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Sample records for gas conversion vii

  1. Natural gas conversion. Part VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iglesia, E.; Spivey, J.J.; Fleisch, T.H.

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains peer-reviewed manuscripts describing the scientific and technological advances presented at the 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium held in Alaska in June 2001. This symposium continues the tradition of excellence and the status as the premier technical meeting in this area established by previous meetings. The 6th Natural Gas Conversion Symposium is conducted under the overall direction of the Organizing Committee. The Program Committee was responsible for the review, selection, editing of most of the manuscripts included in this volume. A standing International Advisory Board has ensured the effective long-term planning and the continuity and technical excellence of these meetings. The titles of the contributions are: Impact of syngas generation technology selection on a GTL FPSO; Methane conversion via microwave plasma initiated by a metal initiator; Mechanism of carbon deposit/removal in methane dry reforming on supported metal catalysts; Catalyst-assisted oxidative dehydrogenation of light paraffins in short contact time reactors; Catalytic dehydrogenation of propane over a PtSn/SiO 2 catalyst with oxygen addition: selective oxidation of H2 in the presence of hydrocarbons; Hydroconversion of a mixture of long chain n-paraffins to middle distillate: effect of the operating parameters and products properties; Decomposition/reformation processes and CH4 combustion activity of PdO over Al2O3 supported catalysts for gas turbine applications; Lurgi's mega-methanol technology opens the door for a new era in down-stream applications;Expanding markets for GTL fuels and specialty products; Some critical issues in the analysis of partial oxidation reactions in monolith reactors

  2. Constraining the Milky Way's Hot Gas Halo with O VII and O VIII Emission Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew J.; Bregman, Joel N.

    2015-02-01

    The Milky Way hosts a hot (≈2 × 106 K), diffuse, gaseous halo based on detections of z = 0 O VII and O VIII absorption lines in quasar spectra and emission lines in blank-sky spectra. Here we improve constraints on the structure of the hot gas halo by fitting a radial model to a much larger sample of O VII and O VIII emission line measurements from XMM-Newton/EPIC-MOS spectra compared to previous studies (≈650 sightlines). We assume a modified β-model for the halo density distribution and a constant-density Local Bubble from which we calculate emission to compare with the observations. We find an acceptable fit to the O VIII emission line observations with χ 2red (dof) = 1.08 (644) for best-fit parameters of no r_c3β = 1.35 +/- 0.24 cm-3 kpc3β and β = 0.50 ± 0.03 for the hot gas halo and negligible Local Bubble contribution. The O VII observations yield an unacceptable χ 2red (dof) = 4.69 (645) for similar best-fit parameters, which is likely due to temperature or density variations in the Local Bubble. The O VIII fitting results imply hot gas masses of M(properties, temperature and entropy gradients in the halo gas, and the gas metallicity distribution. The combination of absorption and emission line analyses implies a sub-solar gas metallicity that decreases with radius, but that also must be >=0.3 Z ⊙ to be consistent with the pulsar dispersion measure toward the Large Magellanic Cloud.

  3. Conversion chimique du gaz naturel Chemical Conversion of Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumette P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article sont passés en revue les travaux de recherche et développement et les procédés existants dans le domaine de la conversion chimique du gaz naturel. Les deux voies possibles, conversion directe du méthane et conversion indirecte, via le gaz de synthèse, sont présentées. Tant la préparation d'hydrocarbures utilisables comme carburants, que celle des composés de bases pour la pétrochimie ou la chimie sont évoquées. L'accent est mis sur l'étape clé du développement de chaque procédé qui, selon le produit visé, consiste en la mise au point d'un nouveau système catalytique, en un changement de la technologie du réacteur, ou en la mise au point d'une section fractionnement moins complexe. This article reviews the research and development work and the existing processes in the area of chemical conversion of natural gas. The two possible methods, direct conversion of methane and indirect conversion via synthesis gas, are discussed. The preparation of hydrocarbons that can be used as fuels and the production of building blocks for the petrochemical and chemical industries are both dealt with. The accent is placed on the key step in developing each process. Depending on the target product, this key step consists in working out a new catalytic system, changing reactor technology or engineering a less complex fractionation section.

  4. Conversion of glycerol to hydrogen rich gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nguyen H; Kannangara, G S Kamali

    2013-12-21

    Presently there is a glut of glycerol as the by-product of biofuel production and it will grow as production increases. The conundrum is how we can consume this material and convert it into a more useful product. One potential route is to reform glycerol to hydrogen rich gas including synthesis gas (CO + H2) and hydrogen. However, there is recent literature on various reforming techniques which may have a bearing on the efficiency of such a process. Hence in this review reforming of glycerol at room temperature (normally photo-catalytic), catalysis at moderate and high temperature and a non-catalytic pyrolysis process are presented. The high temperature processes allow the generation of synthesis gas with the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratios being suitable for synthesis of dimethyl ether, methanol and for the Fischer-Tropsch process using established catalysts. Efficient conversion of synthesis gas to hydrogen involves additional catalysts that assist the water gas shift reaction, or involves in situ capture of carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Reforming at reduced temperatures including photo-reforming offers the opportunity of producing synthesis gas or hydrogen using single catalysts. Together, these processes will assist in overcoming the worldwide glut of glycerol, increasing the competitiveness of the biofuel production and reducing our dependency on the fossil based, hydrogen rich gas.

  5. Conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannakopoulos, P.J.; Easterly, C.E.

    1979-05-01

    The mechanisms of conversion of tritium gas to tritiated water (HTO) have been examined for several tritium gaseous mixtures. The physical and chemical processes involved in the self-radiolysis of such mixtures have been analyzed and the kinetics involved in the formation of HTO has been presented. It has been determined that the formation of the H and/or OH free radicals, as intermediate species, are of significance in the formation of HTO. Therefore, the problem of reducing the rate of formation of tritiated water in a mixture of gaseous tritium with atmospheric components is one of finding an effective scavenger for the H and/or OH free radicals

  6. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion contractors review conference: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This volume contains 55 papers presented at the conference. They are divided into the following topical sections: Direct liquefaction; Indirect liquefaction; Gas conversion (methane conversion); and Advanced research liquefaction. Papers in this last section deal mostly with coprocessing of coal with petroleum, plastics, and waste tires, and catalyst studies. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  7. Gas Conversion Systems Reclaim Fuel for Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A human trip to Mars will require astronauts to utilize resources on the Red Planet to generate oxygen and fuel for the ride home, among other things. Lakewood, Colorado-based Pioneer Energy has worked under SBIR agreements with Johnson Space Center to develop technology for those purposes, and now uses a commercialized version of the technology to recover oil and gas that would otherwise be wasted at drilling sites.

  8. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  9. Zeolites and Zeotypes for Oil and Gas Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, Eelco T C; Whiting, Gareth T.; Dutta Chowdhury, Abhishek; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    Zeolite-based catalyst materials are widely used in chemical industry. In this chapter, the applications of zeolites and zeotypes in the catalytic conversion of oil and gas are reviewed. After a general introduction to zeolite science and technology, we discuss refinery applications, such as fluid

  10. Economic route for natural gas conversion to ethylene and propylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, B.V.; Marker, T.L.; Barger, P.T. [UOP, Des Plaines, Illinois (United States); Nilsen, H.R.; Kvisle, S.; Fuglerud, T. [Norsk Hydro a.s., Oslo (Norway)

    1997-12-31

    A selective and economical route for converting natural gas to olefins is described: the GTO process. The first step in the process is natural gas conversion to methanol, followed by the UOP/Hydro MTO (methanol to olefins) process using UOP`s unique SAPO-34 catalyst. The primary products are ethylene and propylene. The GTO UOP/Hydro MTO process has favorable economics in areas where low-cost natural gas is available and easily beats the internal rates of return from traditional naphtha cracking in these locations. 19 refs.

  11. The Energy Conversion Analysis of HTR Gas Turbine System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utaja

    2000-01-01

    The energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by hand calculation is tedious work and need much time. This difficulty comes from the repeated thermodynamic process calculation, both on compression or expansion of the cycle. To make the analysis faster and wider variable analyzed, HTR-1 programme is used. In this paper, the energy conversion analysis of HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 will be described. The result is displayed as efficiency curve and block diagram with the input and output temperature of the component. This HTR-1 programme is developed by Basic language programming and be compiled by Visual Basic 5.0 . By this HTR-1 programme, the efficiency, specific power and effective compression of the amount of gas can be recognized fast. For example, for CO 2 gas between 40 o C and 700 o C, the compression on maximum efficiency is 4.6 and the energy specific is 18.9 kcal/kg, while the temperature changing on input and output of the component can be traced on monitor. This process take less than one second, while the manual calculation take more than one hour. It can be concluded, that the energy conversion analysis of the HTR gas turbine system by HTR-1 can be done faster and more variable analyzed. (author)

  12. A GIS-based Model for Natural Gas Data Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitik, E.; Seker, D. Z.; Denli, H. H.

    2014-12-01

    In Turkey gas utility sector has undergone major changes in terms of increased competition between gas providers, efforts in improving services, and applying new technological solutions. This paper discusses the challenges met by gas companies to switch from long workflows of gas distribution, sales and maintenance into IT driven efficient management of complex information both spatially and non-spatially. The aim of this study is migration of all gas data and information into a GIS environment in order to manage and operate all infrastructure investments with a Utility Management System. All data conversion model for migration was designed and tested during the study. A flowchart is formed to transfer the old data layers to the new structure based on geodatabase.

  13. Novel reactor configuration for synthesis gas conversion to alcohols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akgerman, A.; Anthony, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Research continued on the design of a chemical reactor for synthesis gas conversion. During the second quarter our objective was to continue with Task 2 and start on Task 3. Task 2 involved standardization and automation of GC analysis protocols. Task 3, as stated in the work breakdown schedule, was the modification and automation of the trickle bed reactor and performing the initial factorial design experiments. We have decided to modify this task by expanding it to incorporate determination of the hydrodynamic and transport parameters of the trickle bed reactor in order to isolate and study just the reaction parameters. 1 fig.

  14. Power Conversion Study for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh; Richard Moore; Robert Barner

    2005-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is investigating a Brayton cycle efficiency improvement on a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of Generation-IV nuclear engineering research initiative. There are some technical issues to be resolved before the selection of the final design of the high temperature gas cooled reactor, called as a Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is supposed to be built at the INEEL by year 2017. The technical issues are the selection of the working fluid, direct vs. indirect cycle, power cycle type, the optimized design in terms of a number of intercoolers, and others. In this paper, we investigated a number of working fluids for the power conversion loop, direct versus indirect cycle, the effect of intercoolers, and other thermal hydraulics issues. However, in this paper, we present part of the results we have obtained. HYSYS computer code was used along with a computer model developed using Visual Basic computer language

  15. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Topical report: Economic evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of the proposed research is to develop a technically and economically feasible process for biologically producing H{sub 2} from synthesis gas while, at the same time, removing harmful sulfur gas compounds. Six major tasks are being studied: culture development, where the best cultures are selected and conditions optimized for simultaneous hydrogen production and sulfur gas removal; mass transfer and kinetic studies in which equations necessary for process design are developed; bioreactor design studies, where the cultures chosen in Task 1 are utilized in continuous reaction vessels to demonstrate process feasibility and define operating conditions; evaluation of biological synthesis gas conversion under limiting conditions in preparation for industrial demonstration studies; process scale-up where laboratory data are scaled to larger-size units in preparation for process demonstration in a pilot-scale unit; and economic evaluation, where process simulations are used to project process economics and identify high cost areas during sensitivity analyses. The purpose of this report is to present economic evaluations for H{sub 2} production from synthesis gone by Rhodospirillum rubrum. Cases are presented with and without light requirements and in stirred tank and immobilized cell reactors. In addition, economic information is presented for isolate ERIH{sub 2} (from Engineering Resources, Inc.) in the two reactors with and without H{sub 2} recovery.

  16. Stream conversion technology and gas condensate field development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntadi, Arif

    2012-07-01

    depletion PVT experiments using a detailed-EOS model. Delumping is performed phase-wise at the well-connection level, for each time step of the reservoir simulator. For gas injection processes, the amount of injection gas is estimated from stream information and, accordingly, removed from the stream before applying the phase-specific pressure-dependent split factors. We propose another conversion procedure to convert one fluid model stream to another fluid model stream in which the heaviest fractions have different component grouping. This procedure is called the two-step gamma distribution conversion. It consists of two steps: (1) splitting the heavy component into single carbon number (SCN) characterization and (2) lumping from the SCN characterization model to the destination fluid model stream. SCN characterization has been proposed as a generic accounting characterization that contains a SCN component up to C80 for a normal reservoir fluid and C200 for a heavy reservoir fluid. To obtain the best result, it is recommended that this conversion be performed phase-wise at the well-connection level. The implementation of the three proposed conversion methods has been demonstrated using a hypothetical integrated petroleum asset model. We believe that the combination of our proposed methods will provide important advances in the integrated asset modeling. The second section of this thesis addresses some key reservoir and production issues related to gas and condensate recovery from Khuff reservoirs in the Middle East - namely Ghawar Khuff, North Field and South Pars. These fields represent somewhere between 1,000 and 2,000 Tcf initial gas in place, with 30 to 70 billion barrels of condensate in place. We apply engineering methods and reservoir simulation to quantify the expected performance of Khuff gas condensate fields for a realistic range of geologic description, petrophysical and fluid properties, and production facilities based on published information. We review key

  17. ASTRID power conversion system: Assessment on steam and gas options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffont, Guy; Cachon, Lionel; Jourdain, Vincent; Fauque, Jean Marie

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: ◆ Two power conversion systems have been investigated for the ASTRID prototype. ◆ Steam PCS: • Most mature system based on a well-developed turbomachinery technology. • High plant efficiency. • Studies on steam generators designs and leak detection systems in progress with the aim of reducing the risk of large SWRs and of limiting its consequences. • Design and licensing safety assessment of a SFR must deal with the Sodium Water Air reaction (SWAR). ◆ Gas PCS: • Strong advantage as it inherently eliminates the SWR and SWAR risks. • Very innovative option: major breakthroughs but feasibility and viability not yet demonstrated. • Remaining technological challenges but no showstopper indentified. • General architecture: investigations in progress to improve performances, operability and maintainability

  18. Safeguards approaches for conversion and gas centrifuge enrichment plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanuch, C.; Whitaker, M.; Lockwood, D.; Boyer, B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes recent studies and investigations of new safeguards measures and inspection tools to strengthen international safeguards at GCEPs (Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants) and conversion plants. The IAEA has indicated that continuous, unattended process monitoring should play a central role in future safeguards approaches for conversion plants and GCEPs. Monitoring safeguards relevant information from accountancy scales, process load cells, and unit header pipes can make existing safeguards approaches more efficient by replacing repetitive, routine, labor-intensive inspection activities with automated systems. These systems can make the safeguards approach more effective by addressing more completely the safeguards objectives at these facilities. Automated collection and analysis of the data can further enable the IAEA to move towards a fully-information driven inspection regime with randomized (from the operator's perspective), short-notice inspections. The reduction in repetitive on-site inspection activities would also be beneficial to plant operators, but only if sensitive and proprietary information can be protected and the new systems prove to be reliable. New facilities that incorporate Safeguards by Design into the earliest design stages can facilitate the effective DIV (Design Information Verification) of the plant to allow the inspectors to analyze the capacity of the plant, to project maximum production from the plant, and to provide a focus on the areas in the plant where credible diversion scenarios could be attempted. Facilitating efficient nuclear material accountancy by simplifying process pipework and making flow measurement points more accessible can allow for easier estimation of plant holdup and a potential reduction in the number of person-days of inspection. Lastly, a universal monitoring standard that tracks the location, movement, and use of UF 6 cylinders may enhance the efficiency of operations at industry sites and would

  19. The H i Chronicles of LITTLE THINGS BCDs. III. Gas Clouds in and around Mrk 178, VII Zw 403, and NGC 3738

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley, Trisha; Simpson, Caroline E.; Pokhrel, Nau Raj [Department of Physics, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, CP 204, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Johnson, Megan, E-mail: trisha.l.ashley@nasa.gov, E-mail: simpsonc@fiu.edu, E-mail: npokh001@fiu.edu, E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: megan.johnson@csiro.au [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 Australia (Australia)

    2017-03-01

    In most blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxies, it remains unclear what triggers their bursts of star formation. We study the H i of three relatively isolated BCDs, Mrk 178, VII Zw 403, and NGC 3738, in detail to look for signatures of star formation triggers, such as gas cloud consumption, dwarf–dwarf mergers, and interactions with companions. High angular and velocity resolution atomic hydrogen (H i) data from the Very Large Array (VLA) dwarf galaxy H i survey, Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes, The H i Nearby Galaxy Survey (LITTLE THINGS), allow us to study the detailed kinematics and morphologies of the BCDs in H i. We also present high-sensitivity H i maps from the NRAO Green Bank Telescope (GBT) of each BCD to search their surrounding regions for extended tenuous emission or companions. The GBT data do not show any distinct galaxies obviously interacting with the BCDs. The VLA data indicate several possible star formation triggers in these BCDs. Mrk 178 likely has a gas cloud impacting the southeast end of its disk or it is experiencing ram pressure stripping. VII Zw 403 has a large gas cloud in its foreground or background that shows evidence of accreting onto the disk. NGC 3738 has several possible explanations for its stellar morphology and H i morphology and kinematics: an advanced merger, strong stellar feedback, or ram pressure stripping. Although apparently isolated, the H i data of all three BCDs indicate that they may be interacting with their environments, which could be triggering their bursts of star formation.

  20. Demonstration of Plasma Assisted Waste Conversion to Gas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal is to demonstrate high fidelity mission waste simulant conversion with a proprietary DC plasma torch, a different approach from industry which uses higher...

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 2: Advanced energy conversion systems. Part 1: Open-cycle gas turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D. H.; Corman, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    Ten energy conversion systems are defined and analyzed in terms of efficiency. These include: open-cycle gas turbine recuperative; open-cycle gas turbine; closed-cycle gas turbine; supercritical CO2 cycle; advanced steam cycle; liquid metal topping cycle; open-cycle MHD; closed-cycle inert gas MHD; closed-cycle liquid metal MHD; and fuel cells. Results are presented.

  2. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: AR-Coal Liquefaction; Gas to Liquids; and Direct Liquefaction. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Energy conversion in space. Particular application of gas cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1986-12-01

    Energy conversion for future space power facilities are highly temperature dependent for heat rejection that can be effected only by radiative transfer. The Brayton cycle is one of the solutions. It has been developed in the USA for nearly 20 years. In France it is now studied for preliminary studies based on nuclear heat source systems. It is briefly presented, some characteristics are given. Present studies of the American space power facility give a concrete example of application [fr

  4. Steam conversion of liquefied petroleum gas and methane in microchannel reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, S. V.; Gasenko, O. A.; Fokin, M. I.; Kuznetsov, V. V.

    2018-03-01

    This study presents experimental results of steam conversion of liquefied petroleum gas and methane in annular catalytic reactor - heat exchanger. The steam reforming was done on the Rh/Al2O3 nanocatalyst with the heat applied through the microchannel gap from the outer wall. Concentrations of the products of chemical reactions in the outlet gas mixture are measured at different temperatures of reactor. The range of channel wall temperatures at which the ratio of hydrogen and carbon oxide in the outlet mixture grows substantially is determined. Data on the composition of liquefied petroleum gas conversion products for the ratio S/C = 5 was received for different GHVS.

  5. Coiled Tube Gas Heaters For Nuclear Gas-Brayton Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2018-03-31

    This project developed an alternative design for heat exchangers for application to heating supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) or air for power conversion. We have identified an annular coiled tube bundle configuration–where hot sodium enters tubes from multiple vertical inlet manifold pipes, flows in a spiral pattern radially inward and downward, and then exits into an equal number of vertical outlet manifold pipes–as a potentially attractive option. The S-CO2 gas or air flows radially outward through the tube bundle. Coiled tube gas heaters (CTGHs) are expected to have excellent thermal shock, long-term thermal creep, in-service inspection, and reparability characteristics, compared to alternative options. CTGHs have significant commonality with modern nuclear steam generators. Extensive experience exists with the design, manufacture, operation, in-service inspection and maintenance of nuclear steam generators. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission also has extensive experience with regulatory guidance documented in NUREG 0800. CTGHs leverage this experience and manufacturing capability. The most important difference between steam generators and gas-Brayton cycles such as the S-CO2 cycle is that the heat exchangers must operate with counter flow with high effectiveness to minimize the pinch-point temperature difference between the hot liquid coolant and the heated gas. S-CO2-cycle gas heaters also operate at sufficiently elevated temperatures that time dependent creep is important and allowable stresses are relatively low. Designing heat exchangers to operate in this regime requires configurations that minimize stresses and stress concentrations. The cylindrical tubes and cylindrical manifold pipes used in CTGHs are particularly effective geometries. The first major goal of this research project was to develop and experimentally validate a detailed, 3-D multi-phase (gas-solid-liquid) heat transport model for

  6. GMASS ultradeep spectroscopy of galaxies at z ~ 2 - VII. Star formation, extinction, and gas outflows from UV spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Talia, M.; Mignoli, M.; Cimatti, A.; Kurk, J.; Berta, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Cassata, P.; Daddi, E.; Dickinson, M.; Franceschini, A.; Halliday, C.; Pozzetti, L.; Renzini, A.; Rodighiero, G.; Rosati, P.

    2011-01-01

    We use rest-frame UV spectroscopy to investigate the properties related to large-scale gas outflows, and to the dust extinction and star-formation rates of a sample of z ~ 2 star-forming galaxies from the Galaxy Mass Assembly ultradeep Spectroscopic Survey (GMASS). Dust extinction is estimated from the rest-frame UV continuum slope and used to obtain dust-corrected star-formation rates for the galaxies of the sample. For the entire sample, a mean value of the continuum slope = -1.11 \\pm 0.44...

  7. Gas conversion opportunities in LILCO's commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation into opportunities for gas conservation in Long Island Lighting Company's commercial sector. It focusses on gas-fired heating equipment. Various sources of data are examined in order to characterize the commercial buildings and equipment in the service territory. Several key pieces of information necessary to predict savings potential are identified. These include the efficiencies and size distribution of existing equipment. Twenty-one specific conservation measures are identified and their applicability is discussed in terms of equipment size. Recommendations include improving the characterization of existing buildings and equipment, and developing a greater understanding of the savings and costs of conservation measures, and their interactions, especially in the middle size range of buildings and equipment.

  8. Gas conversion opportunities in LILCO`s commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, B.

    1993-03-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary investigation into opportunities for gas conservation in Long Island Lighting Company`s commercial sector. It focusses on gas-fired heating equipment. Various sources of data are examined in order to characterize the commercial buildings and equipment in the service territory. Several key pieces of information necessary to predict savings potential are identified. These include the efficiencies and size distribution of existing equipment. Twenty-one specific conservation measures are identified and their applicability is discussed in terms of equipment size. Recommendations include improving the characterization of existing buildings and equipment, and developing a greater understanding of the savings and costs of conservation measures, and their interactions, especially in the middle size range of buildings and equipment.

  9. HTGR accident initiation and progression analysis status report. Volume VII. Occupational radiation exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    As a part of the Accident Initiation and Progression Analysis (AIPA) program, calculations were performed of the occupational dose rates and man-rem exposures from gas-borne and plateout activities in a reference 3000-MW(t) HTGR plant. The study included a preliminary survey to determine the most important contributors by operation or radiation source to the man-rem exposures. This survey was followed by detailed calculations for the most important cases. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per year were obtained for the gaseous activity in the containment building, moisture monitor system, analytic instrumentation, helium regeneration system, gas waste system, and reflector-block shipping. Median and 95 percent-confidence-level man-rem exposures per operation were obtained for the main-circulator removal, steam-generator tube plugging, and steam-generator removal and replacement. For each of these cases, the contributions to the man-rem exposures were calculated for the important isotopes

  10. Design study on evaluation for power conversion system concepts in high temperature gas cooled reactor with gas turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minatsuki, Isao; Mizokami, Yorikata

    2007-01-01

    The design studies on High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor with Gas Turbine (HTGR-GT) have been performed, which were mainly promoted by Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and supported by fabricators in Japan. HTGR-GT plant feature is almost determined by selection of power conversion system concepts. Therefore, plant design philosophy is observed characteristically in selection of them. This paper describes the evaluation and analysis of the essential concepts of the HTGR-GT power conversion system through the investigations based on our experiences and engineering knowledge as a fabricator. As a result, the following concepts were evaluated that have advantages against other competitive one, such as the horizontal turbo machine rotor, the turbo machine in an individual vessel, the turbo machine with single shaft, the generator inside the power conversion vessel, and the power conversion system cycle with an intercooler. The results of the study can contribute as reference data when the concepts will be selected. Furthermore, we addressed reasonableness about the concept selection of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor GTHTR300 power conversion system, which has been promoted by JAEA. As a conclusion, we recognized the GTHTR300 would be one of the most promising concepts for commercialization in near future. (author)

  11. Conversion of individual natural gas to district heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd; Lund, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    energy production. The present paper describes a geographical study of the potential to expand district heating into areas supplied with natural gas. The study uses a highly detailed spatial database of the built environment, its current and potential future energy demand, its supply technologies and its....... The analyses suggest to expand district heating from present 46% to somewhere in between 50% and 70%. The most attractive potential is located around towns and cities. The study also suggests that CO2-emissions, fuel consumption and socioeconomic costs can be reduced by expanding district heating, while...... location relative to energy infrastructure. First, using a spatially explicit economic model, the study calculates the potentials and costs of connection to expanded district heating networks by supply technology. Then a comprehensive energy systems analysis is carried out to model how the new district...

  12. Conversion of associated natural gas to liquid hydrocarbons. Final report, June 1, 1995--January 31, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The original concept envisioned for the use of Fischer-Tropsch processing (FTP) of United States associated natural gas in this study was to provide a way of utilizing gas which could not be brought to market because a pipeline was not available or for which there was no local use. Conversion of gas by FTP could provide a means of utilizing offshore associated gas which would not require installation of a pipeline or re-injection. The premium quality F-T hydrocarbons produced by conversion of the gas can be transported in the same way as the crude oil or in combination (blended) with it, eliminating the need for a separate gas transport system. FTP will produce a synthetic crude oil, thus increasing the effective size of the resource. The two conventional approaches currently used in US territory for handling of natural gas associated with crude petroleum production are re-injection and pipelining. Conversion of natural gas to a liquid product which can be transported to shore by tanker can be accomplished by FTP to produce hydrocarbons, or by conversion to chemical products such as methanol or ammonia, or by cryogenic liquefaction (LNG). This study considers FTP and briefly compares it to methanol and LNG. The Energy International Corporation cobalt catalyst, ratio adjusted, slurry bubble column F-T process was used as the basis for the study and the comparisons. An offshore F-T plant can best be accommodated by an FPSO (Floating Production, Storage, Offloading vessel) based on a converted surplus tanker, such as have been frequently used around the world recently. Other structure types used in deep water (platforms) are more expensive and cannot handle the required load.

  13. Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor heat source for coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleicher, R.W. Jr.; Lewis, A.C.

    1992-09-01

    In the industrial nations, transportable fuels in the form of natural gas and petroleum derivatives constitute a primary energy source nearly equivalent to that consumed for generating electric power. Nations with large coal deposits have the option of coal conversion to meet their transportable fuel demands. But these processes themselves consume huge amounts of energy and produce undesirable combustion by-products. Therefore, this represents a major opportunity to apply nuclear energy for both the environmental and energy conservation reasons. Because the most desirable coal conversion processes take place at 800 degree C or higher, only the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (HTGRs) have the potential to be adapted to coal conversion processes. This report provides a discussion of this utilization of HTGR reactors

  14. The use of gas based energy conversion cycles for sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saez, M.; Haubensack, D.; Alpy, N.; Gerber, A.; Daid, F.

    2008-01-01

    In the frame of Sodium Fast Reactors, CEA, AREVA and EDF are involved in a substantial effort providing both significant expertise and original work in order to investigate the interest to use a gas based energy conversion cycle as an alternative to the classical steam cycle. These gas cycles consist in different versions of the Brayton cycle, various types of gas being considered (helium, nitrogen, argon, separately or mixed, sub or supercritical carbon dioxide) as well as various cycle arrangements (indirect, indirect / combined cycles). The interest of such cycles is analysed in details by thermodynamic calculations and cycle optimisations. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison between gas based energy conversion cycles from the viewpoint of the overall plant efficiency. Key factors affecting the Brayton cycle efficiency include the turbine inlet temperature, compressors and turbine efficiencies, recuperator effectiveness and cycle pressure losses. A nitrogen Brayton cycle at high pressure (between 100 and 180 bar) could appear as a potential near-term solution of classical gas power conversion system for maximizing the plant efficiency. At long-term, supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle appears very promising for Sodium Fast Reactors, with a potential of high efficiency using even at a core outlet temperature of 545 deg. C. (authors)

  15. Gas turbine power conversion systems for modular HTGRs. Report of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-08-01

    The Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) on Gas Turbine Power Conversion Systems for Modular HTGRs held in Palo Alto, California, USA was convened by the IAEA on the recommendation of its International Working Group on Gas Cooled Reactors (IWGGCR). The meeting was attended by 27 participants from 9 Member States (Argentina, China, France, Japan, Netherlands, Russian Federation, South Africa, United Kingdom and the United States of America). In addition to presentations on relevant technology development activities in participating Member States, 16 technical papers were presented covering the areas of: Power conversion system design; Power conversion system analysis; and Power conversion system component design. A panel discussion was held on technology issues associated with gas turbine modular HTGR power conversion systems and the potential for international collaboration to address these issues. The purpose of this Technical Committee Meeting was to foster the international exchange of information and perspectives on gas turbine power conversion systems and components for modular HTGRs. The overall objectives were to provide: a current overview of designs under consideration; information on the commercial availability or development status of key components; exchange of information on the issues involved and potential solutions; identification of further development needs for both initial deployment and longer term performance enhancement, and the potential for addressing needs through international collaboration. The following conclusions and recommendations were identified as a result of the discussions at the meeting. International review and collaboration is of interest for China and Japan in the planning and conduct of their test programs: both the HTTR and HTR-10 reactor projects are exploring scale model testing of a gas turbine, with the HTTR project considering a 7 MWt gas heated loop, and HTR-10 a direct or indirect cycle connected to the reactor; the HTR

  16. Test Results From a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.

    2009-01-01

    The Brayton Power Conversion Unit (BPCU) located at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, OH is a closed cycle system incorporating a turboaltemator, recuperator, and gas cooler connected by gas ducts to an external gas heater. For this series of tests, the BPCU was modified by replacing the gas heater with the Direct Drive Gas heater or DOG. The DOG uses electric resistance heaters to simulate a fast spectrum nuclear reactor similar to those proposed for space power applications. The combined system thermal transient behavior was the focus of these tests. The BPCU was operated at various steady state points. At each point it was subjected to transient changes involving shaft rotational speed or DOG electrical input. This paper outlines the changes made to the test unit and describes the testing that took place along with the test results.

  17. Homosexuals and Title VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan R.; Galvan, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    A method of dealing with the problems of discrimination against homosexuals in private employment through the application of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is discussed. The scope of the paper is limited to male homosexuals. (LBH)

  18. Chemical conversion of natural gas. Final report; Kjemisk konvertering av naturgass. Sluttrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonsen, Haavard

    2000-07-01

    This report presents examples of gas research of a high international class. This research has strengthened the technological position of Norwegian industry in the field of gas utilization, which will be of great importance for Norwegian industry, nationally and internationally. The competence of the research and development institutions has been further developed within the subjects of catalysis, reactor technology and chemical engineering. These subjects are of central importance irrespective of whether or not the gas is to be utilized with or without CO{sub 2} deposition, for synthetic diesel, for methanol, for olefins, for proteins, for hydrogen or other purposes. The main purpose of the programme discussed was to educate PhDs and to develop skill of strategic importance for Norwegian industry. There are sections on synthesis gas, direct conversion, methanol to olefins, fluidized bed reactors and system technology.

  19. Coordinated Operation of the Electricity and Natural Gas Systems with Bi-directional Energy Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Zhang, Baohua; Fang, Jiakun

    2017-01-01

    A coordinated operation of the natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables. This work focuses on the unified optimal operation of the integrated natural gas and electricity system considering the network...... constraints in both systems. An iterative method is proposed to deal with the nonlinearity in the proposed model. The models of the natural gas and power system are linearized in every iterative step. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Applicability of the proposed method...... is tested in the sample case. Finally, the effect of Power to Gas (P2G) on the daily economic dispatch is also investigated....

  20. The direct conversion of synthesis gas to chemicals / Ernest du Toit

    OpenAIRE

    Du Toit, Ernest

    2002-01-01

    The catalytic conversion of synthesis gas, obtainable from the processing of coal, biomass or natural gas, to a complex hydrocarbon product stream can be achieved via the Fischer-Tropsch process. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process has evolved from being mainly a fuel producing process in the early 1950's to that of a solvent and speciality wax production process towards the end of the 1970's. From the early 1980's there has been a clear shift towards the production of commod...

  1. Highly integrated CO2 capture and conversion: Direct synthesis of cyclic carbonates from industrial flue gas

    KAUST Repository

    Barthel, Alexander

    2016-02-08

    Robust and selective catalytic systems based on early transition metal halides (Y, Sc, Zr) and organic nucleophiles were found able to quantitatively capture CO2 from diluted streams via formation of hemicarbonate species and to convert it to cyclic organic carbonates under ambient conditions. This observation was exploited in the direct and selective chemical fixation of flue gas CO2 collected from an industrial exhaust, affording high degrees of CO2 capture and conversion.

  2. Methane-Oxidizing Enzymes: An Upstream Problem in Biological Gas-to-Liquids Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton, Thomas J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2016-01-01

    Biological conversion of natural gas to liquids (Bio-GTL) represents an immense economic opportunity. In nature, aerobic methanotrophic bacteria and anaerobic archaea are able to selectively oxidize methane using methane monooxygenase (MMO) and methyl coenzyme M reductase (MCR) enzymes. Although significant progress has been made toward genetically manipulating these organisms for biotechnological applications, the enzymes themselves are slow, complex, and not recombinantly tractable in tradi...

  3. Nitric oxide-to-nitrogen dioxide conversion rates at a natural gas compressor station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, T.H.; Gebhart, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    An ambient air quality measurements program collected NO x data for a year at a natural gas compressor station located in the southwestern United States. This monitoring program had the unique characteristic of measuring ambient NO x concentrations at a remote location that was virtually free of NO sources other than the compressor station. These measurements indicate that the only source of NO x emissions in the area comes from the combustion of natural gas by the compressor station turbines. Thus, increases in NO 2 calculation of NO-to-NO 2 conversion rates. These results indicate 22 percent of the compressor station NO x emissions were converted to NO 2 in the near field. Regulatory modeling methods often assume that all NO x emissions exist as NO 2 . In an environment where ozone concentrations are relatively low, however, NO 2 concentrations are commonly calculated using the ozone limiting method (OLM), wherein NO conversion to NO 2 is limited by the amount of ozone present. Results from the measurement program show that the OLM generally overpredicts NO 2 concentrations in the near field. A partial conversion method is more suitable for predicting NO 2 concentrations for low-level natural gas combustion sources

  4. Biomass and fossil fuel conversion by pressurised fluidised bed gasification using hot gas ceramic filters as gas cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, Wiebren de; Uenal, Oemer; Andries, Jans; Hein, K.R.G.; Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    Gasification of biomass and fossil fuels, hot gas cleanup using a ceramic filter and combustion of LCV product gas in a combustor were performed using a 1.5 MWth test rig (pressurised bubbling fluidised bed gasifier) at Delft University and a 10-50 kWth system at Stuttgart University (DWSA) in the framework of experimental research on efficient, environmentally acceptable large-scale power generators based on fluidised bed gasification. The influence of operating conditions (pressure, temperature, stoichiometric ratio) on gasification (gas composition, conversion grades) was studied. The gasifiers were operated in a pressure range of 0.15-0.7 MPa and maximum temperatures of ca. 900 deg. C. The Delft gasifier has a 2 m high bed zone (diameter: 0.4 m) followed by a freeboard approximately 4 m high (diameter: 0.5 m). The IVD gasifier has a diameter of 0.1 m and a reactor length of 4 m. Carbon conversions during wood, miscanthus and brown coal gasification experiments were well above 80%. Fuel-nitrogen conversion to ammonia was above ca. 50% and the highest values were observed for biomass. The results are in line with other investigations with biomass bottom feeding. Deviation occurs compared with top feeding. Measurements are compared with simulation results of a reaction-kinetics-based model, using ASPEN PLUS, related to emission of components like fuel-nitrogen-derived species. Data from literature regarding initial biomass flash pyrolysis in the gasification process are used in the gasifier model and will be compared with simulation results from the FG-DVC model. Measurements and model predictions were in reasonably good agreement with each other

  5. City of Rio de Janeiro's Gas Distribution Network Conversion Program; Projeto de conversao do Sistema de Distribuicao de Gas Canalizado do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Filho, Manoel A.F.; Pallottino, Joao T. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, Jose M. [Companhia Distribuidora de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    This paper discusses the Conversion Program of Rio de Janeiro city, from Town Gas to Natural Gas, looking for evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting mainly those related to consumer's safety. The Conversion Program is been implemented under Companhia Distribuidora de Gas do Rio de Janeiro (CEG) supervision, with support of Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ) in service's quality appraisal and conversion technical procedure elaboration and review. This partnership has started in 2001 and 46% of all residential and commercial customers have already been converted up to July 2004. Conversion Program is divided into the following Phases: Design and Planning, Gas Distribution Network Renovation and Adaptation, Revision, Post-Revision, Conversion and Post-Conversion. This Program may serve as model for similar programs, to be developed in other cities where Natural Gas will be distributed, displacing the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and it is one contribution to achieve the federal governmental goal of 12%-NG-participation within Brazilian Energetic Matrix in 2010. (author)

  6. Conversion of a diesel engine to a spark ignition natural gas engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Requirements for alternatives to diesel-fueled vehicles are developing, particularly in urban centers not in compliance with mandated air quality standards. An operator of fleets of diesel- powered vehicles may be forced to either purchase new vehicles or equip some of the existing fleets with engines designed or modified to run on alternative fuels. In converting existing vehicles, the operator can either replace the existing engine or modify it to burn an alternative fuel. Work described in this report addresses the problem of modifying an existing diesel engine to operate on natural gas. Tecogen has developed a technique for converting turbocharged automotive diesel engines to operate as dedicated spark-ignition engines with natural gas fuel. The engine cycle is converted to a more-complete-expansion cycle in which the expansion ratio of the original engine is unchanged while the effective compression ratio is lowered, so that engine detonation is avoided. The converted natural gas engine, with an expansion ratio higher than in conventional spark- ignition natural gas engines, offers thermal efficiency at wide-open- throttle conditions comparable to its diesel counterpart. This allows field conversion of existing engines. Low exhaust emissions can be achieved when the engine is operated with precise control of the fuel air mixture at stoichiometry with a 3-way catalyst. A Navistar DTA- 466 diesel engine with an expansion ratio of 16.5 to 1 was converted in this way, modifying the cam profiles, increasing the turbocharger boost pressure, incorporating an aftercooler if not already present, and adding a spark-ignition system, natural gas fuel management system, throttle body for load control, and an electronic engine control system. The proof-of-concept engine achieved a power level comparable to that of the diesel engine without detonation. A conversion system was developed for the Navistar DT 466 engine. NOx emissions of 1.5 g/bhp-h have been obtained.

  7. Critical evaluation of high-temperature gas-cooled reactors applicable to coal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiewak, I.; Jones, J.E. Jr.; Rittenhouse, P.L.; DeStefano, J.R.; Delene, J.G.

    1975-12-01

    A critical review is presented of the technology and costs of very high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (VHTRs) applicable to nuclear coal conversion. Coal conversion processes suitable for coupling to reactors are described. Vendor concepts of the VHTR are summarized. The materials requirements as a function of process temperature in the range 1400 to 2000 0 F are analyzed. Components, environmental and safety factors, economics and nuclear fuel cycles are reviewed. It is concluded that process heat supply in the range 1400 to 1500 0 F could be developed with a high degree of assurance. Process heat at 1600 0 F would require considerably more materials development. While temperatures up to 2000 0 F appear to be attainable, considerably more research and risk were involved. A demonstration plant would be required as a step in the commercialization of the VHTR

  8. Test Results from a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Component level testing of power conversion units proposed for use in fission surface power systems has typically been done using relatively simple electric heaters for thermal input. These heaters do not adequately represent the geometry or response of proposed reactors. As testing of fission surface power systems transitions from the component level to the system level it becomes necessary to more accurately replicate these reactors using reactor simulators. The Direct Drive Gas-Brayton Power Conversion Unit test activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center integrates a reactor simulator with an existing Brayton test rig. The response of the reactor simulator to a change in Brayton shaft speed is shown as well as the response of the Brayton to an insertion of reactivity, corresponding to a drum reconfiguration. The lessons learned from these tests can be used to improve the design of future reactor simulators which can be used in system level fission surface power tests.

  9. Natural gas conversion program of Rio de Janeiro-Brazil; Projeto de conversao do sistema de distribuicao de gas canalizado na cidade do Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallottino, J.T.; Costa Filho, M.A.F.; Guarana, L.F.M.L. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil); Margalef, J.M. [Companhia Estadual de Gas (CEG), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the Conversion Project of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, that converted all customers and the distribution network from Manufactured Gas (MG) to Natural Gas (NG), evaluating its logistic and benefits, highlighting those related to consumer safety. The Conversion Project was executed under the responsibility of CEG with the support of UERJ, specially on the definition and revision of the technical procedures as well as the quality assurance of the project execution. As main advantages followed by MG to NG network conversion, we can note: increasing of gas distribution network capacity and gas network operational condition improvements; elimination of production plant; revision and renovation of gas network; revision and repairing of building gas facilities; augmenting of NG usage; elimination of carbon monoxide as a supplied gas constituent. Conservation condition of most consumer internal gas facilities and ambient ventilation were so critical that conversion program resulted in no measurable accident prevention. The achieved safety level should be maintained through a periodically re-evaluation program of customer's gas facilities and appliances, with special focus on permanent ventilation required for NG safety usage. (author)

  10. Conversion of the Cognac furnace (Saint Gobain Emballage firm) to natural gas; Conversion du four Saint-Gobain emballage de cognac au gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-04-01

    Saint Gobain makes at the present time investments for the treatment of liquid, solid and gaseous effluents. Recently, a furnace has been converted to natural gas at Cognac. This conversion and the use of low NO{sub x} burner systems to abate the pollutants discharges reveal the actions made to improve the environment protection. (O.M.)

  11. Conversion of deuterium gas to heavy water by catalytic isotopic exchange using wetproof catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaiattini, R.J.; McGauley, M.P.; Burns, D.L.; Tichler, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    The invention at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories of a simple method of wetproofing platinum catalysts allows them to retain their activity in liquid water. High performance catalysts for the hydrogen-water isotope exchange reaction that remain active for years can now be routinely produced. The first commercial application using the ordered-bed-type wetproofed isotope exchange catalyst developed and patented by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. has been successfully completed. Approximately 9100 m/sup 3/ of deuterium gas stored at Brookhaven National Laboratory was converted to high grade heavy water. Conversion efficiency exceeded 99.8%. The product D/sub 2/O concentration was 6.7 percentage points higher than the feed D/sub 2/ gas

  12. Conversion of forest residues to a methane-rich gas: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, H.G.; Paisley, M.A.; Appelbaum, H.R.

    1986-03-01

    A process is being developed that produces a fuel gas with a heating value of 500 Btu/SCF from diverse forms of biomass, including shredded bark, wood chips, and sawdust. The system uses a high throughput, non-oxygen gasifier that employs sand circulation to supply process heat. Results obtained with a 10-inch I.D. gasifier are presented and compared with those in a 6-inch I.D. reactor. Feed rates up to 12 tons/day (dry) have been achieved corresponding to a specific wood throughput of 2000 lbs/ft/sup 2/-hr. Gas compositions in the two reactors are in excellent agreement and performance in the larger reactor, as measured by carbon conversion, is significantly improved. Cost projections comparing this process with direct combustion are presented that indicate gasification technology should have very significant cost advantages for both generation of plant steam and cogeneration of electricity. 5 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. Final report, August 31, 1990--September 3, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, R.; Klasson, K.T.; Johnson, E.R.; Takriff, M.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1993-09-01

    Based upon the results of this culture screening study, Rhodospirillum rubrum is recommended for biocatalysis of the water gas shift reaction and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is recommended for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Both bacteria require tungsten light for growth and can be co-cultured together if H{sub 2}S conversion is not complete (required concentration of at least 1 ppM), thereby presenting H{sub 2} uptake by Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum. COS degradation may be accomplished by utilizing various CO-utilizing bacteria or by indirectly converting COS to elemental sulfur after the COS first undergoes reaction to H{sub 2} in water. The second alternative is probably preferred due to the low expected concentration of COS relative to H{sub 2}S. Mass transfer and kinetic studies were carried out for the Rhodospirillum rubrum and Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum bacterial systems. Rhodospirillum rubrum is a photosynthetic anaerobic bacterium which catalyzes the biological water gas shift reaction: CO + H{sub 2}O {yields} CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}. Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum is also a photosynthetic anaerobic bacteria, and converts H{sub 2}S and COS to elemental sulfur.

  14. Gas-to-particle conversion in the atmospheric environment by radiation-induced and photochemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years a fascinating new area of research involving ionizing radiations and photochemistry in gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere has been developing at a rapid pace. Two problems of major interest and concern in which this is of paramount importance are: (1) radiation induced and photochemical aerosol formation in the stratosphere and, (2) role of radiations and photochemistry in smog formation. The peak in cosmic ray intensity and significant solar UV flux in the stratosphere lead to complex variety of reactions involving major and trace constituents in this region of the atmosphere, and some of these reactions are of vital importance in aerosol formation. The problem is of great current interest because the pollutant gases from industrial sources and future SST operations entering the stratosphere could increase the aerosol burden in the stratosphere and affect the solar energy input of the troposphere with consequent ecological and climatic changes. On the other hand, in the nuclear era, the atmospheric releases from reactors and processing plants could lead to changes in the cloud nucleation behaviour of the environment and possible increase in smog formation in the areas with significant levels of radiations and conventional pollutants. A review of the earlier work, current status of the problem, and conventional pollutants. A review of the earlier work, current status of the problem, and some recent results of the experiments conducted in the author's laboratory are presented. The possible mechanisms of gas-to-particle conversion in the atmosphere have been explained

  15. R and D on the power conversion system for gas turbine high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizuka, Takakazu; Takada, Shoji; Yan Xing; Kosugiyama, Shinichi; Katanishi, Shoji; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    JAERI is conducting R and D on the power conversion system of the GTHTR300 plant, in parallel with plant design work. The design of the power conversion system is based on a regenerative, non-intercooled, closed Brayton cycle with helium gas as the working fluid. A single-shaft, axial-flow turbo-compressor and a directly coupled electric generator run on magnetic bearings. Major R and D issues for the power conversion system are aerodynamic performance of the helium gas compressor, high load capacity magnetic bearings and performance of magnetic bearing supported rotor, and operability and controllability of the closed-cycle gas turbine system. Three test plans were set up to address theses issues, aiming at verifying the design of the GTHTR300 power conversion system and establishing key technologies of a closed-cycle helium gas turbine system. The compressor aerodynamic performance test is aiming at verifying the aerodynamic performance and design method of the helium compressor. A 1/3-scale, four-stage compressor test model and a helium gas loop were designed and fabricated. The model was designed to simulate the repeating stage flow, and at the same time have satisfactorily high machining precision, Reynolds number and measurement accuracy. The helium gas operating pressure is varied to investigate the effects of the Reynolds number on the efficiency and surge margin. Two sets of blades were fabricated to evaluate the effects of the end-wall over-camber angle. Test results will provide the basis for further improvement in the GTHTR300 compressor design. The magnetic bearing development test is aiming at developing the technology of the magnetic bearing supported rotor system. The test rig composed of 1/3-scale turbo-compressor and generator rotor models that are connected together by a flexible coupling. Each rotor models are supported by two radial magnetic bearings with a high load capacity that is about 1/10 of the GTHTR300 design. The rotor models were

  16. The coupling effect of gas-phase chemistry and surface reactions on oxygen permeation and fuel conversion in ITM reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2015-08-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The effect of the coupling between heterogeneous catalytic reactions supported by an ion transport membrane (ITM) and gas-phase chemistry on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation in ITM reactors is examined. In ITM reactors, thermochemical reactions take place in the gas-phase and on the membrane surface, both of which interact with oxygen permeation. However, this coupling between gas-phase and surface chemistry has not been examined in detail. In this study, a parametric analysis using numerical simulations is conducted to investigate this coupling and its impact on fuel conversion and oxygen permeation rates. A thermochemical model that incorporates heterogeneous chemistry on the membrane surface and detailed chemical kinetics in the gas-phase is used. Results show that fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are strongly influenced by the simultaneous action of both chemistries. It is shown that the coupling somewhat suppresses the gas-phase kinetics and reduces fuel conversion, both attributed to extensive thermal energy transfer towards the membrane which conducts it to the air side and radiates to the reactor walls. The reaction pathway and products, in the form of syngas and C2 hydrocarbons, are also affected. In addition, the operating regimes of ITM reactors in which heterogeneous- or/and homogeneous-phase reactions predominantly contribute to fuel conversion and oxygen permeation are elucidated.

