be used for gas-cell-based low-energy RI-beam production. A high-flow-rate gas cell filled with one atmosphere of buffer gas (argon or helium) is used for the deceleration and thermalization of high-energy RI-beams. The exhausted buffer gas is efficiently collected using a compact dry pump and returned to the gas cell with a recovery efficiency of >97%. The buffer gas is efficiently purified using two gas purifiers as well as collision cleaning, which eliminates impurities in the gas. An impurity level of one part per billion is achieved with this method.

  18. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Eskild Hohlmann; Smith, Pete; Porter, John Roy

    2016-01-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we...... estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements...... to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis....

  19. Lightweight Approaches to Natural Gas Hydrate Exploration & Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Max, M. D.; Johnson, A. H.

    2017-12-01

    Lower-cost approaches to drilling and reservoir utilization are made possible by adapting both emerging and new technology to the unique, low risk NGH natural gas resource. We have focused on drilling, wellbore lining technology, and reservoir management with an emphasis on long-term sand control and adaptive mechanical stability during NGH conversion to its constituent gas and water. In addition, we suggest that there are opportunities for management of both the gas and water with respect to maintaining desired thermal conditions. Some of the unique aspects of NGH deposits allow for new, more efficient technology to be applied to development, particularly in drilling. While NGH-bearing sands are in deepwater, they are confined to depths beneath the seafloor of 1.2 kilometers or less. As a result, they will not be significantly above hydrostatic pressure, and temperatures will be less than 30 oC. Drilling will be through semi-consolidated sediment without liquid hydrocarbons. These characteristics mean that high capability drillships are not needed. What is needed is a new perspective about drilling and producing NGH. Drilling from the seafloor will resolve the high-pressure differential between a wellhead on the sea surface in a vessel and reservoir to about the hydrostatic pressure difference between the seafloor and, at most, the base of the GHSZ. Although NGH production will begin using "off-the-shelf" technology, innovation will lead to new technology that will bring down costs and increase efficiency in the same way that led to the shale breakthrough. Commercial success is possible if consideration is given to what is actually needed to produce NGH in a safe and environmentally manner. Max, M.D. 2017. Wellbore Lining for Natural Gas Hydrate. U.S. Patent Application US15644947 Max, M.D. & Johnson, A.H. 2017. E&P Cost Reduction Opportunities for Natural Gas Hydrate. OilPro. . Max, M.D. & Johnson, A.H. 2016. Exploration and Production of Oceanic Natural Gas

  20. Production of elemental sulfur and methane from H{sub 2}S and CO{sub 2} derived from a coal desulfurization process. Final report, September 1, 1993--March 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, X.; Khang, S.J.; Keener, T.C.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to experimentally and theoretically investigate the feasibility of producing elemental sulfur, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and possible methane from hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide through catalytic reactions. A novel experimental system that could evaluate potential catalysts and adsorbents under controlled laboratory conditions was designed and constructed. Additionally an effective simulation program capable of providing valuable thermodynamic information on the reaction system was compiled. The following tasks have been performed: (1) design and construction of an experimental system for the catalyst preparation and catalyst screening studies including frequent modifications of the experimental setup to meet specific application needs; (2) installation and calibration of related analytical instruments, and investigation of the temperature distribution profile inside the reactor; (3) preparation, reduction, sulfidation of potential catalysts, and measurements of specific surface area of catalysts; (4) decomposition of H{sub 2}S under both non-catalytic condition and catalytic condition with the CoO-MoO{sub 3}-alumina catalyst at moderate temperatures around 550 C. Analyses of the product gas by gas chromatograph; and (5) thermodynamic studies on the theoretical conversions of H{sub 2}S for various temperatures, pressures and ratios of H{sub 2}S to CO{sub 2}. Based on the results of the above tasks, bench scale experiments were performed with the CoO-MoO{sub 3}-alumina catalyst at moderate temperatures around 550 C to investigate the adsorption effects of solid sorbents in order to remove sulfur from the reaction environment. Four kinds of adsorbents have been tested along with several designs of solid adsorbent feed systems.

  1. Characterizing tight-gas systems with production data: Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Philip H.; Santus, Stephen L.; Baez, Luis; Beeney, Ken; Sonnenberg, Steve

    2013-01-01

    The study of produced fluids allows comparisons among tight-gas systems. This paper examines gas, oil, and water production data from vertical wells in 23 fields in five Rocky Mountain basins of the United States, mostly from wells completed before the year 2000. Average daily rates of gas, oil, and water production are determined two years and seven years after production begins in order to represent the interval in which gas production declines exponentially. In addition to the daily rates, results are also presented in terms of oil-to-gas and water-to-gas ratios, and in terms of the five-year decline in gas production rates and water-to-gas ratios. No attempt has been made to estimate the ultimate productivity of wells or fields. The ratio of gas production rates after seven years to gas production rates at two years is about one-half, with median ratios falling within a range of 0.4 to 0.6 in 16 fields. Oil-gas ratios show substantial variation among fields, ranging from dry gas (no oil) to wet gas to retrograde conditions. Among wells within fields, the oil-gas ratios vary by a factor of three to thirty, with the exception of the Lance Formation in Jonah and Pinedale fields, where the oil-gas ratios vary by less than a factor of two. One field produces water-free gas and a large fraction of wells in two other fields produce water-free gas, but most fields have water-gas ratios greater than 1 bbl/mmcf—greater than can be attributed to water dissolved in gas in the reservoir— and as high as 100 bbl/mmcf. The median water-gas ratio for fields increases moderately with time, but in individual wells water influx relative to gas is erratic, increasing greatly with time in many wells while remaining constant or decreasing in others.

  2. Production of inert gas for substitution of a part of the cushion gas trapped in an aquifer underground storage reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, L.; Arnoult, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    In a natural gas storage reservoir operating over the different seasons, a varying fraction of the injected gas, the cushion gas, remains permanently trapped. This cushion gas may represent more than half the total gas volume, and more than 50% of the initial investment costs for the storage facility. Studies conducted by Gaz de France, backed up by experience acquired over the years, have shown that at least 20% of the cushion gas could be replaced by a less expensive inert gas. Nitrogen, carbon dioxide, or a mixture of the two, satisfy the specifications required for this inert gas. Two main production methods exist: recovery of natural gas combustion products (mixture of 88% N 2 and 12% Co 2 ) and physical separation of air components (more or less pure N 2 , depending on industrial conditions). For the specific needs of Gaz de France, the means of production must be suited to its programme of partial cushion gas substitution. The equipment must satisfy requirements of autonomy, operating flexibility and mobility. Gaz de France has tested two units for recovery of natural gas combustion products. In the first unit, the inert gas is produced in a combustion chamber, treated in a catalytic reactor to reduce nitrogen oxide content and then compressed by gas engine driven compressors. In the second unit, the exhaust gases of the compressor gas engines are collected, treated to eliminate nitrogen oxides and then compressed. The energy balance is improved. A PSA method nitrogen production unit by selective absorption of nitrogen in the air, will be put into service in 1989. The specific features of these two methods and the reasons for choosing them will be reviewed. (author). 1 fig

  3. Bio desulfurization of a system containing synthetic fuel by rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277; Remocao de compostos sulfurosos de sitema bifasico contendo combustivel sintetico por Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maass, Danielle; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria de Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    For decades the burning of fossil fuels released a lot of pollutants in the atmosphere. Among the most harmful is sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), which reacts with the moisture in the air and turns into sulfuric acid, being the main cause of acid rain. Acid rain is very harmful to animal and plant kingdoms; accelerates the corrosion's processes of buildings and monuments, and causes serious health problems for humans. As a result, many countries have reformed their legislation to require the sale of fuels with very low sulfur content. The existing processes of desulfurization are not capable of removing sulfur so low. Therefore, there has developed a new process called bio desulfurization. In this process, the degradation of sulfur occurs through the action of microorganisms that act as catalysts. The bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis has emerged as one of the most promising for bio desulfurization because it removes the sulfur without breaking the benzene rings, thereby maintaining the potential energy of the same. Using dibenzothiophene as a model of sulfur compounds, the products of the bio desulfurization process are 2- hydroxybiphenyl and sulfate. In this study we sought to examine the desulfurizing capacity of national Rhodococcus erythropolis strain ATCC4277 in a batch reactor using concentrations of organic phase (n-dodecane) of 20 and 80% (v/v). Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC4277 was capable of degrading DBT in 93.3 and 98.0% in the presence of 20 and 80% (v/v) of synthetic fuel, respectively. (author)

