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Sample records for gan based metal

  1. Potential for normally-off operation from GaN metal oxide semiconductor devices based upon semi-insulating GaN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Sakai

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for preparing normally-off GaN devices incorporating semi-insulating (SI GaN materials are explored. The properties of SI GaN where carbon behaves as a deep level acceptor are predicted using a Shockley diagram. Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS structures based upon these on SI-GaN layers are designed. The bandgap alignment of these structures is analyzed using Poisson equations. Normally-off operation is shown to be possible in devices featuring a thin n-GaN layer and SI-GaN layer, because of a higher conduction band energy. It is also shown that higher threshold voltage can be achieved by reducing the carrier concentration of the n-GaN channel layer.

  2. GaN Micromechanical Resonators with Meshed Metal Bottom Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Azadeh; Liu, Che-Yu; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Ku, Pei-Cheng; Rais-Zadeh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a novel architecture to realize high-performance gallium nitride (GaN) bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. The method is based on the growth of a thick GaN layer on a metal electrode grid. The fabrication process starts with the growth of a thin GaN buffer layer on a Si (111) substrate. The GaN buffer layer is patterned and trenches are made and refilled with sputtered tungsten (W)/silicon dioxide (SiO2) forming passivated metal electrode grids. GaN is then regrown, nucleating from the exposed GaN seed layer and coalescing to form a thick GaN device layer. A metal electrode can be deposited and patterned on top of the GaN layer. This method enables vertical piezoelectric actuation of the GaN layer using its largest piezoelectric coefficient (d33) for thickness-mode resonance. Having a bottom electrode also results in a higher coupling coefficient, useful for the implementation of acoustic filters. Growth of GaN on Si enables releasing the device from the frontside using isotropic xenon difluoride (XeF2) etch and therefore eliminating the need for backside lithography and etching. PMID:28787997

  3. Recycling of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition waste of GaN based power device and LED industry by acidic leaching: Process optimization and kinetics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Kang, Leeseung; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Chan Gi; Hong, Hyun Seon; Park, Jeung-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Recovery of metal values from GaN, a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) waste of GaN based power device and LED industry is investigated by acidic leaching. Leaching kinetics of gallium rich MOCVD waste is studied and the process is optimized. The gallium rich waste MOCVD dust is characterized by XRD and ICP-AES analysis followed by aqua regia digestion. Different mineral acids are used to find out the best lixiviant for selective leaching of the gallium and indium. Concentrated HCl is relatively better lixiviant having reasonably faster kinetic and better leaching efficiency. Various leaching process parameters like effect of acidity, pulp density, temperature and concentration of catalyst on the leaching efficiency of gallium and indium are investigated. Reasonably, 4 M HCl, a pulp density of 50 g/L, 100 °C and stirring rate of 400 rpm are the effective optimum condition for quantitative leaching of gallium and indium.

  4. Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, A.; Lupina, L.; Lupina, G.; Schubert, M. A.; Zaumseil, P.; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-01

    Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y2O3 films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated that—with respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBR—the insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.

  5. Metal contacts on ZnSe and GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duxstad, Kristin Joy [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

    1997-05-01

    Recently, considerable interest has been focused on the development of blue light emitting materials and devices. The focus has been on GaN and ZnSe, direct band gap semiconductors with bands gaps of 3.4 and 2.6 eV, respectively. To have efficient, reliable devices it is necessary to have thermally and electrically stable Ohmic contacts. This requires knowledge of the metal-semiconductor reaction behavior. To date few studies have investigated this behavior. Much information has accumulated over the years on the behavior of metals on Si and GaAs. This thesis provides new knowledge for the more ionic wide band gap semiconductors. The initial reaction temperatures, first phases formed, and phase stability of Pt, Pd, and Ni on both semiconductors were investigated. The reactions of these metals on ZnSe and GaN are discussed in detail and correlated with predicted behavior. In addition, comparisons are made between these highly ionic semiconductors and Si and GaAs. The trends observed here should also be applicable to other II-VI and III-Nitride semiconductor systems, while the information on phase formation and stability should be useful in the development of contacts for ZnSe and GaN devices.

  6. GaN based nanorods for solid state lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunfeng; Waag, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, GaN nanorods are emerging as a very promising novel route toward devices for nano-optoelectronics and nano-photonics. In particular, core-shell light emitting devices are thought to be a breakthrough development in solid state lighting, nanorod based LEDs have many potential advantages as compared to their 2 D thin film counterparts. In this paper, we review the recent developments of GaN nanorod growth, characterization, and related device applications based on GaN nanorods. The initial work on GaN nanorod growth focused on catalyst-assisted and catalyst-free statistical growth. The growth condition and growth mechanisms were extensively investigated and discussed. Doping of GaN nanorods, especially p-doping, was found to significantly influence the morphology of GaN nanorods. The large surface of 3 D GaN nanorods induces new optical and electrical properties, which normally can be neglected in layered structures. Recently, more controlled selective area growth of GaN nanorods was realized using patterned substrates both by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Advanced structures, for example, photonic crystals and DBRs are meanwhile integrated in GaN nanorod structures. Based on the work of growth and characterization of GaN nanorods, GaN nanoLEDs were reported by several groups with different growth and processing methods. Core/shell nanoLED structures were also demonstrated, which could be potentially useful for future high efficient LED structures. In this paper, we will discuss recent developments in GaN nanorod technology, focusing on the potential advantages, but also discussing problems and open questions, which may impose obstacles during the future development of a GaN nanorod based LED technology.

  7. Synthesis, optical properties and residual strain effect of GaN nanowires generated via metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2017-04-18

    Herein, we report on the studies of GaN nanowires (GaN NWs) prepared via a metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method with Pt as the catalyst. It has been found that etching time greatly influences the growth of GaN NWs. The density and the length of nanowires increased with longer etching time, and excellent substrate coverage was observed. The average nanowire width and length are around 35 nm and 10 μm, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows a single-crystalline wurtzite structure and is confirmed by X-ray measurements. The synthesis mechanism of GaN NWs using the metal-assisted photochemical electroless etching method was presented. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements of GaN NWs show red-shift PL peaks compared to the as-grown sample associated with the relaxation of compressive stress. Furthermore, a shift of the E2 peak to the lower frequency in the Raman spectra for the samples etched for a longer time confirms such a stress relaxation. Based on Raman measurements, the compressive stress σxx and the residual strain εxx were evaluated to be 0.23 GPa and 2.6 × 10−4, respectively. GaN NW synthesis using a low cost method might be used for the fabrication of power optoelectronic devices and gas sensors.

  8. Ab initio-based approach to reconstruction, adsorption and incorporation on GaN surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, T; Akiyama, T; Nakamura, K

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction, adsorption and incorporation on various GaN surfaces are systematically investigated using an ab initio-based approach that predicts the surface phase diagram as functions of temperature and beam-equivalent pressure (BEP). The calculated results for GaN surface reconstructions with polar (0 0 0 1), nonpolar (1 1 −2 0), semipolar (1 −1 0 1) and semipolar (1 1 −2 2) orientations imply that reconstructions on GaN surfaces with Ga adlayers generally appear on the polar and the semipolar surfaces, while the stable ideal surface without Ga adsorption is found on the nonpolar GaN(1 1 −2 0) surface because it satisfies the electron counting rule. The hydrogen adsorption on GaN(0 0 0 1) and GaN(1 1 −2 0) realizes several surface structures forming N–H and Ga–NH 2 bonds on their surfaces that depend on temperature and Ga BEP during metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). In contrast, the stable structures due to hydrogen adsorption on the semipolar GaN(1 −1 0 1) and GaN(1 1 −2 2) surfaces are not varied over the wide range of temperature and Ga BEP. This implies that the hydrogen adsorbed stable structures are expected to emerge on the semipolar surfaces during MOVPE regardless of the growth conditions. Furthermore, we clarify that Mg incorporation on GaN(1 −1 0 1) surfaces is enhanced by hydrogen adsorption consistent with experimental findings

  9. Elastic strain relief in nitridated Ga metal buffer layers for epitaxial GaN growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yihwan; Shapiro, Noad A.; Feick, Henning; Armitage, Robert; Weber, Eicke R.; Yang, Yi; Cerrina, Franco

    2001-01-01

    Gallium nitride epitaxial layers were grown on sapphire by molecular-beam epitaxy using nitridated gallium metal films as buffer layers. The mechanical properties of the buffer layers were investigated and correlated with their chemical composition as determined by synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy. Biaxial tension experiments were performed by bending the substrates in a pressure cell designed for simultaneous photoluminescence measurements. The shift of the excitonic luminescence peak was used to determine the stress induced in the main GaN epilayer. The fraction of stress transferred from substrate to main layer was as low as 27% for samples grown on nitridated metal buffer layers, compared to nearly 100% for samples on conventional low-temperature GaN buffer layers. The efficiency of stress relief increased in proportion to the fraction of metallic Ga in the nitridated metal buffer layers. These findings suggest GaN films containing residual metallic Ga may serve as compliant buffer layers for heteroepitaxy

  10. Epitaxial Gd2O3 on GaN and AlGaN: a potential candidate for metal oxide semiconductor based transistors on Si for high power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kankat; Das, S.; Khiangte, K. R.; Choudhury, N.; Laha, Apurba

    2017-11-01

    We report structural and electrical properties of hexagonal Gd2O3 grown epitaxially on GaN/Si (1 1 1) and AlGaN/GaN/Si(1 1 1) virtual substrates. GaN and AlGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown on Si(1 1 1) substrates by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PA-MBE), whereas the Gd2O3 layer was grown by the pulsed laser ablation (PLA) technique. Initial structural characterizations show that Gd2O3 grown on III-nitride layers by PLA, exhibit a hexagonal structure with an epitaxial relationship as {{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 0 0 0 1 \\right]}GaN} and {{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}G{{d2}{{O}3}}}||{{≤ft[ 1 \\bar{1} 0 0 \\right]}GaN} . X-ray photoelectron measurements of the valence bands revealed that Gd2O3 exhibits band offsets of 0.97 eV and 0.4 eV, for GaN and Al0.3Ga0.7N, respectively. Electrical measurements such as capacitance-voltage and leakage current characteristics further confirm that epi-Gd2O3 on III-nitrides could be a potential candidate for future metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS)-based transistors also for high power applications in radio frequency range.

  11. Electronic and optical device applications of hollow cathode plasma assisted atomic layer deposition based GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolat, Sami; Tekcan, Burak; Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla; Biyikli, Necmi; Okyay, Ali Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Electronic and optoelectronic devices, namely, thin film transistors (TFTs) and metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) photodetectors, based on GaN films grown by hollow cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (PA-ALD) are demonstrated. Resistivity of GaN thin films and metal-GaN contact resistance are investigated as a function of annealing temperature. Effect of the plasma gas and postmetallization annealing on the performances of the TFTs as well as the effect of the annealing on the performance of MSM photodetectors are studied. Dark current to voltage and responsivity behavior of MSM devices are investigated as well. TFTs with the N 2 /H 2 PA-ALD based GaN channels are observed to have improved stability and transfer characteristics with respect to NH 3 PA-ALD based transistors. Dark current of the MSM photodetectors is suppressed strongly after high-temperature annealing in N 2 :H 2 ambient

  12. Conductivity based on selective etch for GaN devices and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sun, Qian; Han, Jung

    2015-12-08

    This invention relates to methods of generating NP gallium nitride (GaN) across large areas (>1 cm.sup.2) with controlled pore diameters, pore density, and porosity. Also disclosed are methods of generating novel optoelectronic devices based on porous GaN. Additionally a layer transfer scheme to separate and create free-standing crystalline GaN thin layers is disclosed that enables a new device manufacturing paradigm involving substrate recycling. Other disclosed embodiments of this invention relate to fabrication of GaN based nanocrystals and the use of NP GaN electrodes for electrolysis, water splitting, or photosynthetic process applications.

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of trimethylgallium decomposition during GaN metal organic vapor phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Kazuki; Shirakawa, Hiroki; Chokawa, Kenta; Araidai, Masaaki; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi; Shiraishi, Kenji

    2018-04-01

    We analyzed the decomposition of Ga(CH3)3 (TMG) during the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) of GaN on the basis of first-principles calculations and thermodynamic analysis. We performed activation energy calculations of TMG decomposition and determined the main reaction processes of TMG during GaN MOVPE. We found that TMG reacts with the H2 carrier gas and that (CH3)2GaH is generated after the desorption of the methyl group. Next, (CH3)2GaH decomposes into (CH3)GaH2 and this decomposes into GaH3. Finally, GaH3 becomes GaH. In the MOVPE growth of GaN, TMG decomposes into GaH by the successive desorption of its methyl groups. The results presented here concur with recent high-resolution mass spectroscopy results.

  14. GaN MOSFET with Boron Trichloride-Based Dry Recess Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y; Wang, Q P; Tamai, K; Ao, J P; Ohno, Y; Miyashita, T; Motoyama, S; Wang, D J

    2013-01-01

    The dry recessed-gate GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using boron trichloride (BCl 3 ) as etching gas were fabricated and characterized. Etching with different etching power was conducted. Devices with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl 4 ) etching gas were also prepared for comparison. Field-effect mobility and interface state density were extracted from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. GaN MOSFETs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with BCl 3 based dry recess achieved a high maximum electron mobility of 141.5 cm 2 V −1 s −1 and a low interface state density.

  15. Hydrogen interaction with GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irokawa, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Interaction mechanism of hydrogen with GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes is investigated, focusing on the metal/semiconductor interfaces. For MIS Pt-GaN diodes with a SiO 2 dielectric, the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics reveal that hydrogen changes the conduction mechanisms from Fowler-Nordheim tunneling to Poole-Frenkel emission. In sharp contrast, Pt-Si x N y -GaN diodes exhibit Poole-Frenkel emission in nitrogen and do not show any change in the conduction mechanism upon exposure to hydrogen. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) study suggests that the work function change of the Schottky metal is not responsible mechanism for the hydrogen sensitivity.

  16. The structural and optical properties of metal ion-implanted GaN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Sofer, Z.; Šimek, P.; Sedmidubský, D.; Veselý, M.; Bottger, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 371, MAR (2016), s. 254-257 ISSN 0168-583X. [22nd International conference on Ion Beam Analysis (IBA). Opatija, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011019; GA ČR GA15-01602S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : RBS channelling * metal-implanted GaN * structural changes Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  17. Chlorine-based plasma etching of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shul, R.J.; Briggs, R.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pearton, S.J.; Vartuli, C.B.; Abernathy, C.R.; Lee, J.W. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Constantine, C.; Baratt, C. [Plasma-Therm, Inc., Saint Petersburg, FL (United States)

    1997-02-01

    The wide band gap group-III nitride materials continue to generate interest in the semiconductor community with the fabrication of green, blue, and ultraviolet light emitting diodes (LEDs), blue lasers, and high temperature transistors. Realization of more advanced devices requires pattern transfer processes which are well controlled, smooth, highly anisotropic and have etch rates exceeding 0.5 {micro}m/min. The utilization of high-density chlorine-based plasmas including electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) systems has resulted in improved GaN etch quality over more conventional reactive ion etch (RIE) systems.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy of GaN based, doped semiconductor heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretorius, A.

    2006-07-01

    This thesis addresses the analysis of GaN based heterostructures with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Basic properties of the material of interest are introduced in chapter 2. These include the structural and optical properties as well as an introduction to the growth methods used for the samples analysed in this work. In chapter 3 a brief theoretical treatment of TEM is given. As one main topic of this work is the determination of the In concentration in InGaN islands using strain state analysis, a detailed description of the method is given. Chapter 4 describes the results obtained for pyramidal defects present in metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN:Mg with high dopant concentration. Based on the experimental results and the well established knowledge that GaN of inverted polarity is present inside the pyramidal defects, a variety of basal plane inversion domain boundary models was set up. From these models, HRTEM images were simulated using the multislice approach, followed by a quantitative comparison to experimentally obtained HRTEM images. Another focus of this work is the analysis of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N islands grown on GaN presented in chapter 5. Following a literature survey which describes different methods used to obtain In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N islands, the first topic is the distinction of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N islands and metal droplets, which can form during growth. This is followed by the experimental results of molecular beam epitaxy and metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy grown In{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}N island and quantum dot samples. (orig.)

  19. Design of Low Inductance Switching Power Cell for GaN HEMT Based Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurpinar, Emre; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Yang, Yongheng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell is designed for a three-Level Active Neutral Point Clamped (3LANPC) based on 650 V gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT devices. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices...... are presented. The commutation loops, which mainly contribute to voltage overshoots and increase of switching losses, are discussed. The ultra-low inductance power cell design based on a four-layer Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with the aim to maximize the switching performance of GaN HEMTs is explained...

  20. Emission channeling studies on transition-metal doped GaN and ZnO: Cation versus anion substitution

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070176; Wahl, Ulrich; Martins Correia, Joao; Amorim, Lígia; Silva, Daniel; Decoster, Stefan; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic and electric properties of impurities in semiconductors are strongly dependent on the lattice sites which they occupy. While the majority site can often be predicted based on chemical similarities with the host elements and is usually simple to confirm experimentally, minority sites are far more complicated to predict, detect and identify. We have carried out extensive beta− emission channeling studies on the lattice location of transition metal impurities in wide-gap dilute magnetic semiconductors, namely Co and Mn in GaN and ZnO, making use of radioactive 61Co and 56Mn implanted at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. In addition to the majority occupation of cation (Ga, Zn) sites, we located significant fractions (of the order of 20%) of the Co and Mn impurities in anion (N, O) sites, which are virtually unaffected by thermal annealing up to 900 °C. Here, we present the beta− emission channeling experiments on 61Co-implanted GaN. We discuss these results in the context of our recent reports of mi...

  1. FIR Detectors/Cameras Based on GaN and Si Field-Effect Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SETI proposes to develop GaN and Si based multicolor FIR/THz cameras with detector elements and readout, signal processing electronics integrated on a single chip....

  2. Influence of vicinal sapphire substrate on the properties of N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zhiyu; Zhang, Jincheng, E-mail: jchzhang@xidian.edu.cn; Xu, Shengrui; Chen, Zhibin; Yang, Shuangyong; Tian, Kun; Hao, Yue [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China); Su, Xujun [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Shi, Xuefang [School of Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Xidian University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2014-08-25

    The influence of vicinal sapphire substrates on the growth of N-polar GaN films by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. Smooth GaN films without hexagonal surface feature are obtained on vicinal substrate. Transmission electron microscope results reveal that basal-plane stacking faults are formed in GaN on vicinal substrate, leading to a reduction in threading dislocation density. Furthermore, it has been found that there is a weaker yellow luminescence in GaN on vicinal substrate than that on (0001) substrate, which might be explained by the different trends of the carbon impurity incorporation.

  3. Heteroepitaxial VO{sub 2} thin films on GaN: Structure and metal-insulator transition characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou You; Ramanathan, Shriram [Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Monolithic integration of correlated oxide and nitride semiconductors may open up new opportunities in solid-state electronics and opto-electronics that combine desirable functional properties of both classes of materials. Here, we report on epitaxial growth and phase transition-related electrical properties of vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) thin films on GaN epitaxial layers on c-sapphire. The epitaxial relation is determined to be (010){sub vo{sub 2}} parallel (0001){sub GaN} parallel (0001){sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} and [100]{sub vo{sub 2}} parallel [1210]{sub GaN} parallel [0110]{sub A1{sub 2O{sub 3}}} from x-ray diffraction. VO{sub 2} heteroepitaxial growth and lattice mismatch are analyzed by comparing the GaN basal plane (0001) with the almost close packed corrugated oxygen plane in vanadium dioxide and an experimental stereographic projection describing the orientation relationship is established. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggests a slightly oxygen rich composition at the surface, while Raman scattering measurements suggests that the quality of GaN layer is not significantly degraded by the high-temperature deposition of VO{sub 2}. Electrical characterization of VO{sub 2} films on GaN indicates that the resistance changes by about four orders of magnitude upon heating, similar to epitaxial VO{sub 2} films grown directly on c-sapphire. It is shown that the metal-insulator transition could also be voltage-triggered at room temperature and the transition threshold voltage scaling variation with temperature is analyzed in the framework of a current-driven Joule heating model. The ability to synthesize high quality correlated oxide films on GaN with sharp phase transition could enable new directions in semiconductor-photonic integrated devices.

  4. Control of residual carbon concentration in GaN high electron mobility transistor and realization of high-resistance GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.G. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhao, D.G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Jiang, D.S.; Liu, Z.S.; Chen, P.; Le, L.C.; Yang, J.; Li, X.J. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 912, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, S.M.; Zhu, J.J.; Wang, H.; Yang, H. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China)

    2014-08-01

    GaN films were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) under various growth conditions. The influences of MOCVD growth parameters, i.e., growth pressure, ammonia (NH{sub 3}) flux, growth temperature, trimethyl-gallium flux and H{sub 2} flux, on residual carbon concentration ([C]) were systematically investigated. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements show that [C] can be effectively modulated by growth conditions. Especially, it can increase by reducing growth pressure up to two orders of magnitude. High-resistance (HR) GaN epilayer with a resistivity over 1.0 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. The mechanism of the formation of HR GaN epilayer is discussed. An Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN high electron mobility transistor structure with a HR GaN buffer layer and an additional low-carbon GaN channel layer is presented, exhibiting a high two dimensional electron gas mobility of 1815 cm{sup 2}/Vs. - Highlights: • Influence of MOCVD parameters on residual carbon concentration in GaN is studied. • GaN layer with a resistivity over 1 × 10{sup 9} Ω·cm is achieved by reducing growth pressure. • High electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures were prepared. • Control of residual carbon content results in HEMT with high 2-D electron gas mobility.

  5. Influence of AlGaN Buffer Growth Temperature on GaN Epilayer based on Si(lll) Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Meng; Wang Xiaoliang; Pan Xu; Xiao Hongling; Wang Cuimei; Zhang Minglan; Wang Zhanguo

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the influence of AlGaN buffer growth temperature on strain status and crystal quality of the GaN film on Si(111) sbustrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. It was demonstrated by the optical microscopy that AlGaN buffer gorwth temperature had a remarkable effect on compensating tensil stress in top GaN layer and preventing the formation of cracks. X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis showed crystal quality and surface morphology of the GaN epilayer could be improved through increasing AlGaN buffer growth temperature. 1μm crack-free GaN epilayer on Si (111) substrates was obtained with graded AlGaN buffer layer at optimized temperature of 1050 deg. C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that a significant reduction in threading dislocations was achieved in GaN epilayer.

  6. RADIATION PERFORMANCE OF GAN AND INAS/GAAS QUANTUM DOT BASED DEVICES SUBJECTED TO NEUTRON RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiyauddin Ahmad Fauzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to their useful optoelectronics functions, gallium nitride (GaN and quantum dots (QDs based structures are also known for their radiation hardness properties. With demands on such semiconductor material structures, it is important to investigate the differences in reliability and radiation hardness properties of these two devices. For this purpose, three sets of GaN light-emitting diode (LED and InAs/GaAs dot-in-a well (DWELL samples were irradiated with thermal neutron of fluence ranging from 3×1013 to 6×1014 neutron/cm2 in PUSPATI TRIGA research reactor. The radiation performances for each device were evaluated based on the current-voltage (I-V and capacitance-voltage (C-V electrical characterisation method. Results suggested that the GaN based sample is less susceptible to electrical changes due to the thermal neutron radiation effects compared to the QD based sample.

  7. High growth rate GaN on 200 mm silicon by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy for high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, M.; Baines, Y.; Bavard, A.; Bouveyron, R.

    2018-02-01

    It is increasingly important to reduce the cycle time of epitaxial growth, in order to reduce the costs of device fabrication, especially for GaN based structures which typically have growth cycles of several hours. We have performed a comprehensive study using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) investigating the effects of changing GaN growth rates from 0.9 to 14.5 μm/h. Although there is no significant effect on the strain incorporated in the layers, we have seen changes in the surface morphology which can be related to the change in dislocation behaviour and surface diffusion effects. At the small scale, as seen by AFM, increased dislocation density for higher growth rates leads to increased pinning of growth terraces, resulting in more closely spaced terraces. At a larger scale of hundreds of μm observed by optical profiling, we have related the formation of grains to the rate of surface diffusion of adatoms using a random walk model, implying diffusion distances from 30 μm for the highest growth rates up to 100 μm for the lowest. The increased growth rate also increases the intrinsic carbon incorporation which can increase the breakdown voltage of GaN films. Despite an increased threading dislocation density, these very high growth rates of 14.5 μm/hr by MOVPE have been shown to be appealing for reducing epitaxial growth cycle times and therefore costs in High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) structures.

  8. Analysis and modelling of GaN Schottky-based circuits at millimeter wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, D; Grajal, J

    2015-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the capabilities of GaN Schottky diodes for frequency multipliers and mixers at millimeter wavelengths. By using a Monte Carlo (MC) model of the diode coupled to a harmonic balance technique, the electrical and noise performances of these circuits are investigated. Despite the lower electron mobility of GaN compared to GaAs, multipliers based on GaN Schottky diodes can be competitive in the first stages of multiplier chains, due to the excellent power handling capabilities of this material. The performance of these circuits can be improved by taking advantage of the lateral Schottky diode structures based on AlGaN/GaN HEMT technology. (paper)

  9. Optical quenching of X-ray photoconductor based on GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Changsheng; Fu Kai; Wang Guo; Lu Min

    2011-01-01

    X-ray photoconductor based on GaN have been made by using advanced semiconductor microfabrication technology. Optical quenching phenomenon of GaN X-ray detector was presented. The photocurrent had a mutation when the fluorescent light was turned on and off. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the optical quenching and current mutation phenomenons. The results have indicated that optical quenching effect associates with a hole trap and recombination centers, while the current mutation results from a UV light which excited the electron from valence band to conduction band. (authors)

  10. Modeling of radiation damage recovery in particle detectors based on GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaubas, E., E-mail: eugenijus.gaubas@ff.vu.lt; Ceponis, T.; Pavlov, J.

    2015-12-15

    The pulsed characteristics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift–diffusion models. The drift–diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the commercial software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The bipolar drift regime has been analyzed. The possible internal gain in charge collection through carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization has been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to radiation defects introduced into GaN material of detector.

  11. Interface gap states and Schottky barrier inhomogeneity at metal/n-type GaN Schottky contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamor, M

    2009-01-01

    The barrier heights (BH) of various metals including Pd, Pt and Ni on n-type GaN (M/n-GaN) have been measured in the temperature range 80-400 K with using a current-voltage (I-V) technique. The temperature dependence of the I-V characteristics of M/n-GaN have shown non-ideal behaviors and indicate the presence of a non-uniform distribution of surface gap states, resulting from the residual defects in the as grown GaN. The surface gap states density N ss , as well as its temperature dependence were obtained from the bias and temperature dependence of the ideality factor n(V,T) and the barrier height Φ Bn (V,T). Further, a dependence of zero-bias BH Φ 0Bn on the metal work function (Φ m ) with an interface parameter coefficient of proportionality of 0.47 is found. This result indicates that the Fermi level at the M/n-GaN interface is unpinned. Additionally, the presence of lateral inhomogeneities of the BH, with two Gaussian distributions of the BH values is seen. However, the non-homogeneous SBH is found to be correlated to the surface gap states density, in that Φ 0Bn becomes smaller with increasing N ss . These findings suggest that the lateral inhomogeneity of the SBH is connected to the non-uniform distribution of the density of surface gap states at metal/GaN which is attributed to the presence of native defects in the as grown GaN. Deep level transient spectroscopy confirms the presence of native defects with discrete energy levels at GaN and provides support to this interpretation.

  12. Effects of KrF excimer laser irradiation on metal contacts to n-type and p-type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Won; Sands, T.; Lee, Jong-Lam

    2003-01-01

    Electrical properties of metal contacts on laser-irradiated n-type and p-type GaN surfaces were investigated using current-voltage, capacitance-voltage, and synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy. After the irradiation of a KrF excimer laser pulse (600 mJ/cm 2 at 248 nm for 38 ns) onto Si-doped GaN, a nonalloyed Ti/Al metallization formed an ohmic contact with the specific contact resistivity of 1.7x10 -6 Ω cm 2 . The laser irradiation decomposed GaN into metallic Ga and nitrogen gas. The decomposed metallic Ga reacted with oxygen in air to form a Ga oxide layer with the thickness of ∼40 Aa, producing a large number of N vacancies near the surface. The formation of a degenerated n-type GaN layer resulted in the low contact resistivity. For Mg-doped GaN, the laser irradiation increased the effective acceptor concentration. Simultaneously, the activation efficiency of Mg dopants was enhanced by the photon-assisted breaking of Mg-H bonds and/or the removal of hydrogen atoms in the presence of oxygen, producing the p-type GaN with an increased hole concentration. As a result, the contact resistivity of an oxidized Ni/Au contact could be reduced from 1.3x10 -3 to 3.6x10 -4 Ω cm 2

  13. High-voltage vertical GaN Schottky diode enabled by low-carbon metal-organic chemical vapor deposition growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Y.; Chu, R.; Li, R.; Chen, M.; Chang, R.; Hughes, B.

    2016-02-01

    Vertical GaN Schottky barrier diode (SBD) structures were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on free-standing GaN substrates. The carbon doping effect on SBD performance was studied by adjusting the growth conditions and spanning the carbon doping concentration between ≤3 × 1015 cm-3 and 3 × 1019 cm-3. Using the optimized growth conditions that resulted in the lowest carbon incorporation, a vertical GaN SBD with a 6-μm drift layer was fabricated. A low turn-on voltage of 0.77 V with a breakdown voltage over 800 V was obtained from the device.

  14. Study of interface barrier of SiNx/GaN interface for nitrogen-polar GaN based high electron mobility transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidhi, Rajan, Siddharth; Keller, Stacia; Wu, Feng; DenBaars, Steven P.; Speck, James S.; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2008-06-01

    The SiNx/GaN interface barrier height for N-polar GaN based metal-insulator-semiconductor high electron mobility transistors (MISHEMTs) was investigated. N-polar SiNx/GaN/AlGaN/GaN MISHEMT structures with different GaN cap thicknesses were grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The properties of the SiNx/GaN interface are of critical importance to device operation and modeling in these devices. An analytical expression for the pinch-off voltage of the HEMT was obtained, and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements with different Schottky metals were used to extract the barrier height. The Fermi level at the interface was found to be pinned at approximately 1 eV with respect to GaN conduction band edge, irrespective of the work function of the gate metal. Hall measurements of the two-dimensional electron gas density were found to corroborate the predicted interface barrier height. An approximate value for interface charge causing this pinning was calculated to be 4.5×1012 cm-2.

  15. Design of Low Inductance Switching Power Cell for GaN HEMT Based Inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurpinar, Emre [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Group; Iannuzzo, Francesco [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Yang, Yongheng [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology; Castellazzi, Alberto [Univ. of Nottingham (United Kingdom). Power Electronics, Machines and Control (PEMC); Blaabjerg, Frede [Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2017-11-23

    Here in this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell is designed for a three-Level Active Neutral Point Clamped (3LANPC) based on 650 V gallium nitride (GaN) HEMT devices. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices are presented. The commutation loops, which mainly contribute to voltage overshoots and increase of switching losses, are discussed. The ultra-low inductance power cell design based on a fourlayer Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with the aim to maximize the switching performance of GaN HEMTs is explained. The design of gate drivers for the GaN HEMT devices is presented. Parasitic inductance and resistance of the proposed design are extracted with finite element analysis and discussed. Common mode behaviours based on the SPICE model of the converter are analyzed. Experimental results on the designed 3L-ANPC with the output power of up to 1 kW are presented, which verifies the performance of the proposed design in terms of ultra-low inductance.

  16. GaN nanostructure-based light emitting diodes and semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Annamraju Kasi

    2014-02-01

    GaN and related materials have received a lot of attention because of their applications in a number of semiconductor devices such as LEDs, laser diodes, field effect transistors, photodetectors etc. An introduction to optical phenomena in semiconductors, light emission in p-n junctions, evolution of LED technology, bandgaps of various semiconductors that are suitable for the development of LEDs are discussed first. The detailed discussion on photoluminescence of GaN nanostructures is made, since this is crucial to develop optical devices. Fabrication technology of many nanostructures of GaN such as nanowires, nanorods, nanodots, nanoparticles, nanofilms and their luminescence properties are given. Then the optical processes including ultrafast phenomena, radiative, non-radiative recombination, quantum efficiency, lifetimes of excitons in InGaN quantum well are described. The LED structures based on InGaN that give various important colors of red, blue, green, and their design considerations to optimize the output were highlighted. The recent efforts in GaN technology are updated. Finally the present challenges and future directions in this field are also pointed out.

  17. Optimized subsequent-annealing-free Ni/Ag based metallization contact to p-type GaN for vertical light emitting diodes with high yield and extremely low operating voltage (2.75 V@350 mA, >95%)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Ting; Wang, Liancheng; Guo, Enqing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Teng; Guo, Jinxia; Yi, Xiaoyan; Li, Jing; Wang, Guohong

    2014-01-01

    A Ni/Ag based metallization contact to p-type GaN (p-GaN), free of a subsequent annealing process, was optimized to couple excellent optical reflectance (as high as 90% at 460 nm) and electrical characteristics (specific contact resistivity as low as 2.1 × 10 −5  Ω cm 2 ) simultaneously. Vertical light emitting diode devices with optimized Ni/Ag/Pt/Au contacts were fabricated, and they exhibited extremely low forward voltage (2.75 V@350 mA, approaching its corresponding theoretical limit) and light output power was improved by 35%. Chip-on-wafer mapping tests revealed significantly high yield and excellent uniformity across the wafer. X-ray diffraction results indicated improved crystalline quality and more favourable crystal orientation of Ni [1 1 1]∥Ag [1 1 1]∥GaN [0 0 0 2] at high deposition temperature. Auger electron spectroscopy profiles were used to examine the inter-diffusion of Ni/Ag atoms and Ga atoms in p-GaN, which led to the formation of a Ni/Ag–Ga alloy interface and the improvement of hole concentration in p-GaN. As a result, the chips' reliability and Ni/Ag-p-GaN contact characteristics were improved. (paper)

  18. Ultra-Low Inductance Design for a GaN HEMT Based 3L-ANPC Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurpinar, Emre; Castellazzi, Alberto; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-low inductance power cell design for a 3L-ANPC based on 650 V GaN HEMT devices is presented. The 3L-ANPC topology with GaN HEMT devices and the selected modulation scheme suitable for wide-bandgap (WBG) devices are presented. The commutation loops, which are the main...... contributors to voltage overshoots and increase of switching losses, are discussed. The ultra-low inductance power cell design based on a four layer PCB with the aim to maximise the switching performance of GaN HEMTs is explained. Gate driver design for GaN HEMT devices is presented. Common-mode behaviours...

  19. Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    towards our goal of a gamma discriminating device. Future studies should include determining the reason for double peaks appearing in the spectra of...Gadolinium-Based GaN for Neutron Detection with Gamma Discrimination Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release; distribution is...C kg –1 ) rad [absorbed dose] 1 × 10 –2 joule per kilogram (J kg –1 ) [gray (Gy)] rem [equivalent and effective dose] 1 × 10–2 joule per kilogram

  20. Vertical architecture for enhancement mode power transistors based on GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F.; Rümmler, D.; Hartmann, J.; Caccamo, L.; Schimpke, T.; Strassburg, M.; Gad, A. E.; Bakin, A.; Wehmann, H.-H.; Witzigmann, B.; Wasisto, H. S.; Waag, A.

    2016-05-01

    The demonstration of vertical GaN wrap-around gated field-effect transistors using GaN nanowires is reported. The nanowires with smooth a-plane sidewalls have hexagonal geometry made by top-down etching. A 7-nanowire transistor exhibits enhancement mode operation with threshold voltage of 1.2 V, on/off current ratio as high as 108, and subthreshold slope as small as 68 mV/dec. Although there is space charge limited current behavior at small source-drain voltages (Vds), the drain current (Id) and transconductance (gm) reach up to 314 mA/mm and 125 mS/mm, respectively, when normalized with hexagonal nanowire circumference. The measured breakdown voltage is around 140 V. This vertical approach provides a way to next-generation GaN-based power devices.

  1. High-electron-mobility GaN grown on free-standing GaN templates by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Erin C. H., E-mail: erinkyle@umail.ucsb.edu; Kaun, Stephen W.; Burke, Peter G.; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Wu, Yuh-Renn [Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, and Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2014-05-21

    The dependence of electron mobility on growth conditions and threading dislocation density (TDD) was studied for n{sup −}-GaN layers grown by ammonia-based molecular beam epitaxy. Electron mobility was found to strongly depend on TDD, growth temperature, and Si-doping concentration. Temperature-dependent Hall data were fit to established transport and charge-balance equations. Dislocation scattering was analyzed over a wide range of TDDs (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2} to ∼2 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2}) on GaN films grown under similar conditions. A correlation between TDD and fitted acceptor states was observed, corresponding to an acceptor state for almost every c lattice translation along each threading dislocation. Optimized GaN growth on free-standing GaN templates with a low TDD (∼2 × 10{sup 6} cm{sup −2}) resulted in electron mobilities of 1265 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 296 K and 3327 cm{sup 2}/Vs at 113 K.

  2. The nucleation of HCl and Cl{sub 2}-based HVPE GaN on mis-oriented sapphire substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohnen, Tim; Dreumel, Gerbe W.G. van; Enckevort, Willem J.P. van; Ashraf, Hina; Jong, Aryan E.F. de; Hageman, Paul R.; Vlieg, Elias [IMM, Radboud University, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weyher, Jan L. [Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)

    2010-07-15

    The nucleation of both classic HCl-based and novel Cl{sub 2{sup -}} based HVPE GaN on mis-oriented sapphire substrates was investigated. The use of Cl{sub 2}in HVPE increases the growth rate by a factor of 4-5 and strongly reduces the parasitic deposition, allowing for the growth of much thicker wafers than HCl-based HVPE. Morphological SEM surface studies of the HCl-based HVPE sample surface show that at 600 C a nanocrystalline layer is deposited on the sapphire. During the subsequent annealing phase, the morphology changes to a {mu}m-sized island structure. During overgrowth at 1080 C, the islands coalesce. Small voids or pinholes are then formed in between the coalescing GaN islands. These pinholes lead to numerous pits on the surface of the GaN at thicknesses of 5 {mu}m. The pits disappear during continued overgrowth and can no longer be found on the surface, when the GaN film reaches a thickness of 45 {mu}m. This particular coalescence mechanism also applies to Cl{sub 2}-based HVPE GaN on sapphire (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Steps towards a GaN nanowire based light emitting diode and its integration with Si-MOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limbach, Friederich

    2012-06-22

    This work is concerned with the realization and investigation of a light emitting diode (LED) structure within single GaN nanowires (NWs) and its integration with Si technology. To this end first a general understanding of the GaN NW growth is given. This is followed by investigations of the influence which doping species, such as Mg and Si, have on the growth of the NWs. The experience gathered in these studies set the basis for the synthesis of nominal p-i-n and n-i-p junctions in GaN NWs. Investigations of these structures resulted in the technologically important insight, that p-type doping with Mg is achieved best if it is done in the later NW growth stage. This implies that it is beneficial for a NW LED to place the p-type segment on the NW top. Another important component of an LED is the active zone where electron-hole recombination takes place. In the case of planar GaN LEDs, this is usually achieved by alloying Ga and In to form InGaN. In order to be able to control the growth under a variety of conditions, we investigate the growth of InGaN in the form of extended segments on top of GaN NWs, as well as multi quantum wells (MQWs) in GaN NWs. All the knowledge gained during these preliminary studies is harnessed to reach the overall goal: The realization of a GaN NW LED. Such structures are fabricated, investigated and processed into working LEDs. Finally, a report on the efforts of integrating III-nitride NW LEDs and Si based metaloxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) technology is given. This demonstrates the feasibility of the monolithic integration of both devices on the same wafer at the same time.

  4. Metal contacts in nanocrystalline n-type GaN: Schottky diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S N; Sarangi, S; Sahu, S N; Pal, A K

    2009-04-01

    Contact properties in nanocrystalline n-GaN in thin film form were studied by depositing nanocrystalline films onto aluminium coated fused silica substrates by high pressure sputtering of Si (1 at%) doped GaN target. Schottky diodes were realized with Au, Ni and Pd as top contacts on the nanocrystalline n-GaN films to examine the contact properties of the diodes thus formed. Variation of current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the Schottky diodes were recorded at different temperatures and analyzed in the light of the existing theories.

  5. Atomic Layer Epitaxy Dielectric Based GaN MOS Devices and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong

    GaN HEMT usually suffers from high Ig and ID current collapse due to its limited Schottky barrier height and high density of surface states. Although GaN MOSHEMT with amorphous gate dielectric is an effective way to suppress the Ig and passivate the surface states, high-quality gate dielectric on GaN MOS devices are still lacking. In this work, single crystalline gate dielectric Mg0.25Ca0.75O, grown by ALE, has been successfully integrated into three kinds of GaN MOSHEMTs, namely InAlN/GaN/SiC, AlGaN/GaN/SiC and AlGaN/GaN/Si MOSHEMTs. With a nearly lattice-matched oxide, the interface quality between the oxide and barrier is significantly improved. Ig is reduced by several orders of magnitudes compared to HEMTs. All three kinds of MOSHEMTs exhibit high ID on/off ratio exceeding 1011, near ideal SS, negligible ID-V GS hysteresis and negligible current collapse. RF small-signal characteristics of AlGaN/GaN/SiC MOSHEMTs show ft/fmax of 101/150 GHz for a Lg of 120 nm device and large-signal characteristics with Pout of 4.18 W/mm for a Lg=150 nm device at f=35 GHz. Enhancement-mode non-recessed AlGaN/GaN/Si fin-MOSHEMTs are also realized through the side-wall depletion of the fin structures. Combining with the high ID, high peak gm, and low Ron, MgCaO turns out to be a new and very promising gate dielectric for GaN MOS technology. Beyond the wide bandgap semiconductor GaN, promising next generation ultra-wide bandgap semiconductor beta-Ga2O3 is also investigated. Piranha solution and PDA were first used to optimize the ALD Al2O3/beta-Ga2O3 interface. Low C-V hysteresis of 0.1 V and Dit=2.3x1011 cm-2˙eV-1 are achieved due to the passivated dangling bonds at the interface. Meanwhile, we have demonstrated a record high ID of 600/450 mA/mm for D/E-mode back-gate GOOI FETs at a beta-Ga2O3 doping concentration of 2.8x1018 cm-3. Following the motivation of chasing higher I D and lower Ron, we have increased the doping concentration to 7.8x1018 cm-3 and the record ID has been

  6. MOCVD growth of GaN layer on InN interlayer and relaxation of residual strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Keon-Hun; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Jong Hack; Kim, Nam Hyuk; Kim, Min Hwa [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Na, Hyunseok [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon, 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Euijoon, E-mail: eyoon@snu.ac.k [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Suwon 433-270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-01

    100 nm InN layer was grown on sapphire c-plane using a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. Low temperature (LT) GaN layer was grown on InN layer to protect InN layer from direct exposure to hydrogen flow during high temperature (HT) GaN growth and/or abrupt decomposition. Subsequently, thick HT GaN layer (2.5 {mu}m thick) was grown at 1000 {sup o}C on LT GaN/InN/sapphire template. Microstructure of epilayer-substrate interface was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). From the high angle annular dark field TEM image, the growth of columnar structured LT GaN and HT GaN with good crystallinity was observed. Though thickness of InN interlayer is assumed to be about 100 nm based on growth rate, it was not clearly shown in TEM image due to the InN decomposition. The lattice parameters of GaN layers were measured by XRD measurement, which shows that InN interlayer reduces the compressive strain in GaN layer. The relaxation of compressive strain in GaN layer was also confirmed by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. As shown in the PL spectra, red shift of GaN band edge peak was observed, which indicates the reduction of compressive strain in GaN epilayer.

  7. Improved performance of GaN based light emitting diodes with ex-situ sputtered AlN nucleation layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo-Wei Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal quality, electrical and optical properties of GaN based light emitting diodes (LEDs with ex-situ sputtered physical vapor deposition (PVD aluminum nitride (AlN nucleation layers were investigated. It was found that the crystal quality in terms of defect density and x-ray diffraction linewidth was greatly improved in comparison to LEDs with in-situ low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The light output power was 3.7% increased and the reverse bias voltage of leakage current was twice on LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. However, larger compressive strain was discovered in LEDs with ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers. The study shows the potential and constrain in applying ex-situ PVD AlN nucleation layers to fabricate high quality GaN crystals in various optoelectronics.

  8. New surface plasmon polariton waveguide based on GaN nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhu

    Full Text Available Lasers are nowadays widely used in industry, in hospitals and in many devices that we have at home. Random laser development is challenging given its high threshold and low integration. Surface plasmon polariton (SPP can improve random laser characteristics because of its ability to control diffraction. In this study, we establish a random laser structural model with silicon-based parcel GaN nanowires. The GaN nanowire gain and enhanced surface plasmon increase population inversion level. Our laser model is based on random particle scattering feedback mechanism, nanowire use, and surface plasmon enhancement effect, which causes stochastic laser emergence. Analysis shows that the SPP mode and nanowire waveguides coupled in the dielectric layer of low refractive index can store light energy like a capacitor under low refractive index clearance. The waveguide mode field area and limiting factors show that the modeled laser can achieve sub-wavelength constraints of the output light field. We also investigate emergent laser performance for a more limited light field capacity and lower threshold. Keywords: Random laser, Surface plasmon polariton, Feedback mechanism, Low threshold, Subwavelength constraints

  9. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Rathnait D.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN) surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  10. Effective surface treatment for GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors using HF plus N2 plasma prior to SiN passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chien; Trinh, Hai-Dang; Dai, Gu-Ming; Huang, Chung-Kai; Dee, Chang-Fu; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Biswas, Dhrubes; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-01-01

    An effective surface cleaning technique is demonstrated for the GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistor (MIS-HEMT) passivation process. In this study, dilute HF solution and in situ N2 plasma treatments were adopted to remove the native oxide and recover the nitrogen-vacancy defects at the GaN surface before device passivation. To investigate the correlation between the properties of the SiN/GaN interface and the device performance, the GaN MIS-HEMTs were characterized using current-voltage (I-V) measurement, capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurement, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. With the application of this surface treatment technique, the device exhibits improved I-V characteristics with low leakage current, low dynamic ON-resistance, and good C-V response with a steep slope. Overall, the results reveal that the oxide-related bonds and nitrogen-vacancy defects at the SiN/GaN interface are the root cause of the GaN MIS-HEMTs performance degradation.

  11. Design Considerations for Gan-Based Microinverter for Energy Storage Integration Into Ac Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroics, K.; Zakis, J.; Suzdalenko, A.; Husev, O.

    2017-10-01

    A full bridge converter with electrolytic capacitor on the dc bus is a widely used approach for a single phase interface for renewable energy source generation or energy storage integration in the utility grid. New wide bandgap devices enable higher switching frequency, higher efficiency and higher power density. In the paper, the authors introduce the challenges associated with an increase in switching frequency of a single phase inverter and implementation of wide bandgap GaN-based transistors instead of traditional Si-based transistors. The low gate threshold voltage of GaN transistor and unique reverse conduction behaviour require different driving circuit. The design of the driver circuit and other practical issues are analysed in the paper. The paper also presents some practical results. The research results can be useful to avoid mistakes by designing GaN-based power converters as these devices become increasingly interesting for commercial applications.

  12. Design Considerations for Gan-Based Microinverter for Energy Storage Integration Into Ac Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kroics K.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A full bridge converter with electrolytic capacitor on the dc bus is a widely used approach for a single phase interface for renewable energy source generation or energy storage integration in the utility grid. New wide bandgap devices enable higher switching frequency, higher efficiency and higher power density. In the paper, the authors introduce the challenges associated with an increase in switching frequency of a single phase inverter and implementation of wide bandgap GaN-based transistors instead of traditional Si-based transistors. The low gate threshold voltage of GaN transistor and unique reverse conduction behaviour require different driving circuit. The design of the driver circuit and other practical issues are analysed in the paper. The paper also presents some practical results. The research results can be useful to avoid mistakes by designing GaN-based power converters as these devices become increasingly interesting for commercial applications.

  13. GaN Nanowires Synthesized by Electroless Etching Method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-01-01

    Ultra-long Gallium Nitride Nanowires is synthesized via metal-electroless etching method. The morphologies and optical properties of GaN NWs show a single crystal GaN with hexagonal Wurtzite structure and high luminescence properties.

  14. GaN nanowire Schottky barrier diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Sabui, Gourab; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; White, Mary; Pampili, Pietro; Parbrook, Peter J.; McLaren, Mathew; Arredondo-Arechavala, Miryam; Shen, Z. John

    2017-01-01

    A new concept of vertical gallium nitride (GaN) Schottky barrier diode based on nanowire (NW) structures and the principle of dielectric REduced SURface Field (RESURF) is proposed in this paper. High-threading dislocation density in GaN epitaxy grown on foreign substrates has hindered the development and commercialization of vertical GaN power devices. The proposed NW structure, previously explored for LEDs offers an opportunity to reduce defect density and fabricate low cost vertical GaN pow...

  15. Highly aligned vertical GaN nanowires using submonolayer metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, George T [Albuquerque, NM; Li, Qiming [Albuquerque, NM; Creighton, J Randall [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-06-29

    A method for forming vertically oriented, crystallographically aligned nanowires (nanocolumns) using monolayer or submonolayer quantities of metal atoms to form uniformly sized metal islands that serve as catalysts for MOCVD growth of Group III nitride nanowires.

  16. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD. We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM of (102 X-ray diffraction (XRD line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  17. High-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with nitrogen as nucleation layer carrier gas grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu; Sun, Shichuang; Deng, Xuguang; Fu, Kai; Yu, Guohao; Song, Liang; Hao, Ronghui; Fan, Yaming; Cai, Yong; Zhang, Baoshun

    2017-12-01

    In this letter, high-resistivity unintentionally carbon-doped GaN layers with sheet resistivity greater than 106 Ω/□ have been grown on c-plane sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have observed that the growth of GaN nucleation layers (NLs) under N2 ambient leads to a large full width at half maximum (FWHM) of (102) X-ray diffraction (XRD) line in the rocking curve about 1576 arc sec. Unintentional carbon incorporation can be observed in the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) measurements. The results demonstrate the self-compensation mechanism is attributed to the increased density of edge-type threading dislocations and carbon impurities. The AlGaN/GaN HEMT grown on the high-resistivity GaN template has also been fabricated, exhibiting a maximum drain current of 478 mA/mm, a peak transconductance of 60.0 mS/mm, an ON/OFF ratio of 0.96×108 and a breakdown voltage of 621 V.

  18. As-grown deep-level defects in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on freestanding GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shang; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Honda, Unhi; Shibata, Tatsunari; Matsumura, Toshiya; Tokuda, Yutaka; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Tsutomu; Kachi, Tetsu

    2012-01-01

    Traps of energy levels E c -0.26 and E c -0.61 eV have been identified as as-grown traps in n-GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition by using deep level transient spectroscopy of the Schottky contacts fabricated by resistive evaporation. The additional traps of E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV have been observed in samples whose contacts are deposited by electron-beam evaporation. An increase in concentration of the E c -0.13 and E c -0.65 eV traps when approaching the interface between the contact and the GaN film supports our argument that these traps are induced by electron-beam irradiation. Conversely, the depth profiles of as-grown traps show different profiles between several samples with increased or uniform distribution in the near surface below 50 nm. Similar profiles are observed in GaN grown on a sapphire substrate. We conclude that the growth process causes these large concentrations of as-grown traps in the near-surface region. It is speculated that the finishing step in the growth process should be an essential issue in the investigation of the surface state of GaN.

  19. Kinetic-limited etching of magnesium doping nitrogen polar GaN in potassium hydroxide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Junyan; Zhang, Yuantao; Chi, Chen; Yang, Fan; Li, Pengchong; Zhao, Degang; Zhang, Baolin; Du, Guotong

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Effects of Mg doping on wet etching of N-polar GaN are illustrated and analysed. • Etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is purposed. • It is found that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN film. • N-polar p-GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10 17 cm −3 is obtained. - Abstract: KOH based wet etchings were performed on both undoped and Mg-doped N-polar GaN films grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It is found that the etching rate for Mg-doped N-polar GaN gets slow obviously compared with undoped N-polar GaN. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis proved that Mg oxide formed on N-polar GaN surface is insoluble in KOH solution so that kinetic-limited etching occurs as the etching process goes on. The etching process model of Mg-doped N-polar GaN in KOH solution is tentatively purposed using a simplified ideal atomic configuration. Raman spectroscopy analysis reveals that Mg doping can induce tensile strain in N-polar GaN films. Meanwhile, p-type N-polar GaN film with a hole concentration of 2.4 × 10 17 cm −3 was obtained by optimizing bis-cyclopentadienyl magnesium flow rates.

  20. GaN High Power Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; ZHANG,A.P.; DANG,G.; CAO,X.A.; LEE,K.P.; CHO,H.; GILA,B.P.; JOHNSON,J.W.; MONIER,C.; ABERNATHY,C.R.; HAN,JUNG; BACA,ALBERT G.; CHYI,J.-I.; LEE,C.-M.; NEE,T.-E.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHI,G.C.; CHU,S.N.G.

    2000-07-17

    A brief review is given of recent progress in fabrication of high voltage GaN and AlGaN rectifiers, GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistors, GaN heterostructure and metal-oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. Improvements in epitaxial layer quality and in fabrication techniques have led to significant advances in device performance.

  1. Activation and evaluation of GaN photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yunsheng; Chang, Benkang; Qiao, Jiangliang; Zhang, Yijun; Fu, Rongguo; Qiu, Yafeng

    2009-09-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) photocathodes are potentially attractive as UV detective materials and electron sources. Based on the activation and evaluation system for GaAs photocathode, which consists of ultra-high vacuum (UHV) activation chamber, multi-information measurement system, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ultraviolet ray photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), the control and measurement system for the activation of UV photocathodes was developed. The developed system, which consists of Xenon lamp, monochromator with scanner, signal-processing module, power control unit of Cs and O source, A/D adapter, digital I/O card, computer and software, can control the activation of GaN photocathodes and measure on-line the spectral response curves of GaN photocathodes. GaN materials on sapphire substrate were grown by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) with p-type Mg doping. The GaN materials were activated by Cs-O. The spectral response and quantum efficiency (QE) were measured and calculated. The experiment results are discussed.

  2. Silicon—a new substrate for GaN growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    of GaN devices based on silicon is the thermal mismatch of GaN and Si, which generates cracks. In 1998, the first MBE grown GaN based LED on Si was made and now the quality of material grown on silicon is compa- rable to that on sapphire substrate. It is only a question of time before Si based GaN devices appear on ...

  3. Characterisation and analytical modeling of GaN HEMT-based varactor diodes

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdoun , Abdelaziz; Roy , L.; Himdi , Mohamed; Lafond , Olivier

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Varactor diodes fabricated in 0.5 and 0.15 μm GaN HEMT (high-electron-mobility transistor) processes are modelled. The devices were characterised via DC and RF small-signal measurements up to 20 GHz, and fitted to a simple physical equivalent circuit. Approximate analytical expressions containing empirical coefficients are introduced for the voltage dependency of capacitance and series resistance. The analytical solutions agree remarkably well with the experimentally e...

  4. GaN Bulk Growth and Epitaxy from Ca-Ga-N Solutions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR proposal addresses the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) of gallium nitride (GaN) films using nitrogen-enriched metal solutions. Growth of GaN from solutions...

  5. Improving the Efficiency Enhancement of Photonic Crystal Based InGaN Solar Cell by Using a GaN Cap Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Gundogdu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied a high indium content (0.8 InGaN based solar cell design where the active InGaN layer is sandwiched between a GaN cap layer and a GaN spacer layer. The incorporation of the sacrificial cap layer allows for the etching of the front surface without removing the active InGaN resulting in a 50% enhancement of the short-circuit current density for a 15 nm-thick InGaN layer.

  6. Design of a new two-dimensional diluted magnetic semiconductor: Mn-doped GaN monolayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qian [Key Laboratory for Optoelectronics and Communication of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China); Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Xiong, Zhihua, E-mail: xiong_zhihua@126.com [Key Laboratory for Optoelectronics and Communication of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China); Luo, Lan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Sun, Zhenhui [Key Laboratory for Optoelectronics and Communication of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China); Qin, Zhenzhen [College of Electronic Information and Optical Engineering, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Chen, Lanli [Materials Genome Institute, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu, Ning [Key Laboratory for Optoelectronics and Communication of Jiangxi Province, Jiangxi Science & Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330038 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • It is found nonmagnetic GaN ML exhibits half-metallic FM behavior by Mn doping due to double exchange mechanism. • Interestingly, the FM coupling is enhanced with the increasing tensile strain due to stronger interaction between Mn-3d and N-2p state. • While, the FM interaction is weakened with the increasing compressive strain until it transforms into AFM under strain of −9.5%. • These results provide a feasible approach for the fabrication of 2D DMS based GaN ML. - Abstract: To meet the need of low-dimensional spintronic devices, we investigate the electronic structure and magnetic properties of Mn-doped GaN monolayer using first-principles method. We find the nonmagnetic GaN monolayer exhibits half-metallic ferromagnetism by Mn doping due to double-exchange mechanism. Interestingly, the ferromagnetic coupling in Mn-doped GaN monolayer is enhanced with tensile strain and weakened with compressive strain. What is more, the ferromagnetic–antiferromagnetic transformation occurs under compressive strain of −9.5%. These results provide a feasible approach for fabrication of a new GaN monolayer based diluted magnetic semiconductor.

  7. Multibias and thermal behavior of microwave GaN and GaAs based HEMTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alim, Mohammad A.; Rezazadeh, Ali A.; Gaquiere, Christophe

    2016-12-01

    Multibias and thermal characterizations on 0.25 μm × (2 × 100) μm AlGaN/GaN/SiC HEMT and 0.5 μm × (2 × 100) μm AlGaAs/InGaAs pseudomorphic HEMT have carried out for the first time. Two competitive device technologies are investigated with the variations of bias and temperature in order to afford a detailed realization of their potentialities. The main finding includes the self heating effect in the GaN device, zero temperature coefficient points at the drain current and transconductance in the GaAs device. The thermal resistance RTH of 7.1, 8.2 and 9.4 °C mm/W for the GaN device was estimated at 25, 75 and 150 °C respectively which are consistent with those found in the open literature. The temperature trend of the threshold voltage VT, Schottky barrier height ϕb, sheet charge densities of two dimensional electron gas ns, and capacitance under the gate Cg are exactly opposite in the two devices; whereas the knee voltage Vk, on resistance Ron, and series resistance Rseries are shows similar trend. The multi-bias and thermal behavior of the output current Ids, output conductance gds, transconductance gm, cut-off frequency ft, maximum frequency fmax, effective velocity of electron, veff and field dependent mobility, μ demonstrates a great potential of GaN device. These results provide some valuable insights for technology of preference for future and current applications.

  8. GaN Power Stage for Switch-mode Audio Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, Rasmus Overgaard; Knott, Arnold; Poulsen, Søren Bang

    2015-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) based power transistors are gaining more and more attention since the introduction of the enhancement mode eGaN Field Effect Transistor (FET) which makes an adaptation from Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (MOSFET) to eGaN based technology less complex than by using depletion mode Ga......N FETs. This project seeks to investigate the possibilities of using eGaN FETs as the power switching device in a full bridge power stage intended for switch mode audio amplification. A 50 W 1 MHz power stage was built and provided promising audio performance. Future work includes optimization of dead...