  17. Conversion of KVGM-100-150 boilers to cyclone-swirl burning of gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtym, K. A.; Solov'eva, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    Heating sources of Vladivostok with boilers reconstructed in 2011 to gas burning is presented. The historical reference of the experience of boiler conversion to cyclone-swirl technology of burning of fuel oil and gas is given. Stages of the primary furnace and boiler upgrading are shown. Taking BKZ 75-16 and BKZ-120-100 boilers as examples, the principal differences of the swirl type of fuel burning from the burner type are demonstrated. Data of the KVGM-100-150 MTs boiler with cyclone-swirl burning of gas and fuel oil is represented. The mathematical model developed for the primary furnace with the 65 MW capacity gives detailed explanations to the features of mixing in the combustion chamber of the primary furnace, which substantiate conditions and places of the fuel injection. The practical result is supported by test data obtained on the operating equipment. To enhance the effectiveness of fuel consumption on six converted KVGM-100-150 MTs boilers, the convective section was restructured and the water circulation circuit was optimized. Comparative analysis of estimated and operating characteristics showed the efficiency increment. The application of cyclone-swirl technology made it possible to increase the effectiveness of the KVGM-100-150 boiler and improve its environmental indicators.

  18. Life-cycle-assessment of fuel-cells-based landfill-gas energy conversion technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunghi, P.; Bove, R.; Desideri, U.

    Landfill-gas (LFG) is produced as result of the biological reaction of municipal solid waste (MSW). This gas contains about 50% of methane, therefore it cannot be released into the atmosphere as it is because of its greenhouse effect consequences. The high percentage of methane encouraged researchers to find solutions to recover the related energy content for electric energy production. The most common technologies used at the present time are internal combustion reciprocating engines and gas turbines. High conversion efficiency guaranteed by fuel cells (FCs) enable to enhance the energy recovery process and to reduce emissions to air, such as NO x and CO. In any case, in order to investigate the environmental advantages associated with the electric energy generation using fuel cells, it is imperative to consider the whole "life cycle" of the system, "from cradle-to-grave". In fact, fuel cells are considered to be zero-emission devices, but, for example, emissions associated with their manufacture or for hydrogen production must be considered in order to evaluate all impacts on the environment. In the present work a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) system for LFG recovery is considered and a life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted for an evaluation of environmental consequences and to provide a guide for further environmental impact reduction.

  19. CO2 abatement costs of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation by different biogas conversion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehl, T; Müller, J

    2013-01-15

    Biogas will be of increasing importance in the future as a factor in reducing greenhouse gas emissions cost-efficiently by the optimal use of available resources and technologies. The goal of this study was to identify the most ecological and economical use of a given resource (organic waste from residential, commercial and industry sectors) using one specific treatment technology (anaerobic digestion) but applying different energy conversion technologies. Average and marginal abatement costs were calculated based on Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies. Eight new biogas systems producing electricity, heat, gas or automotive fuel were analyzed in order to identify the most cost-efficient way of reducing GHG emissions. A system using a combined heat and power station (which is connected to waste treatment and digestion operation facilities and located nearby potential residential, commercial or industrial heat users) was found to be the most cost-efficient biogas technology for reducing GHG emissions. Up to € 198 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents can be saved by replacing the "business as usual" systems based on fossil resources with ones based on biogas. Limited gas injection (desulfurized and dried biogas, without compression and upgrading) into the gas grid can also be a viable option with an abatement cost saving of € 72 per tonne of CO(2) equivalents, while a heating plant with a district heating grid or a system based on biogas results in higher abatement costs (€ 267 and € 270 per tonne CO(2) eq). Results from all systems are significantly influenced by whether average or marginal data are used as a reference. Beside that energy efficiency, the reference system that was replaced and the by-products as well as feedstock and investment costs were identified to be parameters with major impacts on abatement costs. The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of the role that abatement cost methodology can play in

  20. Promoted Iron Nanocrystals Obtained via Ligand Exchange as Active and Selective Catalysts for Synthesis Gas Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casavola, Marianna; Xie, Jingxiu; Meeldijk, Johannes D; Krans, Nynke A; Goryachev, Andrey; Hofmann, Jan P; Dugulan, A Iulian; de Jong, Krijn P

    2017-08-04

    Colloidal synthesis routes have been recently used to fabricate heterogeneous catalysts with more controllable and homogeneous properties. Herein a method was developed to modify the surface composition of colloidal nanocrystal catalysts and to purposely introduce specific atoms via ligands and change the catalyst reactivity. Organic ligands adsorbed on the surface of iron oxide catalysts were exchanged with inorganic species such as Na 2 S, not only to provide an active surface but also to introduce controlled amounts of Na and S acting as promoters for the catalytic process. The catalyst composition was optimized for the Fischer-Tropsch direct conversion of synthesis gas into lower olefins. At industrially relevant conditions, these nanocrystal-based catalysts with controlled composition were more active, selective, and stable than catalysts with similar composition but synthesized using conventional methods, possibly due to their homogeneity of properties and synergic interaction of iron and promoters.

  1. Design study of power conversion system for the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Shoji; Takizuka, Takakazu; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Yan, Xing; Katanishi, Shoji; Kosugiyama, Shinichi; Miyoshi, Yasuyuki

    2002-01-01

    A design study of the power conversion system for the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor (GTHTR300) was carried out. The study aimed at reducing the total mass of main system components, which simplified system configuration by selecting the non-inter-cooled cycle, and improvement of the performance of power conversion components to enhance economics. The 3-dimensional aerodynamic design of the turbine and compressor achieved high polytropic efficiencies of 93 and 90%, respectively, while reducing the differential thrust of the turbo-compressor to 10 kN as well as keeping a high surge margin of 30% for the compressor, which made it possible to attain a high power conversion efficiency of 45.8%. A horizontal turbo-machine layout, in which the turbo-compressor and generator rotors were connected by a diaphragm-coupling, was proposed to lessen the load requirements for magnetic bearings. The turbo-machine rotor, which passed over critical speeds of bending mode, fulfilled the standard limit of vibration amplitude of 75 μm at the rated rotational speed by optimizing the stiffness of the magnetic bearings. The main focus of the heat exchanger design was size and mass minimization, while fulfilling the target temperature efficiency of 95%. The plate-fin type recuperator employed an off-set fin arrangement, having a square cross section of 1.2 mm x 1.2 mm. The pre-cooler employed helical-coil tubes with low lateral fins. The present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  2. Conversion of hot coke oven gas into light fuel gas over Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.Y.; Morishita, K.; Takarada, T. [Gunma University, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Biology & Chemical Engineering

    2006-04-15

    Conversion of hot coke oven gas (COG, containing tarry material) into light fuel gas over a Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst was studied. Laboratory scale tests were carried out in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor at ambient pressure. The nickel catalyst promoted the hydropyrolysis reaction of tarry materials. High yields of total product gas and methane were obtained at high hydrogen concentrations. If the hydrogen supply was adequate for hydropyrolysis of the tarry material, conversion of coal volatiles was high, at more than 95% on carbon balance, even with a gas residence time as short as 0.15 s in the catalyst bed. The product gas yield depended on catalytic temperature. At 923 K, the maximum conversion of coal volatiles into the light gas was achieved at 95.0% on carbon balance, with methane 86.7 vol% of the carbonaceous gas product. Although carbon deposits deactivated the catalyst after a long period of use, the catalyst could be regenerated by treatment with oxygen at 800 K, providing high activity in subsequent decomposition of tarry material. The influence of sulphide on the tarry material decomposition reaction was small even in a 2000 ppm H{sub 2}S atmosphere.

  3. Catalytic and Noncatalytic Conversion of Methane to Olefins and Synthesis Gas in an AC Parallel Plate Discharge Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Khodagholi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct conversion of methane to ethylene, acetylene, and synthesis gas at ambient pressure and temperature in a parallel plate discharge reactor was investigated. The experiments were carried out using a quartz reactor of outer diameter of 9 millimeter and a driving force of ac current of 50 Hz. The input power to the reactor to establish a stable gas discharge varied from 9.6 to maximum 15.3 watts (w. The effects of ZSM5, Fe–ZSM5, and Ni–ZSM5 catalysts combined with corona discharge for conversion of methane to more valued products have been addressed. It was found that in presence or absence of a catalyst in gas discharge reactor, the rate of methane and oxygen conversion increased upon higher input power supplied to the reactor. The effect of Fe–ZSM5 catalyst combined with gas discharge plasma yields C2 hydrocarbons up to 21.9%, which is the highest productions of C2 hydrocarbons in this work. The effect of combined Ni–ZSM5 and gas discharge plasma was mainly production of synthesis gas. The advantage of introducing ZSM5 to the plasma zone was increase in synthesis gas and acetylene production. The highest energy efficiency was 0.22 mmol/kJ, which belongs to lower rate of energy injection to the reactor.

  4. Greenhouse gas balance of cropland conversion to bioenergy poplar short-rotation coppice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatini, S.; Arriga, N.; Bertolini, T.; Castaldi, S.; Chiti, T.; Consalvo, C.; Njakou Djomo, S.; Gioli, B.; Matteucci, G.; Papale, D.

    2016-01-01

    The production of bioenergy in Europe is one of the strategies conceived to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The suitability of the land use change from a cropland (REF site) to a short-rotation coppice plantation of hybrid poplar (SRC site) was investigated by comparing the GHG budgets of these two systems over 24 months in Viterbo, Italy. This period corresponded to a single rotation of the SRC site. The REF site was a crop rotation between grassland and winter wheat, i.e. the same management of the SRC site before the conversion to short-rotation coppice. Eddy covariance measurements were carried out to quantify the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 (FCO2), whereas chambers were used to measure N2O and CH4 emissions from soil. The measurements began 2 years after the conversion of arable land to SRC so that an older poplar plantation was used to estimate the soil organic carbon (SOC) loss due to SRC establishment and to estimate SOC recovery over time. Emissions from tractors and from production and transport of agricultural inputs (FMAN) were modelled. A GHG emission offset, due to the substitution of natural gas with SRC biomass, was credited to the GHG budget of the SRC site. Emissions generated by the use of biomass (FEXP) were also considered. Suitability was finally assessed by comparing the GHG budgets of the two sites. CO2 uptake was 3512 ± 224 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site in 2 years, and 1838 ± 107 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site. FEXP was equal to 1858 ± 240 g CO2 m-2 at the REF site, thus basically compensating for FCO2, while it was 1118 ± 521 g CO2 m-2 at the SRC site. The SRC site could offset 379.7 ± 175.1 g CO2eq m-2 from fossil fuel displacement. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were negligible. FMAN made up 2 and 4 % in the GHG budgets of SRC and REF sites respectively, while the SOC loss was 455 ± 524 g CO2 m-2 in 2 years. Overall, the REF site was close to neutrality from a GHG perspective (156 ± 264 g CO2eq m-2), while the SRC site was a net sink of

  5. SMORN VII. V.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings of the first volume (1 of 2) of the Smorn VII symposium on nuclear reactor surveillance and diagnostics are divided into 7 sessions bearing on: 1) Nuclear power plant surveillance: feedback experience (10 papers); 2) BWR stability monitoring (5 papers); 3) Signal processing advances and applications (11 papers); 4) Neural networks: utilization for monitoring (11 papers); 5) Leak detection in primary systems (6 papers); 6) Thermohydraulics measurements and boiling detection (10 papers); 7) System feedback experience and new system development (8 papers)

  6. Remarkably enhanced gas separation by partial self-conversion of a laminated membrane to metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Pan, Jia Hong; Wang, Nanyi; Steinbach, Frank; Liu, Xinlei; Caro, Jürgen

    2015-03-02

    Separation methods based on 2D interlayer galleries are currently gaining widespread attention. The potential of such galleries as high-performance gas-separation membranes is however still rarely explored. Besides, it is well recognized that gas permeance and separation factor are often inversely correlated in membrane-based gas separation. Therefore, breaking this trade-off becomes highly desirable. Here, the gas-separation performance of a 2D laminated membrane was improved by its partial self-conversion to metal-organic frameworks. A ZIF-8-ZnAl-NO3 layered double hydroxide (LDH) composite membrane was thus successfully prepared in one step by partial conversion of the ZnAl-NO3 LDH membrane, ultimately leading to a remarkably enhanced H2 /CH4 separation factor and H2 permeance. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Qing; Fang, Jiakun; Li, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the electric power system and natural gas network are becoming increasingly coupled and interdependent. A harmonized integration of natural gas and electricity network with bi-directional energy conversion is expected to accommodate high penetration levels of renewables in terms of system...... flexibility. This work focuses on the steady-state analysis of the integrated natural gas and electric power system with bi-directional energy conversion. A unified energy flow formulation is developed to describe the nodal balance and branch flow in both systems and it is solved with the Newton......–Raphson method. Both the unification of units and the per-unit system are proposed to simplify the system description and to enhance the computation efficiency. The applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated by analyzing an IEEE-9 test system integrated with a 7-node natural gas network. Later, time...

  8. Methodological aspects of market study on residential, commercial and industrial sectors, of the Conversion Project for natural gas of existing network in Sao Paulo city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishinami, R.I.; Perazza, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    The methodological aspects of market study, developed at the geographical area served by existing network of naphtha gas, which will be converted to natural gas in a two years conversion program are presented. (author)

  9. The CO-to-H2 Conversion Factor and Dust-to-gas Ratio on Kiloparsec Scales in Nearby Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandstrom, K.; Leroy, A.; Walter, F.; Bolatto, A.; Croxall, K.; Draine, B.; Wilson, C.; Wolfire, M.; Calzetti, D.; Kennicutt, R.; Aniano, G.; Donovan, Meyer J.; Usero, A.; Bigiel, F.; Brinks, E.; Blok, W.; Crocker, A.; Dale, D.; Engelbracht, C.; Galametz, M.; Groves, B.; Hunt, L.; Koda, J.; Kreckel, K.; Linz, H.; Meidt, S.; Pellegrini, E.; Rix, H.; Roussel, H.; Schinnerer, E.; Schruba, A.; Schuster, K.; Skibba, R.; Laan, T.; Appleton, P.; Armus, L.; Brandl, B.R.; Gordon, K.; Hinz, J.; Krause, O.; Montiel, E.; Sauvage, M.; Schmiedeke, A.; Smith, J.; Vigroux, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present ~{}kiloparsec spatial resolution maps of the CO-to-H$_{2}$ conversion factor ({$α$}$_{CO}$) and dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) in 26 nearby, star-forming galaxies. We have simultaneously solved for {$α$}$_{CO}$ and the DGR by assuming that the DGR is approximately constant on kiloparsec scales.

  10. Natural gas conversion to higher hydrocarbons using plasma interactions with surfaces. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Kamath, V.A.; Morgan, B.L.; Airey, R.W.

    1993-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which a methane plasma is created, and the methyl ions and hydrogen ions are accelerated within a microchannel array so that they interact with neutral methane molecules on the inside surfaces of the microchannels. No catalysts are used, and the device operates at room temperature. Impact energies of the ions are in the range of 10 eV to greater than 100 eV, and the energy delivered in the interaction at the surfaces causes the production of larger hydrocarbon molecules, such as C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}, along with C{sub 3}, C{sub 4}, C{sub 5}m C{sub 6}, C{sub 7}m and C{sub 8} molecules. There is a decreasing percentage of larger molecules produced, in comparison with the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} types. Conversion effectiveness is greater at higher pressure, due to the increased ionic activity. The yield of the higher hydrocarbons depends upon the external voltage used, and voltage can be used as a control parameter to adjust the output mixture proportions. A conversion energy of 2.59 kilowatt hours/killogram of output has been demonstrated, and a reduction of this by a factor of 10 is possible using known techniques. In batch experiments, the selectivity for C{sub 2} has varied from 47% to 88%, and selectivity for C{sub 6} has ranged from 0% to 12.8%. Other hydrocarbon selectivities also span a wide and useful range. The estimated costs for hydrocarbons produced with this technology are in the range of $200 per tonne, in production quantities, depending upon natural gas costs. Pilot production experiments are recommended to make these estimates more precise, and to address strategies for scaling the technology up to production levels. Applications are discussed.

  11. Maintenance for power conversion system of gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300). Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugiyama, Shinichi; Takada, Shoji; Katanishi, Shoji; Yan, Xing; Takizuka, Takakazu; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    In order to be a suitable next generation nuclear power plant from reliable and economical points of view, it is necessary for GTHTR300 to have good maintenability and inspectability. Appropriate maintenance concept for the power conversion system of GTHTR300 consisting of a gas turbine, a compressor, a generator, a recuperator, a precooler and so on was studied based on results of the basic design of GTHTR300 in fiscal 2001. Considering degradation phenomena which could occur on each objective equipment, it is technically possible to reduce several maintenance items and extend maintenance interval for some equipment compared to those for existing LWR power plants and combined cycle fossil power plants. But owing to structural feature and installed location of each equipment, and fission product plate-out on each equipment, it became clear that some problems must be solved for making the maintenance works realistic and efficient. Solving the problems and confirming appropriateness of the proposed maintenance concept and plans will be done in coming detailing work of GTHTR300 design. (author)

  12. Diffusion and Gas Conversion Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells at Loads via AC Impedance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert U. Payne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Impedance measurements were conducted under practical load conditions in solid oxide fuel cells of differing sizes. For a 2 cm2 button cell, impedance spectra data were separately measured for the anode, cathode, and total cell. Improved equivalent circuit models are proposed and applied to simulate each of measured impedance data. Circuit elements related to the chemical and physical processes have been added to the total-cell model to account for an extra relaxation process in the spectra not measured at either electrode. The processes to which elements are attributed have been deduced by varying cell temperature, load current, and hydrogen concentration. Spectra data were also obtained for a planar stack of five 61 cm2 cells and the individual cells therein, which were fitted to a simplified equivalent circuit model of the total button cell. Similar to the button cell, the planar cells and stack exhibit a pronounced low-frequency relaxation process, which has been attributed to concentration losses, that is, the combined effects of diffusion and gas conversion. The simplified total-cell model approximates well the dynamic behavior of the SOFC cells and the whole stack.

  13. Assessment of the potential for conversion of TP-108 boilers to firing natural gas and fuel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugov, A. N.; Supranov, V. M.; Izyumov, M. A.; Vereshchetin, V. A.; Usman, Yu. M.; Natal'in, A. S.

    2017-03-01

    TP-108 boilers were initially designed to burn milled peat. In the 1980s, they were reconstructed for conversion to burning natural gas as well. However, operation of these boilers revealed problems due to low reheat temperature and great air inleakage in the furnace. The initial design of the boiler and its subsequent reconstruction are described in the paper. Measures are presented for further modernization of TP-108 boilers to eliminate the above-mentioned problems and enable natural gas or fuel oil only to be burned in them. Thermal design calculations made using a specially developed adapted model (AM) suggest that replacement of the existing burners with new oil/gas burners, installation of steam-to-steam heat exchangers (SSHE), and sealing of the boiler gas path to make it gas tight will allow the parameters typical of gas-and-oil fired boilers to be attained. It is demonstrated that SSHEs can yield the design secondary steam reheat temperature, although this solution is not typical for natural circulation boilers with steam reheat. The boiler equipped with SSHEs can operate on fuel oil or natural gas with flue gas recirculation or without it. Moreover, operation of the boiler with flue gas recirculation to the air duct in combination with staged combustion enables the required environmental indicators to be attained.

  14. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 5: Combined gas-steam turbine cycles. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Foster-Pegg, R. W.; Lee, R. M.

    1976-01-01

    The energy conversion efficiency of gas-steam turbine cycles was investigated for selected combined cycle power plants. Results indicate that it is possible for combined cycle gas-steam turbine power plants to have efficiencies several point higher than conventional steam plants. Induction of low pressure steam into the steam turbine is shown to improve the plant efficiency. Post firing of the boiler of a high temperature combined cycle plant is found to increase net power but to worsen efficiency. A gas turbine pressure ratio of 12 to 1 was found to be close to optimum at all gas turbine inlet temperatures that were studied. The coal using combined cycle plant with an integrated low-Btu gasifier was calculated to have a plant efficiency of 43.6%, a capitalization of $497/kW, and a cost of electricity of 6.75 mills/MJ (24.3 mills/kwh). This combined cycle plant should be considered for base load power generation.

  15. Simulation of a process for the two-stage thermal conversion of biomass into the synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosov, V. F.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Zaichenko, V. M.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents results of simulation of a process for the two-stage thermal conversion of wood biomass into the synthesis gas. The first stage of process is pyrolysis of raw materials, the second stage is cracking of volatile pyrolysis products which blown through the char at a temperature of about 1000° C. Char is a porous biomass residue with carbon content about 90%. The simulation based on the results of experimental investigations of a pilot plant with capacity up to 50 kg of raw material per hour. The main result of simulation is estimation of an energy conversion efficiency of wood biomass into synthesis gas for three different operation modes. The first mode is conversion of biomass into fuel gas and char, and the char is not further used. The second mode is the same, but char used as fuel for producing heat for own demand of the process. The third mode includes gasification of char by means of water steam, aimed to obtaining an additional yield of synthesis gas. The simulation shown, that total efficiency of power plant was 17.1% in the first mode, 22.4% in the second mode and 22.6% in the third mode.

  16. Trace Gas Emissions in Temperate Forests and Impact of Forest Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Papen, H.

    2003-12-01

    Temperate forest ecosystems play a significant role as sources and sinks for primarily and secondarily active trace gases such as N2O, NO and CH4. In recent decades the magnitude of the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of these trace gases has been substantially altered due to direct and indirect anthropogenic activities. E.g. measurements at different forest sites across Europe exposed to different loads of atmospheric N-deposition clearly show, that N-oxides emissions are positively correlated to N-deposition, whereas CH4 uptake rates are negatively affected. Furthermore, stand properties such as tree species composition as well as stand age have also been demonstrated to strongly affect the exchange of these trace gases. Results of continuous measurements of N-oxide emissions at the Hoglwald Forest site, Germany, show that e.g. NO-emissions from a spruce site are approx. 6 fold higher (5-7 kg NO-N ha-1 yr-1) than N2O emissions (0.5-1 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1), whereas at an adjacent beech site -stocking on a comparable soil- N2O-emissions are 3-5 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 and NO emissions are 2-2.5 kg NO-N ha-1 yr-1. These results are further supported by microbiological process studies, which show that the forest type can alter the magnitude of the key microbial processes mineralization and nitrification by its effect on soil moisture conditions and substrate quality. However, estimates of trace gas exchange between temperate forest soils and the atmosphere remain fragmentary if the effect of direct anthropogenic management activities such as clear cutting and reforestation are neglected. Therefore, in 1999 we started a multi-year experiment at the H”glwald Forest, Bavaria, in which we investigated the effect of the conversion of a spruce forest into a beech forest either by clear cutting or selected cutting on N2O, NO and CH4 emission/ deposition. The results of this study show, that clear cutting strongly enhanced N2O emissions from approx. 0.5 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 to >5 kg

  17. Conversion of low BMEP 4-cylinder to high BMEP 2-cylinder large bore natural gas engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, John

    There are more than 6,000 integral compressor engines in use on US natural gas pipelines, operating 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Many of these engines have operated continuously for more than 50 years, with little to no modifications. Due to recent emission regulations at the local, state and federal levels much of the aging infrastructure requires retrofit technology to remain within compliance. The Engines and Energy Conversion Laboratory was founded to test these retrofit technologies on its large bore engine testbed (LBET). The LBET is a low brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) Cooper Bessemer GMVTF-4. Newer GMV models, constructed in 1980's, utilize turbocharging to increase the output power, achieving BMEP's nearly double that of the LBET. To expand the lab's testing capability and to reduce the LBET's running cost: material testing, in-depth modeling, and on engine testing was completed to evaluate the feasibility of uprating the LBET to a high BMEP two cylinder engine. Due to the LBET's age, the crankcase material properties were not known. Material samples were removed from engine to conduct an in-depth material analysis. It was found that the crankcase was cast out of a specific grade of gray iron, class 25 meehanite. A complete three dimensional model of the LBET's crankcase and power cylinders was created. Using historical engine data, the force inputs were created for a finite element analysis model of the LBET, to determine the regions of high stress. The areas of high stress were instrumented with strain gauges to iterate and validate the model's findings. Several test cases were run at the high and intermediate BMEP engine conditions. The model found, at high BMEP conditions the LBET would operate at the fatigue limit of the class 25 meehanite, operating with no factor of safety but the intermediate case were deemed acceptable.

  18. A data acquisition system for gas proportional detectors with delay line readout based on space-time-space conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Raad-Iseli, C D; Golding, F; Boulin, C; Epstein, A; Beloeuvre, E; Gabriel, A; Koch, M H J

    2001-01-01

    A NIM module for delay line readout of linear gas proportional X-ray or neutron detectors based on time to space conversion is presented. Each of the 16 ASICs in the module contains a delay line with 64 elements each connected to a 24 bit-counter. Readout of the coincidence of signals travelling in opposite directions on the delay line and incrementation of the counters is triggered by the prompt anode signal so that simultaneous events are correctly processed. Transfer of the contents of the 1024 individual counters to a histogramming device at the end of a time frame can be as short as 60 mu s. With continuous delay lines the total conversion time equals the transit time of the delay line in the detector, whereas with segmented delay lines the total conversion time is around 20 ns.

  19. Catalytic partial oxidation and membrane separation to optimize the conversion of natural gas to syngas and hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoferri, Daniela; Cucchiella, Barbara; Iaquaniello, Gaetano; Mangiapane, Alessia; Abate, Salvatore; Centi, Gabriele

    2011-12-16

    The multistep integration of hydrogen-selective membranes into catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) technology to convert natural gas into syngas and hydrogen is reported. An open architecture for the membrane reactor is presented, in which coupling of the reaction and hydrogen separation is achieved independently and the required feed conversion is reached through a set of three CPO reactors working at 750, 750 and 920 °C, compared to 1030 °C for conventional CPO technology. Obtaining the same feed conversion at milder operating conditions translates into less natural gas consumption (and CO(2) emissions) and a reduction of variable operative costs of around 10 %. It is also discussed how this energy-efficient process architecture, which is suited particularly to small-to-medium applications, may improve the sustainability of other endothermic, reversible reactions to form hydrogen. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Magnesium carbide synthesis from methane and magnesium oxide - a potential methodology for natural gas conversion to premium fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Diversification of the raw materials base for manufacturing premium fuels and chemicals offers U.S. and international consumers economic and strategic benefits. Extensive reserves of natural gas in the world provide a valuable source of clean gaseous fuel and chemical feedstock. Assuming the availability of suitable conversion processes, natural gas offers the prospect of improving flexibility in liquid fuels and chemicals manufacture, and thus, the opportunity to complement, supplement, or displace petroleum-based production as economic and strategic considerations require. The composition of natural gas varies from reservoir to reservoir but the principal hydrocarbon constituent is always methane (CH{sub 4}). With its high hydrogen-to-carbon ratio, methane has the potential to produce hydrogen or hydrogen-rich products. However, methane is a very chemically stable molecule and, thus, is not readily transformed to other molecules or easily reformed to its elements (H{sub 2} and carbon). In many cases, further research is needed to augment selectivity to desired product(s), increase single-pass conversions, or improve economics (e.g. there have been estimates of $50/bbl or more for liquid products) before the full potential of these methodologies can be realized on a commercial scale. With the trade-off between gas conversion and product selectivity, a major challenge common to many of these technologies is to simultaneously achieve high methane single-pass conversions and high selectivity to desired products. Based on the results of the scoping runs, there appears to be strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved in that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated.

  1. Exhaustive Conversion of Inorganic Nitrogen to Nitrogen Gas Based on a Photoelectro-Chlorine Cycle Reaction and a Highly Selective Nitrogen Gas Generation Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Jinhua; Bai, Jing; Shen, Zhaoxi; Li, Linsen; Xia, Ligang; Chen, Shuai; Zhou, Baoxue

    2018-02-06

    A novel method for the exhaustive conversion of inorganic nitrogen to nitrogen gas is proposed in this paper. The key properties of the system design included an exhaustive photoelectrochemical cycle reaction in the presence of Cl - , in which Cl· generated from oxidation of Cl - by photoholes selectively converted NH 4 + to nitrogen gas and some NO 3 - or NO 2 - . The NO 3 - or NO 2 - was finally reduced to nitrogen gas on a highly selective Pd-Cu-modified Ni foam (Pd-Cu/NF) cathode to achieve exhaustive conversion of inorganic nitrogen to nitrogen gas. The results indicated total nitrogen removal efficiencies of 30 mg L -1 inorganic nitrogen (NO 3 - , NH 4 + , NO 3 - /NH 4 + = 1:1 and NO 2 - /NO 3 - /NH 4 + = 1:1:1) in 90 min were 98.2%, 97.4%, 93.1%, and 98.4%, respectively, and the remaining nitrogen was completely removed by prolonging the reaction time. The rapid reduction of nitrate was ascribed to the capacitor characteristics of Pd-Cu/NF that promoted nitrate adsorption in the presence of an electric double layer, eliminating repulsion between the cathode and the anion. Nitrate was effectively removed with a rate constant of 0.050 min -1 , which was 33 times larger than that of Pt cathode. This system shows great potential for inorganic nitrogen treatment due to the high rate, low cost, and clean energy source.

  2. Rehabilitation and conversion to natural gas firing of St. George Bay S.E.S. units 8&9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravaritis, A.; Venetsanakos, A; Mizan, A.; Desantis, R. [Dimosia Epichirisi Ilektrismou (Greece)

    1999-07-01

    The St. George Bay Steam Electric Station (SES) is a coal fired power plant located at Piraeus (Greece), to provide electric power to both Piraeus and nearby Athens. Due to pollution problems, units 1-7 at the plant were shut down with units 8 and 9 being used only to cover emergencies. In the late 1980s natural gas was introduced into Greek power generation and it was decided to examine the possibilities for converting units 8 and 9 to natural gas. The paper describes the different options that were examined, the rehabilitation and natural gas conversion works that were carried out, as well as the operating results from the converted units. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene. Final report, September 1, 1990--January 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

    1994-05-06

    Previous work on isosynthesis (conversion of synthesis gas to isobutane and isobutylene) was performed at very low conversions or extreme process conditions. The objectives of this research were (1) determine the optimum process conditions for isosynthesis; (2) determine the optimum catalyst preparation method and catalyst composition/properties for isosynthesis; (3) determine the kinetics for the best catalyst; (4) develop reactor models for trickle bed, slurry, and fixed bed reactors; and (5) simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for isosynthesis. More improvement in catalyst activity and selectivity is needed before isosynthesis can become a commercially feasible (stand-alone) process. Catalysts prepared by the precipitation method show the most promise for future development as compared with those prepared hydrothermally, by calcining zirconyl nitrate, or by a modified sol-gel method. For current catalysts the high temperatures (>673 K) required for activity also cause the production of methane (because of thermodynamics). A catalyst with higher activity at lower temperatures would magnify the unique selectivity of zirconia for isobutylene. Perhaps with a more active catalyst and acidification, oxygenate production could be limited at lower temperatures. Pressures above 50 atm cause an undesirable shift in product distribution toward heavier hydrocarbons. A model was developed that can predict carbon monoxide conversion an product distribution. The rate equation for carbon monoxide conversion contains only a rate constant and an adsorption equilibrium constant. The product distribution was predicted using a simple ratio of the rate of CO conversion. This report is divided into Introduction, Experimental, and Results and Discussion sections.

  4. METHOD OF CONVERSION OF HIGH- AND MIDDLE-SPEED DIESEL ENGINES INTO GAS DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail G. Shatrov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at the development of fuel supply and electronic control systems for boosted high- and middle-speed transport engines. A detailed analysis of different ways of converting diesel engine to operate on natural gas was carried out. The gas diesel process with minimized ignition portion of diesel fuel injected by the Common Rail (CR system was selected. Electronic engine control and modular gas feed systems which can be used both on high- and middle-speed gas diesel engines were developed. Also diesel CR fuel supply systems were developed in cooperation with the industrial partner, namely, those that can be mounted on middle-speed diesel and gas diesel engines. Electronic control and gas feed systems were perfected using modeling and engine tests. The high-speed diesel engine was converted into a gas diesel one. After perfection of the gas feed and electronic control systems, bench tests of the high-speed gas diesel engine were carried out showing a high share of diesel fuel substitution with gas, high fuel efficiency and significant decrease of NOх and СО2 emissions.

  5. Basic policy of maintenance for the power conversion system of the gas turbine high temperature reactor 300 (GTHTR300)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosugiyama, Shinichi; Takizuka, Takakazu; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Yan, Xing; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji

    2003-01-01

    Basic policy of maintenance was determined for major equipment in the power conversion system of the Gas Turbine High Temperature Reactor 300 (GTHTR300). It was developed based on the current maintenance practice in Light Water Reactors (LWRs), High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) and conventional combined cycle power plants while taking into account of unique design features of GTHTR300. First, potential degradation phenomena in operations were identified and corresponding maintenance approaches were proposed for the equipment. Such degradations encountered typically in LWRs as corrosion, erosion and stress corrosion cracking are unlikely to occur since the working fluid of GTHTR300 is inert helium. Main causes of the degradations are high operating temperature and pressure. The gas turbine, compressor, generator, control valves undergo opening and dismantling maintenance in a suitable time interval. The power conversion vessel, heat exchanger vessel, primary system piping and heat exchanging tubes of precooler are subjected to in-service inspections similar to those done in LWRs. As turbine blades represent the severest material degradation because of their high-temperature and high-stress operating conditions, a lifetime management scheme was suggested for them. The longest interval of open-casing maintenance of the gas turbine is estimated to be six to seven years from technical point of view. Present study is entrusted from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan. (author)

  6. Gas Turbine Energy Conversion Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Applicable to LiFTR Liquid Fluoride Thorium Reactor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    2014-01-01

    This panel plans to cover thermal energy and electric power production issues facing our nation and the world over the next decades, with relevant technologies ranging from near term to mid-and far term.Although the main focus will be on ground based plants to provide baseload electric power, energy conversion systems (ECS) for space are also included, with solar- or nuclear energy sources for output power levels ranging tens of Watts to kilo-Watts for unmanned spacecraft, and eventual mega-Watts for lunar outposts and planetary surface colonies. Implications of these technologies on future terrestrial energy systems, combined with advanced fracking, are touched upon.Thorium based reactors, and nuclear fusion along with suitable gas turbine energy conversion systems (ECS) will also be considered by the panelists. The characteristics of the above mentioned ECS will be described, both in terms of their overall energy utilization effectiveness and also with regard to climactic effects due to exhaust emissions.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: factor VII deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VII deficiency , is caused by mutations in the F7 gene, which provides instructions for making a protein ... about the gene associated with factor VII deficiency F7 Related Information What is a gene? What is ...

  8. Conversion of straight-run gas-condensate benzenes into high- octane gasolines based on modified ZSM-5 zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erofeev, V; Reschetilowski, V; Khomajakov, I; Egorova, L; Volgina, T; Tatarkina, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the conversion of straight-run benzene of gas condensate into high-octane gasoline based on zeolite catalyst ZSM-5, modified in binary system oxide- based Sn (III) and Bi (III). It was defined that the introduction of the binary system oxide-based Sn(III) and Bi (III) into the basic zeolite results in the 2-fold increase of its catalytic activity.High-octane gasoline converted from straight-run benzene is characterized by a low benzol content in comparison to the high-octane benzenes produced during the catalytic reforming

  9. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazmeev, A Kh; Tazmeeva, R N

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed. (paper)

  10. The material balance of process of plasma-chemical conversion of polymer wastes into synthesis gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazmeev, A. Kh; Tazmeeva, R. N.

    2017-01-01

    The process of conversion of polymer wastes in the flow of water-steam plasma which are created by the liquid electrodes plasma generators was experimentally studied. The material balance was calculated. The regularities of the participating of hydrogen and oxygen which contained in the water-steam plasma, in formation of chemical compounds in the final products were revealed.

  11. Integrated Biorefinery for Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol, Synthesis Gas, and Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Gerson [Abengoa Bioenergy, Hugoton, KS (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Goal of the project was to Design, build and operate a commercial scale bioethanol facility that uses sustainable biomass feedstock, drastically reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while achieving output production, yield and cost targets.

  12. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  13. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  14. Influence Of The Gas Multipurpose Reactor Core Conversion From Oxide To Silicide On The GAMMA Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiyanto

    1996-01-01

    In order to prepare the reactor core conversion from oxide to silicide, analysis of the gamma heat generation in the fuel plate and its influence on the gamma density in the reactor core using the GAMSET computer code have been done. The heat generation was evaluated for oxide (U 3 O 8 -Al) and silicide (U 3 Si 2 -Al) plate for different uranium loading. The calculation result shows that the heat generation in the silicide fuel plate contains 400 gram of U-235 per fuel element increase of 10.64% related to the normal oxide plate. This means that the gamma density in the reactor core will consequently decrease. Regarding this result, it can be concluded that the core conversion from oxide to silicide fuel with higher uranium loading will be followed by the heat generation increases in the fuel plate and the gamma density decreases in the reactor core

  15. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: high-temperature, high-pressure gas purification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, J. P.; Edwards, M. S.

    1978-06-01

    In order to ensure optimum operating efficiencies for combined-cycle electric generating systems, it is necessary to provide gas treatment equipment capable of operating at high temperatures (>1000/sup 0/F) and high pressure (>10 atmospheres absolute). This equipment, when assembled in a process train, will be required to condition the inlet stream to a gas turbine to suitable levels of gas purity (removal of particulate matter, sulfur, nitrogen, and alkali metal compounds) so that it will be compatible with both environmental and machine constraints. In this work, a survey of the available and developmental equipment for the removal of particulate matter and sulfur compounds has been conducted. In addition, an analysis has been performed to evaluate the performance of a number of alternative process configurations in light of overall system needs. Results from this study indicate that commercially available, reliable, and economically competitive hot-gas cleanup equipment capable of conditioning raw product gas to the levels required for high-temperatue turbine operation will not be available for some time.

  16. Conversion of forest residues to a clean gas for fuel or synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, H.F.; Liu, K.T.; Longanbach, J.R.; Curran, L.M.; Chauhan, S.P.

    1979-01-01

    A program is described for developing a gasification system specifically for wood and other biomass materials which allows greatly increased gasifier throughputs and direct catalysis of wood. Wood ash, which is a by-product of a wood gasification plant, can be used as a gasification catalyst for wood, as it increases gasification rates and promotes the water-gas shift reaction. The high reactivity of even uncatalyzed biomass allows the potential of very high gasifier throughputs. However, the achievement of this potential requires that the gasifier operate at gas velocities higher than those attainable in conventional reactor systems. Stable and very smooth fluidization with uniform mixing and distribution of chips throughout the bed was observed on addition of an entrained sand phase to a fluidized bed of alumina and wood chips. Economc feasibility studies based on utilization of a proprietary Battelle gasification system which utilizes an entrained-phase heat carrier indicated that an intermediate-Btu gas can be produced in 1000 ton/day plants at a price competitive with liquefied natural gas and No. 2 heating oil.

  17. Performance and economic evaluation of the seahorse natural gas hot water heater conversion at Fort Stewart. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winiarski, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    The Federal government is the largest single energy consumer in the United States with consumption of nearly 1.5 quads/year of energy (10{sup 15} quad = 1015 Btu) and cost valued at nearly $10 billion annually. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the Federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP) seeks to evaluate new energy -- saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is one of four DOE laboratories that participate in the New Technologies Demonstration Program, providing technical expertise and equipment to evaluate new, energy-saving technologies being studied under that program. This report provides the results of a field evaluation that PNL conducted for DOE/FEMP with funding support from the US Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to examine the performance of 4 candidate energy-saving technology-a water heater conversion system to convert electrically powered water heaters to natural gas fuel. The unit was installed at a single residence at Fort Stewart, a US Army base in Georgia, and the performance was monitored under the NTDP. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) were Gas Fired Products, developers of the technology; the Public Service Company of North Carolina; Atlanta Gas Light Company; the Army Corps of Engineers; Fort Stewart; and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  18. Positivity VII (Zaanen Centennial Conference)

    CERN Document Server

    Pagter, Ben; Gaans, Onno; Veraar, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of Positivity VII, held from 22-26 July 2013, in Leiden, the Netherlands. Positivity is the mathematical field concerned with ordered structures and their applications in the broadest sense of the word. A biyearly series of conferences is devoted to presenting the latest developments in this lively and growing discipline. The lectures at the conference covered a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from order-theoretic approaches to stochastic processes, positive solutions of evolution equations and positive operators on vector lattices, to order structures in the context of algebras of operators on Hilbert spaces. The contributions in the book reflect this variety and appeal to university researchers in functional analysis, operator theory, measure and integration theory and operator algebras. Positivity VII was also the Zaanen Centennial Conference to mark the 100th birth year of Adriaan Cornelis Zaanen, who held the chair of Analysis in Leiden for more than 25 years and was ...

  19. Congenital deficiency of factor VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, M; Gomber, S; Madan, N; Rusia, U; Sharma, S

    1996-01-01

    A case of congenital factor VII deficiency in a five-year-old child is reported. The patient, born of a non-consanguineous marriage, presented with repeated bouts of epistaxis since childhood. The prothrombin time (PT) was markedly prolonged with a normal bleeding time (BT), partial thromboplastin time with Kaolin (PTTK) and platelet count. The patient has been on follow up for the last four years and is doing apparently well.

  20. Highlights of Spanish Astrophysics VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, J. C.; Lara, L. M.; Quilis, V.; Gorgas, J.

    2013-05-01

    "Highlights of Astronomy and Astrophysics VII" contains the Proceedings of the biannual meeting of the Spanish Astronomical Society held in Valencia from July 9 to 13, 2012. Over 300 astronomer, both national and international researchers, attended to the conference covering a wide variety of astrophysical topics: Galaxies and Cosmology, The Milky Way and Its Components, Planetary Sciences, Solar Physics, Instrumentation and Computation, and Teaching and Outreach of Astronomy.

  1. Conversion of nuclear power plants into natural gas plant: dismaking the disinformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Porto, M.S.P. de.

    1990-05-01

    This work was presented by the Brasilian Nuclear Energy Association - ABEN during the meeting of May 9th of the GT Pronen-Grupo de trabalho do Programa Nacional de Energia Nuclear created by the decret 99194 of March 27, 90. The political subject named convertion of nuclear power plants into natural gas plants is analysed. The conclusion calls for the total technical impossibility of such 'convertion'. The term reconstruction is sugested in substitution to the term convertion. Complete and actual data with figures of the reconstruction, in USA, of the Midland units I and II is presented. The case of Montalto Di Castro plant, in Italy, where no work at all was performed is analysed. Considerations concerning the use of natural gas in the brasilian energy matrix is also presented. (author)

  2. Conversion of tar in hot coke oven gas by pyrolysis and steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Kawase, M.; Nakagawa, H.; Ashida, R.; Nakai, T.; Ishikawa, T. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Possibility to convert the tar vapor in the hot coke oven gas (COG) to a synthesis gas was investigated. Tar condensed from an actual COG as well as model compounds such as benzene, naphthalene, and pyrene were used as the reactants. Experiments of the pyrolysis and catalytic steam reforming of the tar in a helium, a steam, and a simulated COG atmospheres were carried out. More than 80% of tar could be decomposed in several seconds by pyrolysis at temperature {>=}to 1000{sup o}C. The coke yield reached 80% and the main gas products were methane and hydrogen. Coke deposition was reduced in the presence of steam by steam gasification of the coke. When the tar was pyrolyzed in the simulated COG, coke deposition from methane in addition to the deposition from the tar was observed at high temperature. The reverse shift reaction forming carbon monoxide and steam also occurred during the tar pyrolysis in the simulated COG. The coke formation was not reduced greatly even in the presence of the reforming catalysts.

  3. Ways to increase efficiency of the HTGR coupled with the gas-turbine power conversion unit - HTR2008-58274

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovko, V. F.; Kodochigov, N. G.; Vasyaev, A. V.; Shenoy, A.; Baxi, C. B.

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with the issue of increasing efficiency of nuclear power plants with the modular high-temperature helium reactor (HTGR) and direct gas turbine cycle. It should be noted that only this combination can highlight the advantages of the HTGR, namely the ability to heat helium to about 1000 deg. C, in comparison with other reactor plants for electricity generation. The HTGR has never been used in the direct gas turbine cycle. At present, several designs of such commercial plants are at the stage of experimental validation of main technical features. In Russia, 'OKB Mechanical Engineering' together with 'General Atomics' (USA) are developing the GT-MHR project with the reactor power of 600 MW, reactor outlet helium temperature of 850 deg. C, and efficiency of about 45.2%; the South African Republic is developing the PBMR project with the reactor power of 400 MW, reactor outlet helium temperature of 900 deg. C, and efficiency of about 42%; and Japan is developing the GTHTR-300 project with the reactor power of 600 MW, reactor outlet helium temperature of 850 deg. C, and efficiency of about 45.6%. As it has been proven by technical and economic estimations, one of the most important factors for successful promotion of reactor designs is their net efficiency, which must be not lower than 47%. A significant advantage of a reactor plant with the HTGR and gas-turbine power conversion unit over the steam cycle is considerable simplification of the power unit layout and reduction of the required equipment and systems (no steam generators, no turbine hall including steam lines, condenser, deaerator, etc.), which makes the gas-turbine power conversion unit more compact and less costly in production, operation and maintenance. However, in spite of this advantage, it seems that in the projects currently being developed, the potential of the gas-turbine cycle and high-temperature reactor to more efficiently generate electricity is not fully used. For example, in modern

  4. The conversion of SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} in gas turbine engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Brown, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The oxidation of fuel sulfur to S(6) (SO{sub 3}+H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) in a supersonic (Concorde) and a subsonic (ATTAS) aircraft engine is estimated numerically. The results indicate between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as S(6). It is also shown that conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, resulting in a higher oxidation efficiency as the sulfur mass loading is decreased. SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary sulfur oxidation products, with less than 1% of fuel sulfur converted to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. For the Concorde, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} was primarily formed during the supersonic expansion through the divergent nozzle. (author) 20 refs.