  4. Trash to Gas: Converting Space Waste into Useful Supply Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoras, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The cost of sending mass into space with current propulsion technology is very expensive, making every item a crucial element of the space mission. It is essential that all materials be used to their fullest potential. Items like food, packaging, clothing, paper towels, gloves, etc., normally become trash and take up space after use. These waste materials are currently either burned up upon reentry in earth's atmosphere or sent on cargo return vehicles back to earth: a very wasteful method. The purpose of this project was to utilize these materials and create useful products like water and methane gas, which is used for rocket fuel, to further supply a deep space mission. The system used was a thermal degradation reactor with the configuration of a down-draft gasifier. The reactor was loaded with approximately 100g of trash simulant and heated with two external ceramic heaters with separate temperature control in order to create pyrolysis and gasification in one zone and incineration iri a second zone simultaneously. Trash was loaded into the top half of the reactor to undergo pyrolysis while the downdraft gas experienced gasification or incineration to treat tars and maximize the production of carbon dioxide. Minor products included carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons. The carbon dioxide produced can be sent to a Sabatier reactor to convert the gas into methane, which can be used as rocket propellant. In order to maximize the carbon dioxide and useful gases produced, and minimize the unwanted tars and leftover ashen material, multiple experiments were performed with altered parameters such as differing temperatures, flow rates, and location of inlet air flow. According to the data received from these experiments, the process will be further scaled up and optimized to ultimately create a system that reduces trash buildup while at the same time providing enough useful gases to potentially fill a methane tank that could fuel a lunar ascent vehicle or

  5. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, J M; White, K D; der Marderosian, A H

    1995-01-01

    The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe [K. Schumann] Pierre (Rubiaceae), long valued as an aphrodisiac in West Africa, recently has been promoted in the United States as a dietary supplement alternative to anabolic steroids for enhancement of athletic performance. As the number of yohimbe products on the retail market increases, concerns about their safety are raised because of the reported toxicity of yohimbine (the major alkaloid of the plant). Although plant materials are usually identified microscopically, we were unable to identify them in many of the products, because as their labels indicated, the products were mixtures of various botanicals or were bark extracts and contained little or no plant material. A method for extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation of the alkaloids of P. yohimbe was, therefore, developed and used to analyze a number of commercial yohimbe products. The method involved solvent extraction and partitioning in chloroform-water followed by separation on a methyl silicone capillary GC column (N-P detection). Comparisons of chromatograms of extracts of authentic bark with those of commercial products indicated that, although many products contained measurable quantities of the alkaloid yohimbine, they were largely devoid of the other alkaloids previously reported in this species. Concentrations of yohimbine in the commercial products ranged from < 0.1 to 489 ppm, compared with 7089 ppm in the authentic material. Authentic bark has been reported to contain up to 6% total alkaloids, 10-15% of which are yohimbine. The possible presence of undeclared diluents in the products was indicated by peaks in product chromatograms but not in those of authentic bark.

  6. 17 CFR 229.1204 - (Item 1204) Oil and gas production, production prices and production costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... production, production prices and production costs. 229.1204 Section 229.1204 Commodity and Securities... production, production prices and production costs. (a) For each of the last three fiscal years disclose... production cost, not including ad valorem and severance taxes, per unit of production. Instruction 1 to Item...

  7. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  8. Deep learning and data assimilation for real-time production prediction in natural gas wells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loh, K.K.L.; Shoeibi Omrani, P.S.; Linden, R.J.P. van der

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of the gas production from mature gas wells, due to their complex end-of-life behavior, is challenging and crucial for operational decision making. In this paper, we apply a modified deep LSTM model for prediction of the gas flow rates in mature gas wells, including the uncertainties

  9. Hydro-geomechanical behaviour of gas-hydrate bearing soils during gas production through depressurization and CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, C.; Gupta, S.; Kossel, E.; Bigalke, N.; Haeckel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Results from recent field trials suggest that natural gas could be produced from marine gas hydrate reservoirs at compatible yields and rates. It appears, from a current perspective, that gas production would essentially be based on depressurization and, when facing suitable conditions, be assisted by local thermal stimulation or gas hydrate conversion after injection of CO2-rich fluids. Both field trials, onshore in the Alaska permafrost and in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan, were accompanied by different technical issues, the most striking problems resulting from un-predicted geomechanical behaviour, sediment destabilization and catastrophic sand production. So far, there is a lack of experimental data which could help to understand relevant mechanisms and triggers for potential soil failure in gas hydrate production, to guide model development for simulation of soil behaviour in large-scale production, and to identify processes which drive or, further, mitigate sand production. We use high-pressure flow-through systems in combination with different online and in situ monitoring tools (e.g. Raman microscopy, MRI) to simulate relevant gas hydrate production scenarios. Key components for soil mechanical studies are triaxial systems with ERT (Electric resistivity tomography) and high-resolution local strain analysis. Sand production control and management is studied in a novel hollow-cylinder-type triaxial setup with a miniaturized borehole which allows fluid and particle transport at different fluid injection and flow conditions. Further, the development of a large-scale high-pressure flow-through triaxial test system equipped with μ-CT is ongoing. We will present results from high-pressure flow-through experiments on gas production through depressurization and injection of CO2-rich fluids. Experimental data are used to develop and parametrize numerical models which can simulate coupled process dynamics during gas-hydrate formation and gas production.

  10. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states 1984 through 1996, February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This is the fourth wellhead productive capacity report. The three previous ones were published in 1991, 1993, and 1994. This report should be of particular interest to those in Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and the academic community, who are concerned with the future availability of natural gas. The EIA Dallas Field Office has prepared five earlier reports regarding natural gas productive capacity. These reports, Gas Deliverability and Flow Capacity of Surveillance Fields, reported deliverability and capacity data for selected gas fields in major gas producing areas. The data in the reports were based on gas-well back-pressure tests and estimates of gas-in-place for each field or reservoir. These reports use proven well testing theory, most of which has been employed by industry since 1936 when the Bureau of Mines first published Monograph 7. Demand for natural gas in the United States is met by a combination of natural gas production, underground gas storage, imported gas, and supplemental gaseous fuels. Natural gas production requirements in the lower 48 States have been increasing during the last few years while drilling has remained at low levels. This has raised some concern about the adequacy of future gas supplies, especially in periods of peak heating or cooling demand. The purpose of this report is to address these concerns by presenting a 3-year projection of the total productive capacity of natural gas at the wellhead for the lower 48 States. Alaska is excluded because Alaskan gas does not enter the lower-48 States pipeline system. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) generates this 3-year projection based on historical gas-well drilling and production data from State, Federal, and private sources. In addition to conventional gas-well gas, coalbed gas and oil-well gas are also included

  11. Removal of hazardous gaseous pollutants from industrial flue gases by a novel multi-stage fluidized bed desulfurizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, C R; Adapala, Sivaji; Meikap, B C

    2009-06-15

    Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds are generated as primary pollutants from the major industries such as sulfuric acid plants, cupper smelters, catalytic cracking units, etc. and cause acid rain. To remove the SO(2) from waste flue gas a three-stage counter-current multi-stage fluidized bed adsorber was developed as desulfurization equipment and operated in continuous bubbling fluidization regime for the two-phase system. This paper represents the desulfurization of gas mixtures by chemical sorption of sulfur dioxide on porous granular calcium oxide particles in the reactor at ambient temperature. The advantages of the multi-stage fluidized bed reactor are of high mass transfer and high gas-solid residence time that can enhance the removal of acid gas at low temperature by dry method. Experiments were carried out in the bubbling fluidization regime supported by visual observation. The effects of the operating parameters such as sorbent (lime) flow rate, superficial gas velocity, and the weir height on SO(2) removal efficiency in the multistage fluidized bed are reported. The results have indicated that the removal efficiency of the sulfur dioxide was found to be 65% at high solid flow rate (2.0 kg/h) corresponding to lower gas velocity (0.265 m/s), wier height of 70 mm and SO(2) concentration of 500 ppm at room temperature.

  12. Characterization of biomass producer gas as fuel for stationary gas engines in combined heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this project has been the characterization of biomass producer gas as a fuel for stationary gas engines in heat and power production. More than 3200 hours of gas engine operation, with producer gas as fuel, has been conducted at the biomass gasification combined heat and power (CHP...... different measuring methods. Likewise, no particles were detected in the gas. Considerable amounts of NH3 were measured in the produced gas.An analysis of engine operation at varying load has been carried out. Standard emissions, load and efficiency have been measured at varying operating conditions ranging...... from 50% to 90% load. Biomass producer gas is an excellent lean burn engine fuel: Operation of a natural aspirated engine has been achieved for 1.2...

  13. Improvement of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial hydrogen gas production from organic matters stands out as one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable green energy production. Based on the literature review, investigation of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste using a mixed culture has been very limited. The objective of this study was to assess the anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste under various conditions. (Author)

  14. A Greenhouse Gas Balance of Electricity Production from Co-firing Palm Oil Products from Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.; Junginger, M.

