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Sample records for gamma-ray spectrum harden

  1. Gamma-Ray Spectrum Analysis Software GDA

    Wanabongse, P.

    1998-01-01

    The developmental work on computer software for gamma-ray spectrum analysis has been completed as a software package version 1.02 named GDA, which is an acronym for Gamma-spectrum Deconvolution and Analysis. The software package consists of three 3.5-inch diskettes for setup and a user's manual. GDA software can be installed for using on a personal computer with Windows 95 or Windows NT 4.0 operating system. A computer maybe the type of 80486 CPU with 8 megabytes of memory

  2. Gamma ray spectrum analysis code: sigmas 1.0

    Siangsanan, P.; Dharmavanij, W.; Chongkum, S.

    1996-01-01

    We have developed Sigmas 1.0 a software package for data reduction and gamma ray spectra evaluation. It is capable of analysing the gamma-ray spectrum in the range of 0-3 MeV by semiconductor detector, i.e. Ge(Li) or HPGe, peak searching, net area determining, plotting and spectrum displaying. There are two methods for calculating the net area under peaks; the Covell method and non-linear fitting by the method of Levenberg and Marquardt which can fit any multiplet peak in the spectrum. The graphic display was rather fast and user friendly

  3. A new type gamma-ray spectrum monitoring system

    Cheng Bo; Zhou Jian Bin; Zhang Zhi Ming; Tong Yun Fu

    2002-01-01

    This new radiation monitoring system can be used to monitor the radiation of building materials and the radiation of atmosphere, to explore and evaluate rock for building in the field, and this system can be used to monitor the gamma irradiation near the nuclear establishments in the average situation and in the serious situation of the radiation incident have happened. The control core of this monitoring system is SCM-AT89C52, and gamma-ray sensing head consists of scintillator phi 50 mm x 50 mm NaI(Tl) and PMT GDB44. This system can be used to measure the whole gamma-ray spectrum of 256 channels

  4. Natural gamma ray spectrum analysis technique

    Chevalier, P.; Seeman, B.

    1976-01-01

    In accordance with an illustrative embodiment of the present invention, a method and apparatus is disclosed for determining the presence of a selected number of naturally radioactive materials in an earth formation from the spectrum of natural gamma radiation emitted by the materials in the formation by deriving representations of portions of the detected gamma radiation spectrum and combining the representations to determine therefrom the presence of the selected materials

  5. Gamma ray energy spectrum of a buried radioactive source

    Massey, N B

    1957-07-01

    Because of current attempts to utilize airborne gamma-ray scintillation spectrometers as a means of detecting and identifying buried radioactive mineral deposits, it has become important to study the effects of multiple scattering on the gamma-ray energy spectrum of a source buried in a semi-infinite medium. A series of ten experiments was made. First a scintillation detector was located in air at a fixed distance above a 250 microcurie cobalt-60 source suspended in a large tank. The level of water was raised from 25 cm below the source to 50 cm above, and the gamma-ray energy spectrum was observed. It was found that the high energy portion of the cobalt-60 spectrum remained identifiable even when the source was submerged more than five half-lengths. Further, the ratio of the counting rate of the total incident gamma radiation to the counting rate of the primary 1.33 MeV radiation was found to be very nearly linearly proportional to the depth of water cover. This leads to an empirical method for determining the depth of burial of a cobalt-60 point source. (author)

  6. Planetary gamma-ray spectroscopy: the effects of hydrogen absorption cross-section of the gamma-ray spectrum

    Lapides, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectroscopy of planet surfaces is one of several possible methods that are useful in determining the elemental composition of planet surfaces from orbiting spacecraft. This has been demonstrated on the Apollos 15 and 16 missions as well as the Soviet Mars-5 mission. Planetary gamma-ray emission is primarily the result of natural radioactive decay and cosmic-ray and solar-flare-induced nuclear reactions. Secondary neutron reactions play a large role in the more intense gamma-ray emission. The technique provides information on the elemental composition of the top few tens of centimeters of the planet surface. Varying concentrations of hydrogen and compositional variations that alter the macroscopic thermal-neutron absorption cross section have a significant effect on the neutron flux in the planet surface and therefore also on the gamma-ray emission from the surface. These effects have been systematically studied for a wide range of possible planetary compositions that include Mercury, the moon, Mars, the comets, and the asteroids. The problem of the Martian atmosphere was also investigated. The results of these calculations, in which both surface neutron fluxes and gamma-ray emission fluxes were determined, were used to develop general procedures for obtaining planet compositions from the gamma-ray spectrum. Several changes have been suggested for reanalyzing the Apollos 15 and 16 gamma-ray results. In addition, procedures have been suggested that can be applied to neutron-gamma techniques in mineral and oil exploration

  7. Gamma ray spectrum from gravitino dark matter decay

    Ibarra, A.; Tran, D.