  9. Hybrid Electrothermal Simulation of a 3-D Fin-Shaped Field-Effect Transistor Based on GaN Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qing; Zhao, Hongbo; Xiao, Yue; Wang, Quan; Wang, Xiaoliang

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, three-dimensional GaN-based transistors have been intensively studied for their dramatically improved output power, better gate controllability, and shorter channels for speedup and miniaturization. However, thermal analysis of such devices is often oversimplified using the conventional Fourier's law and bulk material properties in thermal simulations. In this aspect, accurate temperature predictions can be achieved by coupled phonon and electron Monte Carlo simulations that track the movement and scattering of individual phonons and electrons. However, the heavy computational load often restricts such simulations to nanoscale devices, while a real chip is of millimeter to centimeter sizes. This issue can be addressed by a hybrid simulation technique that employs the Fourier's law for regions away from the hot spot. Using this technique, accurate electrothermal simulations are carried out on a nanowire-based GaN transistor to reveal the temperature rise in such devices.

  10. Fabrication of gallium nitride nanowires by metal-assisted photochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao-Rong; Jiang, Qing-Mei; Zhang, Shao-Hui; Wang, Zu-Gang; Hou, Fei; Pan, Ge-Bo

    2017-11-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires (NWs) were fabricated by metal-assisted photochemical etching (MaPEtch). Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as metal catalyst were electrodeposited on the GaN substrate. SEM and HRTEM images show the surface of GaN NWs is smooth and clean without any impurity. SAED and FFT patterns demonstrate GaN NWs have single crystal structure, and the crystallographic orientation of GaN NWs is (0002) face. On the basis of the assumption of localized galvanic cells, combined with the energy levels and electrochemical potentials of reactants in this etching system, the generation, transfer and consumption of electron-hole pairs reveal the whole MaPEtch reaction process. Such easily fabricated GaN NWs have great potential for the assembly of GaN-based single-nanowire nanodevices.

  11. Doping Induced Structural Stability and Electronic Properties of GaN Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the effect of manganese doping on the structural stability and electronic band gap of chiral (2, 1, armchair (3, 3, and zigzag ((6, 0 and (10, 0 single walled GaN nanotube by using density functional theory based Atomistix Toolkit (ATK Virtual NanoLab (VNL. The structural stability has been analyzed in terms of minimum ground state total energy, binding, and formation energy. As an effect of Mn doping (1–4 atoms, all the GaN nanotubes taken into consideration show semiconducting to metallic transition first and after certain level of Mn doping changes its trend.

  12. Vectorial near-field imaging of a GaN based photonic crystal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La China, F.; Intonti, F.; Caselli, N.; Lotti, F.; Vinattieri, A.; Gurioli, M.; Vico Triviño, N.; Carlin, J.-F.; Butté, R.; Grandjean, N.

    2015-01-01

    We report a full optical deep sub-wavelength imaging of the vectorial components of the electric local density of states for the confined modes of a modified GaN L3 photonic crystal nanocavity. The mode mapping is obtained with a scanning near-field optical microscope operating in a resonant forward scattering configuration, allowing the vectorial characterization of optical passive samples. The optical modes of the investigated cavity emerge as Fano resonances and can be probed without the need of embedded light emitters or evanescent light coupling into the nanocavity. The experimental maps, independently measured in the two in-plane polarizations, turn out to be in excellent agreement with numerical predictions

  13. Potential study of the enhanced breakdown voltage GaN MISFET based on partial AlN buried layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Xin-Xing; Wang, Ying; Luo, Xin; Cao, Fei; Yu, Cheng-Hao

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a new structure for GaN MISFET is proposed to enhance its breakdown voltage. The proposed structure uses an Aluminum nitride (AlN) buried layer embedded inside the GaN buffer layer. The AlN buried layer is employed to reduce the peak electric field strength near the gate, introducing a high electric field peak in the GaN buffer layer. The GaN/AlN heterojunction formed by the GaN buffer layer and the AlN buried layer introduces two electric field peaks, and enhances the uniformity of the electric field distribution in the GaN buffer layer. Simulation results of the proposed structure show that the breakdown voltage is enhanced by 78% when compared to the conventional GaN MISFET. Moreover, the specific on-resistance (Ron,sp) is improved since the AlN buried layer provides two-dimensional electron gases in the GaN buffer which can cause the charge to increase.

  14. Leakage currents and Fermi-level shifts in GaN layers upon iron and carbon-doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariza, A.; Lesnik, A.; Neugebauer, S.; Wieneke, M.; Hennig, J.; Bläsing, J.; Witte, H.; Dadgar, A.; Strittmatter, A.

    2017-07-01

    Semi-insulating GaN is a prerequisite for lateral high frequency and high power electronic devices to isolate the device region from parasitic conductive channels. The commonly used dopants for achieving semi-insulating GaN, Fe, and C cause distinct properties of GaN layers since the Fermi-level is located either above (Fe) or below (C) the midgap position. In this study, precursor-based doping of GaN in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy is used at otherwise identical growth conditions to control the dopant concentrations in the layer. Using electric force microscopy, we have investigated the contact potentials of Fe- and C-doped samples with respect to a cobalt metal probe tip in dependence of on the dopant concentration. While in Fe-doped samples the sign of the contact potential is constant, a change from positive to negative contact potential values is observed at high carbon concentrations, indicating the shift of the Fermi-level below the midgap position. In vertical transport measurements, C-doped GaN layers with a dopant concentration of 4.6 × 1018 cm-3 exhibit up to 5 orders of magnitude lower dark current at room temperature and significantly lower temperature dependence than Fe-doped samples with a similar dopant concentration. Therefore, precursor-based carbon doping is the superior doping technique to achieve semi-insulating GaN.

  15. Impact of GaN cap on charges in Al2O3/(GaN/)AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures analyzed by means of capacitance measurements and simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťapajna, M.; Jurkovič, M.; Válik, L.; Haščík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M.; Hashizume, T.; Kuzmík, J.

    2014-09-01

    Oxide/semiconductor interface trap density (Dit) and net charge of Al2O3/(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structures with and without GaN cap were comparatively analyzed using comprehensive capacitance measurements and simulations. Dit distribution was determined in full band gap of the barrier using combination of three complementary capacitance techniques. A remarkably higher Dit (˜5-8 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2) was found at trap energies ranging from EC-0.5 to 1 eV for structure with GaN cap compared to that (Dit ˜ 2-3 × 1012 eV-1 cm-2) where the GaN cap was selectively etched away. Dit distributions were then used for simulation of capacitance-voltage characteristics. A good agreement between experimental and simulated capacitance-voltage characteristics affected by interface traps suggests (i) that very high Dit (>1013 eV-1 cm-2) close to the barrier conduction band edge hampers accumulation of free electron in the barrier layer and (ii) the higher Dit centered about EC-0.6 eV can solely account for the increased C-V hysteresis observed for MOS-HEMT structure with GaN cap. Analysis of the threshold voltage dependence on Al2O3 thickness for both MOS-HEMT structures suggests that (i) positive charge, which compensates the surface polarization, is not necessarily formed during the growth of III-N heterostructure, and (ii) its density is similar to the total surface polarization charge of the GaN/AlGaN barrier, rather than surface polarization of the top GaN layer only. Some constraints for the positive surface compensating charge are discussed.

  16. Refractory metal based superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Paula R.; Vicente, Eduardo E.; Rubiolo, Gerardo H.

    1999-01-01

    Refractory metals are looked as promising materials for primary circuits in fission reactors and even as fusion reactor components. Indeed, superalloys could be developed which take advantage of their high temperature properties together with the benefits of a two- phase (intermetallic compound-refractory metal matrix) coherent structure. In 1993, researchers of the Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales of France reported the observation of such a coherent structure in the Ta-Ti-Zr-Al-Nb-Mo system although the exact composition is not reported. The intermetallic compound would be Ti 2 AlMo based. However, the formation of this compound and its possible coexistence with a disordered bcc phase in the ternary system Ti-Al-Mo is a controversial subject in the related literature. In this work we develop a technique to obtain homogeneous alloys samples with 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. The resulting specimens were characterized by optical and electronic metallography (SEM), microprobe composition measurements (EPMA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The results show the evidence for a bcc (A2→B2) ordering reaction in the Ti-Al-Mo system in the 50 Ti-25 Al-25 Mo composition. (author)

  17. Optical properties of photodetectors based on single GaN nanowires with a transparent graphene contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichev, A. V., E-mail: A.Babichev@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Institute (Russian Federation); Zhang, H.; Guan, N. [University Paris Saclay, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS (France); Egorov, A. Yu. [ITMO University (Russian Federation); Julien, F. H.; Messanvi, A. [University Paris Saclay, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS (France); Durand, C.; Eymery, J. [University Grenoble Alpes (France); Tchernycheva, M. [University Paris Saclay, Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, UMR 8622 CNRS (France)

    2016-08-15

    We report the fabrication and optical and electrical characterization of photodetectors for the UV spectral range based on single p–n junction nanowires with a transparent contact of a new type. The contact is based on CVD-grown (chemical-vapor deposition) graphene. The active region of the nitride nanowires contains a set of 30 radial In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N/GaN quantum wells. The structure is grown by metal-organic vaporphase epitaxy. The photodetectors are fabricated using electron-beam lithography. The current–voltage characteristics exhibit a rectifying behavior. The spectral sensitivity of the photodetector is recorded starting from 3 eV and extending far in the UV range. The maximal photoresponse is observed at a wavelength of 367 nm (sensitivity 1.9 mA/W). The response switching time of the photodetector is less than 0.1 s.

  18. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystalline GaN nanowires on a flexible Ti foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Corfdir, Pierre; Gao, Guanhui; Pfüller, Carsten; Trampert, Achim; Brandt, Oliver; Geelhaar, Lutz; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowire ensembles on a flexible Ti foil by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of single nanowires by transmission electron microscopy reveals that they are single crystalline. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that in comparison to standard GaN nanowires grown on Si, the nanowires prepared on the Ti foil exhibit an equivalent crystalline perfection, a higher density of basal-plane stacking faults, but a reduced density of inversion domain boundaries. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the nanowire ensemble is not influenced or degraded by the bending of the substrate. The present results pave the way for the fabrication of flexible optoelectronic devices based on GaN nanowires on metal foils.

  19. Molecular beam epitaxy of single crystalline GaN nanowires on a flexible Ti foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, Gabriele; Corfdir, Pierre; Gao, Guanhui; Pfüller, Carsten; Trampert, Achim; Brandt, Oliver; Geelhaar, Lutz; Fernández-Garrido, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the self-assembled growth of vertically aligned GaN nanowire ensembles on a flexible Ti foil by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The analysis of single nanowires by transmission electron microscopy reveals that they are single crystalline. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that in comparison to standard GaN nanowires grown on Si, the nanowires prepared on the Ti foil exhibit an equivalent crystalline perfection, a higher density of basal-plane stacking faults, but a reduced density of inversion domain boundaries. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectrum of the nanowire ensemble is not influenced or degraded by the bending of the substrate. The present results pave the way for the fabrication of flexible optoelectronic devices based on GaN nanowires on metal foils.

  20. Interfacial and electrical properties of Al2O3/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor junctions with ultrathin AlN layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hogyoung; Kim, Dong Ha; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-12-01

    Ultrathin AlN layer deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was employed in Al2O3/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors, and their interfacial and electrical properties were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and current-voltage ( I-V) and capacitance-voltage ( C-V) measurements. XPS analyses revealed that the diffusion of N atoms into Al2O3 and the degradation of Al2O3 film quality were significant for the thickest Al2O3 (10 nm). The sample with a 10-nm-thick Al2O3 layer produced the highest leakage current and trap density. These results may result from the deteriorated interface characteristics near the AlN layer caused by long growth time. Therefore, it is suggested that the Al2O3 thickness (and optimal growth time) is a key factor in Al2O3/AlN/GaN MOS capacitors.

  1. In-situ wafer bowing measurements of GaN grown on Si (111) substrate by reflectivity mapping in metal organic chemical vapor deposition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yi-Bin; Liu Ming-Gang; Chen Wei-Jie; Han Xiao-Biao; Chen Jie; Lin Xiu-Qi; Lin Jia-Li; Luo Hui; Liao Qiang; Zang Wen-Jie; Chen Yin-Song; Qiu Yun-Ling; Wu Zhi-Sheng; Liu Yang; Zhang Bai-Jun

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the wafer bowing during growth can be in-situ measured by a reflectivity mapping method in the 3×2″ Thomas Swan close coupled showerhead metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The reflectivity mapping method is usually used to measure the film thickness and growth rate. The wafer bowing caused by stresses (tensile and compressive) during the epitaxial growth leads to a temperature variation at different positions on the wafer, and the lower growth temperature leads to a faster growth rate and vice versa. Therefore, the wafer bowing can be measured by analyzing the discrepancy of growth rates at different positions on the wafer. Furthermore, the wafer bowings were confirmed by the ex-situ wafer bowing measurement. High-resistivity and low-resistivity Si substrates were used for epitaxial growth. In comparison with low-resistivity Si substrate, GaN grown on high-resistivity substrate shows a larger wafer bowing caused by the highly compressive stress introduced by compositionally graded AlGaN buffer layer. This transition of wafer bowing can be clearly in-situ measured by using the reflectivity mapping method. (paper)

  2. Demonstration of an RF front-end based on GaN HEMT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ture, Erdin; Musser, Markus; Hülsmann, Axel; Quay, Rüdiger; Ambacher, Oliver

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of the developed front-end on blocking the communication link of a commercial drone vehicle has been demonstrated in this work. A jamming approach has been taken in a broadband fashion by using GaN HEMT technology. Equipped with a modulated-signal generator, a broadband power amplifier, and an omni-directional antenna, the proposed system is capable of producing jamming signals in a very wide frequency range between 0.1 - 3 GHz. The maximum RF output power of the amplifier module has been software-limited to 27 dBm (500 mW), complying to the legal spectral regulations of the 2.4 GHz ISM band. In order to test the proof of concept, a real-world scenario has been prepared in which a commercially-available quadcopter UAV is flown in a controlled environment while the jammer system has been placed in a distance of about 10 m from the drone. It has been proven that the drone of interest can be neutralized as soon as it falls within the range of coverage (˜3 m) which endorses the promising potential of the broadband jamming approach.

  3. Characterization and Modeling of Schottky Diodes Based on Bulk GaN Unintentionally Doped

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHELIFI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied Au/n-GaN Schottky diodes. The substrates are realized on bulk GaN. The current-voltage (I-V and capacitance–voltage (C–V of Au/n-GaN structures were investigated at room temperature. The electrical parameters such as saturation current I0 (1.98 ´ 10-7 A, ideality factor n (1.02, barrier height fbn (0.65 eV and series resistance Rs (84 W were evaluated from I–V experimental data. The characteristics in these data structures Schottky Au/n-GaN can help to highlight the main conduction mechanisms observed. In addition to the thermionic current present in our structures, the leakage current intervenes too. The barrier height and doping determined from the (C-V characteristic are of the order of 1.17 eV and 8.16 ´ 1016 cm-3, respectively. The average density of surface states Nss determined set to 1.09 ´ 1012 eV-1 cm-2.

  4. Silicon—a new substrate for GaN growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In 1998, the first MBE grown GaN based LED on Si was made and now the quality of material grown on silicon is comparable to that on sapphire substrate. It is only a question of time before Si based GaN devices appear on the market. This article is a review of the latest developments in GaN based devices on silicon.

  5. Ultrasensitive in situ label-free DNA detection using a GaN nanowire-based extended-gate field-effect-transistor sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Pei; Ganguly, Abhijit; Lu, Ching-Ying; Chen, Ting-Yu; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Reui-San; Tu, Wen-Hsun; Fischer, Wolfgang B; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2011-03-15

    In this study, we have successfully demonstrated that a GaN nanowire (GaNNW) based extended-gate field-effect-transistor (EGFET) biosensor is capable of specific DNA sequence identification under label-free in situ conditions. Our approach shows excellent integration of the wide bandgap semiconducting nature of GaN, surface-sensitivity of the NW-structure, and high transducing performance of the EGFET-design. The simple sensor-architecture, by direct assembly of as-synthesized GaNNWs with a commercial FET device, can achieve an ultrahigh detection limit below attomolar level concentrations: about 3 orders of magnitude higher in resolution than that of other FET-based DNA-sensors. Comparative in situ studies on mismatches ("hotspot" mutations related to human p53 tumor-suppressor gene) and complementary targets reveal excellent selectivity and specificity of the sensor, even in the presence of noncomplementary DNA strands, suggesting the potential pragmatic application in complex clinical samples. In comparison with GaN thin film, NW-based EGFET exhibits excellent performance with about 2 orders higher sensitivity, over a wide detection range, 10(-19)-10(-6) M, reaching about a 6-orders lower detection limit. Investigations illustrate the unique and distinguished feature of nanomaterials. Detailed studies indicate a positive effect of energy band alignment at the biomaterials-semiconductor hybrid interface influencing the effective capacitance and carrier-mobility of the system.

  6. Investigation of GaN-based vertical-injection light-emitting diodes with GaN nano-cone structure by ICP etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.W.; Lin, C.H.; Yu, C.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Lee, B.D.; Kuo, H.C.; Kuo, S.Y.; Leung, K.M.; Wang, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The GaN-based thin-film vertical-injection LEDs (VLEDs) with GaN nano-cone structures are fabricated and presented. Under the process conditions of fixed Cl 2 /Ar flow rate of 10/25 sccm and ICP/bias power of 200/200 W, the GaN nano-cone structures are self-assembly formed with variable density of 1.5 x 10 7 to 1.4 x 10 9 cm -2 and variable depth of 0.56-1.34 μm when varying the ICP chamber pressure. At a driving current of 350 mA and with chip size of 1 mm x 1 mm, the light output power of our thin-film LED with a specific GaN nano-cone structure reaches 224 mW which is enhanced by 160% when compared with the output power of conventional VLED. In addition, the corresponding light radiation pattern shows much higher light intensity due to the strong light scattering effect by the formed nano-cone structure

  7. Annealing of GaN under high pressure of nitrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Porowski, S; Kolesnikov, D; Lojkowski, W; Jager, V; Jäger, W; Bogdanov, V; Suski, T; Krukowski, S

    2002-01-01

    Gallium nitride, aluminum nitride and indium nitride are basic materials for blue optoelectronic devices. The essential part of the technology of these devices is annealing at high temperatures. Thermodynamic properties of the Ga-N system and their consequences to application of high nitrogen pressure for the annealing of GaN based materials are summarized. The diffusion of Zn, Mg and Au in high dislocation density heteroepitaxial GaN/Al sub 2 O sub 3 layers will be compared with the diffusion in dislocation-free GaN single crystals and homoepitaxial layers. It will be shown that high dislocation density can drastically change the diffusion rates, which strongly affects the performance of nitride devices. Inter-diffusion of Al, Ga and In in AlGaN/GaN and InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures will be also considered. It will be shown that in contrast to stability of metal contacts, which is strongly influenced by dislocations, the inter-diffusion of group III atoms in QW structures is not affected strongly by...

  8. In-situ wafer bowing measurements of GaN grown on Si (111) substrate by reflectivity mapping in metal organic chemical vapor deposition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Bin; Liu, Ming-Gang; Chen, Wei-Jie; Han, Xiao-Biao; Chen, Jie; Lin, Xiu-Qi; Lin, Jia-Li; Luo, Hui; Liao, Qiang; Zang, Wen-Jie; Chen, Yin-Song; Qiu, Yun-Ling; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Bai-Jun

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the wafer bowing during growth can be in-situ measured by a reflectivity mapping method in the 3×2″ Thomas Swan close coupled showerhead metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) system. The reflectivity mapping method is usually used to measure the film thickness and growth rate. The wafer bowing caused by stresses (tensile and compressive) during the epitaxial growth leads to a temperature variation at different positions on the wafer, and the lower growth temperature leads to a faster growth rate and vice versa. Therefore, the wafer bowing can be measured by analyzing the discrepancy of growth rates at different positions on the wafer. Furthermore, the wafer bowings were confirmed by the ex-situ wafer bowing measurement. High-resistivity and low-resistivity Si substrates were used for epitaxial growth. In comparison with low-resistivity Si substrate, GaN grown on high-resistivity substrate shows a larger wafer bowing caused by the highly compressive stress introduced by compositionally graded AlGaN buffer layer. This transition of wafer bowing can be clearly in-situ measured by using the reflectivity mapping method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274039 and 51177175), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB301903), the Ph.D. Programs Foundation of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 20110171110021), the International Science and Technology Collaboration Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFG52260), the International Science and Technology Collaboration Program of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B051000041), the Science and Technology Plan of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B010401013), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2014AA032606), and the Opened Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, China (Grant No. IOSKL2014KF17).

  9. X-parameter Based GaN Device Modeling and its Application to a High-efficiency PA Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yelin; Nielsen, Troels Studsgaard; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2014-01-01

    X-parameters are supersets of S-parameters and applicable to both linear and nonlinear system modeling. In this paper, a packaged 6 W Gallium Nitride (GaN) RF power transistor is modeled using load-dependent X-parameters by simulations. During the device characterization the load impedance is tuned...

  10. Impact of GaN cap on charges in Al2O3/(GaN/)AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures analyzed by means of capacitance measurements and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ťapajna, M.; Jurkovič, M.; Válik, L.; Haščík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Kuzmík, J.; Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M.; Hashizume, T.

    2014-01-01

    Oxide/semiconductor interface trap density (D it ) and net charge of Al 2 O 3 /(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structures with and without GaN cap were comparatively analyzed using comprehensive capacitance measurements and simulations. D it distribution was determined in full band gap of the barrier using combination of three complementary capacitance techniques. A remarkably higher D it (∼5–8 × 10 12  eV −1  cm −2 ) was found at trap energies ranging from E C -0.5 to 1 eV for structure with GaN cap compared to that (D it  ∼ 2–3 × 10 12  eV −1  cm −2 ) where the GaN cap was selectively etched away. D it distributions were then used for simulation of capacitance-voltage characteristics. A good agreement between experimental and simulated capacitance-voltage characteristics affected by interface traps suggests (i) that very high D it (>10 13  eV −1  cm −2 ) close to the barrier conduction band edge hampers accumulation of free electron in the barrier layer and (ii) the higher D it centered about E C -0.6 eV can solely account for the increased C-V hysteresis observed for MOS-HEMT structure with GaN cap. Analysis of the threshold voltage dependence on Al 2 O 3 thickness for both MOS-HEMT structures suggests that (i) positive charge, which compensates the surface polarization, is not necessarily formed during the growth of III-N heterostructure, and (ii) its density is similar to the total surface polarization charge of the GaN/AlGaN barrier, rather than surface polarization of the top GaN layer only. Some constraints for the positive surface compensating charge are discussed.

  11. Impact of GaN cap on charges in Al₂O₃/(GaN/)AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures analyzed by means of capacitance measurements and simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ťapajna, M., E-mail: milan.tapajna@savba.sk; Jurkovič, M.; Válik, L.; Haščík, Š.; Gregušová, D.; Kuzmík, J. [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, 841 04 Bratislava (Slovakia); Brunner, F.; Cho, E.-M. [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Strasse 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Hashizume, T. [Research Center for Integrated Quantum Electronics (RCIQE), Hokkaido University, 060-0814 Sapporo, Japan and JST-CREST, 102-0075 Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-09-14

    Oxide/semiconductor interface trap density (D{sub it}) and net charge of Al₂O₃/(GaN)/AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structures with and without GaN cap were comparatively analyzed using comprehensive capacitance measurements and simulations. D{sub it} distribution was determined in full band gap of the barrier using combination of three complementary capacitance techniques. A remarkably higher D{sub it} (∼5–8 × 10¹²eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) was found at trap energies ranging from EC-0.5 to 1 eV for structure with GaN cap compared to that (D{sub it} ∼ 2–3 × 10¹²eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) where the GaN cap was selectively etched away. D{sub it} distributions were then used for simulation of capacitance-voltage characteristics. A good agreement between experimental and simulated capacitance-voltage characteristics affected by interface traps suggests (i) that very high D{sub it} (>10¹³eV⁻¹ cm⁻²) close to the barrier conduction band edge hampers accumulation of free electron in the barrier layer and (ii) the higher D{sub it} centered about EC-0.6 eV can solely account for the increased C-V hysteresis observed for MOS-HEMT structure with GaN cap. Analysis of the threshold voltage dependence on Al₂O₃ thickness for both MOS-HEMT structures suggests that (i) positive charge, which compensates the surface polarization, is not necessarily formed during the growth of III-N heterostructure, and (ii) its density is similar to the total surface polarization charge of the GaN/AlGaN barrier, rather than surface polarization of the top GaN layer only. Some constraints for the positive surface compensating charge are discussed.

  12. Understanding the Room Temperature Ferromagnetism in GaN Nanowires with Pd Doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manna, S; De, S K, E-mail: mannaju@gmail [Department of Materials Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2011-04-01

    We report the first synthesis and characterization of 4d transition metal palladium-doped GaN nanowires (NWs). Room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed in high quality Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) epitaxy grown undoped n-type GaN nanowires. It was proposed that this type of magnetism is due to defects which are not observed in Bulk GaN because of large formation energy of defects in bulk GaN. Here we have successfully doped 4d transition metal Pd in GaN NWs. We find fairly strong and long-range ferromagnetic coupling between Pd substituted for Ga in GaN . The results suggest that 4d metals such as Pd may also be considered as candidates for ferromagnetic dopants in semiconductors.

  13. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Velazquez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  14. Fabrications and application of single crystalline GaN for high-performance deep UV photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, R.; Rivera, M.; Feng, P., E-mail: p.feng@upr.edu [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, 00936-8377, PR/USA (Puerto Rico); Aldalbahi, A. [Department of Chemistry, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-08-15

    High-quality single crystalline Gallium Nitride (GaN) semiconductor has been synthesized using molecule beam epitaxy (MBE) technique for development of high-performance deep ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Thickness of the films was estimated by using surface profile meter and scanning electron microscope. Electronic states and elemental composition of the films were obtained using Raman scattering spectroscopy. The orientation, crystal structure and phase purity of the films were examined using a Siemens x-ray diffractometer radiation. The surface microstructure was studied using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two types of metal pairs: Al-Al, Al-Cu or Cu-Cu were used for interdigital electrodes on GaN film in order to examine the Schottky properties of the GaN based photodetector. The characterizations of the fabricated prototype include the stability, responsivity, response and recovery times. Typical time dependent photoresponsivity by switching different UV light source on and off five times for each 240 seconds at a bias of 2V, respectively, have been obtained. The detector appears to be highly sensitive to various UV wavelengths of light with very stable baseline and repeatability. The obtained photoresponsivity was up to 354 mA/W at the bias 2V. Higher photoresponsivity could be obtained if higher bias was applied but it would unavoidably result in a higher dark current. Thermal effect on the fabricated GaN based prototype was discussed.

  15. Mn doped GaN thin films and nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šofer, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Huber, Š.; Hejtmánek, Jiří; Macková, Anna; Fiala, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 9, 8-9 (2012), s. 809-824 ISSN 1475-7435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/0621 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521; CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : GaN nanoparticles * GaN thin films * manganese * transition metals * MOVPE * ion implantations Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.087, year: 2012

  16. The controlled growth of GaN microrods on Si(111) substrates by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynski, Bartosz; Garro, Nuria; Vallo, Martin; Finken, Matthias; Giesen, Christoph; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Cantarero, Andrés; Heuken, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a selective area growth (SAG) approach for growing GaN microrods on patterned SiNx/Si(111) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is studied. The surface morphology, optical and structural properties of vertical GaN microrods terminated by pyramidal shaped facets (six { 10 1 bar 1} planes) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Measurements revealed high-quality GaN microcolumns grown with silane support. Characterized structures were grown nearly strain-free (central frequency of Raman peak of 567±1 cm-1) with crystal quality comparable to bulk crystals (FWHM=4.2±1 cm-1). Such GaN microrods might be used as a next-generation device concept for solid-state lighting (SSL) applications by realizing core-shell InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the n-GaN rod base.

  17. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Huang, Shimin [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Tang, Kun, E-mail: ktang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Shulin, E-mail: slgu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Shunming [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ye, Jiandong [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Nanjing University Institute of Optoelectronics at Yangzhou, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Xu, Mingxiang [Department of Physics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Wang, Wei; Zheng, Youdou [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN hetero-structure has been fabricated by MOCVD successfully. • The formation mechanism of different layers in sample was revealed in details. • The properties of the hetero-structure have been presented and discussed extensively. • The effect of Ga diffusion on the magnetic properties of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} film has been shown. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have designed and fabricated a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The compositional, structural, and magnetic properties of the hetero-structure have been characterized and discussed. From the characterizations, the hetero-structure has been successfully grown generally. However, due to the unintentional diffusion of Ga ions from Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN layers, the most part of the nominal Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} layer is actually in the form of Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} with gradually decreased x values from the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface to the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} surface. Post-annealing process can further aggravate the diffusion. Due to the similar ionic radius of Ga and Fe, the structural configuration of the Ga{sub x}Fe{sub 3−x}O{sub 4} does not differ from that of pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. However, the ferromagnetism has been reduced with the incorporation of Ga into Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, which has been explained by the increased Yafet-Kittel angles in presence of considerable amount of Ga incorporation. A different behavior of the magnetoresistance has been found on the as-grown and annealed samples, which could be modelled and explained by the competition between the spin-dependent and spin-independent conduction channels. This work has provided detailed information on the interfacial properties of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}/Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaN spin injecting hetero-structure, which is the solid basis for further improvement and application of

  18. Optical properties of metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Bergman, Peder; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.; Monemar, Bo

    2010-01-01

    GaN layers doped by Mg show a metastable behavior of the near-band-gap luminescence caused by electron irradiation or UV excitation. At low temperatures < 30 K the changes in luminescence are permanent. Heating to room temperature recovers the initial low temperature spectrum shape completely. Two acceptors are involved in the recombination process as confirmed by transient PL. In as-grown samples a possible candidate for the metastable acceptor is C-N, while after annealing a second m...

  19. Strain management of AlGaN-based distributed Bragg reflectors with GaN interlayer grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuh-Shiuan; Wang, Shuo; Xie, Hongen; Kao, Tsung-Ting; Mehta, Karan; Jia, Xiao Jia; Shen, Shyh-Chiang; Yoder, P. Douglas; Ponce, Fernando A.; Detchprohm, Theeradetch; Dupuis, Russell D.

    2016-08-01

    We report the crack-free growth of a 45-pair Al0.30Ga0.70N/Al0.04Ga0.96N distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) on 2 in. diameter AlN/sapphire template by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. To mitigate the cracking issue originating from the tensile strain of Al0.30Ga0.70N on GaN, an AlN template was employed in this work. On the other hand, strong compressive strain experienced by Al0.04Ga0.96N favors 3D island growth, which is undesired. We found that inserting an 11 nm thick GaN interlayer upon the completion of AlN template layer properly managed the strain such that the Al0.30Ga0.70N/Al0.04Ga0.96N DBR was able to be grown with an atomically smooth surface morphology. Smooth surfaces and sharp interfaces were observed throughout the structure using high-angle annular dark-field imaging in the STEM. The 45-pair AlGaN-based DBR provided a peak reflectivity of 95.4% at λ = 368 nm with a bandwidth of 15 nm.

  20. Integrated luminescent chemical microsensors based on GaN LEDs for security applications using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Guillermo; Muñoz, Elias; Gil-Herrera, Luz K.; Muñoz, Pablo; Lopez-Gejo, Juan; Palacio, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Development of PCB-integrateable microsensors for monitoring chemical species is a goal in areas such as lab-on-a-chip analytical devices, diagnostics medicine and electronics for hand-held instruments where the device size is a major issue. Cellular phones have pervaded the world inhabitants and their usefulness has dramatically increased with the introduction of smartphones due to a combination of amazing processing power in a confined space, geolocalization and manifold telecommunication features. Therefore, a number of physical and chemical sensors that add value to the terminal for health monitoring, personal safety (at home, at work) and, eventually, national security have started to be developed, capitalizing also on the huge number of circulating cell phones. The chemical sensor-enabled "super" smartphone provides a unique (bio)sensing platform for monitoring airborne or waterborne hazardous chemicals or microorganisms for both single user and crowdsourcing security applications. Some of the latest ones are illustrated by a few examples. Moreover, we have recently achieved for the first time (covalent) functionalization of p- and n-GaN semiconductor surfaces with tuneable luminescent indicator dyes of the Ru-polypyridyl family, as a key step in the development of innovative microsensors for smartphone applications. Chemical "sensoring" of GaN-based blue LED chips with those indicators has also been achieved by plasma treatment of their surface, and the micrometer-sized devices have been tested to monitor O2 in the gas phase to show their full functionality. Novel strategies to enhance the sensor sensitivity such as changing the length and nature of the siloxane buffer layer are discussed in this paper.

  1. Alignment control and atomically-scaled heteroepitaxial interface study of GaN nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyun; Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Xinglai; Labbé, Christophe; Portier, Xavier; An, Vladimir; Jiang, Xin

    2017-04-20

    Well-aligned GaN nanowires are promising candidates for building high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of well-aligned GaN nanowires on a [0001]-oriented sapphire substrate in a simple catalyst-assisted chemical vapor deposition process and their alignment control. It is found that the ammonia flux plays a key role in dominating the initial nucleation of GaN nanocrystals and their orientation. Typically, significant improvement of the GaN nanowire alignment can be realized at a low NH 3 flow rate. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy studies further verified the preferential orientation of GaN nanowires along the [0001] direction. The growth mechanism of GaN nanowire arrays is also well studied based on cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization and it is observed that GaN nanowires have good epitaxial growth on the sapphire substrate following the crystallographic relationship between (0001) GaN ∥(0001) sapphire and (101[combining macron]0) GaN ∥(112[combining macron]0) sapphire . Most importantly, periodic misfit dislocations are also experimentally observed in the interface region due to the large lattice mismatch between the GaN nanowire and the sapphire substrate, and the formation of such dislocations will favor the release of structural strain in GaN nanowires. HRTEM analysis also finds the existence of "type I" stacking faults and voids inside the GaN nanowires. Optical investigation suggests that the GaN nanowire arrays have strong emission in the UV range, suggesting their crystalline nature and chemical purity. The achievement of aligned GaN nanowires will further promote the wide applications of GaN nanostructures toward diverse high-performance optoelectronic nanodevices including nano-LEDs, photovoltaic cells, photodetectors etc.

  2. 15 Gb/s OFDM-based VLC using direct modulation of 450 GaN laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Shaun; Islim, Mohamed Sufyan; Watson, Scott; Videv, Stefan; Haas, Harald; Kelly, Anthony E.

    2017-10-01

    A record data rate for visible light communications (VLC) using a transistor outline (TO) packaged Gallium Nitride (GaN) laser diode is reported. Using a system 3 dB bandwidth of 1.4 GHz data transmission at 15 Gb/s is reported. This is achieved due to the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in combination with a high system signal to noise ratio (SNR) and adaptive bit loading extending the effective bandwidth to 2.5 GHz. To the best of authors knowledge this is the highest reported data rate for single channel VLC.

  3. Low modulation bias InGaN-based integrated EA-modulator-laser on semipolar GaN substrate

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2015-10-06

    In summary, we demonstrated the monolithic integration of electroabsorption modulator with laser diode and measured DC and AC modulation characteristics of the device, which is grown on (2021̅) plane GaN substrate. By alternating the modulation voltage at −3.5 V and 0 V, we achieve the laser output power of < 1.5 mW to > 9 mW, respectively, leading to ∼8.1 dB On/Off ratio. Our results clearly show that a low power consumption modulator can be achieved with semipolar EA-modulator compared to that of the c-plane devices.

  4. Normally-off fully recess-gated GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor using Al2O3/Si3N4 bilayer as gate dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyue; Wang, Jinyan; Liu, Jingqian; Li, Mengjun; He, Yandong; Wang, Maojun; Yu, Min; Wu, Wengang; Zhou, Yang; Dai, Gang

    2017-10-01

    By a self-terminating gate recess etching technique, a normally-off fully recess-gated GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MISFET) was fabricated using Al2O3/Si3N4 bilayer as gate dielectrics. Owing to the high breakdown electric field (˜10 MV/cm) of the gate dielectrics, the device exhibits a large gate swing of 18 V, a high threshold voltage of 1.7 V (at I D = 100 µA/mm), a large maximum drain current of 534 mA/mm, a gate leakage current lower than 20 nA/mm in the whole gate swing, and a high OFF-state breakdown voltage of 1282 V. Furthermore, owing to the high gate overdrive (V GS - V TH), the on-resistance of the device only increases by 5.4% under a constant stress of V GS/V DS = 18 V/1 V.

  5. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  6. Origin of orange color in nominally undoped HVPE GaN crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, F.; Beyer, F. C.; Gärtner, G.; Röder, C.; Son, N. T.; Janzén, E.; Veselá, D.; Lorinčík, J.; Hofmann, P.; Krupinski, M.; Mikolajick, T.; Habel, F.; Leibiger, G.; Heitmann, J.

    2017-08-01

    In this article we investigated unintentionally doped (UID) GaN grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) with respect to point defects and impurity concentration. The samples were orange tinted to different extent. Optical analysis was performed by micro-photoluminescence and absorption spectroscopy. Absorption measurements revealed an absorption peak at 1.5 eV related to an internal transition in Mn3+ impurities and a second band with low energy onset at 1.9 eV, both increasing with the extent of orange color. Electron paramagnetic resonance investigations showed the presence of Mn2+ and Fe3+ in the colored crystals. The overall impurity concentration was verified by secondary ion mass spectrometry. Orange tint is associated with an increase of transition metal contamination, especially Mn. Based on these observations we suggest that the orange coloring in the investigated UID HVPE GaN samples is caused by the presence of Mn impurities.

  7. Plasmon enhanced green GaN light-emitting diodes - Invited paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Fadil, Ahmed; Iida, Daisuke

    High-efficiency garnium nitride (GaN) based blue light-emitting diode (LED) paves the way for solid statelighting to take the place of the conventional incandescent bulbs and fluorescent light tubes.Compared to the traditional light sources, solid state lighting is more efficient, more flexible...... in spectral design, more compact etc. TheIII-nitride (GaN, InNetc.) semiconductors are attracting a lot of research effort because the combination of both could emit light with wavelength range from UV to infrared. Basically one material platform could provide all the solutions to light sources.However huge...... point of view, the efficiency of green LED is being improved by growing the GaInN material on non-polar or semi-polar surface of sapphire substrate. In parallel with the material growth effort, surface plasmons are implemented by taking use of the interactionbetween metals and active areas to increase...

  8. Kinetic instability of AlGaN alloys during MBE growth under metal-rich conditions on m-plane GaN miscut towards the -c axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi-HD, M.; Diaz, R. E.; Nguyen, T.; Jian, J.; Gardner, G. C.; Wang, H.; Manfra, M. J.; Malis, O.

    2018-04-01

    AlxGa1-xN layers with Al-composition above 0.6 (0.6 kinetically unstable. Even under excess Ga flux, the effective growth rate of AlGaN is drastically reduced, likely due to suppression of Ga-N dimer incorporation. The defect structure generated during these growth conditions is studied with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy scanning transmission electron microscopy as a function of Al flux. The AlGaN growth results in the formation of thin Al(Ga)N layers with Al-composition higher than expected and lower Al-composition AlGaN islands. The AlGaN islands have a flat top and are elongated along the c-axis (i.e., stripe-like shape). Possible mechanisms for the observed experimental results are discussed. Our data are consistent with a model in which Al-N dimers promote release of Ga-N dimers from the m-plane surface.

  9. Vertically Oriented Growth of GaN Nanorods on Si Using Graphene as an Atomically Thin Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, Martin; Munshi, A Mazid; Sarau, George; Göbelt, Manuela; Tessarek, Christian; Fauske, Vidar T; van Helvoort, Antonius T J; Yang, Jianfeng; Latzel, Michael; Hoffmann, Björn; Conibeer, Gavin; Weman, Helge; Christiansen, Silke

    2016-06-08

    The monolithic integration of wurtzite GaN on Si via metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy is strongly hampered by lattice and thermal mismatch as well as meltback etching. This study presents single-layer graphene as an atomically thin buffer layer for c-axis-oriented growth of vertically aligned GaN nanorods mediated by nanometer-sized AlGaN nucleation islands. Nanostructures of similar morphology are demonstrated on graphene-covered Si(111) as well as Si(100). High crystal and optical quality of the nanorods are evidenced through scanning transmission electron microscopy, micro-Raman, and cathodoluminescence measurements supported by finite-difference time-domain simulations. Current-voltage characteristics revealed high vertical conduction of the as-grown GaN nanorods through the Si substrates. These findings are substantial to advance the integration of GaN-based devices on any substrates of choice that sustains the GaN growth temperatures, thereby permitting novel designs of GaN-based heterojunction device concepts.

  10. Current gain in sub-10 nm base GaN tunneling hot electron transistors with AlN emitter barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhichao; Zhang, Yuewei; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Rajan, Siddharth; Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2015-01-01

    We report on Gallium Nitride-based tunneling hot electron transistor amplifier with common-emitter current gain greater than 1. Small signal current gain up to 5 and dc current gain of 1.3 were attained in common-emitter configuration with collector current density in excess of 50 kA/cm 2 . The use of a combination of 1 nm GaN/3 nm AlN layers as an emitter tunneling barrier was found to improve the energy collimation of the injected electrons. These results represent demonstration of unipolar vertical transistors in the III-nitride system that can potentially lead to higher frequency and power microwave devices

  11. Metal-Based PSMA Radioligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Gourni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies for which great progress has been made in identifying appropriate molecular targets that would enable efficient in vivo targeting for imaging and therapy. The type II integral membrane protein, prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA is overexpressed on prostate cancer cells in proportion to the stage and grade of the tumor progression, especially in androgen-independent, advanced and metastatic disease, rendering it a promising diagnostic and/or therapeutic target. From the perspective of nuclear medicine, PSMA-based radioligands may significantly impact the management of patients who suffer from prostate cancer. For that purpose, chelating-based PSMA-specific ligands have been labeled with various diagnostic and/or therapeutic radiometals for single-photon-emission tomography (SPECT, positron-emission-tomography (PET, radionuclide targeted therapy as well as intraoperative applications. This review focuses on the development and further applications of metal-based PSMA radioligands.

  12. Gold based bulk metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroers, Jan; Lohwongwatana, Boonrat; Johnson, William L.; Peker, Atakan

    2005-08-01

    Gold-based bulk metallic glass alloys based on Au-Cu-Si are introduced. The alloys exhibit a gold content comparable to 18-karat gold. They show very low liquidus temperature, large supercooled liquid region, and good processibility. The maximum casting thickness exceeds 5mm in the best glassformer. Au49Ag5.5Pd2.3Cu26.9Si16.3 has a liquidus temperature of 644K, a glass transition temperature of 401K, and a supercooled liquid region of 58K. The Vickers hardness of the alloys in this system is ˜350Hv, twice that of conventional 18-karat crystalline gold alloys. This combination of properties makes the alloys attractive for many applications including electronic, medical, dental, surface coating, and jewelry.

  13. High hole mobility p-type GaN with low residual hydrogen concentration prepared by pulsed sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Yasuaki; Ueno, Kohei; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Ohta, Jitsuo; Fujioka, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    We have grown Mg-doped GaN films with low residual hydrogen concentration using a low-temperature pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD) process. The growth system is inherently hydrogen-free, allowing us to obtain high-purity Mg-doped GaN films with residual hydrogen concentrations below 5 × 1016 cm-3, which is the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. In the Mg profile, no memory effect or serious dopant diffusion was detected. The as-deposited Mg-doped GaN films showed clear p-type conductivity at room temperature (RT) without thermal activation. The GaN film doped with a low concentration of Mg (7.9 × 1017 cm-3) deposited by PSD showed hole mobilities of 34 and 62 cm2 V-1 s-1 at RT and 175 K, respectively, which are as high as those of films grown by a state-of-the-art metal-organic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. These results indicate that PSD is a powerful tool for the fabrication of GaN-based vertical power devices.

  14. High hole mobility p-type GaN with low residual hydrogen concentration prepared by pulsed sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuaki Arakawa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have grown Mg-doped GaN films with low residual hydrogen concentration using a low-temperature pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD process. The growth system is inherently hydrogen-free, allowing us to obtain high-purity Mg-doped GaN films with residual hydrogen concentrations below 5 × 1016 cm−3, which is the detection limit of secondary ion mass spectroscopy. In the Mg profile, no memory effect or serious dopant diffusion was detected. The as-deposited Mg-doped GaN films showed clear p-type conductivity at room temperature (RT without thermal activation. The GaN film doped with a low concentration of Mg (7.9 × 1017 cm−3 deposited by PSD showed hole mobilities of 34 and 62 cm2 V−1 s−1 at RT and 175 K, respectively, which are as high as those of films grown by a state-of-the-art metal-organic chemical vapor deposition apparatus. These results indicate that PSD is a powerful tool for the fabrication of GaN-based vertical power devices.

  15. Speciation in Metal Toxicity and Metal-Based Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Templeton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Metallic elements, ions and compounds produce varying degrees of toxicity in organisms with which they come into contact. Metal speciation is critical to understanding these adverse effects; the adjectives “heavy” and “toxic” are not helpful in describing the biological properties of individual elements, but detailed chemical structures are. As a broad generalization, the metallic form of an element is inert, and the ionic salts are the species that show more significant bioavailability. Yet the salts and other chelates of a metal ion can give rise to quite different toxicities, as exemplified by a range of carcinogenic potential for various nickel species. Another important distinction comes when a metallic element is organified, increasing its lipophilicity and hence its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier, as is seen, for example, with organic mercury and tin species. Some metallic elements, such as gold and platinum, are themselves useful therapeutic agents in some forms, while other species of the same element can be toxic, thus focusing attention on species interconversions in evaluating metal-based drugs. The therapeutic use of metal-chelating agents introduces new species of the target metal in vivo, and this can affect not only its desired detoxification, but also introduce a potential for further mechanisms of toxicity. Examples of therapeutic iron chelator species are discussed in this context, as well as the more recent aspects of development of chelation therapy for uranium exposure.

  16. Critical issues for homoepitaxial GaN growth by molecular beam epitaxy on hydride vapor-phase epitaxy-grown GaN substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, D. F.; Hardy, M. T.; Katzer, D. S.; Nepal, N.; Downey, B. P.; Meyer, D. J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Zhou, Lin; Smith, David J.

    2016-12-01

    While the heteroepitaxial growth of gallium nitride-based materials and devices on substrates such as SiC, sapphire, and Si has been well-documented, the lack of a cost-effective source of bulk GaN crystals has hindered similar progress on homoepitaxy. Nevertheless, freestanding GaN wafers are becoming more widely available, and there is great interest in growing GaN films and devices on bulk GaN substrates, in order to take advantage of the greatly reduced density of threading dislocations, particularly for vertical devices. However, homoepitaxial GaN growth is far from a trivial task due to the reactivity and different chemical sensitivities of N-polar (0001) and Ga-polar (0001) GaN surfaces, which can affect the microstructure and concentrations of impurities in homoepitaxial GaN layers. In order to achieve high quality, high purity homoepitaxial GaN, it is necessary to investigate the effect of the ex situ wet chemical clean, the use of in situ cleaning procedures, the sensitivity of the GaN surface to thermal decomposition, and the effect of growth temperature. We review the current understanding of these issues with a focus on homoepitaxial growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on c-plane surfaces of freestanding GaN substrates grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), as HVPE-grown substrates are most widely available. We demonstrate methods for obtaining homoepitaxial GaN layers by plasma-assisted MBE in which no additional threading dislocations are generated from the regrowth interface and impurity concentrations are greatly reduced.

  17. Thermal analysis and improvement of cascode GaN device package for totem-pole bridgeless PFC rectifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    She, Shuojie; Zhang, Wenli; Liu, Zhengyang; Lee, Fred C.; Huang, Xiucheng; Du, Weijing; Li, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    The totem-pole bridgeless power factor correction (PFC) rectifier has a simpler topology and higher efficiency than other boost-type bridgeless PFC rectifiers. Its promising performance is enabled by using high-voltage gallium nitride (GaN) high-electron-mobility transistors, which have considerably better figures of merit (e.g., lower reverse recovery charges and less switching losses) than the state-of-the-art silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. Cascode GaN devices in traditional packages, i.e., the TO-220 and power quad flat no-lead, are used in the totem-pole PFC boost rectifier. But the parasitic inductances induced by the traditional packages not only significantly deteriorate the switching characteristics of the discrete GaN device but also adversely affect the performance of the built PFC rectifier. A new stack-die packaging structure with an embedded capacitor has been introduced and proven to be efficient in reducing parasitic ringing at the turn-off transition and achieving true zero-voltage-switching turn-on. However, the thermal dissipation capability of the device packaged in this configuration becomes a limitation on further pushing the operating frequency and the output current level for high-efficiency power conversion. This paper focuses on the thermal analysis of the cascode GaN devices in different packages and the GaN-based multichip module used in a two-phase totem-pole bridgeless PFC boost rectifier. A series of thermal models are built based on the actual structures and materials of the packaged devices to evaluate their thermal performance. Finite element analysis (FEA) simulation results of the cascode GaN device in a flip-chip format demonstrate the possibility of increasing the device switching speed while maintaining the peak temperature of the device below 125 °C. Thermal analysis of the GaN-based power module in a very similar structure is also conducted using the FEA method. Experimental data measured using

  18. Thin-film GaN Schottky diodes formed by epitaxial lift-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingshan; Youtsey, Chris; McCarthy, Robert; Reddy, Rekha; Allen, Noah; Guido, Louis; Xie, Jinqiao; Beam, Edward; Fay, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    The performance of thin-film GaN Schottky diodes fabricated using a large-area epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process is reported in this work. Comparison of the device characteristics before and after lift-off processing reveals that the Schottky barrier height remains unchanged by the liftoff processing and is consistent with expectations based on metal-semiconductor work function differences, with a barrier height of approximately 1 eV obtained for Ni/Au contacts on n- GaN. However, the leakage current in both reverse and low-forward-bias regimes is found to improve significantly after ELO processing. Likewise, the ideality factor of the Schottky diodes also improves after ELO processing, decreasing from n = 1.12-1.18 before ELO to n = 1.04-1.10 after ELO. A possible explanation for the performance improvement obtained for Schottky diodes after substrate removal by ELO processing is the elimination of leakage paths consisting of vertical leakage along threading dislocations coupled with lateral conduction through the underlying n+ buffer layer that is removed in the ELO process. Epitaxial liftoff with GaN may enable significant improvement in device performance and economics for GaN-based electronics and optoelectronics.

  19. Trench formation and corner rounding in vertical GaN power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhao; Sun, Min; Liu, Zhihong; Piedra, Daniel; Hu, Jie; Gao, Xiang; Palacios, Tomás

    2017-05-01

    Trench formation and corner rounding are the key processes to demonstrate high-voltage trench-based vertical GaN devices. In this work, we developed a damage-free corner rounding technology combining Tetramethylammonium hydroxide wet etching and piranha clean. By optimizing the inductively coupled plasma dry etching conditions and applying the rounding technology, two main trench shapes were demonstrated: flat-bottom rounded trench and tapered-bottom rounded trench. TCAD simulations were then performed to investigate the impact of trench shapes and round corners on device blocking capability. GaN trench metal-insulator-semiconductor barrier Schottky rectifiers with different trench shapes were fabricated and characterized. A breakdown voltage over 500 V was obtained in the device with flat-bottom rounded trenches, compared to 350 V in the device with tapered-bottom rounded trenches and 150 V in the device with non-rounded trenches. Both experimental and simulation results support the use of rounded flat-bottom trenches to fabricate high-voltage GaN trench-based power devices.

  20. Application of Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) to jet images

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    https://arxiv.org/abs/1701.05927 We provide a bridge between generative modeling in the Machine Learning community and simulated physical processes in High Energy Particle Physics by applying a novel Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture to the production of jet images -- 2D representations of energy depositions from particles interacting with a calorimeter. We propose a simple architecture, the Location-Aware Generative Adversarial Network, that learns to produce realistic radiation patterns from simulated high energy particle collisions. The pixel intensities of GAN-generated images faithfully span over many orders of magnitude and exhibit the desired low-dimensional physical properties (i.e., jet mass, n-subjettiness, etc.). We shed light on limitations, and provide a novel empirical validation of image quality and validity of GAN-produced simulations of the natural world. This work provides a base for further explorations of GANs for use in faster simulation in High Energy Particle Physics.

  1. Effect of photocatalytic oxidation technology on GaN CMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jie, E-mail: jie-wang11@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang, Tongqing, E-mail: wtq@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Pan, Guoshun, E-mail: pangs@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Lu, Xinchun, E-mail: xclu@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Photocatalytic oxidation technology was introduced to GaN CMP for the first time and proves to be more efficient than before. • XPS analysis reveals the planarization process by different N-type semiconductor particles. • Analyzing the effect of pH on photocatalytic oxidation in GaN CMP. • Proposing the photocatalytic oxidation model to reveal the removal mechanism. - Abstract: GaN is so hard and so chemically inert that it is difficult to obtain a high material removal rate (MRR) in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process. This paper discusses the application of photocatalytic oxidation technology in GaN planarization. Three N-type semiconductor particles (TiO{sub 2}, SnO{sub 2}, and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are used as catalysts and added to the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2}-based slurry. By optical excitation, highly reactive photoinduced holes are produced on the surface of the particles, which can oxidize OH{sup −} and H{sub 2}O absorbed on the surface of the catalysts; therefore, more OH* will be generated. As a result, GaN MRRs in an H{sub 2}O{sub 2}–SiO{sub 2}-based polishing system combined with catalysts are improved significantly, especially when using TiO{sub 2}, the MRR of which is 122 nm/h. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis shows the variation trend of chemical composition on the GaN surface after polishing, revealing the planarization process. Besides, the effect of pH on photocatalytic oxidation combined with TiO{sub 2} is analyzed deeply. Furthermore, the physical model of GaN CMP combined with photocatalytic oxidation technology is proposed to describe the removal mechanism of GaN.

  2. Epitaxial Single-Layer MoS2 on GaN with Enhanced Valley Helicity

    KAUST Repository

    Wan, Yi

    2017-12-19

    Engineering the substrate of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides can couple the quasiparticle interaction between the 2D material and substrate, providing an additional route to realize conceptual quantum phenomena and novel device functionalities, such as realization of a 12-time increased valley spitting in single-layer WSe2 through the interfacial magnetic exchange field from a ferromagnetic EuS substrate, and band-to-band tunnel field-effect transistors with a subthreshold swing below 60 mV dec−1 at room temperature based on bilayer n-MoS2 and heavily doped p-germanium, etc. Here, it is demonstrated that epitaxially grown single-layer MoS2 on a lattice-matched GaN substrate, possessing a type-I band alignment, exhibits strong substrate-induced interactions. The phonons in GaN quickly dissipate the energy of photogenerated carriers through electron–phonon interaction, resulting in a short exciton lifetime in the MoS2/GaN heterostructure. This interaction enables an enhanced valley helicity at room temperature (0.33 ± 0.05) observed in both steady-state and time-resolved circularly polarized photoluminescence measurements. The findings highlight the importance of substrate engineering for modulating the intrinsic valley carriers in ultrathin 2D materials and potentially open new paths for valleytronics and valley-optoelectronic device applications.

  3. Spin injection in epitaxial MnGa(111)/GaN(0001) heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christian; Malindretos, Joerg; Watschke, Lars; Zamani, Reza R.; Disterheft, David; Ulbrich, Rainer G.; Rizzi, Angela; Iza, Michael; Keller, Stacia; DenBaars, Steven P.

    2018-01-01

    Ferromagnetic MnGa(111) layers were grown on GaN(0001) by molecular beam epitaxy. MnGa/GaN Schottky diodes with a doping level of around n = 7 × 1018 cm-3 were fabricated to achieve single step tunneling across the metal/semiconductor junction. Below the GaN layer, a thin InGaN quantum well served as optical spin detector ("spin-LED"). For electron spin injection from MnGa into GaN and subsequent spin transport through a 45 nm (70 nm) thick GaN layer, we observe a circular polarization of 0.3% (0.2%) in the electroluminescence at 80 K. Interface mixing, spin polarization losses during electrical transport in the GaN layer, and spin relaxation in the InGaN quantum well are discussed in relation with the low value of the optically detected spin polarization.

  4. GaN Technology for Power Electronic Applications: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Tyler J.; Pushpakaran, Bejoy N.; Bayne, Stephen B.

    2016-06-01

    Power semiconductor devices based on silicon (Si) are quickly approaching their limits, set by fundamental material properties. In order to address these limitations, new materials for use in devices must be investigated. Wide bandgap materials, such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) have suitable properties for power electronic applications; however, fabrication of practical devices from these materials may be challenging. SiC technology has matured to point of commercialized devices, whereas GaN requires further research to realize full material potential. This review covers fundamental material properties of GaN as they relate to Si and SiC. This is followed by a discussion of the contemporary issues involved with bulk GaN substrates and their fabrication and a brief overview of how devices are fabricated, both on native GaN substrate material and non-native substrate material. An overview of current device structures, which are being analyzed for use in power switching applications, is then provided; both vertical and lateral device structures are considered. Finally, a brief discussion of prototypes currently employing GaN devices is given.

  5. Metallic Nanostructures Based on DNA Nanoshapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boxuan Shen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanostructures have inspired extensive research over several decades, particularly within the field of nanoelectronics and increasingly in plasmonics. Due to the limitations of conventional lithography methods, the development of bottom-up fabricated metallic nanostructures has become more and more in demand. The remarkable development of DNA-based nanostructures has provided many successful methods and realizations for these needs, such as chemical DNA metallization via seeding or ionization, as well as DNA-guided lithography and casting of metallic nanoparticles by DNA molds. These methods offer high resolution, versatility and throughput and could enable the fabrication of arbitrarily-shaped structures with a 10-nm feature size, thus bringing novel applications into view. In this review, we cover the evolution of DNA-based metallic nanostructures, starting from the metallized double-stranded DNA for electronics and progress to sophisticated plasmonic structures based on DNA origami objects.

  6. Control of Ga-oxide interlayer growth and Ga diffusion in SiO2/GaN stacks for high-quality GaN-based metal–oxide–semiconductor devices with improved gate dielectric reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Yamada, Hisashi; Takahashi, Tokio; Shimizu, Mitsuaki; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2018-01-01

    A simple and feasible method for fabricating high-quality and highly reliable GaN-based metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) devices was developed. The direct chemical vapor deposition of SiO2 films on GaN substrates forming Ga-oxide interlayers was carried out to fabricate SiO2/GaO x /GaN stacked structures. Although well-behaved hysteresis-free GaN-MOS capacitors with extremely low interface state densities below 1010 cm‑2 eV‑1 were obtained by postdeposition annealing, Ga diffusion into overlying SiO2 layers severely degraded the dielectric breakdown characteristics. However, this problem was found to be solved by rapid thermal processing, leading to the superior performance of the GaN-MOS devices in terms of interface quality, insulating property, and gate dielectric reliability.

  7. Modeling the Non-Equilibrium Process of the Chemical Adsorption of Ammonia on GaN(0001) Reconstructed Surfaces Based on Steepest-Entropy-Ascent Quantum Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaba, Akira; Li, Guanchen; von Spakovsky, Michael R; Kangawa, Yoshihiro; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2017-08-15

    Clearly understanding elementary growth processes that depend on surface reconstruction is essential to controlling vapor-phase epitaxy more precisely. In this study, ammonia chemical adsorption on GaN(0001) reconstructed surfaces under metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) conditions (3Ga-H and N ad -H + Ga-H on a 2 × 2 unit cell) is investigated using steepest-entropy-ascent quantum thermodynamics (SEAQT). SEAQT is a thermodynamic-ensemble based, first-principles framework that can predict the behavior of non-equilibrium processes, even those far from equilibrium where the state evolution is a combination of reversible and irreversible dynamics. SEAQT is an ideal choice to handle this problem on a first-principles basis since the chemical adsorption process starts from a highly non-equilibrium state. A result of the analysis shows that the probability of adsorption on 3Ga-H is significantly higher than that on N ad -H + Ga-H. Additionally, the growth temperature dependence of these adsorption probabilities and the temperature increase due to the heat of reaction is determined. The non-equilibrium thermodynamic modeling applied can lead to better control of the MOVPE process through the selection of preferable reconstructed surfaces. The modeling also demonstrates the efficacy of DFT-SEAQT coupling for determining detailed non-equilibrium process characteristics with a much smaller computational burden than would be entailed with mechanics-based, microscopic-mesoscopic approaches.