  5. Demonstration of CO{sub 2} Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowson, George R. M. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom); UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemistry, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-10-12

    A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO{sub 2} utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO{sub 2} in nitrogen) similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO{sub 2}, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO{sub 2} to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO{sub 2} to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so

  6. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George R. M. Dowson

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO2 in nitrogen similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO2, this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen

  7. Demonstration of CO2 Conversion to Synthetic Transport Fuel at Flue Gas Concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowson, George R. M.; Styring, Peter

    2017-01-01

    A mixture of 1- and 2-butanol was produced using a stepwise synthesis starting with a methyl halide. The process included a carbon dioxide utilization step to produce an acetate salt which was then converted to the butanol isomers by Claisen condensation of the esterified acetate followed by hydrogenation of the resulting ethyl acetoacetate. Importantly, the CO 2 utilization step uses dry, dilute carbon dioxide (12% CO 2 in nitrogen) similar to those found in post-combustion flue gases. The work has shown that the Grignard reagent has a slow rate of reaction with oxygen in comparison to carbon dioxide, meaning that the costly purification step usually associated with carbon capture technologies can be omitted using this direct capture-conversion technique. Butanol isomers are useful as direct drop-in replacement fuels for gasoline due to their high octane number, higher energy density, hydrophobicity, and low corrosivity in existing petrol engines. An energy analysis shows the process to be exothermic from methanol to butanol; however, energy is required to regenerate the active magnesium metal from the halide by-product. The methodology is important as it allows electrical energy, which is difficult to store using batteries over long periods of time, to be stored as a liquid fuel that fits entirely with the current liquid fuels infrastructure. This means that renewable, weather-dependent energy can be stored across seasons, for example, production in summer with consumption in winter. It also helps to avoid new fossil carbon entering the supply chain through the utilization of carbon dioxide that would otherwise be emitted. As methanol has also been shown to be commercially produced from CO 2 , this adds to the prospect of the general decarbonization of the transport fuels sector. Furthermore, as the conversion of CO 2 to butanol requires significantly less hydrogen than CO 2 to octanes, there is a potentially reduced burden on the so-called hydrogen economy.

  8. Assesment of the energy quality of the synthesis gas produced from biomass derived fuels conversion: Part I: Liquid Fuels, Ethanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga Perez, Luis E; Casas, Yannay; Peralta, Luis M; Granda, Daikenel; Prieto, Julio O

    2011-01-01

    The use of biofuels plays an important role to increase the efficiency and energetic safety of the energy processes in the world. The main goal of the present research is to study from the thermodynamics and kinetics the effect of the operational variables on the thermo-conversion processes of biomass derived fuels focused on ethanol reforming. Several models are developed to assess the technological proposals. The minimization of Gibbs free energy is the criterion applied to evaluate the performance of the different alternatives considering the equilibrium constraints. All the models where validated on an experimental data base. The gas composition, HHV and the ratio H2/CO are used as measures for the process efficiency. The operational parameters are studied in a wide range (reactants molar ratio, temperature and oxygen/fuel ratio). (author)

  9. High K-alpha X-ray Conversion Efficiency From Extended Source Gas Jet Targets Irradiated by Ultra Short Laser Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugland, N L; Constantin, C; Collette, A; Dewald, E; Froula, D; Glenzer, S H; Kritcher, A; Neumayer, P; Ross, J S; Niemann, C

    2007-11-01

    The absolute laser conversion efficiency to K{sub {alpha}}-like inner shell x-rays (integrated from K{sub {alpha}} to K{sub {beta}}) is observed to be an order of magnitude higher in argon gas jets than in solid targets due to enhanced emission from higher ionization stages following ultra short pulse laser irradiation. Excluding the higher ionization stages, the conversion efficiency to near-cold K{sub {alpha}} is the same in gas jets as in solid targets. These results demonstrate that gas jet targets are bright, high conversion efficiency, high repetition rate, debris-free multi-keV x-ray sources for spectrally resolved scattering and backlighting of rapidly evolving dense matter.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. 21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and the resulting CO 2 -eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N 2 O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO 2 -eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  11. Direct Conversion of Greenhouse Gas CO2 into Graphene via Molten Salts Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liwen; Song, Yang; Jiao, Shuqiang; Liu, Yingjun; Ge, Jianbang; Jiao, Handong; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Junxiang; Zhu, Hongmin; Fray, Derek J

    2016-03-21

    Producing graphene through the electrochemical reduction of CO2 remains a great challenge, which requires precise control of the reaction kinetics, such as diffusivities of multiple ions, solubility of various gases, and the nucleation/growth of carbon on a surface. Here, graphene was successfully created from the greenhouse gas CO2 using molten salts. The results showed that CO2 could be effectively fixed by oxygen ions in CaCl2-NaCl-CaO melts to form carbonate ions, and subsequently electrochemically split into graphene on a stainless steel cathode; O2 gas was produced at the RuO2-TiO2 inert anode. The formation of graphene in this manner can be ascribed to the catalysis of active Fe, Ni, and Cu atoms at the surface of the cathode and the microexplosion effect through evolution of CO in between graphite layers. This finding may lead to a new generation of proceedures for the synthesis of high value-added products from CO2, which may also contribute to the establishment of a low-carbon and sustainable world. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Advanced gasifier and water gas shift technologies for low cost coal conversion to high hydrogen syngas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Andrew Kramer [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and team members RTI International (RTI), Coanda Research and Development, and Nexant, are developing and maturing a portfolio of technologies to meet the United States Department of Energy (DOE) goals for lowering the cost of producing high hydrogen syngas from coal for use in carbon capture power and coal-to-liquids/chemicals. This project matured an advanced pilot-scale gasifier, with scalable and commercially traceable components, to readiness for use in a first-of-a-kind commercially-relevant demonstration plant on the scale of 500-1,000 tons per day (TPD). This was accomplished through cold flow simulation of the gasifier quench zone transition region at Coanda and through an extensive hotfire gasifier test program on highly reactive coal and high ash/high ash fusion temperature coals at GTI. RTI matured an advanced water gas shift process and catalyst to readiness for testing at pilot plant scale through catalyst development and testing, and development of a preliminary design basis for a pilot scale reactor demonstrating the catalyst. A techno-economic analysis was performed by Nexant to assess the potential benefits of the gasifier and catalyst technologies in the context of power production and methanol production. This analysis showed an 18%reduction in cost of power and a 19%reduction in cost of methanol relative to DOE reference baseline cases.

  13. Conversion of electric bell type furnace for natural gas usage: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraz, Andre D.; Machado Junior, Antonio R.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Azevedo, Jorge G.W. de; Konishi, Ricardo; Lehmkuhl, Willian A. [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Nunes, Andrea T.; Possamai, Talita S.; Nicolau, Vicente de P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    In the present process of the heat treatment of normalizing of the crystalline structure of cast metal pieces, the heating is made by electric resistance arranged on the inner surfaces of the side walls of a bell furnace. Although electrical heating is suitable to obtain a uniform generation on the walls covered with electrical resistances, and is easy to control and operate with virtually no gas flow, it has some disadvantages such as poor movement of the heated ambient air, and higher cost. Heating occurs mostly by thermal radiation, with direct exchange between the resistors and the heated parts, but with a part serving as a barrier to the other, and with greater difficulty of heating the core loading. The details presented in this study, will simulate the process of heating by using electricity and using natural gas. In these simulations will be observed the distribution of temperature in the load and indoor over time and the rate of energy transferred to the load and also for the outside so to have a comparative processes. (author)

  14. Preface: STATPHYS-Kolkata VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Jayanta Kumar; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.; Inoue, Jun-Ichi; Sen, Parongama

    2011-04-01

    In the past two decades, a series of international conferences on Statistical Physics, going by the name Statphys Kolkata, have been organized in Kolkata (previously Calcutta) at roughly three-year intervals, the first one being held in 1992-93. The seventh of this series, Statphys Kolkata VII (http://www.saha.ac.in/cmp/stat.vii/index.php) was held from 26-30 November 2010. This meeting was organized as part of the Silver Jubilee Celebration of the Satyendra Nath Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata, in collaboration with the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata. In Statphys Kolkata VII, a few topics of current interest such as Collective behavior and emergent phenomena, Systems far from equilibrium, Soft matter, and Quantum critical phenomena were given special emphasis, while various other issues of Statistical Physics were also addressed. We were happy to note that the conference attracted a large number of participants, and the talk and poster sessions generated a lot of discussions, arguments and collaborations. The articles appearing in this proceedings are based on the invited talks and selected poster presentations. We would like to thank the Journal of Physics Conference Series, IOP, for publishing the proceedings of the conference, and the referees for their prompt and active support. The proceedings of the earlier Statphys Kolkata conferences have appeared in Physica A, vol 384 (2007); Physica A, vol 346 (2005); Physica A, vol 318 (2003); Physica A, vol 270 (1999); Physica A, vol 224 (1996); and Physica A, vol 186 (1992). We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the members of the organizing committee (especially Dr Anjan Kumar Chandra for extensive all-round help), and acknowledge the Centre for Applied Mathematics and Computational Science (CAMCS, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata) and Satyendra Nath Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Kolkata, for their financial support. Jayanta Kumar Bhattacharjee, Bikas K

  15. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  16. Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

    1993-05-01

    The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

  17. Reinforcement of the bio-gas conversion from pyrolysis of wheat straw by hot caustic pre-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lilong; Chen, Keli; He, Liang; Peng, Lincai

    2018-01-01

    Pyrolysis has attracted growing interest as a versatile means to convert biomass into valuable products. Wheat straw has been considered to be a promising biomass resource due to its low price and easy availability. However, most of the products obtained from wheat straw pyrolysis are usually of low quality. Hot soda extraction has the advantage of selective dissolution of lignin whilst retaining the carbohydrates. This can selectively convert biomass into high-quality desired products and suppress the formation of undesirable products. The aim of this study was to investigate the pyrolysis properties of wheat straw under different hot caustic pretreatment conditions. Compared with the untreated straw, a greater amount of gas was released and fewer residues were retained in the extracted wheat straw, which was caused by an increase in porosity. When the NaOH loading was 14%, the average pore size of the extracted straw increased by 12% and the cumulative pore volume increased by 157% compared with the untreated straw. The extracted straw obtained from the 14% NaOH extraction was clearly selective for pyrolysis products. On one hand, many lignin pyrolysis products disappeared, and only four main lignin-unit-pyrolysis products were retained. On the other hand, polysaccharide pyrolysis products were enriched. Both propanone and furfural have outstanding peak intensities that could account for approximately 30% of the total pyrolysis products. However, with the excessive addition of NaOH (i.e. > 22% w/w) during pretreatment, the conversion of bio-gas products decreased. Thermogravimetric and low-temperature nitrogen-adsorption analysis showed that the pore structure had been seriously destroyed, leading to the closing of the release paths of the bio-gas and thus increasing the re-polymerisation of small bio-gas molecules. After suitable extraction (14% NaOH loading extraction), a considerable amount (25%) of the soluble components dissolved out of the straw. This

  18. Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

  19. Criticality safety assessment on the RSG-GAS spent fuel storage for anticipating the next core conversion program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sembiring, Tagor Malem; Kuntoro, Iman; Zuhair; Liem, Peng Hong

    2003-01-01

    Criticality assessment on the spent fuel storage racks of the RSG-GAS multipurpose reactor has been conducted to support the undergoing core conversion program, in which higher uranium fuel densities of silicide (up to 4.8 gU.cm -3 ) and molybdenum (up to 8.3 gU.cm -3 ) fuel elements are adopted to enhance the reactor performance, core cycle length and reactor utilization. In the assessment, the k eff of the rack as a function of fuel density is calculated for fresh fuel elements which is a very conservative approach recommended by IAEA. Besides fuel densities, effects of water densities due to pool water temperature variation, and the fuel elements' orientation on the k eff are analyzed as well. The criticality calculations are all carried out by using MNCP4B2 Monte Carlo code with ENDF/B-VI library. For the library sensitivity, JENDL-3.3 library is also used and compared. The calculation results show the most reactive condition is for the case when the spent fuel racks are filled with fresh U-6Mo fuel element with meat density of 8.30 gU.cm -3 . For all fuel types, density and operating condition, the calculated k eff with 3 times standard deviations are confirmed less than the allowable value of 0.95. It can be concluded that the existing spent fuel storage racks can be safely used for storing the planned high density uranium fuels. (author)

  20. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 6: Closed-cycle gas turbine systems. [energy conversion efficiency in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Fentress, W. K.; Stahl, W. F.

    1976-01-01

    Both recuperated and bottomed closed cycle gas turbine systems in electric power plants were studied. All systems used a pressurizing gas turbine coupled with a pressurized furnace to heat the helium for the closed cycle gas turbine. Steam and organic vapors are used as Rankine bottoming fluids. Although plant efficiencies of over 40% are calculated for some plants, the resultant cost of electricity was found to be 8.75 mills/MJ (31.5 mills/kWh). These plants do not appear practical for coal or oil fired plants.

  1. Factor VII-activating protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanathan, Ramshanker; Gram, Jørgen B; Sand, Niels Peter R

    2017-01-01

    : Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) may regulate development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We evaluated sex differences in FSAP measures and examined the association between FSAP and coronary artery calcification (CAC) in a middle-aged population. Participants were randomly selected citizens...... aged 50 or 60 without CVD, diabetes mellitus, Marburg I polymorphism, or hormone replacement therapy (HRT). FSAP protein concentration (total FSAP), FSAP urokinase-activating capacity (FSAP GP), and FSAP GP/total FSAP (specific FSAP activity) were measured. Cardiac computed tomography (CT) determined...... the Agatston score, dividing the study population in three groups: (1) Agatston score = 0 U, (2) Agatston score = 1-99 U, or (3) Agatston score more than 99 U. A total of 134 women and 116 men were included. Total FSAP, FSAP GP, and specific FSAP activity were independently higher in women (97.4%, 81.1%, 0...

  2. An Overview of Natural Gas Conversion Technologies for Co-Production of Hydrogen and Value-Added Solid Carbon Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, Robert A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dagle, Vanessa [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bearden, Mark D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holladay, Jamelyn D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Krause, Theodore R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ahmed, Shabbir [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-11-16

    This report was prepared in response to the U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office Congressional Appropriation language to support research on carbon-free production of hydrogen using new chemical processes that utilize natural gas to produce solid carbon and hydrogen. The U.S. produces 9-10 million tons of hydrogen annually with more than 95% of the hydrogen produced by steam-methane reforming (SMR) of natural gas. SMR is attractive because of its high hydrogen yield; but it also converts the carbon to carbon dioxide. Non-oxidative thermal decomposition of methane to carbon and hydrogen is an alternative to SMR and produces CO2-free hydrogen. The produced carbon can be sold as a co-product, thus providing economic credit that reduces the delivered net cost of hydrogen. The combination of producing hydrogen with potentially valuable carbon byproducts has market value in that this allows greater flexibility to match the market prices of hydrogen and carbon. That is, the higher value product can subsidize the other in pricing decisions. In this report we highlight the relevant technologies reported in the literature—primarily thermochemical and plasma conversion processes—and recent research progress and commercial activities. Longstanding technical challenges include the high energetic requirements (e.g., high temperatures and/or electricity requirements) necessary for methane activation and, for some catalytic processes, the separation of solid carbon product from the spent catalyst. We assess current and new carbon product markets that could be served given technological advances, and we discuss technical barriers and potential areas of research to address these needs. We provide preliminary economic analysis for these processes and compare to other emerging (e.g., electrolysis) and conventional (e.g., SMR) processes for hydrogen production. The overarching conclusion of this study is that the cost of hydrogen can be potentially

  3. A review of thermo-chemical conversion of biomass into biofuels-focusing on gas cleaning and up-grading process steps

    OpenAIRE

    Brandin, Jan; Hulteberg, Christian; Kusar, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    It is not easy to replace fossil-based fuels in the transport sector, however, an appealing solution is to use biomass and waste for the production of renewable alternatives. Thermochemical conversion of biomass for production of synthetic transport fuels by the use of gasification is a promising way to meet these goals. One of the key challenges in using gasification systems with biomass and waste as feedstock is the upgrading of the raw gas produced in the gasifier. These materials replacin...

  4. Type VII collagen in Alport syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakakis, Konstantinos; Massella, Laura; Grassetti, Daniele; Dotta, Francesco; Perez, Marie; Muda, Andrea Onetti

    2007-12-01

    Absence or segmental distribution of the alpha5(IV) collagen chain along the epidermal basement membrane (EBM) is diagnostic of X-linked Alport syndrome (X-AS), but the typical morphologic alterations usually observed along the glomerular basement membrane (GBM) are lacking. However, several differences in protein composition exist between GBM and EBM, and such differences could account for a different phenotype with the same genetic defect. Type VII collagen is one of the major collagenous components of the EBM; the purpose of this study was to investigate the modifications of protein synthesis and expression of type VII collagen in the skin of patients with X-AS. The distribution of type VII collagen has been studied in 15 skin biopsies (10 from X-AS patients and 5 controls) by means of electron microscopy, immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy; type VII collagen mRNA expression was also measured by RT-PCR on the same skin fragments. Protein and mRNA amounts for type VII collagen were significantly higher in skin samples from X-AS patients than in controls (P < 0.001); highest values were in cases in which alpha5(IV) was completely absent. Our results indicate that lack of alpha5(IV) molecule significantly alters the assembly of extracellular matrix molecules other than alphax(IV) chains also at the EBM level. We suggest that the increased synthesis and deposition of type VII collagen is likely to balance the absence of stabilizing activity normally exerted by alpha5(IV).

  5. Extraction of Tc(VII) and Re(VII) on TRU resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, Nicolas; Riopel, Remi; Kramer-Tremblay, Sheila [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL), Chalk River, ON (Canada). Radiobiology and Health Branch; De Silva, Nimal; Cornett, Jack [Ottawa Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Dai, Xiongxin [China Institute for Radiation Protection, Beijing (China)

    2017-06-01

    TRU resin can be used to rapidly and selectively extract Tc(VII) and Re(VII). The retention capacity curves of Tc(VII) and Re(VII) for HNO{sub 3}, HCl, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solutions were studied and prepared. Tc(VII) and Re(VII) were simultaneously extracted in 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and 1.5 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} and were effectively separated from Mo(VI) and Ru(III). Tc(VII) and Re(VII) remained strongly bonded to the resin even after washing using a large volume of 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at a relatively high flow rate. Also, they were both completely eluted from the resin using 15 mL of near boiling water, an eluent directly compatible for ICP-MS instrument measurements.

  6. Bioelectrochemical Integration of Waste Heat Recovery, Waste-to- Energy Conversion, and Waste-to-Chemical Conversion with Industrial Gas and Chemical Manufacturing Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mac Dougall, James [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Many U.S. manufacturing facilities generate unrecovered, low-grade waste heat, and also generate or are located near organic-content waste effluents. Bioelectrochemical systems, such as microbial fuel cells and microbial electrolysis cells, provide a means to convert organic-content effluents into electric power and useful chemical products. A novel biochemical electrical system for industrial manufacturing processes uniquely integrates both waste heat recovery and waste effluent conversion, thereby significantly reducing manufacturing energy requirements. This project will enable the further development of this technology so that it can be applied across a wide variety of US manufacturing segments, including the chemical, food, pharmaceutical, refinery, and pulp and paper industries. It is conservatively estimated that adoption of this technology could provide nearly 40 TBtu/yr of energy, or more than 1% of the U.S. total industrial electricity use, while reducing CO2 emissions by more than 6 million tons per year. Commercialization of this technology will make a significant contribution to DOE’s Industrial Technology Program goals for doubling energy efficiency and providing a more robust and competitive domestic manufacturing base.

  7. Design and Construction of a Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion System Using Combustion Gases from a T-58 Gas Turbine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erickson, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    ...) generator that uses a General Electric T-58 gas turbine as the heat source. The combustion gas was tapped from the T-58's combustor through an ignitor port and then extracted through a silicon carbide composite tube into a ceramic emitter...

  8. Chemical Conversion Pathways and Kinetic Modeling for the OH-Initiated Reaction of Triclosan in Gas-Phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used antimicrobial additive in daily consumption, attention has been paid to the degradation and conversion of triclosan for a long time. The quantum chemistry calculation and the canonical variational transition state theory are employed to investigate the mechanism and kinetic property. Besides addition and abstraction, oxidation pathways and further conversion pathways are also considered. The OH radicals could degrade triclosan to phenols, aldehydes, and other easily degradable substances. The conversion mechanisms of triclosan to the polychlorinated dibenzopdioxin and furan (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are clearly illustrated and the toxicity would be strengthened in such pathways. Single radical and diradical pathways are compared to study the conversion mechanism of dichlorodibenzo dioxin (DCDD. Furthermore, thermochemistry is discussed in detail. Kinetic property is calculated and the consequent ratio of kadd/ktotal and kabs/ktotal at 298.15 K are 0.955 and 0.045, respectively. Thus, the OH radical addition reactions are predominant, the substitute position of OH radical on triclosan is very important to generate PCDD and furan, and biradical is also a vital intermediate to produce dioxin.

  9. Methods for Processing ENDF/B-VII with NJOY

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, R. E.; Kahler, A. C.

    2010-12-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is widely used to convert evaluations in the Evaluated Nuclear Data Files (ENDF) format into forms useful for practical applications such as fission and fusion reactor analysis, stockpile stewardship calculations, criticality safety, radiation shielding, nuclear waste management, nuclear medicine procedures, and more. This paper provides a description of the system's capabilities, summary descriptions of the methods used, and information on how to use the code to process the modern evaluated nuclear data files from ENDF/B-VII. It begins with the generation of pointwise libraries, including reaction and resonance reconstruction, Doppler broadening, radiation heating and damage, thermal scattering data, unresolved resonance data, and gas production. It then reviews the production of libraries for the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP, multigroup neutron, photon, and particle cross sections and matrices, and photon interaction data. The generation of uncertainty information for ENDF data is discussed, including new capabilities for calculating covariances of resonance data, angular distributions, energy distributions, and radioactive nuclide production. NJOY's ability to prepare thermal scattering data evaluations for bound moderators (which was used during the preparation of the ENDF/B-VII library) is described. The strong plotting capabilities of NJOY are summarized. Many examples of black&white and color Postscript plots are included throughout the paper. The capabilities of NJOY to output multigroup data in several different formats to suit various applications is reviewed. Finally, a section is included that summarizes the history of the development of the NJOY system over the last 37 years.

  10. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 4: Open recuperated and bottomed gas turbine cycles. [performance prediction and energy conversion efficiency of gas turbines in electric power plants (thermodynamic cycles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, D. J.; Grube, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    Open-cycle recuperated gas turbine plant with inlet temperatures of 1255 to 1644 K (1800 to 2500 F) and recuperators with effectiveness values of 0, 70, 80 and 90% are considered. A 1644 K (2500 F) gas turbine would have a 33.5% plant efficiency in a simple cycle, 37.6% in a recuperated cycle and 47.6% when combined with a sulfur dioxide bottomer. The distillate burning recuperated plant was calculated to produce electricity at a cost of 8.19 mills/MJ (29.5 mills/kWh). Due to their low capital cost $170 to 200 $/kW, the open cycle gas turbine plant should see duty for peaking and intermediate load duty.

  11. Leveraging Information Technology. Track VII: Outstanding Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAUSE, Boulder, CO.

    Eight papers from the 1987 CAUSE conference's Track VII, Outstanding Applications, are presented. They include: "Image Databases in the University" (Reid Kaplan and Gordon Mathieson); "Using Information Technology for Travel Management at the University of Michigan" (Robert E. Russell and John C. Hufziger); "On-Line Access…

  12. 77 FR 64400 - Order of Succession for HUD Region VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [FR-5550-D-10] Order of Succession for HUD Region VII... Offices (Region VII). This Order of Succession supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for HUD Region...). This publication supersedes all previous Orders of Succession for Region VII. Accordingly, the...

  13. Conversion rate of para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen: implications for PHIP gas storage and utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    To determine the storability of para-hydrogen before reestablishment of the room temperature thermal equilibrium mixture. Para-hydrogen was produced at near 100% purity and mixed with different oxygen quantities to determine the rate of conversion to the thermal equilibrium mixture of 75: 25% (ortho: para) by detecting the ortho-hydrogen (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance using a 9.4 T imager. The para-hydrogen to ortho-hydrogen velocity constant, k, near room temperature (292 K) was determined to be 8.27 ± 1.30 L/mol · min(-1). This value was calculated utilizing four different oxygen fractions. Para-hydrogen conversion to ortho-hydrogen by oxygen can be minimized for long term storage with judicious removal of oxygen contamination. Prior calculated velocity rates were confirmed demonstrating a dependence on only the oxygen concentration.

  14. Hard templating ultrathin polycrystalline hematite nanosheets: effect of nano-dimension on CO2 to CO conversion via the reverse water-gas shift reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Zachary S; He, Yulian; Yang, Ke R; Lounsbury, Amanda W; Zhu, Junqing; Tran, Thanh Minh; Zimmerman, Julie B; Batista, Victor S; Pfefferle, Lisa D

    2017-09-14

    Understanding how nano-dimensionality impacts iron oxide based catalysis is central to a wide range of applications. Here, we focus on hematite nanosheets, nanowires and nanoparticles as applied to catalyze the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) probe reaction. We introduce a novel approach to synthesize ultrathin (4-7 nm) hematite nanosheets using copper oxide nanosheets as a hard template and propose a reaction mechanism based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Hematite nanowires and nanoparticles were also synthesized and characterized. H 2 temperature programmed reduction (H 2 -TPR) and RWGS reactions were performed to glean insights into the mechanism of CO 2 conversion to CO over the iron oxide nanomaterials and were compared to H 2 binding energy calculations based on density functional theory. While the nanosheets did exhibit high CO 2 conversion, 28% at 510 °C, we found that the iron oxide nanowires had the highest CO 2 conversion, reaching 50% at 750 °C under atmospheric pressure. No products besides CO and H 2 O were detected.

  15. Decomposing Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas Regulatory Standards in the Energy Conversion Efficiency and Tractive Energy Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pannone, Greg [Novation Analytics; Thomas, John F [ORNL; Reale, Michael [Novation Analytics; Betz, Brian [Novation Analytics

    2017-01-01

    The three foundational elements that determine mobile source energy use and tailpipe carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are the tractive energy requirements of the vehicle, the on-cycle energy conversion efficiency of the propulsion system, and the energy source. The tractive energy requirements are determined by the vehicle's mass, aerodynamic drag, tire rolling resistance, and parasitic drag. Oncycle energy conversion of the propulsion system is dictated by the tractive efficiency, non-tractive energy use, kinetic energy recovery, and parasitic losses. The energy source determines the mobile source CO2 emissions. For current vehicles, tractive energy requirements and overall energy conversion efficiency are readily available from the decomposition of test data. For future applications, plausible levels of mass reduction, aerodynamic drag improvements, and tire rolling resistance can be transposed into the tractive energy domain. Similarly, by combining thermodynamic, mechanical efficiency, and kinetic energy recovery fundamentals with logical proxies, achievable levels of energy conversion efficiency can be established to allow for the evaluation of future powertrain requirements. Combining the plausible levels of tractive energy and on-cycle efficiency provides a means to compute sustainable vehicle and propulsion system scenarios that can achieve future regulations. Using these principles, the regulations established in the United States (U.S.) for fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are evaluated. Fleet-level scenarios are generated and compared to the technology deployment assumptions made during rule-making. When compared to the rule-making assumptions, the results indicate that a greater level of advanced vehicle and propulsion system technology deployment will be required to achieve the model year 2025 U.S. standards for fuel economy and CO2 emissions.

  16. Observations on the nucleation of ice VII in compressed water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Chapman, David J.; Bland, Simon N.; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2017-01-01

    Water can freeze upon multiple shock compression, but the window material determines the pressure of the phase transition. Several plate impact experiments were conducted with liquid targets on a single-stage gas gun, diagnosed simultaneously using photonic doppler velocimetry (PDV) and high speed imaging through the water. The experiments investigated why silica windows instigate freezing above 2.5 GPa whilst sapphire windows do not until 7 GPa. We find that the nucleation of ice occurs on the surfaces of windows and can be affected by the surface coating suggesting the surface energy of fused silica, likely due to hydroxyl groups, encourages nucleation of ice VII crystallites. Aluminium coatings prevent nucleation and sapphire surfaces do not nucleate until approximately 6.5 GPa. This is believed to be the threshold pressure for the homogeneous nucleation of water.

  17. Linear infrastructure drives habitat conversion and forest fragmentation associated with Marcellus shale gas development in a forested landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Lillie A; Drohan, Patrick J; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2017-07-15

    Large, continuous forest provides critical habitat for some species of forest dependent wildlife. The rapid expansion of shale gas development within the northern Appalachians results in direct loss of such habitat at well sites, pipelines, and access roads; however the resulting habitat fragmentation surrounding such areas may be of greater importance. Previous research has suggested that infrastructure supporting gas development is the driver for habitat loss, but knowledge of what specific infrastructure affects habitat is limited by a lack of spatial tracking of infrastructure development in different land uses. We used high-resolution aerial imagery, land cover data, and well point data to quantify shale gas development across four time periods (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016), including: the number of wells permitted, drilled, and producing gas (a measure of pipeline development); land use change; and forest fragmentation on both private and public land. As of April 2016, the majority of shale gas development was located on private land (74% of constructed well pads); however, the number of wells drilled per pad was lower on private compared to public land (3.5 and 5.4, respectively). Loss of core forest was more than double on private than public land (4.3 and 2.0%, respectively), which likely results from better management practices implemented on public land. Pipelines were by far the largest contributor to the fragmentation of core forest due to shale gas development. Forecasting future land use change resulting from gas development suggests that the greatest loss of core forest will occur with pads constructed farthest from pre-existing pipelines (new pipelines must be built to connect pads) and in areas with greater amounts of core forest. To reduce future fragmentation, our results suggest new pads should be placed near pre-existing pipelines and methods to consolidate pipelines with other infrastructure should be used. Without these mitigation practices, we

  18. Impact of Heavy Metal Contamination From Coal Flue Gas on Microalgae Biofuel and Biogas Production Through Multiple Conversation Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, Derek E.

    2016-01-01

    Large scale biofuel production from microalgae is expected to be integrated with point source CO2 sources, such as coal fired power plants. Flue gas (CO2) integration represents a required nutrient source for accelerated growth while concurrently providing an environmental service. Heavy metals inherent in coal will ultimately be introduced into the culture system. The introduced heavy metals have the potential to bind to microalgae cells, impact growth due to toxicity, and negatively impact ...

  19. Requirements for gas quality and gas appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levinsky, Howard; Gersen, Sander; Kiewiet, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The gas transmission network in the Netherlands transports two different qualities of gas, low-calorific gas known as G-gas or L-gas and, high calorific gas (H-gas). These two gas qualities are transported in separate networks, and are connected by means of five blending and conversion

  20. Conversion of Waste CO2 and Shale Gas to High Value Chemicals”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookraj, Sadesh [Novomer Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Slowik, Mike [Novomer Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Ruhl, John [Novomer Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Savino, Keith [Novomer Inc., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2016-07-22

    The ultimate objective of the project was to develop, build, operate and validate a laboratory scale continuous process to make carbon dioxide (CO2)-based chemical intermediates with significantly lower energy content, carbon footprint, and cost than today’s petrochemical versions. Novomer’s catalyst allows carbon monoxide (CO) – an output of Praxair’s solid oxide electrolyzer (SOE) CO2 to CO conversion technology – to be combined with an ethane-derivative (ethylene oxide, (EO)) to form a versatile intermediate called beta-propiolactone (BPL) via carbonylation chemistry. The BPL can be converted to acrylic acid using known technologies previously demonstrated at commercial scale, or further reacted in the presence of Novomer’s catalyst to form four-carbon chemical intermediates. The team has collected engineering data required to build a pilot plant (out of scope project scope) with the assistance of an industrial chemical partner.

  1. LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

    1998-02-25

    Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

  2. Scrubbing of iodine from gas streams with mercuric nitrate-conversion of mercuric iodate product to barium iodate for fixation in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, G.C.; Moore, J.G.; Morgan, M.T.

    1980-06-01

    A bench-scale model of a mercuric nitrate scrubber for removal of iodine from off-gas streams was constructed and operated in conjunction with a mercuric iodate-to-barium iodate conversion system to determine the feasibility of total recycle of all processing solutions. The two main aspects of the system examined were (1) the extent of contamination of the barium iodate product, and (2) the effect of cross-contamination of various process solutions on the efficiency of the process. The experimental evidence obtained indicates that, with appropriate control, all solutions can be recycled without significant contamination of the product that would be harmful to the host concrete or to the environment. Mercury contamination was found to be less than or equal to 0.5 wt % of the barium iodate product. The most significant effect on system efficiency was determined to be barium hydroxide contamination of the sodium hydroxide solution used to convert mercuric iodate to sodium iodate. A mole ratio of barium hydroxide to sodium hydroxide of about 1:225 caused a decrease in conversion efficiency of about 45%.

  3. ENDF/B-VII.1 versus ENDF/B-VII.0: What's Different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2012-03-20

    Recently the new ENDF/B-VII.1 library was released; this completely replaces the earlier ENDF/B-VII.0 library. One of the first questions we ask about a new library is: What's Different? Here I attempt to at least partially answer this question. I present results in both tabulated form (so you can quickly determine if any evaluations of interest to you have changed), and graphic form (so that you can see how much evaluations have changed and in what energy ranges). For the table I have compared what I refer to as the ENDF neutron data, namely MF=1 through 6. Here I did a character-by-character comparison of the same sections (MF/MT) that appear I both ENDF/B-VII.0 and VII.1; here I found differences in 170 evaluations. For the plots I have only compared the total cross sections for all evaluations that are common to both libraries, and I found that of the 423 evaluations in ENDF/B-VII.1, 120 of these have total cross sections that differ by 1% or more from the evaluation of the same isotope in ENDF/B-VII.0. This should be considered only a preliminary comparison; obviously there can be more subtle important differences that do not effect of total cross sections. Here I present plots comparing the total cross section of these 120 isotopes. The plots are only broad overviews of the total cross sections over their entire energy range. If you have interest in more detailed plots for specific evaluations, you can download the evaluations [1,2] and the PREPRO [3] codes I used to prepare and view the data. This is all I needed to do my comparisons, and is all you should need to do any more detailed comparisons to meet your individual needs.

  4. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

    2006-03-31

    This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During this fifth reporting period, we have studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influences the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The resulting procedures have been optimized to improve further upon the already unprecedented rates and C{sub 5+} selectivities of the Fe-based catalysts that we have developed as part of this project. During this fifth reporting period, we have also continued our studies of optimal activation procedures, involving reduction and carburization of oxide precursors during the early stages of contact with synthesis gas. We have completed the analysis of the evolution of oxide, carbide, and metal phases of the active iron components during initial contact with synthesis gas using advanced synchrotron techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have confirmed that the Cu or Ru compensates for inhibitory effects of Zn, a

  5. Effects of upgrading systems on energy conversion efficiency of a gasifier - fuel cell - gas turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrazzi, Simone; Allesina, Giulio; Tartarini, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An advanced gasifier-SOFC-MGT system is modeled. • An overall electrical efficiency of 32.81% is reached. • Influence of all the sub-system modeled on the power plant efficiency is discussed. • Compression storage of syngas is taken into account. - Abstract: This work focuses on a DG-SOFC-MGT (downdraft gasifier - solid oxide fuel cell - micro gas turbine) power plant for electrical energy production and investigates two possible performance-upgrading systems: polyphenylene oxide (PPO) membrane and zeolite filters. The first is used to produce oxygen-enriched air used in the reactor, while the latter separates the CO 2 content from the syngas. In order to prevent power plant shutdowns during the gasifier reactor scheduled maintenance, the system is equipped with a gas storage tank. The generation unit consists of a SOFC-MGT system characterized by higher electrical efficiency when compared to conventional power production technology (IC engines, ORC and EFGT). Poplar wood chips with 10% of total moisture are used as feedstock. Four different combinations with and without PPO and zeolite filtrations are simulated and discussed. One-year energy and power simulation were used as basis for comparison between all the cases analyzed. The modeling of the gasification reactions gives results consistent with literature about oxygen-enriched processes. Results showed that the highest electrical efficiency obtained is 32.81%. This value is reached by the power plant equipped only with PPO membrane filtration. Contrary to the PPO filtering, zeolite filtration does not increase the SOFC-MGT unit performance while it affects the energy balance with high auxiliary electrical consumption. This solution can be considered valuable only for future work coupling a CO 2 sequestration system to the power plant.

  6. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  7. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Hladik, Michelle L; Vajda, Alan M; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Douville, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m(3) d(-1) design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration=2.7 μg L(-1); n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration=4.5 μg L(-1)), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration=1.4 μg L(-1)) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative proportions of

  8. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m3 d−1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L−1; n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L−1), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L−1) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  9. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Enrique Iglesia

    2005-09-30

    This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third reporting period, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During this fourth reporting period, we have determined the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance. More specifically, we have found that the sequence in which promoters are introduced has a marked positive impact on rates and selectivities. Cu or Ru chemical promoters should be impregnated before K to achieve higher Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates. The catalyst prepared in this way was evaluated for 240 h, showing a high catalytic activity and stability after an initial period of time necessary for the formation of the active phases. Concurrently, we are studying optimal activation procedures, which involve the reduction and carburization of oxide precursors during the early stages of contact with synthesis gas. Activation at low temperatures (523 K), made possible by optimal introduction of Cu or Ru, leads to lower catalyst surface area than higher activation temperatures, but to higher reaction rates, because such low temperatures avoid concurrent deactivation

  10. DESIGN, SYNTHESIS, AND MECHANISTIC EVALUATION OF IRON-BASED CATALYSIS FOR SYNTHESIS GAS CONVERSION TO FUELS AND CHEMICALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Enrique Iglesia

    2005-03-31

    This project explores the extension of previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have previously shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity with synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic performance previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During this third reporting period, we have prepared a large number of Fe-based catalyst compositions using precipitation and impregnations methods with both supercritical and subcritical drying and with the systematic use of surface active agents to prevent pore collapse during drying steps required in synthetic protocols. These samples were characterized during this period using X-ray diffraction, surface area, and temperature-programmed reduction measurements. These studies have shown that these synthesis methods lead to even higher surface areas than in our previous studies and confirm the crystalline structures of these materials and their reactivity in both oxide-carbide interconversions and in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysis. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction rates and selectivities with low H{sub 2}/CO ratio feeds (H{sub 2}/CO = 1) were the highest reported in the literature at the low-temperature and relatively low pressure in our measurements. Current studies are exploring the optimization of the sequence of impregnation of Cu, K, and Ru promoters, of the activation and reaction conditions, and of the co-addition of light hydrocarbons to increase diffusion rates of primary olefin products so as to increase the selectivity to unsaturated products. Finally, we are also addressing

  11. Gas-Phase Reactions of Glyceraldehyde and 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone as Models for Levoglucosan Conversion during Biomass Gasification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutome, Asuka; Kawamoto, Haruo; Saka, Shiro

    2016-04-07

    Levoglucosan, the major intermediate in wood gasification, is decomposed selectively to C1/C2 fragments at 550-600 °C. Kinetic analyses suggest that radical chain mechanisms with the involvement of short-lived carbonyl intermediates explain the lower production of larger fragments. To address this hypothesis, the gas-phase reactivities of glyceraldehyde (Gald), 1,3-dihydroxyacetone (DHA), and glycerol, as simple C3 model compounds, were compared at 400-800 °C under N2 flow at residence times of 0.9-1.4 s. Retro-aldol fragmentation and dehydration proceeded for the pyrolysis of Gald/DHA at 400 °C, far below the 600 °C decomposition point of glycerol. Pyrolysis of Gald/DHA generated exclusively syngas (CO and H2). On the basis of the results of theoretical calculations, the effects of carbonyl intermediates on reactivity were explained by postulating uni- and bimolecular reactions, although the bimolecular reactions became less effective at elevated temperatures. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enrique Iglesia

    2004-09-30

    This project explores the extension of previously discovered Fe-based catalysts with unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity, and ability to convert hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams typical of those produced from coal and biomass sources. Contract negotiations were completed on December 9, 2004. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic performance previously reported. During this second reporting period, we have prepared and tested several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. These studies established modest improvements in rates and selectivities with light hydrocarbon recycle without any observed deleterious effects, opening up the opportunities for using of recycle strategies to control temperature profiles in fixed-bed Fe-based Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reactors without any detectable kinetic detriment. In a parallel study, we examined similar effects of recycle for cobalt-based catalysts; marked selectivity improvements were observed as a result of the removal of significant transport restrictions on these catalysts. Finally, we have re-examined some previously unanalyzed data dealing with the mechanism of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, specifically kinetic isotope effects on the rate and selectivity of chain growth reactions on Fe-based catalysts.

  13. Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The French government has decided to modify the conditions of extension of local natural gas authorities to neighbouring districts. The European Union is studying the conditions of internal gas market with the objective of more open markets although considering public service requirements

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akio; Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

    2006-09-30

    This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates and selectivities for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During the fifth reporting period, we studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influenced the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. We also continued our studies of the kinetic behavior of these materials. Specifically, the effects of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} on the rates and selectivities of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis reactions led us to propose a new sequence of elementary steps on Fe and Co Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. More specifically, we were focused on the roles of hydrogen-assisted and alkali-assisted dissociation of CO in determining rates and CO{sub 2} selectivities. During this sixth reporting period, we have studied the validity of the mechanism that we propose by analyzing the H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} kinetic isotope effect (r{sub H}/r{sub D}) over a conventional iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst Fe-Zn-K-Cu. We have observed experimentally that

  15. Design, Synthesis and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

    2007-03-31

    This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rates and selectivities for synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based materials with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C{sub 5+}, olefins). During the fifth and sixth reporting period, we studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influenced the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. We also continued our studies of the kinetic behavior of these materials during the sixth reporting period. Specifically, the effects of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} on the rates and selectivities of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis reactions led us to propose a new sequence of elementary steps on Fe and Co Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. Finally, we also started a study of the use of colloidal precipitation methods for the synthesis small Co clusters using recently developed methods to explore possible further improvements in FTS rates and selectivities. We found that colloidal synthesis makes possible the preparation of small cobalt particles, although large amount of cobalt silicate species, which are difficult to reduce, were formed. During this

  16. Photochemical Conversion of Surrogate Emissions for Use in Toxicological Studies: Role of Particulate- and Gas-Phase Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Jonathan D; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H; Turlington, John M; Lonneman, William A; Modak, Nabanita; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Gavett, Stephen H; Gilmour, M Ian; DeMarini, David M; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E

    2018-03-06

    The production of photochemical atmospheres under controlled conditions in an irradiation chamber permits the manipulation of parameters that influence the resulting air-pollutant chemistry and potential biological effects. To date, no studies have examined how contrasting atmospheres with a similar Air Quality Health Index (AQHI), but with differing ratios of criteria air pollutants, might differentially affect health end points. Here, we produced two atmospheres with similar AQHIs based on the final concentrations of ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter (PM 2.5 ). One simulated atmosphere (SA-PM) generated from irradiation of ∼23 ppmC gasoline, 5 ppmC α-pinene, 529 ppb NO, and 3 μg m -3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 as a seed resulted in an average of 976 μg m -3 PM 2.5 , 326 ppb NO 2 , and 141 ppb O 3 (AQHI 97.7). The other atmosphere (SA-O 3 ) generated from 8 ppmC gasoline, 5 ppmC isoprene, 874 ppb NO, and 2 μg m -3 (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 resulted in an average of 55 μg m -3 PM 2.5 , 643 ppb NO 2 , and 430 ppb O 3 (AQHI of 99.8). Chemical speciation by gas chromatography showed that photo-oxidation degraded the organic precursors and promoted the de novo formation of secondary reaction products such as formaldehyde and acrolein. Further work in accompanying papers describe toxicological outcomes from the two distinct photochemical atmospheres.

  17. Land Use Change In Australia's Tropical Savanna Woodlands: Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Deforestation And Conversion To Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutley, L. B.; Bristow, M.; Beringer, J.; Livesley, S. L.; Arndt, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    Clearing and burning of tropical savanna leads to globally significant emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), although there is large uncertainty relating to the magnitude of this flux. Australia's tropical savannas are 12% of global savanna extent and are largely intact; however there is currently a focus on agricultural expansion across northern Australia involving clearing for primary production. Eddy covariance and soil chamber methods were used over almost 2 years to quantify CO2 and non-CO2 fluxes from savanna that was cleared and prepared for agriculture (CS). Fluxes from an uncleared site (UC) were also monitored. Carbon fluxes from both sites were similar (NEE -0.23 Mg C ha-1 month-1) for the 5.4 months prior to clearing, a period spanning the late dry to mid-wet season. Fluxes were monitored for a further 17 months through a dry-wet-dry climate cycle and phased land use change which included clearing and a debris curing phase, followed by burning and soil preparation for cropping. Over this period (excluding the managed fire), the CS site was a source of +0.43 Mg C ha-1 month-1 compared to a net sink at the UC site of -0.05 Mg C ha-1 month-1. Woody debris from clearing (30.9 Mg C ha-1) was removed from the site via burning in the late dry season and emission factors were used to calculate emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O which totalled 138.0 Mg CO2-e ha-1. Over the 17 months of monitoring this land transformation, emissions were +9.7 Mg CO2-e ha-1 month-1 compared to a sink of -0.17 Mg CO2-e from the UC site. Using these emissions and LUC scenarios at catchment to regional scales suggest proposed clearing for agriculture could significantly increase the region's fire-dominated GHG emissions. These data are essential for both land-atmosphere models as well as decision support tools that inform trade-offs between greenhouse gas accounting, conservation and development goals.

  18. Sexual Harassment: Finding a Cause of Action Under Title VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, William C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines whether the prohibition against sex discrimination in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 includes a prohibition against sexual harassment and the evolving theory in the federal court system that permits the plaintiff to include the corporate employer in her Title VII claim. (Author/IRT)

  19. Recombinant-activated factor VII in the paediatric cardiac surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recombinant-activated factor VII in the paediatric cardiac surgery: Single unit experience. V Agarwal, KE Okonta, PS Lal. Abstract. Background: The control of excessive bleeding after paediatric cardiac surgery can be challenging. This may make the use of recombinant-activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in preventing this ...

  20. Modification of the activity of Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} in the gas-phase conversion of cyclohexanol by addition of sodium carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramendia, M.A.; Borau, V.; Jimenez, C. [Universidad de Cordoba (Spain)] [and others

    1995-11-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of solid NaMgPO{sub 4}, obtained by adding Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to freshly formed Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}22H{sub 2}O. The magnesium orthophosphate was prepared by gelling an aqueous solution of MgCl{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} with 3 N NaOH. The solid products thus obtained were characterized by using various structural (XRD), surface (XPS, DRIFT,BET), and morphological (SEM) elucidation techniques. The results show that the NaMgPO{sub 4} surface also contains Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, NaCl, and MgO, which endow it with increased activity and selectivity. Thus, Mg{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} yields cyclohexene (CHE) preferentially, and some cyclohexanone (CHONE), in the gas-phase conversion of cyclohexanol. On the other hand, NaMgPO{sub 4} produces CHONE selectively under the same reaction conditions. 61 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Re(VII) and Tc(VII) trioxo complexes stabilized by tridentate ligands and their potential use as radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Eva M.; Casini, Angela; Kuehn, Fritz E.