    2007-05-01

    The Netherlands imports significant quantities of biomass for energy production, among which palm oil has been used increasingly for co-firing in existing gas-fired power plants for renewable electricity production. Imported biomass, however, can not simply be considered a sustainable energy source. The production and removal of biomass in other places in the world result in ecological, land-use and socio-economic impacts and in GHG emissions (e.g. for transportation). As a result of the sustainability discussions, the Cramer Commission in the Netherlands has formulated (draft) criteria and indicators for sustainable biomass production. This study develops a detailed methodology for determining the GHG balance of co-firing palm oil products in the Netherlands based on the Cramer Commission methodology. The methodology is applied to a specific bio-electricity chain: the production of palm oil and a palm oil derivative, palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD), in Northeast Borneo in Malaysia, their transport to the Netherlands and co-firing with natural gas for electricity production at the Essent Claus power plant

  15. Desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ultra-fine CaO particles prepared from brown coal; Kattan wo mochiite choseishita CaO chobiryushi no datsuryu tokusei to sanka tokusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benjamin, G.; Roman, M.; Yamazaki, Y.; Abe, H.; Harano, Y.; Takarada, Y. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The effect of reaction temperature and oxygen concentration on the desulfurization and oxidation behavior of ion-exchanged brown coal by Ca as new desulfurizing agent was studied. In experiment, Yallourn coal was used for ion- exchange, and limestone produced in Tochigi prefecture was also used for comparative study. Ca-exchanged brown coal was prepared by agitating coal in Ca(OH)2 slurry for 24 hours. The desulfurization behavior of a desulfurizing agent was obtained by measuring H2S and sulfur compounds in outlet gas of a reactor, and the oxidation behavior by measuring SO2 emission in outlet gas after oxidation reaction. As the experimental result, CaO produced from Ca-exchanged brown coal offered the extremely high activity to desulfurization reaction in a temperature range of 850-950{degree}C as compared with limestone. Although the oxidation behavior was dependent on oxidation temperature and oxygen concentration, CaS obtained from Ca-exchanged brown coal was more rapidly converted to CaSO4 than limestone. 3 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Multiphase Modeling of Bottom-Stirred Ladle for Prediction of Slag-Steel Interface and Estimation of Desulfurization Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Umesh; Anapagaddi, Ravikiran; Mangal, Saurabh; Padmanabhan, Kuppuswamy Anantha; Singh, Amarendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Ladle furnace is a key unit in which various phenomena such as deoxidation, desulfurization, inclusion removal, and homogenization of alloy composition and temperature take place. Therefore, the processes present in the ladle play an important role in determining the quality of steel. Prediction of flow behavior of the phases present in the ladle furnace is needed to understand the phenomena that take place there and accordingly control the process parameters. In this study, first a mathematical model is developed to analyze the transient three-phase flow present. Argon gas bottom-stirred ladle with off-centered plugs has been used in this study. Volume of fluid method is used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to capture the behavior of slag, steel, and argon interfaces. The results are validated with data from literature. Eye opening and slag-steel interfacial area are calculated for different operating conditions and are compared with experimental and simulated results cited in literature. Desulfurization rate is then predicted using chemical kinetic equations, interfacial area, calculated from CFD model, and thermodynamic data, obtained from the Thermo-Calc software. Using the model, it is demonstrated that the double plug purging is more suitable than the single plug purging for the same level of total flow. The advantage is more distinct at higher flow rates as it leads higher interfacial area, needed for desulfurization and smaller eye openings (lower oxygen/nitrogen pickup).

  17. Enhancing mercury removal across air pollution control devices for coal-fired power plants by desulfurization wastewater evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Hu; Yang, Yi; Cai, Liang; Yang, Linjun; Roszak, Szczepan

    2017-10-09

    Desulfurization wastewater evaporation technology is used to enhance the removal of gaseous mercury (Hg) in conventional air pollution control devices (APCDs) for coal-fired power plants. Studies have affirmed that gaseous Hg is oxidized and removed by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) in a coal-fired thermal experiment platform with WFGD wastewater evaporation. Effects of desulfurization wastewater evaporation position, evaporation temperature and chlorine ion concentration on Hg oxidation were studied as well. The Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was increased ranging from 30% to 60%, and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 62.16% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before SCR. However, the Hg 0 oxidation efficiency was 18.99% and the gaseous Hg removal efficiency was 40.19% in APCDs when wastewater evaporated before ESP. The results show that WFGD wastewater evaporation before SCR is beneficial to improve the efficiency of Hg oxidized and removed in APCDs. Because Hg 2+ can be easily removed in ACPDs and WFGD wastewater in power plants is enriched with chlorine ions, this method realizes WFGD wastewater zero discharge and simultaneously enhances Hg removal in APCDs.

  18. Production of hydrogen gas from novel chemical hydrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiello, R.; Matthews, M.A. [South Carolina Univ., Chemical Engineering Dept., Columbia, SC (United States); Reger, D.L.; Collins, J.E. [South Carolina Univ., Chemistry and Biochemistry Dept., Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-12-01

    Six ligand-stabilized complexes have been synthesized and tested for use as hydrogen storage media for portable fuel cell applications. The new hydrides are: [HC(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 3}]LiBH{sub 4} (1), [[H{sub 2}C(3,5-Me{sub 2}pz){sub 2}]LiBH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (2) (pz = pyrazolyl), [(TMEDA)Li(BH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (3) (TMEDA (CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}), [HC(pz){sub 3}]LiBH{sub 4} (4), [[H{sub 2}C(pz){sub 2}]Li(BH{sub 4})]{sub 2} (5) and Mg(BH{sub 4}){sub 2}3THF (6) (THF = tetrahydrofuran). Hydrolysis reactions of the compounds liberate hydrogen in quantities which range from 56 to 104 ({+-}5%) of the theoretical yield. Gas chromatographic analysis of the product gases from these reactions indicate that hydrogen is the only gas produced. Thermally initiated reactions of the novel compounds with NH{sub 4}Cl were unsuccessful. Although the amount of hydrogen energy which can be theoretically obtained per unit weight is lower than that of the classical hydrides such as LiBH{sub 4} and NaBH{sub 4}, the reactions are less violent and hydrolysis of compounds 1, 2, 4, 5 and 6 releases less heat per mole of hydrogen generated. (Author)

  19. Nuclear techniques in oil and gas exploration and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, R.L.; Mills, W.R. Jr.; Orr, W.L.; Allen, L.S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is given of some of the most significant new developments that have occurred during the past three years in the area of nuclear techniques applied to the exploration for and production of oil and gas deposits. Experimental and theoretical studies have been carried out aimed at improving pulsed neutron logging tools and upgrading interpretation of data from such tools. Pulsed neutron borehole generators and gamma-ray spectroscopy have been combined in carbon/oxygen logging to provide a means of determining formation oil saturation in cased holes that is independent of water salinity. Use of pulsed neutron logs in the log-inject-log technique has been tested and evaluated in several field studies. The combination of a gamma-gamma density log and a borehole gravimeter has been used to detect economically important gas accumulations at distances from a borehole that are well beyond the depth of investigation of conventional logging techniques. The depths of investigation of several commercial nuclear logging tools have been studied in laboratory investigations. Possible geological applications of natural gamma-ray spectral logs have been investigated through the study of large sample suites and in specific field applications. The extensive use of digital recording of logging data and well-site analysis by minicomputer are expected to have a significant influence on future logging programmes and logging sonde designs. The present status of stable isotope geochemistry and radioactive tracer surveys is reviewed. (author)

  20. Forecasting natural gas supply in China: Production peak and import trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Boqiang; Wang Ting

    2012-01-01

    China's natural gas consumption has increased rapidly in recent years making China a net gas importer. As a nonrenewable energy, the gas resource is exhaustible. Based on the forecast of this article, China's gas production peak is likely to approach in 2022. However, China is currently in the industrialization and urbanization stage, and its natural gas consumption will persistently increase. With China's gas production peak, China will have to face a massive expansion in gas imports. As the largest developing country, China's massive imports of gas will have an effect on the international gas market. In addition, as China's natural gas price is still controlled by the government and has remained at a low level, the massive imports of higher priced gas will exert great pressure on China's gas price reform. - Highlights: ► We figured out the natural gas production peak of China. ► We predict the import trends of natural gas of China. ► We study the international and national impacts of China's increasing import of gas. ► It is important for China to accelerate price reformation of natural gas.

  1. Gas phase adsorption technology for nitrogen isotope separation and its feasibility for highly enriched nitrogen gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaki; Asaga, Takeo

    2000-04-01

    Highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas is favorable to reduce radioactive carbon-14 production in reactor. The cost of highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in mass production is one of the most important subject in nitride fuel option in 'Feasibility Study for FBR and Related Fuel Cycle'. In this work gas phase adsorption technology was verified to be applicable for nitrogen isotope separation and feasible to produce highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in commercial. Nitrogen isotopes were separated while ammonia gas flows through sodium-A type zeolite column using pressure swing adsorption process. The isotopic ratio of eight samples were measured by high resolution mass spectrometry and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Gas phase adsorption technology was verified to be applicable for nitrogen isotope separation, since the isotopic ratio of nitrogen-15 and nitrogen-14 in samples were more than six times as high as in natural. The cost of highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas in mass production were estimated by the factor method. It revealed that highly enriched nitrogen-15 gas could be supplied in a few hundred yen per gram in mass production. (author)

  2. A review on prospects and challenges of biological H2S removal from biogas with focus on biotrickling filtration and microaerobic desulfurization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoshnevisan, Benyamin; Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Alfaro, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The production of biogas from sulfate-rich materials under anaerobic digestion results in the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). The recommended level of H2S in the produced biogas for direct combustion purposes is in the range of 0.02 to 0.05% w/w (200 to 500 ppm), therefore, desulfurization i...