  8. Metal detector technology data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, L.K.; Gallo, L.R.; Murray, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    The tests described in this report were conducted to obtain information on the effects target characteristics have on portal type metal detector response. A second purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of detector type and settings on the detection of the targets. Although in some cases comparison performance of different types and makes of metal detectors is found herein, that is not the primary purpose of the report. Further, because of the many variables that affect metal detector performance, the information presented can be used only in a general way. The results of these tests can show general trends in metal detection, but do little for making accurate predictions as to metal detector response to a target with a complex shape such as a handgun. The shape of an object and its specific metal content (both type and treatment) can have a significant influence on detection. Thus it should not be surprising that levels of detection for a small 100g stainless steel handgun are considerably different than for detection of the 100g stainless steel right circular cylinder that was used in these tests. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. High speed, low noise ultraviolet photodetectors based on GaN p-i-n and AlGaN(p)-GaN(i)-GaN(n) structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, G.; Salvador, A.; Botchkarev, A.E.; Kim, W.; Lu, C.; Tang, H. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Mater. Res. Lab. and Coordinated Sci.; Morkoc, H. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Mater. Res. Lab. and Coordinated Sci.]|[Air Force Wright Lab., Wright Patterson, AFB, OH (United States)]|[Dept. of Electrical Eng., Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States); Smith, G.; Estes, M.; Dang, T. [Air Force Wright Lab., Wright Patterson, AFB, OH (United States); Wolf, P. [Air Force Inst. of Tech., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1998-08-01

    We have investigated the spectral response of front surface illuminated GaN, AlGaN/GaN and AlGaN p-i-n ultraviolet photodetectors grown by reactive molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire substrates. The GaN homojunction p-i-n photodiode exhibited a peaked response at 364 nm the origin of which is not yet clear. This response was absent in the AlGaN/GaN heterojunction p-i-n detectors. The maximum responsivity for the unbiased GaN and AlGaN/GaN is 0.07 and 0.12 A/W, respetively, and occurs at 364 nm. The responsivity drops by more than 3 orders of magnitude near 390 nm. The AlGaN homojunction p-i-n on the other hand has a peak responsivity of 0.08 A/W at 340 nm. The noise equivalent power of 4 pW and 8.3 pW were obtained for the GaN and AlGaN/GaN photodiodes respectively. We measured extremely fast decay times of 12 ns for the AlGaN/GaN and 29 ns for the GaN photodiodes. (orig.) 5 refs.

  10. Hydrogen sensors using nitride-based semiconductor diodes: the role of metal/semiconductor interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irokawa, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I review my recent results in investigating hydrogen sensors using nitride-based semiconductor diodes, focusing on the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with the devices. Firstly, effects of interfacial modification in the devices on hydrogen detection sensitivity are discussed. Surface defects of GaN under Schottky electrodes do not play a critical role in hydrogen sensing characteristics. However, dielectric layers inserted in metal/semiconductor interfaces are found to cause dramatic changes in hydrogen sensing performance, implying that chemical selectivity to hydrogen could be realized. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics reveal that the work function change in the Schottky metal is not responsible mechanism for hydrogen sensitivity. The interface between the metal and the semiconductor plays a critical role in the interaction of hydrogen with semiconductor devises. Secondly, low-frequency C-V characterization is employed to investigate the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with diodes. As a result, it is suggested that the formation of a metal/semiconductor interfacial polarization could be attributed to hydrogen-related dipoles. In addition, using low-frequency C-V characterization leads to clear detection of 100 ppm hydrogen even at room temperature where it is hard to detect hydrogen by using conventional current-voltage (I-V) characterization, suggesting that low-frequency C-V method would be effective in detecting very low hydrogen concentrations.

  11. Hydrogen Sensors Using Nitride-Based Semiconductor Diodes: The Role of Metal/Semiconductor Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Irokawa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I review my recent results in investigating hydrogen sensors using nitride-based semiconductor diodes, focusing on the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with the devices. Firstly, effects of interfacial modification in the devices on hydrogen detection sensitivity are discussed. Surface defects of GaN under Schottky electrodes do not play a critical role in hydrogen sensing characteristics. However, dielectric layers inserted in metal/semiconductor interfaces are found to cause dramatic changes in hydrogen sensing performance, implying that chemical selectivity to hydrogen could be realized. The capacitance-voltage (C-V characteristics reveal that the work function change in the Schottky metal is not responsible mechanism for hydrogen sensitivity. The interface between the metal and the semiconductor plays a critical role in the interaction of hydrogen with semiconductor devises. Secondly, low-frequency C-V characterization is employed to investigate the interaction mechanism of hydrogen with diodes. As a result, it is suggested that the formation of a metal/semiconductor interfacial polarization could be attributed to hydrogen-related dipoles. In addition, using low-frequency C-V characterization leads to clear detection of 100 ppm hydrogen even at room temperature where it is hard to detect hydrogen by using conventional current-voltage (I-V characterization, suggesting that low-frequency C-V method would be effective in detecting very low hydrogen concentrations.

  12. The thickness design of unintentionally doped GaN interlayer matched with background doping level for InGaN-based laser diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Zhao, D. G., E-mail: dgzhao@red.semi.ac.cn; Jiang, D. S.; Zhu, J. J.; Liu, Z. S.; Yang, J.; Li, X.; Le, L. C.; He, X. G.; Liu, W.; Li, X. J.; Liang, F. [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhang, B. S.; Yang, H. [Key Laboratory of Nano-devices and Applications of CAS, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Y. T.; Du, G. T. [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2016-03-15

    In order to reduce the internal optical loss of InGaN laser diodes, an unintentionally doped GaN (u-GaN) interlayer is inserted between InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region and Al{sub 0.2}Ga{sub 0.8}N electron blocking layer. The thickness design of u-GaN interlayer matching up with background doping level for improving laser performance is studied. It is found that a suitably chosen u-GaN interlayer can well modulate the optical absorption loss and optical confinement factor. However, if the value of background doping concentration of u-GaN interlayer is too large, the output light power may decrease. The analysis of energy band diagram of a LD structure with 100 nm u-GaN interlayer shows that the width of n-side depletion region decreases when the background concentration increases, and may become even too small to cover whole MQW, resulting in a serious decrease of the output light power. It means that a suitable interlayer thickness design matching with the background doping level of u-GaN interlayer is significant for InGaN-based laser diodes.

  13. The thickness design of unintentionally doped GaN interlayer matched with background doping level for InGaN-based laser diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the internal optical loss of InGaN laser diodes, an unintentionally doped GaN (u-GaN interlayer is inserted between InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well active region and Al0.2Ga0.8N electron blocking layer. The thickness design of u-GaN interlayer matching up with background doping level for improving laser performance is studied. It is found that a suitably chosen u-GaN interlayer can well modulate the optical absorption loss and optical confinement factor. However, if the value of background doping concentration of u-GaN interlayer is too large, the output light power may decrease. The analysis of energy band diagram of a LD structure with 100 nm u-GaN interlayer shows that the width of n-side depletion region decreases when the background concentration increases, and may become even too small to cover whole MQW, resulting in a serious decrease of the output light power. It means that a suitable interlayer thickness design matching with the background doping level of u-GaN interlayer is significant for InGaN-based laser diodes.

  14. Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Qin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson’s ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson’s ratios at planes (100 and (111 are isotropic, while the Poisson’s ratio at plane (110 exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger

  15. Model Based Metal Transfer Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Sandberg

    2006-01-01

    In pulsed gas metal arc welding (pulsed GMAW) current pulses are used for detaching drops at the tip of the electrode. To obtain a high weld quality one drop should be detached for every pulse, and moreover, the amount of energy used for detachment should be kept at a minimum. Thus, each pulse mu...

  16. Characterization of an Mg-implanted GaN p-i-n Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    future power electronic devices. Keywords: GaN, p-i-n diode, ion implantation Introduction III-nitride materials have attracted a continuous interest...unintentionally doped GaN layer was grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on a n+ Ga-face c-oriented GaN substrate. The as-grown MOCVD film...implantation to a concentration of 2x1019 cm-3 following a box profile to a depth of 500nm. A photoresist mask was used for the implantation, aligned to

  17. Nanoselective area growth of GaN by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on 4H-SiC using epitaxial graphene as a mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puybaret, Renaud; Jordan, Matthew B.; Voss, Paul L.; Ougazzaden, Abdallah, E-mail: aougazza@georgiatech-metz.fr [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Patriarche, Gilles [CNRS, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Sundaram, Suresh; El Gmili, Youssef [CNRS UMI 2958, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2 Rue Marconi, 57070 Metz (France); Salvestrini, Jean-Paul [Université de Lorraine, CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, EA4423, 57070 Metz (France); Heer, Walt A. de [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Berger, Claire [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); CNRS, Institut Néel, BP166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-03-07

    We report the growth of high-quality triangular GaN nanomesas, 30-nm thick, on the C-face of 4H-SiC using nanoselective area growth (NSAG) with patterned epitaxial graphene grown on SiC as an embedded mask. NSAG alleviates the problems of defects in heteroepitaxy, and the high mobility graphene film could readily provide the back low-dissipative electrode in GaN-based optoelectronic devices. A 5–8 graphene-layer film is first grown on the C-face of 4H-SiC by confinement-controlled sublimation of silicon carbide. Graphene is then patterned and arrays of 75-nm-wide openings are etched in graphene revealing the SiC substrate. A 30-nm-thick GaN is subsequently grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. GaN nanomesas grow epitaxially with perfect selectivity on SiC, in the openings patterned through graphene. The up-or-down orientation of the mesas on SiC, their triangular faceting, and cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy show that they are biphasic. The core is a zinc blende monocrystal surrounded with single-crystal wurtzite. The GaN crystalline nanomesas have no threading dislocations or V-pits. This NSAG process potentially leads to integration of high-quality III-nitrides on the wafer scalable epitaxial graphene/silicon carbide platform.

  18. Temperature-Dependent Electrical Properties and Carrier Transport Mechanisms of TMAH-Treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M. Siva Pratap; Puneetha, Peddathimula; Reddy, V. Rajagopal; Lee, Jung-Hee; Jeong, Seong-Hoon; Park, Chinho

    2016-11-01

    The temperature-dependent electrical properties and carrier transport mechanisms of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH)-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) diodes have been investigated by current-voltage ( I- V) and capacitance-voltage ( C- V) measurements. The experimental results reveal that the barrier height ( I- V) increases whereas the ideality factor decreases with increasing temperature. The TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode showed nonideal behaviors which indicate the presence of a nonuniform distribution of interface states ( N SS) and effect of series resistance ( R S). The obtained R S and N SS were found to decrease with increasing temperature. Furthermore, it was found that different transport mechanisms dominated in the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode. At 150 K to 250 K, Poole-Frenkel emission (PFE) was found to be responsible for the reverse leakage, while Schottky emission (SE) was the dominant mechanism at high electric fields in the temperature range from 300 K to 400 K. Feasible energy band diagrams and possible carrier transport mechanisms for the TMAH-treated Ni/Au/Al2O3/GaN MIS diode are discussed based on PFE and SE.

  19. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho and others

    2001-05-01

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project.

  20. Thermodynamic data-base for metal fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Hyung; Lee, Byung Gik; Kang, Young Ho and others

    2001-05-01

    This study is aimed at collecting useful data of thermodynamic properties of various metal fluorides. Many thermodynamic data for metal fluorides are needed for the effective development, but no report of data-base was published. Accordingly, the objective of this report is to rearrange systematically the existing thermodynamic data based on metal fluorides and is to use it as basic data for the development of pyrochemical process. The physicochemical properties of various metal fluorides and metals were collected from literature and such existing data base as HSC code, TAPP code, FACT code, JANAF table, NEA data-base, CRC handbook. As major contents of the thermodynamic data-base, the physicochemical properties such as formation energy, viscosity, density, vapor pressure, etc. were collected. Especially, some phase diagrams of eutectic molten fluorides are plotted and thermodynamic data of liquid metals are also compiled. In the future, the technical report is to be used as basic data for the development of the pyrochemical process which is being carried out as a long-term nuclear R and D project

  1. Effect of 60Co γ-irradiation on the nature of electronic transport in heavily doped n-type GaN based Schottky photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Abhishek; Khamari, Shailesh K.; Porwal, S.; Kher, S.; Sharma, T. K.

    2018-04-01

    GaN Schottky photodetectors are fabricated on heavily doped n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown by the hydride vapour phase epitaxy technique. The effect of 60Co γ-radiation on the electronic transport in GaN epilayers and Schottky detectors is studied. In contrast to earlier observations, a steady rise in the carrier concentration with increasing irradiation dose is clearly seen. By considering a two layer model, the contribution of interfacial dislocations in carrier transport is isolated from that of the bulk layer for both the pristine and irradiated samples. The bulk carrier concentration is fitted by using the charge balance equation which indicates that no new electrically active defects are generated by γ-radiation even at 500 kGy dose. The irradiation induced rise in the bulk carrier concentration is attributed to the activation of native Si impurities that are already present in an electrically inert form in the pristine sample. Further, the rise in interfacial contribution in the carrier concentration is governed by the enhanced rate of formation of nitrogen vacancies by irradiation, which leads to a larger diffusion of oxygen impurities. A large value of the characteristic tunnelling energy for both the pristine and irradiated Au/Ni/GaN Schottky devices confirms that the dislocation-assisted tunnelling dominates the low temperature current transport even after irradiation. The advantage of higher displacement energy and larger bandgap of GaN as compared to GaAs is evident from the change in leakage current after irradiation. Further, a fast recovery of the photoresponse of GaN photodetectors after irradiation signifies their compatibility to operate in high radiation zones. The results presented here are found to be crucial in understanding the interaction of 60Co γ-irradiation with n+-GaN epilayers.

  2. Nanoscratch Characterization of GaN Epilayers on c- and a-Axis Sapphire Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Hua-Chiang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, we used metal organic chemical vapor deposition to form gallium nitride (GaN epilayers on c- and a-axis sapphire substrates and then used the nanoscratch technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM to determine the nanotribological behavior and deformation characteristics of the GaN epilayers, respectively. The AFM morphological studies revealed that pile-up phenomena occurred on both sides of the scratches formed on the GaN epilayers. It is suggested that cracking dominates in the case of GaN epilayers while ploughing during the process of scratching; the appearances of the scratched surfaces were significantly different for the GaN epilayers on the c- and a-axis sapphire substrates. In addition, compared to the c-axis substrate, we obtained higher values of the coefficient of friction (μ and deeper penetration of the scratches on the GaN a-axis sapphire sample when we set the ramped force at 4,000 μN. This discrepancy suggests that GaN epilayers grown on c-axis sapphire have higher shear resistances than those formed on a-axis sapphire. The occurrence of pile-up events indicates that the generation and motion of individual dislocation, which we measured under the sites of critical brittle transitions of the scratch track, resulted in ductile and/or brittle properties as a result of the deformed and strain-hardened lattice structure.

  3. The 2018 GaN power electronics roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, H.; Baines, Y.; Beam, E.; Borga, Matteo; Bouchet, T.; Chalker, Paul R.; Charles, M.; Chen, Kevin J.; Chowdhury, Nadim; Chu, Rongming; De Santi, Carlo; Merlyne De Souza, Maria; Decoutere, Stefaan; Di Cioccio, L.; Eckardt, Bernd; Egawa, Takashi; Fay, P.; Freedsman, Joseph J.; Guido, L.; Häberlen, Oliver; Haynes, Geoff; Heckel, Thomas; Hemakumara, Dilini; Houston, Peter; Hu, Jie; Hua, Mengyuan; Huang, Qingyun; Huang, Alex; Jiang, Sheng; Kawai, H.; Kinzer, Dan; Kuball, Martin; Kumar, Ashwani; Boon Lee, Kean; Li, Xu; Marcon, Denis; März, Martin; McCarthy, R.; Meneghesso, Gaudenzio; Meneghini, Matteo; Morvan, E.; Nakajima, A.; Narayanan, E. M. S.; Oliver, Stephen; Palacios, Tomás; Piedra, Daniel; Plissonnier, M.; Reddy, R.; Sun, Min; Thayne, Iain; Torres, A.; Trivellin, Nicola; Unni, V.; Uren, Michael J.; Van Hove, Marleen; Wallis, David J.; Wang, J.; Xie, J.; Yagi, S.; Yang, Shu; Youtsey, C.; Yu, Ruiyang; Zanoni, Enrico; Zeltner, Stefan; Zhang, Yuhao

    2018-04-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is a compound semiconductor that has tremendous potential to facilitate economic growth in a semiconductor industry that is silicon-based and currently faced with diminishing returns of performance versus cost of investment. At a material level, its high electric field strength and electron mobility have already shown tremendous potential for high frequency communications and photonic applications. Advances in growth on commercially viable large area substrates are now at the point where power conversion applications of GaN are at the cusp of commercialisation. The future for building on the work described here in ways driven by specific challenges emerging from entirely new markets and applications is very exciting. This collection of GaN technology developments is therefore not itself a road map but a valuable collection of global state-of-the-art GaN research that will inform the next phase of the technology as market driven requirements evolve. First generation production devices are igniting large new markets and applications that can only be achieved using the advantages of higher speed, low specific resistivity and low saturation switching transistors. Major investments are being made by industrial companies in a wide variety of markets exploring the use of the technology in new circuit topologies, packaging solutions and system architectures that are required to achieve and optimise the system advantages offered by GaN transistors. It is this momentum that will drive priorities for the next stages of device research gathered here.

  4. The optimal thickness of a transmission-mode GaN photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Shi, Feng; Guo, Hui; Hu, Cang-Lu; Cheng, Hong-Chang; Chang, Ben-Kang; Ren, Ling; Du, Yu-Jie; Zhang, Jun-Ju

    2012-08-01

    A 150-nm-thick GaN photocathode with a Mg doping concentration of 1.6 × 1017 cm-3 is activated by Cs/O in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, and a quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the negative electron affinity transmission-mode (t-mode) of the GaN photocathode is obtained. The maximum QE reaches 13.0% at 290 nm. According to the t-mode QE equation solved from the diffusion equation, the QE curve is fitted. From the fitting results, the electron escape probability is 0.32, the back-interface recombination velocity is 5 × 104 cm·s-1, and the electron diffusion length is 116 nm. Based on these parameters, the influence of GaN thickness on t-mode QE is simulated. The simulation shows that the optimal thickness of GaN is 90 nm, which is better than the 150-nm GaN.

  5. Base Metal Co-Fired Multilayer Piezoelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisheng Gao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectrics have been widely used in different kinds of applications, from the automobile industry to consumer electronics. The novel multilayer piezoelectrics, which are inspired by multilayer ceramic capacitors, not only minimize the size of the functional parts, but also maximize energy efficiency. Development of multilayer piezoelectric devices is at a significant crossroads on the way to achieving low costs, high efficiency, and excellent reliability. Concerning the costs of manufacturing multilayer piezoelectrics, the trend is to replace the costly noble metal internal electrodes with base metal materials. This paper discusses the materials development of metal co-firing and the progress of integrating current base metal chemistries. There are some significant considerations in metal co-firing multilayer piezoelectrics: retaining stoichiometry with volatile Pb and alkaline elements in ceramics, the selection of appropriate sintering agents to lower the sintering temperature with minimum impact on piezoelectric performance, and designing effective binder formulation for low pO2 burnout to prevent oxidation of Ni and Cu base metal.

  6. Electrochemical characterization of GaN surface states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnerl, Andrea; Garrido, Jose A.; Stutzmann, Martin

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we present a systematic study of the electrochemical properties of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and hybrid vapor phase epitaxy grown n-type GaN in aqueous electrolytes. For this purpose, we perform cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy measurements over a wide range of potentials and frequencies, using a pure aqueous electrolyte and adding two different types of redox couples, as well as applying different surface treatments to the GaN electrodes. For Ga-polar GaN electrodes, the charge transfer to an electrolyte is dominated by surface states, which are not related to dislocations and are independent of the specific growth technique. These surface states can be modified by the surface treatment; they are generated by etching in HCl and are passivated by oxidation. Different surface defect states are present on N-polar GaN electrodes which do not significantly contribute to the charge transfer across the GaN/electrolyte interface.

  7. Study of Charge Carrier Transport in GaN Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kuokstis, Edmundas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Reklaitis, Ignas

    2016-01-01

    Capacitor and Schottky diode sensors were fabricated on GaN material grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition techniques using plasma etching and metal deposition. The operational characteristics of these devices have been investigated by profiling current transients and by comparing the experimental regimes of the perpendicular and parallel injection of excess carrier domains. Profiling of the carrier injection location allows for the separation of the bipolar and the monopolar charge drift components. Carrier mobility values attributed to the hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) GaN material have been estimated as μe = 1000 ± 200 cm2/Vs for electrons, and μh = 400 ± 80 cm2/Vs for holes, respectively. Current transients under injection of the localized and bulk packets of excess carriers have been examined in order to determine the surface charge formation and polarization effects. PMID:28773418

  8. Solubility and dissolution kinetics of GaN in supercritical ammonia in presence of ammonoacidic and ammonobasic mineralizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmel, Saskia; Koch, Martina; Macher, Philipp; Kimmel, Anna-Carina L.; Steigerwald, Thomas G.; Alt, Nicolas S. A.; Schlücker, Eberhard; Wellmann, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Solubility and dissolution kinetics of GaN are investigated, as they represent essential parameters for ammonothermal crystal growth of GaN. In situ X-ray imaging is applied to monitor the dissolving crystal. Both ammonoacidic and ammonobasic conditions are investigated. Compared to NH4F, the dissolution is generally much slower using NaN3 mineralizer, leading to a much longer time needed to establish a saturated solution. The solubility of GaN at 540 °C and 260 MPa in supercritical ammonia with a molar concentration of NaN3 of 0.72 mmol/ml is determined to be 0.15 ± 0.01 mol%. This suggest a severe refinement of raw gravimetric literature data also for alkali metal based mineralizers, as we reported previously for ammonium halide mineralizers. The order of magnitude is in good agreement with refined gravimetric solubility data (Griffiths et al., 2016). The apparent discrepancy between the literature and this work regarding the temperature range in which retrograde solubility occurs is discussed. A possible reason for the occurrence of retrograde solubility at high temperatures is described. The paper is complemented by a section pointing out and partially quantifying potential, reactor-material-dependent sources of errors.

  9. Nanoindentation characterization of GaN epilayers on A-plane sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Meng-Hung; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Huang, Chih-Yung; Jeng, Yeau-Ren; Yau, Wei-Hung; Wu, Wen-Fa; Chou, Chang-Pin

    2010-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) epilayers was deposited on a-axis sapphire substrate by means of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. The GaN epilayers has been investigated in their repetition pressure-induced impairment events from nanoindentation technique and, the relative deformation effect was observed from atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the morphological studies, it is revealed that none of crack and particle was found even after the indentation beyond the critical depth on the residual indentation impression. The 'pop-in' event was explained by the interaction of the deformed region, produced by the indenter tip, with the inner threading dislocations in the GaN films. Pop-in events indicate the generation and motion of individual dislocation, which is measured under critical depth and, no residual deformation of the GaN films is observed.

  10. 21 CFR 872.3710 - Base metal alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Base metal alloy. 872.3710 Section 872.3710 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3710 Base metal alloy. (a) Identification. A base metal alloy is a device composed primarily of base metals, such as nickel, chromium, or cobalt, that is...

  11. GaN: Defect and Device Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearton, S.J.; Ren, F.; Shul, R.J.; Zolper, J.C.

    1998-11-09

    The role of extended and point defects, and key impurities such as C, O and H, on the electrical and optical properties of GaN is reviewed. Recent progress in the development of high reliability contacts, thermal processing, dry and wet etching techniques, implantation doping and isolation and gate insulator technology is detailed. Finally, the performance of GaN-based electronic and photonic devices such as field effect transistors, UV detectors, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes is covered, along with the influence of process-induced or grown-in defects and impurities on the device physics.

  12. Structural and magnetic investigation of dilute magnetic semiconductors based on GaN and ZnO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammermeier, Tom

    2010-01-19

    -ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and XMCD at the Co K-edge support an increased fraction of Co atoms with metallic character in these samples. A reduced XLD signal indicates less substitutional Co-atoms. These samples were subject to annealing procedures either conducted under O{sub 2} atmosphere or high vacuum (HV) conditions. While the latter strongly enhances ferromagnetic-like properties, they vanish upon O{sub 2} annealing. XANES and XLD analyses show that non-substitutional Co atoms are oxidized to Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} by annealing in an O{sub 2} atmosphere, whereas HV annealing increases the fraction of a metallic Co phase. ESR measurements consistently show signatures of superparamagnetic ensembles at elevated temperatures (>60 K) and isotropic spectra of blocked magnetic moments of nanoparticles at low temperatures. Samples of high structural quality, i.e. with a large fraction of substitutional Co, are inert to annealing procedures. (orig.)

  13. Development of a high-sensitivity UV photocathode using GaN film that works in transmission mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigami, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Keisuke; Nagata, Takaaki; Kato, Kazumasa; Ihara, Tsuneo; Nakamura, Kimitsugu; Mizuno, Itaru; Matsuo, Tetsuji; Chino, Emiko; Kyushima, Hiroyuki

    2012-06-01

    We developed a high-sensitivity GaN photocathode that works in transmission mode. It has 40.9 % quantum efficiency at 310 nm wavelength. Conventional GaN photocathodes, both transmission mode and reflection mode, are made on a sapphire substrate using metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). In reflection mode, a GaN photocathode has very high quantum efficiency (QE) of over 50 %. However, in transmission mode, the quantum efficiency of a GaN photocathode was about 25 % at 240 nm with this technique. Therefore, we developed a new GaN photocathode using a glass-bonding technique, where a GaN thin film was bonded to a glass face plate. We found out that constituting an Al- GaN layer on the light incidence side of the photocathode surface provided higher QE than a sole GaN layer type for transmission mode. We focused on the band bending of the photocathode, and analyzed QE for both transmission mode and reflection mode. We then verified the effectiveness of the AlGaN layer using the results from the analysis. The high-sensitivity UV photocathode will be used for flame detection, corona discharge observation, and other UV imaging.

  14. Ta-based amorphous metal thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlone, John M., E-mail: mcglone@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5501 (United States); Olsen, Kristopher R. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Stickle, William F.; Abbott, James E.; Pugliese, Roberto A.; Long, Greg S. [Hewlett-Packard Company, Corvallis, OR, 97333 (United States); Keszler, Douglas A. [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-4003 (United States); Wager, John F. [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331-5501 (United States)

    2015-11-25

    With their lack of grains and grain boundaries, amorphous metals are known to possess advantageous mechanical properties and enhanced chemical stability relative to crystalline metals. Commonly, however, they exhibit poor high-temperature stability because of their metastable nature. Here, we describe two new Ta-based ternary metal thin films that retain thermal stability to 600 °C and above. The new thin-film compositions, Ta{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Si{sub 1} and Ta{sub 2}Mo{sub 2}Si{sub 1}, are amorphous, exhibiting ultra-smooth surfaces (<0.4 nm) and resistivities typical of amorphous metals (224 and 177 μΩ cm, respectively). - Highlights: • New Ta-based amorphous metals were sputter deposited from individual targets. • As-deposited amorphous structure was confirmed through diffraction techniques. • Electrical and surface properties were characterized and possess smooth surfaces. • No evidence of crystallization up to 600 °C (TaNiSi) and 800 °C (TaMoSi). • Ultra-smooth surfaces remained unchanged up to crystallization temperature.

  15. Influencing factors of GaN growth uniformity through orthogonal test analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi; Fang, Haisheng; Yan, Han; Jiang, Zhimin; Zheng, Jiang; Gan, Zhiyin

    2015-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is widely used in light-emitting diode (LED) devices due to its wide bandgap and excellently optoelectronic performance. The efficiency and lifetime of LEDs are critically determined by quality of GaN, for example, growth uniformity. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is the most popular technique to grow high-quality GaN epitaxial layers. Growth uniformity is influenced by fluid flow, heat transfer and chemical reactions in the reactor. In this paper, the growth process in a close-coupled showerhead (CCS) MOCVD reactor is investigated based on 3D numerical simulation. Influences of the operating parameters on the growth uniformity are presented. To evaluate the role of the parameters systematically and efficiently on the growth uniformity, orthogonal test method is introduced. The results reveal that the growth rate and uniformity are strongly related to the total gas flow rate, the showerhead height and the inlet gas temperature, but are weakly affected by the isothermal wall temperature, the rotating speed and the susceptor temperature under the ranges of the current study. The optimized combination of the parameters is further proposed as a useful reference for obtaining the LED layers with a balance between the growth rate and the growth uniformity in industry. - Highlights: • Fluid flow, heat transfer, chemical reactions are calculated for a 3D CCS reactor. • The effects of process parameters on growth rate and uniformity are investigated. • Orthogonal test method is introduced to analyze the effect of multi-factors. • Optimal combinations can be obtained for the best growth rate and uniformity.

  16. Electrical spin injection using GaCrN in a GaN based spin light emitting diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, D.; Adari, R.; Sankaranarayan, S.; Kumar, A.; Ganguly, S.; Aldhaheri, R. W.; Hussain, M. A.; Balamesh, A. S.; Saha, D.

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated electrical spin-injection from GaCrN dilute magnetic semiconductor (DMS) in a GaN-based spin light emitting diode (spin-LED). The remanent in-plane magnetization of the thin-film semiconducting ferromagnet has been used for introducing the spin polarized electrons into the non-magnetic InGaN quantum well. The output circular polarization obtained from the spin-LED closely follows the normalized in-plane magnetization curve of the DMS. A saturation circular polarization of ˜2.5% is obtained at 200 K.

  17. ARM MJO Investigation Experiment on Gan Island (AMIE-Gan) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, CL; Del Genio, A; Deng, M; Fu, X; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Johnson, R; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Webster, P; Xie, S; Zhang, C

    2011-04-11

    The overarching campaign, which includes the ARM Mobile Facility 2 (AMF2) deployment in conjunction with the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) and the Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011) campaigns, is designed to test several current hypotheses regarding the mechanisms responsible for Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) initiation and propagation in the Indian Ocean area. The synergy between the proposed AMF2 deployment with DYNAMO/CINDY2011, and the corresponding funded experiment on Manus, combine for an overarching ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) with two components: AMF2 on Gan Island in the Indian Ocean (AMIE-Gan), where the MJO initiates and starts its eastward propagation; and the ARM Manus site (AMIE-Manus), which is in the general area where the MJO usually starts to weaken in climate models. AMIE-Gan will provide measurements of particular interest to Atmospheric System Research (ASR) researchers relevant to improving the representation of MJO initiation in climate models. The framework of DYNAMO/CINDY2011 includes two proposed island-based sites and two ship-based locations forming a square pattern with sonde profiles and scanning precipitation and cloud radars at both island and ship sites. These data will be used to produce a Variational Analysis data set coinciding with the one produced for AMIE-Manus. The synergy between AMIE-Manus and AMIE-Gan will allow studies of the initiation, propagation, and evolution of the convective cloud population within the framework of the MJO. As with AMIE-Manus, AMIE-Gan/DYNAMO also includes a significant modeling component geared toward improving the representation of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and forecast models. This campaign involves the deployment of the second, marine-capable, AMF; all of the included measurement systems; and especially the scanning and vertically pointing radars. The campaign will include sonde

  18. Capacitance pressure sensor based on GaN high-electron-mobility transistor-on-Si membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, B.S.; Kim, J.; Jang, S.; Ren, F.; Johnson, J.W.; Therrien, R.J.; Rajagopal, P.; Roberts, J.C.; Piner, E.L.; Linthicum, K.J.; Chu, S.N.G.; Baik, K.; Gila, B.P.; Abernathy, C.R.; Pearton, S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The changes in the capacitance of the channel of an AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) membrane structure fabricated on a Si substrate were measured during the application of both tensile and compressive strain through changes in the ambient pressure. The capacitance of the channel displays a change of 7.19±0.45x10 -3 pF/μm as a function of the radius of the membrane at a fixed pressure of +9.5 bar and exhibits a linear characteristic response between -0.5 and +1 bar with a sensitivity of 0.86 pF/bar for a 600 μm radius membrane. The hysteresis was 0.4% in the linear range. These AlGaN/GaN HEMT membrane-based sensors appear to be promising for both room-temperature and elevated-temperature pressure-sensing applications

  19. Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Warren, Scott C.; Fuller, Patrick; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2016-07-01

    To develop electronic devices with novel functionalities and applications, various non-silicon-based materials are currently being explored. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics due to their small size, which can impart functions that are distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The use of semiconductor nanoparticles has already led to improvements in the efficiency of solar cells, the processability of transistors and the sensitivity of photodetectors, and the optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have led to similar advances in plasmonics and energy conversion. However, metals screen electric fields and this has, so far, prevented their use in the design of all-metal nanoparticle circuitry. Here, we show that simple electronic circuits can be made exclusively from metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands. In these materials, electronic currents are controlled by the ionic gradients of mobile counterions surrounding the ‘jammed’ nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-based electronic elements of the circuitry can be interfaced with metal nanoparticles capable of sensing various environmental changes (humidity, gas, the presence of various cations), creating electronic devices in which metal nanoparticles sense, process and ultimately report chemical signals. Because the constituent nanoparticles combine electronic and chemical sensing functions, we term these systems ‘chemoelectronic’. The circuits have switching times comparable to those of polymer electronics, selectively transduce parts-per-trillion chemical changes into electrical signals, perform logic operations, consume little power (on the scale of microwatts), and are mechanically flexible. They are also ‘green’, in the sense that they comprise non-toxic nanoparticles cast at room temperature from alcohol solutions.

  20. Effect of annealing on metastable shallow acceptors in Mg-doped GaN layers grown on GaN substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Paskov, Plamen P.; Bergman, Peder; Monemar, Bo; Kawashima, T.; Amano, H.; Akasaki, I.; Usui, A.

    2008-01-01

    Mg-doped GaN layers grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on GaN substrates produced by the halide vapor phase technique demonstrate metastability of the near-band-gap photoluminescence (PL). The acceptor bound exciton (ABE) line possibly related to the C acceptor vanishes in as-grown samples within a few minutes under UV laser illumination. Annealing activates the more stable Mg acceptors and passivates C acceptors. Consequently, only the ABE line related to Mg is dominant in PL spectra...

  1. Interface dipole and band bending in the hybrid p -n heterojunction Mo S2/GaN (0001 )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henck, Hugo; Ben Aziza, Zeineb; Zill, Olivia; Pierucci, Debora; Naylor, Carl H.; Silly, Mathieu G.; Gogneau, Noelle; Oehler, Fabrice; Collin, Stephane; Brault, Julien; Sirotti, Fausto; Bertran, François; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Berciaud, Stéphane; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Lhuillier, Emmanuel; Rault, Julien E.; Ouerghi, Abdelkarim

    2017-09-01

    Hybrid heterostructures based on bulk GaN and two-dimensional (2D) materials offer novel paths toward nanoelectronic devices with engineered features. Here, we study the electronic properties of a mixed-dimensional heterostructure composed of intrinsic n -doped Mo S2 flakes transferred on p -doped GaN(0001) layers. Based on angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and high resolution x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HR-XPS), we investigate the electronic structure modification induced by the interlayer interactions in Mo S2/GaN heterostructure. In particular, a shift of the valence band with respect to the Fermi level for Mo S2/GaN heterostructure is observed, which is the signature of a charge transfer from the 2D monolayer Mo S2 to GaN. The ARPES and HR-XPS revealed an interface dipole associated with local charge transfer from the GaN layer to the Mo S2 monolayer. Valence and conduction band offsets between Mo S2 and GaN are determined to be 0.77 and -0.51 eV , respectively. Based on the measured work functions and band bendings, we establish the formation of an interface dipole between GaN and Mo S2 of 0.2 eV.

  2. Gallium-nitride-based field-effect transistors: Key material synthesis and device processing issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffey, Brendan Martin

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is viewed as an excellent candidate for the fabrication of high-power and high-frequency transistors operating at elevated temperatures, due to its wide bandgap, high electron saturation velocity, high breakdown electric-field strength, and potential for lattice-matched heterojunctions with other group-III nitrides. This thesis focuses on the following three open areas of research important to the eventual commercialization of GaN-based field-effect transistors: (1) metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) of high-mobility, low-doped GaN, (2) n- and p-type conductivity control of GaN through ion implantation and in-situ doping during MOCVD growth, and (3) potential gate insulators deposited on GaN. Parameters affecting the MOCVD growth of GaN, including source quality, buffer-layer thickness, growth temperature, and epitaxial-layer thickness, are explored, and optimum conditions for the MOCVD growth of unintentionally-doped GaN are identified. In addition, electron-density and electron-mobility values extracted from Hall-effect measurements are shown to be misleading indications of material quality for unintentionally-doped GaN, caused by structural non-homogeneity along the direction of growth in theses samples. N- and p-type doping of GaN is also investigated. Silane and Bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium are used for in-situ silicon and magnesium doping of GaN during MOCVD growth, respectively. Silicon is demonstrated to be a very effective donor in GaN, allowing for the growth of n-type GaN over a large range of electron densities (10 16--1019 cm-3) with high electron mobilities (maximum of 543 cm2/V·sec). Magnesium doping, while producing p-type conductivity in GaN (maximum p = 2.3 x 1017 cm-3 with a corresponding mu h = 17 cm2/V·sec), demonstrates an anomalous relationship between the Mg incorporation and the hole density. The cause of this behavior is identified as native-defect formation during GaN growth. Ion implantation of Si

  3. Computational chemistry and metal-based radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, M.; Fausto, R.

    1998-01-01

    Computer-assisted techniques have found extensive use in the design of organic pharmaceuticals but have not been widely applied on metal complexes, particularly on radiopharmaceuticals. Some examples of computer generated structures of complexes of In, Ga and Tc with N, S, O and P donor ligands are referred. Besides parameters directly related with molecular geometries, molecular properties of the predicted structures, as ionic charges or dipole moments, are considered to be related with biodistribution studies. The structure of a series of oxo neutral Tc-biguanide complexes are predicted by molecular mechanics calculations, and their interactions with water molecules or peptide chains correlated with experimental data of partition coefficients and percentage of human protein binding. The results stress the interest of using molecular modelling to predict molecular properties of metal-based radiopharmaceuticals, which can be successfully correlated with results of in vitro studies. (author)

  4. Amphoteric Behavior of Impurities in GaN Film Grown on Si Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun-Ick; Lee, Dong-Sik; Lee, Heon-Bok; Hahm, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2007-05-01

    Hall measurement presented that an unintentionally doped uniform and crack-free GaN film grown on n-type (111)-oriented Si substrate with high temperature-grown relatively thin AlN single and multiple buffer layer shows p-type conductivity. The position of valence band maximum at the surface of the film measured by the synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy is below Fermi level at 1.09 eV due to band bending at the surface, which is indicative for the p-type nature of the grown film. The n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) fabricated on the GaN layer exhibited normally-off mode operation. This cannot be achieved if the GaN layer is not p-type. It is believed that the spatial coordination of auto-doped Si atoms, out-diffused from the substrate, or carbon complexes from metal-organic (MO) precursor favorably occupy the substitutional nitrogen site of the GaN film when the film is under tensile strain during the growth, which clearly explains that the p-type conduction is originated from the stress dependent amphoteric nature of Si atom and/or carbon complex in GaN.

  5. Electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires; Elektrischer Transport in GaN- und InN-Nanodraehten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Thomas Fabian

    2008-12-19

    This thesis discusses the analysis of the electrical transport in GaN and InN nanowires at room temperature and deep temperatures. From those measurements two different transport models for those two in matter of the band banding completely different materials have been found. In the investigation of the GaN nanowires the main focus was the electrical transport in dependence of the diameter and the n-doping. With the use of IV-measurements on those MBE grown nanowires with different diameters at dark and under UV illumination as well as the decay of the persistent photocurrent, it was possible to find an for GaN untypical behaviour. The electrical transport in those wires is extremely diameter dependent. The dark current shows space charged limited current. With the help of those cognitions a diameter dependent transport model could be found. The transport phenomena in those wires is based on the diameter depending band bending at the edge of the wires caused by the Fermi level pinning inside the forbidden band. This model can be fit to the data with the three parameter doping, fermi level pinning and wire diameter. On the base of those effects a method to determine the doping concentration inside those wires without field effect measurements and contact resistance has been developed. The defect structure inside those wires has been analysed with the help of spectral photoluminescence measurements. Here several defect bands have been found and it was possible with help of several contacts on one single wire to determine different defect regions along the wire and to explain them by the lattice mismatch between nanowire and substrate. Further temperature depending measurements and investigations on Schottky contacted wires as well as on GaN wires with AlN tunnel structures complete the work on GaN. The electrical characterisation on a large scale of undoped and doped InN nanowires shows linear growth of the dark current with the diameter up to wires of around 100 nm

  6. Evolution of deep centers in GaN grown by hydride vapor phaseepitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.-Q.; Look, D.C.; Jasinski, J.; Benamara, M.; Liliental-Weber, Z.; Molnar, R.J.

    2001-04-18

    Deep centers and dislocation densities in undoped n GaN, grown by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), were characterized as a function of the layer thickness by deep level transient spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. As the layer thickness decreases, the variety and concentration of deep centers increase, in conjunction with the increase of dislocation density. Based on comparison with electron irradiation induced centers, some dominant centers in HVPE GaN are identified as possible point defects.

  7. GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, George [MIT Lincoln Lab., Lexington, MA (United States)

    2015-07-03

    For nearly 4 ½ years, MIT Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) led a very successful, DoE-funded team effort to develop GaN-on-Si materials and devices, targeting high-voltage (>1 kV), high-power, cost-effective electronics for grid applications. This effort, called the GaN Initiative for Grid Applications (GIGA) program, was initially made up of MIT/LL, the MIT campus group of Prof. Tomas Palacios (MIT), and the industrial partner M/A Com Technology Solutions (MTS). Later in the program a 4th team member was added (IQE MA) to provide commercial-scale GaN-on-Si epitaxial materials. A basic premise of the GIGA program was that power electronics, for ubiquitous utilization -even for grid applications - should be closer in cost structure to more conventional Si-based power electronics. For a number of reasons, more established GaN-on-SiC or even SiC-based power electronics are not likely to reach theses cost structures, even in higher manufacturing volumes. An additional premise of the GIGA program was that the technical focus would be on materials and devices suitable for operating at voltages > 1 kV, even though there is also significant commercial interest in developing lower voltage (< 1 kV), cost effective GaN-on-Si devices for higher volume applications, like consumer products. Remarkable technical progress was made during the course of this program. Advances in materials included the growth of high-quality, crack-free epitaxial GaN layers on large-diameter Si substrates with thicknesses up to ~5 μm, overcoming significant challenges in lattice mismatch and thermal expansion differences between Si and GaN in the actual epitaxial growth process. Such thick epilayers are crucial for high voltage operation of lateral geometry devices such as Schottky barrier (SB) diodes and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). New “Normally-Off” device architectures were demonstrated – for safe operation of power electronics circuits. The trade-offs between lateral and

  8. Reduced MLH3 Expression in the Syndrome of Gan-Shen Yin Deficiency in Patients with Different Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Zhong, Maofeng; Liu, Dong; Liang, Shufang; Liu, Xiaolin; Cheng, Binbin; Zhang, Yani; Yin, Zifei; Wang, Yuan; Ling, Changquan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine formulates treatment according to body constitution (BC) differentiation. Different constitutions have specific metabolic characteristics and different susceptibility to certain diseases. This study aimed to assess the characteristic genes of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution in different diseases. Fifty primary liver cancer (PLC) patients, 94 hypertension (HBP) patients, and 100 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients were enrolled and classified into gan-shen Yin deficiency group and non-gan-shen Yin deficiency group according to the body constitution questionnaire to assess the clinical manifestation of patients. The mRNA expressions of 17 genes in PLC patients with gan-shen Yin deficiency were different from those without gan-shen Yin deficiency. However, considering all patients with PLC, HBP, and DM, only MLH3 was significantly lower in gan-shen Yin deficiency group than that in non-gen-shen Yin deficiency. By ROC analysis, the relationship between MLH3 and gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution was confirmed. Treatment of MLH3 (-/- and -/+) mice with Liuweidihuang wan, classical prescriptions for Yin deficiency, partly ameliorates the body constitution of Yin deficiency in MLH3 (-/+) mice, but not in MLH3 (-/-) mice. MLH3 might be one of material bases of gan-shen Yin deficiency constitution.

  9. Emission spectra from AlN and GaN doped with rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Woo; Emura, Shuichi; Kimura, Shigeya; Kim, Moo Seong; Zhou Yikai; Teraguchi, Nobuaki; Suzuki, Akira; Yanase, Akira; Asahi, Hajime

    2006-01-01

    Luminescent properties of GaN and AlN based semiconductors containing rare earth metals of Gd and Dy are studied. Cathodoluminescent spectra from AlGdN show a clear and sharp peak at 318 nm following LO phonon satellites. Photoluminescence spectra from GaDyN by the above-gap excitation also show several peaks in addition to the broad luminescence band emission. For GaGdN, the sharp PL peaks are also observed at 650 and 670 nm, and they are assigned to the intra-f orbital transitions by their time decay measurements. The broad band at around 365 nm for AlGdN, 505 nm for GaGdN and GaDyN are commonly observed. The origin of these broad bands is discussed

  10. On the design of GaN vertical MESFETs on commercial LED sapphire wafers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalla, Mahmoud R. M.; Noor Elahi, Asim M.; Mo, Chen; Jiang, Zhenyu; Liu, Jie; Ashok, S.; Xu, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Design of GaN-based vertical metal-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs) on commercial light-emitting-diode (LED) epi-wafers has been proposed and proof of principle devices have been fabricated. In order to better understand the IV curves, these devices have been simulated using the charge transport model. It was found that shrinking the drain pillar size would significantly help in reaching cut-off at much lower gate bias even at high carrier concentration of unintentionally doped GaN and considerable leakage current caused by the Schottky barrier lowering. The realization of these vertical MESFETs on LED wafers would allow their chip-level integration. This would open a way to many intelligent lighting applications like on-chip current regulator and signal regulation/communication in display technology.

  11. Base metal dehydrogenation of amine-boranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Johanna Marie [Ottawa, CA; Keaton, Richard Jeffrey [Pearland, TX; Baker, Ralph Thomas [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-09

    A method of dehydrogenating an amine-borane having the formula R.sup.1H.sub.2N--BH.sub.2R.sup.2 using base metal catalyst. The method generates hydrogen and produces at least one of a [R.sup.1HN--BHR.sup.2].sub.m oligomer and a [R.sup.1N--BR.sup.2].sub.n oligomer. The method of dehydrogenating amine-boranes may be used to generate H.sub.2 for portable power sources, such as, but not limited to, fuel cells.

  12. Polarization-enhanced InGaN/GaN-based hybrid tunnel junction contacts to GaN p–n diodes and InGaN LEDs

    KAUST Repository

    Mughal, Asad J.

    2017-11-27

    Improved turn-on voltages and reduced series resistances were realized by depositing highly Si-doped n-type GaN using molecular beam epitaxy on polarization-enhanced p-type InGaN contact layers grown using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. We compared the effects of different Si doping concentrations and the addition of p-type InGaN on the forward voltages of p–n diodes and light-emitting diodes, and found that increasing the Si concentrations from 1.9 × 1020 to 4.6 × 1020 cm−3 and including a highly doped p-type InGaN at the junction both contributed to reductions in the depletion width, the series resistance of 4.2 × 10−3–3.4 × 10−3 Ωcenterdotcm2, and the turn-on voltages of the diodes.

  13. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Qingxue; Liu, Rong; Xiao, Hongdi; Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  14. Anodic etching of GaN based film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer: Mechanism and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qingxue [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Liu, Rong [Department of Fundamental Theories, Shandong Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Jinan 250063 (China); Xiao, Hongdi, E-mail: hdxiao@sdu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China); Cao, Dezhong; Liu, Jianqiang; Ma, Jin [School of Physics, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • GaN film with a strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer was etched by electrochemical etching. • Vertically aligned nanopores in n-GaN films were buried underneath the InGaN/GaN structures. • The relaxation of compressive stress in the MQW structure was found by PL and Raman spectra. - Abstract: A strong phase-separated InGaN/GaN layer, which consists of multiple quantum wells (MQW) and superlattices (SL) layers and can produce a blue wavelength spectrum, has been grown on n-GaN thin film, and then fabricated into nanoporous structures by electrochemical etching method in oxalic acid. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) technique reveals that the etching voltage of 8 V leads to a vertically aligned nanoporous structure, whereas the films etched at 15 V show branching pores within the n-GaN layer. Due to the low doping concentration of barriers (GaN layers) in the InGaN/GaN layer, we observed a record-low rate of etching (<100 nm/min) and nanopores which are mainly originated from the V-pits in the phase-separated layer. In addition, there exists a horizontal nanoporous structure at the interface between the phase-separated layer and the n-GaN layer, presumably resulting from the high transition of electrons between the barrier and the well (InGaN layer) at the interface. As compared to the as-grown MQW structure, the etched MQW structure exhibits a photoluminescence (PL) enhancement with a partial relaxation of compressive stress due to the increased light-extracting surface area and light-guiding effect. Such a compressive stress relaxation can be further confirmed by Raman spectra.

  15. Effect of surface roughness, chemical composition, and native oxide crystallinity on the orientation of self-assembled GaN nanowires on Ti foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, G.; Pettersen, S. V.; Pfüller, C.; Ramsteiner, M.; Grepstad, J. K.; Brandt, O.; Geelhaar, L.; Fernández-Garrido, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report on plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial growth of almost randomly oriented, uniformly tilted, and vertically aligned self-assembled GaN nanowires (NWs), respectively, on different types of polycrystalline Ti foils. The NW orientation with respect to the substrate normal, which is affected by an in situ treatment of the foil surface before NW growth, depends on the crystallinity of the native oxide. Direct growth on the as-received foils results in the formation of ensembles of nearly randomly oriented NWs due to the strong roughening of the surface induced by chemical reactions between the impinging elements and Ti. Surface nitridation preceding the NW growth is found to reduce this roughening by transformation of the uppermost layers into TiN and TiO x N y species. These compounds are more stable against chemical reactions and facilitate the growth of uniformly oriented GaN NW ensembles on the surface of the individual grains of the polycrystalline Ti foils. If an amorphous oxide layer is present at the foil surface, vertically oriented NWs are obtained all across the substrate because this layer blocks the transfering of the epitaxial information from the underlying grains. The control of NW orientation and the understanding behind the achievement of vertically oriented NWs obtained in this study represent an important step towards the realization of GaN NW-based bendable devices on polycrystalline metal foils.

  16. Study on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the yellow light-emitting diode grown on free-standing (0001) GaN substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Gaoqiang; Zhang, Yuantao; Yu, Ye; Yan, Long; Li, Pengchong; Han, Xu; Chen, Liang; Zhao, Degang; Du, Guotong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, GaN-based yellow light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were homoepitaxially grown on free-standing (0001) GaN substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL), and electroluminescence (EL) measurements were conducted to investigate the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the yellow LED. The XRD measurement results showed that the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) in the LED structure have good periodicity because the distinct MQWs related higher order satellite peaks can be clearly observed from the profile of 2θ-ω XRD scan. The low temperature (10 K) and room temperature PL measurement results yield an internal quantum efficiency of 16% for the yellow LED. The EL spectra of the yellow LED present well Gaussian distribution with relatively low linewidth (47-55 nm), indicating the homogeneous In-content in the InGaN quantum well layers in the yellow LED structure. It is believed that this work will aid in the future development of GaN on GaN LEDs with long emission wavelength.

  17. Effect of strain on space charge layer in GaN nanowires investigated by in-situ off-axis electron holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strain on space charge (SC layer in nanowires (NWs has been examined by in situ off-axis electron holography, where GaN NWs attach to an Au electrode inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram, the width of SC layer in a strained GaN NW is significantly reduced to about 60 nm, comparing to the 85 nm of the unstrained NW. About 29% reduction of the SC layer in the strained GaN NW resulted from significant decrease of electrons flowed from the GaN into Au. First principle calculations show that the strain reduced bandgap of GaN, narrowing the difference between GaN NW and Au electrode in Fermi level.

  18. GaN thin film deposition on glass and PET substrates by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pat, Suat, E-mail: suatpat@ogu.edu.tr [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner [Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Physics Department, 26480 (Turkey); Şenay, Volkan [Bayburt University, Primary Science Education Department, 69000 (Turkey)

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, GaN thin film production was realized by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA), a plasma deposition technique, for the first time. We present a new deposition mechanism for GaN thin films with a very short production time. Microstructure properties of samples were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The peak at 2θ = 72.88° corresponding to GaN (0004) was detected in XRD spectra. The surface morphology of the deposited GaN films was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface properties of the produced samples are quite different. The average roughness values were determined to be 0.48 nm for GaN/PET and 1.17 nm for GaN/glass. The optical properties (i.e., refractive index and reflection) were determined using an interferometer. Moreover, the obtained optical data were compared with bulk GaN materials. The refractive indexes were measured as 2.2, 3,0 and 2,5 for the GaN/glass, GaN/PET and bulk GaN, respectively. The transparencies of the different GaN-coated substrates are nearly the same. The obtained band gap values were measured in the energy range of 3.3–3.5 eV. TVA is a novel non-reactive plasma technique for the generation of metal organic thin films. The main advantage of this method is its fast deposition rate without any loss in the quality of the films. - Highlights: • A new GaN thin film growth method is introduced. • Microstructure, surface and optical properties were characterized. • GaN/glass and GaN/PET were produced by a different plasma deposition method.

  19. GaN thin film deposition on glass and PET substrates by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pat, Suat; Korkmaz, Şadan; Özen, Soner; Şenay, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, GaN thin film production was realized by thermionic vacuum arc (TVA), a plasma deposition technique, for the first time. We present a new deposition mechanism for GaN thin films with a very short production time. Microstructure properties of samples were analyzed by X-ray diffractometry. The peak at 2θ = 72.88° corresponding to GaN (0004) was detected in XRD spectra. The surface morphology of the deposited GaN films was analyzed using field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The surface properties of the produced samples are quite different. The average roughness values were determined to be 0.48 nm for GaN/PET and 1.17 nm for GaN/glass. The optical properties (i.e., refractive index and reflection) were determined using an interferometer. Moreover, the obtained optical data were compared with bulk GaN materials. The refractive indexes were measured as 2.2, 3,0 and 2,5 for the GaN/glass, GaN/PET and bulk GaN, respectively. The transparencies of the different GaN-coated substrates are nearly the same. The obtained band gap values were measured in the energy range of 3.3–3.5 eV. TVA is a novel non-reactive plasma technique for the generation of metal organic thin films. The main advantage of this method is its fast deposition rate without any loss in the quality of the films. - Highlights: • A new GaN thin film growth method is introduced. • Microstructure, surface and optical properties were characterized. • GaN/glass and GaN/PET were produced by a different plasma deposition method

  20. Simulation of optimum parameters for GaN MSM UV photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhelfi, Mohanad A., E-mail: mhad12344@gmail.com; Ahmed, Naser M., E-mail: nas-tiji@yahoo.com; Hashim, M. R., E-mail: roslan@usm.my; Hassan, Z., E-mail: zai@usm.my [Institue of Nano-Optoelectronics Research and Technology (INOR), School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Al-Rawi, Ali Amer, E-mail: aliamer@unimap.edu.my [School of Computer and Communication Eng. 3st Floor, Pauh Putra Main Campus 02600 Arau, Perlis Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    In this study the optimum parameters of GaN M-S-M photodetector are discussed. The evaluation of the photodetector depends on many parameters, the most of the important parameters the quality of the GaN film and others depend on the geometry of the interdigited electrode. In this simulation work using MATLAB software with consideration of the reflection and absorption on the metal contacts, a detailed study involving various electrode spacings (S) and widths (W) reveals conclusive results in device design. The optimum interelectrode design for interdigitated MSM-PD has been specified and evaluated by effect on quantum efficiency and responsivity.

  1. Structural and optical properties of vanadium ion-implanted GaN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Malinský, Petr; Jagerová, Adéla; Sofer, Z.; Klímová, K.; Sedmidubský, D.; Mikulics, M.; Lorinčík, Jan; Veselá, D.; Bottger, R.; Akhmadaliev, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 406, SEP (2017), s. 53-57 ISSN 0168-583X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20507S; GA ČR GA15-01602S; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:67985882 Keywords : GaN implantation * RBS-channelling * optical properties of metal-implanted GaN Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; JA - Electronic s ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering (URE-Y) OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics; Electrical and electronic engineering (URE-Y) Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2016

  2. Identification of deep levels in GaN associated with dislocations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soh, C B; Chua, S J; Lim, H F; Chi, D Z; Liu, W; Tripathy, S

    2004-01-01

    To establish a correlation between dislocations and deep levels in GaN, a deep-level transient spectroscopy study has been carried out on GaN samples grown by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition. In addition to typical undoped and Si-doped GaN samples, high-quality crack-free undoped GaN film grown intentionally on heavily doped cracked Si-doped GaN and cracked AlGaN templates are also chosen for this study. The purpose of growth of such continuous GaN layers on top of the cracked templates is to reduce the screw dislocation density by an order of magnitude. Deep levels in these layers have been characterized and compared with emphasis on their thermal stabilities and capture kinetics. Three electron traps at E c -E T ∼0.10-0.11, 0.24-0.27 and 0.59-0.63 eV are detected common to all the samples while additional levels at E c -E T ∼0.18 and 0.37-0.40 eV are also observed in the Si-doped GaN. The trap levels exhibit considerably different stabilities under rapid thermal annealing. Based on the observations, the trap levels at E c -E T ∼0.18 and 0.24-0.27 eV can be associated with screw dislocations, whereas the level at E c -E T ∼0.59-0.63 eV can be associated with edge dislocations. This is also in agreement with the transmission electron microscopy measurements conducted on the GaN samples

  3. Infrared reflectance of GaN films grown on Si(001) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiong; Hou, Yong-Tian; Feng, Zhe-Chuan; Chen, Jin-Li

    2001-01-01

    GaN thin films on Si(001) substrates are studied by infrared reflectance (IRR) spectroscopy at room temperature (RT). Variations in the IRR spectral line shape with the microstructure of GaN/Si(011) film are quantitatively explained in terms of a three-component effective medium model. In this model, the nominally undoped GaN film is considered to consist of three elementary components, i.e., single crystalline GaN grains, pores (voids), and inter-granulated materials (amorphous GaN clusters). Such a polycrystalline nature of the GaN/Si(001) films was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy measurements. It was demonstrated that based on the proposed three-component effective medium model, excellent overall simulation of the RT-IRR spectra can be achieved, and the fine structures of the GaN reststrahlen band in the measured RT-IRR spectra can also be interpreted very well. Furthermore, the volume fraction for each component in the GaN/Si(001) film was accurately determined by fitting the experimental RT-IRR spectra with the theoretical simulation. These results indicate that IRR spectroscopy can offer a sensitive and convenient tool to probe the microstructure of GaN films grown on silicon. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  4. On the phenomenon of large photoluminescence red shift in GaN nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2013-07-01

    We report on the observation of broad photoluminescence wavelength tunability from n-type gallium nitride nanoparticles (GaN NPs) fabricated using the ultraviolet metal-assisted electroless etching method. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy measurements performed on the nanoparticles revealed large size dispersion ranging from 10 to 100 nm. Nanoparticles with broad tunable emission wavelength from 362 to 440 nm have been achieved by exciting the samples using the excitation power-dependent method. We attribute this large wavelength tunability to the localized potential fluctuations present within the GaN matrix and to vacancy-related surface states. Our results show that GaN NPs fabricated using this technique are promising for tunable-color-temperature white light-emitting diode applications. © 2013 Slimane et al.; licensee Springer.