    2007-09-15

    Gravitinos are very promising candidates for the cold dark matter of the Universe. Interestingly, to achieve a sufficiently long gravitino lifetime, R-parity conservation is not required, thus preventing any dangerous cosmological influence of the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle. When R-parity is violated, gravitinos decay into photons and other particles with a lifetime much longer than the age of the Universe, producing a diffuse gamma ray flux with a characteristic spectrum that could be measured in future experiments, like GLAST, AMS-02 or Cherenkov telescopes. In this letter we compute the energy spectrum of photons from gravitino decay and discuss its main qualitative features. (orig.)

  8. The theoretical study of full spectrum analysis method for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data

    Ni Weichong

    2011-01-01

    Spectra of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry was found to be the synthesis of spectral components of radioelement sources by analyzing the constitution of radioactive sources for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey and establishing the models of gamma-ray measurement. The mathematical equation for analysising airborne gamma-ray full spectrometric data can be expressed into matrix and related expansions were developed for the mineral resources exploration, environmental radiation measurement, nuclear emergency monitoring, and so on. Theoretical study showed that the atmospheric radon could be directly computed by airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data with full spectrum analysis without the use of the accessional upward-looking detectors. (authors)

  9. Analysis of a gamma-ray spectrum by using a standard spectrum

    Tasaka, Kanji

    1975-06-01

    The standard spectrum method has been extended to take into account the energy dependence of a standard spectrum. The method analyses the observed gamma-ray spectrum by the least-square method, using an interpolated standard spectrum for expressing the line shape and a linear function for the background continuum. The interpolated standard spectrum is defined for each fitting interval by interpolating several standard spectra, which are derived directly from the observed spectra of single photopeaks each corresponding to the incident monochromatic gamma-rays by subtracting the background and smoothing the data. (author)

  10. TPASS: a gamma-ray spectrum analysis and isotope identification computer code

    Dickens, J.K.

    1981-03-01

    The gamma-ray spectral data-reduction and analysis computer code TPASS is described. This computer code is used to analyze complex Ge(Li) gamma-ray spectra to obtain peak areas corrected for detector efficiencies, from which are determined gamma-ray yields. These yields are compared with an isotope gamma-ray data file to determine the contributions to the observed spectrum from decay of specific radionuclides. A complete FORTRAN listing of the code and a complex test case are given

  11. Fermi LAT Search for Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Lines and the Inclusive Photon Spectrum

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Baldini, L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Dark matter particle annihilation or decay can produce monochromatic gamma-ray lines and contribute to the diffuse gamma-ray background. Flux upper limits are presented for gamma-ray spectral lines from 7 to 200 GeV and for the diffuse gamma-ray background from 4.8 GeV to 264 GeV obtained from two years of Fermi Large Area Telescope data integrated over most of the sky. We give cross section upper limits and decay lifetime lower limits for dark matter models that produce gamma-ray lines or contribute to the diffuse spectrum, including models proposed as explanations of the PAMELA and Fermi cosmic-ray data.

  12. Natural background gamma-ray spectrum. List of gamma-rays ordered in energy from natural radionuclides

    Ichimiya, Tsutomu [Japan Radioisotope Association, Tokyo (Japan); Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke

    1998-03-01

    A quick index to {gamma}-rays and X-rays from natural radionuclides is presented. In the list, {gamma}-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. The list also contains {gamma}-rays from radioactive nuclides produced in a germanium detector and its surrounding materials by interaction with cosmic neutrons, as well as direct {gamma}-rays from interaction with the neutrons. Artificial radioactive nuclides emitting {gamma}-rays with same or near energy value as that of the natural {gamma}-rays and X-rays are also listed. In appendix, {gamma}-ray spectra from a rock, uranium ore, thorium, monazite and uraninite and also background spectra obtained with germanium detectors placed in iron or lead shield have been given. The list is designed for use in {gamma}-ray spectroscopy under the conditions of highly natural background, such as in-situ environmental radiation monitoring or low-level activity measurements, with a germanium detector. (author)