    2014-01-01

    Tc(VII) and Re(VII) trioxo complexes are currently arousing interest because of their potential use as radiopharmaceuticals due to their hydrophilic character and stability in a biological environment. The radioactive isotopes Tc-99m and Re-188 are readily obtained from commercially available

  2. XMM-Newton Survey of Local O VII Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Galactic X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao; Ma, Renyi

    2018-04-01

    The detection of highly ionized metal absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) implies the distribution of hot gas along the sightline toward the background sources. However, the origin of this hot gas is still unclear: it can arise in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is intrinsic to the XRBs. In this paper, we present an XMM-Newton survey of the O VII absorption lines in the spectra of Galactic XRBs. A total of 33 XRBs were selected, with 29 low-mass XRBs and 4 high-mass XRBs. At a more than 3σ threshold, O VII absorption line was detected in 16 targets, among which 4 were newly discovered in this work. The average line equivalent width is centered around ∼20 mÅ. Additionally, we do not find strong correlations between the O VII EWs and the Galactic neutral absorption N H, the Galactic coordinates, or the distance of background targets. Such non-correlation may suggest contamination of the circumstellar material, or a lack of constraints on the line Doppler-b parameter. We also find that regardless of the direction of the XRBs, the O VII absorption lines are always detected when the flux of the background XRBs reaches a certain level, suggesting a uniform distribution of this hot gas. We estimate a ratio of 0.004–0.4 between the hot and neutral phases of the ISM. This is the second paper in the series following Fang et al. (2015), in which we focused on the local O VII absorption lines detected in the background AGN spectra. Detailed modeling of the hot ISM distribution will be investigated in a future paper.

  3. "Viies aastaaeg" kui voolav ruum / Veronika Valk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valk, Veronika, 1976-

    2015-01-01

    Arhitektuurivõistluse eesmärk oli leida Suure-Jaani tervisekeskusele sobivaim lahendus. 2015. aasta sügisel toimunud võistlusele laekus 12 tööd, millest hankija esitatud tingimusele vastas 11. Võitjaks osutus Arhitekt Musta ja Novarci ühistööna valminud kavand "Viies aastaaeg" (autorid: Ott Alver, Alvin Järving, Mari Rass, Gert Guriev, Liina Liis Pihu, Märten Peterson ja Reino Rass). Teise koha sai töö "Polüfoonia" (autorid: Urmo Mets, Kaur Talpsep, Kristiina Aasvee ja Lauri Eltermaa Kauss Arhitektuurist). Kolmanda koha sai töö "Akord" (autorid: Joel Kopli, Koit Ojaliiv ja Rene Sauemägi Amhold/Kuust)

  4. Life-Cycle Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Water Consumption – Effects of Coal and Biomass Conversion to Liquid Fuels as Analyzed with the GREET Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Qianfeng [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Han, Jeongwoo [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The vast reserves of coal in the U.S. provide a significant incentive for the development of processes for coal conversion to liquid fuels (CTL). Also, CTL using domestic coal can help move the U.S. toward greater energy independence and security. However, current conversion technologies are less economically competitive and generate greater greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than production of petroleum fuels. Altex Technologies Corporation (Altex, hereinafter) and Pennsylvania State University have developed a hybrid technology to produce jet fuel from a feedstock blend of coal and biomass. Collaborating with Altex, Argonne National Laboratory has expanded and used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET®) model to assess the life-cycle GHG emissions and water consumption of this hybrid technology. Biomass feedstocks include corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw. The option of biomass densification (bales to pellets) is also evaluated in this study. The results show that the densification process generates additional GHG emissions as a result of additional biomass process energy demand. This process coproduces a large amount of char, and this study investigates two scenarios to treat char: landfill disposal (Char-LF) and combustion for combined heat and power (CHP). Since the CHP scenarios export excess heat and electricity as coproducts, two coproduct handling methods are used for well-to-wake (WTWa) analysis: displacement (Char-CHP-Disp) and energy allocation (Char-CHP-EnAllo). When the feedstock contains 15 wt% densified wheat straw and 85 wt% lignite coal, WTWa GHG emissions of the coal-and-biomass-to-liquid pathways are 116, 97, and 137 gCO2e per megajoule (MJ) under the Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char-CHP-EnAllo scenarios, respectively, as compared to conventional jet fuel production at 84 gCO2e/MJ. WTWa water consumption values are 0.072, -0.046, and 0.044 gal/MJ for Char-LF, Char-CHP-Disp, and Char

  5. Immobilization of 99-Technetium (VII) by Fe(II)-Goethite and Limited Reoxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W Um; H Chang; J Icenhower; W Lukens; R Serne; N Qafoku; J Westsik Jr.; E Buck; S Smith

    2011-12-31

    During the nuclear waste vitrification process volatilized {sup 99}Tc will be trapped by melter off-gas scrubbers and then washed out into caustic solutions, and plans are currently being contemplated for the disposal of such secondary waste. Solutions containing pertechnetate [{sup 99}Tc(VII)O{sub 4}{sup -}] were mixed with precipitating goethite and dissolved Fe(II) to determine if an iron (oxy)hydroxide-based waste form can reduce Tc(VII) and isolate Tc(IV) from oxygen. The results of these experiments demonstrate that Fe(II) with goethite efficiently catalyzes the reduction of technetium in deionized water and complex solutions that mimic the chemical composition of caustic waste scrubber media. Identification of the phases, goethite + magnetite, was performed using XRD, SEM and TEM methods. Analyses of the Tc-bearing solid products by XAFS indicate that all of the Tc(VII) was reduced to Tc(IV) and that the latter is incorporated into goethite or magnetite as octahedral Tc(IV). Batch dissolution experiments, conducted under ambient oxidizing conditions for more than 180 days, demonstrated a very limited release of Tc to solution (2-7 {micro}g Tc/g solid). Incorporation of Tc(IV) into the goethite lattice thus provides significant advantages for limiting reoxidation and curtailing release of Tc disposed in nuclear waste repositories.

  6. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  7. A new process concept for highly efficient conversion of sewage sludge by combined fermentation and gasification and power generation in a hybrid system consisting of a SOFC and a gas turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Speidel, Michael; Kraaij, Gerard; Wörner, Antje

    2015-01-01

    Sewage sludge can be disposed of by fermentation, incineration or gasification. Conversion of the resulting biogas, combustion heat or gasification gas into electricity is often employed. Since sewage sludge cannot be fermented completely and due to the significant heat requirements for drying it in the incineration plant or before the gasifier, the electrical output in all cases is very low. Consequently, this work seeks to investigate a combination of fermentation and gasification in which ...

  8. 29 CFR 1601.91 - Request for title VII interpretation or opinion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Request for title VII interpretation or opinion. 1601.91... PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Title VII Interpretations and Opinions by the Commission § 1601.91 Request for title VII interpretation or opinion. Any interested person desiring a written title VII interpretation or...

  9. TEH võrgustik - viis aastat Eestis / Marika Kusnets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kusnets, Marika

    2005-01-01

    Eestis on tervist edendavate haiglate (TEH) võrgustik tegutsenud juba viis aastat, sellega on liitunud 22 haiglat. Tänavust konverentsi peeti teemal "Tervise edendamine ja kvaliteedi tagamine haiglas: standardid ja praktika"

  10. Compression Freezing Kinetics of Water to Ice VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Galtier, E.; Lee, H. J.; Granados, E.; Dolan, D. H.; Seagle, C. T.; Ao, T.; Ali, S.; Lazicki, A.; Swift, D.; Celliers, P.; Mao, W. L.

    2017-07-01

    Time-resolved x-ray diffraction (XRD) of compressed liquid water shows transformation to ice VII in 6 nsec, revealing crystallization rather than amorphous solidification during compression freezing. Application of classical nucleation theory indicates heterogeneous nucleation and one-dimensional (e.g., needlelike) growth. These first XRD data demonstrate rapid growth kinetics of ice VII with implications for fundamental physics of diffusion-mediated crystallization and thermodynamic modeling of collision or impact events on ice-rich planetary bodies.

  11. Comparative study of regulated and unregulated air pollutant emissions before and after conversion of automobiles from gasoline power to liquefied petroleum gas/gasoline dual-fuel retrofits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Chien, Shu-Mei; Cheng, Man-Ting; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2007-12-15

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly being examined as an alternative to gasoline use in automobiles as interest grows in reducing air pollutant emissions. In this study, emissions of regulated (CO, THC, NO(x)) and unregulated air pollutants, including CO2, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and BTEX (acronym for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene), were measured before and after conversion of nine gasoline-powered automobiles to LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. The tests were conducted on a standard chassis dynamometer in accordance with the United States Environmental Protection Agency FTP-75 test procedure, with the exception that all tests were conducted under hot-start driving conditions. The influences of LPG on air pollutant emission levels and carcinogenic potency were investigated and compared with gasoline. The results showed average emission factors of 0.14 g/km, 0.33 mg/km, 0.09 g/km, 0.44 g/km, and 197 g/km for CO, THC, NO(x), PM, and CO2, respectively, for LPG/ gasoline dual-fuel retrofits. Paired-sample t-test results indicated that the emissions of CO (p = 0.03), THC (p = 0.04), and CO2 (p = 4.6 x 10(-8)) were significantly reduced with the retrofit in comparison with gasoline-powered automobiles. The reduction percentages were 71%, 89%, and 14% for CO, THC, and CO2, respectively. The average total PAH emission factor for LPG was 217 microg/km, which is significantly lower than gasoline (863 microg/km; p = 0.05). The PAH corresponding carcinogenicities (BaP(eq)) were calculated via toxic equivalencies based on benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Paired-sample t-test results fortotal BaP(eq) emissions showed no significant difference between gasoline (30.0 microg/km) and LPG (24.8 microg/km) at a confidence level of 95%. The discrepancy between PAH and BaP(eq) emissions resulted from the higher emission percentages of high molecular weight PAHs for LPG, which might be from lubricant oil. The average emission factors of

  12. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, N.C.J.; Masereeuw, R.; Holme, P.A.; Kraaij, M.G.J. van; Laros, B.A.P.; Peyvandi, F.; Heerde, W.L. van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten factor VII deficient patients

  13. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  14. Conversion frequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauteret, C.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental evidence of short wavelength for laser inertial confinement has strongly increased the interest in high efficiency harmonic conversion of powerful Nd: glass lasers. This work describes our high power harmonic conversion experiments performed using the same laser apparatus for doubling, tripling the three high power 1064 nm P102, OCTAL and PHEBUS lasers. In addition to the understanding the physics of harmonic conversion, this work includes the basic concepts allows us to improve the technique such as non colinear schemes, to extend this method to other frequencies (fourth generation) and to predict some physical limits [fr

  15. VII International Congress of Engineering Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the fortieth anniversary celebration of the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana and the Physics Engineering career, the Division of Basic Science and Engineering and its Departments organized the "VII International Congress of Physics Engineering". The Congress was held from 24 to 28 November 2014 in Mexico City, Mexico. This congress is the first of its type in Latin America, and because of its international character, it gathers experts on physics engineering from Mexico and all over the globe. Since 1999, this event has shown research, articles, projects, technological developments and vanguard scientists. These activities aim to spread, promote, and share the knowledge of Physics Engineering. The topics of the Congress were: • Renewable energies engineering • Materials technology • Nanotechnology • Medical physics • Educational physics engineering • Nuclear engineering • High precision instrumentation • Atmospheric physics • Optical engineering • Physics history • Acoustics This event integrates lectures on top trending topics with pre-congress workshops, which are given by recognized scientists with an outstanding academic record. The lectures and workshops allow the exchange of experiences, and create and strengthen research networks. The Congress also encourages professional mobility among all universities and research centres from all countries. CIIF2014 Organizing and Editorial Committee Dr. Ernesto Rodrigo Vázquez Cerón Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco ervc@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Luis Enrique Noreña Franco Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco lnf@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Alberto Rubio Ponce Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco arp@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Óscar Olvera Neria Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco oon@correo.azc.uam.mx Professor Jaime Granados Samaniego Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana - Azcapotzalco jgs@correo.azc.uam.mx Dr. Roberto Tito Hern

  16. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  17. Perturbation fields in W VII-AS and Helias configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harmeyer, E.; Kisslinger, J.; Montvai, A.; Rau, F.; Wobig, H.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of pertubed topologies of the W VII-AS vacuum fields on the configuration with rational and irrational rotational transform are illustrated. Even small perturbation fields are unacceptable at rational values of the rotational transform. For example at a rotational transform = 1/2 in W VII-AS, when exceeding an effective homogeneous Bx/B = 3 x 10 -4 , the size of the rotational transform = 1/2 = 5/10 islands is doubled. At irrational values a Bx/B = 1/2% shows tolerable effects, for both W VII-AS and HS4-12. At rational values of the rotational transform = 1 near the edge, Bx/B values = 1/4 to 1/8% show a rather large increase of the aspect ratio, so an edge value of rotational transform = 1 should be avoided

  18. Compound-specific hydrogen isotope analysis of fluorine-, chlorine-, bromine- and iodine-bearing organics using gas chromatography-chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renpenning, Julian; Schimmelmann, Arndt; Gehre, Matthias

    2017-07-15

    The conventional high-temperature conversion (HTC) approach towards hydrogen compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) of halogen-bearing (F, Cl, Br, I) organics suffers from incomplete H 2 yields and associated hydrogen isotope fractionation due to generation of HF, HCl, HBr, and HI byproducts. Moreover, the traditional off-line combustion of highly halogenated compounds results in incomplete recovery of water as an intermediary compound for hydrogen isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and hence also leads to isotope fractionation. This study presents an optimized chromium-based high-temperature conversion (Cr/HTC) approach for hydrogen CSIA of various fluorinated, chlorinated, brominated and iodinated organic compounds. The Cr/HTC approach is fast, economical, and not affected by low H 2 yields and associated isotope fractionation. The performance of the modified gas chromatography/chromium-based high-temperature conversion (GC-Cr/HTC) system was monitored and optimized using an ion trap mass spectrometer. Quantitative conversion of organic hydrogen into H 2 analyte gas was achieved for all halogen-bearing compounds. The corresponding accuracy of CSIA was validated using (i) manual dual-inlet (DI)-IRMS after off-line conversion into H 2 , and (ii) elemental analyzer (EA)-Cr/HTC-IRMS (on-line conversion). The overall hydrogen isotope analysis of F-, Cl-, Br- and I-bearing organics via GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS achieved a precision σ ≤ 3 mUr and an accuracy within ±5 mUr along the VSMOW-SLAP scale compared with the measured isotope compositions resulting from both validation methods, off-line and on-line. The same analytical performance as for single-compound GC-Cr/HTC-IRMS was achieved compound-specifically for mixtures of halogenated organics following GC separation to baseline resolution. GC-Cr/HTC technology can be implemented in existing analytical equipment using commercially available materials to provide a versatile tool for hydrogen CSIA of halogenated and

  19. PERANCANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI DI PTAIS KOPERTAIS WILAYAH VII SUMATERA SELATAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Purwani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Relations and information technology today closely related. One technology that is widely used and very popular on the Internet is a website. The website is agood means to facilitate and share information as much to college. However, the college today togetthe informationisnot maximized. This study aimstobuildawebsite on Kopertais SUMBAGSEL region VII. This website was developed using Macromedia Dreamweaver CS3 software, PHP, and MySQL, and method development using RAD (Rapid Application Development, and the purpose of this website serves to facilitate the college to receiver elevant information about online Kopertais VII region and terupdates.

  20. A comparison of producer gas, biochar, and activated carbon from two distributed scale thermochemical conversion systems used to process forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathaniel Anderson; J. Greg Jones; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Daniel McCollum; Stephen Baker; Daniel Loeffler; Woodam Chung

    2013-01-01

    Thermochemical biomass conversion systems have the potential to produce heat, power, fuels and other products from forest biomass at distributed scales that meet the needs of some forest industry facilities. However, many of these systems have not been deployed in this sector and the products they produce from forest biomass have not been adequately described or...

  1. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  2. 29 CFR 1604.8 - Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.8 Relationship of title VII to the Equal Pay Act. (a) The employee coverage of the prohibitions against discrimination based on sex contained in title VII is...

  3. Viis aastakümmet raamatukogunduse radadel / Anne Veinberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Veinberg, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Arvustus: Kikas, Konrad. Verba volant, scripta manent : viis aastakümmet raamatukogunduse ja infoteaduse radadel = Verba volant, scripta manent : five decades on the field of librarianship and information science. - Tallinn : Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Kirjastus, 2008. - 366 lk. : ill. portr. - (Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli Raamatukogu töid. A ; 5)

  4. Viis armastuslugu suurel ekraanil / Tristan Priimägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Priimägi, Tristan, 1976-

    2008-01-01

    Viis näidet filmiajaloost, kus režissööri ja staari vahel on tunded : Roger Vadim ja Tema Naised, Werner Herzog ja Klaus Kinski, Federico Fellini ja Anita Ekberg, Quentin Tarantino ja Uma Thurman, Rainer Werner Fassbinder ja Mr/Mrs X

  5. Mechanisms of coexistence of factor VII hyperactivity with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dyslipidaemia, DM and obesity were found to induce FVII hyperactivity. Hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, high levels of FFAs and leptin constitute the underlying mechanisms for coexistence of FVII hyperactivity and metabolic disorders. Factor VII hyperactivity does not cause development of MI de novo. In conclusion ...

  6. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacteriun tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information ...

  7. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... tomycetes, Cyanobacteria and Spirochaetes. This indicates a higher likelihood of the presence of Type VII-like Secretion. Systems in bacterial species belonging to these seven phyla. Apart from the secretory proteins of WXG100 family, homologs of ATPase component (T7SSC5) and the protease.

  8. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Type VII Secretion System (T7SS) is one of the factors involved in virulence of Mycobacteriun tuberculosis H37Rv. Numerous research efforts have been made in the last decade towards characterizing the components of this secretion system. An extensive genome-wide analysis through compilation of isolated information ...

  9. In silico dissection of Type VII Secretion System components across ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-02-12

    Feb 12, 2016 ... utilizing these components as 'seeds'. Information on the iden- tified components of T7SS has been organized into a database. T7CD (Type VII Secretion System Component Database). The present study suggests a global trend of distinct structural com- ponents (of T7SS) in Actinobacteria and Firmicutes.

  10. 76 FR 31892 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ... Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Notice... Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Title VII) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to entities covered... the same record retention requirements under GINA that are imposed under Title VII and the ADA, i.e...

  11. 76 FR 79065 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA and GINA CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal... title VII or section 107 of the ADA'' and add in their place the words ``section 709(c) of title VII, section 107 of the ADA, or section 207(a) of GINA'' wherever they appear in the following sections...

  12. 77 FR 5396 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION: Final... (Title VII) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to entities covered by title II of the Genetic... requirements under GINA that apply under Title VII and the ADA, i.e., any records made or kept must be retained...

  13. 78 FR 36011 - Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-14

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board; Federal Regulatory Enforcement... Regional (Region VII) Small Business Regulatory Fairness Board. SUMMARY: The (SBA) Office of the National... the Region VII Regulatory Fairness Board must contact Jeanna Trenkamp by June 17, 2013 in writing, by...

  14. Survey and Down-Selection of Acid Gas Removal Systems for the Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Ethanol with a Detailed Analysis of an MDEA System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nexant, Inc., San Francisco, California

    2011-05-01

    The first section (Task 1) of this report by Nexant includes a survey and screening of various acid gas removal processes in order to evaluate their capability to meet the specific design requirements for thermochemical ethanol synthesis in NREL's thermochemical ethanol design report (Phillips et al. 2007, NREL/TP-510-41168). MDEA and selexol were short-listed as the most promising acid-gas removal agents based on work described in Task 1. The second report section (Task 2) describes a detailed design of an MDEA (methyl diethanol amine) based acid gas removal system for removing CO2 and H2S from biomass-derived syngas. Only MDEA was chosen for detailed study because of the available resources.

  15. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...

  16. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  17. Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Rofé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder remains a mystery that has only become more complicated with the decline of the scientific status of psychoanalysis (e.g., Piper, Lillevik, & Kritzer, 2008; Rofé, 2008 and recent neurological findings suggest that this behavior is controlled by biological mechanisms (van Beilen, Vogt, & Leenders, 2010. Moreover, existing theories have difficulty explaining the efficacy of various interventions, such as psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, drug therapy and religious therapy. This article reviews research and clinical evidence pertaining to both the development and treatment of conversion disorder and shows that this seemingly incompatible evidence can be integrated within a new theory, the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis (RCTN; Rofé, 2010. Despite the striking differences, RCTN continues Freud's framework of thinking as it employs a new concept of repression and replaces the unconscious with self-deception. Moreover, it incorporates Freud's idea, implicitly expressed in his theory, that neurotic disorders are, in fact, rational behaviors.

  18. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  19. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  20. Validation of the DNDC model in order to simulate future greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon changes from the Prairie-Pothole region of North Dakota following prairie conversion to agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddick, E.; Phillips, R. L.; Waldron, S. E.; Davidson, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Prairie Pothole Region (PPR) in North America is home to a diverse range of habitats that support large populations of water fowl and other bird species. Some of the habitats such as the native prairie grasslands of the PPR are under threat due to conversion to cropland. Despite the importance of the PPR, little research has been conducted in this region to understand the impact land-use changes will have on greenhouse gas emissions and soil organic carbon storage (SOC). Therefore, process based biogeochemical models such as the Denitrification Decomposition (DNDC) model can be used to simulate the potential effects that future land-use change will have upon the cycling of carbon and nitrogen in both agricultural and non-agricultural ecosystems. The objective of this study was to validate the DNDC model for two different ecosystems within the PPR region. We aimed to test the ability of the model to predict the flux of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) and SOC changes in both an agricultural cropping system and a natural prairie in order to understand future land use change scenarios and forecast the change in N2O and SOC following prairie conversion to agriculture. Using a baseline climate scenario from observed daily measurements at each site, the DNDC model was tested against observed static chamber field measurements of N2O measured from April 2009 to December 2011, as well as being tested against other ancillary soil measurements (e.g., soil moisture and temperature) from an alfalfa cropping system and a native prairie grassland in the PPR of North Dakota, USA. Soils from the native prairie were classified as a non hydric clay loam with a SOC content of 0.033 kg C kg-1, where the alfalfa cropping system was a non hydric silt loam with a SOC content of 0.019 kg C kg-1. Initial results indicate that simulated N2O emissions at both sites and the change in SOC with conversion of prairie to cropland were generally in agreement with observed field

  1. Fiscal 1998 research report on the development trends of natural gas conversion technologies into liquefied fuel in Russia; 1998 nendo Roshia ni okeru tennen gas no ekitai nenryoka gijutsu no kaihatsu doko nado ni kansuru chosa kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Russia having natural gas resources largest in the world is actively promoting the basic research on liquefaction technology of natural gas such as Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic catalyst, and its research potential is extremely high. This 3-year research project surveys the R and D trends of catalyst technology for liquefaction of natural gas, and fabricates the prototype FT synthetic catalyst based on the idea of Russian researchers to evaluate its feasibility experimentally. This report summarizes the following to clarify the research background: (1) The technology system for liquefaction of natural gas, and its future R and D trend, (2) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in the world, (3) The R and D trends of liquefaction technology of natural gas in Russia, (4) The research system of catalyses in Russia, (5) The activities of Russian catalysis research institutes, (6) The fuel liquefaction technologies of Russian major research institutes, and (7) The proposals from Russian research institutes. (NEDO)

  2. PERANCANGAN SISTEM INFORMASI DI PTAIS KOPERTAIS WILAYAH VII SUMATERA SELATAN

    OpenAIRE

    Fenny Purwani

    2015-01-01

    Relations and information technology today closely related. One technology that is widely used and very popular on the Internet is a website. The website is agood means to facilitate and share information as much to college. However, the college today togetthe informationisnot maximized. This study aimstobuildawebsite on Kopertais SUMBAGSEL region VII. This website was developed using Macromedia Dreamweaver CS3 software, PHP, and MySQL, and method development using RAD (Rapid Application Deve...

  3. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20µg (n=158), 30µg (n=284), 35µg (n=79) or 50µg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  4. Steady-state temperature distribution within a Brayton rotating unit operating in a power conversion system using helium-xenon gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, R. L.; Namkoong, D.; Edkin, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    The Brayton rotating unit (BRU), consisting of a turbine, an alternator, and a compressor, was tested as part of a Brayton cycle power conversion system over a side range of steady state operating conditions. The working fluid in the system was a mixture of helium-xenon gases. Turbine inlet temperature was varied from 1200 to 1600 F, compressor inlet temperature from 60 to 120 F, compressor discharge pressure from 20 to 45 psia, rotative speed from 32 400 to 39 600 rpm, and alternator liquid-coolant flow rate from 0.01 to 0.27 pound per second. Test results indicated that the BRU internal temperatures were highly sensitive to alternator coolant flow below the design value of 0.12 pound per second but much less so at higher values. The armature winding temperature was not influenced significantly by turbine inlet temperature, but was sensitive, up to 20 F per kVA alternator output, to varying alternator output. When only the rotational speed was changed (+ or - 10% of rated value), the BRU internal temperatures varied directly with the speed.

  5. Integrated management of ash from industrial and domestic combustion: a new sustainable approach for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benassi, Laura; Dalipi, Rogerta; Consigli, Veronica; Pasquali, Michela; Borgese, Laura; Depero, Laura E; Clegg, Francis; Bingham, Paul A; Bontempi, Elza

    2017-06-01

    This work supports, for the first time, the integrated management of waste materials arising from industrial processes (fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration and coal fly ash), agriculture (rice husk ash), and domestic activities (ash from wood biomass burning in domestic stoves). The main novelty of the paper is the reuse of wood pellet ash, an underestimated environmental problem, by the application of a new technology (COSMOS-RICE) that already involves the reuse of fly ashes from industrial and agricultural origins. The reaction mechanism involves carbonation: this occurs at room temperature and promotes permanent carbon dioxide sequestration. The obtained samples were characterized using XRD and TGA (coupled with mass spectroscopy). This allowed quantification of the mass loss attributed to different calcium carbonate phases. In particular, samples stabilized using wood pellet ash show a weight loss, attributed to the decomposition of carbonates greater than 20%. In view of these results, it is possible to conclude that there are several environmental benefits from wood pellet ash reuse in this way. In particular, using this technology, it is shown that for wood pellet biomass the carbon dioxide conversion can be considered negative.

  6. Design, Synthesis, and Mechanistic Evaluation of Iron-Based Catalysis for Synthesis Gas Conversion to Fuels and Chemicals. Technical Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akio Ishikawa; Manuel Ojeda; Nan Yao; Enrique Iglesia

    2006-01-01

    This project extends previously discovered Fe-based catalysts to hydrogen-poor synthesis gas streams derived from coal and biomass sources. These catalysts have shown unprecedented Fischer-Tropsch synthesis rate, selectivity for feedstocks consisting of synthesis gas derived from methane. During the first reporting period, we certified a microreactor, installed required analytical equipment, and reproduced synthetic protocols and catalytic results previously reported. During the second reporting period, we prepared several Fe-based compositions for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and tested the effects of product recycle under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. During the third and fourth reporting periods, we improved the catalysts preparation method, which led to Fe-based FT catalysts with the highest FTS reaction rates and selectivities so far reported, a finding that allowed their operation at lower temperatures and pressures with high selectivity to desired products (C 5+ , olefins). During this fifth reporting period, we have studied the effects of different promoters on catalytic performance, specifically how their sequence of addition dramatically influences the performance of these materials in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The resulting procedures have been optimized to improve further upon the already unprecedented rates and C 5+ selectivities of the Fe-based catalysts that we have developed as part of this project. During this fifth reporting period, we have also continued our studies of optimal activation procedures, involving reduction and carburization of oxide precursors during the early stages of contact with synthesis gas. We have completed the analysis of the evolution of oxide, carbide, and metal phases of the active iron components during initial contact with synthesis gas using advanced synchrotron techniques based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have confirmed that the Cu or Ru compensates for inhibitory effects of Zn, a surface

  7. Conversion of actual flue gas CO 2 via cycloaddition to propylene oxide catalyzed by a single-site, recyclable zirconium catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Kelly, Michael J.

    2017-06-12

    A reusable zirconium-based catalyst for the cycloaddition of CO2 to propylene oxide (PO) was prepared by the surface organometallic chemistry (SOMC) methodology. Accordingly, well-defined amounts of the ZrCl4·(OEt2)2 precursor were grafted on the surface of silica dehydroxylated at 700°C (SiO2-700) and at 200°C (SiO2-200) in order to afford surface coordination compounds with different podality and chemical environment. The identity of the surface complexes was thoroughly investigated by FT-IR, elemental microanalysis and solid state NMR and applied as a recoverable and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the title reaction using pure CO2 and flue gas samples from a cement factory. The observed catalytic activity for the isolated zirconium complexes is rationalized by means of systematic DFT calculations.

  8. Innovative direct energy conversion systems using electronic adiabatic processes of electron fluid in solid conductors: new plants of electrical power and hydrogen gas resources without environmental pollutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Y.; Kondo, M.; Shimoda, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2001-07-01

    It is shown that using a novel recycling process of the environmental thermal energy, innovative permanent auto-working direct energy converter systems (PA-DEC systems) from the environmental thermal to electrical and/or chemical potential (TE/CP) energies, abbreviated as PA-TE/CP-DEC systems, can be used for new auto-working electrical power plants and the plants of the compressible and conveyable hydrogen gas resources at various regions in the whole world, with contributions to the world peace and the economical development in the south part of the world. It is shown that the same physical mechanism by free electrons and electrical potential determined by temperature in conductors, which include semiconductors, leads to the Peltier effect and the Seebeck one. It is experimentally clarified that the long distance separation between two π type elements of the heat absorption (HAS) and the production one (HPS) of the Peltier effect circuit system or between the higher temperature side (HTS) and the lower one (LTS) of the Seebeck effect circuit one does not change in the whole for the both effects. By using present systems, we do not need to use petrified fuels such as coals, oils, and natural gases in order to decrease the greenhouse effect by the CO 2 surrounding the earth. Furthermore, we do not need plats of nuclear fissions that left radiating wastes, i.e., with no environmental pollutions. The PA-TE/CP-DEC systems can be applicable for several km scale systems to the micro ones, such as the plants of the electrical power, the compact transportable hydrogen gas resources, a large heat energy container, which can be settled at far place from thermal energy absorbing area, the refrigerators, the air conditioners, home electrical apparatuses, and further the computer elements. It is shown that the simplest PA-TE/CP-DEC system can be established by using only the Seebeck effect components and the resolving water ones. It is clarified that the externally applied

  9. Uudised : Baltimaade suurim, XII "Jazzkaar". VII rahvusvaheline koorifestival. Leipzigis improviseeriti edukalt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    23.-29. apr. toimuvast festivalist "Jazzkaar 2001". VII rahvusvahelisest koorifestivalist "Tallinn "2001". 6. ja 7. apr. Leipzigis toimunud V rahvusvahelisest improvisatsioonikonkursist, kus osalesid ka eesti interpreedid

  10. Pengembangan Vaksin Inaktif Tetelo Genotipe VII Isolat Lokal pada Kondisi Laboratorium. (DEVELOPMENT OF TETELO INACTIVATED VACCINE GENOTYPE VII LOCAL ISOLATE IN LABORATORY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Indriani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tetelo/Newcastle disease (ND inactive vaccine of genotipe VII virus local isolate have been developedin laboratory condition and compared with commercial ND vaccine. A total of 200 commercial layer chickenat 4 weeks age were divided into four groups, that were (1 vaccinated with ND genotype VII Indonesia/GTT/11, (2 vaccinated with commercial ND vaccine genotype VII, (3 vaccinated with commercial genotypeVI and (4 unvaccinated as control group. After two weeks post vaccination, 10 chicken from each groupwere sellected randomly and challenged with 105 EID50 per 0,1 mL of ND virus genotype VII Indonesian/GTT/11 by intramuscular. Chicken were observed, and swab were collected from oropharyngeal and cloacaat 2, 5, 7, 12 and 14 days post challenge. The result of this study showed inactived vaccine genotype VIIIndonesia/GTT/11 can induced a good antibody titer response to vaccinated chicken with mean titer 7.30log2 and CI 6.3 to 7.8, while commercial ND vaccine genotipe VII was 5.30 log2 with CI 3.8-6.7, andcommercial genotype VI was 4.8 log2 with CI 4.1-5.4. The level of protection which determined by noclinical signs, mortality and viral shedding showed 100% protection in chicken vaccinated with Indonesia/GTT/11 and commercial genotype VII were 100%, compared with control chicken, and vaccined commercialND vaccine genotype VII, compared with control chicken. While in chicken vaccinated commercial NDvaccine genotype VI showed viral shedding on day two post challenge, but there were no clinical sign andmortality. Based on this results, Indonesia/GTT/11 genotype VII ND vaccine could be used as an alternativeND vaccine to protect chicken from infection of ND virus genotype VII in the field.

  11. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S VII spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.; Jupen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock relativistic approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S VII spectral lines

  12. Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program: 1986 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. Thermochemical conversion processes can generate a variety of products such as gasoline hydrocarbon fuels, natural gas substitutes, or heat energy for electric power generation. The US Department of Energy is sponsoring research on biomass conversion technologies through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has been designated the Technical Field Management Office for the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program with overall responsibility for the Program. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1986. 88 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Importance of direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlicek, Z.

    1973-01-01

    Energy reserves of different types (fossil fuels, nuclear fission and fusion reactions, solar and geothermal energy) are listed and their conversion patterns evaluated with regard to economic and ecological factors and to the siting of power plants. The concepts and economy of different types of power plants are discussed. The magnetohydrodynamic conversion is given detailed analysis being the most promising for nuclear power production. MHD power plants are expected to operate as peak plants. The graphs presented show that the combination of an MHD reactor and gas turbines is the least costly

  14. Evaluated Nuclear Data Covariances: The Journey From ENDF/B-VII.0 to ENDF/B-VII.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Donald L.

    2011-01-01

    Recent interest from data users on applications that utilize the uncertainties of evaluated nuclear reaction data has stimulated the data evaluation community to focus on producing covariance data to a far greater extent than ever before. Although some uncertainty information has been available in the ENDF/B libraries since the 1970's, this content has been fairly limited in scope, the quality quite variable, and the use of covariance data confined to only a few application areas. Today, covariance data are more widely and extensively utilized than ever before in neutron dosimetry, in advanced fission reactor design studies, in nuclear criticality safety assessments, in national security applications, and even in certain fusion energy applications. The main problem that now faces the ENDF/B evaluator community is that of providing covariances that are adequate both in quantity and quality to meet the requirements of contemporary nuclear data users in a timely manner. In broad terms, the approach pursued during the past several years has been to purge any legacy covariance information contained in ENDF/B-VI.8 that was judged to be subpar, to include in ENDF/B-VII.0 (released in 2006) only those covariance data deemed then to be of reasonable quality for contemporary applications, and to subsequently devote as much effort as the available time and resources allowed to producing additional covariance data of suitable scope and quality for inclusion in ENDF/B-VII.1. Considerable attention has also been devoted during the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0 to examining and improving the methods used to produce covariance data from thermal energies up to the highest energies addressed in the ENDF/B library, to processing these data in a robust fashion so that they can be utilized readily in contemporary nuclear applications, and to developing convenient covariance data visualization capabilities. Other papers included in this issue discuss in considerable

  15. Endf/B-VII.0 Based Library for Paragon - 313

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huria, H.C.; Kucukboyaci, V.N.; Ouisloumen, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new 70-group library has been generated for the Westinghouse lattice physics code PARAGON using the ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data files. The new library retains the major features of the current library, including the number of energy groups and the reduction in the U-238 resonance integral. The upper bound for the up-scattering effects in the new library, however, has been moved to 4.0 eV from 2.1 eV for better MOX fuel predictions. The new library has been used to analyze standard benchmarks and also to compare the measured and predicted parameters for different types of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering (CE) type operating reactor cores. Results indicate that the new library will not impact the reactivity, power distribution and the temperature coefficient predictions over a wide range of physics design parameters; however, will improve the MOX core predictions. In other words, the ENDF/B-VI.3 and ENDF/B-VII.0 produce similar results for reactor core calculations. (authors)

  16. BEIR VII: What's old, What's new, and What challenges remain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douple, E.; Jostes, R.

    2007-01-01

    The Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII) Committee reviewed evidence since the 1990 BEIR V report and developed BEIR VII risk estimates, including a linear, no-threshold dose-response relationship between exposure to ionizing radiation and the development of cancer in humans for exposures up to 0.1 Sv, quantifying the lifetime risks for both cancer mortality and incidence as a function of age at exposure and sex, primarily based on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivor data. If 100 people with an age distribution typical of the U.S. population receive an acute exposure of 0.1 Sv, one person would be expected to eventually develop cancer from this exposure, while 42 of the 100 people would be expected to develop cancer from other causes. The committee estimated the risk following radiation exposure for both incidence and mortality for 11 specific cancer sites. The total risk of heritable genetic diseases from parents exposed prior to conception was 3,000 to 4,700 cases per million progeny per Sv, 0.4-0.6% compared to an estimated baseline risk of 738,000 cases per million. Noncancer diseases such as cardiovascular disease can result from exposures to high doses of radiation, but the data available at this time are not sufficient to develop reliable estimates of risk for these noncancer outcomes at low doses of radiation. Twelve specific recommendations were presented as needs for future research. (author)

  17. Microbial Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Merry [American Society for Microbiology (ASM), Washington, DC (United States); Wall, Judy D. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2006-10-01

    The American Academy of Microbiology convened a colloquium March 10-12, 2006, in San Francisco, California, to discuss the production of energy fuels by microbial conversions. The status of research into various microbial energy technologies, the advantages and disadvantages of each of these approaches, research needs in the field, and education and training issues were examined, with the goal of identifying routes for producing biofuels that would both decrease the need for fossil fuels and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Currently, the choices for providing energy are limited. Policy makers and the research community must begin to pursue a broader array of potential energy technologies. A diverse energy portfolio that includes an assortment of microbial energy choices will allow communities and consumers to select the best energy solution for their own particular needs. Funding agencies and governments alike need to prepare for future energy needs by investing both in the microbial energy technologies that work today and in the untested technologies that will serve the world’s needs tomorrow. More mature bioprocesses, such as ethanol production from starchy materials and methane from waste digestors, will find applications in the short term. However, innovative techniques for liquid fuel or biohydrogen production are among the longer term possibilities that should also be vigorously explored, starting now. Microorganisms can help meet human energy needs in any of a number of ways. In their most obvious role in energy conversion, microorganisms can generate fuels, including ethanol, hydrogen, methane, lipids, and butanol, which can be burned to produce energy. Alternatively, bacteria can be put to use in microbial fuel cells, where they carry out the direct conversion of biomass into electricity. Microorganisms may also be used some day to make oil and natural gas technologies more efficient by sequestering carbon or by assisting in the recovery of oil and

  18. 76 FR 57013 - Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION 29 CFR Part 1602 RIN 3046-AA89 Recordkeeping and Reporting Requirements Under Title VII, the ADA, and GINA AGENCY: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. ACTION... under title VII, the ADA, and GINA. (76 FR 31892, June 2, 2011). No requests to present oral testimony...

  19. Group VII Ethylene Response Factor diversification and regulation in four species from flood-prone environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van H.; Akman, M.; Jamar, D.C.L.; Vreugdenhil, D.; Kooiker, M.; Tienderen, van P.H.; Voesenek, L.A.C.J.; Schranz, M.E.; Sasidharan, R.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding events negatively affect plant performance and survival. Flooding gradients thereby determine the dynamics in vegetation composition and species abundance. In adaptation to flooding, the group VII Ethylene Response Factor genes (ERF-VIIs) play pivotal roles in rice and Arabidopsis through

  20. Thermodynamics and energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Struchtrup, Henning

    2014-01-01

    This textbook gives a thorough treatment of engineering thermodynamics with applications to classical and modern energy conversion devices.   Some emphasis lies on the description of irreversible processes, such as friction, heat transfer and mixing, and the evaluation of the related work losses. Better use of resources requires high efficiencies, therefore the reduction of irreversible losses should be seen as one of the main goals of a thermal engineer. This book provides the necessary tools.   Topics include: car and aircraft engines,  including Otto, Diesel and Atkinson cycles, by-pass turbofan engines, ramjet and scramjet;  steam and gas power plants, including advanced regenerative systems, solar tower, and compressed air energy storage; mixing and separation, including reverse osmosis, osmotic powerplants, and carbon sequestration; phase equilibrium and chemical equilibrium, distillation, chemical reactors, combustion processes, and fuel cells; the microscopic definition of entropy.    The book i...

  1. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... alloenzyme with reduced pro-fibrinolytic activity. Presently, we address whether OC use and OC formulation affect FSAP measures in human blood. Healthy women (n=588) were allocated to six cycles of OCs with estrogen contents of 20μg (n=158), 30μg (n=284), 35μg (n=79) or 50μg (n=67) combined with various...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  2. The effects of three factor VII polymorphisms on factor VII coagulant levels in healthy Singaporean Chinese, Malay and Indian newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, S C; Low, P S; Saha, N; Heng, C K

    2006-11-01

    Factor VII (FVII) is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Three polymorphisms of the factor VII gene (F7) were studied in a group of healthy newborns comprising 561 Chinese, 398 Malays and 226 Asian Indians from Singapore. The allele frequencies of 3 polymorphisms (R353Q, Promoter 0/10bp Del/Ins and Intron 7) in the FVII gene were ascertained through genotyping by polymerase chain reaction and restriction digestion of amplified fragments. In Chinese the minor allele frequencies are Q: 0.04, Ins: 0.03, R7: 0.44; Malays, Q: 0.06, Ins: 0.10, R7: 0.41; and Indians, Q: 0.25, Ins: 0.23, R7: 0.43. Strong linkage disequilibrium (Delta > 0.7) is observed between the 0/10 bp and the R353Q sites in all ethnic groups. We conclude that: (i) the prevalence of the minor Q and Ins alleles of the R353Q and 0/10 bp polymorphisms are significantly higher in the Indian newborns than the Chinese and Malays; (ii) the Q allele is significantly associated (p = 0.01) with a lower plasma FVII coagulant level in the Indian and Malay neonates; and this polymorphism explains up to 3.8% of the variance in FVII coagulant levels; (iii) there is no significant difference in allele frequencies of the three polymorphisms between neonates with and without family histories of CAD.

  3. A Case of Aplasia Cutis Congenita, Type VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joung Sun; Lee, Jee Bum; Kim, Seong Jin; Won, Young Ho

    2008-01-01

    Aplasia cutis congenita (ACC) is a rare congenital defect in which localized or widespread areas of the skin are absent at birth. In the majority of cases, it is limited to the scalp especially on the vertex although other areas of the body may also be involved. Other congenital malformations can be associated with ACC. We present herein the case of a new born male with unilateral absence of skin on the extensor surface of the right lower leg. There was no associated malformation or skin disease such as blistering or nail abnormailty. According to the classification outlined by Frieden, the condition was diagnosed as type VII aplasia cutis congenita. The treatment of this large ulcer was conservative, wet dressing and prophylactic topical antibiotics. On follow up after 2 years showed that the patient was nearly cured of the ulcer and had only minimal scar formation. PMID:27303163

  4. Convenient synthesis of bis(alkoxy)rhenium(VII) complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Z.; Al-Ajlouni, A.M.; Espenson, J.H. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-02-28

    The study of high-oxidation-state organorhenium compounds has been a field of continuing activity, thanks to the success of methylrhenium trioxide (CH{sub 3}ReO{sub 3} or MTO) in catalytic processes. This catalyst is effective in oxidations, olefin metathesis, the olefination of aldehydes, and the preparation of other compounds with three-membered rings. The syntheses of some rhenium compounds derived form MTO have been reported. Epoxide formation is a key reaction, and it bears directly on these findings reported here. Re(VII) complexes containing a chelated bis(diolate) ligand can be synthesized by refluxing MTO with 2,3-dimethyl-2,3-diol. Here, the authors report a more convenient method for this preparation. A different series of related compounds consists of chelated bis(diolates) of the Cp*Re-oxo series, Cp*ReO-(diolate).

  5. Immobilization of 99-Technetium (VII) by Fe(II)-Goethite and Limited Reoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Wooyong; Chang, Hyun-Shik; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Buck, Edgar C.; Smith, Steven C.

    2011-01-01

    Synthesized goethite was successfully used with addition of Fe(II) to sequester Tc present in both deionized water and simulated off-gas scrubber waste solutions. Pertechnetate concentration in solution decreased immediately when the pH was raised above 7 by addition of sodium hydroxide. Removal of Tc(VII) from solution occurred most likely as a result of heterogeneous surface-catalyzed reduction to Tc(IV) and subsequent co-precipitation onto the goethite. The final Tc-bearing solid was identified as goethite-dominated Fe(III)-(oxy)hydroxide based on XRD analysis, confirming the widespread observation of its characteristic acicular habit by TEM/SEM images. Analysis of the solid precipitate by XAFS showed that the dominant oxidation state of Tc was Tc(IV) and was in octahedral coordination with Tc-O, Fe-O, and Tc-Fe bond distances that are consistent with direct substitution of Tc for Fe in the goethite structure. In some experiments the final Tc-goethite product was subsequently armored with additional layers of freshly precipitated goethite. Successful incorporation of Tc(IV) within the goethite mineral lattice and subsequent goethite armoring can limit re-oxidation of Tc(IV) and its subsequent release from Tc-goethite waste forms, even when the final product is placed in oxidizing environments that typify shallow waste burial facilities.

  6. 99Tc(VII) Retardation, Reduction, and Redox Rate Scaling in Naturally Reduced Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Chongxuan; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; McKinley, James P.; Zachara, John M.; Plymale, Andrew E.; Miller, Micah D.; Varga, Tamas; Resch, Charles T.

    2015-10-15

    Abstract: An experimental and modeling study was conducted to investigate pertechnetate (Tc(VII)) retardation, reduction, and rate scaling in three sediments from Ringold formation at U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford site, where 99Tc is a major contaminant in groundwater. Tc(VII) was reduced in all the sediments in both batch reactors and diffusion columns, with a faster rate in a sediment containing a higher concentration of HCl-extractable Fe(II). Tc(VII) migration in the diffusion columns was reductively retarded with retardation degrees correlated with Tc(VII) reduction rates. The reduction rates were faster in the diffusion columns than those in the batch reactors, apparently influenced by the spatial distribution of redox-reactive minerals along transport paths that supplied Tc(VII). X-ray computed tomography and autoradiography were performed to identify the spatial locations of Tc(VII) reduction and transport paths in the sediments, and results generally confirmed the newly found behavior of reaction rate changes from batch to column. The results from this study implied that Tc(VII) migration can be reductively retarded at Hanford site with a retardation degree dependent on reactive Fe(II) content and its distribution in sediments. This study also demonstrated that an effective reaction rate may be faster in transport systems than that in well-mixed reactors.

  7. Tissue Factor–Factor VII Complex as a Key Regulator of Ovarian Cancer Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Koizume

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue factor (TF is an integral membrane protein widely expressed in normal human cells. Blood coagulation factor VII (fVII is a key enzyme in the extrinsic coagulation cascade that is predominantly secreted by hepatocytes and released into the bloodstream. The TF–fVII complex is aberrantly expressed on the surface of cancer cells, including ovarian cancer cells. This procoagulant complex can initiate intracellular signaling mechanisms, resulting in malignant phenotypes. Cancer tissues are chronically exposed to hypoxia. TF and fVII can be induced in response to hypoxia in ovarian cancer cells at the gene expression level, leading to the autonomous production of the TF–fVII complex. Here, we discuss the roles of the TF–fVII complex in the induction of malignant phenotypes in ovarian cancer cells. The hypoxic nature of ovarian cancer tissues and the roles of TF expression in endometriosis are discussed. Arguments will be extended to potential strategies to treat ovarian cancers based on our current knowledge of TF–fVII function.