  3. Safe, reliable desulfurization of high and very high H{sub 2}S loadings by UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}; Sichere, zuverlaessige Entschwefelung hoher und sehr hoher H{sub 2}S-Beladungen durch UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoelsmann, Herbert [UGN-Umwelttechnik GmbH, Gera (Germany); Hilgert, Walter [Rietzler-Gruppe GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 for complete, safe desulfurization of biogas/biogenic fuel gases (hydrolysis and pyrolysis gas, landfill gas, sewage gas,..), natural gas and associated petroleum gases and industrial production exhaust gases are market introduced and tested worldwide. In particular, the complete surrender of gas cooling, gas drying and gas reheating, the H{sub 2}S removal to zero level and proven in practice loading capacity of up to % 80 percent characterize the UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 external as a cost-effective, efficient and sustainable desulfurization medium. The further development of the pellets to the UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - that is, to internally hollow pellets with correspondingly enlarged, outer surface - is the next logical step to further improve performance whilst fully retaining the advantages of pellets. [German] UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 zur vollstaendigen, sicheren Entschwefelung von Biogas/biogenen Brenngasen (Hydrolyse- und Pyrolysegas, Deponiegas, Klaergas,...), Erdgas und Erdoelbegleitgasen sowie industriellen Produktionsabgasen sind markteingefuehrt und weltweit erprobt. Insbesondere der vollstaendige Verzicht auf Gaskuehlung, Gastrocknung und Gaswiederaufheizung, die H{sub 2}S-Entfernung auf Nullniveau sowie die in der Praxis nachgewiesene Beladungskapazitaet von bis zu 80-Gew% zeichnen die UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 als ein kostenguenstiges, effizientes und nachhaltiges externes Entschwefelungsmedium aus. Die Weiterentwicklung der Pellets zu den UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - d.h. zu innen hohlen Pellets mit entsprechend vergroesserter, aeusserer Oberflaeche - ist der naechste konsequente Schritt zur weiteren Leistungssteigerung bei vollstaendiger Beibehaltung der Vorteile der Pellets.

  4. Gas sector expansion: production monopoly versus free prices; Expansao do setor de gas: monopolio na producao versus precos livres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Maria Paula de Souza [Agencia de Servicos Publicos de Energia do Estado do Espirito Santo (ASPE), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the necessary conditions to develop Brazil's natural gas sector with production, reserves, main uses, sources, inputs, main players, laws, regulatory aspects, prices, supply, demand, market, monopoly and free competition. (author)

  5. The Stability of Lubricant Oil Acidity of Biogas Fuelled Engine due to Biogas Desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gde Tirta Nindhia, Tjokorda; Wayan Surata, I.; Wardana, Ari

    2017-05-01

    This research is established for the purpose of the understanding the stability of the acidity of lubricant oil in biogas fuelled engine due to the absence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). As was recognized that other than Methane (CH4), there are also other gas impurities in the biogas such as carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), moisture (H2O) and ammonia (NH3). Due to H2S contents in the biogas fuel, the engine was found failure. This is caused by corrosion in the combustion chamber due to increase of lubricant acidity. To overcome this problem in practical, the lubricant is increased the pH to basic level with the hope will be decrease to normal value after several time use. Other method is by installing pH measurement sensor in the engine lubricant so that when lubricant is known turn to be acid, then lubricant replacement should be done. In this research, the effect of biogas desulfurization down to zero level to the acidity of lubricant oil in the four stroke engine was carried out with the hope that neutral lubrication oil to be available during running the engine. The result indicates that by eliminating H2S due desulfurization process, effect on stability and neutrality of pH lubricant. By this method the engine safety can be obtained without often replacement the lubricant oil.

  6. Basic Properties of Flue-Gas Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovacs Ferenc

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Several hundred thousand of FGD gypsum is produced annually at the Matra Power Plant (Hungary as a byproduct of generating electricity and protecting the environment. Chemical and mechanical characteristics of this material were studied of the Department of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering, University of Miskolc (Hungary. The material in question was found dead gypsum which can be calcined easily to obtain a relatively high-strength (15-25 MPa and clean binding material. Furthermore, grain composites were made of it by adding fly ash, which the power plant can provide the expected producers with, thus decreasing the energy consumption of calcining and utilizing a small part of coal combustion wastes.

  7. Flue Gas Desulfurization by Mechanically and Thermally Activated Sodium Bicarbonate

    OpenAIRE

    Walawska Barbara; Szymanek Arkadiusz; Pajdak Anna; Nowak Marzena

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of study on structural parameters (particle size, surface area, pore volume) and the sorption ability of mechanically and thermally activated sodium bicarbonate. The sorption ability of the modified sorbent was evaluated by: partial and overall SO2 removal efficiency, conversion rate, normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR). Sodium bicarbonate was mechanically activated by various grinding techniques, using three types of mills: fluid bed opposed jet mill, fine i...

  8. Ruminal Methane Production on Simple Phenolic Acids Addition in in Vitro Gas Production Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jayanegara

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Methane production from ruminants contributes to total global methane production, which is an important contributor to global warming. In this experiment, six sources of simple phenolic acids (benzoic, cinnamic, phenylacetic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at two different levels (2 and 5 mM added to hay diet were evaluated for their potential to reduce enteric methane production using in vitro Hohenheim gas production method. The measured variables were gas production, methane, organic matter digestibility (OMD, and short chain fatty acids (SCFA. The results showed that addition of cinnamic, caffeic, p-coumaric and ferulic acids at 5 mM significantly (P p-coumaric > ferulic > cinnamic. The addition of simple phenols did not significantly decrease OMD. Addition of simple phenols tends to decrease total SCFA production. It was concluded that methane decrease by addition of phenolic acids was relatively small, and the effect of phenolic acids on methane decrease depended on the source and concentration applied.

  9. Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization for the Twenty-First Century: Advances toward Sustainable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Elise B.; Liu, Zhong-Wen; Liu, Zhao-Tie

    2013-11-21

    Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

  10. Preparation of AAO-CeO2 nanotubes and their application in electrochemical oxidation desulfurization of diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaoqing; Yang, Yumeng; Yi, Chenxi; Chen, Yu; Cai, Chao; Zhang, Zhao

    2017-02-01

    The coaxial arrays of AAO-CeO2 NTs have been successfully galvanostatically deposited on an anode, characterized and adopted as a catalyst for removing organic sulfurs from diesel. The influence of the main electrochemical oxidation factors on the efficiency of desulfurization have also been investigated. The results show that the fabrication process of AAO-CeO2 NTs is accompanied by the formation of a new phase, namely Al3Ce, and the main oxidation products of the diesel are soluble inorganic sulphides, especially Ce2(SO4)3. When compared with dibenzothiophene and 4, 6-dimethyldibenzothiophene, benzothiophene is much more easily removed, with a removal efficiency that reaches 87.2%. Finally, a possible electrochemical oxidation desulfurization pathway for diesel is proposed.

  11. Aerobic desulfurization of biogas by acidic biotrickling filtration in a randomly packed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montebello, Andrea M.; Mora, Mabel; López, Luis R.; Bezerra, Tercia; Gamisans, Xavier; Lafuente, Javier; Baeza, Mireia; Gabriel, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Desulfurization of high loads of H 2 S is feasible by acidic biotrickling filtration. • Robustness of the process is demonstrated in the long-term (550 d). • Biosulfur to sulfate oxidation under H 2 S starvation was successfully performed. • Lower sulfate production found at acidic pH compared to that at neutral pH. • Plastic material is recommended for long-term acidic biotrickling filtration. - Abstract: Biotrickling filters for biogas desulfurization still must prove their stability and robustness in the long run under extreme conditions. Long-term desulfurization of high loads of H 2 S under acidic pH was studied in a lab-scale aerobic biotrickling filter packed with metallic Pall rings. Reference operating conditions at steady-state corresponded to an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 130 s, H 2 S loading rate of 52 g S–H 2 S m −3 h −1 and pH 2.50–2.75. The EBRT reduction showed that the critical EBRT was 75 s and the maximum EC 100 g S–H 2 S m −3 h −1 . Stepwise increases of the inlet H 2 S concentration up to 10,000 ppm v lead to a maximum EC of 220 g S–H 2 S m −3 h −1 . The H 2 S removal profile along the filter bed indicated that the first third of the filter bed was responsible for 70–80% of the total H 2 S removal. The oxidation rate of solid sulfur accumulated inside the bioreactor during periodical H 2 S starvation episodes was verified under acidic operating conditions. The performance under acidic pH was comparable to that under neutral pH in terms of H 2 S removal capacity. However, bioleaching of the metallic packing used as support and chemical precipitation of sulfide/sulfur salts occurred

  12. Natural Gas and Cellulosic Biomass: A Clean Fuel Combination? Determining the Natural Gas Blending Wall in Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Wright, Mark; Seifkar, Navid; Green, William H; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-07-07

    Natural gas has the potential to increase the biofuel production output by combining gas- and biomass-to-liquids (GBTL) processes followed by naphtha and diesel fuel synthesis via Fischer-Tropsch (FT). This study reflects on the use of commercial-ready configurations of GBTL technologies and the environmental impact of enhancing biofuels with natural gas. The autothermal and steam-methane reforming processes for natural gas conversion and the gasification of biomass for FT fuel synthesis are modeled to estimate system well-to-wheel emissions and compare them to limits established by U.S. renewable fuel mandates. We show that natural gas can enhance FT biofuel production by reducing the need for water-gas shift (WGS) of biomass-derived syngas to achieve appropriate H2/CO ratios. Specifically, fuel yields are increased from less than 60 gallons per ton to over 100 gallons per ton with increasing natural gas input. However, GBTL facilities would need to limit natural gas use to less than 19.1% on a LHV energy basis (7.83 wt %) to avoid exceeding the emissions limits established by the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS2) for clean, advanced biofuels. This effectively constitutes a blending limit that constrains the use of natural gas for enhancing the biomass-to-liquids (BTL) process.