  5. Unstable behaviour of normally-off GaN E-HEMT under short-circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, P. J.; Maset, E.; Sanchis-Kilders, E.; Esteve, V.; Jordán, J.; Bta Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.

    2018-04-01

    The short-circuit capability of power switching devices plays an important role in fault detection and the protection of power circuits. In this work, an experimental study on the short-circuit (SC) capability of commercial 600 V Gallium Nitride enhancement-mode high-electron-mobility transistors (E-HEMT) is presented. A different failure mechanism has been identified for commercial p-doped GaN gate (p-GaN) HEMT and metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) HEMT. In addition to the well known thermal breakdown, a premature breakdown is shown on both GaN HEMTs, triggered by hot electron trapping at the surface, which demonstrates that current commercial GaN HEMTs has requirements for improving their SC ruggedness.

  6. Dual Motion GAN for Future-Flow Embedded Video Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xiaodan; Lee, Lisa; Dai, Wei; Xing, Eric P.

    2017-01-01

    Future frame prediction in videos is a promising avenue for unsupervised video representation learning. Video frames are naturally generated by the inherent pixel flows from preceding frames based on the appearance and motion dynamics in the video. However, existing methods focus on directly hallucinating pixel values, resulting in blurry predictions. In this paper, we develop a dual motion Generative Adversarial Net (GAN) architecture, which learns to explicitly enforce future-frame predicti...

  7. Effect of Metal Collar on Marginal Distortion of Base Metal Crowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grami Panah F

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown that noble alloys require metal collar to resist distortion when subjected to"nrepeat firing cycle of porcelain. Metal collar is undesirable due to esthetic concerns. Since base metal"nalloys have superior physical properties, it seems that metal collar would not be necessary for obtaining"nbetter marginal adaptation of base metal crowns. The Purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of"nmetal collar on marginal distortion of base metal- ceramic crowns, Twenty base metal copings were"nconstructed and divided into two groups with and without collars. After surface preparation, porcelain"nwas applied onto the surface of specimens. Marginal gap was measured by scanning electron microscope"nduring three stages of crown fabrication: before degassing, after degassing and after glazing. The mean"nmeasurements in collarless group were; 21.4±13.4, 2I.4±14.9 and 21.9±11.9 u_m, respectively, and in-"ngroup with collar; 24.7±11.4, 24.0±! 1.5 and 26.6±11.7 urn, respectively. Two- way ANOVA revealed"nno significant difference in the mean values between two groups and among different stages of crown"nfabrication. The results of this study showed that base metal alloys did not distort during crown"nfabrication and metal collar had no effect on the amount of marginal opening (gap.

  8. Thermodynamical properties of III-V nitrides and crystal growth of GaN at high N 2 pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porowski, S.; Grzegory, I.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper, thermodynamical properties of AIN, GaN and InN are considered. It is shown that significant differences in melting conditions, thermal stability and solubilities in liquid group III metals lead to different possibilities of growing crystals from high temperature solutions, at N 2 pressure up to 20 kbar. It is shown that the best conditions for crystal growth at available pressure and temperature conditions can be achieved for GaN. High quality 6-10 mm single crystals of GaN have been grown at high N 2 pressure in 60-150 h processes. The mechanisms of nucleation and growth of GaN crystals are discussed on the basis of the experimental results. The crystallization of AlN is less efficient due to relatively low solubility of AlN in liquid Al. Possibility for the growth of InN crystals is strongly limited since this compound loses its stability at T > 600°C, even at 2 GPa N 2 pressure. The crystals of GaN grown at high pressure are the first crystals of this material used for homoepitaxial layer deposition. Both MOCVD and MBE methods have been successfully applied. Structural, electrical and optical properties of both GaN single crystals and homoepitaxial layers are reviewed.

  9. Application of Fe-based metallic glasses in wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Bao; Bian Xiufang; Wang Pan; Luo Guanping

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We found the Fe-based metallic glasses have potential application in wastewater treatment. ► The corrosion on the surface of Fe-based metallic glasses is related to the application. ► We set a new theory to explain the process of degredation organic metters with Fe-based metallic glasses. - Abstract: This work pioneered the use of the Fe 78 Si 9 B 13 metallic glass ribbons in wastewater treatment. Fe 78 Si 9 B 13 metallic glass was employed to remediate wastewater contaminated with a mixture of organic dyes. The removal rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with Fe 78 Si 9 B 13 metallic glass and metallic Fe 0 was up to 23 ± 0.93% in 30 min and 21 ± 0.67% with in 45 min, respectively. The dosage of Fe-based metallic glass was only 1/25 of that of metallic Fe 0 to obtain equivalent effects. The mechanism of wastewater treatment through Fe-based metallic glasses is discussed.

  10. Rare earth point defects in GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, S.

    2007-12-14

    In this work we investigate rare earth doped GaN, by means of theoretical simulations. The huge unit cells necessary to model the experimental system, where dilute amount of rare earth ions are used, are handled with the charge self consistent density-functional based-tight binding (SCC-DFTB) calculational scheme. The method has been extended to include LDA+U and simplified self interaction corrected (SIC)-like potentials for the simulation of systems with localised and strongly correlated electrons. A set of tight-binding parameters has been created to model the interaction of GaN with some dopants, including a selection of lanthanide ions interesting due to their optical or magnetic properties (Pr, Eu, Gd, Er and Tm). The f-electrons were treated as valence electrons. A qualitatively correct description of the band gap is crucial for the simulation of rare earth doped GaN, because the luminescence intensity of the implanted samples depends on the size of the host band gap and because the rare earths could introduce charge transition levels near the conduction band. In this work these levels are calculated with the Slater-Janak (SJ) transition state model, which allows an approximate calculation of the charge transition levels by analysing the Kohn-Sham eigenvalues of the DFT. (orig.)

  11. Growth and characterizations of GaN micro-rods on graphene films for flexible light emitting diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunook Chung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the growth of GaN micro-rods and coaxial quantum-well heterostructures on graphene films, together with structural and optical characterization, for applications in flexible optical devices. Graphene films were grown on Cu foil by means of chemical vapor deposition, and used as the substrates for the growth of the GaN micro-rods, which were subsequently transferred onto SiO2/Si substrates. Highly Si-doped, n-type GaN micro-rods were grown on the graphene films using metal–organic chemical vapor deposition. The growth and vertical alignment of the GaN micro-rods, which is a critical factor for the fabrication of high-performance light-emitting diodes (LEDs, were characterized using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The GaN micro-rods exhibited promising photoluminescence characteristics for optoelectronic device applications, including room-temperature stimulated emission. To fabricate flexible LEDs, InxGa1–xN/GaN multiple quantum wells and a p-type GaN layer were deposited coaxially on the GaN micro-rods, and transferred onto Ag-coated polymer substrates using lift-off. Ti/Au and Ni/Au metal layers were formed to provide electrical contacts to the n-type and p-type GaN regions, respectively. The micro-rod LEDs exhibited intense emission of visible light, even after transfer onto the flexible polymer substrate, and reliable operation was achieved following numerous cycles of mechanical deformation.

  12. Large scale 2D/3D hybrids based on gallium nitride and transition metal dichalcogenides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kehao; Jariwala, Bhakti; Li, Jun; Briggs, Natalie C; Wang, Baoming; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Burke, Robert A; Lerach, Jordan O; Ivanov, Tony G; Haque, Md; Feenstra, Randall M; Robinson, Joshua A

    2017-12-21

    Two and three-dimensional (2D/3D) hybrid materials have the potential to advance communication and sensing technologies by enabling new or improved device functionality. To date, most 2D/3D hybrid devices utilize mechanical exfoliation or post-synthesis transfer, which can be fundamentally different from directly synthesized layers that are compatible with large scale industrial needs. Therefore, understanding the process/property relationship of synthetic heterostructures is priority for industrially relevant material architectures. Here we demonstrate the scalable synthesis of molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and tungsten diselenide (WSe 2 ) via metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on gallium nitride (GaN), and elucidate the structure, chemistry, and vertical transport properties of the 2D/3D hybrid. We find that the 2D layer thickness and transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) choice plays an important role in the transport properties of the hybrid structure, where monolayer TMDs exhibit direct tunneling through the layer, while transport in few layer TMDs on GaN is dominated by p-n diode behavior and varies with the 2D/3D hybrid structure. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM), low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) reveal a strong intrinsic dipole and charge transfer between n-MoS 2 and p-GaN, leading to a degraded interface and high p-type leakage current. Finally, we demonstrate integration of heterogeneous 2D layer stacks of MoS 2 /WSe 2 on GaN with atomically sharp interface. Monolayer MoS 2 /WSe 2 /n-GaN stacks lead to near Ohmic transport due to the tunneling and non-degenerated doping, while few layer stacking is Schottky barrier dominated.

  13. Modeling and Design of GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors through Monte Carlo Particle-based Device Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Riccardo

    In this work, the insight provided by our sophisticated Full Band Monte Carlo simulator is used to analyze the behavior of state-of-art devices like GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors and Hot Electron Transistors. Chapter 1 is dedicated to the description of the simulation tool used to obtain the results shown in this work. Moreover, a separate section is dedicated the set up of a procedure to validate to the tunneling algorithm recently implemented in the simulator. Chapter 2 introduces High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), state-of-art devices characterized by highly non linear transport phenomena that require the use of advanced simulation methods. The techniques for device modeling are described applied to a recent GaN-HEMT, and they are validated with experimental measurements. The main techniques characterization techniques are also described, including the original contribution provided by this work. Chapter 3 focuses on a popular technique to enhance HEMTs performance: the down-scaling of the device dimensions. In particular, this chapter is dedicated to lateral scaling and the calculation of a limiting cutoff frequency for a device of vanishing length. Finally, Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 describe the modeling of Hot Electron Transistors (HETs). The simulation approach is validated by matching the current characteristics with the experimental one before variations of the layouts are proposed to increase the current gain to values suitable for amplification. The frequency response of these layouts is calculated, and modeled by a small signal circuit. For this purpose, a method to directly calculate the capacitance is developed which provides a graphical picture of the capacitative phenomena that limit the frequency response in devices. In Chapter 5 the properties of the hot electrons are investigated for different injection energies, which are obtained by changing the layout of the emitter barrier. Moreover, the large signal characterization of the

  14. Hydrogen-surfactant-assisted coherent growth of GaN on ZnO substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingzhao; Zhang, Yiou; Tse, Kinfai; Zhu, Junyi

    2018-01-01

    Heterostructures of wurtzite based devices have attracted great research interest because of the tremendous success of GaN in light emitting diodes (LED) industry. High-quality GaN thin films on inexpensive and lattice matched ZnO substrates are both commercially and technologically desirable. Intrinsic wetting conditions, however, forbid such heterostructures as the energy of ZnO polar surfaces is much lower than that of GaN polar surfaces, resulting in 3D growth mode and poor crystal quality. Based on first-principles calculations, we propose the use of surfactant hydrogen to dramatically alter the growth mode of the heterostructures. Stable H-involved surface configurations and interfaces are investigated with the help of our newly developed modelling techniques. The temperature and chemical potential dependence of our proposed strategy, which is critical in experiments, is predicted by applying the experimental Gibbs free energy of H2. Our thermodynamic wetting condition analysis is a crucial step for the growth of GaN on ZnO, and we find that introducing H will not degrade the stability of ZnO substrate. This approach will allow the growth of high-quality GaN thin films on ZnO substrates. We believe that our new strategy may reduce the manufactory cost, improve the crystal quality, and improve the efficiency of GaN-based devices.

  15. Piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamond, N.; Chrétien, P.; Houzé, F.; Lu, L.; Largeau, L.; Maugain, O.; Travers, L.; Harmand, J. C.; Glas, F.; Lefeuvre, E.; Tchernycheva, M.; Gogneau, N.

    2016-08-01

    We demonstrate the first piezo-generator integrating a vertical array of GaN nanowires (NWs). We perform a systematic multi-scale analysis, going from single wire properties to macroscopic device fabrication and characterization, which allows us to establish for GaN NWs the relationship between the material properties and the piezo-generation, and to propose an efficient piezo-generator design. The piezo-conversion of individual MBE-grown p-doped GaN NWs in a dense array is assessed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) equipped with a Resiscope module yielding an average output voltage of 228 ± 120 mV and a maximum value of 350 mV generated per NW. In the case of p-doped GaN NWs, the piezo-generation is achieved when a positive piezo-potential is created inside the nanostructures, i.e. when the NWs are submitted to compressive deformation. The understanding of the piezo-generation mechanism in our GaN NWs, gained from AFM analyses, is applied to design a piezo-generator operated under compressive strain. The device consists of NW arrays of several square millimeters in size embedded into spin-on glass with a Schottky contact for rectification and collection of piezo-generated carriers. The generator delivers a maximum power density of ˜12.7 mW cm-3. This value sets the new state of the art for piezo-generators based on GaN NWs and more generally on nitride NWs, and offers promising prospects for the use of GaN NWs as high-efficiency ultra-compact energy harvesters.

  16. Carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles : Cellulose at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Jacco; Versluijs-Helder, Marjan; Vlietstra, Edward J.; Geus, John W.; Jenneskens, Leonardus W.

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of base metal salt loaded microcrystalline cellulose spheres gives a facile access to carbon-supported base metal nanoparticles, which have been characterized with temperature-dependent XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP-MS and elemental analysis. The role of cellulose is multifaceted: 1) it facilitates a

  17. Ohmic contact formation mechanism of nonalloyed Pd contacts to p-type GaN observed by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Lam; Weber, Marc; Kim, Jong Kyu; Lee, Jae Won; Park, Yong Jo; Kim, Taeil; Lynn, Kelvin

    1999-04-01

    The change of the Fermi energy level at the interface of Pd/p-type GaN by surface treatment was investigated using positron annihilation spectroscopy, and the results were used to provide interpretation of the electrical properties of the contact. Changes in the positron parameters at the interface in the aqua regia-treated GaN are more pronounced than that in the HCl-treated one. This provides evidence that the surface treatment with aqua regia prior to Pd metal deposition removes surface oxides, resulting in the shift of the Fermi level position from a middle of the bandgap to near the valence band. Thus, the barrier for hole injection from metal to p-type GaN is lowered, subsequent to the decrease of contact resistivity by two orders of magnitude.

  18. Development of metal based thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Il

    In this work, metal-based thermal barrier coatings (MBTBCs) have been produced, using high frequency induction plasma spraying (IPS) of iron-based nanostructured alloy powders. Important advances have been made over recent years to the development of ceramic-based thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) for internal combustion engines application, but they are not yet applied in mass production situations. Besides the important economic considerations, the reliability of ceramic: TBCs is also an issue, being associated with the difficulty of predicting their "in-service" lifetime. Through engineering of the nano/amorphous structure of MBTBCs, their thermal conductivity can be made as low as those of ceramic-based TBCs, with reduced mean free paths of the electrons/phonons scattering. In this work, nano/amorphous structured coatings were deposited by IPS using the following spray parameters: spraying distance (210 ˜ 270 mm), plasma gas composition (Ar/N2), IPS torch power (24kW), and powder feed-rate (16g/min.). The structure and properties of the deposited layers were characterized through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) observations. The thermal diffusivity (alpha) properties of the MBTBCs were measured using a laser flash method. Density (rho) and specific heat (Cp) of the MBTBCs were also measured, and their thermal conductivity (k) calculated (k =alpharhoCp). The thermal conductivity of MBTBCs was found to be as low as 1.99 W/m/K. The heat treatment study showed that crystal structure changes, and grain size growth from a few nanometers to tenth of nanometers occurred at 550°C under static exposure conditions. Thermal expansion coefficient (TEC) of MBTBCs was 13E-6/K, which is close to the TEC of cast iron and thus, closer to the TEC values of aluminium alloys than are conventional TBCs. Fracture toughness of MBTBCs has also been assessed by use of Vickers hardness tests, with a 500 g load for 15 s, and the results show that there are no measurable crack

  19. Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia E.; Kulkova, Irina V.; Malureanu, Radu

    2012-01-01

    We investigate plasmonic modulators with a gain material to be implemented as ultra-compact and ultra-fast active nanodevices in photonic integrated circuits. We analyze metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) waveguides with InGaAsP-based active material layers as ultra-compact plasmonic modulators. The...

  20. Growth of GaN on ZnO for solid state lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nola; Park, Eun-Hyun; Huang, Yong; Wang, Shenjie; Valencia, Adriana; Nemeth, Bill; Nause, Jeff; Ferguson, Ian

    2006-08-01

    In this work, ZnO has been investigated as a substrate technology for GaN-based devices due to its close lattice match, stacking order match, and similar thermal expansion coefficient. Since MOCVD is the dominant growth technology for GaN-based materials and devices, there is a need to more fully explore this technique for ZnO substrates. Our aim is to grow low defect density GaN for efficient phosphor free white emitters. However, there are a number of issues that need to be addressed for the MOCVD growth of GaN on ZnO. The thermal stability of the ZnO substrate, out-diffusion of Zn from the ZnO into the GaN, and H II back etching into the substrate can cause growth of poor quality GaN. Cracks and pinholes were seen in the epilayers, leading to the epi-layer peeling off in some instances. These issues were addressed by the use of H II free growth and multiple buffer layers to remove the cracking and reduce the pinholes allowing for a high quality GaN growth on ZnO substrate.

  1. Individual GaN nanowires exhibit strong piezoelectricity in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Bernal, Rodrigo A; Kuljanishvili, Irma; Parpoil, Victor; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2012-02-08

    Semiconductor GaN NWs are promising components in next generation nano- and optoelectronic systems. In addition to their direct band gap, they exhibit piezoelectricity, which renders them particularly attractive in energy harvesting applications for self-powered devices. Nanowires are often considered as one-dimensional nanostructures; however, the electromechanical coupling leads to a third rank tensor that for wurtzite crystals (GaN NWs) possesses three independent coefficients, d(33), d(13), and d(15). Therefore, the full piezoelectric characterization of individual GaN NWs requires application of electric fields in different directions and measurements of associated displacements on the order of several picometers. In this Letter, we present an experimental approach based on scanning probe microscopy to directly quantify the three-dimensional piezoelectric response of individual GaN NWs. Experimental results reveal that GaN NWs exhibit strong piezoelectricity in three dimensions, with up to six times the effect in bulk. Based on finite element modeling, this finding has major implication on the design of energy harvesting systems exhibiting unprecedented levels of power density production. The presented method is applicable to other piezoelectric NW materials as well as wires manufactured along different crystallographic orientations. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Porosity-enhanced solar powered hydrogen generation in GaN photoelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Y.; Ahmed Syed, Z.; Jiu, L.; Bai, J.; Wang, T.

    2017-11-01

    Two types of GaN based photoelectrodes using either horizontally aligned or vertically aligned nanopores have been fabricated by means of using an electrochemical etching approach. The photoelectrodes based on such nanostructures have demonstrated an up to 5-fold enhancement in applied bias photon-to-current efficiency and incident photon-to-current efficiency in comparison with their planar counterpart, leading to a high Faradaic conversion efficiency which approaches 1. The GaN photoelectrodes with these nanopores also show excellent chemical stability in HBr solution as an electrolyte. The results presented reveal that the gas diffusion in the nanopores plays an important role in water splitting processes, which should be taken into account when designing a GaN photoelectrode with a nanopore structure.

  3. Effect of annealing time and NH3 flow on GaN films deposited on amorphous SiO2 by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianbao; Liu, Chenyang; Zhang, Zhe; Yu, Bin; Dong, Hailiang; Jia, Wei; Jia, Zhigang; Yu, Chunyan; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN polycrystalline films were successfully grown on amorphous SiO2 by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition to fabricate transferable devices using inorganic films. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images show that by prolonging the annealing time, re-evaporation is enhanced, which reduced the uniformity of the nucleation layer and GaN films. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that the decomposition rate of the nucleation layer increases when the annealing flow rate of NH3 is 500 sccm, which makes the unstable plane and amorphous domains decompose rapidly, thereby improving the crystallinity of the GaN films. Photoluminescence spectra also indicate the presence of fewer defects when the annealing flow rate of NH3 is 500 sccm. The excellent crystal structure of the GaN films grown under optimized conditions was revealed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. More importantly, the crystal structure and orientation of GaN grown on SiO2 are the same as that of GaN grown on conventional sapphire substrate when a buffer layer is used. This work can aid in the development of transferable devices using GaN films.

  4. The optimal thickness of a transmission-mode GaN photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiao-Hui; Shi Feng; Guo Hui; Hu Cang-Lu; Cheng Hong-Chang; Chang Ben-Kang; Ren Ling; Du Yu-Jie; Zhang Jun-Ju

    2012-01-01

    A 150-nm-thick GaN photocathode with a Mg doping concentration of 1.6 × 10 17 cm −3 is activated by Cs/O in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber, and a quantum efficiency (QE) curve of the negative electron affinity transmission-mode (t-mode) of the GaN photocathode is obtained. The maximum QE reaches 13.0% at 290 nm. According to the t-mode QE equation solved from the diffusion equation, the QE curve is fitted. From the fitting results, the electron escape probability is 0.32, the back-interface recombination velocity is 5 × 10 4 cm·s −1 , and the electron diffusion length is 116 nm. Based on these parameters, the influence of GaN thickness on t-mode QE is simulated. The simulation shows that the optimal thickness of GaN is 90 nm, which is better than the 150-nm GaN. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Surface/structure functionalization of copper-based catalysts by metal-support and/or metal-metal interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolakis, Michalis; Ioakeimidis, Zisis

    2014-11-01

    Cu-based catalysts have recently attracted great attention both in catalysis and electro-catalysis fields due to their excellent catalytic performance and low cost. Given that their performance is determined, to a great extent, by Cu sites local environment, considerable efforts have been devoted on the strategic modifications of the electronic and structural properties of Cu sites. In this regard, the feasibility of tuning the local structure of Cu entities by means of metal-support or metal-metal interactions is investigated. More specifically, the physicochemical properties of Cu entities are modified by employing: (i) different oxides (CeO2, La2O3, Sm2O3), or (ii) ceria-based mixed oxides (Ce1-xSmxOδ) as supporting carriers, and (iii) a second metal (Cobalt) adjacent to Cu (bimetallic Cu-Co/CeO2). A characterization study, involving BET, XRD, TPR, and XPS, reveal that significant modifications on structural, redox and electronic properties of Cu sites can be induced by adopting either different oxide carriers or bimetallic complexes. Fundamental insights into the tuning of Cu local environment by metal-support or metal-metal interactions are provided, paving the way for real-life industrial applications.

  6. Simulations of Operation Dynamics of Different Type GaN Particle Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Kalesinskas, Vidas; Pavlov, Jevgenij; Vysniauskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    The operation dynamics of the capacitor-type and PIN diode type detectors based on GaN have been simulated using the dynamic and drift-diffusion models. The drift-diffusion current simulations have been implemented by employing the software package Synopsys TCAD Sentaurus. The monopolar and bipolar drift regimes have been analyzed by using dynamic models based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem. The carrier multiplication processes determined by impact ionization have been considered in order to compensate carrier lifetime reduction due to introduction of radiation defects into GaN detector material. PMID:25751080

  7. Selectively Enhanced UV-A Photoresponsivity of a GaN MSM UV Photodetector with a Step-Graded AlxGa1-xN Buffer Layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Ju; Won, Chul-Ho; Lee, Jung-Hee; Hahm, Sung-Ho; Park, Hongsik

    2017-07-21

    The UV-to-visible rejection ratio is one of the important figure of merits of GaN-based UV photodetectors. For cost-effectiveness and large-scale fabrication of GaN devices, we tried to grow a GaN epitaxial layer on silicon substrate with complicated buffer layers for a stress-release. It is known that the structure of the buffer layers affects the performance of devices fabricated on the GaN epitaxial layers. In this study, we show that the design of a buffer layer structure can make effect on the UV-to-visible rejection ratio of GaN UV photodetectors. The GaN photodetector fabricated on GaN-on-silicon substrate with a step-graded Al x Ga -x N buffer layer has a highly-selective photoresponse at 365-nm wavelength. The UV-to-visible rejection ratio of the GaN UV photodetector with the step-graded Al x Ga 1-x N buffer layer was an order-of-magnitude higher than that of a photodetector with a conventional GaN/AlN multi buffer layer. The maximum photoresponsivity was as high as 5 × 10 - ² A/W. This result implies that the design of buffer layer is important for photoresponse characteristics of GaN UV photodetectors as well as the crystal quality of the GaN epitaxial layers.

  8. Free-standing GaN grating couplers and rib waveguide for planar photonics at telecommunication wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qifa; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Gallium Nitride (GaN) free-standing planar photonic device at telecommunication wavelength based on GaN-on-silicon platform was presented. The free-standing structure was realized by particular double-side fabrication process, which combining GaN front patterning, Si substrate back releasing and GaN slab etching. The actual device parameters were identified via the physical characterizations employing scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM) and reflectance spectra testing. High coupling efficiency and good light confinement properties of the gratings and rib waveguide at telecommunication wavelength range were verified by finite element method (FEM) simulation. This work illustrates the potential of new GaN photonic structure which will enable new functions for planar photonics in communication and sensing applications, and is favorable for the realization of integrated optical circuit.

  9. Saccharide-based Approach to Green Metallic Nanostructure Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Sørensen, Karsten Holm; Jensen, Palle Skovhus

    A green approach to solution synthesis of metallic nanoparticles has been developed using harmless and bioapplicable chemicals as well as moderate temperatures. Metal precursors are reduced by glucose/buffers and sterically stabilized by starch. The saccharide based procedure is highly diverse...

  10. Liquid metal actuation-based reversible frequency tunable monopole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Pierce, Richard G.; Henderson, Rashaunda; Doo, Seok Joo; Yoo, Koangki; Lee, Jeong-Bong

    2014-12-01

    We report the fabrication and characterization of a reversible resonant frequency tunable antenna based on liquid metal actuation. The antenna is composed of a coplanar waveguide fed monopole stub printed on a copper-clad substrate, and a tunnel-shaped microfluidic channel linked to the printed metal. The gallium-based liquid metal can be injected and withdrawn from the channel in response to an applied air pressure. The gallium-based liquid metal is treated with hydrochloric acid to eliminate the oxide layer, and associated wetting/sticking problems, that arise from exposure to an ambient air environment. Elimination of the oxide layer allows for reliable actuation and repeatable and reversible tuning. By controlling the liquid metal slug on-demand with air pressure, the liquid metal can be readily controllable to connect/disconnect to the monopole antenna so that the physical length of the antenna reversibly tunes. The corresponding reversible resonant frequency changes from 4.9 GHz to 1.1 GHz. The antenna properties based on the liquid metal actuation were characterized by measuring the reflection coefficient and agreed well with simulation results. Additionally, the corresponding time-lapse images of controlling liquid metal in the channel were studied.

  11. SILANE-BASED CONVERSION COATING FOR METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    For the past three years, a project to develop new pretreatment rinses for metals was carried out by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the University of Cincinnati. The project involved optimization of laboratory rinses with dilute aqueous solutions organofunctional s...

  12. Unintentional doping in GaN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tongtong; Oliver, Rachel A

    2012-07-21

    The optimisation of GaN-based electronic and optoelectronic devices requires control over the doping of the material. However, device performance, particular for lateral transport electronic devices, is degraded by the presence of unintentional doping, which for heteroepitaxial GaN layers grown in the polar (0001) orientation is mainly confined to a layer adjacent to the GaN/substrate interface. The use of scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) has demonstrated that this layer forms due to the high rate of incorporation of gas phase impurities, primarily oxygen, during the early stages of growth, when N-rich semi-polar facets are often present. The presence of such facets leads to additional unintentional doping when defect density reduction strategies involving a three-dimensional growth phase (such as epitaxial lateral overgrowth) are employed. Many semi-polar epitaxial layers, on the other hand, exhibit significant unintentional doping throughout their thickness, except when a three-dimensional growth phase is introduced to aid in defect density reduction resulting in the presence of (0001) and non-polar facets which incorporate less dopant. Non-polar epitaxial samples exhibit behaviour more similar to (0001)-oriented material, but oxygen diffusion from the sapphire substrate along prismatic stacking faults also locally affects the extent of the unintentional doping in this case.

  13. Improved linearity and reliability in GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors using nanolaminate La2O3/SiO2 gate dielectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Wang-Cheng; Lin, Yueh-Chin; Hsu, Heng-Tung; Hsu, Hisang-Hua; Huang, Yu-Xiang; Lin, Tai-Wei; Wu, Chia-Hsun; Wu, Wen-Hao; Maa, Jer-Shen; Iwai, Hiroshi; Kakushima, Kuniyuki; Chang, Edward Yi

    2016-04-01

    Improved device performance to enable high-linearity power applications has been discussed in this study. We have compared the La2O3/SiO2 AlGaN/GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor high-electron-mobility transistors (MOS-HEMTs) with other La2O3-based (La2O3/HfO2, La2O3/CeO2 and single La2O3) MOS-HEMTs. It was found that forming lanthanum silicate films can not only improve the dielectric quality but also can improve the device characteristics. The improved gate insulation, reliability, and linearity of the 8 nm La2O3/SiO2 MOS-HEMT were demonstrated.

  14. Evaluation of freestanding GaN as an alpha and neutron detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, Padhraic; Wang, Jinghui; Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu

    2013-08-11

    The wide bandgap (3.39) eV and large dislocation energy of the III–V semiconductor gallium nitride (GaN) make this a desirable material for charged particle spectroscopy in high temperature, high radiation environments. While other research groups have established that charged particle detectors can be fabricated from high quality, thin films of molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN, this work demonstrates the feasibility of ionizing radiation detectors created from significantly thicker freestanding n-type GaN, grown via hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE). Detectors were fabricated by depositing Ni/Au pads on n-type GaN, forming a Schottky barrier diode. Capacitance–voltage measurements on the detectors showed an intrinsic carrier concentration in the range of 10{sup −16} cm{sup −3}–10{sup –15} cm{sup −3}, and indicated an inhomogeneous distribution between diodes on the same wafer. The radiation sensitivity of the fabricated detectors was analyzed using alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source. Charge collection efficiency (CCE) calculations from these experiments indicate an efficiency of 100 percent. The detectors were also successfully used to detect neutron induced charged particles using a Li{sub 2}O foil in a neutron beam.

  15. A Gallium-Based Magnetocaloric Liquid Metal Ferrofluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A de Castro, Isabela; Chrimes, Adam F; Zavabeti, Ali; Berean, Kyle J; Carey, Benjamin J; Zhuang, Jincheng; Du, Yi; Dou, Shi X; Suzuki, Kiyonori; Shanks, Robert A; Nixon-Luke, Reece; Bryant, Gary; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Daeneke, Torben

    2017-12-13

    We demonstrate a magnetocaloric ferrofluid based on a gadolinium saturated liquid metal matrix, using a gallium-based liquid metal alloy as the solvent and suspension medium. The material is liquid at room temperature, while exhibiting spontaneous magnetization and a large magnetocaloric effect. The magnetic properties were attributed to the formation of gadolinium nanoparticles suspended within the liquid gallium alloy, which acts as a reaction solvent during the nanoparticle synthesis. High nanoparticle weight fractions exceeding 2% could be suspended within the liquid metal matrix. The liquid metal ferrofluid shows promise for magnetocaloric cooling due to its high thermal conductivity and its liquid nature. Magnetic and thermoanalytic characterizations reveal that the developed material remains liquid within the temperature window required for domestic refrigeration purposes, which enables future fluidic magnetocaloric devices. Additionally, the observed formation of nanometer-sized metallic particles within the supersaturated liquid metal solution has general implications for chemical synthesis and provides a new synthetic pathway toward metallic nanoparticles based on highly reactive rare earth metals.

  16. Surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Zhao, Hongping

    2014-12-29

    GaN nanostructures with various effective refractive index profiles (Linear, Cubic, and Quintic functions) were numerically studied as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures for concentrator photovoltaics by using three-dimensional finite difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method. Effective medium theory was used to design the surface structures corresponding to different refractive index profiles. Surface antireflection properties were calculated and analyzed for incident light with wavelength, polarization and angle dependences. The surface antireflection properties of GaN nanostructures based on six-sided pyramid with both uniform and non-uniform patterns were also investigated. Results indicate a significant dependence of the surface antireflection on the refractive index profiles of surface nanostructures as well as their pattern uniformity. The GaN nanostructures with linear refractive index profile show the best performance to be used as broadband omnidirectional antireflection structures.

  17. Measurement of the electrostatic edge effect in wurtzite GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, Alex; Rosenwaks, Yossi; Klein, Benjamin; Bertness, Kris A.; Blanchard, Paul T.; Sanford, Norman A.

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic effect of the hexagonal corner on the electronic structure in wurtzite GaN nanowires (NWs) was directly measured using Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating electrostatic simulations with the measured potential difference between the nanowire face and the hexagonal vertices, the surface state concentration and band bending of GaN NWs were estimated. The surface band bending is important for an efficient design of high electron mobility transistors and for opto-electronic devices based on GaN NWs. This methodology provides a way to extract NW parameters without making assumptions concerning the electron affinity. We are taking advantage of electrostatic modeling and the high precision that KPFM offers to circumvent a major source of uncertainty in determining the surface band bending

  18. Study of the dosimetric response of Gallium Nitride (GaN): modeling, simulation and characterization on radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruoxi

    2015-01-01

    The work in this thesis has the objective to increase the measurement precision of the dosimetry based on the Gallium Nitride (GaN) transducer and develop its applications on radiotherapy. The study includes the aspects of modeling, simulation and characterization of this response in external radiotherapy and brachytherapy. In modeling, we have proposed two approaches to model the GaN transducer's response in external radiotherapy. For the first approach, a model has been built based on experimental data, while separating the primary and scattering component of the beam. For the second approach, we have adopted a response model initially developed for the silicon diodes for the GaN radioluminescent transducer. We have also proposed an original concept of bi-media dosimetry which evaluates the dose in tissue according to different responses from two media without prior information on the conditions of irradiation. This concept has been shown by Monte Carlo simulation. Moreover, for High Dose Rate brachytherapy, the response of GaN transducer irradiated by iridium 192 and cobalt 60 sources has been evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation and confirmed by the measurements. Studies on the property characterization of GaN radioluminescent transducer has been carried out with these sources as well. An instrumented phantom prototype with GaN probe has been developed for the HDR brachytherapy quality control. It allows a real-time verification of the physics parameters of a treatment (source dwell position, source dwell time, source activity). (author) [fr

  19. Dual-energy-based metal segmentation for metal artifact reduction in dental computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Mohamed A A; Eldib, Mohamed Elsayed; Hernandez, Daniel; Cho, Myung Hye; Cho, Min Hyoung; Lee, Soo Yeol

    2018-02-01

    In a dental CT scan, the presence of dental fillings or dental implants generates severe metal artifacts that often compromise readability of the CT images. Many metal artifact reduction (MAR) techniques have been introduced, but dental CT scans still suffer from severe metal artifacts particularly when multiple dental fillings or implants exist around the region of interest. The high attenuation coefficient of teeth often causes erroneous metal segmentation, compromising the MAR performance. We propose a metal segmentation method for a dental CT that is based on dual-energy imaging with a narrow energy gap. Unlike a conventional dual-energy CT, we acquire two projection data sets at two close tube voltages (80 and 90 kV p ), and then, we compute the difference image between the two projection images with an optimized weighting factor so as to maximize the contrast of the metal regions. We reconstruct CT images from the weighted difference image to identify the metal region with global thresholding. We forward project the identified metal region to designate metal trace on the projection image. We substitute the pixel values on the metal trace with the ones computed by the region filling method. The region filling in the metal trace removes high-intensity data made by the metallic objects from the projection image. We reconstruct final CT images from the region-filled projection image with the fusion-based approach. We have done imaging experiments on a dental phantom and a human skull phantom using a lab-built micro-CT and a commercial dental CT system. We have corrected the projection images of a dental phantom and a human skull phantom using the single-energy and dual-energy-based metal segmentation methods. The single-energy-based method often failed in correcting the metal artifacts on the slices on which tooth enamel exists. The dual-energy-based method showed better MAR performances in all cases regardless of the presence of tooth enamel on the slice of

  20. CARBON-CONTAINING COMPOSITES BASED ON METALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VAGANOV V. E.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement Among the developed technologies metal-composites production,a special place takes powder metallurgy, having fundamental differences from conventionally used foundry technologies. The main advantages of this technology are: the possibility of sensitive control, the structure and phase composition of the starting components, and ultimately the possibility of obtaining of bulk material in nanostructured state with a minimum of processing steps. The potential reinforcers metals include micro and nano-sized oxides, carbides, nitrides, whiskers. The special position is occupied with carbon nanostructures (CNS: С60 fullerenes, single-layer and multi-layer nanotubes, onions (spherical "bulbs", nano-diamonds and graphite,their properties are being intensively studied in recent years. These objects have a high thermal and electrical conductivity values, superelasticity, and have a strength approximate to the theoretical value, which can provide an obtaining composite nanomaterial with a unique set of physical and mechanical properties. In creation of a metal matrix composite nanomaterials (CM, reinforced by various CNS, a special attention should be given to mechanical activation processes (MA already at the stage of preparation of the starting components affecting the structure, phase composition and properties of aluminum-matrix composites. Purpose. To investigate the influence of mechanical activation on the structure and phase composition of aluminum-matrix composites. Conclusion. The results of the study of the structure and phase composition of the initial and mechanically activated powders and bulk-modified metal-composites are shown, depending on the type and concentration of modifying varieties CNS, regimes of MA and parameters of compaction. The study is conducted of tribological properties of Al-CNS OF nanostructured materials.

  1. [Exposure to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids: health effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M M; Bellini, M; Leghissa, P; Gambini, D; Mosconi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of our research is to study respiratory and dermatologic diseases (irritative and allergic) in a cohort of workers exposed to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids of the latest generation. A cohort of 81 workers (mean age 34.5 years, seniority 17.4 years), with mean exposure to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids of 2.8 years, has been subjected to clinical evaluations. The investigation did not reveal any disease or disorder of the respiratory system, any folluculitis or any allergic contact dermatitis caused by sensitization to vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids. On the contrary we documented 5 cases of irritant contact dermatitis, even if favored by an improper use of protection devices. According to early results, the introduction of vegetal esters based metal cutting fluids seems to reduce the risk to the worker's health. A longitudinal surveillance is still needed to confirm that even in the medium and long-term sensitizations will not occur.

  2. Effect of initial growth on the quality of GaN on patterned sapphire substrate with ex situ physical vapor deposition AlN seed layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbo; Daigo, Yoshiaki; Seino, Takuya; Ishibashi, Sotaro; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2016-10-01

    GaN epitaxy was explored on a cone-patterned sapphire substrate with an ex situ AlN seed layer prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD). The effect of initial growth on the quality of the GaN epilayer was investigated using both ex situ PVD-AlN seed layers with various thicknesses and various deposition parameters such as temperature and reactor pressure in metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE). It was found that the quality of GaN is insensitive to both the thickness of the ex situ PVD-AlN seed layer and the MOVPE growth conditions. A high-quality GaN film was realized, as indicated by room-temperature CL mapping (dark spot density of 1.6 × 108 cm-2), on a patterned sapphire substrate with a wide growth condition window by simply employing an ex situ PVD-AlN seed layer.

  3. Improved interface properties of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor devices with thin Ga-oxide interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Ito, Joyo; Asahara, Ryohei; Watanabe, Kenta; Nozaki, Mikito; Hosoi, Takuji; Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji

    2017-06-01

    The impact of thin Ga-oxide (GaOx) interlayers on the electrical properties of GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices was systematically investigated. Thin thermal oxides formed at around 900 °C were found to be beneficial for improving the electrical properties of insulator/GaN interfaces, despite the fact that thermal oxidation of GaN surfaces at high temperatures proceeds by means of grain growth. Consequently, well-behaved capacitance-voltage characteristics of SiO2/GaOx/n-GaN stacked MOS capacitors with an interface state density (Dit) as low as 1.7 × 1011 cm-2 eV-1 were demonstrated. Moreover, the Dit value was further reduced for the SiO2/GaOx/GaN capacitor with a 2-nm-thick sputter-deposited GaOx interlayer. These results clearly indicate the intrinsically superior nature of the oxide/GaN interfaces and provide plausible guiding principles for fabricating high-performance GaN-MOS devices with thin GaOx interlayers.

  4. Exploration of the catalytic use of alkali metal bases

    OpenAIRE

    Bao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This PhD thesis project was concerned with the use of alkali metal amide Brønsted bases and alkali metal alkoxide Lewis bases in (asymmetric) catalysis. The first chapter deals with formal allylic C(sp3)–H bond activation of aromatic and functionalized alkenes for subsequent C–C and C–H bond formations. The second chapter is focused on C(sp3)–Si bond activation of fluorinated pro-nucleophiles in view of C–C bond formations. In the first chapter, a screening of various metal amides...

  5. The possibly important role played by Ga2O3 during the activation of GaN photocathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju; Li, Zhiming; Cui, Shiyao; Zhang, Lejuan

    2015-01-01

    Three different chemical solutions are used to remove the possible contamination on GaN surface, while Ga 2 O 3 is still found at the surface. After thermal annealing at 710 °C in the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber and activated with Cs/O, all the GaN samples are successfully activated to the effective negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathodes. Among all samples, the GaN sample with the highest content of Ga 2 O 3 after chemical cleaning obtains the highest quantum efficiency. By analyzing the property of Ga 2 O 3 , the surface processing results, and electron affinity variations during Cs and Cs/O 2 deposition on GaN of other groups, it is suggested that before the adsorption of Cs, Ga 2 O 3 is not completely removed from GaN surface in our samples, which will combine with Cs and lead to a large decrease in electron affinity. Furthermore, the effective NEA is formed for GaN photocathode, along with the surface downward band bending. Based on this assumption, a new dipole model Ga 2 O 3 -Cs is suggested, and the experimental effects are explained and discussed

  6. The possibly important role played by Ga2O3 during the activation of GaN photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju; Li, Zhiming; Cui, Shiyao; Zhang, Lejuan

    2015-08-01

    Three different chemical solutions are used to remove the possible contamination on GaN surface, while Ga2O3 is still found at the surface. After thermal annealing at 710 °C in the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber and activated with Cs/O, all the GaN samples are successfully activated to the effective negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathodes. Among all samples, the GaN sample with the highest content of Ga2O3 after chemical cleaning obtains the highest quantum efficiency. By analyzing the property of Ga2O3, the surface processing results, and electron affinity variations during Cs and Cs/O2 deposition on GaN of other groups, it is suggested that before the adsorption of Cs, Ga2O3 is not completely removed from GaN surface in our samples, which will combine with Cs and lead to a large decrease in electron affinity. Furthermore, the effective NEA is formed for GaN photocathode, along with the surface downward band bending. Based on this assumption, a new dipole model Ga2O3-Cs is suggested, and the experimental effects are explained and discussed.

  7. Bulk GaN and its application as substrates in building quantum nanostructures for some electronic and optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockowski, M.

    2014-09-01

    The use of GaN crystals grown by three methods (and their combinations): Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE), high nitrogen pressure solution (HNPS) and ammonothermal method for optoelectronic (laser diodes) and electronic (transistors) devices is presented. After a brief review on the development of the three crystallization methods, the GaN crystals' uniform and unique properties, which allow to use them as substrates for building devices, are shown. The Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOCVD) and Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) technologies for growing the nitride quantum nanostructures as well as the structures' properties and processing of devices are demonstrated. Future challenges and perspectives for application of bulk GaN as substrates in building quantum nanostructures for some electronic and optoelectronic devices are discussed.

  8. A new kind of metal detector based on chaotic oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenjing

    2017-12-01

    The sensitivity of a metal detector greatly depends on the identification ability to weak signals from the probe. In order to improve the sensitivity of metal detectors, this paper applies the Duffing chaotic oscillator to metal detectors based on its characteristic which is very sensitive to weak periodic signals. To make a suitable Duffing system for detectors, this paper computes two Lyapunov characteristics exponents of the Duffing oscillator, which help to obtain the threshold of the Duffing system in the critical state accurately and give quantitative criteria for chaos. Meanwhile, a corresponding simulation model of the chaotic oscillator is made by the Simulink tool box of Matlab. Simulation results shows that Duffing oscillator is very sensitive to sinusoidal signals in high frequency cases. And experimental results show that the measurable diameter of metal particles is about 1.5mm. It indicates that this new method can feasibly and effectively improve the metal detector sensitivity.

  9. Growth of InGaN multiple quantum wells and GaN eplilayer on GaN substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung-Nam; Paek, H.S.; Son, J.K.; Sakong, T.; Yoon, E.; Nam, O.H.; Park, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated that the surface morphology of GaN epilayers was significantly affected by the surface tilt orientation of GaN substrate. Surface morphologies of GaN epilayers on GaN substrates show three types: mirror, wavy, and hillock. These surface morphologies are dependent on the surface orientation of GaN substrates. It is found that the hillock morphology of GaN epilayer was formed on the GaN substrate with surface tilt orientation less than 0.1 o . As the surface tilt angle increased to 0.35 o , the surface morphology varied from hillock to wavy morphology. Above a surface tilt angle of 0.4 o , surface morphology changed to the mirror-like type morphology. Additionally, these three types of GaN surface morphology also affected the optical quality of GaN epilayers as well as InGaN multiple quantum wells on GaN substrates by non-uniform In incorporation on the different surface morphologies of GaN epilayers

  10. Carrier and photon dynamics in a topological insulator Bi2Te3/GaN type II staggered heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, P.; Chouksey, S.; Banerjee, D.; Ganguly, S.; Saha, D.

    2015-11-01

    We have demonstrated a type-II band-aligned heterostructure between pulsed laser deposited topological insulator bismuth telluride and metal organic-chemical-vapour deposited GaN on a sapphire substrate. The heterostructure shows a large valence band-offset of 3.27 eV as determined from x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, which is close to the bandgap of GaN (3.4 eV). Further investigation using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray spectrum reveals the stoichiometric and material properties of bismuth telluride on GaN. Steady state photon emission from GaN is found to be modulated by the charge transfer process due to diffusion across the junction. The time constant involved with the charge transfer process is found to be 0.6 ns by transient absorption spectroscopy. The heterostructure can be used for designing devices with different functionalities and improving the performance of the existing devices on GaN.

  11. Metallic ion release from biocompatible cobalt-based alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Ivana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic biomaterials, which are mainly used for the damaged hard tissue replacements, are materials with high strength, excellent toughness and good wear resistance. The disadvantages of metals as implant materials are their susceptibility to corrosion, the elastic modulus mismatch between metals and human hard tissues, relatively high density and metallic ion release which can cause serious health problems. The aim of this study was to examine metallic ion release from Co-Cr-Mo alloy in artificial saliva. In that purpose, alloy samples were immersed into artificial saliva with different pH values (4.0, 5.5 and 7.5. After a certain immersion period (1, 3 and 6 weeks the concentrations of released ions were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS. The research findings were used in order to define the dependence between the concentration of released metallic ions, artificial saliva pH values and immersion time. The determined released metallic ions concentrations were compared with literature data in order to describe and better understand the phenomenon of metallic ion release from the biocompatible cobalt-based alloy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46010 i br. ON 174004

  12. European Frontiers in RF GaN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, F.E. van; Hek, P. de

    2015-01-01

    In this overview paper, a summary of the European academic and industrial status on RF GaN is given. The roles of EDA and ESA are highlighted, and examples of on-going research activities are presented. A set of HPAs over frequency, representative of today's European status, is discussed. © 2015

  13. Heavy Metal Uptake by Novel Miscanthus Seed-Based Hybrids Cultivated in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżak Jacek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available When heavy metal contaminated soils are excluded from food production, biomass crops offer an alternative commercial opportunity. Perennial crops have potential for phytoremediation. Whilst the conditions at heavy metal contaminated sites are challenging, successful phytoremediation would bring significant economic and social benefits. Seed-based Miscanthus hybrids were tested alongside the commercial clone Miscanthus × giganteus on arable land, contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn near Katowice. Before the randomized experimental plots were established (25m2 plots with plant density 2/m2 ‘time-zero’ soil samples were taken to determine initial levels of total (aqua regia and bioavailable (CaCl2 extraction concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn. After the growing season plant material was sampled during autumn (October, green harvest and winter (March, brown harvest to determine differences in heavy metal uptake. Results after the first growing season are presented, including the plot establishment success, biomass yield and heavy metal uptake.

  14. Tunable, omnidirectional structural color on reflection based on metal-SiOx-metal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chenying; Mao, Kening; Shen, Weidong; Fang, Bo; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yueguang; Liu, Xu

    2016-12-01

    An omnidirectional structural color based on the metal-SiOx-metal stack structure is proposed, which can present the same perceived color for a broad range of incidence angles. The tunable structural color can be obtained with adjustable intermediate dielectric layer by simply adjusting the deposition condition, especially the oxygen flow rate during the deposition processes. The resonance condition can be satisfied across the whole visible light region with this special dielectric. The strong absorption caused by the resonance within the metal-SiOx-metal structure accounts for the efficient spectral filtering feature, and the constant phase shift within the dielectric layer leads to angle insensitivity of this color filter. This simple color tuning method for omnidirectional structural colors can have a great potential in various applications such as displaying, imaging, colorful decoration, anti-counterfeiting and so forth.

  15. Structure and properties of transition metal-metalloid glasses based on refractory metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Williams, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The structure and properties of several new transition metal-metalloid (TM/sub 1-x/M/sub x/) metallic glasses based on refractory transition metals (e.g. Mo, W, Ru etc.) have been systemically investigated as a function of composition. The structure of the alloys has been investigated by x-ray diffraction methods and measurements of superconducting properties, electrical resistivity, density, hardness, and mechanical behavior were made. These data are used in developing a novel description of the structure of TM/sub 1-x/M/sub x/ glasses. The experimental evidence suggests that an ideal amorphous phase forms at a specific composition x/sub c/ and that this phase has a well defined atomic short range order. For metallic glasses having x x/sub c/. This novel picture can explain the variation of many properties of these glasses with metalloid concentration

  16. Heavy Metal Uptake by Novel Miscanthus Seed-Based Hybrids Cultivated in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzyżak, Jacek; Pogrzeba, Marta; Rusinowski, Szymon; Clifton-Brown, John; McCalmont, Jon Paul; Kiesel, Andreas; Mangold, Anja; Mos, Michal

    2017-09-01

    When heavy metal contaminated soils are excluded from food production, biomass crops offer an alternative commercial opportunity. Perennial crops have potential for phytoremediation. Whilst the conditions at heavy metal contaminated sites are challenging, successful phytoremediation would bring significant economic and social benefits. Seed-based Miscanthus hybrids were tested alongside the commercial clone Miscanthus × giganteus on arable land, contaminated with Pb, Cd and Zn near Katowice. Before the randomized experimental plots were established (25m2 plots with plant density 2/m2) `time-zero' soil samples were taken to determine initial levels of total (aqua regia) and bioavailable (CaCl2 extraction) concentration of Pb, Cd and Zn. After the growing season plant material was sampled during autumn (October, green harvest) and winter (March, brown harvest) to determine differences in heavy metal uptake. Results after the first growing season are presented, including the plot establishment success, biomass yield and heavy metal uptake.

  17. Chitosan-based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as heterogeneous, new catalysts for the -isophorone oxidation. C S Thatte ... A new chitosan-based Schiff base was prepared and complexed with manganese, cobalt and copper. These Schiff ...

  18. Metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated IR pyrolized polyacrylonitrile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efimov, Mikhail N.; Zhilyaeva, Natalya A.; Vasilyev, Andrey A.; Muratov, Dmitriy G.; Zemtsov, Lev M.; Karpacheva, Galina P. [A.V. Topchiev Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis RAS, Leninskiy Prospekt 29, 119991 Moscow Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-18

    In this paper we report about new approach to preparation of metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated carbon. Polyacrylonitrile is suggested as a precursor for Co, Pd and Ru nanoparticles carbon support which is prepared under IR pyrolysis conditions of a precursor. The first part of the paper is devoted to study activated carbon structural characteristics dependence on activation conditions. In the second part the effect of type of metal introduced in precursor on metal-carbon nanocomposite structural characteristics is shown. Prepared AC and nanocomposite samples are characterized by BET, TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  19. Metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated IR pyrolized polyacrylonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, Mikhail N.; Zhilyaeva, Natalya A.; Vasilyev, Andrey A.; Muratov, Dmitriy G.; Zemtsov, Lev M.; Karpacheva, Galina P.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we report about new approach to preparation of metal-carbon nanocomposites based on activated carbon. Polyacrylonitrile is suggested as a precursor for Co, Pd and Ru nanoparticles carbon support which is prepared under IR pyrolysis conditions of a precursor. The first part of the paper is devoted to study activated carbon structural characteristics dependence on activation conditions. In the second part the effect of type of metal introduced in precursor on metal-carbon nanocomposite structural characteristics is shown. Prepared AC and nanocomposite samples are characterized by BET, TEM, SEM and X-ray diffraction.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of silicon-doped polycrystalline GaN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    and high frequency devices as well. The main technologi- cal interest in the polycrystalline-based devices stems from its very low-cost production. Among different group. III nitrides, GaN ..... Li Z Q, Chen H, Liu H F, Wan L, Huang Q and Zhou J M. 2001 J. Cryst. Growth 227–228 420. 4. Hasegawa S, Nishida S, Yamashita T ...

  1. GaN C-band HPA for phased-array applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanum, M. van; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van

    2013-01-01

    In the UMS GH25-10 GaN MMIC technology a Cband high power amplifier (HPA) has been realized. The current design is primarily intended for use in a space-based SAR system with a center frequency of 5.4 GHz and a sweep bandwidth of 100 MHz. To enable reuse of the amplifier in other radar systems such

  2. Simulation of electrical characteristics of GaN vertical Schottky diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasiak, Lidia; Jasiński, Jakub; Jakubowski, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    Reverse current of GaN vertical Schottky diodes is simulated using Silvaco ATLAS to optimize the geometry for the best performance. Several physical quantities and phenomena, such as carrier mobility and tunneling mechanism are studied to select the most realistic models. Breakdown voltage is qualitatively estimated based on the maximum electric field in the structure.

  3. Diamond-coated three-dimensional GaN micromembranes: effect of nucleation and deposition techniques

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ižák, Tibor; Vanko, G.; Babchenko, Oleg; Potocký, Štěpán; Marton, M.; Vojs, M.; Choleva, P.; Kromka, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 252, č. 11 (2015), s. 2585-2590 ISSN 0370-1972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-16549P Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : diamond film * GaN micromembranes * microwave chemical vapour deposition * polymer-based nucleation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.522, year: 2015

  4. Polyamorphism in Yb-based metallic glass induced by pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangliang; Luo, Qiang; Li, Renfeng; Zhao, Haiyan; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Wang, Luhong; Liu, Haozhe

    2017-04-01

    The Yb62.5Zn15Mg17.5Cu5 metallic glass is investigated using synchrotron x-ray total scattering method up to 38.4 GPa. The polyamorphic transformation from low density to high density with a transition region between 14.1 and 25.2 GPa is observed, accompanying with a volume collapse reflected by a discontinuousness of isothermal bulk modulus. This collapse is caused by that distortional icosahedron short range order precedes to perfect icosahedron, which might link to Yb 4f electron delocalization upon compression, and match the result of in situ electrical resistance measurement under high pressure conditions. This discovery in Yb-based metallic glass, combined with the previous reports on other metallic glass systems, demonstrates that pressure induced polyamorphism is the general behavior for typical lanthanide based metallic glasses.

  5. Growth and properties of Al-rich InxAl1-xN ternary alloy grown on GaN template by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Su; Suh, Eun-Kyung; Kim, Jong Ock; Jeong, Hyun; Lee, Yong Seok; Nagarajan, S; Lim, Kee Young; Hong, Chang-Hee

    2008-01-01

    An Al-rich In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy was grown on a GaN template by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The GaN template was fabricated on a c-plane sapphire with a low temperature GaN nucleation layer. The growth of the 300 nm thick In x Al 1-x N layer was carried out under various growth temperatures and pressures. The surface morphology and the InN molar fraction of the In x Al 1-x N layer were assessed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution x-ray diffraction, respectively. The AFM surface images of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy exhibited quantum dot-like grains caused by the 3D island growth mode. The grains, however, disappeared rapidly by increasing diffusion length and mobility of the Al adatoms with increasing growth temperature and the full width at half maximum value of ternary peaks in HR-XRD decreased with decreasing growth pressure. The MOCVD growth condition with the increased growth temperature and decreased growth pressure would be effective to grow the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy with a smooth surface and improved quality. The optical band edge of In x Al 1-x N ternary alloys was estimated by optical absorbance and, based on the results of HR-XRD and optical absorbance measurements, we obtained the bowing parameter of the In x Al 1-x N ternary alloy at b = 5.3 eV, which was slightly larger than that of previous reports

  6. Plasmonic amplification of photoacoustic waves detected using piezotransistive GaN microcantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Digangana; Bayram, Ferhat; Gajula, Durga; Talukdar, Abdul; Li, Hongmei; Koley, Goutam

    2017-08-01

    Strong enhancement in a photoacoustic signal due to plasmonic absorption in Au nanostructures was measured using piezotransistive GaN microcantilevers. A pulsed 790 nm laser focused on the Au metallization of the piezotransistor resulted in a much larger photoacoustic signal compared to the non-metallized areas. Upon deposition of a 5 nm Au layer, the photoacoustic signal increased significantly for both previously metallized and non-metallized areas, while 2 nm Ni deposition decreased the photoacoustic signal, confirming the role of Au nanostructures in facilitating plasmonic absorption. Infrared microscopy images covering the boundary of Au metallized and non-metallized surfaces indicated a much larger rise in temperature of the former region with laser exposure, explaining the generation of photoacoustic signals through plasmonic absorption.

  7. A new Mannich base and its transition metal (II) complexes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    some metal complexes of this type of Mannich base and investigate its bonding characteristics. We herein report a new Mannich base, N-(1-morpholinoben- zyl) semicarbazide formed by the three-component condensation, containing active hydrogen on nitro- gen (morpholine), benzaldehyde and semicarbazide.

  8. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and metamorphosed volcanogenic base metal sul- phide mineralisation, and based on compositional considerations, zincian spinel has been proposed as an indicator mineral and a potential exploration guide in the search of ores of this type (Sandhaus and Craig 1986; Sheridan and Raymond 1984; Spry and Scott 1986a ...

  9. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  10. MOVPE growth of GaN on 6-inch SOI-substrates: effect of substrate parameters on layer quality and strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemettinen, J.; Kauppinen, C.; Rudzinski, M.; Haapalinna, A.; Tuomi, T. O.; Suihkonen, S.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate that higher crystalline quality, lower strain and improved electrical characteristics can be achieved in gallium nitride (GaN) epitaxy by using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate compared to a bulk silicon (Si) substrate. GaN layers were grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy on 6-inch bulk Si and SOI wafers using the standard step graded AlGaN and AlN approach. The GaN layers grown on SOI exhibited lower strain according to x-ray diffraction analysis. Defect selective etching measurements suggested that the use of SOI substrate for GaN epitaxy reduces the dislocation density approximately by a factor of two. Furthermore, growth on SOI substrate allows one to use a significantly thinner AlGaN buffer compared to bulk Si. Synchrotron radiation x-ray topography analysis confirmed that the stress relief mechanism in GaN on SOI epitaxy is the formation of a dislocation network to the SOI device Si layer. In addition, the buried oxide layer significantly improves the vertical leakage characteristics as the onset of the breakdown is delayed by approximately 400 V. These results show that the GaN on the SOI platform is promising for power electronics applications.