  13. Energy spectrum of extragalactic gamma-ray sources

    Protheroe, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    The result of Monte Carlo electron photon cascade calculations for propagation of gamma rays through regions of extragalactic space containing no magnetic field are given. These calculations then provide upper limits to the expected flux from extragalactic sources. Since gamma rays in the 10 to the 14th power eV to 10 to the 17th power eV energy range are of interest, interactions of electrons and photons with the 3 K microwave background radiation are considered. To obtain an upper limit to the expected gamma ray flux from sources, the intergalactic field is assumed to be so low that it can be ignored. Interactions with photons of the near-infrared background radiation are not considered here although these will have important implications for gamma rays below 10 to the 14th power eV if the near infrared background radiation is universal. Interaction lengths of electrons and photons in the microwave background radiation at a temperature of 2.96 K were calculated and are given.

  14. Spectrum analysis with indoor multi-channels gamma-rays spectrometer (NaI(Tl))

    Hou Shengli; Fan Weihua

    2005-01-01

    Two calculational methods for analyzing the spectrum which measured by indoor low background multi-channels gamma-rays spectrometer (Na(Tl)) to get the specific activity of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K of the sample are discussed, they are the spectrum analysis method and the characteristic energy peak method (inverse matrix method) respectively. The sample spectrum are analyzed with the program designed according to the two methods, and compared with the results by HPGe gamma-rays spectrometer, showing that the relative deviation is ≤10% with the two methods. (authors)

  15. Reproducibility of (n,γ) gamma ray spectrum in Pb under different ENDF/B releases

    Kebwaro, J.M., E-mail: jeremiahkebwaro@gmail.com [Department of Physical Sciences, Karatina University, P.O. Box 1957-10101, Karatina (Kenya); He, C.H.; Zhao, Y.L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Radiative capture reactions are of interest in shielding design and other fundamental research. In this study the reproducibility of (n,γ) reactions in Pb when cross-section data from different ENDF/B releases are used in the Monte-Carlo code, MCNP, was investigated. Pb was selected for this study because it is widely used in shielding applications where capture reactions are likely to occur. Four different neutron spectra were declared as source in the MCNP model which consisted of a simple spherical geometry. The gamma ray spectra due to the capture reactions were recorded at 10 cm from the center of the sphere. The results reveal that the gamma ray spectrum produced by ENDF/B-V is in reasonable agreement with that produced when ENDF/B-VI.6 is used. However the spectrum produced by ENDF/B-VII does not reveal any primary gamma rays in the higher energy region (E > 3 MeV). It is further observed that the intensities of the capture gamma rays produced when various releases are used differ by a some margin showing that the results are not reproducible. The generated spectra also vary with the spectrum of the source neutrons. The discrepancies observed among various ENDF/B releases could raise concerns to end users and need to be addressed properly during benchmarking calculations before the next release. The evaluation from ENDF to ACE format that is supplied with MCNP should also be examined because errors might have arisen during the evaluation.

  16. Gamma-ray pulse height spectrum analysis on systems with multiple Ge detectors using spectrum summing

    Killian, E.W. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    A technique has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to sum high resolution gamma-ray pulse spectra from systems with multiple Ge detectors. Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company operates a multi-detector spectrometer configuration at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant facility which is used to characterize the radionuclide contents in waste drums destined for shipment to Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. This summing technique was developed to increase the sensitivity of the system, reduce the count times required to properly quantify the radio-nuclides and provide a more consistent methodology for combining data collected from multiple detectors. In spectrometer systems with multiple detectors looking at non homogeneous waste forms it is often difficult to combine individual spectrum analysis results from each detector to obtain a meaningful result for the total waste container. This is particularly true when the counting statistics in each individual spectrum are poor. The spectrum summing technique adds the spectra collected by each detector into a single spectrum which has better counting statistics than each individual spectrum. A normal spectral analysis program can then be used to analyze the sum spectrum to obtain radio-nuclide values which have smaller errors and do not have to be further manipulated to obtain results for the total waste container. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    Jeong, Meeyoung; Lee, Kyeong Beom; Kim, Kyeong Ja; Lee, Min-Kie; Han, Ju-Bong