  8. The Effect of Neonatal Gene Therapy on Skeletal Manifestations in Mucopolysaccharidosis VII Dogs after a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Elizabeth M.; Knox, Van W.; O'Donnell, Patricia A.; Sikura, Tracey; Liu, Yuli; Wu, Susan; Casal, Margret L.; Haskins, Mark E.; Ponder, Katherine P.

    2013-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) VII is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient activity of β-glucuronidase (GUSB), and results in glycosaminoglycan accumulation. Skeletal manifestations include bone dysplasia, degenerative joint disease, and growth retardation. One gene therapy approach for MPS VII involves neonatal intravenous injection of a gamma retroviral vector expressing GUSB, which results in stable expression in liver and secretion of enzyme into blood at levels predicted to be similar or higher to enzyme replacement therapy. The goal of this study was to evaluate the long-term effect of neonatal gene therapy on skeletal manifestations in MPS VII dogs. Treated MPS VII dogs could walk throughout their lives, while untreated MPS VII dogs could not stand beyond 6 months and were dead by 2 years. Luxation of the coxofemoral joint and the patella, dysplasia of the acetabulum and supracondylar ridge, deep erosions of the distal femur, and synovial hyperplasia were reduced, and the quality of articular bone was improved in treated dogs at 6 to 11 years of age compared with untreated MPS VII dogs at 2 years or less. However, treated dogs continued to have osteophyte formation, cartilage abnormalities, and an abnormal gait. Enzyme activity was found near synovial blood vessels, and there was 2% as much GUSB activity in synovial fluid as in serum. We conclude that neonatal gene therapy reduces skeletal abnormalities in MPS VII dogs, but clinically-relevant abnormalities remain. Enzyme replacement therapy will probably have similar limitations long-term. PMID:23628461

  9. Isotope effects associated with the preparation and methylation of fatty acids by boron trifluoride in methanol for compound-specific stable hydrogen isotope analysis via gas chromatography/thermal conversion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivall, David; Berstan, Robert; Bull, Ian D; Evershed, Richard P

    2012-05-30

    Compound-specific stable hydrogen isotope analysis of fatty acids is being used increasingly as a means of deriving information from a diverse range of materials of archaeological, geological and environmental interest. Preparative steps required prior to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) analysis have the potential to alter determined δD values and hence must be accounted for if accurate δD values for target compounds are to be obtained. Myristic, palmitic, stearic, arachidic and behenic saturated fatty acids were derivatised to their respective fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), using 14% (w/v) boron trifluoride in methanol then analysed by gas chromatography/thermal conversion/IRMS (GC/TC/IRMS). FAMEs generated from fatty acid sodium salts of unknown δD values were then used to test a correction factor determined for this method of derivatisation. Derivatisation was found to alter the hydrogen isotopic composition of FAMEs although this effect was reproducible and can be accounted for. The difference between the mean corrected and mean bulk δD values was always less than 6.7 ‰. Extraction of saturated fatty acids and acyl lipids from samples, subsequent hydrolysis, then separation on a solid-phase extraction cartridge, was found to alter the determined δD values by less than one standard deviation. Overall, it has been shown that for natural abundance hydrogen isotope determinations, the isolation and derivatisation of extracted fatty acids alters the determined δD values only by a numerical increment comparable with the experimental error. This supports the use of the described analytical protocol as an effective means of determining fatty acid δD values by GC/TC/IRMS. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-09-03

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of water and high energy consumption that it requires can be avoided. The main focus of this work was HTC process aiming at production of transportation fuel intermediates. For this study, a new experimental technique using quartz capillary batch reactors has been developed, allowing determination of the yields of gas, liquid and solid products, and their subsequent analysis. The study was performed using glucose, a biomass model compound, and complex feedstocks, wood and pyrolysis oil. Important HTC features have been studied such as, undesired char formation, deoxygenation, and mechanism and kinetics of formation of different lumped product classes. Special attention is also given to products of the initial glucose decomposition and the kinetics of their formation. Complete mass and elemental balances obtained in this work significantly complement the literature findings on the reaction mechanism of HTC. Two distinct mechanisms of char formation are identified and two mechanisms of deoxygenation (dehydration and decarboxylation) are discussed. The observed trends in the product formation rates and yields are used to obtain an engineering reaction model for decomposition of glucose, which can be adapted for the use with complex feedstocks. Finally, a bench scale continuous reactor setup for HTC is proposed and several features of the setup have been tested separately in cold-flow, such as, feeding of biomass water slurries with a piston autoclave and a lifting fluidized bed, heat transfer, fluid bed operation and state of mixing of liquid and solid phases in continuous operations.

  11. Electron cyclotron resonance heating on the W VII A-stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.; Erckmann, V.; Janzen, G.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma build-up and heating of OH-current free plasmas by ECR-wave irradiation were investigated on the WENDELSTEIN VII-A stellarator using three kinds of wave launching: direct irradiation of the gyrotron modes from the low field side, or advanced wave launching in 0-mode polarization from the low field side, the nonabsorbed fraction being reflected back to the plasma from the high field side in X-mode polarization. An increase of the central electron temperature from 0.7 keV (TE 02 mode) to 1.2 keV (TE 11 , HE 11 mode) was observed which is explained by the narrow and well centred power deposition profiles for TE 11 , HE 11 modes. However, there is only a slight increase of the heating efficiency from 40% to 50%. The reflected X-mode fraction does not contribute to bulk plasma heating via Bernstein wave conversion and absorption as expected. The reason seems to be local absorption of the arising electron Bernstein waves due to a macroscopically turbulent structure around the upper hybrid resonance layer. Correlated with X-mode irradiation direct ion heating was observed (500 eV ion tail), possibly due to low frequency decay waves. In all ECRH experiments a toroidal plasma current was generated due to asymmetrically confined fast electrons. Optimum confinement in the shearless l=2 configuration was achieved at most irrational values of the rotational transform with small toroidal net current. It can be concluded from a numerical 1D-transport analysis that neoclassical electron confinement seems to be dominant in the hot central plasma core

  12. The Financial Regulations of the Agency. Amendment of Articles V, VI and VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    On 13 January 1960 the Board of Governors made certain changes in Articles V, VI and VII of the Financial Regulations. The Articles thus amended are reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency

  13. Biological and phylogenetic characterization of a genotype VII Newcastle disease virus from Venezuela: Efficacy of vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we describe the characterization a virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) from Venezuela and evaluate the efficacy of heterologous genotype commercial vaccination under field and controlled rearing conditions. Biological pathotyping and molecular analysis were applied. Results sh...

  14. Viis raamatutäit poola näidendeid / Riina Mägi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mägi, Riina, 1957-

    2006-01-01

    Tõlkija Hendrik Lindepuult ilmus viies tõlkekogumik poola dramaturgia tippteoseid tutvustavast sarjast. Seekord said kaante vahele Tadeusz Rozewiczi näidendid "Valge abielu", "Lõks" ja "Vana naine haub"

  15. Vehicle infrastructure integration (VII) based road-condition warning system for highway collision prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    As a major ITS initiative, the Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) program is to revolutionize : transportation by creating an enabling communication infrastructure that will open up a wide range of : safety applications. The road-condition warn...

  16. Research into liquid metal MHD energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, Z.

    1973-01-01

    The state of research into liquid metal MHD conversion and the problems arising from the processes taking place in the liquid metal-gas mixture are described. The possibilities are pointed out of improving multi-stage heat regeneration MHD systems. The expansion of the number of mixing stages contributes to higher energy conversion efficiency up to a certain driving energy. The relations are presented determining optimal conditions and a calculation method derived for finding the optimal energy distribution and the resulting energy conversion efficiency at any number of stages. (Oy)

  17. Addition to the analysis of the Sr VI and Sr VII spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyart, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-six lines of multicharged strontium are measured with an improved wavelength accuracy, or interpreted for the first time. They are 4p-4s, 4p-5s and 4p-4d transitions in Sr VII and 4p-5s transitions in Sr VI. The revision of the singlet-triplet connection in Sr VII is supported by theoretical survey of the ground configuration in Ge-like ions. (orig.)

  18. Pengaruh Penerapan Pembelajaran Arias Dipadu Mind Map terhadap Hasil Belajar Kognitif Siswa Kelas VII

    OpenAIRE

    Leliavia, Leliavia; Al Muhdhar, Mimien Henie Irawati; Suwono, Hadi

    2017-01-01

    This research was to determine the effect of differences ARIAS combined mind map learning and ARIAS learning to cognitive learning outcomes grade VII SMPN 1 Tempunak. This research with quasy research experiment design approach with the design of pretest-posttest. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferensial to test the hypothesis that analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS 23 for windows with a significance level of 0,05. The study was conducted at the grade VII SMPN 1...

  19. PENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH DAN PENGEMBANGAN KARAKTER PADA SISWA KELAS VII MELALUI MODEL PBL BERBANTUAN SCAFFOLDING

    OpenAIRE

    Novy Kris Zaini; Wuryanto Wuryanto; Hery Sutarto

    2016-01-01

    Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui (1) apakah kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika peserta didik yang diajar dengan model PBL berbantuan scaffolding pada materi pokok segiempat kelas VII dapat mencapai KKM yang ditetapkan, (2) apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan model PBL berbantuan scaffolding pada materi pokok segiempat kelas VII dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah peserta didik pilihan, (3) apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan model PBL berbantuan scaffolding pad...

  20. United Nations Charter, Chapter VII, Article 43: Now or Never.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkle, Frederick M

    2018-04-25

    For more than 75 years, the United Nations Charter has functioned without the benefit of Chapter VII, Article 43, which commits all United Nations member states "to make available to the Security Council, on its call, armed forces, assistance, facilities, including rights of passage necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security." The consequences imposed by this 1945 decision have had a dramatic negative impact on the United Nation's functional capacity as a global body for peace and security. This article summarizes the struggle to implement Article 43 over the decades from the onset of the Cold War, through diplomatic attempts during the post-Cold War era, to current and often controversial attempts to provide some semblance of conflict containment through peace enforcement missions. The rapid growth of globalization and the capability of many nations to provide democratic protections to their populations are again threatened by superpower hegemony and the development of novel unconventional global threats. The survival of the United Nations requires many long overdue organizational structure and governance power reforms, including implementation of a robust United Nations Standing Task Force under Article 43. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;page 1 of 8).

  1. Structural incorporation of MgCl2 into ice VII at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mao; Komatsu, Kazuki; Noritake, Fumiya; Kagi, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Raman spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained from 1:100 and 1:200 \\text{MgCl}2:\\text{H}2\\text{O} solutions (in molar ratio) at pressures up to 6 GPa using diamond anvil cells (DACs) and compared with those of pure water. The O-H stretching band from ice VII crystallized from the 1:200 solution was approximately 10 cm-1 higher than that of pure ice VII. The phase boundaries between ice VII and VIII crystallized from the MgCl2 solutions at 4 GPa were 2 K lower than those of pure ice VII and VIII. These observations indicate that ice VII incorporates MgCl2 into its structure. The unit cell volumes of ice VII crystallized from pure water and the two solutions coincided with each other within the experimental error, and salt incorporation was not detectable from the cell volume. Possible configurations of ion substitution and excess volume of ice VIII were simulated on the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations.

  2. Widespread biochemical correction of murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII pathology by liver hydrodynamic plasmid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, M; Arfi, A; Seguin, J; Gandolphe, C; Scherman, D

    2009-06-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease caused by a deficiency of the acid hydrolase beta-glucuronidase. MPS VII mice develop progressive lysosomal accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) within multiple organs, including the brain. Using this animal model, we compared two plasmid gene administration techniques: muscle electrotransfer and liver-directed transfer using hydrodynamic injection. We have evaluated both the expression kinetics and the biodistribution of beta-glucuronidase activity after gene transfer, as well as the correction of biochemical abnormalities in various organs. This study shows that MPS VII mice treated with a plasmid-bearing mouse beta-glucuronidase cDNA, acquire the ability to produce the beta-glucuronidase enzyme for an extended period of time. The liver seemed to be more appropriate than the muscle as a target organ to enable enzyme secretion into the systemic circulation. A beneficial effect on the MPS VII pathology was also observed, as liver-directed gene transfer led to the correction of secondary enzymatic elevations and to the reduction of GAGs storage in peripheral tissues and brain, as well as to histological correction in many tissues. This work is one of the first examples showing that non-viral plasmid DNA delivery can lead to improvements in both peripheral and brain manifestations of MPS VII disease. It confirms the potential of non-viral systemic gene transfer strategy in neurological lysosomal disorders.

  3. Overview of fuel conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The conversion of solid fuels to cleaner-burning and more user-friendly solid liquid or gaseous fuels spans many technologies. In this paper, the authors consider coal, residual oil, oil shale, tar sends tires, municipal oil waste and biomass as feedstocks and examine the processes which can be used in the production of synthetic fuels for the transportation sector. The products of mechanical processing to potentially usable fuels include coal slurries, micronized coal, solvent refined coal, vegetable oil and powdered biomall. The thermochemical and biochemical processes considered include high temperature carbide production, liquefaction, gasification, pyrolysis, hydrolysis-fermentation and anaerobic digestion. The products include syngas, synthetic natural gas, methanol, ethanol and other hydrocarbon oxygenates synthetic gasoline and diesel and jet engine oils. The authors discuss technical and economic aspects of synthetic fuel production giving particular attention and literature references to technologies not discussed in the five chapters which follow. Finally the authors discuss economic energy, and environmental aspects of synthetic fuels and their relationship to the price of imported oil

  4. Geothermal energy conversion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutscher, C.F.

    1997-12-31

    With the termination of favorable electricity generation pricing policies, the geothermal industry is exploring ways to improve the efficiency of existing plants and make them more cost-competitive with natural gas. The Geothermal Energy Conversion Facility (GECF) at NREL will allow researchers to study various means for increasing the thermodynamic efficiency of binary cycle geothermal plants. This work has received considerable support from the US geothermal industry and will be done in collaboration with industry members and utilities. The GECF is being constructed on NREL property at the top of South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado. As shown in Figure 1, it consists of an electrically heated hot water loop that provides heating to a heater/vaporizer in which the working fluid vaporizes at supercritical or subcritical pressures as high as 700 psia. Both an air-cooled and water-cooled condenser will be available for condensing the working fluid. In order to minimize construction costs, available equipment from the similar INEL Heat Cycle Research Facility is being utilized.

  5. Fundamentals of gas counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    The operation of gas counters used for detecting radiation is explained in terms of the four fundamental physical processes which govern their operation. These are 1) conversion of neutral radiation into charged particles, 2) ionization of the host gas by a fast charge particle 3) transport of the gas ions to the electrodes and 4) amplification of the electrons in a region of enhanced electric field. Practical implications of these are illustrated. (UK)

  6. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  7. Physics of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, Jean-Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This book gathers courses on the physics of energy conversion proposed in France and abroad, and mainly in the Orsay Faculty of Science and in the Ecole Polytechnique. It more particularly addresses the study of concepts and methods related to the physics of irreversible processes, within a perspective of identification and analysis of mechanisms of entropy production, and the description and physical analysis of principles and limitations of magneto-hydrodynamic, thermoelectric, thermo-ionic, photovoltaic and electrochemical generators. The chapters address the following issues and themes: conversion and dissipation (conservation and conversion, collisions, fluctuations and transport), energy and entropy (conservation and evolution, Boltzmann and Gibbs factors), Markovian evolutions (Markovian processes, energy conversion and transitions, Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck kinetic equations), dissipative flows (thermodynamic flows and forces, energy conversion and linear transport), heat and chemical engines (Carnot heat engine, Van't Hoff heat engine, endo-reversible heat engines), magneto hydrodynamic conversion (electro-hydrodynamic conversion, Alfven-Saha plasma model, magneto-hydrodynamic coupling, Hall and Faraday converters), thermo-ionic conversion (Lorentz-Sommerfeld models of metals, Richardson-Dushman relationship, Langmuir and Schottky diodes), thermo-electric conversion (conventional semiconductor model, thermo-electric effects, thermo-electric engines), photovoltaic conversion (Planck model of heat radiation, photovoltaic conversion, photovoltaic P-N junction), and electrochemical conversion (Nernst model of redox equilibrium, over-voltage and polarizations, fuel cells)

  8. Adenovirus core protein VII down-regulates the DNA damage response on the host genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avgousti, Daphne C; Della Fera, Ashley N; Otter, Clayton J; Herrmann, Christin; Pancholi, Neha J; Weitzman, Matthew D

    2017-08-09

    Viral manipulation of cellular proteins allows viruses to suppress host defenses and generate infectious progeny. Due to the linear double-stranded DNA nature of the adenovirus genome, the cellular DNA damage response (DDR) is considered a barrier for successful infection. The adenovirus genome is packaged with protein VII, a viral-encoded histone-like core protein that is suggested to protect incoming viral genomes from detection by cellular DNA damage machinery. We showed that protein VII localizes to host chromatin during infection, leading us to hypothesize that protein VII may affect DNA damage responses on the cellular genome. Here, we show that protein VII at cellular chromatin results in a significant decrease in accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) following irradiation, indicating that protein VII inhibits DDR signaling. The oncoprotein SET was recently suggested to modulate the DDR by affecting access of repair proteins to chromatin. Since protein VII binds SET, we investigated a role for SET in DDR inhibition by protein VII. We show that knockdown of SET partially rescues the protein VII-induced decrease in γH2AX accumulation on the host genome, suggesting that SET is required for inhibition. Finally, we show that knockdown of SET also allows ATM to localize to incoming viral genomes bound by protein VII during infection with a mutant lacking early region E4. Together, our data suggest that the protein VII-SET interaction contributes to DDR evasion by adenovirus. Our results provide an additional example of a strategy used by adenovirus to manipulate the host DDR and show how viruses can modify cellular processes through manipulation of host chromatin. IMPORTANCE The DNA damage response (DDR) is a cellular network crucial for maintaining genome integrity. DNA viruses replicating in the nucleus challenge the resident genome and must overcome cellular responses, including the DDR. Adenoviruses are prevalent human pathogens that can cause a

  9. Dietary changes in fasting levels of factor VII coagulant activity (FVII:C) are accompanied by changes in factor VII protein and other vitamin K-dependent proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, Else-Marie; Tholstrup, T; Marckmann, P

    1995-01-01

    The mechanisms behind dietary effects on fasting coagulant activity of factor VII (FVII:C) are not clarified. In the present study of 15 young volunteers, two experimental diets differing in composition of saturated fatty acids (C18:0 [diet S] or C12:0 + C14:0 [diet ML]) were served for 3 weeks...

  10. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  11. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  12. ECRH experiments on the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whilelm, R.; Erckmann, V.; Janzen, G.; Mueller, G.; Schueller, P. G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, H.

    1985-01-01

    Plasma build-up and heating of a ''currentless'' plasma by means of ECR wave irradiation were studied at the Garching W VII-A stellarator. The experiments were performed at 28 GHz with approx. 200 kW RF power and a pulse duration 02 mode corresponding to a 50% O-mode and 50% X-mode mixture) was launched directly into the plasma from the low field side. In a second step the radiation was converted into the almost linearly polarized TE 11 mode and irradiated in O-mode orientation (E-tilde parallel to B-barsub(o), k-bar perpendicular to B-barsub(o)) into the torus, the nonabsorbed part of the RF power was reflected into the plasma in the X-mode by a focussing polarization twist reflector mounted to the inner torus wall. As a main result the heating efficiency has been slightly improved by the transition from ''simple'' to ''advanced'' wave launching (up to 50% instead of approx. 40%). The central electron temperatures were remarkably increased from approx. 700 eV to 1200 eV due to the well localized O-mode absorption of the TE 11 beam, however. The X-mode from the mirror on the other hand does not contribute to the total plasma energy as expected. This is explained by a local absorption of the arising Bernstein waves due to a macroscopically turbulent behaviour of the plasma in the outer regions. Possibly as a result of wave decay into lower hybrid waves pronounced ion tail heating was observed. For both kinds of wave irradiation toroidal plasma currents were generated. This seems to be caused by asimmetrically confined co- and counter-streaming fast electrons

  13. Topical application of recombinant activated factor VII during cesarean delivery for placenta previa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schjoldager, Birgit T B G; Mikkelsen, Emmeli; Lykke, Malene R; Præst, Jørgen; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Heslet, Lars; Secher, Niels J; Salvig, Jannie D; Uldbjerg, Niels

    2017-06-01

    During cesarean delivery in patients with placenta previa, hemorrhaging after removal of the placenta is often challenging. In this condition, the extraordinarily high concentration of tissue factor at the placenta site may constitute a principle of treatment as it activates coagulation very effectively. The presumption, however, is that tissue factor is bound to activated factor VII. We hypothesized that topical application of recombinant activated factor VII at the placenta site reduces bleeding without affecting intravascular coagulation. We included 5 cases with planned cesarean delivery for placenta previa. After removal of the placenta, the surgeon applied a swab soaked in recombinant activated factor VII containing saline (1 mg in 246 mL) to the placenta site for 2 minutes; this treatment was repeated once if the bleeding did not decrease sufficiently. We documented the treatment on video recordings and measured blood loss. Furthermore, we determined hemoglobin concentration, platelet count, international normalized ratio, activated partial thrombin time, fibrinogen (functional), factor VII:clot, and thrombin generation in peripheral blood prior to and 15 minutes after removal of the placenta. We also tested these blood coagulation variables in 5 women with cesarean delivery planned for other reasons. Mann-Whitney test was used for unpaired data. In all 5 cases, the uterotomy was closed under practically dry conditions and the median blood loss was 490 (range 300-800) mL. There were no adverse effects of recombinant activated factor VII and we did not measure factor VII to enter the circulation. Neither did we observe changes in thrombin generation, fibrinogen, activated partial thrombin time, international normalized ratio, and platelet count in the peripheral circulation (all P values >.20). This study indicates that in patients with placenta previa, topical recombinant activated factor VII may diminish bleeding from the placenta site without initiation

  14. Strategi Peningkatan Kualitas Pelayanan Jasa Transportasi Kereta Api (Studi Pada PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) Dearah Operasi VII Madiun)

    OpenAIRE

    Tri Juliyanto, Ilham

    2015-01-01

    : Quality Improvement Strategy Railway Transportation Services (Studi pada PT. Kereta Api Indonesia (Persero) Daerah Operasi VII Madiun). This research intended to discover the strategic which applied by PT. KAI DAOP VII Madiun for increasing the quality of service in train transportation, supporting factor and inhibiting factor strategic in increase of quality of service of PT. KAI DAOP VII Madiun. In this research, uses descriptive research with qualitative approach and use analysis method ...

  15. Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity: Level II, Unit 9, Lesson 1; Force, Mass, and Distance: Lesson 2; Types of Motion and Rest: Lesson 3; Electricity and Magnetism: Lesson 4; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields: Lesson 5; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy: Lesson 6; Simple Machines and Work: Lesson 7; Gas Laws: Lesson 8; Principles of Heat Engines: Lesson 9; Sound and Sound Waves: Lesson 10; Light Waves and Particles: Lesson 11; Program. A High.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…

  16. Microfluidic energy conversion by application of two phase flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the energy conversion performance by the streaming potential using totally different approaches. By introducing gas bubbles, which can be considered as perfect insulators, the internal electrical resistance of the system can be increased, decreasing the conduction current. Following

  17. Reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) sorbed on Al (hydr)oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyazhko, T; Zachara, J M; Heald, S M; Kukkadapu, R K; Liu, C; Plymale, A E; Resch, C T

    2008-08-01

    Under oxic conditions, Tc exists as the soluble, weakly sorbing pertechnetate [TcO4-] anion. The reduced form of technetium, Tc(IV), is stable in anoxic environments and is sparingly soluble as TcO2 x nH2O(s). Here we investigate the heterogeneous reduction of Tc(VII) by Fe(II) adsorbed on Al (hydr)oxides [diaspore (alpha-AlOOH) and corundum (alpha-Al2O3)]. Experiments were performed to study the kinetics of Tc(VII) reduction, examine changes in Fe surface speciation during Tc(VII) reduction (Mössbauer spectroscopy), and identify the nature of Tc(IV)-containing reaction products (X-ray absorption spectroscopy). We found that Tc(VII) was completely reduced by adsorbed Fe(II) within 11 (diaspore suspension) and 4 days (corundum suspension). Mössbauer measurements revealed thatthe Fe(II) signal became less intense with Tc(VII) reduction and was accompanied by an increase in the intensity of the Fe(III) doublet and magnetically ordered Fe(III) sextet signals. Tc-EXAFS spectroscopy revealed that the final heterogeneous redox product on corundum was similar to Tc(IV) oxyhydroxide, TcO2 x nH2O.

  18. Technetium (VII) Co-precipitation with Framework Aluminosilicates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsh, James B. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Dickson, Johnbull Otah [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pierce, Eric M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bargar, John [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-07-13

    Technetium-99 (99Tc), a long-lived radionuclide, is one of the most widespread contaminants within the Hanford subsurface. At some depths, it is only extractable with strong acids, suggesting incorporation into a solid phase. We hypothesized that Tc may have coprecipitated with feldspathoid aluminosilicates under waste tanks that had leaked caustic solutions into the vadose zone. Our objectives were to determine if Tc could be incorporated into the feldspathoids cancrinite and sodalite and under what conditions coprecipitation could occur. Our hypothesis was that sodalite was more likely to incorporate and retain Tc. Our approach was to use known methods of feldspathoid formation in solutions resembling those in Hanford waste tanks contacting sediments in terms of major ion (Na, NO3, OH, Al(OH)4, and Si(OH)4 concentrations. In some cases, Al and Si were supplied from zeolite. We used perrhenate (ReO4) as a surrogate for pertechnetate (TcO4) to avoid the radioactivity. The major findings of this study were 1) ReO4 could be incorporated into either sodalite or cancrinite but the concentration in the solid was < 1% of the competing ion Cl, NO3, or NO2. 2) The small amount of ReO4 incorporated was not exchangeable with NO3 or NO2. 3) In sodalite, NO3 was highly preferred over ReO4 but significant Re-sodalite was formed when the mole fraction in solution (Re/Re+N) exceeded 0.8. 4) A nonlinear relation between the unit cell parameter and amount of Re incorporated suggested that a separate Re-sodalite phase was formed rather than a solid solution. 5) We determined that sodalite preference for sodalite in the presence of different anions increased with the ionic size of the competing anion: Cl < CO3 < NO3 < SO4 < MnO4 < WO4 and significant incorporation did not occur unless the difference in anion radii was less than 12%. 6) Re(VII) was not significantly reduced to Re(IV) under the conditions of this experiment and Re appeared to be a good surrogate for Tc under oxidizing

  19. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to produce gas. Often, relatively simple changes in eating habits can lessen bothersome gas. Certain digestive system disorders, ... such as soda and beer, increase stomach gas. Eating habits, such as eating too quickly, drinking through a ...

  20. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...... gradually evolved into second-person inquiry. We argue that enacting second-person reflective conversations renders alternative strategies for handling uncertainties through articulation of the tacit assumptions within particular empirical situations. Finally, we argue that reflective conversations should...

  1. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  2. Verification and validation of ACE-format library created from ENDF/B-VII.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Chaobin; Hu Zehua; Zhang Benai; Chen Yixue; Wu Jun

    2009-01-01

    ENDF/B-VII.0, released by the USA Cross Section Evaluation Working Group(CSEWG) in December 2006, was developed in five years since the previous release of ENDF/B-VI.8 and was demonstrated to contain much better physical representations of the data and to perform much better than previus ENDF evaluations over a broad range of applications. We generated ACE-format pointwise cross section library from the ENDF/B-VII.0 neutron reaction sublibrary with the processing code NJOY. The paper provides an overview of ENDF/B-VII.0, a summary of the ACE-format files producing process and a detail description of the validation of the ACE-format library. The conclusion is that the ACE-format library produced is correct. (authors)

  3. PEMAHAMAN OPERASI BILANGAN BULAT SISWA KELAS VII MELALUI PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TIPE NHT BERBANTUAN KARTU PAPAN BERMAGNET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Mery Fatmawati Sukarno

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to describe the understanding of integer operations on students grade 7th by using cooperative learning type NHT assisted by magnetic board card. This is classroom action research (CAR and the participants are 21 students at class 7-A. Collected data are test, observation, and interview. The result of this research shows the increased understanding of integer operations on students grade 7th by using cooperative learning type NHT assisted by magnetic board card. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan pemahaman operasi bilangan bulat siswa kelas VII melalui pembelajaran kooperatif tipe NHT berbantuan kartu papan bermagnet. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian tindakan kelas (PTK dengan partisipan siswa-siswi kelas VII-A yang berjumlah 21 orang. Data yang dikumpulkan adalah tes, observasi, dan wawancara. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya peningkatan pemahaman operasi bilangan bulat siswa kelas VII melalui pembelajaran kooperatif tipe NHT berbantuan kartu papan bermagnet.

  4. Conversation et Television (Conversation and Television)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadde, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    Czechosovakian television has just presented a series of French Conversation Classes using audiovisual techniques and starring Czech actors and actresses. The setting of each dialog is in Czechoslovakia, and the situations are those in which a Czech would use French in his or her native land. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. A novel citrus viroid found in Australia, tentatively named citrus viroid VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, G A; Donovan, N J; Bodaghi, S; Jelinek, S M; Vidalakis, G

    2018-01-01

    A novel citrus viroid was discovered in a non-symptomatic Lisbon lemon (Citrus x limon L. Burm.f.) tree in New South Wales, Australia. Bioindexing, molecular detection and characterization involving sequencing combined with in silico analysis for the identification of the viroid-RNA hallmark properties of transmissibility and autonomous replication as well as specific sequence and structural motifs suggest that this viroid is a member of a new species in the genus Apscaviroid, family Pospiviroidae, which we have tentatively named "citrus viroid VII" (CVd-VII).

  6. VII International scientific conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    In the collection there are the reports of the VII International scientific conference and the VII All-Russian school-conference Radiation-thermal effects and processes in inorganic materials which were conducted on October 2-10, 2010, in Tomsk. The reports deal with new developments of charged particles high-intensity beam sources, high-temperature metrology of high-current beams and work materials, radiation-thermal stimulated effects and processes in inorganic materials, physical basics of technological processes, radiation-thermal technologies and equipment for their realization, allied branches of science and technology, specifically, nanotechnologies [ru

  7. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  8. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  9. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  10. The Conversation Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  11. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  12. Newcastle disease outbreaks in recent years in Western Europe were caused by an old (VI) and a novel genotype (VII)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomniczi, B.; Wehmann, E.; Herczeg, J.

    1998-01-01

    and Greece in the late 1960's and in Hungary in the early 1980's. In contrast, viruses that caused epizootics in Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, Spain and Italy could be classified into a novel genotype (provisionally termed VII), hitherto undetected in Europe. It is possible that the genotype VII viruses...

  13. Dietary effects on coagulation factor VII vary across genotypes of the R/Q353 polymorphism in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.; Witteman, J.C.M.; Hofman, A.; Grobbee, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of factor VII with dietary factors while also considering the R/Q353 polymorphism. Nutrition is an important determinant of coagulation factor VII, which is also genetically determined by the R/Q353 polymorphism. High levels of coagulation

  14. 29 CFR 1425.3 - Functions of the Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Functions of the Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act. 1425.3 Section 1425.3 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL... Service under title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act. (a) The service may provide its assistance in any...

  15. Selective catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide with ammonia in a novel reactor called the floating gas-solid fluidized bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwant, G.J.; Kwant, G.J.; Prins, W.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1995-01-01

    The floating gas-solid fluidized bed (FGSFB) is a new type of gas-solid contacting device described earlier by Kwant et al. (Fluidization VII, Proc. 7th Engng Foud. Conf. on Fluidization, Brisbane, May, 1992). It is a tapered column provided with several coarse grids, in which catalyst particles are

  16. Conserved water-mediated hydrogen bond network between TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII in 7TM receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Rie; Hansen, Louise Valentin; Mokrosinski, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Five highly conserved polar residues connected by a number of structural water molecules together with two rotamer micro-switches, TrpVI:13 and TyrVII:20, constitute an extended hydrogen bond network between the intracellular segments of TM-I, -II, -VI, and -VII of 7TM receptors. Molecular dynamics...... simulations showed that, although the fewer water molecules in rhodopsin were relatively movable, the hydrogen bond network of the beta2-adrenergic receptor was fully loaded with water molecules that were surprisingly immobilized between the two rotamer switches, both apparently being in their closed...... (AsnI:18, AspII:10, and AsnVII:13), whereas others (AsnVII:12 and AsnVII:16) located one helical turn apart and sharing a water molecule were shown to be essential for agonist-induced signaling. It is concluded that the conserved water hydrogen bond network of 7TM receptors constitutes an extended...

  17. Effects of different progestin regimens in hormone replacement therapy on blood coagulation factor VII and tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Skouby, S O.; Andersen, L F

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term hormone replacement therapy (HRT) reduces cardiovascular risk, but an early increased risk was reported in women with coronary heart disease. In such women the arterial intima can express tissue factor, and changes in coagulation factor VII (factor VII) and tissue factor...... pathway inhibitor (TFPI) may be deleterious. METHODS: We measured factor VII clotting activity, activated factor VII, and concentrations of factor VII and TFPI during 12 months in healthy post-menopausal women randomized to: (i). cyclic oral estrogen/progestin (n = 25); (ii). long-cycle oral estrogen...... after progestin intake. The integrated response, AUC, for TFPI was significantly lower in the HRT groups compared with the reference group. CONCLUSION: The observed changes may increase the early thrombotic risk associated with HRT use. Udgivelsesdato: 2002-Dec...

  18. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  19. Purification and characterization of adenovirus core protein VII: a histone-like protein that is critical for adenovirus core formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Moria, Nithesh; Williams, Martin; Krishnarjuna, Bankala; Pouton, Colin W

    2017-07-01

    Adenovirus protein VII is a highly cationic core protein that forms a nucleosome-like structure in the adenovirus core by condensing DNA in combination with protein V and mu. It has been proposed that protein VII could condense DNA in a manner analogous to mammalian histones. Due to the lack of an expression and purification protocol, the interactions between protein VII and DNA are poorly understood. In this study we describe methods for the purification of biologically active recombinant protein VII using an E. coli expression system. We expressed a cleavable fusion of protein VII with thioredoxin and established methods for purification of this fusion protein in denatured form. We describe an efficient method for resolving the cleavage products to obtain pure protein VII using hydroxyapatite column chromatography. Mass spectroscopy data confirmed its mass and purity to be 19.4 kDa and >98 %, respectively. Purified recombinant protein VII spontaneously condensed dsDNA to form particles, as shown by dye exclusion assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay and nuclease protection assay. Additionally, an in vitro bioluminescence assay revealed that protein VII can be used to enhance the transfection of mammalian cells with lipofectamine/DNA complexes. The availability of recombinant protein VII will facilitate future studies of the structure of the adenovirus core. Improved understanding of the structure and function of protein VII will be valuable in elucidating the mechanism of adenoviral DNA condensation, defining the morphology of the adenovirus core and establishing the mechanism by which adenoviral DNA enters the nucleus.

  20. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  1. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  2. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  4. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  5. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  6. Non-oxidative conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons over ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SOURABH MISHRA

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... cess in heterogeneous catalysis. Conversion of methane. *For correspondence via synthesis gas is an indirect method and can be used to produce methanol or higher hydrocarbons. Thus the indirect rout goes with the formation of an intermediate. (Syn-gas, CO+H2) formation via steam reforming, dry.

  7. Descriptive Analysis of Title VII-Funded State Education Agency Activities. Volume II: Nine Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Hector; And Others

    Results of a national study of the use of funds provided by the 1974 amendments to Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act by the state education agencies (SEAs) are presented. The study was undertaken to (1) describe and analyze SEA policies and activities regarding bilingual education, (2) describe and analyze the SEA-level…

  8. Descriptive Analysis of Title VII-Funded State Education Agency Activities. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Hector; And Others

    Results of a national study of the use of funds provided by the 1974 amendments to Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act by the state education agencies (SEAs) are presented. The study was undertaken to (1) describe and analyze SEA policies and activities regarding bilingual education, (2) describe and analyze the SEA-level…

  9. Settlement of Title VII Disputes: Shifting Patterns in a Changing World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompey, Stuart H.; Witten, Richard E.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the mechanics of dispute resolution under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Described and analyzed are the various stages during the processing of a dispute when settlement is possible. The effects of Bakke and Weber decisions on the process are considered. (MSE)

  10. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2006-11-13

    Nov 13, 2006 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 31; Issue 5. What history tells us VII. Twenty-five years ago: the production of mouse embryonic stem cells. Michel Morange. Series Volume 31 Issue 5 December 2006 pp 537-541. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. Analysis of time series for postal shipments in Regional VII East Java Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusrini, DE; Ulama, B. S. S.; Aridinanti, L.

    2018-03-01

    The change of number delivery goods through PT. Pos Regional VII East Java Indonesia indicates that the trend of increasing and decreasing the delivery of documents and non-documents in PT. Pos Regional VII East Java Indonesia is strongly influenced by conditions outside of PT. Pos Regional VII East Java Indonesia so that the prediction the number of document and non-documents requires a model that can accommodate it. Based on the time series plot monthly data fluctuations occur from 2013-2016 then the model is done using ARIMA or seasonal ARIMA and selected the best model based on the smallest AIC value. The results of data analysis about the number of shipments on each product sent through the Sub-Regional Postal Office VII East Java indicates that there are 5 post offices of 26 post offices entering the territory. The largest number of shipments is available on the PPB (Paket Pos Biasa is regular package shipment/non-document ) and SKH (Surat Kilat Khusus is Special Express Mail/document) products. The time series model generated is largely a Random walk model meaning that the number of shipment in the future is influenced by random effects that are difficult to predict. Some are AR and MA models, except for Express shipment products with Malang post office destination which has seasonal ARIMA model on lag 6 and 12. This means that the number of items in the following month is affected by the number of items in the previous 6 months.

  12. Vittorio De Sica viis meistritööd / Aare Ermel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ermel, Aare, 1957-2013

    2008-01-01

    DVD-st "Vittorio De Sica Masterpiece Collection", kus on peal itaalia filmirežissööri Vittorio De Sica viis teost: "Jalgratavargad" ("Ladri di biciclette", 1948), "Ime Milanos" ("Miraclo a milano", 1951), "Umberto D." (1952), "Eile täna, homme" ("Ieri, oggi, domani", 1963), "Ajatu filmikunst" ("Cinema senza tempo: Cosi e la vita", 2001)

  13. Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hanan Azzam

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the risk of thrombotic disorders development (venous and arterial): A case-control study. Hanan Azzam a, Reham M. El-Farahaty a,*. , Nashwa K. Abousamra a, Hossam Elwakeel b, Sherif Sakr c,. Ayman Helmy c, Eman Khashaba d.

  14. Law School Faculty Hiring under Title VII: How a Judge Might Decide a Disparate Impact Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Norman

    1991-01-01

    A judicial opinion concerning law school violations of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 in faculty hiring is presented. The case concerns a black candidate rejected for an entry-level tenure-track position. Issues cited include the law school's mission and stated reasons for not hiring the candidate. (MSE)

  15. Cataloguing Emission Line Spectra from Fe VII-Fe XXIV in the Extreme Ultraviolet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepson, J. K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, G. V.; Kahn, D. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Mauche, C. W.; Utter, S. B.

    2000-01-01

    Detailed laboratory astrophysics measurements are, in progress to produce spectral tables for the Fe VII Fe XXIV line emission in the EUV wavelength band. Results for Fe XIII are presented that update line lists used in the Chandra Emission Line Project.

  16. Contribution of coagulation factor VII R353Q polymorphism to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Elevated factor VII (FVII) level is a risk factor for thromboembolic disorders. It was reported that the FVII R353Q polymorphism is associated with variation in plasma FVII levels, where Q allele carriers were more associated with lower levels of FVII than R allele carriers. However, the association between ...

  17. CASMO5 JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1beta4 libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, J.; Gheorghiu, N.; Ferrer, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the generation of neutron data libraries for the CASMO5 lattice physics code based on the recently released JENDL-4.0 and ENDF/B-VII.1beta4 nuclear data evaluations. This data represents state-of-the-art nuclear data for late-2011. The key features of the new evaluations are briefly described along with the procedure for processing of this data into CASMO5, 586-energy group neutron data libraries. Finally some CASMO5 results for standard UO 2 and MOX critical experiments for the two new libraries and the current ENDF/B-VII.0 CASMO5 library are presented including the B and W 1810 series, DIMPLE S06A, S06B, TCA reflector criticals with iron plates and the PNL-30-35 MOX criticals. The results show that CASMO5 with the new libraries is performing well for these criticals with a very slight edge in results to the JENDL-4.0 nuclear data evaluation over the ENDF/B-VII.1beta4 evaluation. Work is currently underway to generate a CASMO5 library based on the final ENDF/B-VII.R1 evaluation released Dec. 22, 2011. (authors)

  18. Factor VII-activating protease in patients with acute deep venous thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Vitzthum, Frank; Funding, Eva

    2008-01-01

    -PA, without affecting the ability to activate coagulation Factor VII (FVII). Previous studies have investigated the association of the 1601GA genotype with incidence and progression of carotid stenosis and deep venous thrombosis (DVT). The present study is the first to evaluate the potential association...

  19. Training Bilingual Teachers: A Look at the Title VII Graduate in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Ellen R.; Milk, Robert D.

    1983-01-01

    Describes follow-up survey of 71 graduates from University of Texas San Antonio's Title VII Bilingual Education training project. Findings support emphasis on extra-curricular training activities. Perceived areas of weakness include math and science methods. Overall, ex-trainees maintain strong positive attitudes toward bilingual education despite…

  20. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor VII in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Aage K; Bladbjerg, Else M; Hansen, Axel K

    2002-01-01

    In humans, high fat meals cause postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), but human studies have not provided definite evidence for a prothrombotic effect of dietary FVII activation. An animal model would be an attractive way to pursue this question and therefore we tested...

  1. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M; Jespersen, J

    1997-01-01

    Acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) is observed after consumption of high-fat meals. This elevation is caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa). In a randomized crossover study, we investigated whether saturated...

  2. Presidendi teenetemärgi pälvis viis spordiinimest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Vt. ka Linnaleht : Tartu 7. veebr., lk. 7. Eesti riigile osutatud teenete eest pälvisid president Toomas Hendrik Ilveselt teenetemärgi viis spordieluga seotud inimest: jalgpallikoondise ekstreenerid Jelle Goes ja Arno Pijpers, kergejõustikutreener Vésteinn Hafsteinsson, sõudetreener Tatjana Jaanson ning spordielu edendaja Nora Kutti. Juuresoleval fotol Jelle Goes

  3. Factor VII-activating protease : Unraveling the release and regulation of dead cell nuclear damps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Upon inflammation, uncleared dying cells are an important source of pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Major DAMPs are histones and double-stranded DNA, which together form chromatin. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated upon contact with dead cells, and its

  4. "Põrgu wärk" võitis Balti teatrifestivalil viis auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Balti teatrifestivalil "OmaDraama 2006" nähtud etendustest said viis auhinda eestlased - Mart Kivastik näidendi "Põrgu Wärk" eest, Hendrik Toompere lavastuse eest, Harriet Toompere naisosatäitmise eest, Jan Uuspõld Wiiralti kehastamise eest ning Margus Prangel Tuglase osa eest. Ka teistest festivalil auhinnasaajatest

  5. Eesti lavastus "Põrgu wärk" võitis Balti teatrifestivalil viis auhinda

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Balti teatrifestivalil "OmaDraama 2006" nähtud etendustest said viis auhinda eestlased - Mart Kivastik näidendi "Põrgu Wärk" eest, Hendrik Toompere lavastuse eest, Harriet Toompere naisosatäitmise eest, Jan Uuspõld Wiiralti kehastamise eest ning Margus Prangel Tuglase osa eest

  6. Dos Idiomas, Un Mundo. Dual Language Project. Title VII Biennial Evaluation Report, 1995-97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Harishini M.; Gonzalez, Rosa M.

    This is an evaluation of the first 2 years of a 5-year comprehensive Bilingual Education grant funded by Title VII Part A of the Improving America's Schools Act of 1994 in the Austin Independent School District (AISD) (Texas). The grant awarded to the AISD funds a program of Developmental Bilingual Education at two elementary schools where more…

  7. Natural gas; Gas Natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carlos A.; Moraes, Claudia C.D. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo S.A. (ELETROPAULO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Fonseca, Carlos H.F. [Centrais Eletricas de Santa Catarina S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Clecio Fabricio da; Alves, Ricardo P. [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Sposito, Edivaldo Soares; Hulle, Lutero [Espirito Santo Centrais Eletricas S.A. (ESCELSA), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); S. Martins, Icaro da [Centrais Eletricas do Norte do Brasil S.A. (ELETRONORTE), Belem, PA (Brazil); Vilhena, Joao Luiz S. de [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Fagundes, Zaluar Aquino [Companhia Estadual de Energia Eletrica do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    An increase in the consumption of natural gas in Brazil is an expected fact in what concerns energetic planning. This work presents the existing situation in what concerns natural gas utilization in the main world economies, as well as an analysis of the participation of this fuel among the energy final consumption per sources. The Brazilian consumption of natural gas is also analysed as well as the international agreement between Brazil and Bolivia for natural gas commercialization. Some legal, institutional and political aspects related to natural gas commercialization are also discussed. Finally, several benefits to be brought by the utilization of natural gas are presented 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  8. Prevalence of collagen VII-specific autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licarete Emilia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmunity to collagen VII is typically associated with the skin blistering disease epidermolysis bullosa acquisita (EBA, but also occurs occasionally in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of our present study was to develop an accurate immunoassay for assessing the presence of autoantibodies against collagen VII in large cohorts of patients and healthy donors. Methods Based on in silico antigenic analysis and previous wetlab epitope mapping data, we designed a chimeric collagen VII construct containing all collagen VII epitopes with higher antigenicity. ELISA was performed with sera from patients with EBA (n = 50, Crohn's disease (CD, n = 50, ulcerative colitis (UC, n = 50, bullous pemphigoid (BP, n = 76, and pemphigus vulgaris (PV, n = 42 and healthy donors (n = 245. Results By ELISA, the receiver operating characteristics analysis yielded an area under the curve of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.9638-1.005, allowing to set the cut-off at 0.32 OD at a calculated specificity of 98% and a sensitivity of 94%. Running the optimized test showed that serum IgG autoantibodies from 47 EBA (94%; 95% CI: 87.41%-100%, 2 CD (4%; 95% CI: 0%-9.43%, 8 UC (16%; 95% CI: 5.8%-26%, 2 BP (2.63%; 95% CI: 0%-6.23%, and 4 PV (9.52%; 95% CI: 0%-18.4% patients as well as from 4 (1.63%; 95% CI: 0%-3.21% healthy donors reacted with the chimeric protein. Further analysis revealed that in 34%, 37%, 16% and 100% of sera autoantibodies of IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 isotype, respectively, recognized the recombinant autoantigen. Conclusions Using a chimeric protein, we developed a new sensitive and specific ELISA to detect collagen specific antibodies. Our results show a low prevalence of collagen VII-specific autoantibodies in inflammatory bowel disease, pemphigus and bullous pemphigoid. Furthermore, we show that the autoimmune response against collagen VII is dominated by IgG4 autoantibodies. The new immunoassay should

  9. Pellet ablation in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechl, K.P.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Erckmann, V.; Gasparino, U.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Tutter, M.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Freudenberger, K.; Ott, W.; Penningsfeld, F.P.; Speth, E.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Schueller, P.G.; Thumm, M.; Wilhelm, R.