  11. Surface States Effect on the Large Photoluminescence Redshift in GaN Nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Slimane, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    We report on the large photoluminescence redshift observed in nanostructures fabricated using n-type GaN by ultraviolet (UV) metal-assisted electroless chemical-etching method. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) characterization showed nanostructures with size dispersion ranging from 10 to 100 nm. We observed the crystalline structure using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss (EELS) techniques. In contrast to 362 nm UV emission from the GaN epitaxy, the nanostructures emitted violet visible-light in photoluminescence (PL) characterization with increasing optical excitation. An energy band model was presented to shed light on the large PL redshift under the influence of surface states, which resulted in two competing photoluminescence mechanisms depending on excitation conditions.

  12. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, E. A.; Shelton, T. C.; Collazo, R.; Sitar, Z.; Maria, J.-P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Box 7919-1001 Capability Drive, RB1, Rm 322 Raleigh, North Carolina 27606 (United States); Christen, H. M.; Biegalski, M. D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Center for Nanophase Materials Science, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Mita, S.

    2012-08-27

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy and pulsed laser deposition using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface by stabilizing the {l_brace}111{r_brace} rocksalt facet. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly 100 Multiplication-Sign reduction in leakage current density for the surfactant-assisted samples. These data verify numerous predictions regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of rocksalt crystals.

  13. In-situ TEM study of domain switching in GaN thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baoming; Wang, Tun; Haque, Aman; Snure, Michael; Heller, Eric; Glavin, Nicholas

    2017-09-01

    Microstructural response of gallium nitride (GaN) films, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, was studied as a function of applied electrical field. In-situ transmission electron microscopy showed sudden change in the electron diffraction pattern reflecting domain switching at around 20 V bias, applied perpendicular to the polarization direction. No such switching was observed for thicker films or for the field applied along the polarization direction. This anomalous behavior is explained by the nanoscale size effects on the piezoelectric coefficients of GaN, which can be 2-3 times larger than the bulk value. As a result, a large amount of internal energy can be imparted in 100 nm thick films to induce domain switching at relatively lower voltages to induce such events at the bulk scale.

  14. Heteroepitaxial Growth of GaN Nanostructures via Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy on Sapphire and Silicon using Graphene as Buffer Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Heilmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Modern high efficient optoelectronic devices, such as blue light emitting diodes or laser diodes in Blu-ray player, are based on the compound semiconductor GaN. Through its additional field of application as high frequency and high power transistors GaN could in the future even outshine Si as the most important semiconducting material. The lack of large area and cost-effective GaN substrates makes a growth of the aforementioned device structures on non-native substrates (e.g. sapphire) necess...

  15. GaN Nanowire Arrays for High-Output Nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Chi-Te

    2010-04-07

    Three-fold symmetrically distributed GaN nanowire (NW) arrays have been epitaxially grown on GaN/sapphire substrates. The GaN NW possesses a triangular cross section enclosed by (0001), (2112), and (2112) planes, and the angle between the GaN NW and the substrate surface is ∼62°. The GaN NW arrays produce negative output voltage pulses when scanned by a conductive atomic force microscope in contact mode. The average of piezoelectric output voltage was about -20 mV, while 5-10% of the NWs had piezoelectric output voltages exceeding -(0.15-0.35) V. The GaN NW arrays are highly stable and highly tolerate to moisture in the atmosphere. The GaN NW arrays demonstrate an outstanding potential to be utilized for piezoelectric energy generation with a performance probably better than that of ZnO NWs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. U-based metallic glasses with superior glass forming ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongyang; Ke, Haibo; Huang, Huogen; Zhang, Pengguo; Pu, Zhen; Zhang, Pei; Liu, Tianwei

    2018-02-01

    By using Al as the third and B as the fourth but minor alloying elements for the U66.7Co33.3 basic metallic glass, a series of U-Co-Al(-B) alloys were designed. The quaternary U-Co-Al-B alloys exhibit significantly improved glass-forming ability (GFA) than previously reported U-based metallic glasses. Low fragility (∼24) is found for these new U-based metallic glasses. The improvement in GFA would result from denser atomic packing in the undercooled liquids due to the presence of small B atoms. Some U-Co-Al(-B) glasses showed corrosion resistance comparable to that of U64Co34Al2 glass, known for premium anti-corrosive performance among the unveiled U-based glasses.

  17. Base metal alloys used for dental restorations and implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael

    2007-07-01

    One of the primary reasons for the development of base metal alloys for dental applications has been the escalating cost of gold throughout the 20th century. In addition to providing lower cost alternatives, these nonprecious alloys were also found to provide better mechanical properties and aesthetics for some oral applications. Additionally, certain base metal alloy systems are preferred because of their superior mechanical properties, lower density, and in some cases, their capability to osseo-integrate. The base metal alloy systems most commonly used in dentistry today include stainless steels, nickel-chromium, cobalt-chromium, titanium, and nickel-titanium alloys. Combined, these alloy systems provide a wide range of available properties to choose the correct material for both temporary and long-term restoration and implant applications.

  18. Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching of III-V Semiconductors in BCl(3)-Based Chemistries: Part 1: GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AlGaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernathy, C.R,; Han, J.; Hobson, W.S.; Hong, J.; Lambers, E.S.; Lee, J.W.; Maeda, T.; Pearton, S.J.; Shul, R.J.

    1998-12-04

    BC13, with addition of Nz, Ar or Hz, is found to provide smooth anisotropic pattern transfer in GaAs, GaN, GaP, GaSb and AIGriAs under Inductively Coupled Plasma conditions, Maxima in the etch rates for these materials are observed at 33% N2 or 87$'40 Hz (by flow) addition to BC13, whereas Ar addition does not show this behavior. Maximum etch rates are typically much higher for GaAs, Gap, GaSb and AIGaAs (-1,2 @rein) than for GaN (-0.3 ymu'min) due to the higher bond energies of the iatter. The rates decrease at higher pressure, saturate with source power (ion flux) and tend to show maxima with chuck power (ion energy). The etched surfaces remain stoichiometric over abroad range of plasma conditions.

  19. Biomaterial based novel polyurethane adhesives for wood to wood and metal to metal bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitesh Ramanlal Patel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane adhesives made from synthetic chemicals are non-biodegradable, costly and difficult to find raw materials from local market. To avoid solid pollution problem, cost effectiveness and easy availability of raw materials, biomaterials based polyurethane adhesives are used in current industrial interest. Direct use of castor oil in polyurethane adhesive gives limited hardness. Modification on active sites of castor oil to utilize double bond of unsaturated fatty acid and carboxyl group yields new modified or activated polyols, which can be utilized for polyurethane adhesive formulation. In view of this, we have synthesized polyurethane adhesives from polyester polyols, castor oil based polyols and epoxy based polyols with Isocyanate adducts based on castor oil and trimethylolpropane. To study the effects of polyurethane adhesive strength (i.e. lap shear strength on wood-to-wood and metal-to-metal bonding through various types of polyols, cross-linking density, isocyanate adducts and also to compare adhesive strength between wood to wood and metal to metal surface. These polyols and polyurethanes were characterized through GPC, NMR and IR-spectroscopy, gel and surface drying time. Thermal stability of PU adhesives was determined under the effect of cross-linking density (NCO/OH ratio. The NCO/OH ratio (1.5 was optimized for adhesives as the higher NCO/OH ratio (2.0 increasing cross-linking density and decreases adhesion. Lower NCO/OH ratio (1.0 provideslow cross-linking density and low strength of adhesives.

  20. Plasmonic modulator based on thin metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide with gain core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We focus on plasmonic modulators with a gain core to be implemented as active nanodevices in photonic integrated circuits. In particular, we analyze metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) waveguides with InGaAsP-based active material layers. A MSM waveguide enables high field localization and therefore...

  1. Metal speciation in Dutch soils: Field-based partition coefficients for heavy metals at background levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoop MAGT van den; LAC

    1995-01-01

    For 13 Dutch soil samples, total concentrations in the solid phase and in the soil solution were determined for the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The soils were characterized in terms of organic carbon content, pH, clay content and cation exchange capacity. Average field-based

  2. Antimicrobial resistance challenged with metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-El-Aziz, Alaa S; Agatemor, Christian; Etkin, Nola

    2017-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance threatens the achievements of science and medicine, as it deactivates conventional antimicrobial therapeutics. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial platforms to prevent and treat infections from these resistant strains. Metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules are emerging as an alternative to conventional platforms because they combine multiple mechanisms of action into one platform due to the distinctive properties of metals. For example, metals interact with intracellular proteins and enzymes, and catalyse various intracellular processes. The macromolecular architecture offers a means to enhance antimicrobial activity since several antimicrobial moieties can be conjugated to the scaffold. Further, these macromolecules can be fabricated into antimicrobial materials for contact-killing medical implants, fabrics, and devices. As volatilization or leaching out of the antimicrobial moieties from the macromolecular scaffold is reduced, these medical implants, fabrics, and devices can retain their antimicrobial activity over an extended period. Recent advances demonstrate the potential of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules as effective platforms that prevent and treat infections from resistant strains. In this review these advances are thoroughly discussed within the context of examples of metal-based antimicrobial macromolecules, their mechanisms of action and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Operation of ohmic Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer contacts to GaN at 600 °C in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Minmin; Senesky, Debbie G.

    2014-08-01

    The high-temperature characteristics (at 600 °C) of Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer contacts to gallium nitride (GaN) in air are reported. Microfabricated circular-transfer-line-method test structures were subject to 10 h of thermal storage at 600 °C. Intermittent electrical characterization during thermal storage showed minimal variation in the contact resistance after 2 h and that the specific contact resistivity remained on the order of 10-5 Ω-cm2. In addition, the thermally stored multilayer contacts to GaN showed ohmic I-V characteristics when electrically probed at 600 °C. The microstructural analysis with atomic force microscopy showed minimal changes in surface roughness after thermal storage. Observations of the thermochemical reactions after thermal storage using Auger electron spectroscopy chemical depth profiling showed diffusion of Pt and minimal additional Al oxidation. The results support the use of Ti/Al/Pt/Au multilayer metallization for GaN-based sensors and electronic devices that will operate within a high-temperature and oxidizing ambient.

  4. Site controlled Red-Yellow-Green light emitting InGaN Quantum Discs on nano-tipped GaN rods

    KAUST Repository

    Conroy, Michele Ann

    2016-03-10

    We report a method of growing site controlled InGaN multiple quantum discs (QDs) at uniform wafer scale on coalescence free ultra-high density (>80%) nanorod templates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). The dislocation and coalescence free nature of the GaN space filling nanorod arrays eliminates the well-known emission problems seen in InGaN based visible light sources that these types of crystallographic defects cause. Correlative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) mapping and cathodoluminescence (CL) hyperspectral imaging illustrates the controlled site selection of the red, yellow and green (RYG) emission at these nano tips. This article reveals that the nanorod tips’ broad emission in the RYG visible range is in fact achieved by manipulating the InGaN QD’s confinement dimensions, rather than significantly increasing the In%. This article details the easily controlled method of manipulating the QDs dimensions producing high crystal quality InGaN without complicated growth conditions needed for strain relaxation and alloy compositional changes seen for bulk planar GaN templates.

  5. In-situ potential mapping of space charge layer in GaN nanowires under electrical field by off-axis electron holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In situ potential mapping of space charge (SC layer in a single GaN nanowire (NW contacted to the Au metal electrode has been conducted using off-axis electron holography in order to study the space distribution of SC layer under electric biases. Based on the phase image reconstructed from the complex hologram the electrostatic potential at the SC layer was clearly revealed; the SC width was estimated to be about 76 nm under zero bias condition. In order to study dynamic interrelation between the SC layer and bias conditions, the variation of the electrostatic potential due to change of the SC widths respond to the different bias conditions have also been examined. The measured SC layers are found to vary between 68 nm and 91 nm, which correspond to the saturated SC layers at the GaN-Au contact under the forward and reverse bias conditions, respectively. By plotting the square widths of the SC layer against the applied voltages, donor density of GaN NWs was derived to be about 4.3*106 cm−3. Our experiments demonstrate that in-situ electron holography under electric field can be a useful method to investigate SC layers and donor density in single NW and other heterostructures.

  6. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochemical devices additionally rely on efficient transport of ionic charge in and around metal oxides. Colloidal synthesis has enabled metal oxide nanocrystals to emerge as a relatively new but highly tunable class of materials. Certain metal oxide nanocrystals, particularly highly doped metal oxides, have been enjoying rapid development in the last decade. As in myriad other materials systems, structure dictates the properties of metal oxide nanocrystals, but a full understanding of how nanocrystal synthesis, the processing of nanocrystal-based materials, and the structure of nanocrystals relate to the resulting properties of nanocrystal-based materials is still nascent. Gaining a fundamental understanding of and control over these structure-property relationships is crucial to developing a holistic understanding of metal oxide nanocrystals. The unique ability to tune metal oxide nanocrystals by changing composition through the introduction of dopants or by changing size and shape affords a way to study the interplay between structure, processing, and properties. This overall goal of this work is to chemically synthesize colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, process them into useful materials, characterize charge transport in materials based on colloidal metal oxide nanocrystals, and develop ways to manipulate charge transport. In particular, this dissertation characterizes how the charge transport properties of metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials depend on their processing and

  7. Quantum efficiency of GaN photocathode under different illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohui; Chang, Benkang; Du, Yujie; Qiao, Jianliang

    2011-07-01

    GaN samples are activated by Cs/O under illumination of deuterium lamp, 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 70 μW and 300 nm monochromatic light with power of 35 μW, respectively. Photocurrent is detected before activation under illumination of deuterium lamp. Quantum efficiency (QE) is tested after activation. The results indicate that GaN activated under 300 nm monochromatic light have higher QE than that under deuterium lamp, and no obvious difference is detected between different power 300 nm monochromatic light. The photocurrent before activation inhibits the adsorption of Cs on the GaN surface, which decrease the QE of GaN.

  8. Theoretical analysis of a nanoscale plasmonic filter based on a rectangular metal-insulator-metal waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun Binfeng; Hu Guohua; Cui Yiping

    2010-01-01

    A compact and nanometric surface plasmon polariton (SPP) band-pass filter based on a rectangular ring resonator composed of metal-insulator-metal waveguides is proposed. Using the finite difference time domain method, the effects of the structure parameters on the transmission characteristics of this SPP band-pass filter are analysed in detail. The results show that the proposed SPP filter has narrow transmission peaks and the corresponding resonance wavelengths can be linearly tuned by altering the resonator's cavity length. Moreover, the transmission ratios of the pass bands can be tuned by changing the coupling gaps between the input/output MIM waveguides and the resonator. Also the metal loss and dispersion effects on the filter responses are included. The simple band-pass SPP filter is very promising for high-density SPP waveguide integrations.

  9. Discussion of enthalpy, entropy and free energy of formation of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rajitha, G.

    2009-07-01

    Presented in this letter is a critical discussion of a recent paper on experimental investigation of the enthalpy, entropy and free energy of formation of gallium nitride (GaN) published in this journal [T.J. Peshek, J.C. Angus, K. Kash, J. Cryst. Growth 311 (2008) 185-189]. It is shown that the experimental technique employed detects neither the equilibrium partial pressure of N 2 corresponding to the equilibrium between Ga and GaN at fixed temperatures nor the equilibrium temperature at constant pressure of N 2. The results of Peshek et al. are discussed in the light of other information on the Gibbs energy of formation available in the literature. Entropy of GaN is derived from heat-capacity measurements. Based on a critical analysis of all thermodynamic information now available, a set of optimized parameters is identified and a table of thermodynamic data for GaN developed from 298.15 to 1400 K.

  10. Structural properties of CrN buffers for GaN growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. H.; Im, I. H.; Minegishi, T.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the structural properties of CrN layers grown on (0001) Al 2 O 3 substrates by molecular-beam epitaxy. The CrN layers of high-crystal quality are obtained at a low growth temperature of 500 .deg. C. X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the CrN layers grow along the direction with a cubic structure. In-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction investigations clarify that the CrN layers have the following epitaxy relationship with the Al 2 O 3 substrates: of (111) cubic CrN // of (0001) corundum Al 2 O 3 and of (111) cubic CrN // of (0001) corundum Al 2 O 3 . Based on the above results, the mismatch of the in-plane lattice spacing between the CrN layers and the Al 2 O 3 substrates is evaluated to be around 6.6 %. When the CrN layers are used as the buffer layers for GaN growth, the GaN layers grown on the CrN layers show well-resolved excitonic emission lines in the photoluminescence spectra, whereas the GaN layers grown without the CrN layers exhibit a broad near-band-edge emission. It is suggested that CrN buffers are effective in relieving the lattice mismatch between Al 2 O 3 substrates and GaN layers.

  11. DFT study on metal-mediated uracil base pair complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Üngördü

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The most stable of metal-mediated uracil base pair complexes were determined. Method was used density functional theory, B3LYP. The calculations of systems containing C, H, N, O were described by 6-311++G(d,p and cc-PVTZ basis sets and LANL2DZ and SDD basis sets was used for transition metals. Then Egap values of complexes were calculated and the electrical conductivity of the complexes for single nanowires was studied by band theory. Metal-mediated uracil base pair complexes which will be used as conductive wires in nanotechnology were predicted. In nanoworld, this study is expected to show a way for practical applications.

  12. Amphoteric arsenic in GaN

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, U; Araújo, J P; Rita, E; Soares, JC

    2007-01-01

    We have determined the lattice location of implanted arsenic in GaN by means of conversion electron emission channeling from radioactive $^{73}$As. We give direct evidence that As is an amphoteric impurity, thus settling the long-standing question as to whether it prefers cation or anion sites in GaN. The amphoteric character of As and the fact that As$\\scriptstyle_{Ga}\\,$ " anti-sites ” are not minority defects provide additional aspects to be taken into account for an explanantion of the so-called “ miscibility gap ” in ternary GaAs$\\scriptstyle_{1-x}$N$\\scriptstyle_{x}$ compounds, which cannot be grown with a single phase for values of $x$ in the range 0.1<${x}$< 0.99.

  13. Excitonic transitions in homoepitaxial GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Criado, G.; Cros, A.; Cantarero, A. [Materials Science Inst. and Dept. of Applied Physics, Univ. of Valencia (Spain); Miskys, C.R.; Ambacher, O.; Stutzmann, M. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Walter-Schottky-Inst. fuer Physikalische Grundlagen der Halbleiterelektronik

    2001-11-08

    The photoluminescence spectrum of a high quality homoepitaxial GaN film has been measured as a function of temperature. As temperature increases the recombination of free excitons dominates the spectra. Their energy shift has successfully fitted in that temperature range by means of the Bose-Einstein expression instead of Varshni's relationship. Values for the parameters of both semi-empirical relations describing the energy shift are reported and compared with the literature. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of vertical GaN p–n diodes and junction field-effect transistors on bulk GaN down to cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizilyalli, I C; Aktas, O

    2015-01-01

    There is great interest in wide-bandgap semiconductor devices and most recently in vertical GaN structures for power electronic applications such as power supplies, solar inverters and motor drives. In this paper the temperature-dependent electrical behavior of vertical GaN p–n diodes and vertical junction field-effect transistors fabricated on bulk GaN substrates of low defect density (10 4 to 10 6 cm −2 ) is described. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and the ability to control the doping in the drift layers in GaN have allowed the realization of vertical device architectures with drift layer thicknesses of 6 to 40 μm and net carrier electron concentrations as low as 1 × 10 15 cm −3 . This parameter range is suitable for applications requiring breakdown voltages of 1.2 kV to 5 kV. Mg, which is used as a p-type dopant in GaN, is a relatively deep acceptor (E A  ≈ 0.18 eV) and susceptible to freeze-out at temperatures below 200 K. The loss of holes in p-GaN has a deleterious effect on p–n junction behavior, p-GaN contacts and channel control in junction field-effect transistors at temperatures below 200 K. Impact ionization-based avalanche breakdown (BV > 1200 V) in GaN p–n junctions is characterized between 77 K and 423 K for the first time. At higher temperatures the p–n junction breakdown voltage improves due to increased phonon scattering. A positive temperature coefficient in the breakdown voltage is demonstrated down to 77 K; however, the device breakdown characteristics are not as abrupt at temperatures below 200 K. On the other hand, contact resistance to p-GaN is reduced dramatically above room temperature, improving the overall device performance in GaN p–n diodes in all cases except where the n-type drift region resistance dominates the total forward resistance. In this case, the electron mobility can be deconvolved and is found to decrease with T −3/2 , consistent with a phonon scattering model. Also

  15. Characterization of vertical GaN p-n diodes and junction field-effect transistors on bulk GaN down to cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilyalli, I. C.; Aktas, O.

    2015-12-01

    There is great interest in wide-bandgap semiconductor devices and most recently in vertical GaN structures for power electronic applications such as power supplies, solar inverters and motor drives. In this paper the temperature-dependent electrical behavior of vertical GaN p-n diodes and vertical junction field-effect transistors fabricated on bulk GaN substrates of low defect density (104 to 106 cm-2) is described. Homoepitaxial MOCVD growth of GaN on its native substrate and the ability to control the doping in the drift layers in GaN have allowed the realization of vertical device architectures with drift layer thicknesses of 6 to 40 μm and net carrier electron concentrations as low as 1 × 1015 cm-3. This parameter range is suitable for applications requiring breakdown voltages of 1.2 kV to 5 kV. Mg, which is used as a p-type dopant in GaN, is a relatively deep acceptor (E A ≈ 0.18 eV) and susceptible to freeze-out at temperatures below 200 K. The loss of holes in p-GaN has a deleterious effect on p-n junction behavior, p-GaN contacts and channel control in junction field-effect transistors at temperatures below 200 K. Impact ionization-based avalanche breakdown (BV > 1200 V) in GaN p-n junctions is characterized between 77 K and 423 K for the first time. At higher temperatures the p-n junction breakdown voltage improves due to increased phonon scattering. A positive temperature coefficient in the breakdown voltage is demonstrated down to 77 K; however, the device breakdown characteristics are not as abrupt at temperatures below 200 K. On the other hand, contact resistance to p-GaN is reduced dramatically above room temperature, improving the overall device performance in GaN p-n diodes in all cases except where the n-type drift region resistance dominates the total forward resistance. In this case, the electron mobility can be deconvolved and is found to decrease with T -3/2, consistent with a phonon scattering model. Also, normally-on vertical junction

  16. A transparent electrode based on a metal nanotrough network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hui; Kong, Desheng; Ruan, Zhichao; Hsu, Po-Chun; Wang, Shuang; Yu, Zongfu; Carney, Thomas J; Hu, Liangbing; Fan, Shanhui; Cui, Yi

    2013-06-01

    Transparent conducting electrodes are essential components for numerous flexible optoelectronic devices, including touch screens and interactive electronics. Thin films of indium tin oxide-the prototypical transparent electrode material-demonstrate excellent electronic performances, but film brittleness, low infrared transmittance and low abundance limit suitability for certain industrial applications. Alternatives to indium tin oxide have recently been reported and include conducting polymers, carbon nanotubes and graphene. However, although flexibility is greatly improved, the optoelectronic performance of these carbon-based materials is limited by low conductivity. Other examples include metal nanowire-based electrodes, which can achieve sheet resistances of less than 10Ω □(-1) at 90% transmission because of the high conductivity of the metals. To achieve these performances, however, metal nanowires must be defect-free, have conductivities close to their values in bulk, be as long as possible to minimize the number of wire-to-wire junctions, and exhibit small junction resistance. Here, we present a facile fabrication process that allows us to satisfy all these requirements and fabricate a new kind of transparent conducting electrode that exhibits both superior optoelectronic performances (sheet resistance of ~2Ω □(-1) at 90% transmission) and remarkable mechanical flexibility under both stretching and bending stresses. The electrode is composed of a free-standing metallic nanotrough network and is produced with a process involving electrospinning and metal deposition. We demonstrate the practical suitability of our transparent conducting electrode by fabricating a flexible touch-screen device and a transparent conducting tape.

  17. Topical Review: Development of overgrown semi-polar GaN for high efficiency green/yellow emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.

    2016-09-01

    The most successful example of large lattice-mismatched epitaxial growth of semiconductors is the growth of III-nitrides on sapphire, leading to the award of the Nobel Prize in 2014 and great success in developing InGaN-based blue emitters. However, the majority of achievements in the field of III-nitride optoelectronics are mainly limited to polar GaN grown on c-plane (0001) sapphire. This polar orientation poses a number of fundamental issues, such as reduced quantum efficiency, efficiency droop, green and yellow gap in wavelength coverage, etc. To date, it is still a great challenge to develop longer wavelength devices such as green and yellow emitters. One clear way forward would be to grow III-nitride device structures along a semi-/non-polar direction, in particular, a semi-polar orientation, which potentially leads to both enhanced indium incorporation into GaN and reduced quantum confined Stark effects. This review presents recent progress on developing semi-polar GaN overgrowth technologies on sapphire or Si substrates, the two kinds of major substrates which are cost-effective and thus industry-compatible, and also demonstrates the latest achievements on electrically injected InGaN emitters with long emission wavelengths up to and including amber on overgrown semi-polar GaN. Finally, this review presents a summary and outlook on further developments for semi-polar GaN based optoelectronics.

  18. Synthesis and heavy metal immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunsheng, Zhang; Wei, Sun; Qianli, Chen; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-08

    In this paper, two aspects of studies are carried out: (1) synthesis of geopolymer by using slag and metakaolin; (2) immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer in a presence of Pb and Cu ions. As for the synthesis of slag based geopolymer, four different slag content (10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) and three types of curing regimes (standard curing, steam curing and autoclave curing) are investigated to obtain the optimum synthesis condition based on the compressive and flexural strength. The testing results showed that geopolymer mortar containing 50% slag that is synthesized at steam curing (80 degrees C for 8h), exhibits higher mechanical strengths. The compressive and flexural strengths of slag based geopolymer mortar are 75.2 MPa and 10.1 MPa, respectively. Additionally, Infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are used to characterize the microstructure of the slag based geopolymer paste. IR spectra show that the absorptive band at 1086 cm(-1) shifts to lower wave number around 1007 cm(-1), and some six-coordinated Als transforms into four-coordination during the synthesis of slag based geopolymer paste. The resulting slag based geopolymeric products are X-ray amorphous materials. SEM observation shows that it is possible to have geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel forming simultaneously within slag based geopolymer paste. As for immobilization of heavy metals, the leaching tests are employed to investigate the immobilization behaviors of the slag based geopolymer mortar synthesized under the above optimum condition. The leaching tests show that slag based geopolymer mortar can effectively immobilize Cu and Pb heavy metal ions, and the immobilization efficiency reach 98.5% greater when heavy metals are incorporated in the slag geopolymeric matrix in the range of 0.1-0.3%. The Pb exhibits better immobilization efficiency than the Cu in the case of large dosages of heavy metals.

  19. Schiff base transition metal complexes for Suzuki–Miyaura cross ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RASHEEDA M ANSARI

    2017-08-19

    Aug 19, 2017 ... Abstract. Schiff base ligand and its complex with iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) ions were synthesized using 4-aminoacetophenone and salicylaldehyde and characterized. FTIR spectrum shows that bidentate coordination of metal ions with ligand where O, N are electron donating sites of ...

  20. Shear Zone-Hosted Base Metal Mineralization near Abraha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-grade basement rocks of Neoproterozoic age with well developed shear zones and posttectonic granitic intrusives from Hawzien area of northern Ethiopia were studied for field characteristics, mineralogy, textures, alteration assemblages and geochemistry to explore their potential for base metal mineralization.

  1. Synthesis, spectral characterization of Schiff base transition metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    Synthesis, spectral characterization of Schiff base transition metal complexes: DNA cleavage and antimicrobial activity studies. N RAMAN,* J DHAVEETHU RAJA and A SAKTHIVEL. Department of Chemistry, VHNSN College, Virudhunagar 626 001 e-mail: drn_ raman@yahoo.co.in. MS received 1 May 2007; revised 7 July ...

  2. Schiff base transition metal complexes for Suzuki–Miyaura cross ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schiff base ligand and its complex with iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) ions were synthesized using 4-aminoacetophenone and salicylaldehyde and characterized. FTIR spectrum shows that bidentate coordination of metal ions with ligand where O, N are electron donating sites of azomethine group.

  3. Phenalenyl-based ligand for transition metal chemistry: Application ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mandal@iiserkol.ac.in. Abstract. We report the synthesis and characterization of the first transition metal complex of a phenalenyl- based ligand. The reaction of Cu(OAc)2.H2O with 9-N-methylamino-1-N -methylimino-phenalene (LH) in 1:1.

  4. Tridentate Schiff base (ONO) transition metal complexes: Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 7. Tridentate Schiff base (ONO) transition metal complexes: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and larvicidal studies. SUNDARAMURTHY SANTHA LAKSHMI KANNAPPAN GEETHA P MAHADEVI. Regular Article Volume 128 Issue 7 July 2016 pp ...

  5. Schiff base transition metal complexes for Suzuki–Miyaura cross

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Schiff base ligand and its complex with iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni) and copper (Cu) ions were synthesized using 4-aminoacetophenone and salicylaldehyde and characterized. FTIR spectrum shows that bidentate coordination of metal ions with ligand where O, N are electron donating sites of azomethine group.

  6. Indicator minerals as guides to base metal sulphide mineralisation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zn-bearing minerals that act as indicator minerals for base metal sulphide mineralization from the Proterozoic Betul Belt,central India with special emphasis on their genetic significance have been discussed.Sulphide mineralisation is hosted by the felsic volcanic rocks and has similarities with volcanic-hosted massive ...

  7. Hydrometallurgical Approach for Leaching of Metals from Copper Rich Side Stream Originating from Base Metal Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udit Surya Mohanty

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyrometallurgical metal production results in side streams, such as dusts and slags, which are carriers of metals, though commonly containing lower metal concentrations compared to the main process stream. In order to improve the circular economy of metals, selective leaching of copper from an intermediate raw material originating from primary base metal production plant was investigated. The raw material investigated was rich in Cu (12.5%, Ni (2.6%, Zn (1.6%, and Fe (23.6% with the particle size D80 of 124 µm. The main compounds present were nickel ferrite (NiFe2O4, fayalite (Fe2SiO4, cuprite (Cu2O, and metallic copper. Leaching was studied in 16 different solutions. The results revealed that copper phases could be dissolved with high yield (>90% and selectivity towards nickel (Cu/Ni > 7 already at room temperature with the following solutions: 0.5 M HCl, 1.5 M HCl, 4 M NaOH, and 2 M HNO3. A concentration of 4 M NaOH provided a superior selectivity between Cu/Ni (340 and Cu/Zn (51. In addition, 1–2 M HNO3 and 0.5 M HCl solutions were shown to result in high Pb dissolution (>98%. Consequently, 0.5 M HCl leaching is suggested to provide a low temperature, low chemical consumption method for selective copper removal from the investigated side stream, resulting in PLS (pregnant leach solution which is a rich in Cu and lead free residue, also rich in Ni and Fe.

  8. Metallic component with a chromium carbide base protective coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfla, T.A.; Tucker, R.C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a coating system to protect metal components in sodium and helium cooled nuclear reactors. It includes a nickel or iron based alloy metal substrate, a first coat formed on the substrate and comprising chromium carbides and a binder selected among the chromium-nickel, chromium-cobalt, chromium-iron alloys and the super-alloys, the first coating being between 25 and 380 microns thick, and a surface coating comprising pure chromium carbides and being between 12.5 and 125 microns thick [fr

  9. Chemical sensors based on molecularly modified metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haick, Hossam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to the use of molecularly modified metal nanoparticles in or as chemical sensors. This paper attempts to pull together different views and terminologies used in sensors based on molecularly modified metal nanoparticles, including those established upon electrochemical, optical, surface Plasmon resonance, piezoelectric and electrical transduction approaches. Finally, this paper discusses briefly the main advantages and disadvantages of each of the presented class of sensors. (review article)

  10. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-08-01

    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  11. Band alignments and improved leakage properties of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5/SiO2/GaN stacks for high-temperature metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L. G.; Xu, B.; Guo, H. X.; Xia, Y. D.; Yin, J.; Liu, Z. G.

    2009-06-01

    The band alignments of (La2O3)0.5(SiO2)0.5(LSO)/GaN and LSO/SiO2/GaN gate dielectric stacks were investigated comparatively by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The valence band offsets for LSO/GaN stack and LSO/SiO2/GaN stack are 0.88 and 1.69 eV, respectively, while the corresponding conduction band offsets are found to be 1.40 and 1.83 eV, respectively. Measurements of the leakage current density as function of temperature revealed that the LSO/SiO2/GaN stack has much lower leakage current density than that of the LSO/GaN stack, especially at high temperature. It is concluded that the presence of a SiO2 buffer layer increases band offsets and reduces the leakage current density effectively.

  12. Quantum-based Atomistic Simulation of Transition Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, J A; Benedict, L X; Glosli, J N; Hood, R Q; Orlikowski, D A; Patel, M V; Soderlind, P; Streitz, F H; Tang, M; Yang, L H

    2005-01-01

    First-principles generalized pseudopotential theory (GPT) provides a fundamental basis for transferable multi-ion interatomic potentials in d-electron transition metals within density-functional quantum mechanics. In mid-period bcc metals, where multi-ion angular forces are important to structural properties, simplified model GPT or MGPT potentials have been developed based on canonical d bands to allow analytic forms and large-scale atomistic simulations. Robust, advanced-generation MGPT potentials have now been obtained for Ta and Mo and successfully applied to a wide range of structural, thermodynamic, defect and mechanical properties at both ambient and extreme conditions of pressure and temperature. Recent algorithm improvements have also led to a more general matrix representation of MGPT beyond canonical bands allowing increased accuracy and extension to f-electron actinide metals, an order of magnitude increase in computational speed, and the current development of temperature-dependent potentials

  13. [Comparative study of uniform-doping and gradient-doping negative electron affinity GaN photocathodes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Biao; Chang, Ben-Kang; Xu, Yuan; Du, Xiao-Qing; Du, Yu-Jie; Fu, Xiao-Qian; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Jun-Ju

    2011-08-01

    High temperature annealing and Cs/O activation are external incentives, while the property of GaN material is internal factor in the preparation of negative electron affinity GaN photocathode. The similarities and differences of the performance of the two structure photocathodes are analysed based on the difference of the structure between uniform-doping and gradient-doping negative electron affinity GaN photocathodes and the changes in photocurrents in activation and the quantum yield after successfully activated of GaN photocathodes. Experiments show that: the photocurrent growth rate is slower in activation, activation time is longer and quantum efficiency is higher after successfully activated of gradient-doping GaN photocathode than those of uniform-doping photocathode respectively. The field-assisted photocathode emission model can explain the differences between the two, built-in electric field of gradient-doping structure creates additional electronic drift to the photocathode surface, and the probability of electrons to reach the photocathode surface is improved correspondingly.

  14. Development of UV-photocathodes using GaN film on Si substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuke, S.; Sumiya, M.; Nihashi, T.; Hagino, M.; Matsumoto, M.; Kamo, Y.; Sato, M.; Ohtsuka, K.

    2008-02-01

    We developed GaN photocathodes for detecting ultraviolet radiation by using Mg-doped GaN. Crack-free, 200 nm thick GaN:Mg layers were grown by metal organic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on a GaN template having a structure of undoped GaN/(AlN/GaN) multilayers on Si (111) substrate. The Mg concentration was varied in the range from 7×10 18 to 7×10 19 cm -3. The grown film was mounted in a phototube to operate in reflection mode; i.e. the light was incident from the photoemission side. The photoemission surface was activated by sequential adsorption of cesium and oxygen to reduce electron affinity, ensuring efficient electron emission. Photoemission spectrum was measured in the range of 200-600 nm. We found that the quantum efficiency of photoemission was affected by the crystallinity of GaN:Mg, depending on the concentration of Mg dopant and the growth pressure of GaN:Mg top photoemissive layer. The lower Mg concentration and higher growth pressure resulted in higher quantum efficiency. The obtained maximum quantum efficiency was 45% at 200 nm (6.2 eV) and 25% at 350 nm (3.54 eV). The elimination ratio between visible and UV light was 4 decades and the slope of cutoff was 10 nm per decade.

  15. Ultraviolet Laser SQUID Microscope for GaN Blue Light Emitting Diode Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daibo, M; Kamiwano, D; Kurosawa, T; Yoshizawa, M; Tayama, N

    2006-01-01

    We carried out non-contacting measurements of photocurrent distributions in GaN blue light emitting diode (LED) chips using our newly developed ultraviolet (UV) laser SQUID microscope. The UV light generates the photocurrent, and then the photocurrent induces small magnetic fields around the chip. An off-axis arranged HTS-SQUID magnetometer is employed to detect a vector magnetic field whose typical amplitude is several hundred femto-tesla. Generally, it is difficult to obtain Ohmic contacts for p-type GaN because of the low hole concentration in the p-type epitaxial layer and the lack of any available metal with a higher work function compared with the p-type GaN. Therefore, a traditional probecontacted electrical test is difficult to conduct for wide band gap semiconductors without an adequately annealed electrode. Using the UV-laser SQUID microscope, the photocurrent can be measured without any electrical contact. We show the photocurrent vector map which was reconstructed from measured magnetic fields data. We also demonstrate how we found the position of a defect of the electrical short circuits in the LED chip

  16. Optical excitation of Er centers in GaN epilayers grown by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. K.; Hawkins, M. D.; Jiang, H. X.; Lin, J. Y.; Zavada, J. M.; Vinh, N. Q.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present results of photoluminescence (PL), photoluminescence excitation (PLE), and time resolved PL spectroscopy of the 4I13/2 → 4I15/2 transition in Er optical centers in GaN epilayers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Under resonance excitation via the higher-lying inner 4f shell transitions and band-to-band excitation of the semiconductor host, the PL and PLE spectra reveal an existence of two types of Er optical centers from isolated and the defect-related Er centers in GaN epilayers. These centers have different PL spectra, local defect environments, decay dynamics, and excitation cross-sections. The isolated Er optical center, which can be excited by either excitation mechanism, has the same decay dynamics, but possesses a much higher cross-section under band-to-band excitation. In contrast, the defect-related Er center can only be observed through band-to-band excitation but has the largest crosssection. Our results indicate pathways for efficient optical excitation of Er-doped GaN semiconductors.

  17. Structure and properties of transition metal-metalloid glasses based on refractory metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.L.; Williams, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The structure and properties of several new transition metal-metalloid (TM/sub 1-x/M/sub x/) metallic glasses based on refractory transition metals (e.g. Mo, W, Ru etc.) have been systemically investigated as a function of composition. The structure of the alloys has been investigated by x-ray diffraction methods and measurements of superconducting properties, electrical resistivity, density, hardness, and mechanical behavior were made. These data are used in developing a novel description of the structure of TM/sub 1-x/M/sub x/ glasses. The experimental evidence suggests that an ideal amorphous phase forms at a specific composition x/sub c/ and that this phase has a well defined atomic short range order. For metallic glasses having x < x/sub c/ (metalloid poor glasses) vacancy-like defects form, which are characterized by the excess volume which they contribute to the glass. Another, as yet unspecified defect appears to form in glasses with x > x/sub c/. This novel picture can explain the variation of many properties of these glasses with metalloid concentration.

  18. Spectra and quantum efficiency of light-emitting diodes based on GaN heterostructures with quantum wells and their dependence on current and voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Kudryashov, V E; Turkin, A N; Yunovich, A E; Kovalev, A N; Manyakhin, F I

    2001-01-01

    Spectra and quantum efficiency of light-emitted diodes based on heterostructures InGaN/AlGaN/GaN with multiple quantum wells have been studied at currents J = 10 sup - sup 6 -10 sup - sup 1 A. Minor differences in quantum efficiency (of +- 10% at J approx = 10 mA) are caused by sufficiently different distribution of effective charges in the space charge region as well as by different role of the tunnel component of current at low voltages. The main peak in spectra near of 2.35-2.36 eV at small current (0.05-0.5 mA) does not depend on the voltage and is explained by radiative transitions in localized states. At J > 1 mA the spectral band 2.36-2.52 eV shifts with gamma current. The band form is described in the 4-parameter model of tail population of two-dimensional energy-level density

  19. P-type doping of GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Raechelle Kimberly [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    After implantation of As, As + Be, and As + Ga into GaN and annealing for short durations at temperatures as high as 1500 C, the GaN films remained highly resistive. It was apparent from c-RBS studies that although implantation damage did not create an amorphous layer in the GaN film, annealing at 1500 C did not provide enough energy to completely recover the radiation damage. Disorder recovered significantly after annealing at temperatures up to 1500 C, but not completely. From SIMS analysis, oxygen contamination in the AIN capping layer causes oxygen diffusion into the GaN film above 1400 C. The sapphire substrate (A1203) also decomposed and oxygen penetrated into the backside of the GaN layer above 1400 C. To prevent donor-like oxygen impurities from the capping layer and the substrate from contaminating the GaN film and compensating acceptors, post-implantation annealing should be done at temperatures below 1500 C. Oxygen in the cap could be reduced by growing the AIN cap on the GaN layer after the GaN growth run or by depositing the AIN layer in a ultra high vacuum (UHV) system post-growth to minimize residual oxygen and water contamination. With longer annealing times at 1400 C or at higher temperatures with a higher quality AIN, the implantation drainage may fully recover.

  20. Stage of GAN (Grupo de Analise do Nucleo) calculus methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.F. da.

    1987-11-01

    This Technical Note presents the stage of GAN Calculus Methodology in areas of Neutronics, Fuel Rod Performance and Fission Products Inventory. Proposals of GAN's members are presented and analyzed for each of these areas and a work schedule is established. (author)

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on GaN and InGaN surfaces; Rastertunnelmikroskopie und -spektroskopie an GaN- und InGaN-Oberflaechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, David

    2009-12-02

    Optelectronic devices based on gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) are in the focus of research since more than 20 years and still have great potential for optical applications. In the first part of this work non-polar surfaces of GaN are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In SEM and AFM, the (1 anti 100)- and especially the (anti 2110)-plane are quite corrugated. For the first time, the (anti 2110)-plane of GaN is atomically resolved in STM. In the second part InGaN quantum dot layers are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and STM. The STMmeasurements show the dependency of surface morphology on growth conditions in the metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Nucleation, a new MOVPE-strategy, is based on phase separations on surfaces. It is shown that locally varying density of states and bandgaps can be detected by STS, that means bandgap histograms and 2D-bandgap-mapping. (orig.)

  2. GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Tetsuzo; Ishida, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueda, Daisuke

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, recent advances of GaN transistors on Si for switching and high-frequency applications are reviewed. Novel epitaxial structures including superlattice interlayers grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) relieve the strain and eliminate the cracks in the GaN over large-diameter Si substrates up to 8 in. As a new device structure for high-power switching application, Gate Injection Transistors (GITs) with a p-AlGaN gate over an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure successfully achieve normally-off operations maintaining high drain currents and low on-state resistances. Note that the GITs on Si are free from current collapse up to 600 V, by which the drain current would be markedly reduced after the application of high drain voltages. Highly efficient operations of an inverter and DC-DC converters are presented as promising applications of GITs for power switching. The high efficiencies in an inverter, a resonant LLC converter, and a point-of-load (POL) converter demonstrate the superior potential of the GaN transistors on Si. As for high-frequency transistors, AlGaN/GaN heterojuction field-effect transistors (HFETs) on Si designed specifically for microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies demonstrate a sufficiently high output power at these frequencies. Output powers of 203 W at 2.5 GHz and 10.7 W at 26.5 GHz are achieved by the fabricated GaN transistors. These devices for switching and high-frequency applications are very promising as future energy-efficient electronics because of their inherent low fabrication cost and superior device performance.

  3. Direct spontaneous growth and interfacial structural properties of inclined GaN nanopillars on r-plane sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adikimenakis, A.; Aretouli, K. E.; Tsagaraki, K.; Androulidaki, M.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group (MRG), IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, GR 711 10 Heraklion Crete, Greece and Physics Department, University of Crete, GR 710 03 Heraklion Crete (Greece); Lotsari, A.; Dimitrakopulos, G. P., E-mail: gdim@auth.gr; Kehagias, Th.; Komninou, Ph. [Physics Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, GR 541 24, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2015-06-28

    The spontaneous growth of GaN nanopillars (NPs) by direct plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy on nitridated r-plane sapphire substrates has been studied. The emanation of metal-polarity NPs from inside an a-plane nonpolar GaN film was found to depend on both the substrate nitridation and the growth conditions. The density of NPs increased with increasing the duration of the nitridation process and the power applied on the radio-frequency plasma source, as well as the III/V flux ratio, while variation of the first two parameters enhanced the roughness of the substrate's surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques were employed to reveal the structural characteristics of the NPs and their nucleation mechanism from steps on the sapphire surface and/or interfacial semipolar GaN nanocrystals. Lattice strain measurements showed a possible Al enrichment of the first 5–6 monolayers of the NPs. By combining cross-sectional and plan-view TEM observations, the three-dimensional model of the NPs was constructed. The orientation relationship and interfacial accommodation between the NPs and the nonpolar a-plane GaN film were also elucidated. The NPs exhibited strong and narrow excitonic emission, suggesting an excellent structural quality.

  4. Impacts of oxidants in atomic layer deposition method on Al2O3/GaN interface properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Noriyuki; Kubo, Toshiharu; Yamada, Toshikazu; Egawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Mitsuaki

    2018-01-01

    The electrical interface properties of GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with an Al2O3 gate insulator formed by atomic layer deposition method using three kinds of oxidants were investigated by the capacitance-voltage technique, Terman method, and conductance method. We found that O3 and the alternate supply of H2O and O3 (AS-HO) are effective for reducing the interface trap density (D it) at the energy range of 0.15 to 0.30 eV taking from the conduction band minimum. On the other hand, we found that surface potential fluctuation (σs) induced by interface charges for the AS-HO oxidant is much larger than that for a Si MOS capacitor with a SiO2 layer formed by chemical vapor deposition despite the small D it values for the AS-HO oxidant compared with the Si MOS capacitor. This means that the total charged center density including the fixed charge density, charged slow trap density, and charged interface trap density for the GaN MOS capacitor is higher than that for the Si MOS capacitor. Therefore, σs has to be reduced to improve the performances and reliability of GaN devices with the Al2O3/GaN interfaces.

  5. Transport phenomena and the effects of reactor geometry for epitaxial GaN growth in a vertical MOCVD reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Fu; Tsai, Tsung-Yen; Huang, Yen-Hsiu; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2015-12-01

    In this study a numerical simulation was carried out to analyze the transport phenomena in a vertical type metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor for Gallium Nitride (GaN) growth. The simulated results were compared and validated by experiment. The effects of showerhead design and chamber height are investigated and discussed. It was found that, by properly adjusting the height of the chamber, both the growth rate and film uniformity could be significantly improved. This is attributed to the suppression of the thermal and mass transfer boundary layers by the injection flow of reacting gas mixtures, as well as the confined vertical vortices caused by the geometry of the reduced space. However, inappropriate design of the distance between the showerhead and the susceptor can result in uneven distribution of the organic source in the vicinity of the substrate surface resulting in an uneven growth rate of the GaN film. Consequently, there exists an optimal chamber height that will give the best growth rate and uniformity to the GaN film as discussed in this study. This study provides comprehensive insight into the transport phenomena of GaN growth that includes coupled heat and mass transfer as well as chemical reactions. The results provide important information in a succinct format and enable decisions to be made about the showerhead and the geometrical design and size of a vertical MOCVD reactor.

  6. Materials physics and device development for improved efficiency of GaN HEMT high power amplifiers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Follstaedt, David Martin; Wright, Alan Francis; Baca, Albert G.; Briggs, Ronald D.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Missert, Nancy A.; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Marsh, Phil F.; Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Shul, Randy John; Seager, Carleton Hoover; Tigges, Christopher P.

    2005-12-01

    GaN-based microwave power amplifiers have been identified as critical components in Sandia's next generation micro-Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and Ku-band (10-18 GHz). To miniaturize SAR, GaN-based amplifiers are necessary to replace bulky traveling wave tubes. Specifically, for micro-SAR development, highly reliable GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have delivered a factor of 10 times improvement in power performance compared to GaAs, need to be developed. Despite the great promise of GaN HEMTs, problems associated with nitride materials growth currently limit gain, linearity, power-added-efficiency, reproducibility, and reliability. These material quality issues are primarily due to heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on lattice mismatched substrates. Because SiC provides the best lattice match and thermal conductivity, SiC is currently the substrate of choice for GaN-based microwave amplifiers. Obviously for GaN-based HEMTs to fully realize their tremendous promise, several challenges related to GaN heteroepitaxy on SiC must be solved. For this LDRD, we conducted a concerted effort to resolve materials issues through in-depth research on GaN/AlGaN growth on SiC. Repeatable growth processes were developed which enabled basic studies of these device layers as well as full fabrication of microwave amplifiers. Detailed studies of the GaN and AlGaN growth of SiC were conducted and techniques to measure the structural and electrical properties of the layers were developed. Problems that limit device performance were investigated, including electron traps, dislocations, the quality of semi-insulating GaN, the GaN/AlGaN interface roughness, and surface pinning of the AlGaN gate. Surface charge was reduced by developing silicon nitride passivation. Constant feedback between material properties, physical understanding, and device performance enabled rapid progress which eventually led to the successful fabrication of state of the

  7. Acceptorless dehydrogenation of small molecules through cooperative base metal catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Julian G; Huang, David; Sorensen, Erik J

    2015-12-11

    The dehydrogenation of unactivated alkanes is an important transformation both in industrial and biological systems. Recent efforts towards this reaction have revolved around high temperature, organometallic C-H activation by noble metal catalysts that produce alkenes and hydrogen gas as the sole products. Conversely, natural desaturase systems proceed through stepwise hydrogen atom transfer at physiological temperature; however, these transformations require a terminal oxidant. Here we show combining tetra-n-butylammonium decatungstate (TBADT) and cobaloxime pyridine chloride (COPC) can catalytically dehydrogenate unactivated alkanes and alcohols under near-UV irradiation at room temperature with hydrogen as the sole by-product. This noble metal-free process follows a nature-inspired pathway of high- and low-energy hydrogen atom abstractions. The hydrogen evolution ability of cobaloximes is leveraged to render the system catalytic, with cooperative turnover numbers up to 48 and yields up to 83%. Our results demonstrate how cooperative base metal catalysis can achieve transformations previously restricted to precious metal catalysts.

  8. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer/Metal Organic Framework Based Chemical Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhong Guo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review describes recent advances in the concept of molecular imprinting using metal organic frameworks (MOF for development of chemical sensors. Two main strategies regarding the fabrication, performance and applications of recent sensors based on molecularly imprinted polymers associated with MOF are presented: molecularly imprinted MOF films and molecularly imprinted core-shell nanoparticles using MOF as core. The associated transduction modes are also discussed. A brief conclusion and future expectations are described herein.

  9. Development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hageman, Sven; Scharge, Tina; Willms, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The report on the development of a thermodynamic data base for selected heavy metals covers the description of experimental methods, the thermodynamic model for chromate, the thermodynamic model for dichromate, the thermodynamic model for manganese (II), the thermodynamic model for cobalt, the thermodynamic model for nickel, the thermodynamic model for copper (I), the thermodynamic model for copper(II), the thermodynamic model for mercury (0) and mercury (I), the thermodynamic model for mercury (III), the thermodynamic model for arsenate.

  10. Magnetic properties of fcc Ni-based transition metal alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 9 (2009), s. 1193-1196 ISSN 1862-5282 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 150; GA AV ČR IAA100100616 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : transition metal alloys * Ni-based * pair exchange interactions * Curie temperatures * renormalized RPA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.862, year: 2009

  11. Microscopic evidence for the dissociation of water molecules on cleaved GaN(11[combining macron]00).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shih-Yu; Lang, Liang-Wei; Cai, Pei-Yang; Chen, Yun-Wen; Lai, Yu-Ling; Lin, Ming-Wei; Hsu, Yao-Jane; Lee, Wei-I; Kuo, Jer-Lai; Luo, Meng-Fan; Kuo, Chien-Cheng

    2018-01-03

    The dissociation of water molecules absorbed on a cleaved non-polar GaN(11[combining macron]00) surface was studied primarily with synchrotron-based photoemission spectra and density-functional-theory calculations. The adsorbed water molecules are spontaneously dissociated into hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups at either 300 or 130 K, which implies a negligible activation energy (macron]00) respectively. These results highlight the promising applications of the non-polar GaN(11[combining macron]00) surface in water dissociation and hydrogen generation.

  12. Progress in the fabrication of GaN photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Wessels, Bruce W.; Shahedipour, Fatemeh; Korotokov, Roman Y.; Joseph, Charles L.; Nihashi, Tokuaki

    2001-06-01

    Currently, photo-cathodes hold the highest promise in the near term (next few years) of being able to detect low light level UV signals at high QE while being nearly blind to visible wavelengths. We briefly discuss the requirements for UV detection for astronomical applications, and then we describe our work on producing GaN based photo-cathodes. The p-type GaN films were grown on sapphire at Northwestern University. The films were then converted into opaque photo-cathodes inside photo-tubes at Hamamatsu. Hamamatsu tested detective quantum efficiencies (DQE) of these detectors to be as high as 30% at 200 nm. The ratio of peak DQE at 200 nm to the minimum DQE at 500 nm was measured to be about 6 X 103. We found a dramatic increase in the DQE at 200 nm versus the conductivity, with the break point being near 0.13 1/(Ohm-cm). Based on this dramatic increase, we believe that further improvement in photo-cathode quantum efficiencies can be achieved by increasing the conductivity. We have recently achieved more than an order of magnitude increase in conductivity by co-doping techniques. Improvements in the solar blindness of the devices depend both on characteristics of the film and its surface properties. A detailed discussion of decreasing the visible response and producing a sharper wave-length cutoff is beyond the scope of this work, but we briefly discuss the attributes that most likely affect the wavelength dependence of the photo-cathode response.

  13. GRAPHENE BASED METAL AND METAL OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mujeeb

    2015-06-11

    Graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional carbonaceous material, has attracted tremendous attention in the scientific community, due to its exceptional electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties. Indeed, with the recent explosion of methods for a large-scale synthesis of graphene, the number of publications related to graphene and other graphene based materials have increased exponentially. Particularly the easy preparation of graphene like materials, such as, highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) via reduction of graphite oxide (GO), offers a wide range of possibilities for the preparation of graphene based inorganic nanocomposites by the incorporation of various functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the current development of graphene based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, with a detailed account of their synthesis and properties. Specifically, much attention has been given to their wide range of applications in various fields, including, electronics, electrochemical and electrical fields. Overall, by the inclusion of various references, this review covers in detail aspects of the graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites.

  14. Investigation of a GaN Nucleation Layer on a Patterned Sapphire Substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meng; Zeng Yi-Ping; Wang Jun-Xi; Hu Qiang

    2011-01-01

    A low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer is grown on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The surface morphology of the LT-GaN is investigated and the selective nucleation phenomenon in the growth process of the LT-GaN nucleation layer is discovered. Meanwhile, effects of thickness of the LT-GaN and the annealing process on the phenomenon are also discussed. A pattern model is also proposed to analyze the possible mechanisms in atomic scale. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  15. Investigation of a GaN nucleation layer on a patterned sapphire substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Meng; Zeng Yiping; Wang Junxi; Hu Qiang

    2011-01-01

    A low-temperature GaN (LT-GaN) nucleation layer is grown on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The surface morphology of the LT-GaN is investigated and the selective nucleation phenomenon in the growth process of the LT-GaN nucleation layer is discovered. Meanwhile, effects of thickness of the LT-GaN and the annealing process on the phenomenon are also discussed. A pattern model is also proposed to analyze the possible mechanisms in atomic scale. (authors)

  16. The possibly important role played by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} during the activation of GaN photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xiaoqian, E-mail: ise-fuxq@ujn.edu.cn, E-mail: 214808748@qq.com [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Network based Intelligent Computing, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China); Institute of Electronic Engineering and Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju [Institute of Electronic Engineering and Optoelectronic Technology, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Li, Zhiming; Cui, Shiyao; Zhang, Lejuan [School of Information Science and Engineering, Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Network based Intelligent Computing, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022 (China)

    2015-08-14

    Three different chemical solutions are used to remove the possible contamination on GaN surface, while Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} is still found at the surface. After thermal annealing at 710 °C in the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber and activated with Cs/O, all the GaN samples are successfully activated to the effective negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathodes. Among all samples, the GaN sample with the highest content of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} after chemical cleaning obtains the highest quantum efficiency. By analyzing the property of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the surface processing results, and electron affinity variations during Cs and Cs/O{sub 2} deposition on GaN of other groups, it is suggested that before the adsorption of Cs, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not completely removed from GaN surface in our samples, which will combine with Cs and lead to a large decrease in electron affinity. Furthermore, the effective NEA is formed for GaN photocathode, along with the surface downward band bending. Based on this assumption, a new dipole model Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cs is suggested, and the experimental effects are explained and discussed.

  17. High optical and structural quality of GaN epilayers grown on ( 2¯01) β-Ga2O3

    KAUST Repository

    Mumthaz Muhammed, Mufasila

    2014-07-28

    Producing highly efficient GaN-based optoelectronic devices has been a challenge for a long time due to the large lattice mismatch between III-nitride materials and the most common substrates, which causes a high density of threading dislocations. Therefore, it is essential to obtain alternative substrates with small lattice mismatches, appropriate structural, thermal and electrical properties, and a competitive price. Our results show that (2̄01) oriented β-Ga2O3 has the potential to be used as a transparent and conductive substrate for GaN-growth. Photoluminescence spectra of thick GaN layers grown on (2̄01) oriented β-Ga 2O3 are found to be dominated by intense bandedge emission. Atomic force microscopy studies show a modest threading dislocation density of ∼108cm-2. X-ray diffraction studies show the high quality of the single-phase wurtzite GaN thin film on (2̄01) β-Ga2O3 with in-plane epitaxial orientation relationships between the β-Ga2O3 and the GaN thin film defined by (010) β-Ga2O3 || (112̄0) GaN and (2̄01) β-Ga2O3 || (0001) GaN leading to a lattice mismatch of ∼4.7%. Complementary Raman spectroscopy indicates that the quality of the GaN epilayer is high. © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  18. New approach of Nano-Selective Area Growth (NSAG) for a precise control of GaN nanodots grown by MOVPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.; Martinez, A.; Goh, W.H.; Gautier, S.; Dupuis, N.; Le Gratiet, L.; Decobert, J.; Ramdane, A.; Maloufi, N.; Ougazzaden, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nanodots arrays of GaN have been successfully grown on GaN template substrates using nano-selective area growth (NSAG). The substrates used in NSAG were partially covered by dielectric masks in which nano-apertures have been patterned by electron-beam nanolithography and reactive ion etching. The growths were performed by low pressure metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) using 100% N 2 as carrier gas. TMGa and NH 3 were used as sources of gallium and nitrogen, respectively. The layers were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Perfect selectivity of GaN on the masked substrate has been obtained. The nanodots grown in the nano-apertures are well shaped and homogenous with smooth surface side walls

  19. Growth of N-polar GaN by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fireman, M. N.; Li, Haoran; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.; Speck, James S.