    2014-12-01

    Odyssey, one of the NASA¡¯s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya), a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe) detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA) method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA) method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl) and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  18. Gamma-ray Full Spectrum Analysis for Environmental Radioactivity by HPGe Detector

    Meeyoung Jeong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Odyssey, one of the NASA’s Mars exploration program and SELENE (Kaguya, a Japanese lunar orbiting spacecraft have a payload of Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS for analyzing radioactive chemical elements of the atmosphere and the surface. In these days, gamma-ray spectroscopy with a High-Purity Germanium (HPGe detector has been widely used for the activity measurements of natural radionuclides contained in the soil of the Earth. The energy spectra obtained by the HPGe detectors have been generally analyzed by means of the Window Analysis (WA method. In this method, activity concentrations are determined by using the net counts of energy window around individual peaks. Meanwhile, an alternative method, the so-called Full Spectrum Analysis (FSA method uses count numbers not only from full-absorption peaks but from the contributions of Compton scattering due to gamma-rays. Consequently, while it takes a substantial time to obtain a statistically significant result in the WA method, the FSA method requires a much shorter time to reach the same level of the statistical significance. This study shows the validation results of FSA method. We have compared the concentration of radioactivity of 40K, 232Th and 238U in the soil measured by the WA method and the FSA method, respectively. The gamma-ray spectrum of reference materials (RGU and RGTh, KCl and soil samples were measured by the 120% HPGe detector with cosmic muon veto detector. According to the comparison result of activity concentrations between the FSA and the WA, we could conclude that FSA method is validated against the WA method. This study implies that the FSA method can be used in a harsh measurement environment, such as the gamma-ray measurement in the Moon, in which the level of statistical significance is usually required in a much shorter data acquisition time than the WA method.

  19. On the high energy gamma ray spectrum and the particle production model

    Ohta, Itaru; Tezuka, Ikuo.

    1979-01-01

    A small emulsion chamber, 25 cm x 20 cm in area and 12 radiation lengths in thick, was exposed with JAL jet-cargo at an atmospheric depth of 260 g/cm 2 during 150 hrs. The gamma ray spectrum derived by combining data from X-ray films and nuclear emulsions is well represented by I sub(r) (>=Er) = (3.65 +- 0.30) x 10 -8 [E sub(r)/TeV]sup(-1.89+0.06-0.09)/cm 2 sr sec in the energy range 200 - 3,000 GeV. This result is in good agreement with those of several other groups. We discuss our data in terms of Feynman's and Koba-Nielsen-Olesen's scaling law of high energy particle production model. Interpreted in terms of an assumption of mild violation of the scaling law as x.d delta-s / delta-s indx = AE sup(2a)exp (-BE sup(a)x), our gamma ray spectrum results suggest an existence of a violation parameter of a = 0.18, which is consistent with results from gamma ray spectrum observations at great depth such as the mountain elevations. (author)

  20. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich; Nares, Chankow; Hao, Quang Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method

  1. Radioisotope identification method for poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum of nuclear security concern

    Ninh, Giang Nguyen; Phongphaeth, Pengvanich, E-mail: phongphaeth.p@chula.ac.th; Nares, Chankow [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Hao, Quang Nguyen [Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, Ministry of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-01-22

    Gamma-ray signal can be used as a fingerprint for radioisotope identification. In the context of radioactive and nuclear materials security at the border control point, the detection task can present a significant challenge due to various constraints such as the limited measurement time, the shielding conditions, and the noise interference. This study proposes a novel method to identify the signal of one or several radioisotopes from a poorly resolved gamma-ray spectrum. In this method, the noise component in the raw spectrum is reduced by the wavelet decomposition approach, and the removal of the continuum background is performed using the baseline determination algorithm. Finally, the identification of radioisotope is completed using the matrix linear regression method. The proposed method has been verified by experiments using the poorly resolved gamma-ray signals from various scenarios including single source, mixing of natural uranium with five of the most common industrial radioactive sources (57Co, 60Co, 133Ba, 137Cs, and 241Am). The preliminary results show that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the commercial method.

  2. Work hardening characteristics of gamma-ray irradiated Al-5356 alloy

    Saad, G.; Fayek, S.A.; Fawzy, A.; Soliman, H.N.; Nassr, E.