  13. High efficient ethanol and VFAs production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...... fatty acids and ethanol was achieved by the pure culture (Clostridium ragsdalei). Depending on the headspace gas composition, VFA concentrations were up to 300% higher after fermentation with Clostridium ragsdalei compared to fermentation with mixed culture. The preferred gas composition with respect...

  14. World oil and gas resources-future production realities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Welcome to uncertainty was the phrase Jack Schanz used to introduce both layman and professionals to the maze of petroleum energy data that must be comprehended to achieve understanding of this critical commodity. Schanz was referring to the variables as he and his colleagues with Resources for the Future saw them in those years soon after the energy-awakening oil embargo of 1973. In some respects, the authors have made progress in removing uncertainty from energy data, but in general, we simply must accept that there are many points of view and many ways for the blindman to describe the elephant. There can be definitive listing of all uncertainties, but for this paper the authors try to underscore those traits of petroleum occurrence and supply that the author's believe bear most heavily on the understanding of production and resource availability. Because oil and gas exist in nature under such variable conditions and because the products themselves are variable in their properties, the authors must first recognize classification divisions of the resource substances, so that the reader might always have a clear perception of just what we are talking about and how it relates to other components of the commodity in question

  15. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  16. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  17. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino Cerri

    Full Text Available Soybean biodiesel (B100 has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51% for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52% for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected

  18. Problem of Production of Shale Gas in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Nataliya K. Meden

    2014-01-01

    A bstract: Our magazine publishes a series of articles on shale gas in different countries. This article is about Germany, a main importer of Russian natural gas, so a perspective of exploitation of local shale gas resources is of a clear practical importance for Russia. We discuss external and internal factors which determine position of the German government concerning the shale gas excavation: policy of the USA and the EU, positions of German political parties, influence of the lobbying co...

  19. Technologies for direct production of flexible H2/CO synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Xueping; Guo Zhancheng

    2006-01-01

    The use of synthesis gas offers the opportunity to furnish a broad range of environmentally clean fuels and high value chemicals. However, synthesis gas manufacturing systems based on natural gas are capital intensive, and hence, there is great interest in technologies for cost effective synthesis gas production. Direct production of synthesis gas with flexible H 2 /CO ratio, which is in agreement with the stoichiometric ratios required by major synthesis gas based petrochemicals, can decrease the capital investment as well as the operating cost. Although CO 2 reforming and catalytic partial oxidation can directly produce desirable H 2 /CO synthesis gas, they are complicated and continued studies are necessary. In fact, direct production of flexible H 2 /CO synthesis gas can be obtained by optimizing the process schemes based on steam reforming and autothermal reforming as well as partial oxidation. This paper reviews the state of the art of the technologies

  20. Experimental study of xenon isotopes production by gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingsheng; Liang Xiongwen; Zhang Yonggang; Dong Jinping

    2006-01-01

    The gas centrifuge technology is studied for the separation of Xe isotopes. The nature Xe is chosen as processing gas. A four-state cascade is designed to separate 124 Xe to a concentration of being greater than 65% in three separation runs. 124 Xe can be enriched to a concentration 99% in more separation runs using a cascade of more gas centrifuges. (authors)

  1. Estimating methane gas production in peat soils of the Florida Everglades using hydrogeophysical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William; Comas, Xavier

    2016-04-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in production and release of greenhouse gases (such as methane) in peat soils remains uncertain, particularly for low-latitude peatlands like the Everglades. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a hydrogeophysical tool that has been successfully used in the last decade to noninvasively investigate carbon dynamics in peat soils; however, application in subtropical systems is almost non-existent. This study is based on four field sites in the Florida Everglades, where changes in gas content within the soil are monitored using time-lapse GPR measurements and gas releases are monitored using gas traps. A weekly methane gas production rate is estimated using a mass balance approach, considering gas content estimated from GPR, gas release from gas traps and incorporating rates of diffusion, and methanotrophic consumption from previous studies. Resulting production rates range between 0.02 and 0.47 g CH4 m-2 d-1, falling within the range reported in literature. This study shows the potential of combining GPR with gas traps to monitor gas dynamics in peat soils of the Everglades and estimate methane gas production. We also show the enhanced ability of certain peat soils to store gas when compared to others, suggesting that physical properties control biogenic gas storage in the Everglades peat soils. Better understanding biogenic methane gas dynamics in peat soils has implications regarding the role of wetlands in the global carbon cycle, particularly under a climate change scenario.

  2. Production of bio-gas from maize cobs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leke, Luter [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ogbanje, Anne Ada [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Department of Renewable Energy, Energy Commission of Nigeria, Garki-Abuja (Nigeria); Terfa, Dekaa Henry [Department of Chemistry, Benue State University, P M B 102119, Makurdi (Nigeria); Ikyaagba, Tyoalumun [College of Physical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, AB24 3UE, Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2013-07-01

    Anaerobic digestion of energy crop residues and wastes is of increasing interest in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to facilitate a sustainable development of energy supply. Production of biogas provides a versatile carrier of renewable energy, as methane can be used for replacement of fossil fuels in both heat and power generation as vehicle fuel. Biogas fuel production from blends of biological wastes such as Cow rumen liquor (CL), Poultry droppings (PD), and Goat Faeces (GF) with Maize cobs (M) were studied. 20 g of each inoculum was mixed with 100g of degraded maize cobs in the first three digesters while the fourth contained CL 10g, PD 10 g, and M 100 g. 100 g of M alone in the fifth digester served as the control. The blends were subjected to anaerobic digestion for 10 days on the prevailing atmospheric ambient temperature and pressure conditions. Physiochemical properties of the blends such as moisture content, crude protein, ash, fat, crude fibre, carbohydrate content, C/N ratio, and pH were also determined. Results of the daily performances of each system showed that maize cobs (M) alone had cumulative biogas yield of 1.50 cm3 while those of the blends (MCL, MPD, MGF and MCLPD) were 6.11 cm3, 3.05 cm3, 2.50 cm3, and 63.00 cm3 respectively, pH and C/N ratio affected the biogas yield of the systems significantly. These results indicate that the low biogas production from maize cobs can be enhanced significantly by blending with cow rumen liquor and poultry droppings.

  3. Analysis of Specific Features of the Ukrainian Market of Natural Gas Production and Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelyuk Oleksiy V.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article provides results of the study of specific features of the Ukrainian market of natural gas production and consumption. It analyses dynamics of the specific weight of Ukraine in general volumes of natural gas consumption in the world, dynamics of natural gas consumption in Ukraine during 1990 – 2012 and dependence of natural gas consumption on GDP volumes by the purchasing power parity. It studies the structure of natural gas consumption by regions in 2012 and sectors of economy, resource base of natural gas in Ukraine and also dynamics of established resources of natural gas in Ukraine and dynamics of natural gas production. It analyses base rates of growth of natural gas resources and production in Ukraine. It considers dynamics of import of natural gas into Ukraine and its import prices and also the structure of natural gas import. It identifies the balance of the natural gas market in Ukraine. On the basis of the conducted analysis the article proves that Ukraine is a gas-deficit country of the world, which depends on natural gas import supplies.

  4. Ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization of liquid fuels and its industrial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhilin; Ondruschka, Bernd

    2010-08-01

    Latest environmental regulations require a very deep desulfurization to meet the ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD, 15 ppm sulfur) specifications. Due to the disadvantages of hydrotreating technology on the slashing production conditions, costs and safety as well as environmental protection, the ultrasound-assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) as an alternative technology has been developed. UAOD process selectively oxidizes sulfur in common thiophenes in diesel to sulfoxides and sulfones which can be removed via selective adsorption or extractant. SulphCo has successfully used a 5000 barrel/day mobile "Sonocracking" unit to duplicate on a commercial scale its proprietary process that applies ultrasonics at relatively low temperatures and pressures. The UAOD technology estimate capital costs less than half the cost of a new high-pressure hydrotreater. The physical and chemical mechanisms of UAOD process are illustrated, and the effective factors, such as ultrasonic frequency and power, oxidants, catalysts, phase-transfer agent, extractant and adsorbent, on reaction kinetics and product recovery are discussed in this review. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comments on "Ceria-Zirconia High-Temperature Desulfurization Sorbents".