    2018-01-01

    The homoepitaxial growth of N-polar GaN was investigated by ammonia molecular beam epitaxy. Systematic growth studies varying the V/III flux ratio and the growth temperature indicated that the strongest factor in realizing morphologically smooth films was the growth temperature; N-face films needed to be grown approximately 100 °C or greater than Ga-face films provided the same metal flux. Smooth N-face films could also be grown at temperatures only 50 °C greater than Ga-face films, albeit under reduced metal flux. Too high a growth temperature and too low a metal flux resulted in dislocation mediated pitting of the surface. The unintentional impurity incorporation of such films was also studied by secondary mass ion spectroscopy and most importantly revealed an oxygen content in the mid 1017 to the mid 1018 cm-3 range. Hall measurements confirmed that this oxygen impurity resulted in n-type films, with carrier concentrations and mobilities comparable to those of intentionally silicon doped GaN.

  20. Theoretical bases on thermal stability of layered metallic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Rusakov, V.S.; Turkebaev, T.Eh.; Zhankadamova, A.M.; Ensebaeva, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to implementation of the theoretical bases for layered metallic systems thermal stabilization. The theory is based on the stabilization mechanism expense of the intermediate two-phase field formation. As parameters of calculated model are coefficients of mutual diffusion and inclusions sizes of generated phases in two-phase fields. The stabilization time dependence for beryllium-iron (Be (1.1 μm)-Fe(5.5 μm)) layered system from iron and beryllium diffusion coefficients, and inclusions sizes is shown as an example. Conclusion about possible mechanisms change at transition from microscopic consideration to the nano-crystal physics level is given

  1. Heavy metals contamination and their risk assessment around the abandoned base metals and Au-Ag mines in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2017-04-01

    Heavy metals contamination in the areas of abandoned Au-Ag and base metal mines in Korea was investigated in order to assess the level of metal pollution, and to draw general summaries about the fate of toxic heavy metals in different environments. Efforts have been made to compare the level of heavy metals, chemical forms, and plant uptake of heavy metals in each mine site. In the base-metals mine areas, significant levels of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were found in mine dump soils developed over mine waste materials and tailings. Leafy vegetables tend to accumulate heavy metals(in particular, Cd and Zn) higher than other crop plants, and high metal concentrations in rice crops may affect the local residents' health. In the Au-Ag mining areas, arsenic would be the most characteristic contaminant in the nearby environment. Arsenic and heavy metals were found to be mainly associated with sulfide gangue minerals, and the mobility of these metals would be enhanced by the effect of continuing weathering and oxidation. According to the sequential extraction of metals in soils, most heavy metals were identified as non-residual chemical forms, and those are very susceptible to the change of ambient conditions of a nearby environment. The concept of pollution index(PI) of soils gives important information on the extent and degree of multi-element contamination, and can be applied to the evaluation of mine soils before their agricultural use and remediation. The risk assessment process comprising exposure assessment, dose-response assessment, and risk characterization was discussed, and the results of non-cancer risk of As, Cd, and Zn, and those of cancer risk of As were suggested.

  2. Constructing metal-based structures on nanopatterned etched silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojiang; Qiao, Yinghong; Xu, Lina; Buriak, Jillian M

    2011-06-28

    Silicon surfaces with nanoscale etched patterns were obtained using polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer films as templates, followed by brief immersion in HF(aq). The resulting interfaces were comprised of pseudohexagonal arrays of pits on the silicon, whose shapes depended upon the chosen silicon orientation. The top unetched face of silicon remains capped by the native oxide, and the pit interiors are terminated by Si-H(x). Selective chemical functionalization via these two chemical handles was demonstrated to be a viable approach toward building nanostructured metal oxide and metal features within these silicon pits and on the top face. Using a series of interfacial chemical reactions, including oxidation (of Si-H(x)-terminated regions), hydrosilylation, and alkoxysilane-based chemistry on silicon oxide, the growth of metal-based structures can be spatially controlled. In the first approach, titania nanobowls were grown within the etch pits, and in the second, galvanic displacement was used to produce gold nanoparticles either within the etch pits, on the top silicon face, or both.

  3. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-01

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  4. High pressure die casting of Fe-based metallic glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Parthiban; Szabo, Attila; Borzel, Stefan; Eckert, Jürgen; Stoica, Mihai; Bárdos, András

    2016-10-11

    Soft ferromagnetic Fe-based bulk metallic glass key-shaped specimens with a maximum and minimum width of 25.4 and 5 mm, respectively, were successfully produced using a high pressure die casting (HPDC) method, The influence of die material, alloy temperature and flow rate on the microstructure, thermal stability and soft ferromagnetic properties has been studied. The results suggest that a steel die in which the molten metal flows at low rate and high temperature can be used to produce completely glassy samples. This can be attributed to the laminar filling of the mold and to a lower heat transfer coefficient, which avoids the skin effect in the steel mold. In addition, magnetic measurements reveal that the amorphous structure of the material is maintained throughout the key-shaped samples. Although it is difficult to control the flow and cooling rate of the molten metal in the corners of the key due to different cross sections, this can be overcome by proper tool geometry. The present results confirm that HPDC is a suitable method for the casting of Fe-based bulk glassy alloys even with complex geometries for a broad range of applications.

  5. Metal-composite adhesion based on diazonium chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oweis, Yara; Alageel, Omar; Kozak, Paige; Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Retrouvey, Jean-Marc; Cerruti, Marta; Tamimi, Faleh

    2017-11-01

    Composite resins do not adhere well to dental alloys. This weak bond can result in failure at the composite-metal interface in fixed dental prostheses and orthodontic brackets. The aim of this study was to develop a new adhesive, based on diazonium chemistry, to facilitate chemical bonding between dental alloys and composite resin. Samples of two types of dental alloys, stainless steel and cobalt chromium were primed with a diazonium layer in order to create a surface coating favorable for composite adhesion. Untreated metal samples served as controls. The surface chemical composition of the treated and untreated samples was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the tensile strength of the bond with composite resin was measured. The diazonium adhesive was also tested for shear bond strength between stainless steel orthodontic brackets and teeth. XPS confirmed the presence of a diazonium coating on the treated metals. The coating significantly increased the tensile and shear bond strengths by three and four folds respectively between the treated alloys and composite resin. diazonium chemistry can be used to develop composite adhesives for dental alloys. Diazonium adhesion can effectively achieve a strong chemical bond between dental alloys and composite resin. This technology can be used for composite repair of fractured crowns, for crown cementation with resin based cements, and for bracket bonding. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GaN power devices for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uesugi, T.; Kachi, Tetsu

    2013-03-01

    GaN is an attractive material for high performance power devices. Vertical GaN power devices are suitable for high current operation, on the other hand, lateral GaN power devices, namely GaN lateral HEMTs have both low on-resistance and low parasitic capacitance. In addition, the GaN lateral HEMTs can be fabricated on Si substrate. We can get low conduction loss and low switching loss devices with low cost. So the GaN lateral HEMTs are suitable for subsystems like an air conditioner and an electric power steering. Serious technical issues about GaN power devices are a normally-off operation, a current collapse, and a high quality gate insulator. Several normally-off operation techniques have been proposed but there is no decisive method. An NH3 surface treatment and a SiO2 passivation are useful to suppress the current collapse. An Al2O3 deposited by ALD is excellent for gate insulator in breakdown and it has enough TDDB reliability under room temperature and 150°C.

  7. Interaction of GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M.; Giangregorio, M.M.; Capezzuto, P.; Bruno, G.; Namkoong, G.; Doolittle, W.A.; Brown, A.S

    2004-08-15

    GaN surface passivation processes are still under development and among others hydrogen treatments are investigated. In this study, we use non-destructive optical and electrical probes such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and surface potential Kelvin probe microscopy (SP-KPM) in conjunction with non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the study of the different reactivity of Ga-polar and N-polar GaN epitaxial layers with atomic hydrogen. The GaN epitaxial layers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy on sapphire (0 0 0 1) substrates, and GaN and AlN buffer layers are used to grow N-polar and Ga-polar films, respectively. The atomic hydrogen is produced by a remote rf (13.56 MHz) H{sub 2} plasma in order to rule out any ion bombardment of the GaN surface and make the interaction chemical. It is found that the interaction of GaN surfaces with atomic hydrogen depends on polarity, with N-polar GaN exhibiting greater reactivity. Furthermore, it is found that atomic hydrogen is effective in the passivation of grain boundaries and surface defects states.

  8. Terahertz Modulator based on Metamaterials integrated with Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouman, Muhammad Tayyab; Kim, Hyun-Woong; Woo, Jeong Min; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dongju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    The terahertz (THz) band of the electromagnetic spectrum, with frequencies ranging from 300 GHz to 3 THz, has attracted wide interest in recent years owing to its potential applications in numerous areas. Significant progress has been made toward the development of devices capable of actively controlling terahertz waves; nonetheless, further advances in device functionality are necessary for employment of these devices in practical terahertz systems. Here, we demonstrate a low voltage, sharp switching terahertz modulator device based on metamaterials integrated with metal semiconductor metal (MSM) varactors, fabricated on an AlGaAs/InGaAs based heterostructure. By varying the applied voltage to the MSM-varactor located at the center of split ring resonator (SRR), the resonance frequency of the SRR-based metamaterial is altered. Upon varying the bias voltage from 0 V to 3 V, the resonance frequency exhibits a transition from 0.52 THz to 0.56 THz, resulting in a modulation depth of 45 percent with an insertion loss of 4.3 dB at 0.58 THz. This work demonstrates a new approach for realizing active terahertz devices with improved functionalities. PMID:27194128

  9. Terahertz Modulator based on Metamaterials integrated with Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Varactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouman, Muhammad Tayyab; Kim, Hyun-Woong; Woo, Jeong Min; Hwang, Ji Hyun; Kim, Dongju; Jang, Jae-Hyung

    2016-05-19

    The terahertz (THz) band of the electromagnetic spectrum, with frequencies ranging from 300 GHz to 3 THz, has attracted wide interest in recent years owing to its potential applications in numerous areas. Significant progress has been made toward the development of devices capable of actively controlling terahertz waves; nonetheless, further advances in device functionality are necessary for employment of these devices in practical terahertz systems. Here, we demonstrate a low voltage, sharp switching terahertz modulator device based on metamaterials integrated with metal semiconductor metal (MSM) varactors, fabricated on an AlGaAs/InGaAs based heterostructure. By varying the applied voltage to the MSM-varactor located at the center of split ring resonator (SRR), the resonance frequency of the SRR-based metamaterial is altered. Upon varying the bias voltage from 0 V to 3 V, the resonance frequency exhibits a transition from 0.52 THz to 0.56 THz, resulting in a modulation depth of 45 percent with an insertion loss of 4.3 dB at 0.58 THz. This work demonstrates a new approach for realizing active terahertz devices with improved functionalities.

  10. Leakage current analysis for dislocations in Na-flux GaN bulk single crystals by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamachi, T.; Takeuchi, S.; Tohei, T.; Imanishi, M.; Imade, M.; Mori, Y.; Sakai, A.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanisms associated with electrical conduction through individual threading dislocations (TDs) in a Na-flux GaN crystal grown with a multipoint-seed-GaN technique were investigated by conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM). To focus on individual TDs, dislocation-related etch pits (DREPs) were formed on the Na-flux GaN surface by wet chemical etching, after which microscopic Pt electrodes were locally fabricated on the DREPs to form conformal contacts to the Na-flux GaN crystal, using electron beam assisted deposition. The C-AFM data clearly demonstrate that the leakage current flows through the individual TD sites. It is also evident that the leakage current and the electrical conduction mechanism vary significantly based on the area within the Na-flux GaN crystal where the TDs are formed. These regions include the c-growth sector (cGS) in which the GaN grows in the [0001 ] direction on top of the point-seed with a c-plane growth front, the facet-growth sector (FGS) in which the GaN grows with {10 1 ¯ 1 } facets on the side of the cGS, the boundary region between the cGS and FGS (BR), and the coalescence boundary region between FGSs (CBR). The local current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the specimen demonstrate space charge limited current conduction and conduction related to band-like trap states associated with TDs in the FGS, BR, and CBR. A detailed analysis of the I-V data indicates that the electrical conduction through TDs in the cGS may proceed via the Poole-Frenkel emission mechanism.

  11. Allosterically tunable, DNA-based switches triggered by heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porchetta, Alessandro; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis; Plaxco, Kevin W; Ricci, Francesco

    2013-09-11

    Here we demonstrate the rational design of allosterically controllable, metal-ion-triggered molecular switches. Specifically, we designed DNA sequences that adopt two low energy conformations, one of which does not bind to the target ion and the other of which contains mismatch sites serving as specific recognition elements for mercury(II) or silver(I) ions. Both switches contain multiple metal binding sites and thus exhibit homotropic allosteric (cooperative) responses. As heterotropic allosteric effectors we employ single-stranded DNA sequences that either stabilize or destabilize the nonbinding state, enabling dynamic range tuning over several orders of magnitude. The ability to rationally introduce these effects into target-responsive switches could be of value in improving the functionality of DNA-based nanomachines.

  12. Silicon-based metallic micro grid for electron field emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jaehong; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Heo, Duchang; Shin, Dong Hoon; Sun, Yuning; Lee, Cheol Jin

    2012-01-01

    A micro-scale metal grid based on a silicon frame for application to electron field emission devices is introduced and experimentally demonstrated. A silicon lattice containing aperture holes with an area of 80 × 80 µm 2 and a thickness of 10 µm is precisely manufactured by dry etching the silicon on one side of a double-polished silicon wafer and by wet etching the opposite side. Because a silicon lattice is more rigid than a pure metal lattice, a thin layer of Au/Ti deposited on the silicon lattice for voltage application can be more resistant to the geometric stress caused by the applied electric field. The micro-fabrication process, the images of the fabricated grid with 88% geometric transparency and the surface profile measurement after thermal feasibility testing up to 700 °C are presented. (paper)

  13. Seismic Base Isolation Analysis for PASCAR Liquid Metal Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kuk Hee; Yoo, Bong; Kim, Yun Jae

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a study for developing a seismic isolation system for the PASCAR (Proliferation resistant, Accident-tolerant, Self-supported, Capsular and Assured Reactor) liquid metal reactor design. PASCAR use lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) as coolant. Because the density (10,000kg/m 3 ) of LBE coolant is very heavier than sodium coolant and water, this presents a challenge to designers of the seismic isolation systems that will be used with these heavy liquid metal reactors. Finite element analysis is adapted to determine the characteristics of the isolator device. Results are presented from a study on the use of three-dimensional seismic isolation devices to the full-scale reactor. The seismic analysis responses of the two-dimensional and the three-dimensional isolation systems for the PASCAR are compared with that of the conventional fixed base system

  14. Metal shell technology based upon hollow jet instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendall, J.M.; Lee, M.C.; Wang, T.G.

    1982-01-01

    Spherical shells of submillimeter size are sought as ICF targets. Such shells must be dimensionally precise, smooth, of high strength, and composed of a high atomic number material. We describe a technology for the production of shells based upon the hydrodynamic instability of an annular jet of molten metal. We have produced shells in the 0.7--2.0 mm size range using tin as a test material. Specimens exhibit good sphericity, fair concentricity, and excellent finish over most of the surface. Work involving a gold--lead--antimony alloy is in progress. Droplets of this are amorphous and possess superior surface finish. The flow of tin models that of the alloy well; experiments on both metals show that the technique holds considerable promise

  15. Simulation of metal cutting using a physically based plasticity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svoboda, Ales; Lindgren, Lars-Erik; Wedberg, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Metal cutting is one of the most common metal shaping processes. Specified geometrical and surface properties are obtained by break-up of the material removed by the cutting edge into a chip. The chip formation is associated with a large strain, high strain rate and a locally high temperature due to adiabatic heating which make the modelling of cutting processes difficult. This study compares a physically based plasticity model and the Johnson–Cook model. The latter is commonly used for high strain rate applications. Both material models are implemented into the finite element software MSC.Marc and compared with cutting experiments. The deformation behaviour of SANMAC 316L stainless steel during an orthogonal cutting process is studied

  16. Piezoelectric dispenser based on a piezoelectric-metal-cavity actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, K H; Sun, C L; Kwok, K W; Chan, H L W

    2009-07-01

    A piezoelectric dispenser has been fabricated based on the idea of a piezoelectric-metal-cavity (PMC) actuator. The PMC actuator consists of a metal ring sandwiched between two identical piezoelectric unimorphs. The radial contraction of the piezoelectric ceramic is converted into a flextensional motion of the unimorph, causing a large flexural displacement in the center part of the actuator. With the PMC actuator as a fluid chamber, the large flexural actuation can be used to produce the displacement needed to eject fluid. By applying an appropriate voltage to the piezoelectric unimorphs, a drop-on-demand ejection of ink or water can be achieved. The efficiency of fluid ejection can be enhanced after installing a valve in the fluid chamber. With the simple PMC structure, the dispenser can be operated with a low driving voltage of 12-15 V.

  17. Diodes GaN a haute efficacite : Extraction de la lumiere par cristaux photoniques et microcavites.

    OpenAIRE

    David , Aurélien

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have seen the advent of blue light-emitting diodes and efficient white-based gallium nitride (GaN). This technology is poised to replace conventional light bulbs in the near future, allowing considerable energy savings. However, this scenario requires that these diodes are fully optimized, since the quality of the material up how to extract the light. This thesis explores this latter aspect: the emitted light in a semiconductor is naturally trapped, and a strategy is needed for b...

  18. Leachability of metals from sludge-based artificial lightweight aggregate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, F.-C. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lo, S.-L. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sllo@ccms.ntu.edu.tw; Lee, M.-Y. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Ko, C.-H. [Research Center for Environmental Pollution Prevention and Control Technology, Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71 Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lin, J.-D. [Department of Civil Engineering, National Central University, 300 Jhongda Road, Jhongli 320, Taiwan (China); Huang, S.-C. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China); Wang, C.-F. [Department of Atomic Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2007-07-19

    Metal sludge from industrial wastewater treatment plants was mixed with mining residues to be recycled into lightweight aggregate (LWA) through sintering at different temperatures. The physical properties of the LWA thus obtained were examined by scanning electron microscopy analyzer (SEM) coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). The sequential extraction method combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was employed to determine the concentration and distribution of hazardous toxic elements in the metal sludge-based artificial LWA. The results show that the leaching concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb present in the non-sintered raw aggregate pellets reached 7.4, 68.0, 96.0, and 61.4 mg/l, respectively, far exceeding the regulatory threshold. Sintering at 1150 deg. C for 15 min results in stronger chemical bonds being formed between the elements. Hence, after the first three steps of sequential extraction, the concentrations of Cr, Cu, and Pb reached 2.69, 1.50, and 1.88 mg/l at 1150 deg. C, while the final residues had total concentrations of 96.1, 88.4, and 60.6 mg/kg, respectively, with Cd undetected in both phases. The concentration levels fell within the regulatory threshold, indicating that the LWA fabricated from recycled metal sludge contains elements that are toxic and hazardous but not leached. Having no harmful effect on the environment, the metal sludge-based artificial LWA is not only safe but also practical with good physical properties.

  19. Metal-organic frameworks based membranes for liquid separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Liu, Yuxin; Wang, Jing; Gascon, Jorge; Li, Jiansheng; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2017-11-27

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) represent a fascinating class of solid crystalline materials which can be self-assembled in a straightforward manner by the coordination of metal ions or clusters with organic ligands. Owing to their intrinsic porous characteristics, unique chemical versatility and abundant functionalities, MOFs have received substantial attention for diverse industrial applications, including membrane separation. Exciting research activities ranging from fabrication strategies to separation applications of MOF-based membranes have appeared. Inspired by the marvelous achievements of MOF-based membranes in gas separations, liquid separations are also being explored for the purpose of constructing continuous MOFs membranes or MOF-based mixed matrix membranes. Although these are in an emerging stage of vigorous development, most efforts are directed towards improving the liquid separation efficiency with well-designed MOF-based membranes. Therefore, as an increasing trend in membrane separation, the field of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation is highlighted in this review. The criteria for judicious selection of MOFs in fabricating MOF-based membranes are given. Special attention is paid to rational design strategies for MOF-based membranes, along with the latest application progress in the area of liquid separations, such as pervaporation, water treatment, and organic solvent nanofiltration. Moreover, some attractive dual-function applications of MOF-based membranes in the removal of micropollutants, degradation, and antibacterial activity are also reviewed. Finally, we define the remaining challenges and future opportunities in this field. This Tutorial Review provides an overview and outlook for MOF-based membranes for liquid separations. Further development of MOF-based membranes for liquid separation must consider the demands of strict separation standards and environmental safety for industrial application.

  20. JMBR Journal - dec 2012 - gan...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Musa

    based mentored course participation leads to laparoscopic practice expansion and assists in transition to robotic surgery. J Urol 2011;. 186 (5): 1997-2000. Conclusion. Effective mentoring is crucial to the 7. survival of all careers particularly the medical profession because it provides opportunity to transfer knowledge, skills,.

  1. JMBR Journal - dec 2012 - gan...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Musa

    comprised of refractive error 29.6%, glaucoma suspect 27.7% and cataract ... about where to get eye care services, patient For the purpose of this study, glaucoma ..... Latin America. BrJOphthalmol 2008;92(3):315-319. in Bayelsa State, Nigeria: a clinic based study. 20. Chia E, Wang JJ, Rochtchina E, Smith. Nig QJHosp ...

  2. Metal-directed topological diversity of three fluorescent metal-organic frameworks based on a new tetracarboxylate strut

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xinhua

    2013-01-01

    Three d- or p-block metal ions based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were isolated by employing a new tetracarboxylate linker, featuring unusual flu, self-interpenetrated lvt and new (3,5)-c topological nets, respectively. Interesting photoluminescent properties of these solid-state materials were also observed. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  3. Synthesis of Single Crystal GaN Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lining Fang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The straight and curved gallium nitride (GaN nanowires were successfully synthesized by controlling the gallium/ nitrogen reactant ratio via a chemical vapour deposition method. The structure and morphology of nanowires were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electronic microscopy (TEM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, selected area electron diffraction (SAED and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM. The straight and curved GaN nanowires are composed of wurtzite and a zinc blende structure, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL spectra of zinc blende GaN nanowires showed a strong UV emission band at 400 nm, indicating potential application in optoe‐ lectronic devices.

  4. GaN transistors for efficient power conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Lidow, Alex; de Rooij, Michael; Reusch, David

    2014-01-01

    The first edition of GaN Transistors for Efficient Power Conversion was self-published by EPC in 2012, and is currently the only other book to discuss GaN transistor technology and specific applications for the technology. More than 1,200 copies of the first edition have been sold through Amazon or distributed to selected university professors, students and potential customers, and a simplified Chinese translation is also available. The second edition has expanded emphasis on applications for GaN transistors and design considerations. This textbook provides technical and application-focused i

  5. Thermal conductivity of bulk GaN single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jezowski, A.; Stachowiak, P.; Suski, T.; Krukowski, S.; Bockowski, M.; Grzegory, I.; Danilchenko, B

    2003-05-01

    We have measured thermal conductivity, {kappa}, in the wide temperature range 4-300 K of GaN bulk single crystals grown by high-pressure, high-temperature synthesis. Obtained results (1600 W/Km at 45 K) are the highest {kappa} values reported on GaN material. At the room temperature {kappa} is about 210 W/Km. The contributions to the GaN thermal resistance of Umklapp process, mass point defects as well as phonon scattering on dislocations and sample boundary are discussed.

  6. Enhanced lateral heat dissipation packaging structure for GaN HEMTs on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Stone; Chou, Po-Chien; Chieng, Wei-Hua; Chang, E.Y.

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a technology for packaging AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) on a Si substrate. The GaN HEMTs are attached to a V-groove copper base and mounted on a TO-3P leadframe. The various thermal paths from the GaN gate junction to the case are carried out for heat dissipation by spreading to protective coating; transferring through the bond wires; spreading in the lateral device structure through the adhesive layer, and vertical heat spreading of silicon chip bottom. Thermal characterization showed a thermal resistance of 13.72 °C/W from the device to the TO-3P package. Experimental tests of a 30 mm gate-periphery single chip packaged in a 5 × 3 mm V-groove Cu base with a 100 V drain bias showed power dissipation of 22 W. -- Highlights: ► An enhanced packaging structure designed for AlGaN/GaN HEMTs on an Si substrate. ► The V-groove copper base is designed on the device periphery surface heat conduction for enhancing Si substrate thermal dissipation. ► The proposed device shows a lower thermal resistance and upgrade in thermal conductivity capability. ► This work provides useful thermal IR imagery information to aid in designing high efficiency package for GaN HEMTs on Si

  7. Metal based SOD mimetic therapeutic agents: Synthesis, characterization and biochemical studies of metal complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of Fe(III, Co(II, Ni(II, Cu(II and Zn(II with the Schiff base obtained through the condensation of L1 and L2 (L1 – obtained through the condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine with furfuraldehyde and L2 – derived from 2-aminobenzothiazole and 3-nitrobenzaldehyde were synthesized under reflux conditions. The newly formed complexes were characterized using elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility, molar conductance, 1H NMR, UV–Vis., IR and ESR techniques. Cyclic voltammogram of the complexes in DMSO solution at 300 K was recorded and their salient features were summarized. The X-band ESR spectrum of the copper complex in DMSO solution at 300 and 77 K was recorded. The in vitro biological screening of the investigated compounds was tested against the bacterial species, and fungal species by disc diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of metal complexes was dependent on the microbial species tested, ligand and the metal salts used. A comparative study of inhibition values of Schiff bases and their complexes indicates that the complexes exhibit higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligands. The DNA binding studies were performed for the complexes using cyclic voltammetry and electronic absorption spectra. Superoxide dismutase activity of these complexes has also been examined.

  8. Facile synthesis and photoluminescence spectroscopy of 3D-triangular GaN nano prism islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Pasha, S K; Shibin Krishna, T C; Singh, Avanish Pratap; Kumar, Pawan; Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Gupta, Govind

    2014-08-21

    We report a strategy for fabrication of 3D triangular GaN nano prism islands (TGNPI) grown on Ga/Si(553) substrate at low temperature by N2(+) ions implantation using a sputtering gun technique. The annealing of Ga/Si(553) (600 °C) followed by nitridation (2 keV) shows the formation of high quality GaN TGNPI cross-section. TGNPI morphology has been confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Furthermore, these nano prism islands exhibit prominent ultra-violet luminescence peaking at 366 nm upon 325 nm excitation wavelength along with a low intensity yellow luminescence broad peak at 545 nm which characterizes low defects density TGNPI. Furthermore, the time-resolved spectroscopy of luminescent TGNPI in nanoseconds holds promise for its futuristic application in next generation UV-based sensors as well as many portable optoelectronic devices.

  9. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of GaN Nanowires on Epitaxial Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Garrido, Sergio; Ramsteiner, Manfred; Gao, Guanhui; Galves, Lauren A; Sharma, Bharat; Corfdir, Pierre; Calabrese, Gabriele; de Souza Schiaber, Ziani; Pfüller, Carsten; Trampert, Achim; Lopes, João Marcelo J; Brandt, Oliver; Geelhaar, Lutz

    2017-09-13

    We demonstrate an all-epitaxial and scalable growth approach to fabricate single-crystalline GaN nanowires on graphene by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. As substrate, we explore several types of epitaxial graphene layer structures synthesized on SiC. The different structures differ mainly in their total number of graphene layers. Because graphene is found to be etched under active N exposure, the direct growth of GaN nanowires on graphene is only achieved on multilayer graphene structures. The analysis of the nanowire ensembles prepared on multilayer graphene by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy reveals the presence of graphene underneath as well as in between nanowires, as desired for the use of this material as contact layer in nanowire-based devices. The nanowires nucleate preferentially at step edges, are vertical, well aligned, epitaxial, and of comparable structural quality as similar structures fabricated on conventional substrates.

  10. Fabrication of high reflectivity nanoporous distributed Bragg reflectors by controlled electrochemical etching of GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Min; Kang, Jin-Ho; Lee, June Key; Ryu, Sang-Wan

    2016-09-01

    The nanoporous medium is a valuable feature of optical devices because of its variable optical refractive index with porosity. One important application is in a GaN-based vertical cavity surface emitting laser having a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) composed of alternating nanoporous and bulk GaNs. However, optimization of the fabrication process for high reflectivity DBRs having wellcontrolled high reflection bands has not been studied yet. We used electrochemical etching to study the fabrication process of a nanoporous GaN DBR and analyzed the relationship between the morphology and optical reflectivity. Several electrolytes were examined for the formation of the optimized nanoporous structure. A highly reflective DBRs having reflectivity of ~100% were obtained over a wide wavelength range of 450-750 nm. Porosification of semiconductors into nanoporous layers could provide a high reflectivity DBR due to controlled index-contrast, which would be advantages for the construction of a high-Q optical cavity.

  11. Spectrophotometric study of some metal ions using some Schiff's bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnager, Nawal Mohomed Ibrahim

    2000-05-01

    In this work two schiff bases namely N,N Bis(benzoyl acetone)-o-phenylene diamine (NNBBPD) and N,N Bis(benzoyl acetone)-isopropylene diamine (NNBBAID) were prepared by direct coupling of benzoyl acetone with o-phenylene and isopropylene diamine respectively. The two reagents were identified by IR spectra, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and determination of the percentage of nitrogen contents (N%). It is found that the two reagents form coloured chelates with Fe (II), Fe (III), Cu (II), U (VI), Ni (II) and Co (II). The two reagents were used for the determination of Fe (II), Fe (III) and U (VI). The formulate of these metal ion complexes were obtained using continuous variations, mole ratio and slope ratio methods. Effect of two micelles, namely sodium n-dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and hexadecyl pyridinum broinide monohydrate (HPB) on metal ion complexes were studied. It is found that both of them increase the solubility and the absorbances of the metal ion complexes with variable effects of the absorption maxima. Calibration curves for Fe (II), Fe (II) and U (VI) were obtained in optimum conditions of pH and micelles solutions. (Author)

  12. Photoluminescence of Mg-doped m-plane GaN grown by MOCVD on bulk GaN substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Monemar, Bo; Paskov, Plamen; Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Bergman, Peder; Lindgren, David; Samuelson, Lars; Ni, Xianfeng; Morkoç, Hadis; Paskova, Tanya; Bi, Zhaoxia; Ohlsson, Jonas

    2011-01-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties are reported for a set of m-plane GaN films with Mg doping varied from mid 1018cm-3 to well above 1019 cm-3. The samples were grown with MOCVD at reduced pressure on low defect density m-plane bulk GaN templates. The sharp line near bandgap bound exciton (BE) spectra observed below 50 K, as well as the broader donor-acceptor pair (DAP) PL bands at 2.9 eV to 3.3 eV give evidence of several Mg related acceptors, similar to the case of c-plane GaN. The dependenc...

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy on GaN and InGaN surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, David

    2009-01-01

    Optelectronic devices based on gallium nitride (GaN) and indium gallium nitride (InGaN) are in the focus of research since more than 20 years and still have great potential for optical applications. In the first part of this work non-polar surfaces of GaN are investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In SEM and AFM, the (1 anti 100)- and especially the (anti 2110)-plane are quite corrugated. For the first time, the (anti 2110)-plane of GaN is atomically resolved in STM. In the second part InGaN quantum dot layers are investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) and STM. The STMmeasurements show the dependency of surface morphology on growth conditions in the metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Nucleation, a new MOVPE-strategy, is based on phase separations on surfaces. It is shown that locally varying density of states and bandgaps can be detected by STS, that means bandgap histograms and 2D-bandgap-mapping. (orig.)

  14. Spintronic materials and devices based on antiferromagnetic metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Y. Wang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we review our recent experimental developments on antiferromagnet (AFM spintronics mainly comprising Mn-based noncollinear AFM metals. IrMn-based tunnel junctions and Hall devices have been investigated to explore the manipulation of AFM moments by magnetic fields, ferromagnetic materials and electric fields. Room-temperature tunneling anisotropic magnetoresistance based on IrMn as well as FeMn has been successfully achieved, and electrical control of the AFM exchange spring is realized by adopting ionic liquid. In addition, promising spin-orbit effects in AFM as well as spin transfer via AFM spin waves reported by different groups have also been reviewed, indicating that the AFM can serve as an efficient spin current source. To explore the crucial role of AFM acting as efficient generators, transmitters, and detectors of spin currents is an emerging topic in the field of magnetism today. AFM metals are now ready to join the rapidly developing fields of basic and applied spintronics, enriching this area of solid-state physics and microelectronics.

  15. [The spectral response analysis of activated GaN photocathode].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Chang, Ben-Kang; Zhang, Yi-Jun; Hou, Rui-Li; Xiong, Ya-Juan

    2011-10-01

    GaN photocathode has a wide applicaion in ultraviolet detection because of the outstanding performance. GaN photocathode was activated in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system by Cs/O, and the reflection-mode quantum efficiency (QE) was analyzed. The QE is 30%-10% corresponding to the wavelength 240-350 nm, and the QE curve is flat. The QE reaches the maximum of 30% at 240 nm. Compared with the abroad result, the QE obtained by us is still inadequate at the short wavelength The atom arrangement of GaN (0001) was studied. The atom arrangement on the surface was simulated by 3D, and in this way the adsorption of Cs on the GaN(0001) was speculated.

  16. GaN grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Kong; Meixin, Feng; Jin, Cai; Hui, Wang; Huaibing, Wang; Hui, Yang

    2015-04-01

    High-quality gallium nitride (GaN) film was grown on nano-patterned sapphire substrates (NPSS) and investigated using XRD and SEM. It was found that the optimum thickness of the GaN buffer layer on the NPSS is 15 nm, which is thinner than that on micro-patterned sapphire substrates (MPSS). An interesting phenomenon was observed for GaN film grown on NPSS:GaN mainly grows on the trench regions and little grows on the sidewalls of the patterns at the initial growth stage, which is dramatically different from GaN grown on MPSS. In addition, the electrical and optical properties of LEDs grown on NPSS were characterized. Project supported by the Suzhou Nanojoin Photonics Co., Ltd and the High-Tech Achievements Transformation of Jiangsu Province, China (No.BA2012010).

  17. GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H-SiC by the sublimation sandwich technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, C.; Volm, D.; Meyer, B. K.; Pressel, K.; Nilsson, S.; Mokhov, E. N.; Baranov, P. G.

    1994-08-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of GaN epitaxial layers grown on 6H-SiC. We employed the sublimation sandwich method to grow single crystal layers at high growth rates with free carrier concentrations of 2×1017 cm-3. Very narrow x-ray diffraction peaks of the GaN (0002) plane are obtained indicating the high quality of this system. These findings are directly reflected in the optical properties. The photoluminescence shows a single sharp exciton line with a half width of 4 meV. Impurity related donor acceptor transitions are seen with very weak intensities. However, at lower energies the internal luminescence transitions of the 3d transition metal ions Fe and V are observed.

  18. Large-scale growth of density-tunable aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on GaN QDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhiqiang; Li, Senlin; Sun, Shichuang; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Wei; Fang, Yanyan; Tian, Yu; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2015-10-01

    An effective approach for growing large-scale, uniformly aligned ZnO nanorods arrays is demonstrated. The synthesis uses a GaN quantum dot (QD) template produced by a self-assembled Stranski-Krastanow mode in metal organic chemical vapor deposition, which serves as a nucleation site for ZnO owing to the QD’s high surface free energy. The resultant ZnO nanorods with uniform shape and length align vertically on the template, while their density is easily tunable by adjusting the density of GaN QDs, which can be adjusted by simply varying growth interruption. By controlling the density of ZnO nanorod arrays, their optical performance can also be improved. This approach opens the possibility of combining one-dimensional (1D) with 0D nanostructures for applications in sensor arrays, piezoelectric antenna arrays, optoelectronic devices, and interconnects.

  19. Large-scale growth of density-tunable aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on GaN QDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Zhiqiang; Li, Senlin; Sun, Shichuang; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Wei; Fang, Yanyan; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing; Tian, Yu

    2015-01-01

    An effective approach for growing large-scale, uniformly aligned ZnO nanorods arrays is demonstrated. The synthesis uses a GaN quantum dot (QD) template produced by a self-assembled Stranski–Krastanow mode in metal organic chemical vapor deposition, which serves as a nucleation site for ZnO owing to the QD’s high surface free energy. The resultant ZnO nanorods with uniform shape and length align vertically on the template, while their density is easily tunable by adjusting the density of GaN QDs, which can be adjusted by simply varying growth interruption. By controlling the density of ZnO nanorod arrays, their optical performance can also be improved. This approach opens the possibility of combining one-dimensional (1D) with 0D nanostructures for applications in sensor arrays, piezoelectric antenna arrays, optoelectronic devices, and interconnects. (paper)

  20. Catalyst and its diameter dependent growth kinetics of CVD grown GaN nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Chandan; Chander, D. Sathish; Ramkumar, J.; Dhamodaran, S.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: GaN nanowires with controlled diameter and aspect ratio has been grown using a simple CVD technique. The growth kinetics of CVD grown nanowires investigated in detail for different catalysts and their diameters. A critical diameter important to distinguish the growth regimes has been discussed in detail. The results are important which demonstrates the growth of diameter and aspect ratio controlled GaN nanowires and also understand their growth kinetics. Highlights: ► Controlled diameter and aspect ratio of GaN nanowires achieved in simple CVD reactor. ► Nanowire growth kinetics for different catalyst and its diameters were understood. ► Adatoms vapor pressure inside reactor plays a crucial role in growth kinetics. ► Diffusion along nanowire sidewalls dominate for gold and nickel catalysts. ► Gibbs–Thomson effect dominates for palladium catalyst. -- Abstract: GaN nanowires were grown using chemical vapor deposition with controlled aspect ratio. The catalyst and catalyst-diameter dependent growth kinetics is investigated in detail. We first discuss gold catalyst diameter dependent growth kinetics and subsequently compare with nickel and palladium catalyst. For different diameters of gold catalyst there was hardly any variation in the length of the nanowires but for other catalysts with different diameter a strong length variation of the nanowires was observed. We calculated the critical diameter dependence on adatoms pressure inside the reactor and inside the catalytic particle. This gives an increasing trend in critical diameter as per the order gold, nickel and palladium for the current set of experimental conditions. Based on the critical diameter, with gold and nickel catalyst the nanowire growth was understood to be governed by limited surface diffusion of adatoms and by Gibbs–Thomson effect for the palladium catalyst.

  1. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pospiech, Doris, E-mail: pospiech@ipfdd.de [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Jehnichen, Dieter [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Bünker, Tobias [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Wollenberg, Anne [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Technische Universität Dresden, Organic Chemistry of Polymers, Dresden (Germany); Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich [Leibniz-Institut für Polymerforschung Dresden e. V., Dresden (Germany); Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer [IDUS Biologisch Analytisches Umweltlabor GmbH, Ottendorf-Okrilla (Germany)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New methacrylate-based copolymers synthesized by free radical polymerization. • Comonomer AAMA was able to complex Cu (II) ions in solvent annealing procedure. • Coatings had efficient anti-biofouling efficacy. - Abstract: In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating’s upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  3. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  4. Study of structure and surface morphology of two-layer contact Ti/Al metallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill D. Vanyukhin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization widely used in the technology of GaN base devices have a very important imperfection i.e. rough surface. There are different opinions about the causes of this imperfection: balling-up of molten aluminum or the appearance of intermetallic melt phases in the Au–Al system. To check the effect of the former cause, we have studied the formation of rough surface after annealing of Ti/Al metallization which is used as a basis of many metallization systems for GaN. The substrates were made from silicon wafers covered with Si3N4 films (0.15 μm. On these substrates we deposited the Ti(12 nm/Al(135 nm metallization system. After the deposition the substrates were annealed in nitrogen for 30 s at 850 °С. The as-annealed specimens were tested for metallization sheet resistivity, appearance and surface morphology. We have shown that during annealing of the Ti/Al metallization system, mutual diffusion of the metals and their active interaction with the formation of intermetallic phases occur. This makes the metallization system more resistant to subsequent annealing, oxidation and chemical etching. After annealing the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system becomes gently matted. However, large hemispherical convex areas (as in the Ti/Al/Ni/Au metallization system do not form. Thus, the hypothesis on the balling-up of molten aluminum on the surface of the Ti/Al metallization system has not been confirmed.

  5. Results From Cs Activated GaN Photocathode Development for MCP Detector Systems at GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Tim; Woodgate, Bruce; Stock, Joe; Hilton, George; Ulmer, Mel; Aslam, Shahid; Vispute, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    We describe the development of high quantum efficiency W photocathodes for use in large area two dimensional microchannel plate based detector arrays to enable new W space astronomy missions. Future W missions will require improvements in detector sensitivity, which has the most leverage for cost-effective improvements in overall telescope/instrument sensitivity. We use new materials such as p-doped GaN, AIGaN, ZnMgO, Sic and diamond. We have currently obtained QE values > 40 % at 185 nm with Cesiated GaN, and hope to demonstrate higher values in the future. By using controlled internal fields and nano-structuring of the surfaces, we plan to provide field emission assistance for photoelectrons while maintaining their energy distinction from dark noise electrons. We will transfer these methods from GaN to ZnMgO, a new family of wide band-gap materials more compatible with microchannel plates. We also are exploring technical parameters such as doping profiles, internal and external field strengths, angle of incidence, field emission assistance, surface preparation, etc.

  6. Results from Cs activated GaN photocathode development for MCP detector systems at NASA GSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Timothy J.; Woodgate, Bruce E.; Stock, Joseph; Hilton, George; Ulmer, Melville P.; Aslam, Shahid; Vispute, R. D.

    2003-12-01

    We describe the development of high quantum efficiency UV photocathodes for use in large area two dimensional microchannel plated based, detector arrays to enable new UV space astronomy missions. Future UV missions will require improvements in detector sensitivity, which has the most leverage for cost-effective improvements in overall telescope/instrument sensitivity. We use new materials such as p-doped GaN, AlGaN, ZnMgO, SiC and diamond. We have currently obtained QE values > 40% at 185 nm with Cesiated GaN, and hope to demonstrate higher values in the future. By using controlled internal fields and nano-structuring of the surfaces, we plan to provide field emission assistance for photoelectrons while maintaining their energy distinction from dark noise electrons. We will transfer these methods from GaN to ZnMgO a new family of wide band-gap materials more compatible with microchannel plates. We also are exploring technical parameters such as doping profiles, internal and external field strengths, angle of incidence, field emission assistance, surface preparation, etc.

  7. GaN nanowire arrays with nonpolar sidewalls for vertically integrated field-effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Feng; Yao, Shengbo; Römer, Friedhard; Witzigmann, Bernd; Schimpke, Tilman; Strassburg, Martin; Bakin, Andrey; Schumacher, Hans Werner; Peiner, Erwin; Suryo Wasisto, Hutomo; Waag, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Vertically aligned gallium nitride (GaN) nanowire (NW) arrays have attracted a lot of attention because of their potential for novel devices in the fields of optoelectronics and nanoelectronics. In this work, GaN NW arrays have been designed and fabricated by combining suitable nanomachining processes including dry and wet etching. After inductively coupled plasma dry reactive ion etching, the GaN NWs are subsequently treated in wet chemical etching using AZ400K developer (i.e., with an activation energy of 0.69 ± 0.02 eV and a Cr mask) to form hexagonal and smooth a-plane sidewalls. Etching experiments using potassium hydroxide (KOH) water solution reveal that the sidewall orientation preference depends on etchant concentration. A model concerning surface bonding configuration on crystallography facets has been proposed to understand the anisotropic wet etching mechanism. Finally, NW array-based vertical field-effect transistors with wrap-gated structure have been fabricated. A device composed of 99 NWs exhibits enhancement mode operation with a threshold voltage of 1.5 V, a superior electrostatic control, and a high current output of >10 mA, which prevail potential applications in next-generation power switches and high-temperature digital circuits.

  8. Maskless regrowth of GaN for trenched devices by MOCVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Anchal; Koksaldi, Onur; Gupta, Chirag; Keller, Stacia; Mishra, Umesh K.

    2017-12-01

    Blanket regrowth studies were performed on GaN trenches with varying widths and optimized for two types of devices—those that required the profile of the trench to be maintained and those that required the complete filling of trenches, i.e., a planar surface after regrowth. Low temperature Al0.22Ga0.78N growth was optimized and used as the marker layer for SEM. GaN deposition at a medium temperature of 950 °C and using N2 as carrier gas resulted primarily in growth on the (0001) plane, while the growth on the sidewalls was governed by the formation of slow growing semi-polar planes. This gave a conformal profile to the regrown GaN—useful for regrown GaN interlayer based vertical trench MOSFETs. In contrast, high temperature (1150 °C) growth in H2 resulted in high lateral growth rates. The planar surface was achieved under these conditions—a very promising result for CAVET-type devices.

  9. Electromechanical Characterization of Single GaN Nanobelt Probed with Conductive Atomic Force Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X. Y.; Peng, J. F.; Yan, S. A.; Zheng, X. J.

    2018-04-01

    The electromechanical characterization of the field effect transistor based on a single GaN nanobelt was performed under different loading forces by using a conductive atomic force microscope (C-AFM), and the effective Schottky barrier height (SBH) and ideality factor are simulated by the thermionic emission model. From 2-D current image, the high value of the current always appears on the nanobelt edge with the increase of the loading force less than 15 nN. The localized (I-V) characteristic reveals a typical rectifying property, and the current significantly increases with the loading force at the range of 10-190 nN. The ideality factor is simulated as 9.8 within the scope of GaN nano-Schottky diode unity (6.5-18), therefore the thermionic emission current is dominant in the electrical transport of the GaN-tip Schottky junction. The SBH is changed through the piezoelectric effect induced by the loading force, and it is attributed to the enhanced current. Furthermore, a single GaN nanobelt has a high mechanical-induced current ratio that could be made use of in a nanoelectromechanical switch.

  10. Synthesis and field emission properties of GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Enling, E-mail: Lienling@xaut.edu.cn [Science School, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China); Cui Zhen; Dai Yuanbin; Zhao Danna; Zhao Tao [Science School, Xi' an University of Technology, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2011-10-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) nanowires grown on nickel-coated n-type Si (1 0 0) substrates have been synthesized using chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and the field emission properties of GaN nanowires have been studied. The results show that (1) the grown GaN nanowires, which have diameters in the range of 50-100 nm and lengths of several micrometers, are uniformly distributed on Si substrates. The characteristics of the grown GaN nanowires have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and through these investigations it was found that the GaN nanowires are of a good crystalline quality (2) When the emission current density is 100 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}, the necessary electric field is an open electric field of around 9.1 V/{mu}m (at room temperature). The field enhancement factor is {approx}730. The field emission properties of GaN nanowires films are related both to the surface roughness and the density of the nanowires in the film.

  11. Ultramicrosensors based on transition metal hexacyanoferrates for scanning electrochemical microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Komkova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report here a way for improving the stability of ultramicroelectrodes (UME based on hexacyanoferrate-modified metals for the detection of hydrogen peroxide. The most stable sensors were obtained by electrochemical deposition of six layers of hexacyanoferrates (HCF, more specifically, an alternating pattern of three layers of Prussian Blue and three layers of Ni–HCF. The microelectrodes modified with mixed layers were continuously monitored in 1 mM hydrogen peroxide and proved to be stable for more than 5 h under these conditions. The mixed layer microelectrodes exhibited a stability which is five times as high as the stability of conventional Prussian Blue-modified UMEs. The sensitivity of the mixed layer sensor was 0.32 A·M−1·cm−2, and the detection limit was 10 µM. The mixed layer-based UMEs were used as sensors in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM experiments for imaging of hydrogen peroxide evolution.

  12. Biomedical application of hierarchically built structures based on metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, M. S.; Fomenko, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the use of hierarchically built structures in biology and medicine arouses much interest. The aim of this work is to review and summarize the available literature data about hierarchically organized structures in biomedical application. Nanoparticles can serve as an example of such structures. Medicine holds a special place among various application methods of similar systems. Special attention is paid to inorganic nanoparticles based on different metal oxides and hydroxides, such as iron, zinc, copper, and aluminum. Our investigations show that low-dimensional nanostructures based on aluminum oxides and hydroxides have an inhibitory effect on tumor cells and possess an antimicrobial activity. At the same time, it is obvious that the large-scale use of nanoparticles by humans needs to thoroughly study their properties. Special attention should be paid to the study of nanoparticle interaction with living biological objects. The numerous data show that there is no clear understanding of interaction mechanisms between nanoparticles and various cell types.

  13. SVM-based base-metal prospectivity modeling of the Aravalli Orogen, Northwestern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porwal, Alok; Yu, Le; Gessner, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    The Proterozoic Aravalli orogen in the state of Rajasthan, northwestern India, constitutes the most important metallogenic province for base-metal deposits in India and hosts the entire economically viable lead-zinc resource-base of the country. The orogen evolved through near-orderly Wilson cycles of repeated extensional and compressional tectonics resulting in sequential opening and closing of intracratonic rifts and amalgamation of crustal domains during a circa 1.0-Ga geological history from 2.2 Ga to 1.0 Ga. This study develops a conceptual tectonostratigraphic model of the orogen based on a synthesis of the available geological, geophysical and geochronological data followed by deep-seismic-reflectivity-constrained 2-D forward gravity modeling, and links it to the Proterozoic base-metal metallogeny in the orogen in order to identify key geological controls on the base-metal mineralization. These controls are translated into exploration criteria for base-metal deposits, validated using empirical spatial analysis, and used to derive input spatial variables for model-based base-metal prospectivity mapping of the orogen. A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm augmented by incorporating a feature selection procedure is used in a GIS environment to implement the prospectivity mapping. A comparison of the SVM-derived prospectivity map with the ones derived using other established models such as neural-networks, logistic regression, and Bayesian weights-of-evidence indicates that the SVM outperforms other models, which is attributed to the capability of the SVM to return robust classification based on small training datasets.

  14. Role of the ganSPQAB Operon in Degradation of Galactan by Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzlawick, Hildegard; Morabbi Heravi, Kambiz; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2016-10-15

    Bacillus subtilis possesses different enzymes for the utilization of plant cell wall polysaccharides. This includes a gene cluster containing galactan degradation genes (ganA and ganB), two transporter component genes (ganQ and ganP), and the sugar-binding lipoprotein-encoding gene ganS (previously known as cycB). These genes form an operon that is regulated by GanR. The degradation of galactan by B. subtilis begins with the activity of extracellular GanB. GanB is an endo-β-1,4-galactanase and is a member of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 53. This enzyme was active on high-molecular-weight arabinose-free galactan and mainly produced galactotetraose as well as galactotriose and galactobiose. These galacto-oligosaccharides may enter the cell via the GanQP transmembrane proteins of the galactan ABC transporter. The specificity of the galactan ABC transporter depends on the sugar-binding lipoprotein, GanS. Purified GanS was shown to bind galactotetraose and galactotriose using thermal shift assay. The energy for this transport is provided by MsmX, an ATP-binding protein. The transported galacto-oligosaccharides are further degraded by GanA. GanA is a β-galactosidase that belongs to GH family 42. The GanA enzyme was able to hydrolyze short-chain β-1,4-galacto-oligosaccharides as well as synthetic β-galactopyranosides into galactose. Thermal shift assay as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that galactobiose is the inducer of the galactan operon regulated by GanR. DNase I footprinting revealed that the GanR protein binds to an operator overlapping the -35 box of the σ(A)-type promoter of Pgan, which is located upstream of ganS IMPORTANCE: Bacillus subtilis is a Gram-positive soil bacterium that utilizes different types of carbohydrates, such as pectin, as carbon sources. So far, most of the pectin degradation systems and enzymes have been thoroughly studied in B. subtilis Nevertheless, the B. subtilis utilization system of galactan, which is

  15. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    OpenAIRE

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is probably no class of materials more varied, more widely used, or more ubiquitous than metal oxides. Depending on their composition, metal oxides can exhibit almost any number of properties. Of particular interest are the ways in which charge is transported in metal oxides: devices such as displays, touch screens, and smart windows rely on the ability of certain metal oxides to conduct electricity while maintaining visible transparency. Smart windows, fuel cells, and other electrochem...

  16. First principles calculations of structural and electronic properties of GaN1−xBix alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbarki, M.; Rebey, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The FPLAPW is used to calculate the structural and electronic properties of GaN 1−x Bi x . ► The lattice parameter of GaN 1−x Bi x shows an increase with Bi composition. ► We have studied the variation of the energy gap and the electron effective masses of the ternary compound with respect to the composition x of Bi. - Abstract: In this work we have calculated the structural and electronic properties of GaN 1−x Bi x alloy by using the density functional theory based on the full potential linearized augmented plane wave method (FPLAPW). The calculated lattice parameter of GaN 1−x Bi x alloys shows an increase by increasing the composition x of bismuth (Bi), while a significant deviation from Vegard's law is observed. We have studied the variation of the energy gap and the electron effective masses of the ternary compound with respect to the composition x of Bi.

  17. Counting Tm dopant atoms around GaN dots using high-angle annular dark field images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouvière, J-L; Okuno, H; Jouneau, P H; Bayle-Guillemaud, P; Daudin, B

    2011-01-01

    High resolution Z-contrast STEM imaging is used to study the Tm doping of GaN quantum dots grown in AlN by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). High-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging allows us to visualize directly individual Tm atoms in the AlN matrix and even to count the number of Tm atoms in a given AlN atomic column. A new visibility coefficient to determine quantitatively the number of Tm atoms in a given atomic column is introduced. It is based on locally integrated intensities rather than on peak intensities of HAADF images. STEM image simulations shows that this new visibility is less sensitive to the defocus-induced blurring or to the position of the Tm atom within the thin lamella. Most of the Tm atoms diffuse out of GaN dots. Tm atoms are found at different positions in the AlN matrix, (i) Above the wetting layer, Tm atoms are spread within a thickness of 14 AlN monolayers (MLs). (ii) Above the quantum dots all the Tm are located in the same plane situated at 2-3 MLs above the apex of the GaN dot, i.e. at a distance of 14 MLs from the wetting layer, (iii) In addition, Tm can diffuse very far from the GaN dot by following threading dislocations lines.

  18. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part II: in situ investigation of growth processes

    KAUST Repository

    Von Dollen, Paul

    2016-09-09

    We report recent results of bulk GaN crystal growth using the sodium flux method in a new crucible-free growth system. We observed a (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) growth rate >50 µm/h for growth at a N2 overpressure of ~5 MPa and 860 °C, which is the highest crystal growth rate reported for this technique to date. Omega X-ray rocking curve (ω-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were <100 arcseconds. Oxygen impurity concentrations as measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were >1020 atoms/cm3. By monitoring the nitrogen pressure decay over the course of the crystal growth, we developed an in situ method that correlates gas phase changes with precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Based on this analysis, the growth rate may have actually been as high as 90 µm/h, as it would suggest GaN growth ceased prior to the end of the run. We also observed gas phase behavior identified as likely characteristic of GaN polynucleation.

  19. A new system for sodium flux growth of bulk GaN. Part II: in situ investigation of growth processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Dollen, Paul; Pimputkar, Siddha; Alreesh, Mohammed Abo; Nakamura, Shuji; Speck, James S.

    2016-12-01

    We report recent results of bulk GaN crystal growth using the sodium flux method in a new crucible-free growth system. We observed a (0001) Ga face (+c-plane) growth rate >50 μm/h for growth at a N2 overpressure of 5 MPa and 860 °C, which is the highest crystal growth rate reported for this technique to date. Omega X-ray rocking curve (ω-XRC) measurements indicated the presence of multiple grains, though full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for individual peaks were 1020 atoms/cm3. By monitoring the nitrogen pressure decay over the course of the crystal growth, we developed an in situ method that correlates gas phase changes with precipitation of GaN from the sodium-gallium melt. Based on this analysis, the growth rate may have actually been as high as 90 μm/h, as it would suggest GaN growth ceased prior to the end of the run. We also observed gas phase behavior identified as likely characteristic of GaN polynucleation.

  20. Horizontal Assembly of Single Nanowire Diode Fabricated by p-n Junction GaN NW Grown by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hyeon Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uniaxially p-n junction gallium nitride nanowires have been synthesized via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method. Nanowires prepared on Si(111 substrates were found to grow perpendicular to the substrate, and the transmission electron microscopy studies demonstrated that the nanowires had singlecrystalline structures with a growth axis. The parallel assembly of the p-n junction nanowire was prepared on a Si substrate with a thermally grown SiO2 layer. The transport studies of horizontal gallium nitride nanowire structures assembled from p- and n-type materials show that these junctions correspond to well-defined p-n junction diodes. The p-n junction devices based on GaN nanowires suspended over the electrodes were fabricated and their electrical properties were investigated. The horizontally assembled gallium nitride nanowire diodes suspended over the electrodes exhibited a substantial increase in conductance under UV light exposure. Apart from the selectivity to different light wavelengths, high responsivity and extremely short response time have also been obtained.

  1. Multifunctional methacrylate-based coatings for glass and metal surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospiech, Doris; Jehnichen, Dieter; Starke, Sandra; Müller, Felix; Bünker, Tobias; Wollenberg, Anne; Häußler, Liane; Simon, Frank; Grundke, Karina; Oertel, Ulrich; Opitz, Michael; Kruspe, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In order to prevent freshwater biofouling glass and metal surfaces were coated with novel transparent methacrylate-based copolymers. The multifunctionality of the copolymers, such as adhesion to the substrate, surface polarity, mechanical long-term stability in water, and ability to form metal complexes was inserted by the choice of suitable comonomers. The monomer 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AAMA) was used as complexing unit to produce copper(II) complexes in the coating's upper surface layer. The semifluorinated monomer 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl methacrylate was employed to adjust the surface polarity and wettability. Comprehensive surface characterization techniques, such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurements showed that surface compositions and properties can be easily adjusted by varying the concentrations of the comonomers. The formation of copper(II) complexes along the copolymer chains and their stability against washing out with plenty of water was proven by XPS. Copolymers containing semifluorinated comonomers significantly inhibited the growth of Achnanthidium species. Copolymers with copper-loaded AAMA-sequences were able to reduce both the growth of Achnanthidium spec. and Staphylococcus aureus.

  2. Memory phenomenon in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ye; Huang, Wei Min; Zhao, Yong; Ding, Zhen; Li, Yan; Tor, Shu Beng; Liu, Erjia

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we experimentally investigate two memory phenomena in a lanthanum based bulk metallic glass (BMG). While the temperature memory effect (TME) is not found by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) test, shape recovery is observed in samples indented at both low and high temperatures. In terms of shape memory related characteristics, this BMG shares some features of shape memory alloys (SMAs) due to its metal nature, and some other features of shape memory polymers (SMPs) owing to its glassy–rubbery transition. The formation of protrusion in the polished sample after heating to super-cooled liquid region (SCLR) indicates that surface tension is not a necessarily positive contributor for shape recovery. Release of internal elastic stress is concluded as the major player. Although the amorphous nature of BMGs enables for storing appreciable amount of internal elastic stress upon deformation, without the presence of cross-linker as in typical SMPs, the shape recovery in BMGs is rather limited. - Highlights: • Experimental investigation of shape recovery in BMG. • Surface tension is not the major reason for shape recovery in BMG. • Release of internal stress is the major contributor for shape recovery. • Comparison of shape memory features of BMG with other shape memory materials.

  3. Evaluation of different finish line designs in base metal alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghandeh R

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation was performed according to the widespread application of base metal alloys"nand few articles published about the marginal integrity of restorations fabricated by these metals."nThree standard dies of a maxillary first premolar were prepared with a flat shoulder finish line in buccal"naspect and chamfer in palatal. One of them left with no change. On the buccal aspect of the second and"nthird dies 135?and 1607 bevel were added respectively"nUsing dual wax technique, nine wax patterns were formed on each die and casting procedure of selected"nnon precious alloy was performed by centrifugal method. Marginal gaps of each copping seated on dies"nwere measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM with X500 magnification. Measurements were"ndone on three areas of marked dies on buccal aspect. Measurement son palatal aspect was done on"nmarked midpalatal point as control."nResults and statistical analysis showed no significant difference among marginal gaps in lingual aspect."nBut on the buccal aspect there were statistically significant differences among the groups (P<0.001. Flat"nshoulder had the best marginal integrity (mean 4 micron. Shoulder with 160' bevel had the most marginal"ngap (mean 26.5 micron and shoulder with 1357 bevel was between two other groups (mean 15.7 micron.