    1986-12-01

    Pellets of different sizes (0,6, 0,8 and 1.0 mm diameter) are injected into stellarator plasmas with ohmic, ECR, and neutral injection heating. The direct particle depositon inside the plasma was incomplete for large pellets with total penetration and for ECRH plasmas generally. In NIH plasmas the total mass of the pellets was deposited and the density rise without increase of impurities resulted in energy contents of 4.8 kJ which exceeds the values for gas-fuelled discharges: Radiation fluctuations during pellet ablation are also observed in a stellarator for the first time. (orig.)

  10. Algal Energy Conversion and Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.

    2015-12-01

    We address the potential for energy conversions and capture for: energy generation; reduction in energy use; reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; remediation of water and air pollution; protection and enhancement of soil fertility. These processes have the potential to sequester carbon at scales that may have global impact. Energy conversion and capture strategies evaluate energy use and production from agriculture, urban areas and industries, and apply existing and emerging technologies to reduce and recapture energy embedded in waste products. The basis of biocrude production from Micro-algal feedstocks: 1) The nutrients from the liquid fraction of waste streams are concentrated and fed into photo bioreactors (essentially large vessels in which microalgae are grown) along with CO2 from flue gasses from down stream processes. 2) The algae are processed to remove high value products such as proteins and beta-carotenes. The advantage of algae feedstocks is the high biomass productivity is 30-50 times that of land based crops and the remaining biomass contains minimal components that are difficult to convert to biocrude. 3) The remaining biomass undergoes hydrothermal liquefaction to produces biocrude and biochar. The flue gasses of this process can be used to produce electricity (fuel cell) and subsequently fed back into the photobioreactor. The thermal energy required for this process is small, hence readily obtained from solar-thermal sources, and furthermore no drying or preprocessing is required keeping the energy overhead extremely small. 4) The biocrude can be upgraded and refined as conventional crude oil, creating a range of liquid fuels. In principle this process can be applied on the farm scale to the municipal scale. Overall, our primary food production is too dependent on fossil fuels. Energy conversion and capture can make food production sustainable.

  11. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  12. Direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, Z.; Kramar, J.

    1975-01-01

    The current state of research of direct energy conversion is briefly discussed and a more detailed description is given of MHD and thermionic energy conversion. Current and prospective values of characteristic variables of various energy conversion methods are listed. MHD generators produce terminal voltage of the same order as turbogenerators while other generators for direct energy conversion only produce voltages of 0.1 to 1.5 V so that the respective elements must be parallel-connected. From the point of view of current density, thermionic conversion having the emitter surface value in the order of 10 A/cm 2 ranks first. As for MHD generators, main attention is devoted to open-cycle generators with combustion products as the working medium. It is envisaged that after 1980 MHD power plants will be commissioned having an electric output of up to 500 MW. By 1990, the construction should be started of basic MHD power plants with a total thermal efficiency of about 55%. The research of thermionic conversion focused on practical applications has mainly been concentrated on nuclear power converters. Nuclear or isotope converters have already been built and used in a number of specific applications as low-power sources, e.g., in space exploration, etc. Preparations are under way for applying high-power sources in telecommunication satellites (USSR, USA). (Z.S.)

  13. Overview of biomass conversion technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, S.; Latif, A.; Jan, M.

    2011-01-01

    A large part of the biomass is used for non-commercial purposes and mostly for cooking and heating, but the use is not sustainable, because it destroys soil-nutrients, causes indoor and outdoor pollution, adds to greenhouse gases, and results in health problems. Commercial use of biomass includes household fuelwood in industrialized countries and bio-char (charcoal) and firewood in urban and industrial areas in developing countries. The most efficient way of biomass utilization is through gasification, in which the gas produced by biomass gasification can either be used to generate power in an ordinary steam-cycle or be converted into motor fuel. In the latter case, there are two alternatives, namely, the synthesis of methanol and methanol-based motor fuels, or Fischer-Tropsch hydrocarbon synthesis. This paper deals with the technological overview of the state-of-the-art key biomass-conversion technologies that can play an important role in the future. The conversion routes for production of Heat, power and transportation fuel have been summarized in this paper, viz. combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, digestion, fermentation and extraction. (author)

  14. Gas and Gas Pains

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gas and gas pains Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  15. Hydrogen turbine power conversion system assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. E.; Lucci, A. D.; Campbell, J.; Lee, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    A three part technical study was conducted whereby parametric technical and economic feasibility data were developed on several power conversion systems suitable for the generation of central station electric power through the combustion of hydrogen and the use of the resulting heat energy in turbogenerator equipment. The study assessed potential applications of hydrogen-fueled power conversion systems and identified the three most promising candidates: (1) Ericsson Cycle, (2) gas turbine, and (3) direct steam injection system for fossil fuel as well as nuclear powerplants. A technical and economic evaluation was performed on the three systems from which the direct injection system (fossil fuel only) was selected for a preliminary conceptual design of an integrated hydrogen-fired power conversion system.

  16. Materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1981-01-01

    The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

  17. Thermal Conversion of Methane to Acetylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fincke, James Russell; Anderson, Raymond Paul; Hyde, Timothy Allen; Wright, Randy Ben; Bewley, Randy Lee; Haggard, Delon C; Swank, William David

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the experimental demonstration of a process for the direct thermal conversion of methane to acetylene. The process utilizes a thermal plasma heat source to dissociation products react to form a mixture of acetylene and hydrogen. The use of a supersonic expansion of the hot gas is investigated as a method of rapidly cooling (quenching) the product stream to prevent further reaction or thermal decomposition of the acetylene which can lower the overall efficiency of the process.

  18. Oxidation of triclosan by permanganate (Mn(VII)): importance of ligands and in situ formed manganese oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jin; Pang, Su-Yan; Ma, Jun

    2009-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine permanganate (Mn(VII); KMnO(4)) oxidation of the widely used biocide triclosan (one phenolic derivative) in aqueous solution at pH values of 5-9. Under slightly acidic conditions, the reactions displayed autocatalysis, suggesting the catalytic role of in situ formed MnO(2). This was further supported by the promoting effects of the addition of preformed MnO(2) colloids on Mn(VII) oxidations of triclosan and two other selected phenolics (i.e., phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol), as well as p-nitrophenol which otherwise showed negligible reactivity toward Mn(VII) and MnO(2) colloids, respectively. Surprisingly, phosphate buffer significantly enhanced Mn(VII) oxidation of triclosan, as well as phenol and 2,4-dichlorophenol over a wide pH range. Further, several other selected ligands (i.e., pyrophosphate, EDTA, and humic acid) also exerted oxidation enhancement, supporting a scenario where highly active aqueous manganese intermediates (Mn(INT)(aq)) formed in situ upon Mn(VII) reduction might be stabilized to a certain extent in the presence of ligands and subsequently involved in further oxidation of target phenolics, whereas without stabilizing agents Mn(INT)(aq) autodecomposes or disproportionates spontaneously. The effectiveness of Mn(VII) for the oxidative removal of triclosan in natural water and wastewater was confirmed. Their background matrices were also found to accelerate Mn(VII) oxidation of phenolics.

  19. Fleet Conversion in Local Government: Determinants of Driver Fuel Choice for Bi-Fuel Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Kimberly D.; Khovanova, Kseniya M.; Welch, Eric W.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the conversion of one local government's fleet from gasoline to bi-fuel E-85, compressed natural gas, and liquid propane gas powered vehicles at the midpoint of a 10-year conversion plan. This study employs a behavioral model based on the theory of reasoned action to explore factors that influence an individual's perceived and…

  20. Gasoline and other transportation fuels from natural gas in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Miller, A.I.

    1981-03-01

    Ways in which natural gas might displace cude oil as a source of fuels for the Canadian transportation market are reviewed. Three approaches are possible: (1) direct use as compressed natural gas; (2)conversion of natural gas to methanol; and (3) further conversion of methanol to synthetic gasoline. (author)

  1. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    ECAS compared various advanced energy conversion systems that can use coal or coal-derived fuels for baseload electric power generation. It was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 consisted of parametric studies. From these results, 11 concepts were selected for further study in Phase 2. For each of the Phase 2 systems and a common set of ground rules, performance, cost, environmental intrusion, and natural resource requirements were estimated. In addition, the contractors defined the state of the associated technology, identified the advances required, prepared preliminary research and development plans, and assessed other factors that would affect the implementation of each type of powerplant. The systems studied in Phase 2 include steam systems with atmospheric- and pressurized-fluidized-bed boilers; combined cycle gas turbine/steam systems with integrated gasifiers or fired by a semiclean, coal derived fuel; a potassium/steam system with a pressurized-fluidized-bed boiler; a closed-cycle gas turbine/organic system with a high-temperature, atmospheric-fluidized-bed furnace; a direct-coal-fired, open- cycle magnetohydrodynamic/steam system; and a molten-carbonate fuel cell/steam system with an integrated gasifier. The sensitivity of the results to changes in the ground rules and the impact of uncertainties in capital cost estimates were also examined.

  2. Boiler conversions for biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinni, J. [Tampella Power Inc., Tampere (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Boiler conversions from grate- and oil-fired boilers to bubbling fluidized bed combustion have been most common in pulp and paper industry. Water treatment sludge combustion, need for additional capacity and tightened emission limits have been the driving forces for the conversion. To accomplish a boiler conversion for biofuel, the lower part of the boiler is replaced with a fluidized bed bottom and new fuel, ash and air systems are added. The Imatran Voima Rauhalahti pulverized-peat-fired boiler was converted to bubbling fluidized bed firing in 1993. In the conversion the boiler capacity was increased by 10 % to 295 MWth and NO{sub x} emissions dropped. In the Kymmene Kuusankoski boiler, the reason for conversion was the combustion of high chlorine content biosludge. The emissions have been under general European limits. During the next years, the emission limits will tighten and the boilers will be designed for most complete combustion and compounds, which can be removed from flue gases, will be taken care of after the boiler. (orig.) 3 refs.

  3. TFTR power conversion and plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.

    1985-01-01

    Major components of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) power conversion system include 39 thyristor rectifier power supplies, 12 energy storage capacitor banks, and 6 ohmic heating interrupters. These components are connected in various series/parallel configurations to provide controlled pulses of current to the Toroidal Field (TF), Ohmic Heating (OH), Equilibrium (vertical) Field (EF), and Horizontal Field (HF) magnet coil systems. Real-time control of the power conversion system is accomplished by a centralized dedicated computer; local control is minimal. Power supply firing angles, capacitor bank charge and discharge commands, interrupter commands, etc., are all determined and issued by the central computer. Plasma Position and Current Control (PPCC) reference signals to power conversion (OH, EF, HF) are determined by separate analog electronics but invoked through the power conversion computer. Real-time fault sensing of plasma parameters, gas injection, neutral beams, etc., are monitored by a separate Discharge Fault System (DFS) but routed through the power conversion computer for pre-programmed shutdown response

  4. Photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gottfried H

    2015-01-01

    This concise primer on photovoltaic solar energy conversion invites readers to reflect on the conversion of solar light into energy at the most fundamental level and encourages newcomers to the field to help find meaningful answers on how photovoltaic solar energy conversion can work (better), eventually contributing to its ongoing advancement. The book is based on lectures given to graduate students in the Physics Department at the University of Oldenburg over the last two decades, yet also provides an easy-to-follow introduction for doctoral and postdoctoral students from related disciplines such as the materials sciences and electrical engineering. Inspired by classic textbooks in the field, it reflects the author’s own ideas on how to understand, visualize and eventually teach the microscopic physical mechanisms and effects, while keeping the text as concise as possible so as to introduce interested readers to the field and balancing essential knowledge with open questions.

  5. Natural gas vehicles in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, F.

    1991-01-01

    The technology of compressed natural gas (CNG) for road vehicles originated 50 years ago in Italy, always able to adapt itself to changes in energy supply and demand situations and national assets. Now, due to the public's growing concern for air pollution abatement and recent national energy policies calling for energy diversification, the commercialization of natural gas road vehicles is receiving new momentum. However, proper fuel taxation and an increased number of natural gas distribution stations are required to support this growing market potential. Operators of urban bus fleets stand to gain substantially from conversion to natural gas automotive fuels due to natural gas being a relatively cheap, clean alternative

  6. Freely flowing conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakjær, Marie Kirstejn; Andrade, David; Dexters, Peter

    the following referred to as UDI) effort was launched in 2008 as an attempt to improve prison life by inviting inmates to participate in organizational development together with staff. The effort has improved prisons by decreasing tension between inmates and guards and by creating more meaningful jobs...... relations by changing conversations. Through the theoretical framework of the complexity approach, we discuss how this may lead to organizational change. Finally we suggest that inviting inmates to take part in conversations about core organizational development may be a fundamental strategy in trying...

  7. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    The object of this book is to present a review of the basic principles and practical aspects of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy conversion. The author has tried to give qualitative semiphysical arguments where possible for the benefit of the reader who is unfamiliar with plasma physics. The aim of MHD energy conversion is to apply to a specific practical goal a part of what has become a vast area of science called plasma physics. The author has attempted to note in the text where a broader view might be fruitful and to give appropriate references

  9. Converse Barrier Certificate Theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...... singular points nor closed orbits. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with dynamical systems with multiple singular elements. Hereafter, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorems and highlight the differences between our results and previous work by a number...

  10. Conversion of ammonium uranyl carbonate to UO2 in a fluidized bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jun; Qiu Lufu; Zhong Xing; Xu Heqing

    1989-11-01

    The conversion of AUC (Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate) to UO 2 was studied in a fluidized bed of 60 mm inner diameter based on the thermodynamics and kinetics data of decomposition-reduction of AUC. The influence of the reaction temperature, composition of fluidization gas and fluidization velocity on conversion were investigated by using N 2 , Ar and circulation gas (mixing gas of H 2 and CO obtained from the exhaust gas of the decomposition of AUC by catalyst crack-conversion) as the fluidization gas. The throughput is up to the high levels (3.32 kg(wet)/h·L) by using circulation gas or mixing of circulation gas and Ar (< 21%) as the fluidization gas when the reaction temperature exceeds 570 deg C

  11. Internal conversion of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoun, O.

    1982-01-01

    The process of the gamma-ray internal conversion is reviewed. The principle of the calculations of the internal conversion coefficients is outlined and methods of conversion electron measurements are described. The extensive utilization of internal conversion in nuclear physics, as well as several applications in chemistry and solid state physics are also discussed. (author)

  12. Uso de fator VII recombinante ativado para tratamento e profilaxia de grandes sangramentos Use of recombinant activated factor VII for treatment and prophylaxis of major bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Augusto Henriques Vince

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O fator VII recombinante ativado (rFVIIa é uma proteína produzida por engenharia genética, cuja estrutura é muito semelhante à do fator VII intrínseco ativado (FVII. Sua ação se baseia no conhecimento do mecanismo de coagulação in vivo agindo na ativação direta do fator X resultando em formação independente de trombina no local da lesão e contribuindo dessa forma para formação de coágulo estável de fibrina sem a ação dos fatores VIII e IX. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada ampla revisão da literatura com o objetivo de determinar os achados recentes relacionados ao uso de fator VII recombinante ativado em pacientes com sangramento severo. RESULTADOS: Constatou-se que o uso de rFVIIa foi iniciado na década de 80 para profilaxia e tratamento de sangramento em pacientes com antecedente de hemofilia A ou B com inibidores de fator VIII e IX, deficiência de fator VII e trombastenia de Glanzmann refratários à reposição plaquetária. Em 1999 seu uso foi ampliado para outras situações clínicas e dessa forma, começaram a ser publicados diversos trabalhos mostrando a eficácia do rFVIIa como agente pró-hemostático em paciente com outras coagulopatias ou pacientes previamente hígidos com história de sangramento agudo de grande monta. Trauma é a principal causa de mortalidade no mundo sendo sangramento incontrolado o principal desafio no atendimento a estes pacientes. É comum a associação de trauma com coagulopatia, necessitando em algumas situações de terapia específica para o tratamento da mesma. Neste momento a terapia adjuvante com rFVIIa deve ser considerada. Outras causas comuns de sangramento são as operações cardíacas e ginecológicas/ obstétricas e doenças envolvendo o fígado. A coagulopatia nesses casos ocorre por deficiência dos fatores dependentes de vitamina K, sendo o FVII o com menor meia-vida. CONCLUSÃO: O uso de rFVIIa tem sido sugerido como opção terapêutica promissora para esses

  13. Nuclear energy and astrophysics applications of ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated nuclear library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritychenko, B.

    2012-01-01

    Recently released ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluated nuclear library contains the most up-to-date evaluated neutron cross section and covariance data. These data provide new opportunities for nuclear science and astrophysics application development. The improvements in neutron cross section evaluations and more extensive utilization of covariance files, by the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) collaboration, allowed users to produce neutron thermal cross sections, Westcott factors, resonance integrals, Maxwellian-averaged cross sections and astrophysical reaction rates, and provide additional insights on the currently available neutron-induced reaction data. Nuclear reaction calculations using the ENDF/B-VII.1 library and current computer technologies will be discussed and new results will be presented

  14. Uso de fator VII recombinante ativado para tratamento e profilaxia de grandes sangramentos

    OpenAIRE

    Vince,Flávio Augusto Henriques; Brandão,Maria José Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O fator VII recombinante ativado (rFVIIa) é uma proteína produzida por engenharia genética, cuja estrutura é muito semelhante à do fator VII intrínseco ativado (FVII). Sua ação se baseia no conhecimento do mecanismo de coagulação in vivo agindo na ativação direta do fator X resultando em formação independente de trombina no local da lesão e contribuindo dessa forma para formação de coágulo estável de fibrina sem a ação dos fatores VIII e IX. MÉTODOS: Foi realizada ampla revisão da...

  15. Sobre el envío de tropas de la Legio VII Gemina al limes africano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José PALAO VICENTE

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Las relaciones entre Hispania y Africa en época romana fueron corrientes en todos los campos, incluyendo el militar. Este artículo intenta analizar la presencia en territorio africano de tropas de la Legio VII Gemina, tratando de conocer cuáles fueron los verdaderos motivos de dicha estancia. El estudio del material amplía la visión tradicional de las posibles funciones allí desempeñadas por estos destacamentos, que posiblemente abarcaron aspectos administrativos y logísticos.ABSTRACT: The relationship between Hispania and Africa in the Roman world were very strong in alls fields incluiding the military, too. This paper purposes to analize the presence of legio VII Gemina's troops in African territories, attempting to know the true reasons of this presence.The study of material presents a new vision about the mission of those troops, which undertake possibly administratives and logistics works.

  16. Bulk moduli and equations of state of ice VII and ice VIII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, S.; Komatsu, K.; Kagi, H.; Kunc, K.; Sano-Furukawa, A.; Machida, S.; Hattori, T.

    2017-05-01

    The compression behavior of deuterated ice VII and VIII was investigated by high pressure neutron scattering in the pressure range 2-13.7 GPa between 93 and 300 K. We establish equations of state which contain accurate values for the bulk moduli B0, their pressure derivatives B0', as well as the ambient pressure volume V0. These equations of state hold over a large part of the stability domain of ice VII, by comparison with available x-ray data, and to at least ≈13 GPa for ice VIII. They are indistinguishable at low pressures, but beyond ≈7 GPa and at low temperatures ice VIII appears to become stiffer than expected. This might be related to an anomalous phonon hardening observed previously in ice VIII in this P /T range [D. D. Klug et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 144113 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevB.70.144113].

  17. Análise dos Resultados da VII Olimpíada Brasileira de Astronomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Canalle, João Batista; Villas da Rocha, Jaime Fernando; Wuensche de Souza, Carlos Alexandre; Aguilera, Nuricel Villalonga; Preta Padilha, Maria De Fátima Catta; de Medeiros, José Renan; Dantas, Márcia Pragano; Roque da Silva, Adriana; Martins, Roberto Vieira; Dottori, Horácio Alberto; Maia, Márcio Antonio Geimba; Da Rocha Poppe, Paulo César; Rodrigues da Costa, Antônio Carlos

    2006-06-01

    In this work we show the results of the VII Brazilian Astronomy Olympiad (VII OBA), that occurred on 15/05/2004, in all previous registered elementary and high schools, public and/or private, urban and/or rural. Took part in this Olympiad 123.001 students (60,7 % more than VI OBA), distributed over 2.721 schools (increasing of 73% if compared with the VI OBA), belonging to all Brazilian states. The public schools are 75,5% and the private are 24,5%. The team of 4 students selected in the VI OBA (2003) represented the Brazil in the IX International Astronomy Olympiad (IX IAO), that occurred on October of 2004, in Ukraine and won a silver medal and two bronze medals.

  18. Proceedings of the 3rd workshop on Wendelstein VII-X

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, F.

    1989-11-01

    This report presents the major part of the information given at the 3rd Workshop on Wendelstein VII-X, held at Schloss Ringberg near Lake Tegernsee, 26-30 June 1989. A number of 9 papers by members of the INTERATOM study group has been summarized. The ongoing work of the development of W VII-X is concentrated on a small number of Helias configurations with five field periods, in order to define their coil systems and the attainable parameter range. This effort aims at a simultaneous realization of the desired numbers of plasma aspect ratio, stability-β, transport, improvement in bootstrap current, etc., in order to arrive at a 'reference configuration' for this experiment. (orig.)

  19. On-Orbit Experiments for Joint Flexibility of ETS-VII Robotic Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzawa, Takuya; Matsunaga, Saburo

    In this paper, on-orbit joint flexibility experiments using ETS-VII (Engineering Test Satellite VII) robotic arm are discussed. Considering manipulability of the robotic arm, the arm vibration due to the joint stiffness may influence on the berthing manipulation. The vibration of the robotic arm mounted on a satellite is characterized as follows, 1) coupling between the arm and the satellite attitude vibration, and 2) transition of the arm natural frequency according to its posture changes with the inertial parameter variation. The experiments are planned to evaluate these vibration disturbance. Using telemetry data detected by FTS (Force Torque Sensor) attached to the end-effector, the arm natural frequencies and the transitions of the arm vibration amplitude are analyzed. And the validity of the simulation results is demonstrated.

  20. Department of Neurosurgery, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial (K.E.M.) Hospital, Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sunil; Goel, Atul

    2017-01-01

    Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and King Edward VII Memorial (K.E.M.) Hospital, Mumbai were inaugurated in 1925. This article traces its illustrious history and of the eminent neurosurgeons who shaped its destiny.

  1. Leadership is a conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groysberg, Boris; Slind, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Globalization and new technologies have sharply reduced the efficacy of command-and-control management and its accompanying forms of corporate communication. In the course of a recent research project, the authors concluded that by talking with employees, rather than simply issuing orders, leaders can promote operational flexibility, employee engagement, and tight strategic alignment. Groysberg and Slind have identified four elements of organizational conversation that reflect the essential attributes of interpersonal conversation: intimacy, interactivity, inclusion, and intentionality. Intimacy shifts the focus from a top-down distribution of information to a bottom-up exchange of ideas. Organizational conversation is less corporate in tone and more casual. And it's less about issuing and taking orders than about asking and answering questions. Interactivity entails shunning the simplicity of monologue and embracing the unpredictable vitality of dialogue. Traditional one-way media-print and broadcast, in particular-give way to social media buttressed by social thinking. Inclusion turns employees into full-fledged conversation partners, entitling them to provide their own ideas, often on company channels. They can create content and act as brand ambassadors, thought leaders, and storytellers. Intentionality enables leaders and employees to derive strategically relevant action from the push and pull of discussion and debate.

  2. Physics of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Krischer, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Covers the physical basis of the most important energy conversion processes used for energy supply. Provides the fundamentals and a scientific understanding of the physics behind thermal power plants, solar cells and power plants, batteries and fuels cells as well as energy storage devices.

  3. Predicting AD conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yawu; Mattila, Jussi; Ruiz, Miguel �ngel Mu�oz

    2013-01-01

    To compare the accuracies of predicting AD conversion by using a decision support system (PredictAD tool) and current research criteria of prodromal AD as identified by combinations of episodic memory impairment of hippocampal type and visual assessment of medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on MRI...

  4. Catalyst for hydrocarbon conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaut, P.; Miquel, J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given for a catalyst and process for hydrocarbon conversions, e.g., reforming. The catalyst contains an alumina carrier, platinum, iridium, at least one metal selected from uranium, vanadium, and gallium, and optionally halogen in the form of metal halide of one of the aforesaid components. (U.S.)

  5. Our Digital Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes their digital conversion initiative at Mooresville Graded School District. The project has placed a MacBook Air laptop in the hands of every 3rd through 12th grader and their teachers in the district over the past four years, with over 5,000 computers distributed. But they believe their academic successes have…

  6. Conversational English Program, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This first book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  7. Conversational English Program, 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Instituto de Idiomas Yazigi, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Centro de Linguistica Aplicada.

    This second book of a conversational English program for adults contains an introductory section in Portuguese and exercises in English. The text centers around an English-speaking family from the United States that goes to live in Brazil. It contains color photographs with captions followed by exercises. The exercises are in English and involve…

  8. Conversational Involvement and Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A.

    1985-01-01

    Assessed the relationship of conversational involvement and loneliness among college students. Found that lonely participants in this study had lower rates of talkativeness, interruptions, and attention than the nonlonely; they were also perceived as less involved and less interpersonally attractive. (PD)

  9. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  10. Release of the ENDF/B-VII.1 Evaluated Nuclear Data File

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, David

    2012-06-30

    The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) released the ENDF/B-VII.1 library on December 22, 2011. The ENDF/B-VII.1 library is CSEWG's latest recommended evaluated nuclear data file for use in nuclear science and technology applications, and incorporates advances made in the five years since the release of ENDF/B-VII.0, including: many new evaluation in the neutron sublibrary (423 in all and over 190 of these contain covariances), new fission product yields and a greatly improved decay data sublibrary. This summary barely touches on the five years worth of advances present in the ENDF/B-VII.1 library. We expect that these changes will lead to improved integral performance in reactors and other applications. Furthermore, the expansion of covariance data in this release will allow for better uncertainty quantification, reducing design margins and costs. The ENDF library is an ongoing and evolving effort. Currently, the ENDF data community embarking on several parallel efforts to improve library management: (1) The adoption of a continuous integration system to provide evaluators 'instant' feedback on the quality of their evaluations and to provide data users with working 'beta' quality libraries in between major releases. (2) The transition to new hierarchical data format - the Generalized Nuclear Data (GND) format. We expect GND to enable new kinds of evaluated data which cannot be accommodated in the legacy ENDF format. (3) The development of data assimilation and uncertainty propagation techniques to enable the consistent use of integral experimental data in the evaluation process.

  11. Japanese contributions to IAEA INTOR workshop, phase two A, part 2 chapter VII: technical benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Shin-ichi; Iida, Hiromasa; Tomabechi, Ken; Tone, Tatsuzo; Fujisawa, Noboru.

    1985-07-01

    This report corresponds to Chapter VII of Japanese contribution report to IAEA INTOR Workshop, Phase Two A, Part 2. The purpose of technical benefit study is to examine the implications of having different manufacturers fabricate components of a major system of INTOR. A systematic examinations of advantages and disadvantages of designing and fabricating major INTOR components in the frame of one international joint projects is performed. (author)

  12. Desain Pembelajaran Materi Belah Ketupat Menggunakan Kain Jumputan Palembang untuk Siswa Kelas VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziyah Fauziyah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Desain pembelajaran materi belah ketupat menggunakan kain Jumputan Palembang untuk siswa kelas VII. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat bagaimana penggunaan kain Jumputan Palembang dalam membangun pemahaman siswa mengenai belah ketupat. Siswa akan membandingkan luas daerah dua buah kain Jumputan, merancang dan membuat belah ketupat kemudian menggunting serta menyusunnya kembali menjadi suatu bentuk baru, menentukan luas daerah belah ketupat, membandingkan keliling dua buah kain Jumputan dan menentukan keliling belah ketupat. Subjek penelitian ini adalah 30 siswa kelas VII SMP Pusri Palembang. Penelitian ini menggunakan design research yang terdiri dari tiga tahap : preparing for the experiment, experiment in the classroom (pilot experiment dan  teaching experiment, dan retrospective analysis. Pada tahap preparing for the experiment, beberapa aktifitas dibuat menggunakan pendekatan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI. Hasil dari penelitian menunjukkan kain Jumputan Palembang dapat digunakan sebagai starting point dalam pembelajaran belah ketupat untuk siswa kelas VII SMP.The design learning rhombus using kain Jumputan Palembang for VII grade students. This research aims to investigate how to use Kain Jumputan Palembang to build student’s understanding on rhombus. Students were required to comparing the area of two cloths, designing and making rhombus then reshaping to new shapes, determining the area of rhombus, comparing the perimeter of two cloths and determining the perimeter of rhombus. Subjects were 30 first grade students of SMP Pusri Palembang. The study used a design research method consisting of three stages : preparing for the experiment, experiment in the classroom (pilot experiment and teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. During the preparing for the experiment stage, instructional activities was designing utilizing of Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI approach. The result of experiments

  13. Biomass energy conversion: conventional and advanced technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.C.; Hauserman, W.B.

    1995-01-01

    Increasing interest in biomass energy conversion in recent years has focused attention on enhancing the efficiency of technologies converting biomass fuels into heat and power, their capital and operating costs and their environmental emissions. Conventional combustion systems, such as fixed-bed or grate units and entrainment units, deliver lower efficiencies (<25%) than modem coal-fired combustors (30-35%). The gasification of biomass will improve energy conversion efficiency and yield products useful for heat and power generation and chemical synthesis. Advanced biomass gasification technologies using pressurized fluidized-bed systems, including those incorporating hot-gas clean-up for feeding gas turbines or fuel cells, are being demonstrated. However, many biomass gasification processes are derivatives of coal gasification technologies and do not exploit the unique properties of biomass. This paper examines some existing and upcoming technologies for converting biomass into electric power or heat. Small-scale 1-30 MWe units are emphasized, but brief reference is made to larger and smaller systems, including those that bum coal-biomass mixtures and gasifiers that feed pilot-fuelled diesel engines. Promising advanced systems, such as a biomass integrated gasifier/gas turbine (BIG/GT) with combined-cycle operation and a biomass gasifier coupled to a fuel cell, giving cycle efficiencies approaching 50% are also described. These advanced gasifiers, typically fluid-bed designs, may be pressurized and can use a wide variety of biomass materials to generate electricity, process steam and chemical products such as methanol. Low-cost, disposable catalysts are becoming available for hot-gas clean-up (enhanced gas composition) for turbine and fuel cell systems. The advantages, limitations and relative costs of various biomass gasifier systems are briefly discussed. The paper identifies the best known biomass power projects and includes some information on proposed and

  14. Historic doubts, conjectures, and the wanderings of a principal curiosity: Henry VII in the fabric of Strawberry Hill

    OpenAIRE

    Calè, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the inscriptions and material metamorphoses of Henry VII in Horace Walpole’s ‘paper fabric’, a reversible world of writing, collecting, and book making. In Anecdotes of Painting in England (1762), Walpole celebrates the funerary monument of Henry VII by Pietro Torrigiano at Westminster Abbey. In Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard the Third (1768) conjecture and speculation become methodological prompts to unveil the textual and architectural discontinu...

  15. A new approach for rhenium(VII) recovery by using modified brown algae Laminaria japonica adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying; Xu, Jia; Shan, Weijun; Lou, Zhenning; Fang, Dawei; Zang, Shuliang; Han, Guangxi

    2013-01-01

    Brown algae Laminaria japonica was chemically modified with sulfuric acid to obtain a crosslinked brown algae gel (CAS). The CAS gel showed a high affinity for Re(VII) comparing with other biomass gels, and the maximum adsorption capacity was evaluated as 37.20 mg g(-1) in case of pH 6, which could be explained by their different adsorption mechanisms. The adsorption equilibrium, kinetics and thermodynamic study for Re(VII) on the CAS gel was discussed in detail by the several models, such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich model for kinetics analysis, the pseudo first, the second-order, the Elovich and intraparticle diffusion equation for equilibrium analysis. Reutilization of the CAS gel was confirmed up to three adsorption-elution cycles in column-mode operation with no damage of gel, packed in the column. The result also provides a new approach for the recovery of Re(VII) from Re-containing wastewater by using the modified brown algae gel. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PENINGKATAN KEMAMPUAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH DAN PENGEMBANGAN KARAKTER PADA SISWA KELAS VII MELALUI MODEL PBL BERBANTUAN SCAFFOLDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novy Kris Zaini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui (1 apakah kemampuan pemecahan masalah matematika peserta didik yang diajar dengan model PBL berbantuan scaffolding pada materi pokok segiempat kelas VII dapat mencapai KKM yang ditetapkan, (2 apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan model PBL berbantuan scaffolding pada materi pokok segiempat kelas VII dapat meningkatkan kemampuan pemecahan masalah peserta didik pilihan, (3 apakah pembelajaran matematika dengan model PBL berbantuan scaffolding pada materi pokok segiempat kelas VII dapat meningkatkan karakter rasa ingin tahu peserta didik pilihan. Desain penelitian ini adalah concurrent triangulation (campuran kuatitatif dan kualitatif secara seimbang, menggabungkan antara metode kuantitatif dan metode kualitatif untuk digunakan secara bersama-sama dalam suatu kegiatan penelitian, sehingga diperoleh data yang lebih komprehensif, valid, reliabel dan obyektif. Penentuan sumber data dalam penelitian ini menggunakan teknik triangulasi, yaitu menggabungkan dari berbagai teknik pengumpulan data dan sumber data yang telah ada. Data diperoleh dengan observasi, wawancara, dan dokumentasi yang kemudian dianalisis menggunakan analisis kualitatif, sedangkan tes dan observasi dianalisis menggunakan analisis kuantitatif dan analisis gain untuk mengukur peningkatan. Analisis kualitatif menunjukkan karakter rasa ingin tahu dan kemampuan pemecahan masalah peserta didik meningkat, serta kemampuan pemecahan masalah peserta didik mencapai KKM melalui model pembelajaran PBL

  17. MENDF71x. Multigroup Neutron Cross Section Data Tables Based upon ENDF/B-VII.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Parsons, Donald Kent; Gardiner, Steven J.; Gray, Mark Girard; Lee, Mary Beth; White, Morgan Curtis

    2015-01-01

    A new multi-group neutron cross section library has been released along with the release of NDI version 2.0.20. The library is named MENDF71x and is based upon the evaluations released in ENDF/B-VII.1 which was made publicly available in December 2011. ENDF/B-VII.1 consists of 423 evaluations of which ten are excited states evaluations and 413 are ground state evaluations. MENDF71x was created by processing the 423 evaluations into 618-group, downscatter only NDI data tables. The ENDF/B evaluation files were processed using NJOY version 99.393 with the exception of 35 Cl and 233 U. Those two isotopes had unique properties that required that we process the evaluation using NJOY version 2012. The MENDF71x library was only processed to room temperature, i.e., 293.6 K. In the future, we plan on producing a multi-temperature library based on ENDF/B-VII.1 and compatible with MENDF71x.

  18. Diffusion and conversion impedance in solid oxide fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Koch, Søren

    2008-01-01

    In fuel cell electrodes where the thin, active electrode layer is supported by a porous layer the diffusion processes as well as the change in the gas phase composition due to the conversion of reactants will influence the cell impedance. Two models are developed for the description of these proc......In fuel cell electrodes where the thin, active electrode layer is supported by a porous layer the diffusion processes as well as the change in the gas phase composition due to the conversion of reactants will influence the cell impedance. Two models are developed for the description...... to consumption of reactants and accumulation of products. For simplicity this model is restricted to cases dominated by mass transfer and conversion of the gas supply. Qualitatively the predictions by both models are alike. At high frequencies a Warburg diffusion impedance is seen. Depending on the dimensions...

  19. Catalytic Conversion of Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Luque

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum, natural gas and coal supply most of the energy consumed worldwide and their massive utilization has allowed our society to reach high levels of development in the past century.[...

  20. Keefektivan PMRI Berbantuan Alat Peraga Terhadap Kemampuan Pemecahan Masalah Serupa PISA Pada Kelas VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyanto Riyanto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui keefektivan pembelajaran dengan metode Pendidi-kan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI berbantuan alat peraga terhadap kemampuan pemecahan masalah serupa PISA siswa pada materi segiempat. Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VII SMP Negeri 3 Ungaran tahun pelajaran 2012/2013. Pemilihan sampel dengan cara random sampling, diperoleh siswa kelas VII-I dan siswa kelas VII-J se-bagai kelas eksperimen dan kelas kontrol. Kelas eksperimen diajar dengan metode PMRI berbantuan alat peraga, sedangkan kelas kontrol diajar dengan metode ekspositori. Data di-peroleh dengan metode observasi untuk mengamati aktivitas belajar guru dan metode tes untuk menentukan hasil belajar siswa yang kemudian dianalisis dengan uji ketuntasan dan uji perbedaan rata-rata: uji satu pihak (pihak kanan. Hasil penelitian adalah (1 hasil be-lajar siswa kelas eksperimen belum mencapai kriteria ketuntasan klasikal, (2 rata-rata ke-mampuan pemecahan masalah serupa PISA kelas eksperimen lebih baik dari kelas kontrol, dan (3 skor rata-rata aktivitas guru kelas ekperimen dan kelas kontrol memiliki kategori baik. Kata kunci:       Kualitas Pembelajaran; PISA; PMRI.  AbstractThe purpose of this research was to determine the effectiveness of learning by Teams Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia (PMRI assisted on figure tools to the problem solving skills PISA student on quadrilateral material. The population in this study is student of VIIth grade class of 3 Ungaran junior high school on period 2012/2013. The selection of the sample is done by random sampling which is gotten students class VII-I and students class VII-J as the experimental class and the controlling class. Experimental class was taught by PMRI assisted on figure tools, while the controlling class was taught with the expository method. Data obtained by the observation method to observe the activities of teacher learning and test methods for determining

  1. ZZ POINT-2007, linearly interpolable ENDF/B-VII.0 data for 14 temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, Dermott E.

    2007-01-01

    A - Description or function: The ENDF/B data library, ENDF/B-VII.0 was processed into the form of temperature dependent cross sections. The original evaluated data include cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in applications, these ENDF/B-VII.0 data were processed into the form of temperature dependent cross sections at eight temperatures: 0, 300, 600, 900, 1200, 1500, 1800 and 2100 Kelvin. It has also been processed to six astrophysics like temperatures: 0.1, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy with a tolerance of 0.1 %. POINT 2007 contains all of the evaluations in the ENDF/B-VII general purpose library, which contains 78 new evaluations + 315 old ones: total 393 nuclides. It also includes 16 new elemental evaluations replaced by isotopic evaluations + 19 old ones. No special purpose ENDF/B-VII libraries, such as fission products, thermal scattering, photon interaction data are included. These evaluations include all cross sections over the energy range 10 e-5 eV to at least 20 MeV. The list of nuclides is indicated. B - Methods: The PREPRO 2007 code system was used to process the ENDF/B data. Listed below are the steps, including the PREPRO2007 codes, which were used to process the data in the order in which the codes were run. 1) Linearly interpolable, tabulated cross sections (LINEAR) 2) Including the resonance contribution (RECENT) 3) Doppler broaden all cross sections to temperature (SIGMA1) 4) Check data, define redundant cross sections by summation (FIXUP) 5) Update evaluation dictionary in MF/MT=1/451 (DICTIN) C - Restrictions: Due to recent changes in ENDF-6 Formats and Procedures only the latest version of the ENDF/B Pre-processing codes, namely PREPRO 2007, can be used to accurately process all current ENDF/B-VII evaluations. The use of

  2. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  3. Clinical linguistics: conversational reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crystal, David

    2013-04-01

    This is a report of the main points I made in an informal "conversation" with Paul Fletcher and the audience at the 14th ICPLA conference in Cork. The observations arose randomly, as part of an unstructured 1-h Q&A, so they do not provide a systematic account of the subject, but simply reflect the issues which were raised by the conference participants during that time.

  4. Conversations with Miss Jane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Fabre

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the wide range of conversations in the autobiography, this essay will attempt to appraise the importance of these verbal exchanges in relation to the overall narrative structure of the book and to the prevalent oral tradition in Louisiana culture, as both an individual and communal expression. The variety of circumstances, the setting and staging, the interlocutors , and the complex intersection of time and place, of stories and History, will be examined; in these conversations with Miss Jane many actors participate, from  the interviewer-narrator, to most characters; even the reader becomes involved.Speaking, hearing, listening, keeping silent is an elaborate ritual that performs many functions; besides conveying news or rumors, it imparts information on the times and on the life of a “representative” woman whose existence - spanning a whole century- is both singular and emblematic. Most importantly this essay will analyse the resonance of an eventful and often dramatic era on her sensibility and conversely show how her evolving sensibility informs that history and draws attention to aspects that might have passed unnoticed or be forever silenced. Jane’s desire for liberty and justice is often challenged as she faces the possibilities of life or death.Conversations build up a complex, often contradictory, but compelling portrait: torn between silence and vehemence, between memories and the urge to meet the future, Jane summons body and mind to find her way through the maze of a fast changing world; self-willed and obstinate she claims her right to speak, to express with wit and wisdom her firm belief in the word, in the ability to express deep seated convictions and faith and a whole array of feelings and emotions.

  5. Biomass thermo-conversion. Research trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Machin, Lizet; Perez Bermudez, Raul; Quintana Perez, Candido Enrique; Ocanna Guevara, Victor Samuel; Duffus Scott, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper is studied the state of the art in order to identify the main trends of the processes of thermo conversion of biomass into fuels and other chemicals. In Cuba, from total supply of biomass, wood is the 19% and sugar cane bagasse and straw the 80%, is why research in the country, should be directed primarily toward these. The methods for energy production from biomass can be group into two classes: thermo-chemical and biological conversion routes. The technology of thermo-chemical conversion includes three subclasses: pyrolysis, gasification, and direct liquefaction. Although pyrolysis is still under development, in the current energy scenario, has received special attention, because can convert directly biomass into solid, liquid and gaseous by thermal decomposition in absence of oxygen. The gasification of biomass is a thermal treatment, where great quantities of gaseous products and small quantities of char and ash are produced. In Cuba, studies of biomass thermo-conversion studies are limited to slow pyrolysis and gasification; but gas fuels, by biomass, are mainly obtained by digestion (biogas). (author)

  6. Conversion of Questionnaire Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, Danny H.; Elwood, Robert H. Jr.

    2011-01-01

    During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC and A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC and A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC and A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC and A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC and A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC and A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A

  7. Clean Fossil Energy Conversion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, L.-S.

    2007-03-01

    Absolute and per-capita energy consumption is bound to increase globally, leading to a projected increase in energy requirements of 50% by 2020. The primary source for providing a majority of the energy will continue to be fossil fuels. However, an array of enabling technologies needs to be proven for the realization of a zero emission power, fuel or chemical plants in the near future. Opportunities to develop new processes, driven by the regulatory requirements for the reduction or elimination of gaseous and particulate pollutant abound. This presentation describes the chemistry, reaction mechanisms, reactor design, system engineering, economics, and regulations that surround the utilization of clean coal energy. The presentation will cover the salient features of the fundamental and process aspects of the clean coal technologies in practice as well as in development. These technologies include those for the cleaning of SO2, H2S, NOx, and heavy metals, and separation of CO2 from the flue gas or the syngas. Further, new combustion and gasification processes based on the chemical looping concepts will be illustrated in the context of the looping particle design, process heat integration, energy conversion efficiency, and economics.

  8. Catalytic conversion of light alkanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, J.E.

    1992-06-30

    The second Quarterly Report of 1992 on the Catalytic Conversion of Light Alkanes reviews the work done between April 1, 1992 and June 31, 1992 on the Cooperative Agreement. The mission of this work is to devise a new catalyst which can be used in a simple economic process to convert the light alkanes in natural gas to oxygenate products that can either be used as clean-burning, high octane liquid fuels, as fuel components or as precursors to liquid hydrocarbon uwspomdon fuel. During the past quarter we have continued to design, prepare, characterize and test novel catalysts for the mild selective reaction of light hydrocarbons with air or oxygen to produce alcohols directly. These catalysts are designed to form active metal oxo (MO) species and to be uniquely active for the homolytic cleavage of the carbon-hydrogen bonds in light alkanes producing intermediates which can form alcohols. We continue to investigate three molecular environments for the active catalytic species that we are trying to generate: electron-deficient macrocycles (PHASE I), polyoxometallates (PHASE II), and regular oxidic lattices including zeolites and related structures as well as other molecular surface structures having metal oxo groups (PHASE I).

  9. The FLIC conversion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basher, J.C.

    1965-05-01

    This report describes the FORTRAN programmes, FLIC 1 and FLIC 2. These programmes convert programmes coded in one dialect of FORTRAN to another dialect of the same language. FLIC 1 is a general pattern recognition and replacement programme whereas FLIC 2 contains extensions directed towards the conversion of FORTRAN II and S2 programmes to EGTRAN 1 - the dialect now in use on the Winfrith KDF9. FII or S2 statements are replaced where possible by their E1 equivalents; other statements which may need changing are flagged. (author)

  10. Moodle 20 Course Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Wild, Ian

    2011-01-01

    With clear instructions and plenty of screenshots, this book provides all the support and guidance you will need as you begin to convert your teaching to Moodle. Step-by-step tutorials use real-world examples to show you how to convert to Moodle in the most efficient and effective ways possible. Moodle Course Conversion carefully illustrates how Moodle can be used to teach content and ideas and clearly demonstrates the advantages of doing so. This book is for teachers, tutors, and lecturers who already have a large body of teaching material and want to use Moodle to enhance their course, rathe

  11. Solar energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Likhtenshtein, Gertz I

    2012-01-01

    Finally filling a gap in the literature for a text that also adopts the chemist?s view of this hot topic, Prof Likhtenshtein, an experienced author and internationally renowned scientist, considers different physical and engineering aspects in solar energy conversion. From theory to real-life systems, he shows exactly which chemical reactions take place when converting light energy, providing an overview of the chemical perspective from fundamentals to molecular harvesting systems and solar cells. This essential guide will thus help researchers in academia and industry better understa

  12. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    1997-01-01

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

  13. Zinc phosphate conversion coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, T.

    1997-02-18

    Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

  14. Catalytic Conversion of Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian Mårup

    with the production of commodity chemicals from the most abundantly available renewable source of carbon, carbohydrates. The production of alkyl lactates by the Lewis acid catalyzed conversion of hexoses is an interesting alternative to current fermentation based processes. A range of stannosilicates were....... The synthesis of these by the cycloaddition of ethylene to furanic compounds, followed by dehydrative aromatization, was demonstrated in good yields, using a strong Brønsted acidic catalyst, WOx/ZrO2. As both ethylene and furanics can be derived from carbohydrates by known processes, this constitutes...

  15. A Blogal Conversation

    OpenAIRE

    García Landa, José Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Reseña, en español, de BLOGS: A GLOBAL CONVERSATION, de James Torio, sobre la revolución en las comunicaciones de los blogs, las redes sociales y la Web 2.0, y sus implicaciones para las estrategias de márketing, en especial la nueva disponibilidad de nuevos nichos de márketing en la economía de la larga cola, así como la transformación de las estrategias de imagen y relaciones públicas de las empresas.