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Trnka, Otakar

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2006), s. 1548-1549 ISSN 0888-5885 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : hydrogen sulfide * desulfurization * cerium sorbent Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.518, year: 2006

  6. Natural gas productive capacity for the lower 48 states, 1982--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to analyze monthly natural gas wellhead productive capacity and project this capacity for 1992 and 1993, based upon historical production data through 1991. Productive capacity is the volume of gas that can be produced from a well, reservoir, or field during a given period of time against a certain wellhead back-pressure under actual reservoir conditions excluding restrictions imposed by pipeline capacity, contracts, or regulatory bodies. For decades, natural gas supplies and productive capacity have been adequate, although in the 1970's the capacity surplus was small because of market structure (both interstate and intrastate), increasing demand, and insufficient drilling. In the early 1980's, lower demand together with increased drilling led to a large surplus of natural gas capacity. After 1986, this large surplus began to decline as demand for gas increased, gas prices dropped, and gas well completions dropped sharply. In late December 1989, this surplus decline, accompanied by exceptionally high demand and temporary weather-related production losses, led to concerns about the adequacy of monthly productive capacity for natural gas. This study indicates that monthly productive capacity will drop sharply during the 1992-1993 period. In the low gas price, low drilling case, gas productive capacity and estimated production demand will be roughly equal in December 1993. In base and high drilling cases, monthly productive capacity should be able to meet normal production demands through 1993 in the lower 48 States. Exceptionally high peak-day or peak-week production demand might not be met because of physical limitations. Beyond 1993, as the capacity of currently producing wells declines, a sufficient number of wells and/or imports must be added each year in order to ensure an adequate gas supply

  7. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization; Bilanz natuerlicher Radionuklide in der Braunkohleverstromung und Unbedenklichkeit bei der Verwendung von Rueckstaenden und Nebenprodukten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger [IAF-Radiooekologie GmbH, Radeberg (Germany)

    2017-04-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  8. Production mechanism of negative pionlike particles in H2 gas discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1996-04-01

    Negative pionlike and muonlike particles are produced by an electron bunch and a positive ion bunch which are generated controllably from an electron beam and a gas. Physical characteristics of the negative pionlike particles are the same with those of negative pionlike particles extracted from the H 2 gas discharge. Thus, the production mechanism in the H 2 gas discharge is deduced. (author)

  9. Modeling of Gas Production from Shale Reservoirs Considering Multiple Transport Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohua Guo

    Full Text Available Gas transport in unconventional shale strata is a multi-mechanism-coupling process that is different from the process observed in conventional reservoirs. In micro fractures which are inborn or induced by hydraulic stimulation, viscous flow dominates. And gas surface diffusion and gas desorption should be further considered in organic nano pores. Also, the Klinkenberg effect should be considered when dealing with the gas transport problem. In addition, following two factors can play significant roles under certain circumstances but have not received enough attention in previous models. During pressure depletion, gas viscosity will change with Knudsen number; and pore radius will increase when the adsorption gas desorbs from the pore wall. In this paper, a comprehensive mathematical model that incorporates all known mechanisms for simulating gas flow in shale strata is presented. The objective of this study was to provide a more accurate reservoir model for simulation based on the flow mechanisms in the pore scale and formation geometry. Complex mechanisms, including viscous flow, Knudsen diffusion, slip flow, and desorption, are optionally integrated into different continua in the model. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of different mechanisms on the gas production. The results showed that adsorption and gas viscosity change will have a great impact on gas production. Ignoring one of following scenarios, such as adsorption, gas permeability change, gas viscosity change, or pore radius change, will underestimate gas production.

  10. Hydrogen production by absorption enhanced water gas shift (AEWGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo Bretado, Miguel A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Juarez del Estado de Durango, Ave. Veterinaria s/n, Circuito Universitario, Durango 34120 (Mexico); Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico); Delgado Vigil, Manuel D.; Gutierrez, Jesus Salinas; Lopez Ortiz, Alejandro; Collins-Martinez, Virginia [Departamento de Quimica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S.C. Miguel de Cervantes 120, Chihuahua, Chih. 31109 (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    AEWGS is a reaction that combines the WGS reaction and CO{sub 2} capture by a solid absorbent to produce high purity H{sub 2} from synthesis gas in one single step at 600-800 C. This reactor system, if homogeneous, would not require a catalyst. However, previous research on this concept was not conclusive, since a steel reactor was used and reactor walls were suspected to act as catalyst. Therefore, there is a need to address this issue and to select and evaluate suitable CO{sub 2} absorbents for this concept. AEWGS was studied using a quartz-made fixed-bed reactor at; SV = 3000 h{sup -1}, feed; 5% CO, 15% H{sub 2}O, balance He-N{sub 2} at 600 C, 1 atm. CO{sub 2} absorbents tested were CaO*MgO, and Na{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}. Empty quartz-reactor tests leaded to conclude that a catalyst is needed for the WGS at temperatures of interest. A 97% H{sub 2} product was obtained with calcined dolomite suggesting this last to act as a WGS catalyst. (author)

  11. Extended lactations may improve cow health, productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from organic dairy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Jesper Overgård; Mogensen, Lisbeth; Kristensen, Troels

    2014-01-01

    The concept of extended lactation is a break with the tradition of getting one calf per cow per year that should improve cow health, increase productivity and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emission per kg milk produced in high-yield organic dairy herds. These effects are achieved through fewer...... calvings per year and hence a production of fewer replacement heifers, which, in combination with fewer days dry per cow per year, will reduce the annual herd requirement for feed. Total herd feed use is a major determinant of GHG emission at farm gate. However, these effects also rely on the assumption...... calves and fewer culled cows will be available for sale. An on-going project at Aarhus University aims at characterising those cows that can maintain milk production through an extended lactation, and it aims at estimating the overall herd effect of this concept on farm profitability and GHG emission per...

  12. PET-modified red mud as catalysts for oxidative desulfurization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, Nayara T; Heitmann, Ana P; Mansur, Herman S; Mansur, Alexandra A; Oliveira, Luiz C A; de Castro, Cinthia S

    2017-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of catalysts based on red mud/polyethylene terephthalate (PET) composites and their subsequent heat treatment under N 2 atmosphere. The materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and N 2 adsorption/desorption. The catalysts were evaluated in the oxidative desulfurization reaction of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in a biphasic system. The results indicated that the PET impregnation on red mud increased the affinity of the catalyst with the nonpolar phase (fuel), in which the contaminant was dissolved, allowing a higher conversion (up to 80%) and selectivity to the corresponding dibenzothiophene sulfone. The sulfone compound is more polar than DBT and diffused into the polar solvent as indicated by the data obtained via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Fluctuation theorem for entropy production during effusion of a relativistic ideal gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleuren, B; Willaert, K; Engel, A; Van den Broeck, C

    2008-02-01

    The probability distribution of the entropy production for the effusion of a relativistic ideal gas is calculated explicitly. This result is then extended to include particle and antiparticle pair production and annihilation. In both cases, the fluctuation theorem is verified.

  14. Remote and Onsite Direct Measurements of Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally responsible oil and gas production requires accurate knowledge of emissions from long-term production operations1, which can include methane, volatile organic compounds, and hazardous air pollutants. Well pad emissions vary based on the geologically-determined com...

  15. Environmental benefits of advanced oil and gas exploration and production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1999-10-01

    THROUGHOUT THE OIL AND GAS LIFE CYCLE, THE INDUSTRY HAS APPLIED AN ARRAY OF ADVANCED TECHNOLOGIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY, PRODUCTIVITY, AND ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. THIS REPORT FOCUSES SPECIFICALLY ON ADVANCES IN EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION (E&P) OPERATIONS.