  4. Process for recovering uranium and other base metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, R. J-J.

    1979-01-01

    Uranium and other base metals are leached from their ores with aqueous solutions containing bicarbonate ions that have been generated or reconstituted by converting other non-bicarbonate anions into bicarbonate ions. The conversion is most conveniently effected by contacting solutions containing SO 4 - and Cl - ions with a basic anion exchange resin so that the SO 4 - and Cl - ions are converted into or exhanged for HCO 3 - ions. CO 2 may be dissolved in the solution so it is present during the exhange. The resin is preferably in bicarbonate form prior to contact and CO 2 partial pressure is adjusted so that the resin is not fouled by depositing metal precipitates. In-situ uranium mining is conducted by circulating such solutions through the ore deposit. Oxidizing agents are included in the injected lixiviant. The leaching strength of the circulating bicarbonate lixiviant is maintained by converting the anions generated during leaching or above-ground recovery processes into HCO 3 - ions. The resin may conveniently be eluted and reformed intermittently

  5. Process for recovering uranium and other base metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium and other base metals are leached from their ores with aqueous solutions containing bicarbonate ions that have been generated or reconstituted by converting other non-bicarbonate anions into bicarbonate ions. The conversion is most conveniently effected by contacting solutions containing SO 4 -- and C1 - ions with a basic anion exchange resin so that the SO 4 -- and Cl - ions are converted into or exchanged for HCO 3 - ions. CO 2 may be dissolved in the solution so it is present during the exchange. The resin is preferably in bicarbonate form prior to contact and CO 2 partial pressure is adjusted so that the resin is not fouled by depositing metal precipitates. In-situ uranium mining is conducted by circulating such solutions through the ore deposit. Oxidizing agents are included in the injected lixiviant. The leaching strength of the circulating bicarbonate lixiviant is maintained by converting the anions generated during leaching or above-ground recovery processes into HCO 3 - ions. The resin may conveniently be eluted and performed intermittently. (author)

  6. Process for recovering uranium and other base metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    Uranium and other base metals are leached from their ores with aqueous solutions containing bicarbonate ions that have been generated or reconstituted by converting other non-bicarbonate anions into bicarbonate ions. The conversion is most conveniently effected by contacting solutions containing SO 4 2- and Cl - ions with a basic anion exchange resin so that the SO 4 2- and Cl - ions are converted into or exchanged for HCO 3 - ions. CO 2 may be dissolved in the solution so it is present during the exchange. The resin is preferably in bicarbonate form prior to contact and CO 2 partial pressure is adjusted so that the resin is not fouled by depositing metal precipitates. In-situ uranium mining is conducted by circulating such solutions through the ore deposit. Oxidizing agents are included in the injected lixiviant. The leaching strength of the circulating bicarbonate lixiviant is maintained by converting the anions generated during leaching or above-ground recovery processes into HCO 3 - ions. The resin may conveniently be eluted and reformed intermittently

  7. Compact-Morphology-based poly-metallic Nodule Delineation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoening, Timm; Jones, Daniel O B; Greinert, Jens

    2017-10-17

    Poly-metallic nodules are a marine resource considered for deep sea mining. Assessing nodule abundance is of interest for mining companies and to monitor potential environmental impact. Optical seafloor imaging allows quantifying poly-metallic nodule abundance at spatial scales from centimetres to square kilometres. Towed cameras and diving robots acquire high-resolution imagery that allow detecting individual nodules and measure their sizes. Spatial abundance statistics can be computed from these size measurements, providing e.g. seafloor coverage in percent and the nodule size distribution. Detecting nodules requires segmentation of nodule pixels from pixels showing sediment background. Semi-supervised pattern recognition has been proposed to automate this task. Existing nodule segmentation algorithms employ machine learning that trains a classifier to segment the nodules in a high-dimensional feature space. Here, a rapid nodule segmentation algorithm is presented. It omits computation-intense feature-based classification and employs image processing only. It exploits a nodule compactness heuristic to delineate individual nodules. Complex machine learning methods are avoided to keep the algorithm simple and fast. The algorithm has successfully been applied to different image datasets. These data sets were acquired by different cameras, camera platforms and in varying illumination conditions. Their successful analysis shows the broad applicability of the proposed method.

  8. Impact of defects on the electrical transport, optical properties and failure mechanisms of GaN nanowires.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Andrew M.; Aubry, Sylvie; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Siegal, Michael P.; Li, Qiming; Jones, Reese E.; Westover, Tyler; Wang, George T.; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Talin, Albert Alec; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Harris, C. Thomas; Huang, Jian Yu

    2010-09-01

    We present the results of a three year LDRD project that focused on understanding the impact of defects on the electrical, optical and thermal properties of GaN-based nanowires (NWs). We describe the development and application of a host of experimental techniques to quantify and understand the physics of defects and thermal transport in GaN NWs. We also present the development of analytical models and computational studies of thermal conductivity in GaN NWs. Finally, we present an atomistic model for GaN NW electrical breakdown supported with experimental evidence. GaN-based nanowires are attractive for applications requiring compact, high-current density devices such as ultraviolet laser arrays. Understanding GaN nanowire failure at high-current density is crucial to developing nanowire (NW) devices. Nanowire device failure is likely more complex than thin film due to the prominence of surface effects and enhanced interaction among point defects. Understanding the impact of surfaces and point defects on nanowire thermal and electrical transport is the first step toward rational control and mitigation of device failure mechanisms. However, investigating defects in GaN NWs is extremely challenging because conventional defect spectroscopy techniques are unsuitable for wide-bandgap nanostructures. To understand NW breakdown, the influence of pre-existing and emergent defects during high current stress on NW properties will be investigated. Acute sensitivity of NW thermal conductivity to point-defect density is expected due to the lack of threading dislocation (TD) gettering sites, and enhanced phonon-surface scattering further inhibits thermal transport. Excess defect creation during Joule heating could further degrade thermal conductivity, producing a viscous cycle culminating in catastrophic breakdown. To investigate these issues, a unique combination of electron microscopy, scanning luminescence and photoconductivity implemented at the nanoscale will be used in

  9. Metal content of Dendrobaena rubida (Oligochaeta) in a base metal mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ireland, M.P.

    1975-01-01

    Metal analysis of soils collected near disused lead and zinc mines showed high concentrations of total iron, zinc, lead and available lead, together with free iron. Field and experimental studies on the metal content of the earthworm Dendrobaena rubida (Savigny) living in soils of high and low metal levels showed that the earthworms probably regulated the iron and zinc content of the tissues but retained lead. It is tentatively suggested that soil calcium may influence the uptake of metals by D. rubida while the results for tissue lead content appeared to show a direct effect of calcium on lead by the regulation of endogenous tissue calcium. (auth)

  10. Interface characterization of atomic layer deposited high-k on non-polar GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Ye; Zeng, Ke; Singisetti, Uttam

    2017-10-01

    The interface properties between dielectrics and semiconductors are crucial for electronic devices. In this work, we report the electrical characterization of the interface properties between atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and HfO2 on non-polar a-plane ( 11 2 ¯ 0 ) and m-plane ( 1 1 ¯ 00 ) GaN grown by hybrid vapor phase epitaxy. A metal oxide semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) structure was used to evaluate the interface properties. The impact of annealing on the interface properties was also investigated. The border trap in the oxide, characterized by the capacitance-voltage (C-V) hysteresis loop, was low. The interface state density (Dit), extracted using the ac conductance method, is in the range of 0.5 × 1012/cm2 eV to 7.5 × 1011/cm2 eV within an energy range from 0.2 eV to 0.5 eV below the conduction band minimum. The m-plane GaN MOSCAPs exhibited better interface properties than the a-plane GaN MOSCAPs after annealing. Without annealing, Al2O3 dielectrics had higher border trap density and interface state density compared to HfO2 dielectrics. However, the annealing had different impacts on Al2O3 dielectrics as compared to HfO2. Our results showed that the annealing degraded the quality of the interface in HfO2, but it improved the quality of the interface in Al2O3 devices. The annealing also reduced the positive trapped oxide charge, resulting in a shift of C-V curves towards the positive bias region.

  11. Resistive switching in ZrO2 based metal-oxide-metal structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaerkkaenen, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this work is a deeper understanding of the influence of the (i) metal-oxide-metal (MOM) layer stacks configuration, (ii) the oxide films microstructure, (iii) and their defect structure on the appearance of different switching modes, i.e. unipolar (UP) and bipolar (BP). The first part deals with the fabrication of ZrO 2 thin films by an industrial compatible atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, the chemical, structural and morphological characterization of the films, the growth of ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers, the integration of the layers into metal-oxide-metal (MOM) devices and the electrical characterization with focus on the RS behavior. In the second part the effect of the device structure, in particular the thickness of the electrochemical active electrode (EAE) and the ZrO 2 film morphology, on the RS switching polarity of Pt/ZrO 2 /(EAE) cells is discussed. ZrO 2 films and ZrO 2 /TiO 2 bilayers were grown by ALD and were carefully structurally and electrically characterized. The ZrO 2 films grown from Zr[N(CH 3 )C 2 H 5 ] 4 (TEMA-Zr) at 240 C were polycrystalline with a mixture of cubic/tetragonal phases. ALD/H 2 O-ZrO 2 films exhibited a random oriented polycrystalline structure, whereas the ALD/O 3 -ZrO 2 films consisted of preferably oriented cubic shaped grains. Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt structures with a Ti top electrode (TE) thickness of 5 to 20 nm showed unipolar type RS behavior, while by increasing the Ti TE thickness a gradual change of switching polarity from unipolar to bipolar with a completely bipolar type RS behavior for a Ti TE thickness of 40 nm is found. The switching in Pt/ZrO 2 /TiO 2 /Ti/Pt devices was unipolar, comparable to Pt/ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt cells. In contrast, bilayers with the reverse structure, Pt/TiO 2 /ZrO 2 /Ti/Pt, showed non-switching behavior. The effect of the cells stack structure on the polarity of the RS behavior was studied in detail for 20 nm thick ZrO 2 films grown by an ozone based ALD process and integrated into Pt/ZrO 2

  12. Commercial Implementation of Model-Based Manufacturing of Nanostructured Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, Terry C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-24

    Computational modeling is an essential tool for commercial production of nanostructured metals. Strength is limited by imperfections at the high strength levels that are achievable in nanostructured metals. Processing to achieve homogeneity at the micro- and nano-scales is critical. Manufacturing of nanostructured metals is intrinsically a multi-scale problem. Manufacturing of nanostructured metal products requires computer control, monitoring and modeling. Large scale manufacturing of bulk nanostructured metals by Severe Plastic Deformation is a multi-scale problem. Computational modeling at all scales is essential. Multiple scales of modeling must be integrated to predict and control nanostructural, microstructural, macrostructural product characteristics and production processes.

  13. Microstructure-Based Counterfeit Detection in Metal Part Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachowicz, Adam; Chaduvula, Siva Chaitanya; Atallah, Mikhail; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2017-11-01

    Counterfeiting in metal part manufacturing has become a major global concern. Although significant effort has been made in detecting the implementation of such counterfeits, modern approaches suffer from high expense during production, invasiveness during manufacture, and unreliability in practice if parts are damaged during use. In this paper, a practical microstructure-based counterfeit detection methodology is proposed, which draws on inherent randomness present in the microstructure as a result of the manufacturing process. An optical Physically Unclonable Function (PUF) protocol is developed which takes a micrograph as input and outputs a compact, unique string representation of the micrograph. The uniqueness of the outputs and their robustness to moderate wear and tear is demonstrated by application of the methodology to brass samples. The protocol is shown to have good discriminatory power even between samples manufactured in the same batch, and runs on the order of several seconds per part on inexpensive machines.

  14. A metal-based inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Jing Zhong

    Full Text Available A cyclometallated rhodium(III complex [Rh(ppy(2(dppz](+ (1 (where ppy=2-phenylpyridine and dppz=dipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine dipyridophenazine has been prepared and identified as an inhibitor of NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE. The complex inhibited NAE activity in cell-free and cell-based assays, and suppressed the CRL-regulated substrate degradation and NF-κB activation in human cancer cells with potency comparable to known NAE inhibitor MLN4924. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the overall binding mode of 1 within the binding pocket of the APPBP1/UBA3 heterodimer resembled that for MLN4924. Complex 1 is the first metal complex reported to suppress the NEDDylation pathway via inhibition of the NEDD8-activating enzyme.

  15. Chitosan-based Schiff base-metal complexes (Mn, Cu, Co) as ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    catalyst was studied using a batch reactor and gas chromatography for product identification and quantifica- tion. The results were compared against the ... It has many applications in medicine such as wound dressings, artificial ...... a stable Schiff base, which can form a com- plex with metal ion, resulting in a promising cata-.

  16. The interplay of blocking properties with charge and potential redistribution in thin carbon-doped GaN on n-doped GaN layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Christian; Pobegen, Gregor; Ostermaier, Clemens; Huber, Martin; Pogany, Dionyz

    2017-07-01

    In carbon-doped GaN (GaN:C) buffers used in a GaN-on-Si technology, the buffer is embedded in between transition and channel layers. This makes the analysis of buffer properties difficult due to e.g., carrier injection from or potential drop at these adjacent layers. Here, we analyze capacitance- and current-voltage characteristics of 200-300 nm thick GaN:C ([C] = 1019 cm-3) layers which are embedded between a top metal electrode and bottom n-doped GaN (n-GaN). Such structures allow a better potential control in GaN:C and thus determination of the band diagram quantitatively. The accumulation of negative charge (concentration up to 6 × 1017 cm-3) with bias is observed in GaN:C at both polarities. For biases Vappl GaN:C near to its interface with n-GaN so that GaN:C exhibits no potential drop and blocks leakage current. For Vappl > +1.7 V, accumulated negative charges in GaN:C raise an energy barrier of ˜1.1 eV for electron injection from n-GaN to GaN:C. This causes a potential drop in GaN:C leading to a significant leakage current increase. The Fermi level pinning in GaN:C at a commonly referred acceptor at EV + 0.7(±0.2) eV is extracted only from electrostatic considerations. The occupancy change of carbon acceptors is attributed to trapping processes where the dislocation-related conductive paths are supposed to be involved in carrier transport from the top metal electrode to the carbon defect.

  17. Quantum Yield of Reflection Mode Varied Doping GaN Photocathode

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Jianliang; Li Xiangjiang; Niu Jun; Gao Youtang

    2016-01-01

    Using the NEA photocathode activation and evaluation experiment system, the varied doping GaN photocathode has been activated and evaluated. According to the diffusion and orientation drifting equation, the quantum yield formula of reflection mode varied doping NEA GaN photocathode was gotten. The factors affecting the quantum efficiency of varied doping GaN photocathode were studied. For the varied doping GaN photocathode, the quantum efficiency is mainly decided by the escape probability of...

  18. Study of Cs adsorption on (100) surface of [001]-oriented GaN nanowires: A first principle research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Sihao [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Liu, Lei, E-mail: liu1133_cn@sina.com.cn [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Kong, Yike [Department of Optoelectronic Technology, School of Electronic and Optical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology Nanjing, 210094 (China); Wang, Honggang; Wang, Meishan [School of Information and Electrical Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • B{sub N} is the most stable adsorption site. • Work function is reduced after Cs adsorption. • Surface atomic structures are reconstructed. • Surface states near fermi level is contributed to the hybridization of Cs 5s state with Ga 4p and N 2p state. • NEA surface is demonstrated after Cs adsorption on GaN nanowire surface. - Abstract: Based on first-principle study, the adsorption mechanism of Cs on (100) crystal plane of GaN nanowire surface with coverage of 1/12 monolayer is explored. It is discovered that the most stable adsorption site is B{sub N} because of its lowest adsorption energy. The work function of GaN nanowire surface is reduced by 1.69 eV and will be further reduced with increasing Cs adsorption, which promotes the development of negative electron affinity (NEA) state of the materials. Furthermore, Cs adatom will make a great influence on the surface atomic structure, oppositely, little influence on the center atomic structure. There appears a dipole moment valued −6.93 Debye on the nanowire surface contributed to the formation the heterojunction on the surface, which is beneficial to the photoelectrons liberation. After Cs adsorption, the valence band and conduction band both move to lower energy side. The surface states mainly result from the hybridization of Cs 5s state with Ga 4p state and N 2p state. This study can help us to further experiment on the Cs adsorption processing on GaN nanowire and improve the photoemission performance of GaN nanowire devices.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of silicon-doped polycrystalline GaN ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    from its very low-cost production. Among different ... GaN target (99.999%) containing 1 at% Si in argon plasma and a combination of ... ing the substrate temperatures during sputtering of the. GaN target. The SEM images of two representative nano- crystalline GaN films deposited at substrate temperatures at ~ 423 and 623 ...

  20. Identification of the primary compensating defect level responsible for determining blocking voltage of vertical GaN power diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M. P.; Kaplar, R. J.; Dickerson, J. R.; Lee, S. R.; Allerman, A. A.; Crawford, M. H.; Fischer, A. J.; Marinella, M. J.; Flicker, J. D.; Fleming, R. M.; Kizilyalli, I. C.; Aktas, O.; Armstrong, A. M.

    2016-10-01

    Electrical performance and characterization of deep levels in vertical GaN P-i-N diodes grown on low threading dislocation density (˜104 - 106 cm-2) bulk GaN substrates are investigated. The lightly doped n drift region of these devices is observed to be highly compensated by several prominent deep levels detected using deep level optical spectroscopy at Ec-2.13, 2.92, and 3.2 eV. A combination of steady-state photocapacitance and lighted capacitance-voltage profiling indicates the concentrations of these deep levels to be Nt = 3 × 1012, 2 × 1015, and 5 × 1014 cm-3, respectively. The Ec-2.92 eV level is observed to be the primary compensating defect in as-grown n-type metal-organic chemical vapor deposition GaN, indicating this level acts as a limiting factor for achieving controllably low doping. The device blocking voltage should increase if compensating defects reduce the free carrier concentration of the n drift region. Understanding the incorporation of as-grown and native defects in thick n-GaN is essential for enabling large VBD in the next-generation wide-bandgap power semiconductor devices. Thus, controlling the as-grown defects induced by epitaxial growth conditions is critical to achieve blocking voltage capability above 5 kV.

  1. Analysis of channel confined selective area growth in evolutionary growth of GaN on SiO 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, Benjamin; Tsai, Miao-Chan; Song, Jie; Zhang, Yu; Xiong, Kanglin; Yuan, Ge; Coltrin, Michael E.; Han, Jung

    2015-09-01

    Here, we analyze the chemical vapor deposition of semiconductor crystals by selective area growth in a non-planar geometry. Specifically, the growth process in laterally and vertically confined masks forming single-crystal GaN on SiO2 by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is considered in detail. A textured AlN seed is used to initiate growth of oriented GaN selectively through the mask, allowing the reduction of degrees of freedom by the evolutionary grain selection process. As shown by measurements of growth rates within the mask, the sub micron length scale of the channel opening is comparable to the mean free path of precursors in the gas phase, resulting in transport characteristics that can be described by an intermediate flow regime between continuum and free-molecular. Mass transport is modeled through kinetic theory to explain the growth rate enhancements of more than a factor of two by changes in reactor pressure. The growth conditions that enable the modification of nucleation density within the channel are then discussed, and are measured by electron-back scatter diffraction of the nucleated grains on the AlN seed. Finally, the selectivity behavior using the low fill factor masks needed in these configurations has been optimized by control of precursor flow rates and the H2 enhanced etching of the polycrystalline GaN nuclei.

  2. Nanofluid based on self-nanoencapsulated metal/metal alloys phase change materials with tuneable crystallisation temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete, Nuria; Gimeno-Furio, Alexandra; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Cabedo, Luis; Cordoncillo, Eloisa; Julia, J Enrique

    2017-12-14

    Nanofluids using nanoencapsulated Phase Change Materials (nePCM) allow increments in both the thermal conductivity and heat capacity of the base fluid. Incremented heat capacity is produced by the melting enthalpy of the nanoparticles core. In this work two important advances in this nanofluid type are proposed and experimentally tested. It is firstly shown that metal and metal alloy nanoparticles can be used as self-encapsulated nePCM using the metal oxide layer that forms naturally in most commercial synthesis processes as encapsulation. In line with this, Sn/SnOx nanoparticles morphology, size and thermal properties were studied by testing the suitability and performance of encapsulation at high temperatures and thermal cycling using a commercial thermal oil (Therminol 66) as the base fluid. Secondly, a mechanism to control the supercooling effect of this nePCM type based on non-eutectic alloys was developed.

  3. Discovering a Defect that Imposes a Limit to Mg Doping in p-Type GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliental-Weber, Z.; Tomaszewicz, T.; Zakharov, D.; O'Keefe, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) is the III-V semiconductor used to produce blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and blue and ultraviolet solid-state lasers. To be useful in electronic devices, GaN must be doped with elements that function either as electron donors or as acceptors to turn it into either an n-type semiconductor or a p-type semiconductor. It has been found that GaN can easily be grown with n-conductivity, even up to large concentrations of donors--in the few 10 19 cm -3 range. However, p-doping, the doping of the structure with atoms that provide electron sinks or holes, is not well understood and remains extremely difficult. The only efficient p-type dopant is Mg, but it is found that the free hole concentration is limited to 2 x 10 18 cm -3 , even when Mg concentrations are pushed into the low 10 19 cm -3 range. This saturation effect could place a limit on further development of GaN based devices. Further increase of the Mg concentration, up to 1 x 10 20 cm -3 leads to a decrease of the free hole concentration and an increase in defects. While low- to medium-brightness GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are remarkably tolerant of crystal defects, blue and UV GaN lasers are much less so. We used electron microscopy to investigate Mg doping in GaN. Our transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed the formation of different types of Mg-rich defects [1,2]. In particular, high-resolution TEM allowed us to characterize a completely new type of defect in Mg-rich GaN. We found that the type of defect depended strongly on crystal growth polarity. For crystals grown with N-polarity, planar defects are distributed at equal distances (20 unit cells of GaN); these defects can be described as inversion domains [1]. For growth with Ga-polarity, we found a different type of defect [2]. These defects turn out to be three-dimensional Mg-rich hexagonal pyramids (or trapezoids) with their base on the (0001) plane and their six walls formed on {1123} planes (Fig. 1a). In

  4. GaN photocathodes for UV detection and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Oswald H. W.; Tremsin, Anton S.; Martin, Adrian; Malloy, James; Ulmer, Melville P.; Wessels, Bruce

    2003-12-01

    The nitride-III semiconductors, in particular GaN (band gap energy 3.5 eV), AlN (band gap 6.2 eV) and their alloys AlxGa1-xN are attractive as UV photo-convertors with applications as photocathodes for position sensitive detector systems. These can "fill the gap" in the 150-400nm wavelength regime between alkali halide photocathodes (photocathodes (>4000Å, mutlialkali & GaAs). Currently CsTe photocathodes have fairly low efficiency (Fig. 1) in the 100nm to 300nm regime are sensitive to contamination and have no tolerance to gas exposure. We have prepared and measured a number of GaN photocathodes in opaque and semitransparent modes, achieving >50% quantum efficiency in opaque mode and ~35% in semitransparent mode (Fig. 2). The GaN photocathodes are stable over periods of >1 year and are robust enough to be re-activated many times. The cutoff wavelength is sharp, with a rapid decline in quantum efficiency at ~380-400nm. Application of GaN photocathodes in imaging devices should be feasible in the near future. Further performance improvements are also expected as GaN fabrication and processing techniques are refined.

  5. Factors affecting the bond strength of denture base and reline acrylic resins to base metal materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Tanoue

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The shear bond strengths of two hard chairside reline resin materials and an auto-polymerizing denture base resin material to cast Ti and a Co-Cr alloy treated using four conditioning methods were investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Disk specimens (diameter 10 mm and thickness 2.5 mm were cast from pure Ti and Co-Cr alloy. The specimens were wet-ground to a final surface finish of 600 grit, air-dried, and treated with the following bonding systems: 1 air-abraded with 50-70-µm grain alumina (CON; 2 1 + conditioned with a primer, including an acidic phosphonoacetate monomer (MHPA; 3 1 + conditioned with a primer including a diphosphate monomer (MDP; 4 treated with a tribochemical system. Three resin materials were applied to each metal specimen. Shear bond strengths were determined before and after 10,000 thermocycles. RESULTS: The strengths decreased after thermocycling for all combinations. Among the resin materials assessed, the denture base material showed significantly (p<0.05 greater shear bond strengths than the two reline materials, except for the CON condition. After 10,000 thermocycles, the bond strengths of two reline materials decreased to less than 10 MPa for both metals. The bond strengths of the denture base material with MDP were sufficient: 34.56 MPa for cast Ti and 38.30 for Co-Cr alloy. CONCLUSION: Bonding of reline resin materials to metals assessed was clinically insufficient, regardless of metal type, surface treatment, and resin composition. For the relining of metal denture frameworks, a denture base material should be used.

  6. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy of transition metal based water oxidation catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oversteeg, Christina H M; Doan, Hoang Q; de Groot, Frank M F; Cuk, Tanja

    2017-01-03

    X-ray absorption studies of the geometric and electronic structure of primarily heterogeneous Co, Ni, and Mn based water oxidation catalysts are reviewed. The X-ray absorption near edge and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of the metal K-edge, characterize the metal oxidation state, metal-oxygen bond distance, metal-metal distance, and degree of disorder of the catalysts. These properties guide the coordination environment of the transition metal oxide radical that localizes surface holes and is required to oxidize water. The catalysts are investigated both as-prepared, in their native state, and under reaction conditions, while transition metal oxide radicals are generated. The findings of many experiments are summarized in tables. The advantages of future X-ray experiments on water oxidation catalysts, which include the limited data available of the oxygen K-edge, metal L-edge, and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering, are discussed.

  7. Influences of growth parameters on the reaction pathway during GaN synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Liu, Zhongyi; Fang, Haisheng

    2018-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) film growth is a complicated physical and chemical process including fluid flow, heat transfer, species transport and chemical reaction. Study of the reaction mechanism, i.e., the reaction pathway, is important for optimizing the growth process in the actual manufacture. In the paper, the growth pathway of GaN in a closed-coupled showerhead metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (CCS-MOCVD) reactor is investigated in detail using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Influences of the process parameters, such as the chamber pressure, the inlet temperature, the susceptor temperature and the pre-exponential factor, on the reaction pathway are examined. The results show that increases of the chamber pressure or the inlet temperature, as well as reductions of the susceptor temperature or the pre-exponential factor lead to the adduct route dominating the growth. The deposition rate contributed by the decomposition route, however, can be enhanced dramatically by increasing the inlet temperature, the susceptor temperature and the pre-exponential factor.

  8. Implantation and annealing studies of Tm-implanted GaN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, K.; Alves, E.; Wahl, U.; Monteiro, T.; Dalmasso, S.; Martin, R.W.; O'Donnell, K.P.; Vianden, R.

    2003-01-01

    Thulium ions were implanted into metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN films with different fluences at implantation temperatures of 20, 400 and 500 deg. C. Subsequent annealing of the samples was performed in a rapid thermal annealing apparatus. The lattice damage introduced by the implantation and the effect of post-implant annealing were investigated with the Rutherford backscattering (RBS)/channelling technique. We observe that implantation at 500 deg. C considerably reduces the induced lattice damage and increases the amorphisation threshold. The lattice-site location of the implanted ions was determined by performing detailed channelling measurements for the and crystal directions. The results show that Tm ions mainly occupy substitutional Ga-sites directly after implantation and after annealing. The optical properties of the ion-implanted GaN films have been studied by room temperature cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements. Well-defined emission due to intra-4f shell transitions of the Tm 3+ ions are observed in the blue spectral range at 477 nm and in the near infra-red (IR) at 804 nm

  9. Surfactant assisted growth of MgO films on GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paisley, Elisibeth A. [North Carolina State University; Shelton, T C [North Carolina State University; Mita, S [North Carolina State University; Gaddy, Brian E. [North Carolina State University; Irving, D L [North Carolina State University; Christen, Hans M [ORNL; Sitar, Z [North Carolina State University; Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL; Maria, Jon Paul [North Carolina State University

    2012-01-01

    Thin epitaxial films of <111> oriented MgO on [0001]-oriented GaN were grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using the assistance of a vapor phase surfactant. In both cases, surfactant incorporation enabled layer-by-layer growth and a smooth terminal surface due to stabilizing the {111} rocksalt facet. MBE growth of MgO in water terminates after several monolayers, and is attributed to saturation of surface active sites needed to facilitate the Mg oxidation reaction. MgO films prepared by PLD grow continuously, this occurs due to the presence of excited oxidizing species in the laser plasma eliminate the need for catalytic surface sites. Metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor structures were fabricated on n-type GaN. A comparison of leakage current density for conventional and surfactant-assisted growth reveals a nearly two order of magnitude reduction in leakage current density for the smoother surfactant-assisted samples. Collectively, these data verify numerous predictions and calculations regarding the role of H-termination in regulating the habit of MgO crystals.

  10. Irradiation-induced defects in InN and GaN studied with positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reurings, Floris; Tuomisto, Filip [Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Egger, Werner; Loewe, Benjamin [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik, Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Neubiberg (Germany); Ravelli, Luca [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli studi di Trento, Povo (Italy); Sojak, Stanislav [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Liliental-Weber, Zuzanna; Jones, Rebecca E.; Yu, Kin M.; Walukiewicz, Wladek [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schaff, William J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States)

    2010-05-15

    We use positron annihilation to study 2-MeV {sup 4}He{sup +} irradiated and subsequently rapid-thermal-annealed InN grown by molecular-beam epitaxy and GaN grown by metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition. The irradiation fluences were in the range 5 x 10{sup 14}-2 x 10{sup 16}cm{sup -2}. In vacancies are introduced in the irradiation at a low rate of 100 cm{sup -1}, with their concentration saturating in the mid-10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} range at an irradiation fluence of 2 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The annealing, performed at temperatures between 425 and 475 C, is observed to result in an inhomogeneous redistribution of the In vacancies. The behaviour is opposite to GaN, where Ga vacancies are introduced at a much higher rate of 3600 cm{sup -1} showing no detectable saturation. About half of the Ga vacancies are found to recover in the annealing, in agreement with previous studies, while the remaining Ga vacancies undergo no spatial redistribution. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  11. Novel thiosalicylate-based ionic liquids for heavy metal extractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyma, Raphlin; Platzer, Sonja [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Jirsa, Franz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Zoology, University of Johannesburg, PO Box 524, Auckland Park, 2006, Johannesburg (South Africa); Kandioller, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.kandioller@univie.ac.at [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Krachler, Regina; Keppler, Bernhard K. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 42, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Six thiosalicylate-based ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) were newly synthesized. • ILs showed good extraction of cadmium, copper, and zinc. • Phosphonium ILs showed better extraction efficiencies than their ammonium counterparts. - Abstract: This study aims to develop novel ammonium and phosphonium ionic liquids (ILs) with thiosalicylate (TS) derivatives as anions and evaluate their extracting efficiencies towards heavy metals in aqueous solutions. Six ILs were synthesized, characterized, and investigated for their extracting efficacies for cadmium, copper, and zinc. Liquid-liquid extractions of Cu, Zn, or Cd with ILs after 1–24 h using model solutions (pH 7; 0.1 M CaCl{sub 2}) were assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (F-AAS). Phosphonium-based ILs trihexyltetradecylphosphonium 2-(propylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][PTB] and 2-(benzylthio)benzoate [P{sub 66614}][BTB] showed best extraction efficiency for copper and cadmium, respectively and zinc was extracted to a high degree by [P{sub 66614}][BTB] exclusively.

  12. High Voltage GaN Schottky Rectifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAO,X.A.; CHO,H.; CHU,S.N.G.; CHUO,C.-C.; CHYI,J.-I.; DANG,G.T.; HAN,JUNG; LEE,C.-M.; PEARTON,S.J.; REN,F.; WILSON,R.G.; ZHANG,A.P.

    1999-10-25

    Mesa and planar GaN Schottky diode rectifiers with reverse breakdown voltages (V{sub RB}) up to 550V and >2000V, respectively, have been fabricated. The on-state resistance, R{sub ON}, was 6m{Omega}{center_dot} cm{sup 2} and 0.8{Omega}cm{sup 2}, respectively, producing figure-of-merit values for (V{sub RB}){sup 2}/R{sub ON} in the range 5-48 MW{center_dot}cm{sup -2}. At low biases the reverse leakage current was proportional to the size of the rectifying contact perimeter, while at high biases the current was proportional to the area of this contact. These results suggest that at low reverse biases, the leakage is dominated by the surface component, while at higher biases the bulk component dominates. On-state voltages were 3.5V for the 550V diodes and {ge}15 for the 2kV diodes. Reverse recovery times were <0.2{micro}sec for devices switched from a forward current density of {approx}500A{center_dot}cm{sup -2} to a reverse bias of 100V.

  13. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O' Brien, E.Z.; Kongoli, F. [University of Prishtina, Prishtina (Kosovo)

    2008-08-15

    All historical periods of Kosovo - Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian - are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  14. The mineral base and productive capacities of metals and non-metals of Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaj, M.; Beqiri, E.; McBow, I.; O'Brien, E. Z.; Kongoli, F.

    2008-08-01

    All historical periods of Kosovo—Ilirik, Roman, Medieval, Turkish, and former Yugoslavian—are linked with the intensive development of mining and metallurgy. This activity influenced and still is influencing the overall position of Kosovo as a country. For example, according to a 2006 World Bank report as well as other studies, Kosovo has potential lignite resources (geological reserves) of about 1.5 billion tonnes, which are ranked fifth in the world in importance. Other significant Kosovan mineral resources include lead, zinc, gold, silver, bauxite, and uranium, and rare metals accompanying those minerals, including indium, cadmium, thallium, gallium, and bismuth. These rare metals are of particular importance in developing advanced industrial technologies. Kosovo also has reserves of high-quality non-metals, including magnesite, quartz grit, bentonite, argil, talc, and asbestos. No database exists for these non-metal reserves, and further research and studies are needed.

  15. Defining a metal-based waste form for IFR pyroprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDeavitt, S.M.; Park, J.Y.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1994-01-01

    Pyrochemical electrorefining to recover actinides from metal nuclear fuel is a key element of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) fuel cycle. The process separates the radioactive fission products from the long-lived actinides in a molten LiCl-KCl salt, and it generates a lower waste volume with significantly less long-term toxicity as compared to spent nuclear fuel. The process waste forms include a mineral-based waste form that will contain fission products removed from an electrolyte salt and a metal-based waste form that will contain metallic fission products and the fuel cladding and process materials. Two concepts for the metal-based waste form are being investigated: (1) encapsulating the metal constituents in a Cu-Al alloy and (2) alloying the metal constituents into a uniform stainless steel-based waste form. Results are given from our recent studies of these two concepts

  16. Leaching of metals on stabilization of metal sludge using cement based materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophia, Carmalin A; Swaminathan, K

    2005-01-01

    Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure(TCLP) of zinc plating sludge was carried out to assess the leaching potential of the sludge and the leachates were analyzed for heavy metals. The concentration of zinc, chromium, and lead in the leachate were 371.5 mg/L, 1.95 mg/L and 1.99 mg/L respectively. Solidification of zinc sludge was carried out using four different binder systems consisting of cement mortar, fly ash, clay and lime and cured for 28 d. The ratio of sludge added varied from 60% to 80% by volume. The solidified products were tested for metal fixing efficiency and physical strength. It was observed that the volume of sludge added that resulted in maximum metal stabilization was 60% for all the combinations, above which the metal fixation efficiency decreased resulting in high values of zinc in the leachate. Addition of 5% sodium silicate enhanced the chemical fixation of metals in all the binder systems. Among the four fixing agents studied, mixture of fly ash: lime, and cement mortar: lime stabilized zinc and other metals in the sludge effectively than other combinations. Addition of lime increased the stabilization of zinc whereas cement mortar increased the strength of the solidified product.

  17. Selective extraction and detection of noble metal based on ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the dramatic increase in economic growth, noble metals have been extensively utilized for wide range of industries and economic activities. Gold is one of the noble metals, which used in various applications because of its unique properties. However, various reports have mentioned that gold species may cause an ...

  18. Metal Phosphides and Phosphates-based Electrodes for Electrochemical Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Elshahawy, Abdelnaby M; Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2017-10-01

    Phosphorus compounds, such as metal phosphides and phosphates have shown excellent performances and great potential in electrochemical energy storage, which are demonstrated by research works published in recent years. Some of these metal phosphides and phosphates and their hybrids compare favorably with transition metal oxides/hydroxides, which have been studied extensively as a class of electrode materials for supercapacitor applications, where they have limitations in terms of electrical and ion conductivity and device stability. To be specific, metal phosphides have both metalloid characteristics and good electric conductivity. For metal phosphates, the open-framework structures with large channels and cavities endow them with good ion conductivity and charge storage capacity. In this review, we present the recent progress on metal phosphides and phosphates, by focusing on their advantages/disadvantages and potential applications as a new class of electrode materials in supercapacitors. The synthesis methods to prepare these metal phosphides/phosphates are looked into, together with the scientific insights involved, as they strongly affect the electrochemical energy storage performance. Particular attentions are paid to those hybrid-type materials, where strong synergistic effects exist. In the summary, the future perspectives and challenges for the metal phosphides, phosphates and hybrid-types are proposed and discussed. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Detection of deep-level defects and reduced carrier concentration in Mg-ion-implanted GaN before high-temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Masamichi; Yokota, Naoshige; Uetake, Kei

    2018-02-01

    We report experimental results for the detection of deep-level defects in GaN after Mg ion implantation before high-temperature annealing. The n-type GaN samples were grown on GaN free-standing substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Mg ions were implanted at 50 keV with a small dosage of 1.5×1011 cm-2, which did not change the conduction type of the n-GaN. By depositing Al2O3 and a Ni/Au electrode onto the implanted n-GaN, metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) diodes were fabricated and tested. The measured capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics showed a particular behavior with a plateau region and a region with an anomalously steep slope. Fitting to the experimental C-V curves by simulation showed the existence of deep-level defects and a reduction of the carrier concentration near the GaN surface. By annealing at 800oC, the density of the deep-level defects was reduced and the carrier concentration partially recovered.

  20. Detection of deep-level defects and reduced carrier concentration in Mg-ion-implanted GaN before high-temperature annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamichi Akazawa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report experimental results for the detection of deep-level defects in GaN after Mg ion implantation before high-temperature annealing. The n-type GaN samples were grown on GaN free-standing substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Mg ions were implanted at 50 keV with a small dosage of 1.5×1011 cm-2, which did not change the conduction type of the n-GaN. By depositing Al2O3 and a Ni/Au electrode onto the implanted n-GaN, metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS diodes were fabricated and tested. The measured capacitance–voltage (C–V characteristics showed a particular behavior with a plateau region and a region with an anomalously steep slope. Fitting to the experimental C–V curves by simulation showed the existence of deep-level defects and a reduction of the carrier concentration near the GaN surface. By annealing at 800oC, the density of the deep-level defects was reduced and the carrier concentration partially recovered.

  1. Post-annealing effects on pulsed laser deposition-grown GaN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Yu-Wen; Wu, Hao-Yu; Lin, Yu-Zhong; Lee, Cheng-Che; Lin, Ching-Fuh

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the post-annealing effects on gallium nitride (GaN) thin films grown from pulsed laser deposition (PLD) are investigated. The as-deposited GaN thin films grown from PLD are annealed at different temperatures in nitrogen ambient. Significant changes of the GaN crystal properties are observed. Raman spectroscopy is used to observe the crystallinity, the change of residual stress, and the thermal decomposition of the annealed GaN thin films. X-ray diffraction is also applied to identify the crystal phase of GaN thin films, and the surface morphology of GaN thin films annealed at different temperatures is observed by scanning electron microscopy. Through the above analyses, the GaN thin films grown by PLD undergo three stages: phase transition, stress alteration, and thermal decomposition. At a low annealing temperature, the rock salt GaN in GaN films is transformed into wurtzite. The rock salt GaN diminishes with increasing annealing temperature. At a medium annealing temperature, the residual stress of the film changes significantly from compressive strain to tensile strain. As the annealing temperature further increases, the GaN undergoes thermal decomposition and the surface becomes granular. By investigating the annealing temperature effects and controlling the optimized annealing temperature of the GaN thin films, we are able to obtain highly crystalline and strain-free GaN thin films by PLD. - Highlights: • The GaN thin film is grown on sapphire by pulsed laser deposition. • The GaN film undergoes three stages with increasing annealing temperature. • In the first stage, the film transfers from rock salt to wurtzite phase. • In the second stage, the stress in film changes from compressive to tensile. • In the final stage, the film thermally decomposes and becomes granular

  2. Ni-BaTiO3-Based Base-Metal Electrode (BME) Ceramic Capacitors for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Donhang; Fetter, Lula; Meinhold, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    A multi-layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) is a high-temperature (1350C typical) co-fired ceramic monolithic that is composed of many layers of alternately stacked oxide-based dielectric and internal metal electrodes. To make the dielectric layers insulating and the metal electrode layers conducting, only highly oxidation-resistant precious metals, such as platinum, palladium, and silver, can be used for the co-firing of insulating MLCCs in a regular air atmosphere. MLCCs made with precious metals as internal electrodes and terminations are called precious-metal electrode (PME) capacitors. Currently, all military and space-level applications only address the use of PME capacitors.

  3. Applications of Open Source GMAW-Based Metal 3-D Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Yuenyong Nilsiam; Paul G. Sanders; Joshua M. Pearce

    2018-01-01

    The metal 3-D printing market is currently dominated by high-end applications, which make it inaccessible for small and medium enterprises, fab labs, and individual makers who are interested in the ability to prototype and additively manufacture final products in metal. Recent progress led to low-cost open-source metal 3-D printers using a gas metal arc welding (GMAW)-based print head. This reduced the cost of metal 3-D printers into the range of desktop prosumer polymer 3-D printers. Consequ...

  4. Curvature and bow of bulk GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foronda, Humberto M.; Young, Erin C.; Robertson, Christian A.; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Romanov, Alexey E. [Materials Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); ITMO University, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Beltz, Glenn E. [Mechanical Engineering Department, UCSB, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    We investigate the bow of free standing (0001) oriented hydride vapor phase epitaxy grown GaN substrates and demonstrate that their curvature is consistent with a compressive to tensile stress gradient (bottom to top) present in the substrates. The origin of the stress gradient and the curvature is attributed to the correlated inclination of edge threading dislocation (TD) lines away from the [0001] direction. A model is proposed and a relation is derived for bulk GaN substrate curvature dependence on the inclination angle and the density of TDs. The model is used to analyze the curvature for commercially available GaN substrates as determined by high resolution x-ray diffraction. The results show a close correlation between the experimentally determined parameters and those predicted from theoretical model.

  5. Optical and Structural Characterizations of GaN Nano structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekari, L.; Abu Hassan, H.; Thahab, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    We have grown wurtzite GaN nano wires (NWs) on polished silicon (Si) either with or without Au as catalyst, using commercial GaN powder by thermal evaporation in an atmosphere of argon (Ar) gas. Structural and optical characterizations were performed using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) spectroscopy. Results indicate that the nano wires are of single-crystal hexagonal GaN and the nano wires on Si with Au catalyst are more oriented than those without Au catalyst; and using catalyst make the NWs grow much faster and quite well-ordered. The compositional quality of the grown nano wires on the substrates are mostly same, however the nano wires on the Au coated silicon are of low density, while the nano wires on the Si are of high density. (author)

  6. Design and performance of GaN betavoltaic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, H. K.; Lee, N. M.; Lee, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    Semiconductor betavoltaic cell employs a semiconductor pn junction and a radioisotope that emits beta particles. This device can be used for remote applications requiring a long life power and for minimizing the size. In order to obtain a useful beta radiation power from the nuclear waste, Nickel-63 and Carbon-14 radioisotopes were selected. Ni-63 energy source adapted to a wideband GaN p-n junction as well as silicon device but C-14 has the higher energy which affects the extensive degradation of performance in silicon device and can adapt only to a GaN semiconductor showing the radiation tolerance. The experimental results for I- V characteristics were compared and analyzed. This paper also presents the design concepts for high efficiency GaN betavoltaic cell

  7. Studies on electronic structure of GaN(0001) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Xie Chang Kun; Xu Fa Qiang; Deng Rui; Liu Feng; Yibulaxin, K

    2002-01-01

    An electronic structure investigation on GaN(0001) is reported. The authors employ a full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave (FPLAPW) approach to calculate the partial density of state, which is in agreement with previous experimental results. The effects of the Ga3d semi-core levels on the electronic structure of GaN are discussed. The valence-electronic structure of the wurtzite GaN(0001) surface is investigated using synchrotron radiation excited angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The bulk bands dispersion along GAMMA A direction in the Brillouin zones is measured using normal-emission spectra by changing photon-energy. The band structure derived from authors' experimental data is compared well with the results of authors' FPLAPW calculation. Furthermore, off-normal emission spectra are also measured along the GAMMA K and GAMMA M directions. Two surface states are identified, and their dispersions are characterized

  8. Removal of metal cations from wastewater using recycled wool-based non-woven material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA RADETIC

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of low-temperature air plasma, biopolymer chitosan and hydrogen peroxide treatment of recycled wool-based non-woven material on metal cation uptake was investigated. Recycled wool-based material either as an untreated or modified material showed ability to bind all investigated metal cations in the following order: Pb2+>Cu2+>Zn2+>Co2+. Material performed good selectivity due to distinct sorption rates of studied metal cations.

  9. A-plane GaN growth on (11-20) 4H-SiC substrate with an ultrathin interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zheng; Song, Peifeng; Nitta, Shugo; Honda, Yoshio; Amano, Hiroshi

    2017-06-01

    A-plane GaN was attempted to be grown on (11-20) 4H-SiC bulk substrate without using a traditional thick buffer layer. By inducing TMAl treatment before the GaN growth step and using both a low pressure and V/III ratio, the interlayer thickness of the a-plane GaN/SiC was reduced to 1.7+0.5 nm. The ultrathin interlayer was observed to be either AlN or AlGaN with a low Ga composition. This study is aimed to contribute to the understanding of GaN growth on the sidewalls of c-plane trench structure SiC. The ultrathin growth technique is also hoped to be applied to the fabrication of GaN-based vertical structure nonpolar optical or electrical devices.

  10. Void Shapes Controlled by Using Interruption-Free Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth of GaN Films on Patterned SiO2 AlN/Sapphire Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-An Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available GaN epitaxial layers with embedded air voids grown on patterned SiO2 AlN/sapphire templates were proposed. Using interruption-free epitaxial lateral overgrowth technology, we realized uninterrupted growth and controlled the shape of embedded air voids. These layers showed improved crystal quality using X-ray diffraction and measurement of etching pits density. Compared with conventional undoped-GaN film, the full width at half-maximum of the GaN (0 0 2 and (1 0 2 peaks decreased from 485 arcsec to 376 arcsec and from 600 arcsec to 322 arcsec, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy results showed that the coalesced GaN growth led to bending threading dislocation. We also proposed a growth model based on results of scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Electronic and magnetic properties of zigzag GaN nanoribbons with hydrogenation and fluorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song; Xing, Huaizhong; Xie, Ruikuan; Zeng, Yijie; Huang, Yan; Lu, Aijiang; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2018-03-01

    First principles calculations are performed to investigate the electronic and magnetic properties of hydrogenated and fluorinated zigzag GaN nanoribbons (zGaNNRs). Five kinds of possible different hydrogenated structures and four kinds of possible fluorinated structures are considered, and they show various electronic and magnetic properties. We find that the Ga-edges with two hydrogen atoms terminated or two fluorine atoms terminated are ferromagnetic while the N-edges with two hydrogen atoms terminated or two fluorine atoms terminated are nonmagnetic. Results show the structure is half-metal when the Ga-edges are saturated with two fluorine atoms and N-edges saturated with one fluorine atom. The Gibbs free energy of all the considered structures are calculated here to analyze the stability and their relation with chemical potentials. Moreover, the magnetic and electronic properties can be tailored by external electric field. zGaNNRs transform from half-metal to semiconductor under Ga→N direction electric field; it also can change from half-metal to magnetic metal then to nonmagnetic metal under N→Ga direction electric field.

  12. Porous silicon based anode material formed using metal reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguchamy, Yogesh Kumar; Masarapu, Charan; Deng, Haixia; Han, Yongbong; Venkatachalam, Subramanian; Kumar, Sujeet; Lopez, Herman A.

    2015-09-22

    A porous silicon based material comprising porous crystalline elemental silicon formed by reducing silicon dioxide with a reducing metal in a heating process followed by acid etching is used to construct negative electrode used in lithium ion batteries. Gradual temperature heating ramp(s) with optional temperature steps can be used to perform the heating process. The porous silicon formed has a high surface area from about 10 m.sup.2/g to about 200 m.sup.2/g and is substantially free of carbon. The negative electrode formed can have a discharge specific capacity of at least 1800 mAh/g at rate of C/3 discharged from 1.5V to 0.005V against lithium with in some embodiments loading levels ranging from about 1.4 mg/cm.sup.2 to about 3.5 mg/cm.sup.2. In some embodiments, the porous silicon can be coated with a carbon coating or blended with carbon nanofibers or other conductive carbon material.

  13. Gas metal arc welding in refurbishment of cobalt base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahriary, M. S.; Miladi Gorji, Y.; Kolagar, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    Refurbishments of superalloys which are used in manufacturing gas turbine hot components usually consists of removing cracks and other defects by blending and then repair welding in order to reconstruct damaged area. In this study, the effects of welding parameters on repair of FSX-414 superalloy, as the most applicable cobalt base superalloy in order to manufacture gas turbine nozzles, by use of Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) technic were investigated. Results then were compared by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). Metallographic and SEM studies of the microstructure of the weld and HAZ showed that there are no noticeable defects in the microstructure by use of GMAW. Also, chemical analysis and morphologies of carbide in both methods are similar. Hardness profile of the GM AW structure then also compared with GTAW and no noticeable difference was observed between the profiles. Also, proper tensile properties, compared with GTAW, can be achieved by use of optimum parameters that can be obtained by examining the current and welding speed. Tensile properties of optimized condition of the GMAW then were compared with GTAW. It was seen that the room and high temperature tensile properties of the GMAW structure is very similar and results confirmed that changing the technic did not have any significant influence on the properties.

  14. Friction and wear of some ferrous-base metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    Sliding friction experiments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, and electron microscopy and diffraction studies were conducted with ferrous base metallic glasses (amorphous alloys) in contact with aluminium oxide at temperatures to 750 C in a vacuum. Sliding friction experiments were also conducted in argon and air atmospheres. The results of the investigation indicate that the coefficient of friction increases with increasing temperature to 350 C in vacuum. The increase in friction is due to an increase in adhesion resulting from surface segregation of boric oxide and/or silicon oxide to the surface of the foil. Above 500 C the coefficient of friction decreased rapidly. The decrease correlates with the segregation of boron nitride to the surface. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the material to the surface upon heating and impart boric oxide and/or silicon oxide at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The segregation of contaminants is responsible for the friction behavior. The amorphous alloys have superior wear resistance to crystalline 304 stainless steel. The relative concentrations of the various constituents at the surfaces of the amorphous alloys are very different from the nominal bulk compositions.

  15. Laser assisted anticancer activity of benzimidazole based metal organic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P A; Ramesh Babu, R; Balaji, P; Murugadas, A; Akbarsha, M A

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies showed that the photothermal therapy can be effectively used for the targeted cancerous cells destruction. Hence, in the present study, benzimidazole based metal organic complex nanoparticles, dichloro cobalt(II) bis-benzimidazole (Co-BMZ) and dichloro copper(II) bis-benzimidazole (Cu-BMZ), were synthesized by reprecipitation method and their anti-cancer activity by means of photothermal effect has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the particle size of Cu-BMZ is ∼100 nm and Co-BMZ is in the range between 100 and 400 nm. Zeta potential analysis ensures the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. It is found that the nonlinear absorption of the nanoparticles increases with increase in laser power intensity. Phototoxicity of human lung cancer (A549) and the normal mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells was studied using a 650 nm laser. Even though both the cell lines were affected by laser irradiation, A549 cells show higher cell destruction and lower IC 50 values than the normal cells. Docking studies were used to analyse the interaction site and the results showed that the Cu-BMZ molecules have higher dock score than the Co-BMZ molecules. The obtained results indicate that Cu-BMZ samples have lesser particle size, higher nonlinear absorption and higher interaction energy than the Co-BMZ samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Milling of Nanoparticles Reinforced Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Pramanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the face milling of nanoparticles reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites (nano-MMCs using a single insert milling tool. The effects of feed and speed on machined surfaces in terms of surface roughness, surface profile, surface appearance, chip surface, chip ratio, machining forces, and force signals were analyzed. It was found that surface roughness of machined surfaces increased with the increase of feed up to the speed of 60 mm/min. However, at the higher speed (100–140 mm/min, the variation of surface roughness was minor with the increase of feed. The machined surfaces contained the marks of cutting tools, lobes of material flow in layers, pits and craters. The chip ratio increased with the increase of feed at all speeds. The top chip surfaces were full of wrinkles in all cases, though the bottom surfaces carried the evidence of friction, adhesion, and deformed material layers. The effect of feed on machining forces was evident at all speeds. The machining speed was found not to affect machining forces noticeably at a lower feed, but those decreased with the increase of speed for the high feed scenario.

  17. Luminescent multifunctional lanthanides-based metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Carlos, Luís D; Paz, Filipe A Almeida; Ananias, Duarte

    2011-02-01

    Metal-organic frameworks based on trivalent lanthanides (LnMOFs) are a very promising class of materials for addressing the challenges in engineering of luminescent centres. Lanthanide-bearing phosphors find numerous applications in lighting, optical communications, photonics and biomedical devices. In this critical review we discuss the potential of LnMOFs as multifunctional systems, which combine light emission with properties such as microporosity, magnetism, chirality, molecule and ion sensing, catalysis and activity as multimodal imaging contrast agents. We argue that these materials present a unique chance of observing synergy between several of these properties, such as the coupling between photoluminescence and magnetism. Moreover, an integrated approach towards the design of efficient, stable, cheap, environmentally-friendly and multifunctional luminescent LnMOFs is still missing. Although research into LnMOFs is at its early stage and much basic knowledge is still needed, the field is ripe for new ideas, which will enable sensor devices and photonic prototypes to become a commercial reality (81 references).

  18. A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid Metal Structures and Electronic Equilibrium - 154041

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2017-0027 A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal Structures and...to 16 Dec 2016 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Fundamental Approach to Developing Aluminium -based Bulk Amorphous Alloys based on Stable Liquid-Metal...Air Force Research Laboratory for accurately predicting compositions of new amorphous alloys specifically based on aluminium with properties superior

  19. Bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement to base metal alloys having different surface treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Shafiei

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on the results, sandblasting improves the shear bond strength of self-etch and self-adhesive resin cement to base metal alloys. The best results can be achieved with a combination of sandblasting and metal primers. The performance of resin cement depends on to their chemical composition, not to the type of system.

  20. Study of photoemission mechanism for varied doping GaN photocathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jianliang; Xu, Yuan; Niu, Jun; Gao, Youtang; Chang, Benkang

    2015-10-01

    Negative electron affinity (NEA) GaN photocathode has many virtues, such as high quantum efficiency, low dark current, concentrated electrons energy distribution and angle distribution, adjustive threshold and so on. The quantum efficiency is an important parameter for the preparation and evaluation of NEA GaN photocathode. The varied doping GaN photocathode has the directional inside electric field within the material, so the higher quantum efficiency can be obtained. The varied doping NEA GaN photocathode has better photoemission performance. According to the photoemission theory of NEA GaN photocathode, the quantum efficiency formulas for uniform doping and varied doping NEA GaN photocathodes were given. In the certain condition, the quantum efficiency formula for varied doping GaN photocathode consists with the uniform doping. The activation experiment was finished for varied doping GaN photocathode. The cleaning method and technics for varied doping GaN photocathode were given in detail. To get an atom clean surface, the heat cleaning must be done after the chemical cleaning. Using the activation and evaluation system for NEA photocathode, the varied doping GaN photocathode was activated with Cs and O, and the photocurrent curve for varied doping GaN photocathode was gotten.

  1. The influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Lei; Yin Haibo; Jiang Lijuan; Wang Quan; Feng Chun; Xiao Hongling; Wang Cuimei; Wang Xiaoliang; Gong Jiamin; Zhang Bo; Li Baiquan; Wang Zhanguo

    2015-01-01

    Fe doping is an effective method to obtain high resistivity GaN epitaxial material. But in some cases, Fe doping could result in serious deterioration of the GaN material surface topography, which will affect the electrical properties of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in HEMT device. In this paper, the influence of Fe doping on the surface topography of GaN epitaxial material is studied. The results of experiments indicate that the surface topography of Fe-doped GaN epitaxial material can be effectively improved and the resistivity could be increased after increasing the growth rate of GaN materials. The GaN material with good surface topography can be manufactured when the Fe doping concentration is 9 × 10 19 cm −3 . High resistivity GaN epitaxial material which is 1 × 10 9 Ω·cm is achieved. (paper)

  2. Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate architecture for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Todd H.

    2015-09-15

    Nano-structured noble metal catalysts based on hexametallate lattices, of a spinel block type, and which are resistant to carbon deposition and metal sulfide formation are provided. The catalysts are designed for the reforming of hydrocarbon fuels to synthesis gas. The hexametallate lattices are doped with noble metals (Au, Pt, Rh, Ru) which are atomically dispersed as isolated sites throughout the lattice and take the place of hexametallate metal ions such as Cr, Ga, In, and/or Nb. Mirror cations in the crystal lattice are selected from alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, and the lanthanide metals, so as to reduce the acidity of the catalyst crystal lattice and enhance the desorption of carbon deposit forming moieties such as aromatics. The catalysts can be used at temperatures as high as 1000.degree. C. and pressures up to 30 atmospheres. A method for producing these catalysts and applications of their use also is provided.

  3. Terahertz wave manipulation with metamaterials based on metal and graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Zalkovskij, Maksim

    2013-01-01

    for active and passive materials and devices. Metamaterials, metal-dielectric artificial composites, propose wide possibilities for achieving unconventional electromagnetic properties, not found in nature. Moreover, metamaterials constructed of graphene, a monolayer of carbon atoms, allow for tunable...