    2014-01-01

    Effects of γ-irradiation and deformation temperatures on the hardening behavior of Al-5356 alloy have been investigated by means of stress–strain measurements. Wire samples irradiated with different doses (ranging from 500 to 2000 kGy) were strained at different deformation temperatures T w (ranging from 303 to 523 K) and a constant strain rate of 1.5×10 −3 s −1 . The effect of γ-irradiation on the work-hardening parameters (WHP): yield stress σ y , fracture stress σ f , total strain ε T and work-hardening coefficient χ p of the given alloy was studied at the applied deformation temperature range. The obtained results showed that γ-irradiation exhibited an increase in the WHP of the given alloy while the increase in its deformation temperature showed a reverse effect. The mean activation energy of the deformation process was calculated using an Arrhenius-type relation, and was found to be ∼80 kJ/mole, which is close to that of grain boundary diffusion in aluminum alloys

  3. Spectrum of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray emission derived from first-year Fermi Large Area Telescope data.

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Atwood, W B; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cavazzuti, E; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Di Bernardo, G; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Focke, W B; Fortin, P; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gaggero, D; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gustafsson, M; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hughes, R E; Itoh, R; Jackson, M S; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sellerholm, A; Sgrò, C; Shaw, M S; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Strong, A W; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2010-03-12

    We report on the first Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) measurements of the so-called "extragalactic" diffuse gamma-ray emission (EGB). This component of the diffuse gamma-ray emission is generally considered to have an isotropic or nearly isotropic distribution on the sky with diverse contributions discussed in the literature. The derivation of the EGB is based on detailed modeling of the bright foreground diffuse Galactic gamma-ray emission, the detected LAT sources, and the solar gamma-ray emission. We find the spectrum of the EGB is consistent with a power law with a differential spectral index gamma = 2.41 +/- 0.05 and intensity I(>100 MeV) = (1.03 +/- 0.17) x 10(-5) cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1), where the error is systematics dominated. Our EGB spectrum is featureless, less intense, and softer than that derived from EGRET data.

  4. Basics of Gamma Ray Detection

    Stinnett, Jacob [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Venkataraman, Ram [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-13

    The objective of this training is to explain the origin of x-rays and gamma rays, gamma ray interactions with matter, detectors and electronics used in gamma ray-spectrometry, and features of a gamma-ray spectrum for nuclear material that is safeguarded.

  5. Gamma-ray Background Spectrum and Annihilation Rate in the Baryon-symmetric Big-bang Cosmology

    Puget, J. L.

    1973-01-01

    An attempt was made to acquire experimental information on the problem of baryon symmetry on a large cosmological scale by observing the annihilation products. Data cover absorption cross sections and background radiation due to other sources for the two main products of annihilation, gamma rays and neutrinos. Test results show that the best direct experimental test for the presence of large scale antimatter lies in the gamma ray background spectrum between 1 and 70 MeV.

  6. Gamma-ray emission spectrum from thermonuclear fusion reactions without intrinsic broadening

    Nocente, M.; Källne, J.; Salewski, Mirko

    2015-01-01

    First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution instrume......First principle calculations of the gamma-ray energy spectrum arising from thermonuclear reactions without intrinsic broadening in fusion plasmas are presented, extending the theoretical framework needed to interpret measurements up to the accuracy level enabled by modern high resolution...... instruments. An analytical formula for the spectrum from Maxwellian plasmas, which extends to higher temperatures than the results previously available in the literature, has been derived and used to discuss the assumptions and limitations of earlier models. In case of radio-frequency injection, numerical...... results based on a Monte Carlo method are provided, focusing in particular on improved relations between the peak shift and width from the reaction and the temperature of protons accelerated by radio-frequency heating.The results presented in this paper significantly improve the accuracy of diagnostic...

  7. The Spectrum of Isotropic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission Between 100 Mev and 820 Gev

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Albert, A.; Atwood, W. B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Brandt, T. J.; Hays, E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The gamma-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission, and a longer data accumulation of 50 months, allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature, and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 plus or minus 0.02 and a break energy of (279 plus or minus 52) GeV using our baseline diffuse Galactic emission model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 plus or minus 0.6) x 10(exp -6) cm(exp -2) s(exp -1) sr(exp -1) above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/-30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  8. Operator's guide for VAXGAP, a gamma-ray spectrum analysis package