  16. Spatial resolution of gas hydrate and permeability changes from ERT data in LARS simulating the Mallik gas hydrate production test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priegnitz, Mike; Thaler, Jan; Spangenberg, Erik; Schicks, Judith M.; Abendroth, Sven

    2014-05-01

    The German gas hydrate project SUGAR studies innovative methods and approaches to be applied in the production of methane from hydrate-bearing reservoirs. To enable laboratory studies in pilot scale, a large reservoir simulator (LARS) was realized allowing for the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates under simulated in-situ conditions. LARS is equipped with a series of sensors. This includes a cylindrical electrical resistance tomography (ERT) array composed of 25 electrode rings featuring 15 electrodes each. The high-resolution ERT array is used to monitor the spatial distribution of the electrical resistivity during hydrate formation and dissociation experiments over time. As the present phases of poorly conducting sediment, well conducting pore fluid, non-conducting hydrates, and isolating free gas cover a wide range of electrical properties, ERT measurements enable us to monitor the spatial distribution of these phases during the experiments. In order to investigate the hydrate dissociation and the resulting fluid flow, we simulated a hydrate production test in LARS that was based on the Mallik gas hydrate production test (see abstract Heeschen et al., this volume). At first, a hydrate phase was produced from methane saturated saline water. During the two months of gas hydrate production we measured the electrical properties within the sediment sample every four hours. These data were used to establish a routine estimating both the local degrees of hydrate saturation and the resulting local permeabilities in the sediment's pore space from the measured resistivity data. The final gas hydrate saturation filled 89.5% of the total pore space. During hydrate dissociation, ERT data do not allow for a quantitative determination of free gas and remaining gas hydrates since both phases are electrically isolating. However, changes are resolved in the spatial distribution of the conducting liquid and the isolating phase with gas being the only mobile isolating phase

  17. Exploring the production of natural gas through the lenses of the ACEGES model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudouris, Vlasios; Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Sedgwick, John; Rigby, Robert; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Jefferson, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Due to the increasing importance of natural gas for modern economic activity, and gas's non-renewable nature, it is extremely important to try to estimate possible trajectories of future natural gas production while considering uncertainties in resource estimates, demand growth, production growth and other factors that might limit production. In this study, we develop future scenarios for natural gas supply using the ACEGES computational laboratory. Conditionally on the currently estimated ultimate recoverable resources, the ‘Collective View’ and ‘Golden Age’ Scenarios suggest that the supply of natural gas is likely to meet the increasing demand for natural gas until at least 2035. The ‘Golden Age’ Scenario suggests significant ‘jumps’ of natural gas production – important for testing the resilience of long-term strategies. - Highlights: • We present the ‘Collective View’ and ‘Golden Age’ Scenarios for natural gas production. • We do not observe any significant supply demand pressure of natural gas until 2035. • We do observe ‘jumps’ in natural gas supply until 2035. • The ACEGES-based scenarios can assess the resilience of longterm strategies

  18. Maximization of Egyptian Gas Oil Production Through the Optimal Use of the Operating Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Gas oil is the major fossil fuel consumed around the world. Global gas oil consumption is rising at a steadily fast pace because of its higher combustion efficiency (versus gasoline). The annual increase rate of gas oil consumption in Egypt is 7 % whereas, the world increase rates range from 1.5 % to 2 % . The main sources for producing gas oil in Egypt refiners is the direct production from the atmospheric distillation process units or it may be produced as a side product from vacuum distillation units . Gas oil is produced through hydrocracking process of vacuum distillation side streams and heavy cocked gas oil. Gas oil production yield can be increased through the existing operation process units. Modifications of the current atmospheric and vacuum tower operations will increase gas oil yield rates to 20 % more than the existing production rates. The modification of the operating conditions and adoption of the optimum catalyst of the existing hydrocracking and mild hydro cracking process units improve gas oil production yield. Operating delayed cocker at high temperatures, low pressure and low cycle ratio also support achieving the maximization of gas oil yield

  19. 21 CFR 173.350 - Combustion product gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Caution. The various parts of the absorption train must be connected by gas-tight tubing and joints... gas source is connected in series to the flow-rate device, the flow meter, and the absorption.... Maintain the coolant bath at 0 °C throughout. Remove the absorption vessel from the bath, disconnect, and...

  20. In vitro organic matter digestibility and gas production of fish-meal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, an in vitro rumen gas production technique was utilized to evaluate fish-meal coated with different types and levels of fats for total gas production, Metabolizable energy (ME) and organic matter digestibility (OMD) contents. Approximately 200 mg of sample was weighed and inserted in glass syringes, then ...

  1. In vitro gas production of wheat grain flour coated with different fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gas production (GP) is a rapid method for feedstuffs assessment. A study was done to investigate wheat grain coated with hydrogenated tallow (HT) and hydrogenated palm oil (HP) of different fatty acids types and levels to study total gas production. Approximately, 200 mg (DM basis) of sample was weighed and inserted in ...

  2. Gas phase hydrogen peroxide production in atmospheric pressure glow discharges operating in He - H2O

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasko, C.A.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Bruggeman, P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The gas phase production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a RF atmospheric pressure glow discharge with helium and water vapour has been investigated as a function of the gas flow. It is shown that the production of H2O2 is through the recombination of two OH radicals in a three body collision and the

  3. Relationship between in situ degradation kinetics and in vitro gas production fermentation using different mathematical models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, M.A.M.; Cone, J.W.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Blok, M.C.; Guedes, C.

    2009-01-01

    In vitro and in situ studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of different mathematical models, used to fit gas production profiles of 15 feedstuffs, on estimates of nylon bag organic matter (OM) degradation kinetics. The gas production data were fitted to Exponential, Logistic, Gompertz and

  4. Demonstrating multi-layered MAS in control of offshore oil and gas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Næumann, J. R.; Demazeau, Y.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we demonstrate how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used in...

  5. Multi-layered satisficing decision making in oil and gas production platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard Mikkelsen, Lars; Demazeau, Yves; Jørgensen, B. N.

    2013-01-01

    From a control perspective, offshore oil and gas production is very challenging due to the many and potentially conflicting production objectives that arise from the intrinsic complexity of the oil and gas domain. In this paper, we show how a multi-layered multi-agent system can be used to implem...

  6. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Dornburg, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189955007; Junginger, H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/202130703; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to

  7. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

    OpenAIRE

    Sklet, Snorre; Hauge, Stein

    2004-01-01

    This report documents a set of scenarios related to release of hydrocarbons during production on oil and gas platforms. For each release scenario, initiating events, barrier functions aimed to prevent loss of containment, and barrier systems that realize these barrier functions are identified and described. Safety barriers to prevent release of hydrocarbons during production of oil and gas

  8. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-10-28

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  9. Oxidative Desulfurization of Fuel Oil by Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhong Duan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30% were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF4 has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL/V(Oil /V(H2O2 = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 °C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration.

  10. How did the US economy react to shale gas production revolution? An advanced time series approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, Faik; Koçak, Emrah; Bulut, Ümit; Sualp, M. Nedim

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at examining the impacts of shale gas revolution on industrial production in the US. To this end, this paper, first, throughout literature review, exposes the features of shale gas revolution in the US in terms of energy technology and energy markets. However, the potential influences of shale gas extraction on the US economy are not explicit in the existing literature. Thus, considering mainly the output of shale gas revolution on the US economy in this research, later, the paper conducts econometric models to reveal if there exists significant effect(s) of shale gas revolution on the US economy. Therefore, the paper employs unit root tests and cointegration tests by following relevant US monthly data from January 2008 to December 2013. Then, this paper observes long run impact of shale gas production on industrial production in the US through dynamic ordinary least squares estimation with dummy structural breaks and conducts Granger causality test based on vector error correction model. The dynamic ordinary least squares estimator explores that shale gas production has a positive effect on industrial production. Besides, the Granger causality test presents that shale gas production Granger causes industrial production in the long run. Based on the findings of the long run estimations, the paper yields that industrial production is positively related to shale gas production. Eventually, upon its findings, this paper asserts that (i) the shale gas revolution in the US has considerable positive effects on the US economy within the scope of the validity of the growth hypothesis, (ii) new technologies might be developed to mitigate the possible negative environmental effects of shale gas production, (iii) the countries having shale gas reserves, as in US, may follow energy policies to utilize their shale reserves more in the future to meet their energy demand and to increase their economic welfare. - Highlights: • Explores the US shale gas revolution

  11. High efficient ethanol and VFAs production from gas fermentation: effect of acetate, gas and inoculum microbial composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Gammal, Maie; Abou-Shanab, Reda; Angelidaki, Irini

    2017-01-01

    In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas fermenta......In bioindustry, syngas fermentation is a promising technology for biofuel production without the use of plant biomass as sugar-based feedstock. The aim of this study was to identify optimal conditions for high efficient ethanol and volatile fatty acids (VFA) production from synthetic gas...... fatty acids and ethanol was achieved by the pure culture (Clostridium ragsdalei). Depending on the headspace gas composition, VFA concentrations were up to 300% higher after fermentation with Clostridium ragsdalei compared to fermentation with mixed culture. The preferred gas composition with respect...... to highest VFA concentration was pure CO (100%) regardless of microbial composition of the inoculum and media composition. The addition of acetate had a negative impact on the VFA formation which was depending on the initial gas composition in head space....

  12. Soil Carbon Chemistry and Greenhouse Gas Production in Global Peatlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, A. E.; Turner, B. L.; Lamit, L. J.; Smith, A. N.; Baiser, B.; Clark, M. W.; Hazlett, C.; Lilleskov, E.; Long, J.; Grover, S.; Reddy, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Peatlands play a critical role in the global carbon cycle because they contain approximately 30% of the 1500 Pg of carbon stored in soils worldwide. However, the stability of these vast stores of carbon is under threat from climate and land-use change, with important consequences for global climate. Ecosystem models predict the impact of peatland perturbation on carbon fluxes based on total soil carbon pools, but responses could vary markedly depending on the chemical composition of soil organic matter. Here we combine experimental and observational studies to quantify the chemical nature and response to perturbation of soil organic matter in peatlands worldwide. We quantified carbon functional groups in a global sample of 125 freshwater peatlands using solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the drivers of molecular composition of soil organic matter. We then incubated a representative subset of the soils under aerobic and anaerobic conditions to determine how organic matter composition influences carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions following drainage or flooding. The functional chemistry of peat varied markedly at large and small spatial scales, due to long-term land use change, mean annual temperature, nutrient status, and vegetation, but not pH. Despite this variation, we found predictable responses of greenhouse gas production following drainage based on soil carbon chemistry, defined by a novel Global Peat Stability Index, with greater CO2 and CH4 fluxes from soils enriched in oxygen-containing organic carbon (O-alkyl C) and depleted in aromatic and hydrophobic compounds. Incorporation of the Global Peat Stability Index of peatland organic matter into earth system models and management strategies, which will improve estimates of GHG fluxes from peatlands and ultimately advance management to reduce carbon loss from these sensitive ecosystems.