  4. High pressure and microwave based synthesis of transition metal pnictides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pobel, Roman Rupert

    2016-04-11

    The goal of this thesis was to explore the possibilities of synthetic methods that are not very common in current transition metal pnictide research. The substitution of the Ca-site in CaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} with rare earth elements such as Pr the has been reported to induce superconductivity. However, some inconsistencies in the data suggested a non-intrinsic origin of the observed diamagnetic signal. Furthermore a solubility limit of 13% was found when prepared in an electrical furnace thus leaving a huge part of the physical phase diagram inaccessible. A high pressure/high temperature synthesis was developed to allow access to the whole doping range and an in-depth characterization of this compound was carried out. During the experiments concerning the high pressure synthesis of Ca{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} the new ternary iron arsenide CaFe{sub 5}As{sub 3} was identified and classified as a member of the Ca{sub n(n+1)/2}(Fe{sub 1-x}M{sub x}){sub (2+3n)}M'{sub n(n-1)/2}As{sub (n+1)(n+2)/2} (n = 1-3; M =Nb, Pd, Pt; M' = □, Pd, Pt) family. The complete solid solution Ca{sub 1-x}Pr{sub x}Fe{sub 5}As{sub 3} (O ≤ x ≤ 1) was prepared and physically characterized. Furthermore, several useful techniques were developed to aid in future high pressure based investigations of transition metal pnictides. The second part of this thesis concerns a completely different, but equally promising synthetic approach. Microwave based synthesis is a well-established technique in many solution based fields, such as organic, medicinal or nano chemistry. For solid state and materials research several parameters and particularities have to be considered. But when successful, it allows for the reduction of reaction time by several orders of magnitude. It has very rarely been applied in the preparation of pnictides and on1y once in the context of pnictide superconductor research. The possibilities of this method were explored and employed in the preparation of several

  5. Propagation of electro-kinetic waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor with nano-sized ion colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Ajay; Sharma, Giriraj; Jat, K. L.; Rishi, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Based on hydrodynamic model of multi-component plasma, an analytical study on propagation of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves in wurtzite and zincblende structures of GaN is carried out. Nano-sized ion colloids (NICs) are embedded in the sample by the technique of ion-implantation. The implanted NICs are considered massive by an order as compared to the host lattice points and do not participate in Based LEK perturbations. Though, the NICs are continuously bombarded by the electrons as well as the holes yet, the former acquires a net negative charge owing to relatively higher mobility of electrons and consequently results into depletion of electron density in the medium. It i s found that the presence of charged NICs significantly modifies the dispersion and amplification characteristics of LEK waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor plasma and their role becomes increasingly effective as the fraction of charge on them increases

  6. Contributed Review: Experimental characterization of inverse piezoelectric strain in GaN HEMTs via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-06-01

    Micro-Raman thermography is one of the most popular techniques for measuring local temperature rise in gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, accurate temperature measurements based on changes in the Stokes peak positions of the GaN epitaxial layers require properly accounting for the stress and/or strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is common practice to use the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference for temperature measurements because the vertical electric field in the GaN buffer that induces inverse piezoelectric stress/strain is relatively independent of the gate bias. Although this approach has yielded temperature measurements that agree with those derived from the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio and thermal models, there has been significant difficulty in quantifying the mechanical state of the GaN buffer in the pinched OFF state from changes in the Raman spectra. In this paper, we review the experimental technique of micro-Raman thermography and derive expressions for the detailed dependence of the Raman peak positions on strain, stress, and electric field components in wurtzite GaN. We also use a combination of semiconductor device modeling and electro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress and strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. Based on the insights gained from our electro-mechanical model and the best values of material properties in the literature, we analyze changes in the E2 high and A1 (LO) Raman peaks and demonstrate that there are major quantitative discrepancies between measured and modeled values of inverse piezoelectric stress and strain. We examine many of the hypotheses offered in the literature for these discrepancies but conclude that none of them satisfactorily resolves these discrepancies. Further research is needed to determine whether the electric field components could be affecting the phonon frequencies apart from the inverse

  7. Contributed Review: Experimental characterization of inverse piezoelectric strain in GaN HEMTs via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Wang, Evelyn N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Micro-Raman thermography is one of the most popular techniques for measuring local temperature rise in gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, accurate temperature measurements based on changes in the Stokes peak positions of the GaN epitaxial layers require properly accounting for the stress and/or strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is common practice to use the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference for temperature measurements because the vertical electric field in the GaN buffer that induces inverse piezoelectric stress/strain is relatively independent of the gate bias. Although this approach has yielded temperature measurements that agree with those derived from the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio and thermal models, there has been significant difficulty in quantifying the mechanical state of the GaN buffer in the pinched OFF state from changes in the Raman spectra. In this paper, we review the experimental technique of micro-Raman thermography and derive expressions for the detailed dependence of the Raman peak positions on strain, stress, and electric field components in wurtzite GaN. We also use a combination of semiconductor device modeling and electro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress and strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. Based on the insights gained from our electro-mechanical model and the best values of material properties in the literature, we analyze changes in the E{sub 2} high and A{sub 1} (LO) Raman peaks and demonstrate that there are major quantitative discrepancies between measured and modeled values of inverse piezoelectric stress and strain. We examine many of the hypotheses offered in the literature for these discrepancies but conclude that none of them satisfactorily resolves these discrepancies. Further research is needed to determine whether the electric field components could be affecting the phonon frequencies apart from the

  8. Contributed Review: Experimental characterization of inverse piezoelectric strain in GaN HEMTs via micro-Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-Raman thermography is one of the most popular techniques for measuring local temperature rise in gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors with high spatial and temporal resolution. However, accurate temperature measurements based on changes in the Stokes peak positions of the GaN epitaxial layers require properly accounting for the stress and/or strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. It is common practice to use the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference for temperature measurements because the vertical electric field in the GaN buffer that induces inverse piezoelectric stress/strain is relatively independent of the gate bias. Although this approach has yielded temperature measurements that agree with those derived from the Stokes/anti-Stokes ratio and thermal models, there has been significant difficulty in quantifying the mechanical state of the GaN buffer in the pinched OFF state from changes in the Raman spectra. In this paper, we review the experimental technique of micro-Raman thermography and derive expressions for the detailed dependence of the Raman peak positions on strain, stress, and electric field components in wurtzite GaN. We also use a combination of semiconductor device modeling and electro-mechanical modeling to predict the stress and strain induced by the inverse piezoelectric effect. Based on the insights gained from our electro-mechanical model and the best values of material properties in the literature, we analyze changes in the E 2 high and A 1 (LO) Raman peaks and demonstrate that there are major quantitative discrepancies between measured and modeled values of inverse piezoelectric stress and strain. We examine many of the hypotheses offered in the literature for these discrepancies but conclude that none of them satisfactorily resolves these discrepancies. Further research is needed to determine whether the electric field components could be affecting the phonon frequencies apart from the inverse

  9. Bulk GaN alpha-particle detector with large depletion region and improved energy resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang; Mulligan, Padhraic [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Wang, Jinghui [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, 1201 Welch Rd, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Chuirazzi, William [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2017-03-21

    An alpha-particle detector was fabricated using a freestanding n-type bulk GaN wafer with a Au/Ni/GaN sandwich Schottky structure. Current–voltage measurements at room temperature revealed a Schottky contact with a leakage current of 7.53±0.3 nA at a reverse bias of 200 V. The detector had a large depletion depth that can capture much of the energy from 5.486 MeV alpha particles emitted from a {sup 241}Am source. The resolution of its alpha-particle energy spectrum was improved to 2.2±0.2% at 5.486 MeV under a bias of 550 V. This superior resolution was attributed to the shortening of the carrier transit time and the large energy deposition within the large depletion depth, i.e., 27 µm at −550 V, which all resulted in a more complete charge collection. A model developed using the ATLAS simulation framework from Silvaco Inc. was employed to study the charge collection process. The simulation results were found to agree closely with the experimental results. This detector will be beneficial for research at neutron scattering facilities, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, and the Large Hadron Collider, among other institutions, where the Si-based charged particle detectors could be quickly degraded in an intense radiation field. - Highlights: • An alpha-particle detector based on a Schottky-structured GaN wafer was tested. • The detector's large depletion depth enables fuller energy spectra to be obtained. • The best resolution yet attained in GaN alpha-particle spectrometry was achieved. • The detector's short carrier transit time resulted in improved charge collection. • This detector is usable in extreme conditions, including intense radiation fields.

  10. A plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    We design a plasmonic modulator which can be utilized as a compact active device in photonic integrated circuits. The active material, barium titanate (BaTiO3), is sandwiched between metal plates and changes its refractive index under applied voltage. Some degree of switching of ferroelectric...

  11. Carbon-Based Metal-Free Catalysts for Electrocatalysis beyond the ORR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuangang; Dai, Liming

    2016-09-19

    Besides their use in fuel cells for energy conversion through the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), carbon-based metal-free catalysts have also been demonstrated to be promising alternatives to noble-metal/metal oxide catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in metal-air batteries for energy storage and for the splitting of water to produce hydrogen fuels through the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). This Review focuses on recent progress in the development of carbon-based metal-free catalysts for the OER and HER, along with challenges and perspectives in the emerging field of metal-free electrocatalysis. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Phase transformations and thermodynamics of aluminum-based metallic glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Changhua (Michael)

    This thesis examines the thermodynamics and associated kinetics and phase transformations of the glass forming Al-Ni-Gd and Al-Fe-Gd systems. In order to fully understand the unique glass forming ability (GFA) of Al-based metallic glasses, the ternary Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems in their Al-rich corners were examined experimentally to assist in a thermodynamic assessment. The solid-state phase equilibria are determined using XRD and TEM-EDS techniques. While this work basically confirms the solid-state equilibria in Al-Fe-Gd reported previously, the ternary phase in Al-Ni-Gd system has been identified to be Al15Ni3Gd2 rather than Al16Ni 3Gd reported in the literature. DTA analysis of 24 alloys in the Al-Fe-Gd system and 42 alloys in the Al-Ni-Gd system have yielded critical temperatures pertaining to the solid-liquid transition. Based on these data and information from the literature, a self-consistent thermodynamic database for these systems has been developed using the CALPHAD technique. Parameters describing the Gibbs free energy for various phases of the Al-Gd, Al-Fe-Gd and Al-Ni-Gd systems are manually optimized in this study. Once constructed, the database is used to calculate driving forces for nucleation of crystalline phases which can qualitatively explain the phase formation sequence during crystallization at low temperatures. It was also confirmed that alloy compositions with the lowest Gibbs free energy difference between the equilibrium state and undercooled liquid state exhibit better GFA than other chemistries. Based on 250°C isothermal devitrification phase transformations of 17 Al-Ni-Gd alloys, a phase formation sequence map is constructed. Fcc-Al nanocrystals are formed first in most of the alloys studied, but eutectic crystallization of a metastable phase and fcc-Al is also observed. Addition of Al or Ni promotes fcc-Al phase formation, while increasing Gd suppresses it. The continuous heating DSC scans revealed that crystallization in Al

  13. Improvements in (112-bar2) semipolar GaN crystal quality by graded superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.R., E-mail: shengruixidian@126.com [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Zhang, J.C. [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Cao, Y.R. [School of Electronical and Machanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an, 710071 (China); Zhou, X.W.; Xue, J.S.; Lin, Z.Y.; Ma, J.C. [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Bao, F. [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215125 (China); Hao, Y. [Key Lab of Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Technology, School of Microelectronics, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2012-01-01

    We report on the use of graded superlattices (SLs) for defect reduction in semipolar (112-bar2) GaN films, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. High-resolution x-ray diffraction analysis revealed that there was a great reduction in the full width at half maximum, both on-axis and off-axis, with the SLs. Atomic force microscopy images revealed a significant decrease in slate features which was associated with the basal-plane stacking faults. The transmission electron microscopy images showed that the threading dislocation was greatly reduced after the graded superlattices. Room temperature photoluminescence measurement revealed that the band-edge emission intensity increased with the insertion of the SLs, which suggested reduction in the nonradiative recombination centers.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of 395 nm ultraviolet GaN light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Pang; Chen, Chien-Ju; Shan, Li-Wei; Wu, Meng-Chyi

    2017-09-01

    In this article, we demonstrated the fabrication and characterization of 395 nm GaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes grown on patterned sapphire substrates. The current confining aperture is designed as 45, 55, 65, 75 and 85 μm. The indium tin oxide (ITO) was used as a current spreading layer. Use the metals of nickel and gold to form ohmic contact with P-AlGaN layer prior to dry etching. The 45-μm-diameter LED exhibits a 3-dB modulation bandwidth of 134 MHz at 50 mA and a light output power density of 1.2 mW (78 W/cm2) at 30 mA. In addition, the 3-dB frequency bandwidth is proportional to the square root of the injected current density.

  15. Metallated porphyrin based porous organic polymers as efficient electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Guolong; Zhu, Youlong; Xu, Kongliang; Jin, Yinghua; Ren, Zhiyong Jason; Liu, Zhenning; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    Developing efficient, stable and low-cost catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) is of great significance to many emerging technologies including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we report the development of a cobalt(ii) porphyrin based porous organic polymer (CoPOP) and its pyrolyzed derivatives as highly active ORR catalysts. The as-synthesized CoPOP exhibits high porosity and excellent catalytic performance stability, retaining ~100% constant ORR current over 50 000 s in both alkaline and acidic media. Pyrolysis of CoPOP at various temperatures (600 °C, 800 °C, and 1000 °C) yields the materials consisting of graphitic carbon layers and cobalt nanoparticles, which show greatly enhanced catalytic activity compared to the as-synthesized CoPOP. Among them, CoPOP-800/C pyrolyzed at 800 °C shows the highest specific surface area and ORR activity, displaying the most positive half-wave potential (0.825 V vs. RHE) and the largest limited diffusion current density (5.35 mA cm-2) in an alkaline medium, which are comparable to those of commercial Pt/C (20 wt%) (half-wave potential 0.829 V vs. RHE, limited diffusion current density 5.10 mA cm-2). RDE and RRDE experiments indicate that CoPOP-800/C directly reduces molecular oxygen to water through a 4-e- pathway in both alkaline and acidic media. More importantly, CoPOP-800/C exhibits excellent durability and methanol-tolerance under acidic and alkaline conditions, which surpass the Pt/C (20 wt%) system.Developing efficient, stable and low-cost catalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) is of great significance to many emerging technologies including fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Herein, we report the development of a cobalt(ii) porphyrin based porous organic polymer (CoPOP) and its pyrolyzed derivatives as highly active ORR catalysts. The as-synthesized CoPOP exhibits high porosity and excellent catalytic performance stability, retaining ~100% constant ORR current over 50 000 s in both

  16. Novel homozygous missense mutation in GAN associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 in a large consanguineous family from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, Sharon; Barwick, Katy E S; Straussberg, Rachel; Harlalka, Gaurav V; Nevo, Yoram; Chioza, Barry A; McEntagart, Meriel M; Mimouni-Bloch, Aviva; Weedon, Michael; Crosby, Andrew H

    2016-11-16

    CMT-2 is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of peripheral axonal neuropathies characterized by slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of distal limb muscles resulting from length-dependent motor and sensory neurodegeneration. Classical giant axonal neuropathy (GAN) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorder of the peripheral and central nervous systems, typically diagnosed in early childhood and resulting in death by the end of the third decade. Distinctive phenotypic features are the presence of "kinky" hair and long eyelashes. The genetic basis of the disease has been well established, with over 40 associated mutations identified in the gene GAN, encoding the BTB-KELCH protein gigaxonin, involved in intermediate filament regulation. An Illumina Human CytoSNP-12 array followed by whole exome sequence analysis was used to identify the disease associated gene mutation in a large consanguineous family diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT-2) from which all but one affected member had straight hair. Here we report the identification of a novel GAN missense mutation underlying the CMT-2 phenotype observed in this family. Although milder forms of GAN, with and without the presence of kinky hair have been reported previously, a phenotype distinct from that was investigated in this study. All family members lacked common features of GAN, including ataxia, nystagmus, intellectual disability, seizures, and central nervous system involvement. Our findings broaden the spectrum of phenotypes associated with GAN mutations and emphasize a need to proceed with caution when providing families with diagnostic or prognostic information based on either clinical or genetic findings alone.

  17. GHz modulation enabled using large extinction ratio waveguide-modulator integrated with 404 nm GaN laser diode

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao

    2017-01-30

    A 404-nm emitting InGaN-based laser diode with integrated-waveguide-modulator showing a large extinction ratio of 11.3 dB was demonstrated on semipolar (2021) plane GaN substrate. The device shows a low modulation voltage of −2.5 V and ∼ GHz −3 dB bandwidth, enabling 1.7 Gbps data transmission.

  18. A comparative study on magnetic properties of Mo doped AlN, GaN and InN monolayers from first-principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Gang; Wang, Ling-Ling; Rong, Qing-Yan; Xu, Hai-Qing; Xiao, Wen-Zhi

    2017-11-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to comparatively study the structural, electronic structures and magnetic properties of Mo doped AlN, GaN and InN monolayers (MLs). After Mo atom doping, the semiconducting GaN and InN MLs transform to metal, while the AlN ML keeps semiconducting with a reduced gap. Total magnetic moments of 1.0 and 0.54 μB, which mainly arising from the localized Mo 4d states, are induced by doping in AlN and InN MLs, respectively, while the doped GaN ML is still nonmagnetic. Nevertheless, the excessive localization and strongly ionic character of the Mo-4d states in AlN ML directly impedes the magnetic coupling, leading to a paramagnetic ground states. A similar case is observed in Mo atoms doped InN ML. The firm N-Mo interaction prevent the impurity states permeating out the range of N-Mo pair, resulting in a quick vanishing of ferromagnetic coupling as the distance between two Mo atoms increasing. All configurations of Mo atoms doped GaN ML in this paper are room temperature ferromagnetic. Spin polarized itinerant electrons mediate the magnetic interaction between two Mo atoms. Increasing the Mo concentration may stabilize the FM state and produce a higher Curie temperature. Our calculations show that GaN nanosheets with Mo atoms doped may be a nice candidate for future spintronic devices. And we conclude that a appropriate magnitude of localization (or delocalization) is what the key point to produce room temperature ferromagnetism from this comparative study.

  19. Simultaneous measurement of temperature, stress, and electric field in GaN HEMTs with micro-Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnall, Kevin R.; Moore, Elizabeth A.; Badescu, Stefan C.; Zhang, Lenan; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-11-01

    As semiconductor devices based on silicon reach their intrinsic material limits, compound semiconductors, such as gallium nitride (GaN), are gaining increasing interest for high performance, solid-state transistor applications. Unfortunately, higher voltage, current, and/or power levels in GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) often result in elevated device temperatures, degraded performance, and shorter lifetimes. Although micro-Raman spectroscopy has become one of the most popular techniques for measuring localized temperature rise in GaN HEMTs for reliability assessment, decoupling the effects of temperature, mechanical stress, and electric field on the optical phonon frequencies measured by micro-Raman spectroscopy is challenging. In this work, we demonstrate the simultaneous measurement of temperature rise, inverse piezoelectric stress, thermoelastic stress, and vertical electric field via micro-Raman spectroscopy from the shifts of the E2 (high), A1 longitudinal optical (LO), and E2 (low) optical phonon frequencies in wurtzite GaN. We also validate experimentally that the pinched OFF state as the unpowered reference accurately measures the temperature rise by removing the effect of the vertical electric field on the Raman spectrum and that the vertical electric field is approximately the same whether the channel is open or closed. Our experimental results are in good quantitative agreement with a 3D electro-thermo-mechanical model of the HEMT we tested and indicate that the GaN buffer acts as a semi-insulating, p-type material due to the presence of deep acceptors in the lower half of the bandgap. This implementation of micro-Raman spectroscopy offers an exciting opportunity to simultaneously probe thermal, mechanical, and electrical phenomena in semiconductor devices under bias, providing unique insight into the complex physics that describes device behavior and reliability. Although GaN HEMTs have been specifically used in this study to

  20. Novel Cs-Free GaN Photocathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Neeraj; Bell, L. D.; Nikzad, Shouleh; Tungare, Mihir; Suvarna, Puneet H.; Sandvik, Fatemeh Shahedipour

    2011-04-01

    We report on a novel GaN photocathode structure that eliminates the use of Cs for photocathode activation. Development of such a photocathode structure promises reduced cost and complexity of the device, potentially with stable operation for a longer time. Device simulation studies suggest that deposition of Si delta-doped GaN on p-GaN templates induces sharp downward energy band bending at the surface, assisting in achieving effective negative electron affinity for GaN photocathodes without the use of Cs. A series of experiments has been performed to optimize the quality of the Si delta-doped layer to minimize the emission threshold of the device. This report includes significant observations relating the dependence of device properties such as emission threshold, quantum efficiency, and surface morphology on the Si incorporation in the Si delta-doped layer. An optimum Si incorporation has been observed to provide the minimum emission threshold of 4.1 eV for the discussed Cs-free GaN photocathodes. Photoemission (PE), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) have been performed to study the effect of growth conditions on device performance.

  1. Template Approach to Crystalline GaN Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baodan; Yang, Wenjin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Xinglai; Niu, Pingjuan; Jiang, Xin

    2017-05-10

    Crystalline GaN nanosheets hold great challenge in growth and promising application in optoelectronic nanodevices. In this work, we reported an accessible template approach toward the rational synthesis of GaN nanosheets through the nitridation of metastable γ-Ga 2 O 3 nanosheets synthesized from a hydrothermal reaction. The cubic γ-Ga 2 O 3 nanosheets with smooth surface and decent crystallinity can be directly converted into hexagonal GaN nanosheets with similar morphology framework and comparable crystal quality in NH 3 at 850 °C. UV-vis spectrum measurement reveals that the GaN nanosheets show a band gap of 3.30 eV with strong visible absorption in the range of 370-500 nm. The template synthetic strategy proposed in this work will open up more opportunities for the achievement of a variety of sheetlike nanostructures that can not be obtained through conventional routines and will undoubtedly further promote the fundamental research of newly emerging sheetlike nanostructures and nanotechnology.

  2. Thermal quenching of the yellow luminescence in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reshchikov, M. A.; Albarakati, N. M.; Monavarian, M.; Avrutin, V.; Morkoç, H.

    2018-04-01

    We observed varying thermal quenching behavior of the yellow luminescence band near 2.2 eV in different GaN samples. In spite of the different behavior, the yellow band in all the samples is caused by the same defect—the YL1 center. In conductive n-type GaN, the YL1 band quenches with exponential law, and the Arrhenius plot reveals an ionization energy of ˜0.9 eV for the YL1 center. In semi-insulating GaN, an abrupt and tunable quenching of the YL1 band is observed, where the apparent activation energy in the Arrhenius plot is not related to the ionization energy of the defect. In this case, the ionization energy can be found by analyzing the shift of the characteristic temperature of PL quenching with excitation intensity. We conclude that only one defect, namely, the YL1 center, is responsible for the yellow band in undoped and doped GaN samples grown by different techniques.

  3. On the magnetic properties of Gd implanted GaN

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Maryško, M.; Jirák, Z.; Sedmidubský, D.; Sofer, Z.; Peřina, Vratislav; Hardtdegen, H.; Buchal, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 7 (2008), 07D107/1-07D107/3 ISSN 0021-8979 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : GaN * Curie-type * FM Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.201, year: 2008

  4. Taevo Gans : särama pandud postmodernism / Kadi Viljak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Viljak, Kadi

    2004-01-01

    Viking Window ASi büroo ja ekspositsioonisaal 1979. a. Jüri Okase projekteeritud endises Paide KEKi remontmehaanikatöökoja hoones Mäos. Sisearhitekt Taevo Gans, kelle projekteeritud on ka ettevõtte juhi töölaud. T. Gansi kommentaarid. Ill.: 6 värv. sisevaadet

  5. (Gans, 1960; Schmidt and Inger, 1957). Ovoviviparity i

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Embryos found in material from three localities are recorded in Table I. The dispropor- tionate amount of yolk relative to the size of the embryo, first described for T. wiegmanni. (Hediger 1935) and subsequently for the South American Amphisbaena manni by Gans and. Alexander (1962), is a feature also of the development ...

  6. Review of Ni-Cu Based Front Side Metallization for c-Si Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehul C. Raval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the high percentage of metal cost in cell processing and concerns due to increasing Ag prices, alternative metallization schemes are being considered. Ni-Cu based front side metallization offers potential advantages of finer grid lines, lower series resistance, and reduced costs. A brief overview of various front side patterning techniques is presented. Subsequently, working principle of various plating techniques is discussed. For electroless plated Ni seed layer, fill factor values nearing 80% and efficiencies close to 17.5% have been demonstrated, while for Light Induced Plating deposited layers, an efficiency of 19.2% has been reported. Various methods for qualifying adhesion and long term stability of metal stack are discussed. Adhesion strengths in the range of 1–2.7 N/mm have been obtained for Ni-Cu contacts tabbed with conventional soldering process. Given the significance of metallization properties, different methods for characterization are outlined. The problem of background plating for Ni-Cu based metallization along with the various methods for characterization is summarized. An economic evaluation of front side metallization indicates process cost saving of more than 50% with Ni-Cu-Sn based layers. Recent successful commercialization and demonstration of Ni-Cu based metallization on industrial scale indicate a potential major role of Ni-Cu based contacts in near future.

  7. Efficiency and Linearity Enhancement of Microwave GaN Power Amplifiers using Harmonic Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Asmita Rajiv

    This thesis addresses an architecture for enhancing efficiency and linearity of GaN power amplifiers using external second harmonic injection at the output. This transmitter architecture has potential uses in communication and radar systems which have stringent requirements of low DC power dissipation and minimum out of band interference. An idealized theoretical analysis based on expansions of the nonlinear transfer function of a PA predicts the measured improvements in linearity and efficiency. The experimental demostration is performed with both hybrid and integrated harmonically-injected PA using discrete GaN 6W transistors in class-AB mode with 55% PAE at a fundamental frequency of 2.45 GHz. Harmonic injection at the output is shown to enhance the efficiency of the PA to 89%. For a slightly reduced efficiency of 78%, the linearity can be improved and > 15 dB reduction of third and fifth order intermodulation distortion tones is measured in compression. Integration of a dynamic supply of the harmonically-injected PA is also investigated in order to achieve high efficiency and linearity for signals with Peak-to-Average ratios (PARs) of 6 dB and higher. Experimental results demonstrate a 70-80% efficient HI-PA for an output power variation of 6 dB. Reduction in third order nonlinear products and AM-PM distortion shows improved linearity of the PA over the entire range of power levels. Finally, the concept is extended to an X-band GaN MMIC to demonstrate integration and efficiency enhancement at 10 GHz with a 4 W, 47% efficient class-AB PA, with an expected final efficiency of over 60% with harmonic injection.

  8. Epitaxy and Characterization of Cubic GaN and Ga1-xInxN on Micropatterned Si(001)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durniak, Mark Timothy

    Cubic GaInN/GaN heterostructures in the cubic lattice variant have the potential to overcome the limitations of wurtzite structures as commonly used for light emitting and laser diodes. Wurtzite GaInN (0001), suffers from large internal polarization fields, which force design compromises towards ultra-narrow quantum wells and reduced recombination volume and efficiency, particularly in the green, yellow, and red visible spectral regions. Cubic GaInN microstripes, grown here by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE), on micropatterned Si (001), with {111} v-grooves oriented along Si 〈011¯〉, offer a system free of internal polarization fields, wider quantum wells, and a smaller bandgap energy. This thesis focuses on improving understanding of the growth mechanisms of the metastable cubic phase, evaluating the viability of wide quantum well structures, and the development of new cubic LED fabrication techniques. A reduction in the size of unwanted polycrystalline GaN grains was achieved by growth at high nitrogen to gallium (V/III) ratios without affecting cubic GaN nucleation. Grain sizes decreased from 0.5 to 0.02 microm2 as the V/III ratio increased from approximately 10,000 to 26,000. It is desirable to have wide stripes of cubic GaN for devices and the deeper within the groove the cubic GaN nucleates, the wider the stripe is at the top surface. Groove bottom geometry was found to play a role in this point of nucleation. For grooves with bottom-widths between 0 and 250 nm the cubic nucleation occurred deeper within the groove when the grooves had wider bottoms. Beyond 250 nm the nucleation depth hits a theoretical limit, dictated by the crystallographic geometry. These growth studies led to the development of micron-wide cubic GaN stripes on which we prepared wide, 3-30 nm, Ga1-xIn xN/GaN single quantum well structures. Photoluminescent (PL) spectra of these structures exhibited peak wavelengths from 520-570 nm, depending on the temperature of well growth

  9. Suitability of GaN and LDMOS for 70–82% efficiency 120–200W HPA addressing spaceborne P-band radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gallou, N.; Vidkjær, Jens; Poivey, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of P-band (435 MHz) HPA based on different technologies (GaN HEMT, LDMOS FET) for future use in pace radar applications in the context of the Biomass project. In particular best in class PAE of 70%–82% is targeted and achieved for power levels of 120W. In orde...

  10. Suitability of GaN and LDMOS for 70–82% efficiency 120–200W HPA addressing spaceborne P-band radar applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Gallou, N.; Vidkjær, Jens; Poivey, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the development of P-band (435 MHz) HPA based on different technologies (GaN HEMT, LDMOS FET) for future use in pace radar applications in the context of the Biomass project. In particular best in class PAE of 70%–82% is targeted and achieved for power levels of 120W. In order...

  11. The strong reactions of Lewis-base noble-metals with vanadium and other acidic transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, Bartley B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1991-05-01

    The noble metals often thought of as unreactive solids,react strongly with nearly 40% of the elements in the periodictable: group IIIB-VB transition metals, lanthanides, theactinides, and group IIIA-IVA non-transition metals. These strong reactions arise from increased bonding/electron transfer fromnonbonding electrons d electron pairs on the noble metal tovacant orbitals on V, etc. This effect is a generalized Lewis acid-base interaction. The partial Gibbs energy of V in the noblemetals has been measured as a function of concentration at a temperature near 1000C. Thermodynamics of the intermetallics are determined by ternary oxide equilibria, ternary carbide equilibria, and the high-temperature galvanic cell technique. These experimental methods use equilibrated solid composite mixtures in which grains of V oxides or of V carbides are interspersed with grains of V-NM(noble-metal) alloys. In equilibrium the activity of V in the oxide or the carbide equals the activity in the alloy. Consequently, the thermodynamics available in the literature for the V oxides and V carbides are reviewed. Test runs on the galvanic cell were attempted. The V oxide electrode reacts with CaF2, ThO2, YDT(0.85ThO2-0.15YO1.5), and LDT(0.85ThO2- 0.15LaO1.5) to interfere with the measured data observed toward the beginning of a galvanic cell experiment are the most accurate. The interaction of vanadium at infinite dilution in the noble-metals was determined.

  12. The strong reactions of Lewis-base noble-metals with vanadium and other acidic transition metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbinghaus, B.B.

    1991-05-01

    The noble metals often thought of as unreactive solids,react strongly with nearly 40% of the elements in the periodictable: group IIIB-VB transition metals, lanthanides, theactinides, and group IIIA-IVA non-transition metals. These strong reactions arise from increased bonding/electron transfer fromnonbonding electrons d electron pairs on the noble metal tovacant orbitals on V, etc. This effect is a generalized Lewis acid-base interaction. The partial Gibbs energy of V in the noblemetals has been measured as a function of concentration at a temperature near 1000C. Thermodynamics of the intermetallics are determined by ternary oxide equilibria, ternary carbide equilibria, and the high-temperature galvanic cell technique. These experimental methods use equilibrated solid composite mixtures in which grains of V oxides or of V carbides are interspersed with grains of V-NM(noble-metal) alloys. In equilibrium the activity of V in the oxide or the carbide equals the activity in the alloy. Consequently, the thermodynamics available in the literature for the V oxides and V carbides are reviewed. Test runs on the galvanic cell were attempted. The V oxide electrode reacts with CaF[sub 2], ThO[sub 2], YDT(0.85ThO[sub 2]-0.15YO[sub 1.5]), and LDT(0.85ThO[sub 2]- 0.15LaO[sub 1.5]) to interfere with the measured data observed toward the beginning of a galvanic cell experiment are the most accurate. The interaction of vanadium at infinite dilution in the noble-metals was determined.

  13. Novel oxide buffer approach for GaN integration on Si(111) platform through Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarnawska, Lidia

    2012-12-19

    Motivation: Preparation of GaN virtual substrates on large-scale Si wafers is intensively pursued as a cost-effective approach for high power/high frequency electronics (HEMT's etc.) and optoelectronic applications (LED, LASER). However, the growth of high quality GaN layers on Si is hampered by several difficulties mainly related to a large lattice mismatch (-17%) and a huge difference in the thermal expansion coefficient (56%). As a consequence, GaN epitaxial layers grown on Si substrates show a high number of defects (threading dislocations etc.), which severely deteriorate the overall quality of the GaN films. Additionally, due to the different thermal expansion coefficients of the substrate and the film, um-thick GaN layers crack during post-growth cooling. To solve these integration problems, different semiconducting (e.g. AlN, GaAs, ZnO, HfN) and insulating (e.g. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, LiGaO{sub 2}) buffer layers, separating the Si substrate from the GaN film, are applied. Goal: In this thesis, a novel buffer approach for the integration of GaN on Si is proposed and investigated. The new approach employs Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} bilayer templates as a step-graded buffer to reduce the lattice mismatch between GaN and the Si(111) substrate. According to the bulk crystal lattices, since the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} has an in-plane lattice misfit of -2% to Si, Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} -7% to Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the lattice misfit between GaN and the substrate can be theoretically reduced by about 50% from -17% (GaN/Si) to -8% (GaN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Experimental: The GaN/Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Si(111) heterostructures are prepared in a multichamber molecular beam epitaxy system on 4 inch Si(111) wafers. In order to obtain complete information on the structural quality of the oxide buffer as well as the GaN layer, synchrotron- and laboratory-based X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and photoluminescence measurements are performed. The

  14. Local stress distribution in GaN vertical light-emitting diodes fabricated using CLO and LLO methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinsub; Goto, Takenari; Yao, Takafumi; Lee, Seogwoo; Cho, Moungwhan

    2013-01-01

    We report on the local stress distribution in a GaN-based vertical light-emitting diode (V-LED) fabricated using two types of separation methods: a chemical lift-off (CLO) procedure and a laser lift-off (LLO) technique. The CLO LED exhibits a stronger donor-bound exciton (D 0 X) emission than the LLO LED, owing to its textured surface morphology and lower amount of damage to the structure. On the basis of the photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy results, we determine that the CLO GaN LED has an 82 MPa lower residual stress than the LLO GaN LED. Therefore, the CLO technique can be considered as a more effective method to fabricate stress-relieved high-brightness LEDs. (paper)

  15. Polarization ratio enhancement of a-plane GaN light emitting diodes by asymmetric two-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yen; Li, Hsiang-Wei; Yin, Yu-Feng; Wang, Yu-Ting; Lin, Yen-Chen; Wu, Yuh-Renn; Huang, Jian Jang; Lin, Da-Wei; Kuo, Hao-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Fabricating photonic crystals (PhCs) on GaN based non-polar light emitting diodes (LEDs) is an effective way to increase light extraction and meanwhile to preserve or improve polarization ratio. In this work, a-plane GaN LEDs with two-dimensional PhCs were demonstrated. With the E // m polarized modes (which mean the optical polarization with the electric field parallel to m-axis) as the target of diffraction, we matched E//m modes to the photonic bands and aligned E//c modes to fall within the photonic band gap. The results show stronger E//m but weaker E//c mode diffractions on both c- and m-axes. At the vertical direction, the polarization ratio is enhanced from 45.8% for the planar device to 52.3% for the LEDs with PhCs

  16. The influence of MOVPE growth conditions on the shell of core-shell GaN microrod structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimpke, Tilman; Avramescu, Adrian; Koller, Andreas; Fernando-Saavedra, Amalia; Hartmann, Jana; Ledig, Johannes; Waag, Andreas; Strassburg, Martin; Lugauer, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    A core-shell geometry is employed for most next-generation, three-dimensional opto-electric devices based on III-V semiconductors and grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Controlling the shape of the shell layers is fundamental for device optimization, however no detailed analysis of the influence of growth conditions has been published to date. We study homogeneous arrays of gallium nitride core-shell microrods with height and diameter in the micrometer range and grown in a two-step selective area MOVPE process. Changes in shell shape and homogeneity effected by deliberately altered shell growth conditions were accurately assessed by digital analysis of high-resolution scanning electron microscope images. Most notably, two temperature regimes could be established, which show a significantly different behavior with regard to material distribution. Above 900 °C of wafer carrier temperature, the shell thickness along the growth axis of the rods was very homogeneous, however variations between vicinal rods increase. In contrast, below 830 °C the shell thickness is higher close to the microrod tip than at the base of the rods, while the lateral homogeneity between neighboring microrods is very uniform. This temperature effect could be either amplified or attenuated by changing the remaining growth parameters such as reactor pressure, structure distance, gallium precursor, carrier gas composition and dopant materials. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed with respect to GaN decomposition as well as the surface and gas phase diffusion of growth species, leading to an improved control of the functional layers in next-generation 3D V-III devices.

  17. Gallium-Based Room-Temperature Liquid Metals: Actuation and Manipulation of Droplets and Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Majidi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Gallium-based room-temperature liquid metals possess extremely valuable properties, such as low toxicity, low vapor pressure, and high thermal and electrical conductivity enabling them to become suitable substitutes for mercury and beyond in wide range of applications. When exposed to air, a native oxide layer forms on the surface of gallium-based liquid metals which mechanically stabilizes the liquid. By removing or reconstructing the oxide skin, shape and state of liquid metal droplets and flows can be manipulated/actuated desirably. This can occur manually or in the presence/absence of a magnetic/electric field. These methods lead to numerous useful applications such as soft electronics, reconfigurable devices, and soft robots. In this mini-review, we summarize the most recent progresses achieved on liquid metal droplet generation and actuation of gallium-based liquid metals with/without an external force.

  18. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy of transition metal based water oxidation catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oversteeg, Christina H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413490483; Doan, Hoang Q; de Groot, Frank M F|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/08747610X; Cuk, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption studies of the geometric and electronic structure of primarily heterogeneous Co, Ni, and Mn based water oxidation catalysts are reviewed. The X-ray absorption near edge and extended X-ray absorption fine structure studies of the metal K-edge, characterize the metal oxidation state,

  19. Gamma Prime Morphology and Creep Properties of Nickel Based Superalloys With Platinum Group Metal Additions (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Cobalt on the Tensile and Stress Rupture Properties of the Nickel-Base Superalloy MAR-M247,” Metallurgical Transactions A, 13 (A) (1982), 1767-1774.           10 ...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2008-4320 GAMMA PRIME MORPHOLOGY AND CREEP PROPERTIES OF NICKEL BASED SUPERALLOYS WITH PLATINUM GROUP METAL ADDITIONS...AND SUBTITLE GAMMA PRIME MORPHOLOGY AND CREEP PROPERTIES OF NICKEL BASED SUPERALLOYS WITH PLATINUM GROUP METAL ADDITIONS (PREPRINT) 5a.

  20. High-temperature performance of a new nickel-based filler metal for power generation application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shingledecker, J.; Coleman, K. [Electric Power Research Institute, Charlotte, NC (United States); Siefert, J.; Tanzosh, J. [Babcok and Wilcox Research Center, Barberton, OH (United States); Newell, W. [Euroweld, Mooresville, NC (United States)

    2010-07-01

    A new nickel-based weld filler metal, EPRI P87, has been developed as a superior alternative to ERNiCr-3 for use in dissimilar metal welds (DMW) between ferritic and austenitic materials. EPRI P87 has a low coefficient of thermal expansion more closely matching alloys such as Grade 91 and 92 than other available filler metals. Additionally, the size of the carbon denuded region adjacent to the weld in the heat-affected-zone is minimized/eliminated by proper control of weld metal composition. In this work the high-temperature mechanical behavior of DMWs utilizing EPRI P87 (GTAW and GMAW processes) was characterized through tensile and long-term creep-rupture testing. Microstructure analysis was also conducted on tested specimens to evaluate the HAZ regions and failure modes. Performance of the weld metal and welded joints is discussed and compared with ERNiCr-3 and typical 9%Cr-MoV filler metals. (orig.)

  1. Photoluminescence of Mg-doped m-plane GaN grown by MOCVD on bulk GaN substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monemar, Bo [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Solid State Physics-The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Paskov, Plamen; Pozina, Galia; Hemmingsson, Carl; Bergman, Peder [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, 581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Lindgren, David; Samuelson, Lars [Solid State Physics-The Nanometer Structure Consortium, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Ni, Xianfeng; Morkoc, Hadis [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23284-3072 (United States); Paskova, Tanya [Kyma Technologies Inc., Raleigh, North Carolina 27617 (United States); Bi, Zhaoxia; Ohlsson, Jonas [Glo AB, Ideon Science Park, Scheelevaegen 17, 223 70 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) properties are reported for a set of m-plane GaN films with Mg doping varied from mid 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} to above 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. The samples were grown with MOCVD at reduced pressure on low defect density bulk GaN templates. The sharp line near bandgap bound exciton (BE) spectra observed below 50 K, as well as the broader donor-acceptor pair (DAP) PL bands at 2.9-3.3 eV give evidence of several Mg related acceptors, similar to the case of c-plane GaN. The dependence of the BE spectra on excitation intensity as well as the transient decay behaviour demonstrate acoustic phonon assisted transfer between the acceptor BE states. The lower energy donor-acceptor pair spectra suggest the presence of deep acceptors, in addition to the two main shallower ones at about 0.23 eV. Similar spectra from Mg-doped GaN nanowires (NWs) grown by MOCVD are also briefly discussed. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Design of Cu8Zr5-based bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, L.; Xia, J.H.; Wang, Q.

    2006-01-01

    Basic polyhedral clusters have been derived from intermetallic compounds at near-eutectic composition by considering a dense packing and random arrangement of atoms at shell sites. Using such building units, bulk metallic glasses can be formed. This strategy was verified in the Cu-Zr binary syste...

  3. Thin metal films in resistivity-based chemical sensing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Podešva, Pavel; Foret, František

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 4 (2013), s. 642-652 ISSN 1573-4110 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/2055 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : voltohmmetric sensing * chemiresistor * thin metal film * gas sensing Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.194, year: 2013

  4. Transition metal-free, base-promoted hydroalkoxylation: Synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. An efficient,transition metal-free method to synthesize substituted imidazo[2,1-c][1,4]oxazine derivatives via hydroalkoxylation of 1,5-alkynyl alcohol has been described. The reaction ... Muthusubramanian1. Department of Organic Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625 021, India ...

  5. Synthesis, spectral characterization of Schiff base transition metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The UV-Vis, magnetic susceptibility and ESR spectral data of the complexes suggest a square-planar geometry around the central metal ion except VO(IV) complex which has square-pyramidal geometry. The redox behaviour of copper and vanadyl complexes was studied by cyclic voltammetry. Antimicrobial screening tests ...

  6. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  7. Carbon based secondary compounds do not provide protection against heavy metal road pollutants in epiphytic macrolichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauslaa, Yngvar; Yemets, Olena A; Asplund, Johan; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2016-01-15

    Lichens are useful monitoring organisms for heavy metal pollution. They are high in carbon based secondary compounds (CBSCs) among which some may chelate heavy metals and thus increase metal accumulation. This study quantifies CBSCs in four epiphytic lichens transplanted for 6months on stands along transects from a highway in southern Norway to search for relationships between concentrations of heavy metals and CBSCs along a gradient in heavy metal pollutants. Viability parameters and concentrations of 21 elements including nutrients and heavy metals in these lichen samples were reported in a separate paper. Medullary CBSCs in fruticose lichens (Ramalina farinacea, Usnea dasypoga) were reduced in the most polluted sites, but not in foliose ones (Parmelia sulcata, Lobaria pulmonaria), whereas cortical CBSC did not change with distance from the road in any species. Strong positive correlations only occurred between the major medullary compound stictic acid present in L. pulmonaria and most heavy metals, consistent with a chelating role of stictic acid, but not of other studied CBSCs or in other species. However, heavy metal chelating did not protect L. pulmonaria against damage because this species experienced the strongest reduction in viability in the polluted sites. CBSCs with an accumulation potential for heavy metals should be quantified in lichen biomonitoring studies of heavy metals because they, like stictic acid, could overshadow pollutant inputs in some species rendering biomonitoring data less useful. In the two fruticose lichen species, CBSCs decreased with increasing heavy metal concentration, probably because heavy metal exposure impaired secondary metabolism. Thus, we found no support for a heavy metal protection role of any CBSCs in studied epiphytic lichens. No intraspecific relationships occurred between CBSCs versus N or C/N-ratio. Interspecifically, medullary CBSCs decreased and cortical CBSCs increased with increasing C/N-ratio. Copyright © 2015

  8. Influence of S. mutans on base-metal dental casting alloy toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, E L; Dowling, A H; Moran, G P; Fleming, G J P

    2013-01-01

    We have highlighted that exposure of base-metal dental casting alloys to the acidogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans significantly increases cellular toxicity following exposure to immortalized human TR146 oral keratinocytes. With Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), S. mutans-treated nickel-based (Ni-based) and cobalt-chromium-based (Co-Cr-based) dental casting alloys were shown to leach elevated levels of metal ions compared with untreated dental casting alloys. We targeted several biological parameters: cell morphology, viable cell counts, cell metabolic activity, cell toxicity, and inflammatory cytokine expression. S. mutans-treated dental casting alloys disrupted cell morphology, elicited significantly decreased viable cell counts (p dental casting alloys induced elevated levels of cellular toxicity compared with S. mutans-treated Co-Cr-based dental casting alloys. While our findings indicated that the exacerbated release of metal ions from S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys was the likely result of the pH reduction during S. mutans growth, the exact nature of mechanisms leading to accelerated dissolution of alloy-discs is not yet fully understood. Given the predominance of S. mutans oral carriage and the exacerbated cytotoxicity observed in TR146 cells following exposure to S. mutans-treated base-metal dental casting alloys, the implications for the long-term stability of base-metal dental restorations in the oral cavity are a cause for concern.

  9. Self-Healing Thermal Annealing: Surface Morphological Restructuring Control of GaN Nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, Michele; Li, Haoning; Zubialevich, Vitaly Z.; Kusch, Gunnar; Schmidt, Michael; Collins, Timothy; Glynn, Colm; Martin, Robert W.; O’Dwyer, Colm; Morris, Michael D.; Holmes, Justin D.; Parbrook, Peter J.

    2016-12-07

    With advances in nanolithography and dry etching, top-down methods of nanostructuring have become a widely used tool for improving the efficiency of optoelectronics. These nano dimensions can offer various benefits to the device performance in terms of light extraction and efficiency, but often at the expense of emission color quality. Broadening of the target emission peak and unwanted yellow luminescence are characteristic defect-related effects due to the ion beam etching damage, particularly for III–N based materials. In this article we focus on GaN based nanorods, showing that through thermal annealing the surface roughness and deformities of the crystal structure can be “self-healed”. Correlative electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy show the change from spherical nanorods to faceted hexagonal structures, revealing the temperature-dependent surface morphology faceting evolution. The faceted nanorods were shown to be strain- and defect-free by cathodoluminescence hyperspectral imaging, micro-Raman, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In-situ TEM thermal annealing experiments allowed for real time observation of dislocation movements and surface restructuring observed in ex-situ annealing TEM sampling. This thermal annealing investigation gives new insight into the redistribution path of GaN material and dislocation movement post growth, allowing for improved understanding and in turn advances in optoelectronic device processing of compound semiconductors.

  10. Non-degenerate pump-probe spectroscopy of single GaN nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhya, Prashanth C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Taylor, Antoinette J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Prasankumar, Rohiy P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, George T [SNL; Martinez, Julio A [SNL; Li, Qiming [SNL; Swartzentruber, Brian S [SNL

    2010-01-01

    Spatially-resolved ultrafast transient absorption measurements on a single GaN nanowire give insight into carrier relaxation dynamics as a function of the probe polarization and position on the nanowire on a femtosecond timescale. The synthesis and optical characterization of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has gained considerable attention in recent years owing to their unique electronic and optical properties that arise from their anisotropic geometry, large surface to volume ratio and two-dimensional quasiparticle confinement, Post-growth characterization of their properties is crucial in understanding the fundamental physical processes that can lead to enhanced functionality of NW-based devices, In particular, it is important to understand the carrier relaxation pathways in individual NWs, since the geometry of these nanostructures can significantly influence carrier recombination and/or trapping. In this respect, ultrafast optical techniques offer reliable and non-contact spectroscopic tools to study carrier dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures. In summary, time-resolved optical pump-probe spectroscopy was performed on single GaN NWs. These measurements give insight into the different processes that govern carrier capture, particularly at surface states, and relaxation in individual nanostructures. Our experiments thus demonstrate the value of single-particle ultrafast optical spectroscopy in understanding the physical processes that govern the properties of semiconductor NWs, while suggesting approaches to optimize NW-based devices for nanophotonic applications.

  11. Poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Mingxin; Qiu, Guannan; Song, Weiping

    2010-02-01

    Utilization of poultry litter as a precursor material to manufacture activated carbon for treating heavy metal-contaminated water is a value-added strategy for recycling the organic waste. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to investigate kinetics, isotherms, and capacity of poultry litter-based activated carbon for removing heavy metal ions in water. It was revealed that poultry litter-based activated carbon possessed significantly higher adsorption affinity and capacity for heavy metals than commercial activated carbons derived from bituminous coal and coconut shell. Adsorption of metal ions onto poultry litter-based carbon was rapid and followed Sigmoidal Chapman patterns as a function of contact time. Adsorption isotherms could be described by different models such as Langmuir and Freundlich equations, depending on the metal species and the coexistence of other metal ions. Potentially 404 mmol of Cu2+, 945 mmol of Pb2+, 236 mmol of Zn2+, and 250-300 mmol of Cd2+ would be adsorbed per kg of poultry litter-derived activated carbon. Releases of nutrients and metal ions from litter-derived carbon did not pose secondary water contamination risks. The study suggests that poultry litter can be utilized as a precursor material for economically manufacturing granular activated carbon that is to be used in wastewater treatment for removing heavy metals.

  12. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Kiwifruit of Planting Base in Western Hunan Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Ren-cai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The heavy metals accumulation in soil and kiwi fruit plant in Western Hunan Province main kiwifruit planting base were analyzed, such as As, Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr. The results showed that the accumulation of heavy metals in soil of 6 kiwifruit planting areas were not obvious. The contents of heavy metals in most of areas of Western Hunan Province were below the national standard, except one area where the soil contents of cadmium (4.900 mg·kg-1, mercury (0.634 mg·kg-1were exceeded. At the same time, the comprehensive pollution index of heavy metals was less than 0.7 in these areas. There were 5 bases with no pollution of heavy metal, all which the kiwifruit could be safely produced in line with the requirements of the green kiwifruit planting base soil standards. At these areas, the contents of various heavy metals(except cadmium and mercurywere small in the branches and leaves of kiwifruit; kiwifruit had a very well capacity to absorb the cadmium when the cadmium content of its branches reached 12.73%. The heavy metal contents of the kiwifruit in the 6 regions, which belonging to the pollutionfree green fruits, were below or far lower than the national standard. According to the comprehensive analysis, the soil condition of the main cultivated land in Western Hunan Province was good, and the fruit had no heavy metal residues.

  13. Physics, MOVPE growth and investigation of m-plane GaN films and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on γ-LiAlO2 substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauder, Christof

    2011-01-01

    The growth of InGaN/GaN quantum well structures along a nonpolar orientation avoids the negative effects of the so-called ''Quantum Confined Stark Effect'' and is therefore considered as promising approach to improve wavelength stability and efficiency of future optoelectronic devices. This work describes physical principles and experimental results on metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of GaN layers and InGaN/GaN quantum well structures, which grow along the nonpolar (1-100) m-plane on (100) lithium aluminum oxide (LiAlO 2 ) substrates. The limited thermal and chemical stability of the LiAlO 2 substrate can be improved by a nitridation step, which causes the formation of a thin (1-100) AlN layer on the surface of the LiAlO 2 . This enables the phase-pure deposition of high-quality and smooth (1-100) GaN layers. The low lattice mismatch of (1-100) GaN to (100) LiAlO 2 allows for a coherent growth of thin films, which show strong in-plane compressive strain. Due to the absence of a suitable slip plane, this strain relaxes only partly for layer thicknesses up to 1.7 μm. Low densities of line and planar defects compared to other heteroepitaxially deposited nonpolar GaN layers were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron channelling contrast imaging microscopy (ECCI). The surface of the GaN layers is dominated by macroscopic hillocks, which are elongated along the c-axis direction and result in an average root mean square (RMS) roughness of ∝ 20 nm in a 50 x 50 μm 2 scan area. Spiral growth around line defects is seen as most likely cause for this effect. In a microscopic scale, one can detect a stripe pattern, which is formed by 2-3 nm high steps aligned parallel to the c-axis. An anisotropic growth mode is assumed responsible for this appearance. Between these steps, much smoother areas with typical RMS roughness of 0.2 nm (for a 0.5 x 0.5 μm 2 scan) is found, which is also an indication for

  14. Physics, MOVPE growth and investigation of m-plane GaN films and InGaN/GaN quantum wells on {gamma}-LiAlO{sub 2} substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauder, Christof

    2011-12-20

    The growth of InGaN/GaN quantum well structures along a nonpolar orientation avoids the negative effects of the so-called ''Quantum Confined Stark Effect'' and is therefore considered as promising approach to improve wavelength stability and efficiency of future optoelectronic devices. This work describes physical principles and experimental results on metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and characterization of GaN layers and InGaN/GaN quantum well structures, which grow along the nonpolar (1-100) m-plane on (100) lithium aluminum oxide (LiAlO{sub 2}) substrates. The limited thermal and chemical stability of the LiAlO{sub 2} substrate can be improved by a nitridation step, which causes the formation of a thin (1-100) AlN layer on the surface of the LiAlO{sub 2}. This enables the phase-pure deposition of high-quality and smooth (1-100) GaN layers. The low lattice mismatch of (1-100) GaN to (100) LiAlO{sub 2} allows for a coherent growth of thin films, which show strong in-plane compressive strain. Due to the absence of a suitable slip plane, this strain relaxes only partly for layer thicknesses up to 1.7 {mu}m. Low densities of line and planar defects compared to other heteroepitaxially deposited nonpolar GaN layers were assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron channelling contrast imaging microscopy (ECCI). The surface of the GaN layers is dominated by macroscopic hillocks, which are elongated along the c-axis direction and result in an average root mean square (RMS) roughness of {proportional_to} 20 nm in a 50 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2} scan area. Spiral growth around line defects is seen as most likely cause for this effect. In a microscopic scale, one can detect a stripe pattern, which is formed by 2-3 nm high steps aligned parallel to the c-axis. An anisotropic growth mode is assumed responsible for this appearance. Between these steps, much smoother areas with typical RMS roughness of 0.2 nm (for a 0.5 x

  15. InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dots yellow-green light-emitting diode with optimized GaN barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenbin; Wang, Lai; Wang, Jiaxing; Hao, Zhibiao; Luo, Yi

    2012-11-07

    InGaN/GaN multilayer quantum dot (QD) structure is a potential type of active regions for yellow-green light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The surface morphologies and crystalline quality of GaN barriers are critical to the uniformity of InGaN QD layers. While GaN barriers were grown in multi-QD layers, we used improved growth parameters by increasing the growth temperature and switching the carrier gas from N2 to H2 in the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. As a result, a 10-layer InGaN/GaN QD LED is demonstrated successfully. The transmission electron microscopy image shows the uniform multilayer InGaN QDs clearly. As the injection current increases from 5 to 50 mA, the electroluminescence peak wavelength shifts from 574 to 537 nm.

  16. Coherent vertical beaming using Bragg mirrors for high-efficiency GaN light-emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Kyung; Park, Hong-Gyu

    2013-06-17

    We propose a dielectric Bragg mirror that utilizes coherent coupling with multiple quantum wells (MQWs) to significantly enhance light extraction from GaN light-emitting diode (LED). Full vectorial electromagnetic simulation showed that, under constructive interference conditions, the Bragg mirror consisting of two dielectric (SiO(2)/TiO(2)) stacks and a silver layer led to >30% enhancement in light extraction, as compared to a single silver mirror. Such significant enhancement by a pre-designed Bragg/metal mirror was ascribed to the vertically oriented radiation pattern and reduced plasmonic metal loss. In addition, the gap distance between the MQWs and a Bragg mirror at which the constructive interference takes place could be controlled by modulating the thickness of the first low-refractive-index layer. Moreover, a two-dimensional periodic pattern was incorporated into an upper GaN layer with the designed Bragg mirror and it was shown that a lattice constant of ~800 nm was optimal for light extraction. We believe that tailoring the radiation profile of light emitters by coherent coupling with designed high-reflectivity mirrors will be a promising route to overcome the efficiency limit of current semiconductor LED devices.

  17. 450-nm GaN laser diode enables high-speed visible light communication with 9-Gbps QAM-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Hsieh, Dan-Hua; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Kuo, Hao-Chung; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2015-05-18

    A TO-38-can packaged Gallium nitride (GaN) blue laser diode (LD) based free-space visible light communication (VLC) with 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and 32-subcarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission at 9 Gbps is preliminarily demonstrated over a 5-m free-space link. The 3-dB analog modulation bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD biased at 65 mA and controlled at 25°C is only 900 MHz, which can be extended to 1.5 GHz for OFDM encoding after throughput intensity optimization. When delivering the 4-Gbps 16-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth, the error vector magnitude (EVM), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit-error-rate (BER) of the received data are observed as 8.4%, 22.4 dB and 3.5 × 10(-8), respectively. By increasing the encoded bandwidth to 1.5 GHz, the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD enlarges its transmission capacity to 6 Gbps but degrades its transmitted BER to 1.7 × 10(-3). The same transmission capacity of 6 Gbps can also be achieved with a BER of 1 × 10(-6) by encoding 64-QAM OFDM data within 1-GHz bandwidth. Using the 1.5-GHz full bandwidth of the TO-38-can packaged GaN blue LD provides the 64-QAM OFDM transmission up to 9 Gbps, which successfully delivers data with an EVM of 5.1%, an SNR of 22 dB and a BER of 3.6 × 10(-3) passed the forward error correction (FEC) criterion.

  18. Evaluating Heavy Metal Stress Levels in Rice Based on Remote Sensing Phenology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianjiao Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metal pollution of croplands is a major environmental problem worldwide. Methods for accurately and quickly monitoring heavy metal stress have important practical significance. Many studies have explored heavy metal stress in rice in relation to physiological function or physiological factors, but few studies have considered phenology, which can be sensitive to heavy metal stress. In this study, we used an integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time-series image set to extract remote sensing phenology. A phenological indicator relatively sensitive to heavy metal stress was chosen from the obtained phenological periods and phenological parameters. The Dry Weight of Roots (WRT, which directly affected by heavy metal stress, was simulated by the World Food Study (WOFOST model; then, a feature space based on the phenological indicator and WRT was established for monitoring heavy metal stress. The results indicated that the feature space can distinguish the heavy metal stress levels in rice, with accuracy greater than 95% for distinguishing the severe stress level. This finding provides scientific evidence for combining rice phenology and physiological characteristics in time and space, and the method is useful to monitor heavy metal stress in rice.

  19. Evaluating Heavy Metal Stress Levels in Rice Based on Remote Sensing Phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianjiao; Liu, Xiangnan; Liu, Meiling; Wu, Ling

    2018-03-14

    Heavy metal pollution of croplands is a major environmental problem worldwide. Methods for accurately and quickly monitoring heavy metal stress have important practical significance. Many studies have explored heavy metal stress in rice in relation to physiological function or physiological factors, but few studies have considered phenology, which can be sensitive to heavy metal stress. In this study, we used an integrated Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series image set to extract remote sensing phenology. A phenological indicator relatively sensitive to heavy metal stress was chosen from the obtained phenological periods and phenological parameters. The Dry Weight of Roots (WRT), which directly affected by heavy metal stress, was simulated by the World Food Study (WOFOST) model; then, a feature space based on the phenological indicator and WRT was established for monitoring heavy metal stress. The results indicated that the feature space can distinguish the heavy metal stress levels in rice, with accuracy greater than 95% for distinguishing the severe stress level. This finding provides scientific evidence for combining rice phenology and physiological characteristics in time and space, and the method is useful to monitor heavy metal stress in rice.

  20. Wear behaviour of Zr-based in situ bulk metallic glass matrix ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    based bulk metallic glass (BMG) and its in situ BMG matrix composites with diameter of 3 mm were fabricated by conventional Cu-mould casting method and ... The composites showed lower friction coefficient and wear rate than the pure BMG.