  16. Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Steven T.; Kaschmitter, James L.; Pekala, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

  17. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutting, R. S.; Coker, V. S.; Telling, N. D.; Kimber, R. L.; Pearce, C. I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2009-09-09

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion ({approx}10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a {gamma}-camera to obtain real time images of a {sup 99m}Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more ({approx}20%) {sup 99m}Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral

  18. PENGEMBANGAN LKS BERBASIS PROJECT BASED LEARNING UNTUK PEMBELAJARAN MATERI SEGITIGA DI KELAS VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Novita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian pengembangan yang bertujuan untuk (1mengetahui karakteristik LKS berbasis Project Based Learning (PjBL yang valid dan praktis dalam pembelajaran materi segitiga di kelas VII; (2mengetahui efek potensial penggunaan LKS berbasis PjBL terhadap hasil belajar siswa dalam pembelajaran materi segitiga di kelas VII. Metode penelitian pengembangan yang digunakan adalah model  ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Teknik pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah walkthrough, tes hasil belajar dan angket. Dari tes hasil belajar, diperoleh bahwa sebesar 82,5% siswa telah mencapai kategori tuntas dan 17,5% belum tuntas dengan KKM 75. Hasil angket respon siswa menunjukkan bahwa untuk pelaksanaan pembelajaran menggunakan LKS berbasis PjBL telah mencapai kriteria kepraktisan. Kemudian untuk LKS berbasis PjBL yang telah didesain, divalidasi oleh beberapa pakar, kemudian direvisi berdasarkan saran dari para pakar tersebut. LKS yang telah direvisi tersebut dianggap telah memenuhi kriteria kevalidan dan kepraktisan sehingga dapat digunakan dalam pembelajaran materi segitiga di kelas VII. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah (1 LKS bebasis PjBL yang dikembangkan valid, tergambar dari konten (sesuai dengan kurikulum untuk materi segitiga, konstruk (sesuai dengan prinsip PjBL, dan bahasa (sesuai dengan ejaan yang disempurnakan (EYD. Kepraktisan tergambar dari proses kerja siswa dalam melaksanakan LKS dan hasil angket respon siswa terhadap pembelajaran menggunakan LKS berbasis PjBL; (2 dari hasil latihan yang dikerjakan oleh siswa, LKS berbasis PjBL memiliki efek potensial terhadap hasil belajar, yakni sebanyak 33 siswa termasuk kategori tuntas (82,5% dan 7 orang belum tuntas (17,5%, dengan KKM 75. Kata Kunci : LKS, Project Based Learning DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jpm.10.2.3626.1-12

  19. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format (R2), which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  20. POINT 2011: ENDF/B-VII.1 Beta2 Temperature Dependent Cross Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cullen, D E

    2011-04-07

    This report is one in the series of 'POINT' reports that over the years have presented temperature dependent cross sections for the then current version of ENDF/B. In each case I have used my personal computer at home and publicly available data and codes. I have used these in combination to produce the temperature dependent cross sections used in applications and presented in this report. I should mention that today anyone with a personal computer can produce these results. The latest ENDF/B-VII.1 beta2 data library was recently and is now freely available through the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC), Brookhaven National Laboratory. This release completely supersedes all preceding releases of ENDF/B. As distributed the ENDF/B-VII.1 data includes cross sections represented in the form of a combination of resonance parameters and/or tabulated energy dependent cross sections, nominally at 0 Kelvin temperature. For use in our applications the ENDF/B-VII.1 library has been processed into cross sections at eight neutron reactor like temperatures, between 0 and 2100 Kelvin, in steps of 300 Kelvin (the exception being 293.6 Kelvin, for exact room temperature at 20 Celsius). It has also been processed to five astrophysics like temperatures, 1, 10, 100 eV, 1 and 10 keV. For reference purposes, 300 Kelvin is approximately 1/40 eV, so that 1 eV is approximately 12,000 Kelvin. At each temperature the cross sections are tabulated and linearly interpolable in energy. All results are in the computer independent ENDF-6 character format [R2], which allows the data to be easily transported between computers. In its processed form the POINT 2011 library is approximately 16 gigabyte in size and is distributed on one compressed DVDs (see, below for the details of the contents of each DVD).

  1. Optimizing Cr(VI) and Tc(VII) remediation through nano-scale biomineral engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutting, R.S.; Coker, V.S.; Telling, N.D.; Kimber, R.L.; Pearce, C.I.; Ellis, B.; Lawson, R; van der Laan, G.; Pattrick, R.A.D.; Vaughan, D.J.; Arenholz, E.; Lloyd, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    To optimize the production of biomagnetite for the bioremediation of metal oxyanion contaminated waters, the reduction of aqueous Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by two biogenic magnetites and a synthetic magnetite was evaluated under batch and continuous flow conditions. Results indicate that nano-scale biogenic magnetite produced by incubating synthetic schwertmannite powder in cell suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens is more efficient at reducing Cr(VI) than either biogenic nano-magnetite produced from a suspension of ferrihydrite 'gel' or synthetic nano-scale Fe 3 O 4 powder. Although X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements obtained from post-exposure magnetite samples reveal that both Cr(III) and Cr(VI) are associated with nanoparticle surfaces, X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) studies indicate that some Cr(III) has replaced octahedrally coordinated Fe in the lattice of the magnetite. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) measurements of total aqueous Cr in the associated solution phase indicated that, although the majority of Cr(III) was incorporated within or adsorbed to the magnetite samples, a proportion (∼10-15 %) was released back into solution. Studies of Tc(VII) uptake by magnetites produced via the different synthesis routes also revealed significant differences between them as regards effectiveness for remediation. In addition, column studies using a γ-camera to obtain real time images of a 99m Tc(VII) radiotracer were performed to visualize directly the relative performances of the magnetite sorbents against ultra-trace concentrations of metal oxyanion contaminants. Again, the magnetite produced from schwertmannite proved capable of retaining more (∼20%) 99m Tc(VII) than the magnetite produced from ferrihydrite, confirming that biomagnetite production for efficient environmental remediation can be fine-tuned through careful selection of the initial Fe(III) mineral substrate supplied to Fe

  2. Pervivencia de los Tristia de Ovidio en la Antigüedad (ssI-VII)

    OpenAIRE

    Baeza Angulo, Eulogio

    1995-01-01

    El presente artículo persigue un doble objetivo. En primer lugar, mostrar en conjunto cuál ha sido la influencia y pervivencia de los Tristia de Ovidio hasta el siglo vii d. C. Y, en segundo lugar, que, aunque existen ciertos ecos de esta obra, sin embargo su pervivencia ha sido prácticamente testimonial frente a la gran influencia ejercida por las Metamorfosis y la obra elegíacoamatoria. The aim of this essay is a double one. First of alt, it is aimed at showing dic influen...

  3. Aspectos literarios de la obra de don Joan de Castellanos : Capítulo VII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Germán Romero

    1966-02-01

    Full Text Available Capitulo VII. Los discursos de Colón Es sabido que los escritores antiguos; principalmente los historiógrafos, introducían supuestos discursos en sus obras. Salustio consigna cuatro en sus Historias. Tito Livio los elabora con perfección y los pone en boca de políticos y generales importantes; en los treinta y cinco libros que se conservan de este autor encontramos unos cuatrocientos discursos, breves o extensos, que como los de Salustio fueron recopilados y editados para fines retóricos.

  4. Current driven drift instability in the W VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutsch, R.; Wobig, H.

    1978-12-01

    The instability region and growth rates of current driven drift modes in the W VII-A stellarator are calculated. Several theoretical results are evaluated for specific temperature and density profiles. It is found that in the outer region of the plasma-column (r > 6 cm) collisional drift waves with wavelengths (k 2 x + K 2 y)sup(-1/2) = 0.13 - 0.3 cm exist. In this region also the electron thermal conductivity determined experimentally appears to be large. (orig./GG) [de

  5. Hormone therapy affects plasma measures of factor VII-activating protease in younger postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Jørn Sidelmann; Skouby, S.O.; Vitzthum, F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Current reviews indicate that hormone therapy (HT) has a protective role in coronary heart disease (CHD) in younger postmenopausal women, whereas HT contributes to CHD in older women Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is a serine protease that accumulates in unstable atherosclerotic...... for the determination of FSAP antigen and FSAP activity. Results The FSAP measures were comparable at baseline. No significant changes were observed in the control group after 12 months. HT in general induced a significant increase in FSAP antigen (7.7 mu g/ml at baseline and 8.0 mu g/ml after 12 months, p = 0...

  6. Vacuum magnetic field and modular coil system of the advanced stellarator Wendelstein VII-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, F.; Kisslinger, J.; Wobig, H.

    1982-06-01

    The vacuum field and the modular coils of the advanced stellarator WENDELSTEIN VII-AS are described. Each of the five field periods contains 9 different twisted coils, one of them with increased dimensions and current in order to provide sufficient access. The standard vacuum field configuration (B=3 T, t=0.39, aspect ratio approx. equal to 10, low shear, and magnetic well) can be varied by toroidal and vertical fields, or by changing independently the current in the large special coils. From a study of magnetic field perturbations some estimates are derived for the admissible coil tolerances. (orig.)

  7. Underground Test Area Subproject Phase I Data Analysis Task. Volume VII - Tritium Transport Model Documentation Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-12-01

    Volume VII of the documentation for the Phase I Data Analysis Task performed in support of the current Regional Flow Model, Transport Model, and Risk Assessment for the Nevada Test Site Underground Test Area Subproject contains the tritium transport model documentation. Because of the size and complexity of the model area, a considerable quantity of data was collected and analyzed in support of the modeling efforts. The data analysis task was consequently broken into eight subtasks, and descriptions of each subtask's activities are contained in one of the eight volumes that comprise the Phase I Data Analysis Documentation.

  8. Tissue factor is an angiogenic-specific receptor for factor VII-targeted immunotherapy and photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhiwei; Cheng, Jijun; Xu, Jie; Ruf, Wolfram; Lockwood, Charles J

    2017-02-01

    Identification of target molecules specific for angiogenic vascular endothelial cells (VEC), the inner layer of pathological neovasculature, is critical for discovery and development of neovascular-targeting therapy for angiogenesis-dependent human diseases, notably cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis, in which vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a central pathophysiological role. Using VEGF-stimulated vascular endothelial cells (VECs) isolated from microvessels, venous and arterial blood vessels as in vitro angiogenic models and unstimulated VECs as a quiescent VEC model, we examined the expression of tissue factor (TF), a membrane-bound receptor on the angiogenic VEC models compared with quiescent VEC controls. We found that TF is specifically expressed on angiogenic VECs in a time-dependent manner in microvessels, venous and arterial vessels. TF-targeted therapeutic agents, including factor VII (fVII)-IgG1 Fc and fVII-conjugated photosensitizer, can selectively bind angiogenic VECs, but not the quiescent VECs. Moreover, fVII-targeted photodynamic therapy can selectively and completely eradicate angiogenic VECs. We conclude that TF is an angiogenic-specific receptor and the target molecule for fVII-targeted therapeutics. This study supports clinical trials of TF-targeted therapeutics for the treatment of angiogenesis-dependent diseases such as cancer, macular degeneration and endometriosis.

  9. Type VII and XVII Collagen mRNA Expressions in Regenerated Epidermal Laminae in Chronic Equine Laminitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUWANO, Atsutoshi; HASEGAWA, Telhisa; ARAI, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    To confirm ability forming the basement membrane of the regenerated laminar epidermis (rLE) in chronic laminitis, expression of type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs in the rLE was studied applying sequences of two type of murine collagens. On northern blot analysis, complement DNA (cDNA) probes adjusted from the murine type VII and type XVII collagen could hybridize with the equine mRNAs, and each signal was detected as single-bands at approximately 9.5 kb and 5.6 kb, respectively. Contrasting with the expression level of equine glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenease mRNA, the band of type VII collagen mRNA in laminitis was stronger than normal, but the type XVII collagen mRNA in laminitis was less than normal. By in situ hybridization, positive signals in response to the murine type VII and type XVII collagen mRNA probes could be detected in the equine laminitic rLE region. From these results, it is concluded that the keratinocytes constructing the rLE in chronic stage of laminitis can express type VII and type XVII collagen mRNAs and these expression patterns were different from the normal. PMID:24833961

  10. Communal biomass conversion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Coordinating Committee set up by the Danish government in 1986 were given the responsibility of investigating the potentials for biomass conversion plants in Denmark, especially in relation to agricultural, environmental and energy aspects. The results of the Committee's plan of management for this project are presented. This main report covers 13 background reports which deal with special aspects in detail. The report describes the overall plan of management, the demonstration and follow-up programme and the individual biogas demonstration plants. Information gained from these investigations is presented. The current general status, (with emphasis on the technical and economical aspects) and the prospects for the future are discussed. The interest other countries have shown in Danish activities within the field of biogas production is described, and the possibilities for Danish export of technology and know-how in this relation are discussed. It is claimed that Denmark is the first country that has instigated a coordinated development programme for biomass conversion plants. (AB) 24 refs

  11. Proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on energy conversion engineering. Topics covered include: USAF space power requirements, modelling of the dynamics of a low speed gas-liquid heat engine, and comparative assessment of single-axis force generation mechanisms for superconducting suspensions

  12. Fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The fourth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 9 to 11, 1979, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards, the Electric Power Research Institute, the US Department of Energy, and the Gas Research Institute. The papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  13. Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimizing the Benefits of Conversion of Depleted Oil Reservoirs for Underground Natural Gas Storage in Nigeria. ... (1) utilization of the abandoned oil wells of known production histories; (2) recovery of substantial quantities of oil that otherwise might not have been recovered; (3) converting partially depleted oil reservoirs ...

  14. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  15. Energy Conversion and Storage Requirements for Hybrid Electric Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Among various options for reducing greenhouse gases in future large commercial aircraft, hybrid electric option holds significant promise. In the hybrid electric aircraft concept, gas turbine engine is used in combination with an energy storage system to drive the fan that propels the aircraft, with gas turbine engine being used for certain segments of the flight cycle and energy storage system being used for other segments. The paper will provide an overview of various energy conversion and storage options for hybrid electric aircraft. Such options may include fuel cells, batteries, super capacitors, multifunctional structures with energy storage capability, thermoelectric, thermionic or a combination of any of these options. The energy conversion and storage requirements for hybrid electric aircraft will be presented. The role of materials in energy conversion and storage systems for hybrid electric aircraft will be discussed.

  16. America: AGA [American Gas Association] initiative aims to boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    This article focuses on the aim of the American Gas Association to increase natural gas demand in the key areas of gas electric generation, natural gas vehicles, gas cooling, and conversion of oil burning facilities, electric water heaters and household appliances such as space heating, stoves, washers and lighting. The need to improve the reliability of natural gas supplies is discussed. It is anticipated that natural gas will not replace coal as the main energy source for power generation, but that it will help utilities to meet environmental regulations. (UK)

  17. Effect of octanols structure on their extraction ability as regards to rhenium(VII) in sulfuric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasikov, A.G.; Petrova, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    It is established that extraction ability of octanols as regards to rhenium(VII) and sulfuric acid depends on the structure of alcohol, but if in passage from octanol-1 to octanol-3 as regard to rhenium(VII) it rises, then for H 2 SO 4 it falls. Dependence of the distribution function of rhenium from the concentration of the acid has maximums at 4-7 mol l 1- that the most distinctly it becomes apparent for secondary alcohols. Decreasing the extraction ability of octyl alcohols with the growth of H 2 SO 4 concentration more than 7 mol l 1- is connected with the change of extractant composition and forms of rhenium(VII) being in the solution [ru

  18. Power conversion technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, M. A.

    1997-02-01

    The Power Conversion Technologies thrust area identifies and sponsors development activities that enhance the capabilities of engineering at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the area of solid- state power electronics. Our primary objective is to be a resource to existing and emerging LLNL programs that require advanced solid-state power electronic technologies.. Our focus is on developing and integrating technologies that will significantly impact the capability, size, cost, and reliability of future power electronic systems. During FY-96, we concentrated our research efforts on the areas of (1) Micropower Impulse Radar (MIR); (2) novel solid-state opening switches; (3) advanced modulator technology for accelerators; (4) compact accelerators; and (5) compact pulse generators.

  19. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  20. Helical phase of chiral nematic liquid crystals as the Bianchi VII0 group manifold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G W; Warnick, C M

    2011-09-01

    We show that the optical structure of the helical phase of a chiral nematic is naturally associated with the Bianchi VII(0) group manifold, of which we give a full account. The Joets-Ribotta metric governing propagation of the extraordinary rays is invariant under the simply transitive action of the universal cover E(2) of the three-dimensional Euclidean group of two dimensions. Thus extraordinary light rays are geodesics of a left-invariant metric on this Bianchi type VII(0) group. We are able to solve, by separation of variables, both the wave equation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this metric. The former reduces to Mathieu's equation, and the latter to the quadrantal pendulum equation. We discuss Maxwell's equations for uniaxial optical materials where the configuration is invariant under a group action and develop a formalism to take advantage of these symmetries. The material is not assumed to be impedance matched, thus going beyond the usual scope of transformation optics. We show that for a chiral nematic in its helical phase Maxwell's equations reduce to a generalized Mathieu equation. Our results may also be relevant to helical phases of some magnetic materials and to light propagation in certain cosmological models.

  1. Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill VII: Permit application: Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has three major operating facilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) at Oak Ridge, Tennessee: the Y-12 Plant, the K-25 Site, and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Operations associated with the DOE energy research and production facilities at Oak Ridge result in the production of several types of waste materials. Disposal of solid waste (as defined in the Solid Waste Processing and Disposal Rules for Tennessee) in disposal facilities operated by the Y-12 Plant is the responsibility of Y-12 Waste Management Division (MWD). The WMD is proposing to develop a facility that will include two new disposal units: one for construction/demolition waste and spoil and one for industrial solid waste. This manual describes the closure and post-closure plans for the construction/demolition waste and spoil disposal unit. This disposal unit is referred to as the Y-12 Construction/Demolition Landfill VII (CD-VII) and is to be operated by the Y-12 Plant for the DOE. This will be a Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation/Division of Solid Waste Management (TDEC/DSWM) Class IV disposal unit

  2. [Chemical tests with Marrubium species. Official data on Marubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telek, E; Tõth, L; Botz, L; Máthé, I

    1997-01-01

    About 40 species of the Marrubium genus (Lamiaceae) are known of which 2 species (M. vulgare L. and M. peregrinum L.) and one hybrid (M. x paniculatum Desr.) can be found as native plants in Hungary. The above-ground parts of M. vulgare L. are official in Hungarian Pharmacopoeia VII. Active substances in Marrubii herba are labdane-structured bitter materials. Although the presence of furanic labdane diterpenes in the plant is known, the pharmacopoeia gives only microscopic tests, qualitative tests (for other parts of the plant and foreign organic matter) for the bitter value of Marrubii herba. We have examined the main terpenoid substances isolated with column, gel and preparative layer chromatography. Structure elucidations were performed by means of UV, mass and NMR spectroscopy. We have compared the changes in terpenoid-type compounds (premarrubiin and marrubiin) in plants during the vegetation period; in different Marrubium species and in the different extractions of horehound by means of thin layer chromatography and densitometry. By reason of our results we propose qualitative and quantitative chemical tests for the paragraph of Marrubii herba in Pharmacopoeia Hungarica VII.

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of neutral beam injection in the Wendelstein VII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.

    1986-06-01

    Strong neutral beam heating in the W VII-A stellarator with injection nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field results in a high energy ion tail. In a simplified model, the full nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation based on Coulomb interactions is solved self-consistently by means of Monte Carlo techniques. Generalized scattering operators which are equivalent to the nonlinear Fokker-Planck collision term are derived. With the numerical simulation, the strong neutral beam heating is analyzed for a typical discharge in W VII-A with H 0 injection in a H + /D + plasma mixture for stationary conditions. Both deuterium and hydrogen distribution functions are calculated. The D + distribution is found to be highly isotropic, the deviation from a Maxwellian resulting mainly from electron cooling. Furthermore, ion heat conduction is of minor importance for the energy balance of the bulk part of the plasma. The H + distribution, however, develops a strong pressure anisotropy, which can also be deduced experimentally from the diamagnetic signal. (orig.)

  4. Determining the Oral Health Status of Disabled Patients of the Area VII in Cienfuegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belkys Hernández Millán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: disability is a social concern; however, there are few studies on the oral health status of disabled patients. Objective: to determine the oral health status of disabled patients of the Area VII in Cienfuegos province. Methods: a case series study was conducted in the Area VII of the municipality of Cienfuegos from January through December 2013. A total of 192 disabled patients who attended the dental clinic or received home visits were included. The variables analyzed were: age, sex, educational level, type of disability, epidemiological classification by oral health status, systemic diseases, risk factors for oral diseases, oral health, periodontal disease (gingivitis, periodontitis, malocclusions, premalignant lesions, need for total or partial denture and need for treatment in primary or secondary care. The information was collected from the medical records and the disability rating sheets. Results are expressed as numbers and percentages. Results: women and patients aged 35-59 years were the most affected. Chronic degenerative diseases predominated, as well as patients in the epidemiological classification by oral health status and hypertension among systemic diseases. Having a history of cavities was the most significant risk factor; chronic edematous gingivitis was the most common, with a higher percentage. Conclusions: the oral health in the study group was poor and it is difficult for the Comprehensive General Dentist to treat these patients despite the existence of care programs for the disabled.

  5. Synthesis of isoxazole-containing sulfonamides with potent carbonic anhydrase II and VII inhibitory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altug, Cevher; Güneş, Hanife; Nocentini, Alessio; Monti, Simona Maria; Buonanno, Martina; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2017-02-15

    Two series of benzenesulfonamide containing isoxazole compounds were prepared by using conventional and microwave (MW) methods. 5-Amino-3-aryl-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)isoxazole-4-carboxamide derivatives were synthesized by the reaction of hydroxymoyl chlorides with 2-cyano-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl)acetamide in the presence of triethylamine. The synthesized 5-amino isoxazoles were reacted with various benzoyl chlorides in order to obtain 5-amidoisoxazoles. The novel compounds were screened in vitro as inhibitors of four human (h) isoforms of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1): hCA I, hCA II, hCA IV and hCA VII. The derivatives of the first series were shown to possess excellent inhibitory activity against the cytosolic isoform hCA II, an antiglaucoma drug target, with K I s in the range of 0.5-49.3nM and hCA VII, a recently validated anti-neuropathic pain target with K I s in the range of 4.3-51.9nM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A Shigella boydii bacteriophage which resembles Salmonella phage ViI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    She Yi-Min

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lytic bacteriophages have been applied successfully to control the growth of various foodborne pathogens. Sequencing of their genomes is considered as an important preliminary step to ensure their safety prior to food applications. Results The lytic bacteriophage, ΦSboM-AG3, targets the important foodborne pathogen, Shigella. It is morphologically similar to phage ViI of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and a series of phages of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Rhizobium meliloti. The complete genome of ΦSboM-AG3 was determined to be 158 kb and was terminally redundant and circularly permuted. Two hundred and sixteen open reading frames (ORFs were identified and annotated, most of which displayed homology to proteins of Salmonella phage ViI. The genome also included four genes specifying tRNAs. Conclusions This is the first time that a Vi-specific phage for Shigella has been described. There is no evidence for the presence of virulence and lysogeny-associated genes. In conclusion, the genome analysis of ΦSboM-AG3 indicates that this phage can be safely used for biocontrol purposes.

  7. Helical phase of chiral nematic liquid crystals as the Bianchi VII0 group manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Warnick, C. M.

    2011-09-01

    We show that the optical structure of the helical phase of a chiral nematic is naturally associated with the Bianchi VII0 group manifold, of which we give a full account. The Joets-Ribotta metric governing propagation of the extraordinary rays is invariant under the simply transitive action of the universal cover Ẽ(2) of the three-dimensional Euclidean group of two dimensions. Thus extraordinary light rays are geodesics of a left-invariant metric on this Bianchi type VII0 group. We are able to solve, by separation of variables, both the wave equation and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for this metric. The former reduces to Mathieu’s equation, and the latter to the quadrantal pendulum equation. We discuss Maxwell’s equations for uniaxial optical materials where the configuration is invariant under a group action and develop a formalism to take advantage of these symmetries. The material is not assumed to be impedance matched, thus going beyond the usual scope of transformation optics. We show that for a chiral nematic in its helical phase Maxwell’s equations reduce to a generalized Mathieu equation. Our results may also be relevant to helical phases of some magnetic materials and to light propagation in certain cosmological models.

  8. The Role of Conversation Policy in Carrying Out Agent Conversations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, Hamilton E.; Phillips, Laurence R.

    1999-01-01

    Structured conversation diagrams, or conversation specifications, allow agents to have predictable interactions and achieve predefined information-based goals, but they lack the flexibility needed to function robustly in an unpredictable environment. We propose a mechanism that combines a typical conversation structure with a separately established policy to generate an actual conversation. The word ''policy'' connotes a high-level direction external to a specific planned interaction with the environment. Policies, which describe acceptable procedures and influence decisions, can be applied to broad sets of activity. Based on their observation of issues related to a policy, agents may dynamically adjust their communication patterns. The policy object describes limitations, constraints, and requirements that may affect the conversation in certain circumstances. Using this new mechanism of interaction simplifies the description of individual conversations and allows domain-specific issues to be brought to bear more easily during agent communication. By following the behavior of the conversation specification when possible and deferring to the policy to derive behavior in exceptional circumstances, an agent is able to function predictably under normal situations and still act rationally in abnormal situations. Different conversation policies applied to a given conversation specification can change the nature of the interaction without changing the specification

  9. Low-temperature gas from marine shales: wet gas to dry gas over experimental time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvie Daniel M

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Marine shales exhibit unusual behavior at low temperatures under anoxic gas flow. They generate catalytic gas 300° below thermal cracking temperatures, discontinuously in aperiodic episodes, and lose these properties on exposure to trace amounts of oxygen. Here we report a surprising reversal in hydrocarbon generation. Heavy hydrocarbons are formed before light hydrocarbons resulting in wet gas at the onset of generation grading to dryer gas over time. The effect is moderate under gas flow and substantial in closed reactions. In sequential closed reactions at 100°C, gas from a Cretaceous Mowry shale progresses from predominately heavy hydrocarbons (66% C5, 2% C1 to predominantly light hydrocarbons (56% C1, 8% C5, the opposite of that expected from desorption of preexisting hydrocarbons. Differences in catalyst substrate composition explain these dynamics. Gas flow should carry heavier hydrocarbons to catalytic sites, in contrast to static conditions where catalytic sites are limited to in-place hydrocarbons. In-place hydrocarbons and their products should become lighter with conversion thus generating lighter hydrocarbon over time, consistent with our experimental results. We recognize the similarities between low-temperature gas generation reported here and the natural progression of wet gas to dry gas over geologic time. There is now substantial evidence for natural catalytic activity in source rocks. Natural gas at thermodynamic equilibrium and the results reported here add to that evidence. Natural catalysis provides a plausible and unique explanation for the origin and evolution of gas in sedimentary basins.

  10. Nucleotide sequence of the gene coding for human factor VII, a vitamin K-dependent protein participating in blood coagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Hara, P.J.; Grant, F.J.; Haldeman, B.A.; Gray, C.L.; Insley, M.Y.; Hagen, F.S.; Murray, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    Activated factor VII (factor VIIa) is a vitamin K-dependent plasma serine protease that participates in a cascade of reactions leading to the coagulation of blood. Two overlapping genomic clones containing sequences encoding human factor VII were isolated and characterized. The complete sequence of the gene was determined and found to span about 12.8 kilobases. The mRNA for factor VII as demonstrated by cDNA cloning is polyadenylylated at multiple sites but contains only one AAUAAA poly(A) signal sequence. The mRNA can undergo alternative splicing, forming one transcript containing eight segments as exons and another with an additional exon that encodes a larger prepro leader sequence. The latter transcript has no known counterpart in the other vitamin K-dependent proteins. The positions of the introns with respect to the amino acid sequence encoded by the eight essential exons of factor VII are the same as those present in factor IX, factor X, protein C, and the first three exons of prothrombin. These exons code for domains generally conserved among members of this gene family. The comparable introns in these genes, however, are dissimilar with respect to size and sequence, with the exception of intron C in factor VII and protein C. The gene for factor VII also contains five regions made up of tandem repeats of oligonucleotide monomer elements. More than a quarter of the intron sequences and more than a third of the 3' untranslated portion of the mRNA transcript consist of these minisatellite tandem repeats

  11. New Neutron, Proton, and S(α,β) MCNP Data Libraries Based on ENDF/B-VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Robert C.; Trellue, Holly R.; MacFarlane, Robert E.; Kahler, A.C.; Lee, Mary Beth; White, Morgan C.

    2008-01-01

    The general-purpose Evaluated Nuclear Data File ENDF/B-VII.0 was released in December 2006. A number of sub-libraries were included in ENDF/B-VII.0 such that data were provided for incident neutrons, photons, and charged particles. This paper describes the creation of MCNP data libraries at Los Alamos National Laboratory based on three ENDF/B-VII.0 sub-libraries: neutrons, protons, and thermal scattering. An ACE-formatted continuous-energy neutron data library called ENDF70 for MCNP has been produced. This library provides data for 390 materials at five temperatures: 293.6, 600, 900, 1200, and 2500 K. The library was processed primarily with Version 248 of NJOY99. Extensive checking and quality-assurance tests were applied to the data. Improvements to the processing code were made and certain evaluations were modified as a result of these tests. ENDF/B-VII.0 included proton evaluations for 48 target materials. Forty-seven proton evaluations (all except for 13 C) were processed at room temperature and combined into the MCNP library ENDF70PROT. Neutron thermal S(α,β) scattering data exist for twenty different materials in ENDF/B-VII.0. All twenty of these evaluations were processed at all applicable temperatures (these vary for each evaluation), and combined into the MCNP library ENDF70SAB. All of these ENDF/B-VII.0 based MCNP libraries (ENDF70, ENDF70PROT, and ENDF70SAB) are available as part of the MCNP5 1.50 release. (authors)

  12. Genes VI, VII, and IX of phage M13 code for minor capsid proteins of the virion.

    OpenAIRE

    Simons, G F; Konings, R N; Schoenmakers, J G

    1981-01-01

    The minor capsid proteins C and D from phage M13 have been characterized by differential amino acid labeling and amino-terminal sequence analysis. We demonstrate that D protein (Mr 12,260) is the product of gene VI, whereas the C component is composed of the products of both gene VII (Mr 3580) and gene IX (Mr 3650). Our data further show that the proteins of genes VI, VII, and IX are not subject to proteolytic processing but are packaged into mature virions as their primary translational prod...

  13. Paradoxical therapy in conversion disorder

    OpenAIRE

    ATAOĞLU, Ahmet

    1998-01-01

    Paradoxical therapy consists of suggesting that the patient intentionally engages in the unwanted behaviour, such as performing complusive ritual or bringing on a conversion attack. In this study paradoxical intention (PI) was used with to half of the patients with conversion disorders, while the other half were treated with diazepam in order to examine the efficiency of the PI versus diazepam in conversion disorder. Patients treated with PI appeared to have a greater improvement r...

  14. Federal Sector Labor-Management Relations: A Guide to Decisional Materials Relating to Title VII of the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Karen A.

    1984-01-01

    Provides overview of federal agencies administering Title VII of Civil Service Reform Act (1978) and a 22-item annotated bibliography of selected federal and commercial publications on decisional materials relating to Title VII. Sources for administrative agency rulings and arbitration awards, citators, digests, indexes, online databases, and…

  15. Partial agonism through a zinc-Ion switch constructed between transmembrane domains III and VII in the tachykinin NK(1) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2000-01-01

    -ion site located between AspIII:08-or a His residue introduced at this position in transmembrane domain (TM)-III-and a Cys residue substituted for AsnVII:06 in TM-VII. Here, this interhelical, bidentate metal-ion site is without loss of Zn(2+) affinity transferred to the tachykinin NK(1) receptor...

  16. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the Ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylocccus aureus strains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneuper, Holger; Cao, Zhen Ping; Twomey, Kate B; Zoltner, Martin; Jäger, Franziska; Cargill, James S; Chalmers, James; van der Kooi - Pol, Magda; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Ryan, Robert P; Hunter, William N; Palmer, Tracy

    The Type VII protein secretion system, found in Gram-positive bacteria, secretes small proteins, containing a conserved W-x-G amino acid sequence motif, to the growth medium. Staphylococcus aureus has a conserved Type VII secretion system, termed Ess, which is dispensable for laboratory growth but

  17. First principles modeling of hydrocarbons conversion in non-equilibrium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deminsky, M.A.; Strelkova, M.I.; Durov, S.G.; Jivotov, V.K.; Rusanov, V.D.; Potapkin, B.V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2001-07-01

    Theoretical justification of catalytic activity of non-equilibrium plasma in hydrocarbons conversion process is presented in this paper. The detailed model of highest hydrocarbons conversion includes the gas-phase reactions, chemistry of the growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), precursor of soot particles formation, neutral, charged clusters and soot particle formation, ion-molecular gas-phase and heterogeneous chemistry. The results of theoretical analysis are compared with experimental results. (authors)

  18. Catalytic Conversion of Biofuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina

    catalysts, and two different experimental methods, namely, a batch system and a continuous flow system. In the batch reaction the process was carried out in the liquid phase using a gold catalyst and atmospheric air as the oxidant. Experiments were conducted at moderate pressures and temperatures (90-200 °C......, 30-45 bar) with an aqueous solution of ethanol. It was possible to produce acetic acid in yields above 90 %. Two different support materials were investigated (MgAl2O4 and TiO2) and there did not seem to be any significant effect in changing the support. The kinetics of the reaction was also...... the major product. In the continuous flow system, the oxidation reaction was carried out as a gas phase reaction using a vanadium based catalyst. For this series of experiments, a 50 wt% aqueous ethanol was oxidized with a diluted gas stream of O2 in helium, the reaction temperature and pressure were kept...

  19. Thermodynamic models to predict gas-liquid solubilities in the methanol synthesis, the methanol-higher alcohol synthesis, and the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis via gas-slurry processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breman, B.B; Beenackers, A.A C M

    1996-01-01

    Various thermodynamic models were tested concerning their applicability to predict gas-liquid solubilities, relevant for synthesis gas conversion to methanol, higher alcohols, and hydrocarbons via gas-slurry processes. Without any parameter optimization the group contribution equation of state

  20. Gas Sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Luebke, Ryan

    2015-01-22

    A gas sensor using a metal organic framework material can be fully integrated with related circuitry on a single substrate. In an on-chip application, the gas sensor can result in an area-efficient fully integrated gas sensor solution. In one aspect, a gas sensor can include a first gas sensing region including a first pair of electrodes, and a first gas sensitive material proximate to the first pair of electrodes, wherein the first gas sensitive material includes a first metal organic framework material.

  1. Platão e a educação: um estudo do livro VII de “A República”/Plato and the education: a study of book VII of "The Republic"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Lazarini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available LAZARINI, Ana Lúcia. Platão e a educação: um estudo do livro VII de “A República”. 89fl. 2007. Dissertação (Mestrado em Educação – Faculdade de Educação, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas. 2007.

  2. Nanomaterials for photovoltaic conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davenas, J.; Ltaief, A.; Barlier, V.; Boiteux, G.; Bouazizi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A promising route for photovoltaic conversion has emerged from the combination of electroactive nanomaterials and small bandgap polymers. The formation of bulk heterojunctions resulting from the extended interfaces leads to efficient dissociation of the charge pairs generated under sunlight shown by the rapid extinction of the polymer photoluminescence for increasing contents of fullerenes or TiO 2 nanoparticles in MEH-PPV or PVK. Unconventional elaboration routes of the blends have been developed to increase the nanofiller dispersion and inhibit phase separation at high concentration. The size reduction of the acceptor domains led to a complete quenching of the radiative recombinations, obtained by specific solvent processing of MEH-PPV / C 60 nanocomposites or sol gel elaboration of TiO 2 nanoparticles in a PVK film. A simultaneous increase of the photocurrents could be achieved by the dispersion and size optimisation of the nanofillers. In situ generation of silver particles in MEH-PPV provides an example of enhanced charge separation induced by the plasmon resonance at the metal/polymer interface. The strong influence of the molecular morphology on the nanocomposite properties emphasizes the large improvements which can still be gained on the performances of organic solar cells

  3. GPU color space conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Patrick; Vondran, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahedral interpolation is commonly used to implement continuous color space conversions from sparse 3D and 4D lookup tables. We investigate the implementation and optimization of tetrahedral interpolation algorithms for GPUs, and compare to the best known CPU implementations as well as to a well known GPU-based trilinear implementation. We show that a 500 NVIDIA GTX-580 GPU is 3x faster than a 1000 Intel Core i7 980X CPU for 3D interpolation, and 9x faster for 4D interpolation. Performance-relevant GPU attributes are explored including thread scheduling, local memory characteristics, global memory hierarchy, and cache behaviors. We consider existing tetrahedral interpolation algorithms and tune based on the structure and branching capabilities of current GPUs. Global memory performance is improved by reordering and expanding the lookup table to ensure optimal access behaviors. Per multiprocessor local memory is exploited to implement optimally coalesced global memory accesses, and local memory addressing is optimized to minimize bank conflicts. We explore the impacts of lookup table density upon computation and memory access costs. Also presented are CPU-based 3D and 4D interpolators, using SSE vector operations that are faster than any previously published solution.

  4. Coal conversion wastewater technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrudey, S.E.; Fedorak, P.M.

    1983-01-01

    A serum bottle technique has been developed and used to study the anaerobic degradation of various phenolic substrates relevant to coal conversion wastewaters. Previous work indicating that only phenol and p-cresol are readily fermented to methane has been confirmed along with the evidence of highly selective removal of these substrate mixtures. A quantitative method for measuring absolute quantities of methane produced has been refined and applied to draw and feed cultures maintained on phenol and p-cresol. Ultimate production stoichiometry from batch cultures has been measured and applied to draw and feed experiments to provide a valuable basis for predicting methane generation potential for these substrates. Oxidative pretreatment studies with peroxide and ozone have demonstrated that such schemes do not offer useful application prior to anaerobic processes. Evaluation of alternate sources of anaerobic sources of anaerobic bacteria has not yet provided phenolic degradation potential beyond that available from the municipal digester sludge being used. Although mixed cultures of anaerobic bacteria have been sustained in draw and feed culture for over 15 months with phenol as sole carbon source, it has not been possible to isolate the phenol degraders in pure culture. 3 refs., 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Atomic Structures of Minor Proteins VI and VII in the Human Adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xinghong; Wu, Lily; Sun, Ren; Zhou, Z Hong

    2017-10-04

    Human adenoviruses (Ad) are dsDNA viruses associated with infectious diseases, yet better known as tools for gene delivery and oncolytic anti-cancer therapy. Atomic structures of Ad provide the basis for the development of antivirals and for engineering efforts towards more effective applications. Since 2010, atomic models of human Ad5 have been independently derived from photographic film cryoEM and X-ray crystallography, but discrepancies exist concerning the assignment of cement proteins IIIa, VIII and IX. To clarify these discrepancies, here we have employed the technology of direct electron-counting to obtain a cryoEM structure of human Ad5 at 3.2 Å resolution. Our improved structure unambiguously confirmed our previous cryoEM models of proteins IIIa, VIII and IX and explained the likely cause of conflict in the crystallography models. The improved structure also allows the identification of three new components in the cavities of hexons - the cleaved N-terminus of precursor protein VI (pVIn), the cleaved N-terminus of precursor protein VII (pVIIn2), and mature protein VI. The binding of pVIIn2--by extension that of genome-condensing pVII--to hexons is consistent with the previously proposed dsDNA genome-capsid co-assembly for adenoviruses, which resembles that of ssRNA viruses but differs from the well-established mechanism of pumping dsDNA into a preformed protein capsid, as exemplified by tailed bacteriophages and herpesviruses. IMPORTANCE Adenovirus is a double-edged sword to humans - as a widespread pathogen and a bioengineering tool for anti-cancer and gene therapy. Atomic structure of the virus provides the basis for antiviral and application developments, but conflicting atomic models from conventional/film cryoEM and X-ray crystallography for important cement proteins IIIa, VIII, and IX have caused confusion. Using the cutting-edge cryoEM technology with electron counting, we improved the structure of human adenovirus type 5 and confirmed our

  6. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 1: Introduction and summary and general assumptions. [energy conversion systems for electric power plants using coal - feasibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, D. T.

    1976-01-01

    Nine advanced energy conversion concepts using coal or coal-derived fuels are summarized. They are; (1) open-cycle gas turbines, (2) combined gas-steam turbine cycles, (3) closed-cycle gas turbines, (4) metal vapor Rankine topping, (5) open-cycle MHD; (6) closed-cycle MHD; (7) liquid-metal MHD; (8) advanced steam; and (9) fuel cell systems. The economics, natural resource requirements, and performance criteria for the nine concepts are discussed.

  7. Conversion and Operation of CAST as a massive axion detector

    CERN Document Server

    Elias, Nuno; Bordalo, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The axion was postulated after an elegant solution proposed by R. Peccei and H. Quinn to solve the strong CP problem of Quantum Chromodynamics. The CAST experiment searches for axions created in the core of the Sun. It uses an LHC superconducting prototype magnet to trigger the axion conversion into detectable X-ray photons. During its First Phase, with the magnetic field region kept under vacuum, CAST searched with high sensitivity for axion masses up to 0.02 eV/c2, for higher values the conversion coherence is lost. This thesis reflects the work that allows CAST to extend its search up to axion masses of 1 eV/c2. To restore the lost coherence a buffer gas is introduced in the magnet cold bores, such that the photon arising from the Primakoff conversion acquires an effective mass. The axion mass can be effectively scanned by fine tuning the gas density. The conversion of the experiment required the study, design and construction of a complex gas handling system to deal with a rare helium isotope, 3He. It rep...

  8. Conversing Life: An Autoethnographic Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelson, Christopher N.; Burton, Rod

    2012-01-01

    This autoethnography is a constructed account of a co-exploration into the nature and effects of a longitudinal dyadic conversation process from a relational constructionist perspective. The conversations, between me as participant autoethnographer and a co-participant, aimed at maximising personal learning for both. Through co-created contexts of…

  9. Conversational Competence in Academic Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Conversational competence is a process, not a state. Ithaca does not exist, only the voyage to Ithaca. Vibrant campuses are a series of productive conversations. At its core, communicative competence in academic settings mirrors a collective search for meaning regarding the purpose and direction of a campus community. Communicative competence…

  10. [Neuropsychological assessment in conversion disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demır, Süleyman; Çelıkel, Feryal Çam; Taycan, Serap Erdoğan; Etıkan, İlker

    2013-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by functional impairment in motor, sensory, or neurovegetative systems that cannot be explained by a general medical condition. Diagnostic systems emphasize the absence of an organic basis for the dysfunction observed in conversion disorder. Nevertheless, there is a growing body of data on the specific functional brain correlates of conversion symptoms, particularly those obtained via neuroimaging and neurophysiological assessment. The present study aimed to determine if there are differences in measures of cognitive functioning between patients with conversion disorder and healthy controls. The hypothesis of the study was that the patients with conversion disorder would have poorer neurocognitive performance than the controls. The patient group included 43 patients diagnosed as conversion disorder and other psychiatric comorbidities according to DSM-IV-TR. Control group 1 included 44 patients diagnosed with similar psychiatric comorbidities, but not conversion diosorder, and control group 2 included 43 healthy individuals. All participants completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and were administered the SCID-I and a neuropsychological test battery of 6 tests, including the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT), Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT), Wechsler Memory Scale, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, Benton Judgment of Line Orientation Test (BJLOT), and Cancellation Test. The patient group had significantly poorer performance on the SDLT, AVLT, Stroop Color Word Interference Test, and BJLOT than both control groups. The present findings highlight the differences between the groups in learning and memory, executive and visuospatial functions, and attention, which seemed to be specific to conversion disorder.

  11. Tree value conversion standards revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul S. DeBald; Martin E. Dale; Martin E. Dale

    1991-01-01

    Updated tree value conversion standards (TVCS) are presented for 12 important hardwood species of the oak-hickory forest. These updated standards-developed for each species by butt-log grade, merchantable height, and diameter at breast height-reflect the changes in lumber prices and in conversion costs which have occurred since 1976 when the original TVCS were...

  12. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    hydro-to-electric power system, which is being strongly recognized as a unique and unconventional renewable energy solution, is the marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion technology [8]. Hydrokinetic (In Stream, or water current) energy conversion implies the utilization of the kinetic energy of rivers, streams, tidal ...

  13. Optimization theory for ballistic conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Yanbo; Versluis, Andreas Michel; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    The growing demand of renewable energy stimulates the exploration of new materials and methods for clean energy. We recently demonstrated a high efficiency and power density energy conversion mechanism by using jetted charged microdroplets, termed as ballistic energy conversion. Hereby, we model and

  14. Coal liquefaction and gas conversion: Proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: Indirect Liquefaction (oxygenated fuels); and Indirect Liquefaction (Fischer-Tropsch technology). Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Fuel Conversion from Natural Gas to Distillate Fuel Oil - Chemplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Electrode Kinetics and Gas Conversion in Solid Oxide Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njodzefon, Jean-Claude

    that the kinetics at the fuel electrode were exactly the same in both reformates. This means that chemical equilibrium reactions were much faster than the electrochemical reactions. The electrode displayed slightly faster kinetics in hydrogen/steam fuel than in the reformate fuels. To minimize the influence of (i...... slower reaction kinetics under cathodic mode operation at 50 mV overvoltage than in anodic mode. The trend was opposite for the lower performing La0.58Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3 (LSCF) oxygen electrode. However, with decreasing oxygen partial pressure both electrodes displayed increasing asymmetry between anodic...... and cathodic modes. It could be shown that surface exchange kinetics were the major cause of the decreasing kinetics with decreasing pO2 and that the cathodic mode kinetics were slowed down much more than the anodic branch kinetics thus increasing the asymmetry. Independent of operation mode, commercialization...

  17. A case presenting concurrence of Marfan syndrome, Basedow's disease and Arg353Gln polymorphism-related factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kotoko; Seino, Yoshihiko; Inokuchi, Koiti; Ohmura, Kazuko; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Takano, Teruo

    2005-02-15

    We report the case of a 48-year-old Japanese man who suffered from Marfan syndrome with severe aortic regurgitation, mitral regurgitation and rapid atrial fibrillation, which were aggravated by hyperdynamic circulatory conditions associated with coexistent Basedow's disease. Furthermore, concurrence of Arg353Gln polymorphism-related factor VII deficiency was discovered at the preoperative assessments. Both of his two brothers suffered from Marfan syndrome; however they had no findings of Arg353Glu polymorphism-related factor VII deficiency or Basedow's disease. After normalization of thyroid function, he had successfully the operations of Bentall procedure: a composite prosthetic graft: replacement of both the ascending aorta and aortic valve, and mitral valve annuloplasty. No specific therapy such as fresh frozen plasma or factor VII replacement therapy was required. He completely returned to his business work 6 weeks after the operation. Concurrence of Marfan syndrome and factor VII deficiency induced by two-hit genomic abnormalities and furthermore Basedow's disease, which significantly compromised the pathophysiological condition of Marfan syndrome, is extremely rare.

  18. The protein concentration of blood coagulation factor VII can be measured equally well in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Overgaard, K; Gram, J

    1995-01-01

    In the Northwick Park Heart Study, the coagulant activity of factor VII (FVII:C) has been identified as a risk marker of ischaemic heart disease. In the fasting state, the protein concentration of FVII (FVII:Ag) might be an even better risk marker, because of the low coefficient of variation...