  13. Oxidative Desulfurization of Gasoline by Ionic Liquids Coupled with Extraction by Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Abro, Rashid; Gao, Shurong; Chen, Xiaochun; Yu, Guangren; Abdeltawab, Ahmed A.; Al-Deyab, Salem S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, desulfurization of real fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline was investigated in dual steps; first in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) using imidazolium and pyrrolidonium based Brønsted acidic ionic liquids (ILs) as solvent and catalyst and hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. In second step, extractive desulfurization took place using organic solvents of furfural, furfural alcohol and ethylene glycol. Variety of factors such as temperature, time, mass ratio of oil/ILs and regene...

  14. Potential biodefense model applications for portable chlorine dioxide gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jeannie M; Newsome, Anthony L

    2015-01-01

    Development of decontamination methods and strategies to address potential infectious disease outbreaks and bioterrorism events are pertinent to this nation's biodefense strategies and general biosecurity. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas has a history of use as a decontamination agent in response to an act of bioterrorism. However, the more widespread use of ClO2 gas to meet current and unforeseen decontamination needs has been hampered because the gas is too unstable for shipment and must be prepared at the application site. Newer technology allows for easy, onsite gas generation without the need for dedicated equipment, electricity, water, or personnel with advanced training. In a laboratory model system, 2 unique applications (personal protective equipment [PPE] and animal skin) were investigated in the context of potential development of decontamination protocols. Such protocols could serve to reduce human exposure to bacteria in a decontamination response effort. Chlorine dioxide gas was capable of reducing (2-7 logs of vegetative and spore-forming bacteria), and in some instances eliminating, culturable bacteria from difficult to clean areas on PPE facepieces. The gas was effective in eliminating naturally occurring bacteria on animal skin and also on skin inoculated with Bacillus spores. The culturable bacteria, including Bacillus spores, were eliminated in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Results of these studies suggested portable, easily used ClO2 gas generation systems have excellent potential for protocol development to contribute to biodefense strategies and decontamination responses to infectious disease outbreaks or other biothreat events.

  15. Contact heating of water products of combustion of natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronov, I Z

    1978-01-01

    The USSR's NIIST examined the processes and equipment for heating water by submerged combustion using natural gas. Written for engineers involved with the design and application of thermal engineering equipment operating with natural gas, the book emphasizes equipment, test results, and methods of calculating heat transfer for contact gas economizers developed by Scientific Research Institute of Sanitary Engineering and other Soviet organizations. The economic effectiveness of submerged-combustion heating depends on several factors, including equipment design. Recommendations cover cost-effective designs and applications of contact economizers and boilers.

  16. A Systematic Procedure to Describe Shale Gas Permeability Evolution during the Production Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, B.; Tsau, J. S.; Barati, R.

    2017-12-01

    Gas flow behavior in shales is complex due to the multi-physics nature of the process. Pore size reduces as the in-situ stress increases during the production process, which will reduce intrinsic permeability of the porous media. Slip flow/pore diffusion enhances gas apparent permeability, especially under low reservoir pressures. Adsorption not only increases original gas in place but also influences gas flow behavior because of the adsorption layer. Surface diffusion between free gas and adsorption phase enhances gas permeability. Pore size reduction and the adsorption layer both have complex impacts on gas apparent permeability and non-Darcy flow might be a major component in nanopores. Previously published literature is generally incomplete in terms of coupling of all these four physics with fluid flow during gas production. This work proposes a methodology to simultaneously take them into account to describe a permeability evolution process. Our results show that to fully describe shale gas permeability evolution during gas production, three sets of experimental data are needed initially: 1) intrinsic permeability under different in-situ stress, 2) adsorption isotherm under reservoir conditions and 3) surface diffusivity measurement by the pulse-decay method. Geomechanical effects, slip flow/pore diffusion, adsorption layer and surface diffusion all play roles affecting gas permeability. Neglecting any of them might lead to misleading results. The increasing in-situ stress during shale gas production is unfavorable to shale gas flow process. Slip flow/pore diffusion is important for gas permeability under low pressures in the tight porous media. They might overwhelm the geomechanical effect and enhance gas permeability at low pressures. Adsorption layer reduces the gas permeability by reducing the effective pore size, but the effect is limited. Surface diffusion increases gas permeability more under lower pressures. The total gas apparent permeability might

  17. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2011-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS produ...

  18. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Song [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Guo, Jia-Xiu, E-mail: guojiaxiu@scu.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Sichuan Provincial Environmental Protection Environmental Catalysis and Materials Engineering Technology Center, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Liu, Xiao-Li [National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Wang, Xue-Jiao [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Yin, Hua-Qiang [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Sichuan Provincial Environmental Protection Environmental Catalysis and Materials Engineering Technology Center, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Luo, De-Ming [National Engineering Technology Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China)

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity. • Different oscillation time can change surface area and pore volume of catalysts. • Ultrasonic oscillation increases Fe dispersion on carrier and effective pores. • Pore sizes play a crucial role during the SO{sub 2} removal. - Abstract: A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO{sub 3} (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m{sup 2}/g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm{sup 3}/g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm{sup 3}/g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m{sup 2}/g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm{sup 3}/g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m{sup 2}/g and 0.481 cm{sup 3}/g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution

  19. Effects of pore sizes and oxygen-containing functional groups on desulfurization activity of Fe/NAC prepared by ultrasonic-assisted impregnation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Song; Guo, Jia-Xiu; Liu, Xiao-Li; Wang, Xue-Jiao; Yin, Hua-Qiang; Luo, De-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity. • Different oscillation time can change surface area and pore volume of catalysts. • Ultrasonic oscillation increases Fe dispersion on carrier and effective pores. • Pore sizes play a crucial role during the SO 2 removal. - Abstract: A series of Fe-loaded activated carbons treated by HNO 3 (Fe/NAC) were prepared by incipient impregnation method with or without ultrasonic assistance and characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy with energy disperse spectroscope (SEM-EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption/desorption. The desulfurization activities were evaluated at a fixed bed reactor under a mixed gas simulated from flue gas. The results showed that desulfurization activity from excellent to poor is as follows: Fe/NAC-60 > Fe/NAC-80 > Fe/NAC-30 > Fe/NAC-15 > Fe/NAC-0 > Fe/NAC-100 > NAC. Fe/NAC-60 exhibits the best desulfurization activity and has breakthrough sulfur capacity of 319 mg/g and breakthrough time of 540 min. The introduction of ultrasonic oscillation does not change the form of Fe oxides on activated carbon but can change the dispersion and relative contents of Fe 3 O 4 . The types of oxygen-containing functional groups have no obvious change for all samples but the texture properties show some differences when they are oscillated for different times. The fresh Fe/NAC-60 has a surface area of 1045 m 2 /g and total pore volume of 0.961 cm 3 /g with micropore volume of 0.437 cm 3 /g and is larger than Fe/NAC-0 (823 m 2 /g, 0.733 and 0.342 cm 3 /g). After desulfurization, surface area and pore volume of all samples decrease significantly, and those of the exhausted Fe/NAC-60 decrease to 233 m 2 /g and 0.481 cm 3 /g, indicating that some byproducts deposit on surface to cover pores. Pore size distribution influences SO 2 adsorption, and fresh Fe/NAC-60 has

  20. Novel cleavage and oligomerization reactions of nickel (o) complexes. Application to homogeneous deoxygenation and desulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisch, J.J.; Im, K.R.

    1979-01-01

    The ease of interaction of Ni(0) complexes with organic substrates has been shown to depend upon both the ligands on nickel and the solvent. The presence of α,α'-bipyridyl with the Ni(0) complex and the alkyne led to the isolation of a nickelacyclopropene, an observation in accord with the recently proposed metallocyclic pathway for the Ni(0)-catalyzed trimerization of alkynes. Allylic and benzylic ethers and epoxides have been observed to undergo oxidative insertion of Ni(0) into their C-O bonds with solvent (TMEDA > THF (tetrahydrofuran) > Et 2 O > C 6 H 6 ) and ligand (Et 3 P (tripthyl phosphine) > Ph 3 P (triphenyl phosphine); α,α'-bipy > COD) effects consistent with an electron-transfer attack by Ni(0). With such sulfur heterocycles as dibenzothiophene, phenoxathiin, phenothiazine, and thianthrene, a 1:1 admixture of (COD) 2 Ni with α,α'-bipyridyl gave as the principal product the desulfurized, ring-contracted cyclic product