  19. Marine Mammals, Coastal and River Issues. Alaska Sea Week Curriculum Series VII. Alaska Sea Grant Report 84-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, Belle

    This curriculum guide is the last (Series VII) in a six-volume set that comprises the Sea Week Curriculum Series developed in Alaska. The guide lends itself to the sixth-grade curriculum but can be adapted to preschool, secondary, and adult education. Eight units contain 43 activities with worksheets that cover the following topics: (1) the values…

  20. 2-year outcome after biodegradable polymer sirolimus- and biolimus- eluting coronary stents.From the randomized SORT OUT VII trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Maeng, Michael; Raungaard, Bent

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: The SORT OUT VII trial compared the thin-strut cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting Orsiro stent with a slow polymer degradation and the thicker-strut stainless steel biolimus-eluting Nobori stent with a moderate-term polymer degradation in an all-comer patient population. METHODS AND RESULTS...

  1. Free energy models for ice VII and liquid water derived from pressure, entropy, and heat capacity relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, Philip C; Benedict, Lorin X; Belof, Jonathan L

    2017-08-28

    We present equations of state relevant to conditions encountered in ramp and multiple-shock compression experiments of water. These experiments compress water from ambient conditions to pressures as high as about 14 GPa and temperatures of up to several hundreds of Kelvin. Water may freeze into ice VII during this process. Although there are several studies on the thermodynamic properties of ice VII, an accurate and analytic free energy model from which all other properties may be derived in a thermodynamically consistent manner has not been previously determined. We have developed such a free energy model for ice VII that is calibrated with pressure-volume-temperature measurements and melt curve data. Furthermore, we show that liquid water in the pressure and temperature range of interest is well-represented by a simple Mie-Grüneisen equation of state. Our liquid water and ice VII equations of state are validated by comparing to sound speed and Hugoniot data. Although they are targeted towards ramp and multiple-shock compression experiments, we demonstrate that our equations of state also behave reasonably well at pressures and temperatures that lie somewhat beyond those found in the experiments.

  2. 34 CFR 364.2 - What is the purpose of the programs authorized by chapter 1 of title VII?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chapter 1 of title VII? 364.2 Section 364.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... INDEPENDENT LIVING SERVICES PROGRAM AND CENTERS FOR INDEPENDENT LIVING PROGRAM: GENERAL PROVISIONS General... independent living (IL), including a philosophy of consumer control, peer support, self-help, self...

  3. Title VII Enhancement Project for Compartiendo Culturas/Sharing Cultures 1995-96. Research Report on Educational Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston Independent School District, TX. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    Compartiendo Culturas/Sharing Cultures, a Title VII Two-Way Developmental Bilingual Education Program at the Gary L. Herod Elementary School in the Houston Independent School District (Texas) was designed to end the isolation typically experienced by language minority students in traditional bilingual education and to provide language majority…

  4. 29 CFR 1620.27 - Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil Rights Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... established upon a showing that an employer pays different wages to employees of opposite sexes for equal work... higher pay for equal work. ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship to the Equal Pay Act of title VII of the Civil...

  5. 75 FR 36099 - Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health Service Act AGENCY... changes Section 723 of the Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regarding administration of the PCL program...

  6. Redwood City School District ESEA Title VII Bilingual Project LEARN. 1981-1982 Annual and Longitudinal Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Earl; Jones, Eleanor

    The Redwood City School District Elementary Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Title VII Bilingual Education Program offered instruction in English and Spanish through an integrated approach, to take advantage of students' strengths and help them progress as rapidly as possible in concept development while they acquire English proficiency. The limited…

  7. 78 FR 36711 - Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII-Drug Supply Chain; Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Chapter I [Docket Nos. FDA-2013-N-0683, FDA-2013-N-0684, and FDA-2013-N-0685] Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act Title VII--Drug Supply Chain; Standards for Admission of Imported Drugs, Registration of...

  8. LAWS ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT--FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, TITLE VII. STATE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    TITLE VII OF THE FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT (1964) PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN ADDITION TO THE USUAL GROUNDS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, AND NATIONAL ORIGIN. IT COVERS PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIES AFFECTING COMMERCE, AS WELL AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. IT IS UNLAWFUL FOR EMPLOYERS TO REFUSE TO HIRE,…

  9. Gas mission; Mission gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This preliminary report analyses the desirable evolutions of gas transport tariffing and examines some questions relative to the opening of competition on the French gas market. The report is made of two documents: a synthesis of the previous report with some recommendations about the tariffing of gas transport, about the modalities of network access to third parties, and about the dissociation between transport and trade book-keeping activities. The second document is the progress report about the opening of the French gas market. The first part presents the European problem of competition in the gas supply and its consequences on the opening and operation of the French gas market. The second part presents some partial syntheses about each topic of the mission letter of the Ministry of Economics, Finances and Industry: future evolution of network access tariffs, critical analysis of contractual documents for gas transport and delivery, examination of auxiliary services linked with the access to the network (modulation, balancing, conversion), consideration about the processing of network congestions and denied accesses, analysis of the metering dissociation between the integrated activities of gas operators. Some documents are attached in appendixes: the mission letter from July 9, 2001, the detailed analysis of the new temporary tariffs of GdF and CFM, the offer of methane terminals access to third parties, the compatibility of a nodal tariffing with the presence of three transport operators (GdF, CFM and GSO), the contract-type for GdF supply, and the contract-type for GdF connection. (J.S.)

  10. Coal conversion wastewater technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrudy, S.E.; Fedorak, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A serum bottle technique has been developed and used to study the anaerobic degradation of various phenolic substrates relevant to coal conversion wastewaters. A method for measuring absolute quantities of methane produced has been refined and applied to cultures maintained on both phenol and p-cresol. Oxidative treatment studies have demonstrated that such schemes do not offer useful application prior to anaerobic processes. Long-term experiments conclusively demonstrated the capability of anaerobic cultures to degrade m-cresol; presence of phenol and p-cresol was found to enhance this capability by shortening acclimation. Other long-term experiments indicated that the anaerobic degradability of o-cresol remains in doubt. The kinetics of phenol degradation in batch cultures containing various initial concentrations was also studied; at 43-199 mg/l levels, the final removal rates followed first order kinetics. Molecular hydrogen was identified as a possible limiting factor to the initiation of phenol degradation, and findings suggested phenol degraders prefer propionate over phenol as a substrate. A most probable number method, used for enumerating phenol degraders, estimated numbers too low to account for observed degradation rates, consistent with the hypothesis that phenol degradation depends on a consortium of organisms. Batch cultures could selectively degrade fermentable phenolics (mixed with non-fermentable ones) if the total phenolic concentration was near or below 700 mg/l. As other work has shown that fermentables comprise the majority of coal wastewater phenolics, such waters would be amenable to anaerobic biological treatment. 27 refs., 23 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. The F7 gene and clotting factor VII levels: dissection of a human quantitative trait locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Jose Manuel; Almasy, Laura; Souto, Juan Carlos; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Fontcuberta, Jordi; Blangero, John

    2005-10-01

    Localization of human quantitative trait loci (QTLs) is now routine. However, identifying their functional DNA variants is still a formidable challenge. We present a complete dissection of a human QTL using novel statistical techniques to infer the most likely functional polymorphisms of a QTL that influence plasma levels of clotting factor VII (FVII), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Resequencing of 15 kb in and around the F7 gene identified 49 polymorphisms, which were then genotyped in 398 people. Using a Bayesian quantitative trait nucleotide (BQTN) method, we identified four to seven functional variants that completely account for this QTL. These variants include both rare coding variants and more common, potentially regulatory polymorphisms in intronic and promoter regions.

  12. A ¤high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor vii in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Larsen, L. F.; Bladbjerg, E.-M.

    2001-01-01

    tool. We studied postprandial FVII activation in seven non-fasting Göttingen minipigs. Intralipid (4 g/kg) was administered through a gastric tube in two fractions at 9.00 a.m. (one-third of total dose) and 10.30 a.m. (two-thirds of total dose). Blood samples were drawn 0.5 h before (baseline) and 2, 3......It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...... to activate blood coagulation FVII in minipigs, the pig is apparently not a relevant model for the study of dietary FVII activation and thrombin generation. Udgivelsesdato: 2001-Mar...

  13. Spectrum and energy levels of six-times ionized yttrium (Y VII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Joseph

    2018-03-01

    The spectrum of six-times ionized yttrium, Y VII, was photographed with a sliding-spark discharge on 10.7 m normal- and grazing-incidence spectrographs. The region of observation was 157-824 Å. The observations extend the known configurations 4s24p3, 4s4p4, 4p5, 4s24p25s, 4s24p26s to the nearly complete 4s24p24d configuration. Our results for 4s24p24d significantly revise results of Rahimullah et al (1978 Phys. Scr. 18 96); Ateqad et al (1984 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Phys. 17 4617). A total of 168 lines and 56 energy levels are now known for this ion. The observed configurations were interpreted with Hartree-Fock calculations and least-squares fits of the energy parameters to the observed levels. Transition probabilities for all classified lines were calculated with the fitted parameters.

  14. Una lista de autores literarios en Plinio el Viejo: Naturalis Historia VII 107-117

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana González Marín

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In NH VII 107-117 the Elder Pliny offers a selection of Greek and Roman notabilities who achieved prominence through their ingenium. This selection follows the model set by περὶ τεχνιτῶν treatises, especially Varro's De Poetis. Pliny's selection is based on two considerations: the glory achieved by each person; the opinions expressed by an authority, in most cases a politician. According to Pliny, the four Roman authors selected (Ennius, Virgil, Varro, Cicero served as paragons of excellence for the Roman people. Through his selection, Pliny defines his own attitude about the literary tradition and the intellectual elite in Rome: his idea of literature as a public service, the practical value of his work, his preference for prose and the increasingly strong influence exerted by experts on Roman Society.

  15. A high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor VII in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A K; Larsen, L F; Bladbjerg, E-M

    2001-01-01

    It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...... tool. We studied postprandial FVII activation in seven non-fasting Göttingen minipigs. Intralipid (4 g/kg) was administered through a gastric tube in two fractions at 9.00 a.m. (one-third of total dose) and 10.30 a.m. (two-thirds of total dose). Blood samples were drawn 0.5 h before (baseline) and 2, 3....../l (baseline) to 2.56 mmol/l 5 h postprandially (P meal does not seem...

  16. Efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII for acute intracerebral hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stephan A; Brun, Nikolai C; Begtrup, Kamilla

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage is the least treatable form of stroke. We performed this phase 3 trial to confirm a previous study in which recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) reduced growth of the hematoma and improved survival and functional outcomes. METHODS: We randomly assigned 841...... patients with intracerebral hemorrhage to receive placebo (268 patients), 20 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram of body weight (276 patients), or 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram (297 patients) within 4 hours after the onset of stroke. The primary end point was poor outcome, defined as severe disability...... or death according to the modified Rankin scale 90 days after the stroke. RESULTS: Treatment with 80 microg of rFVIIa per kilogram resulted in a significant reduction in growth in volume of the hemorrhage. The mean estimated increase in volume of the intracerebral hemorrhage at 24 hours was 26...

  17. Henry VII and Lombard cities (1311, between political flexibility and authority: preliminary notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cengarle

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During his first months in Italy Henry VII acts now as rex pacificus, chosen by the communities as peace’s guarantor, now as emperor-judge, fully conscious of being selected from God’s will, now as a compliant politician, now as an authoritarian rights’ holder, now as a merciful ruler, now as an inflexible one. He adjusts to different city interlocutors and contexts two unlike and opposite sovereignty’s concepts, which are the outcome at times of a local collective will, at times of an unquestionable universal authority. This behaviour proves his political realism beyond his need to protect the Empire’s “symbolic capital”.

  18. Benchmarking Atomic Data for Astrophysics: Be-like Ions between B II and Ne VII

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Chen, Zhan Bin; Zhang, Chun Yu; Si, Ran; Jönsson, Per; Hartman, Henrik; Gu, Ming Feng; Chen, Chong Yang; Yan, Jun

    2018-02-01

    Large-scale self-consistent multiconfiguration Dirac–Hartree–Fock and relativistic configuration interaction calculations are reported for the n≤slant 6 levels in Be-like ions from B II to Ne VII. Effects from electron correlation are taken into account by means of large expansions in terms of a basis of configuration state functions, and a complete and accurate data set of excitation energies; lifetimes; wavelengths; electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole line strengths; transition rates; and oscillator strengths for these levels is provided for each ion. Comparisons are made with available experimental and theoretical results. The uncertainty of excitation energies is assessed to be 0.01% on average, which makes it possible to find and rule out misidentifications and aid new line identifications involving high-lying levels in astrophysical spectra. The complete data set is also useful for modeling and diagnosing astrophysical plasmas.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of 18F-labeled active site inhibited factor VII (ASIS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlandsson, Maria; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Jeppesen, Troels Elmer

    2015-01-01

    column. The radiochemical yield was 25 ± 6%, the radiochemical purity was >97%, and the pseudospecific radioactivity was 35 ± 9 GBq/µmol. The binding efficacy was evaluated in pull-down experiments, which monitored the binding of unlabeled ASIS and [18F]ASIS to TF and to a specific anti-factor VII...... antibody (F1A2-mAb). No significant difference in binding efficacy between [18F]ASIS and ASIS could be detected. Furthermore, [18F]ASIS was relatively stable in vitro and in vivo in mice. In conclusion, [18F]ASIS has for the first time been successfully synthesized as a possible positron emission...

  20. Defective thrombus formation in mice lacking endogenous factor VII activating protease (FSAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Saravanan; Thielmann, Ina; Morowski, Martina; Pragst, Ingo; Sandset, Per Morten; Nieswandt, Bernhard; Etscheid, Michael; Kanse, Sandip M

    2015-04-01

    Factor VII (FVII) activating protease (FSAP) is a circulating protease with a putative function in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis. Genetic epidemiological studies have implied a role for FSAP in carotid stenosis, stroke and thrombosis. To date, no in vivo evidence is available to support these claims. We have, for the first time, used FSAP-/- mice to define its role in thrombosis and haemostasis in vivo and to characterise the molecular mechanisms involved. FeCl3-induced arterial thrombosis in carotid and mesenteric artery revealed that the occlusion time was significantly increased in FSAP-/- mice (pendogenous FSAP impaired the formation of stable, occlusive thrombi in mice. The underlying in vivo effect of FSAP is more likely to be related to the modulation of TFPI rather than FVIIa.

  1. La CIDIP-VII y la defensa del consumidor americano. Aportes desde la experiencia del MERCOSUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ricardo A. Piris

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se aborda la situación del consumidor ante la expansión de los mercados y por ende del consumo, junto con las consecuencias que trae aparejadas esta situación. En ese contexto, se lleva a cabo un análisis de la normativa que podría llegar a ser aplicable en cada ocasión en la que haga falta regular alguna conducta o situación determinada en el continente Americano. Luego, se hace hincapié en la CIDIP VII, siendo que constituye un componente principal de la OEA en el desarrollo del Derecho Internacional Privado en América y cumple un papel muy importante en la codificación y armonización de este derecho en la región.

  2. Saccharin Sulfonamides as Inhibitors of Carbonic Anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaida Morkūnaitė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of modified saccharin sulfonamides have been designed as carbonic anhydrase (CA inhibitors and synthesized. Their binding to CA isoforms I, II, VII, XII, and XIII was measured by the fluorescent thermal shift assay (FTSA and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC. Saccharin bound the CAs weakly, exhibiting the affinities of 1–10 mM for four CAs except CA I where binding could not be detected. Several sulfonamide-bearing saccharines exhibited strong affinities of 1–10 nM towards particular CA isoforms. The functional group binding Gibbs free energy additivity maps are presented which may provide insights into the design of compounds with increased affinity towards selected CAs.

  3. VII Seminario Internacional de Investigación en Odontología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Torres Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El VII Seminario de investigación en odontología, organizado por el programa de Maestría en Odontología, es un espacio de encuentro de estudiantes, investigadores nacionales e internacionales y asistentes, con el fin de compartir conocimientos y entablar redes de colaboración. También es una estrategia de comunicación, difusión, apropiación y transferencia de conocimiento y de los resultados de la investigación de los diferentes grupos con la comunidad científica nacional y/o internacional y un método para dar a conocer, promover e impulsar la investigación a nivel nacional, todo esto con el fin de brindar soluciones a las diferentes problemáticas de la profesión y de la salud oral y general.

  4. Benchmarking ENDF/B-VII.1, JENDL-4.0 and JEFF-3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Marck, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    Three nuclear data libraries have been tested extensively using criticality safety benchmark calculations. The three libraries are the new release of the US library ENDF/B-VII.1 (2011), the new release of the Japanese library JENDL-4.0 (2011), and the OECD/NEA library JEFF-3.1 (2006). All calculations were performed with the continuous-energy Monte Carlo code MCNP (version 4C3, as well as version 6-beta1). Around 2000 benchmark cases from the International Handbook of Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP) were used. The results were analyzed per ICSBEP category, and per element. Overall, the three libraries show similar performance on most criticality safety benchmarks. The largest differences are probably caused by elements such as Be, C, Fe, Zr, W. (authors)

  5. RESPONS SISWA KELAS VII TERHADAP PEMBELAJARAN TEKS LAPORAN HASIL OBSERVA SI DENGAN MEDIA VIDEO PENGETAHUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Septia Rahmawati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Learning Text Reports Observation with Media Video Knowledge has been implemented by one of Indonesion teachers in class in VII SMPN 19 Malang. To knows student responce on learning text reports observation with media video knowledge has been implemented, the student gived  Questionnaire. The purpose of the questionnaire is to determine the response of students to the use of video media knowledge in text learning reports the results of observation. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative that is describe student response based on answer questionnaire. Based on the questionnaire responses from the four classes taught by the teacher concerned, it can be concluded that more students are claiming that the observational text of the observation report with the video media is good knowledge (B. There are also some minority students who stated quite well (C. The result of student questionnaire answers can be used as a reflection material for teachers to improve the quality of the next learning. Pembelajaran teks laporan observasi dengan media video pengetahuan telah dilaksanakan oleh salah satu guru Bahasa Indonesia di kelas VII SMPN 19 Malang. Untuk mengetahui respons siswa terhadap pembelajaran yang sudah dilakukan, siswa diberi angket. Tujuan dari pemberian angket tersebut adalah untuk mengetahui respons siswa terhadap penggunaan media video pengetahuan dalam pembelajaran teks laporan hasil observasi. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif yaitu mendeskripsikan respons siswa berdasarkan jawaban angket. Berdasarkan jawaban angket dari empat kelas yang diajar guru yang bersangkutan dapat disimpulkan bahwa lebih banyak siswa yang menyatakan bahwa pembelajaran teks laporan hasil observasi dengan media video pengetahuan baik (B. Ada juga beberapa minoritas siswa yang menyatakan cukup baik (C. Hasil jawaban angket siswa tersebut dapat dijadikan bahan refleksi bagi guru untuk meningkatkan kualitas

  6. Biological accumulations in archaeological sites: Amalda VII and Esquilleu III-IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yravedra Sainz de los Terreros, José

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lithic and bone associations from Paleolithic sites are usually assumed to be episodes of human activity when taphonomic studies are not carried out. Nevertheless, such concentrations are occasionally caused by diverse agents. Here we present the study carried out on the bone assemblage of goat and chamois of the Palaeolithic sites of the level VII of Amalda Cave (Zestoa, Guipuzcoa and the III and IV of the Esquilleu Cave (Castro Cillorigo, Cantabria which are the result of a biological contribution by carnivores and not by humans. After each site is analysed and compared we can suggest which carnivore type produced these bone assemblages and propose some traits about carnivore behaviour observed in these assemblages.

    Es frecuente que las asociaciones líticas y óseas de los yacimientos paleolíticos sean asociadas con episodios de actividad antrópica, en los que es el ser humano fuera el principal responsable de dichas acumulaciones óseas. Sin embargo, en numerosas ocasiones tales concentraciones obedecen a procesos diferentes ocasionados por agentes diversos. En este caso, se dan argumentos que muestran como los restos osteológicos de Capra pyrenaica y Rupicapra rupicapra de los yacimientos paleolíticos del nivel VII de la cueva Amalda (Zestoa, Guipúzcoa y los III y IV de la cueva del Esquilleu (Castro Cillorigo, Cantabria, responden a un aporte biológico no humano.
    Tras ver esto, se comparan las evidencias presentadas en cada yacimiento con la información publicada sobre el comportamiento de los diferentes carnívoros, con el fin de diferenciar qué carnívoro es el responsable de las concentraciones óseas de cada yacimiento, para tratar de proponer al final del trabajo algunos rasgos diferenciales del comportamiento de los carnívoros sobre sus acumulaciones óseas.

  7. PENGEMBANGAN PERANGKAT PEMBELAJARAN ARITMETIKA SOSIAL BERBASIS PROBLEM BASED LEARNING DI KELAS VII SMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Ridwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is aimeds to (1 produce the mathematics lesson plan based on social arithmetic Problem Based Learning (PBL in class VII in viewed from the aspects of validity and practicality and to know the potential effects arising from the development of the lesson plan, (2 describe the characteristics of the lesson plan based on social arithmetic Problem Based Learning. The method of the study was the development research according to the type of formative research by Tessmer. The stages of development were  Self Evaluation, prototyping and product. The subjects were VII.1 grade students of SMP Negeri 1 Muaradua semester 2014/2015 academic year, consistive of 31 people. Data collection techniques used were documentation, walk-throughs, observation sheets, and test results. Data were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results of data analysis showed that in the mathematics lesson plan based on social arimetika Problem Based Learning (PBL were valid, practical, and had a potential effect. The lesson plan had a valid learning in the content, construct, and language experts based on the results of the validation stage of the expert review and the prototype  test on a small group stage, while the practical lesson plan obtained  from the revised test results of one-to-one and small group. Potential effects of the lesson plan was  known from the results of the field test and the results of the student's final test. The results of the student's final test showed 45.16% of the students were is very good category, 32.26%  were  good category, and 22.58% fair category. From the result of observation, the percentage average of students’ activity was above 81,25% included in very good category.

  8. Women with congenital factor VII deficiency: clinical phenotype and treatment options from two international studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, M; Di Minno, M N D; Batorova, A; Dolce, A; Giansily-Blaizot, M; Ingerslev, J; Schved, J-F; Auerswald, G; Kenet, G; Karimi, M; Shamsi, T; Ruiz de Sáez, A; Dolatkhah, R; Chuansumrit, A; Bertrand, M A; Mariani, G

    2016-09-01

    A paucity of data exists on the incidence, diagnosis and treatment of bleeding in women with inherited factor VII (FVII) deficiency. Here we report results of a comprehensive analysis from two international registries of patients with inherited FVII deficiency, depicting the clinical picture of this disorder in women and describing any gender-related differences. A comprehensive analysis of two fully compatible, international registries of patients with inherited FVII deficiency (International Registry of Factor VII deficiency, IRF7; Seven Treatment Evaluation Registry, STER) was performed. In our cohort (N = 449; 215 male, 234 female), the higher prevalence of mucocutaneous bleeds in females strongly predicted ensuing gynaecological bleeding (hazard ratio = 12.8, 95% CI 1.68-97.6, P = 0.014). Menorrhagia was the most prevalent type of bleeding (46.4% of patients), and was the presentation symptom in 12% of cases. Replacement therapies administered were also analysed. For surgical procedures (n = 50), a receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the minimal first dose of rFVIIa to avoid postsurgical bleeding during the first 24 hours was 22 μg kg(-1) , and no less than two administrations. Prophylaxis was reported in 25 women with excellent or effective outcomes when performed with a total weekly rFVIIa dose of 90 μg kg(-1) (divided as three doses). Women with FVII deficiency have a bleeding disorder mainly characterized by mucocutaneous bleeds, which predicts an increased risk of ensuing gynaecological bleeding. Systematic replacement therapy or long-term prophylaxis with rFVIIa may reduce the impact of menorrhagia on the reproductive system, iron loss and may avoid unnecessary hysterectomies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Keefektifan Strategi Pembelajaran React Pada Kemampuan Siswa Kelas VII Aspek Komunikasi Matematis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.T. Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakTujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui pembelajaran dengan strategi REACT efektif ter-hadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa. Metode pengumpulan data dilakukan de-ngan metode dokumentasi, tes, dan observasi. Hasil uji proporsi menunjukkan bahwa hasil belajar siswa kelas eksperimen pada aspek kemampuan komunikasi matematis telah men-capai ketuntasan klasikal, mencapai lebih dari 80 % yaitu sebesar 96,7%. Dilihat dari nilai rata-rata tes kemampuan komunikasi matematis kelas eksperimen  adalah 83,61 sedangkan kelas kontrol adalah 73,79 dapat disimpulkan bahwa kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kelas eksperimen lebih baik daripada kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa kon-trol. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penerapan strategi pembelajaran REACT efektif terhadap kemampuan komunikasi matematis siswa materi segiempat kelas VII SMP Negeri 1 Gembong. Kata kunci:      keefektifan, kemampuan komunikasi matematis, Relating Experiencing Applying Cooperating Transferring (REACT  AbstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the application of REACT learning strategy approach to mathematic communication ability of students. Methods of data collection is done by the method of documentation, testing, and observation. The test results showed that the proportion of student learning outcomes in the experimental class with the aspects of mathematic communication ability has reached the classical completeness, reached more than 80% is equal to 96.7%. Judging from the value of the average test learners' ability to mathematic communication experimental class was 83.61 while the control class is 73.79 it can be concluded that the mathematic communication skills of learners experimental classes are better than mathematic communication abilities of learners control class. The results showed that the application of REACT learning strategy approach effective to mathematic communication abilities of students of class VII

  10. Cooperative conversations. The effect of cooperative learning on conversational interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K J

    1995-03-01

    An ongoing challenge for educators of deaf and hard-of-hearing students is to find opportunities for students to use their language skills in a functional way, that is, through conversation. This study was initiated to determine whether cooperative learning is a viable means of encouraging mainstreamed hard-of-hearing students to engage in conversational interaction with their hearing peers and teachers. A single-subject design utilizing three mainstreamed hard-of-hearing subjects attending middle school was used to examine this question. Results of the study indicated that cooperative learning positively influenced the conversational turns, initiations, moves, and mean length of turn in these hard-of-hearing subjects.

  11. Lignite chemical conversion in an indirect heat rotary kiln gasifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatzilyberis Kostas S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The results on the gasification of Greek lignite using two indirect heat (allothermal pilot rotary kiln gasifiers are reported in the present work. The development of this new reactor-gasifier concept intended for solid fuels chemical conversion exploits data and experience gained from the following two pilot plants. The first unit A (about 100 kg/h raw lignite demonstrated the production of a medium heating value gas (12-13 MJ/Nm3 with quite high DAF (dry ash free coal conversions, in an indirect heat rotary gasifier under mild temperature and pressure conditions. The second unit B is a small pilot size unit (about 10 kg/h raw lignite comprises an electrically heated rotary kiln, is an operation flexible and exhibits effective phase mixing and enhanced heat transfer characteristics. Greek lignite pyrolysis and gasification data were produced from experiments performed with pilot plant B and the results are compared with those of a theoretical model. The model assumes a scheme of three consecutive-partly parallel processes (i. e. drying, pyrolysis, and gasification and predicts DAF lignite conversion and gas composition in relatively good agreement with the pertinent experimental data typical of the rotary kiln gasifier performance. Pilot plant B is currently being employed in lime-enhanced gasification studies aiming at the production of hydrogen enriched synthesis gas. Presented herein are two typical gas compositions obtain from lignite gasification runs in the presence or not of lime. .

  12. Biochemical characterization of VQ-VII, a cysteine peptidase with broad specificity, isolated from Vasconcellea quercifolia latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, María José; Trejo, Sebastián Alejandro; Natalucci, Claudia Luisa; López, Laura María Isabel

    2013-06-01

    The latex from Vasconcellea quercifolia ("oak leaved papaya"), a member of the Caricaceae family, contains at least seven cysteine endopeptidases with high proteolytic activity, which helps to protect these plants against injury. In this study, we isolated and characterized the most basic of these cysteine endopeptidases, named VQ-VII. This new purified enzyme was homogeneous by bidimensional electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and exhibited a molecular mass of 23,984 Da and an isoelectric point >11. The enzymatic activity of VQ-VII was completely inhibited by E-64 and iodoacetic acid, confirming that it belongs to the catalytic group of cysteine endopeptidases. By investigating the cleavage of the oxidized insulin B-chain to establish the hydrolytic specificity of VQ-VII, we found 13 cleavage sites on the substrate, revealing that it is a broad-specificity peptidase. The pH profiles toward p-Glu-Phe-Leu-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA) and casein showed that the optimum pH is about 6.8 for both substrates, and that in casein, it is active over a wide pH range (activity higher than 80 % between pH 6 and 9.5). Kinetic enzymatic assays were performed with the thiol peptidase substrate PFLNA (K m = 0.454 ± 0.046 mM, k cat = 1.57 ± 0.07 s(-1), k cat/K m = 3.46 × 10(3) ± 14 s(-1) M(-1)). The N-terminal sequence (21 amino acids) of VQ-VII showed an identity >70 % with 11 plant cysteine peptidases and the presence of highly conserved residues and motifs shared with the "papain-like" family of peptidases. VQ-VII proved to be a new latex enzyme of broad specificity, which can degrade extensively proteins of different nature in a wide pH range.

  13. A novel GUSB mutation in Brazilian terriers with severe skeletal abnormalities defines the disease as mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjo K Hytönen

    Full Text Available Hundreds of different human skeletal disorders have been characterized at molecular level and a growing number of resembling dysplasias with orthologous genetic defects are being reported in dogs. This study describes a novel genetic defect in the Brazilian Terrier breed causing a congenital skeletal dysplasia. Affected puppies presented severe skeletal deformities observable within the first month of life. Clinical characterization using radiographic and histological methods identified delayed ossification and spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. Pedigree analysis suggested an autosomal recessive disorder, and we performed a genome-wide association study to map the disease locus using Illumina's 22K SNP chip arrays in seven cases and eleven controls. A single association was observed near the centromeric end of chromosome 6 with a genome-wide significance after permutation (p(genome= 0.033. The affected dogs shared a 13-Mb homozygous region including over 200 genes. A targeted next-generation sequencing of the entire locus revealed a fully segregating missense mutation (c.866C>T causing a pathogenic p.P289L change in a conserved functional domain of β-glucuronidase (GUSB. The mutation was confirmed in a population of 202 Brazilian terriers (p = 7,71×10(-29. GUSB defects cause mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII in several species and define the skeletal syndrome in Brazilian Terriers. Our results provide new information about the correlation of the GUSB genotype to phenotype and establish a novel canine model for MPS VII. Currently, MPS VII lacks an efficient treatment and this model could be utilized for the development and validation of therapeutic methods for better treatment of MPS VII patients. Finally, since almost one third of the Brazilian terrier population carries the mutation, breeders will benefit from a genetic test to eradicate the detrimental disease from the breed.

  14. [The coagulation factor VII gene polymorphisms in patients with myocardial infarction in Ningxia Hui and Han populations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Jia, Shaobin; Chen, Shulan; Sha, Yong; Ma, Aiqun; Ma, Xueping; Zhang, Jinli; Bai, Xiangrong; He, Lin

    2009-12-01

    To investigate the characteristics for activated coagulation factor VII(F VIIa) and the R353Q, -323 0/10 bp, HVR4 polymorphisms in the gene in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infarction from Ningxia Hui and Han populations. Four hundred and twenty angiographically proven CHD patients in the Hui population, and 508 healthy blood donors were tested for their plasma levels of coagulation factor VII using recombinant tissue factor method. The coagulation factor VII gene R353Q, -323 0/10 bp and HVR4 genotypes were identified by polymerase chain reaction. In addition, 600 Han patients with CHD and 604 healthy Han control subjects were also investigated. (1) The plasma F VIIa levels was significantly higher in patients with CHD and myocardial infarction than that in healthy control subjects and angor pectoris (PHui and Han populations. (2) There were significant differences in the distribution of genotypes and allelic frequencies of the R353Q between myocardial infarction and angor pectoris disease in the Hui population (PHui and Han population. (3) The F VIIa level was significantly higher in individuals with RR genotype than those of Q allele carriers in the Hui population. There are polymorphisms of the F VII gene R353Q, -323 0/10 bp and HVR4 in the Hui and Han populations. The Q allele might be a protective factor against myocardial infarction in the Hui, and the plasma F VIIa level may be influenced by the R353Q polymorphism of the F VII gene. The 10 allele may be a protective factor against myocardial infarction in both the Hui and Han populations.

  15. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  16. Roadmap on optical energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskina, Svetlana V.; Green, Martin A.; Catchpole, Kylie; Yablonovitch, Eli; Beard, Matthew C.; Okada, Yoshitaka; Lany, Stephan; Gershon, Talia; Zakutayev, Andriy; Tahersima, Mohammad H.; Sorger, Volker J.; Naughton, Michael J.; Kempa, Krzysztof; Dagenais, Mario; Yao, Yuan; Xu, Lu; Sheng, Xing; Bronstein, Noah D.; Rogers, John A.; Alivisatos, A. Paul; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Gordon, Jeffrey M.; Wu, Di M.; Wisser, Michael D.; Salleo, Alberto; Dionne, Jennifer; Bermel, Peter; Greffet, Jean-Jacques; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin; Manor, Assaf; Rotschild, Carmel; Raman, Aaswath; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Chen, Gang

    2016-07-01

    For decades, progress in the field of optical (including solar) energy conversion was dominated by advances in the conventional concentrating optics and materials design. In recent years, however, conceptual and technological breakthroughs in the fields of nanophotonics and plasmonics combined with a better understanding of the thermodynamics of the photon energy-conversion processes reshaped the landscape of energy-conversion schemes and devices. Nanostructured devices and materials that make use of size quantization effects to manipulate photon density of states offer a way to overcome the conventional light absorption limits. Novel optical spectrum splitting and photon-recycling schemes reduce the entropy production in the optical energy-conversion platforms and boost their efficiencies. Optical design concepts are rapidly expanding into the infrared energy band, offering new approaches to harvest waste heat, to reduce the thermal emission losses, and to achieve noncontact radiative cooling of solar cells as well as of optical and electronic circuitries. Light-matter interaction enabled by nanophotonics and plasmonics underlie the performance of the third- and fourth-generation energy-conversion devices, including up- and down-conversion of photon energy, near-field radiative energy transfer, and hot electron generation and harvesting. Finally, the increased market penetration of alternative solar energy-conversion technologies amplifies the role of cost-driven and environmental considerations. This roadmap on optical energy conversion provides a snapshot of the state of the art in optical energy conversion, remaining challenges, and most promising approaches to address these challenges. Leading experts authored 19 focused short sections of the roadmap where they share their vision on a specific aspect of this burgeoning research field. The roadmap opens up with a tutorial section, which introduces major concepts and terminology. It is our hope that the roadmap

  17. Biological conversion of methane to liquid fuels: status and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xumeng; Yang, Liangcheng; Sheets, Johnathon P; Yu, Zhongtang; Li, Yebo

    2014-12-01

    Methane is the main component of natural gas and biogas. As an abundant energy source, methane is crucial not only to meet current energy needs but also to achieve a sustainable energy future. Conversion of methane to liquid fuels provides energy-dense products and therefore reduces costs for storage, transportation, and distribution. Compared to thermochemical processes, biological conversion has advantages such as high conversion efficiency and using environmentally friendly processes. This paper is a comprehensive review of studies on three promising groups of microorganisms (methanotrophs, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and acetogens) that hold potential in converting methane to liquid fuels; their habitats, biochemical conversion mechanisms, performance in liquid fuels production, and genetic modification to enhance the conversion are also discussed. To date, methane-to-methanol conversion efficiencies (moles of methanol produced per mole methane consumed) of up to 80% have been reported. A number of issues that impede scale-up of this technology, such as mass transfer limitations of methane, inhibitory effects of H2S in biogas, usage of expensive chemicals as electron donors, and lack of native strains capable of converting methane to liquid fuels other than methanol, are discussed. Future perspectives and strategies in addressing these challenges are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Four-body conversion of atomic helium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Vries, C.P.; Oskam, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion of atomic helium ions into molecular ions was studied in pure helium and in helium-neon mixtures containing between 0.1 at. % and 50 at. % neon. The experiments showed that the termolecular conversion reaction, He + +2He → He 2 + +He, is augmented by the four-body conversion reaction He + +3He → products, where the products could include either He 2 + or He 3 + ions. Conversion rate coefficients of (5.7 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 and (2.6 +- 0.4) x 10 -49 cm 9 sec -1 were found for the termolecular and four-body conversion reactions, respectively. In addition, rate coefficients for the following Ne + conversion reactions were measured: Ne + +He+He → (HeNe) + +He, (2.3 +- 0.1) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; Ne + +He+Ne → (HeNe) + +Ne or Ne 2 + +He, (8.0 +- 0.8) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 ; and Ne + +Ne+Ne → Ne 2 + +Ne, (5.1 +- 0.3) x 10 -32 cm 6 sec -1 . All rate coefficients are at a gas temperature of 295 K

  19. Gas gangrene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue infection - Clostridial; Gangrene - gas; Myonecrosis; Clostridial infection of tissues; Necrotizing soft tissue infection ... Gas gangrene is most often caused by bacteria called Clostridium perfringens. It also can be caused by ...

  20. Conversion of Abbandoned Military Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Marcinkevičiūtė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the situation of abandoned military sites, their value and significance of their conservation. It also reviews their impact on their environment and their potential in tourism, environmental, economic and social spheres. Further the positive experiences in military sites' conversion are studied. The importance of society's involvement in the conversions is discussed. The situation of XIX-XX age's military object's, the significance of their conservation and their potential in tourism market is separately analysed. The results of two researches are introduced, one of which inquires about the Lithuanian military objects' potential in tourism sphere, another one explores the possibilities of conversion. Article in Lithuanian

  1. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...... at the plane of the external image) which is denominated D2 and wherein D1 is larger than a second diameter D2 and wherein the telescope further comprises a third optical component (103) and a fourth optical component (104); arranged for re-imaging the first image into a second image of the back-focal plane...

  2. Infrared up-conversion microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented an up-conversion infrared microscope (110) arranged for imaging an associated object (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared microscope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein an objective optical...... component (100) has an entrance pupil with a first diameter D1, and an optical component system which is arranged for forming an external image (136) of the back-focal plane (132) of the objective optical component (100), which has a diameter (given by the diameter of a circle enclosing all optical paths...

  3. Infrared up-conversion telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    There is presented to an up-conversion infrared telescope (110) arranged for imaging an associated scene (130), wherein the up-conversion infrared telescope (110) comprises a non-linear crystal (120) arranged for up-conversion of infrared electromagnetic radiation, and wherein a first optical...... component (101) has an entrance pupil with a first diameter D1, and an optical component system which is arranged for forming an first image (136) of the back-focal plane (132) of the objective optical component (100), which has a diameter (given by the diameter of a circle enclosing all optical paths...

  4. Thermoelectric power conversion in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awaya, H.I.; Ewell, R.; Nesmith, B.; Vandersande, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses how thermoelectric power conversion systems have a broad potential for applicability to a large number of different classes of space missions. As research continues on thermoelectric materials, the potential for significantly improved performance is good. With research also occurring in the power conversion field to improve configurations and specific designs, thermoelectric power conversion continues to show great promise for near- and long-term space missions. The next generation of radioisotope thermoelectric generators will use a radiatively heated multicouple that incorporates 20 individual couples within a single cell

  5. Direct conversion of fusion energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Markus

    2003-03-01

    Deuterium and tritium are expected to be used as fuel in the first fusion reactors. Energy is released as kinetic energy of ions and neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. One way to convert the kinetic energy to electrical energy, is to let the ions and neutrons hit the reactor wall and convert the heat that is caused by the particle bombardment to electrical energy with ordinary thermal conversion. If the kinetic energy of the ions instead is converted directly to electrical energy, a higher efficiency of the energy conversion is possible. The majority of the fusion energy is released as kinetic energy of neutrons, when deuterium reacts with tritium. Fusion reactions such as the D-D reactions, the D-{sup 3}He reaction and the p-{sup 11}B reaction, where a larger part of the fusion energy becomes kinetic energy of charged particles, appears therefore more suitable for direct conversion. Since they have lower reactivity than the D-T reaction, they need a larger {beta}B{sup 2}{sub 0} to give sufficiently high fusion power density. Because of this, the fusion configurations spherical torus (ST) and field-reversed configuration (FRC), where high {beta} values are possible, appear interesting. Rosenbluth and Hinton come to the conclusion that efficient direct conversion isn't possible in closed field line systems and that open geometries, which facilitate direct conversion, provide inadequate confinement for D-{sup 3}He. It is confirmed in this study that it doesn't seem possible to achieve as high direct conversion efficiency in closed systems as in open systems. ST and FRC fusion power plants that utilize direct conversion seem however interesting. Calculations with the help of Maple indicate that the reactor parameters needed for a D-D ST and a D{sub 3} He ST hopefully are possible to achieve. The best energy conversion option for a D-D or D{sub 3} He ST appears to be direct electrodynamic conversion (DEC) together with ordinary thermal conversion

  6. Gas separating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Arye Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  7. Type VII Collagen is Enriched in the Enamel Organic Matrix Associated with the Dentin-Enamel Junction of Mature Human Teeth

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jacob D.; Walker, Mary P.; Mousa, Ahmad; Wang, Yong; Gorski, Jeff P.

    2014-01-01

    The inner enamel region of erupted teeth is known to exhibit higher fracture toughness and crack growth resistance than bulk phase enamel. However, an explanation for this behavior has been hampered by the lack of compositional information for the residual enamel organic matrix. Since enamel-forming ameloblasts are known to express type VII collagen and type VII collagen null mice display abnormal amelogenesis, the aim of this study was to determine whether type VII collagen is a component of the enamel organic matrix at the dentin-enamel junction (DEJ) of mature human teeth. Immunofluorescent confocal microscopy of demineralized tooth sections localized type VII collagen to the organic matrix surrounding individual enamel rods near the DEJ. Morphologically, immunoreactive type VII collagen helical-bundles resembled the gnarled-pattern of enamel rods detected by Coomassie Blue staining. Western blotting of whole crown or enamel matrix extracts also identified characteristic Mr=280 and 230 kDa type VII dimeric forms, which resolved into 75 and 25 kDa bands upon reduction. As expected, the collagenous domain of type VII collagen was resistant to pepsin digestion, but was susceptible to purified bacterial collagenase. These results demonstrate the inner enamel organic matrix in mature teeth contains macromolecular type VII collagen. Based on its physical association with the DEJ and its well-appreciated capacity to complex with other collagens, we hypothesize that enamel embedded type VII collagen fibrils may contribute not only to the structural resilience of enamel, but may also play a role in bonding enamel to dentin. PMID:24594343

  8. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  9. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  10. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  11. Energy conversion at dipolarization fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khotyaintsev, Yu. V.; Divin, A.; Vaivads, A.; André, M.; Markidis, S.

    2017-02-01

    We use multispacecraft observations by Cluster in the Earth's magnetotail and 3-D particle-in-cell simulations to investigate conversion of electromagnetic energy at the front of a fast plasma jet. We find that the major energy conversion is happening in the Earth (laboratory) frame, where the electromagnetic energy is being transferred from the electromagnetic field to particles. This process operates in a region with size of the order several ion inertial lengths across the jet front, and the primary contribution to E·j is coming from the motional electric field and the ion current. In the frame of the front we find fluctuating energy conversion with localized loads and generators at sub-ion scales which are primarily related to the lower hybrid drift instability excited at the front; however, these provide relatively small net energy conversion.

  12. A Conversation Well Worth Remembering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolven-Allen, John

    2009-01-01

    To mark the 200th anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, a special event was held at Oxford, which included a "Conversation" between Professor Richard Dawkins and Bishop Richard Harries. Here we present a personal reminiscence of the event.

  13. Ocean energy conversion - A reality

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    -depth analysis of application and achievements of OTEC, tidal energy, impact of astronomical forces on tide, prospects of tidal power plants, wave energy conversion and its mathematical approach for both linear and non-linear waves, economic viability, problems...

  14. Electron spectrometers with internal conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, J.C.; Lemos Junior, O.F.; Auler, L.T.; Silva, A.G. da

    1981-01-01

    The efforts that the Department of Physics (DEFI) of Institute of Nuclear Engineering (IEN) are being made aiming at adjusting the electron spectrometers with internal conversion to its necessity, are shown. (E.G.) [pt

  15. Partial agonism through a zinc-Ion switch constructed between transmembrane domains III and VII in the tachykinin NK(1) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, B; Elling, C E; Schwartz, T W

    2000-01-01

    -ion site located between AspIII:08-or a His residue introduced at this position in transmembrane domain (TM)-III-and a Cys residue substituted for AsnVII:06 in TM-VII. Here, this interhelical, bidentate metal-ion site is without loss of Zn(2+) affinity transferred to the tachykinin NK(1) receptor...... metal-ion binding residues located at positions III:08 and VII:06. It is suggested that only partial agonism is obtained through this simple well defined metal-ion coordination due to lack of proper interactions with residues also in TM-VI....

  16. Ruslands Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to obtain some political power. Russia owns 32,1 % of the world gas reserves, and The European Union is getting 50 % of its gas import from Russia. I will use John Mearsheimer’s theory ”The Tragedy of Great Power Politics” to explain how Russia can use its big reserves of gas on The European Union to get political influence. This paper is about Ru...

  17. Ruslands Gas

    OpenAIRE

    Elkjær, Jonas Bondegaard

    2008-01-01

    This paper is about Russian natural gas and the possibility for Russia to use its reserves of natural gas politically towards the European Union to obtain some political power. Russia owns 32,1 % of the world gas reserves, and The European Union is getting 50 % of its gas import from Russia. I will use John Mearsheimer’s theory ”The Tragedy of Great Power Politics” to explain how Russia can use its big reserves of gas on The European Union to get political influence.

  18. Fuel-cycle facilities: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the mining and milling of uranium and thorium; uranium hexafluoride conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; reprocessing; storage options; waste disposal options; transportation; heavy-water-production facilities; and international fuel service centers.

  19. Fuel-cycle facilities: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Information is presented concerning the mining and milling of uranium and thorium; uranium hexafluoride conversion; enrichment; fuel fabrication; reprocessing; storage options; waste disposal options; transportation; heavy-water-production facilities; and international fuel service centers

  20. Conversion factors and oil statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karbuz, Sohbet

    2004-01-01

    World oil statistics, in scope and accuracy, are often far from perfect. They can easily lead to misguided conclusions regarding the state of market fundamentals. Without proper attention directed at statistic caveats, the ensuing interpretation of oil market data opens the door to unnecessary volatility, and can distort perception of market fundamentals. Among the numerous caveats associated with the compilation of oil statistics, conversion factors, used to produce aggregated data, play a significant role. Interestingly enough, little attention is paid to conversion factors, i.e. to the relation between different units of measurement for oil. Additionally, the underlying information regarding the choice of a specific factor when trying to produce measurements of aggregated data remains scant. The aim of this paper is to shed some light on the impact of conversion factors for two commonly encountered issues, mass to volume equivalencies (barrels to tonnes) and for broad energy measures encountered in world oil statistics. This paper will seek to demonstrate how inappropriate and misused conversion factors can yield wildly varying results and ultimately distort oil statistics. Examples will show that while discrepancies in commonly used conversion factors may seem trivial, their impact on the assessment of a world oil balance is far from negligible. A unified and harmonised convention for conversion factors is necessary to achieve accurate comparisons and aggregate oil statistics for the benefit of both end-users and policy makers