    Killian, E.W.; Femec, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    This report describes the gamma-ray analysis program VAXGAP, which has continually evolved at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory over a period of several years. It is an integrated suite of computer programs for performing analyses of pulse-height spectra from high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers and assorted support functions. VAXGAP programs operate on Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAX computers running the VMS operating system, and were written in VAX FORTRAN and DEC Digital Command Language (DCL). These programs make use of DEC GKS and ReGIS for graphical output on standard terminals and printers, and DEC windows for graphics on workstations and terminals that support the X Window System protocol. This report addresses the use of VAXGAP for data acquisition and control, energy scale calibration, and real-time analyses of background and sample pulse-height spectra. Also addressed are the creation and use efficiency tables and isotope libraries, manipulation of spectrum files and their contents, and graphical display of on-going acquisitions, saved spectra, and mathematical fits to spectral peaks

  9. Gamma ray spectrum of Am 241 in a backscattering geometry using a high purity germanium detector

    Chong Chon Sing; Ibrahim Salih Elyaseery; Ahmad Shukri Mustapa Kamal; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin

    1997-01-01

    In back scattering geometry using an annular Am-241 source and a HPGE detector has been set up to study both the coherent and incoherent scattering of photon emissions of Am-241 from medium-Z and high-Z elements. Besides the coherent and incoherent scattered peaks of the emissions from the source, the gamma ray spectrum from the different target elements obtained using a microcomputer based multichannel analyser showed the presence of several other peaks. These peaks have been identified to arise from the fluorescence of the targets, the fluorescence of the shielding material Pb, and also as fluorescence sum peaks and X-ray escape peaks of the detector material Ge. The spectra are presented for three target elements viz. Mo, Zn and W

  10. Artificial neural networks application for analysis of gamma ray spectrum obtained from the scintillation detectors

    Stegowski, Z.

    2002-01-01

    Scintillation detectors are commonly used for the gamma ray detection. Actually the small peak resolution and the significant Compton effect fraction limit their utilization in the gamma ray spectrometry analysis. This article presents the artificial neural networks (ANN) application to the analysis of the gamma ray spectra acquired from scintillation detectors. The obtained results validate the effectiveness of the ANN method to spectrometry analysis. (author)

  11. SB3. Experiment on secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for each of 13 different elements plus a stainless steel

    Maerker, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    The experimental and calculational details for a CSEWG integral data testing shielding experiment are presented. This particular experiment measured the secondary gamma-ray production cross sections averaged over a fast-neutron spectrum for iron, oxygen, sodium, aluminum, copper, titanium, calcium, potassium, silicon, nickel, zinc, barium, sulfur, and a type 321 stainless steel. The gamma-ray production cross sections were binned into 0.5-MeV wide gamma-ray energy intervals. 29 tables, 1 figure

  12. Hard x-ray to low energy gamma ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    Jung, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the Crab Nebula has been determined in the energy range 10 keV to 5 MeV from the data of the UCSD/MIT Hard-X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory, HEAO-1. The x-ray to γ-ray portion of the continuous emission from the Crab is indicative of the electron spectrum, its transport through the nebula, and the physical conditions near the shocked interface between the nebular region and the wind which is the physical link between the nebula and the pulsar, NP0532. The power-law dependence of the spectrum found in the lower-energy decade of this observation (10 to 100 keV) is not continued without modification to higher energies. Evidence for this has been accumulating from previous observations in the γ-ray ranges of 1-10 MeV and above 35 MeV. The observations on which this dissertation is based further characterize the spectral change in the 100 keV to 1 MeV region. These observations provide a crucial connection between the x-ray and γ-ray spectrum of the non-pulsed emission of the Crab Nebula. The continuity of this spectrum suggests that the emission mechanism responsible for the non-pulsed γ-rays observed above 35 MeV is of the same origin as the emission at lower energies, i.e. that of synchrotron radiation in the magnetic field of the nebula

  13. A Very High Energy Gamma-Ray Spectrum of 1ES 2344+514

    Schroedter, M.; Badran, H. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Gordo, J. Bussons; Carter-Lewis, D. A.; Duke, C.; Fegan, D. J.; Fegan, S. F.; Finley, J. P.; Gillanders, G. H.; Grube, J.; Horan, D.; Kenny, G. E.; Kertzman, M.; Kosack, K.

    2005-01-01

    The BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object 1ES 2344+514 (1ES 2344), at a redshift of 0.044, was discovered as a source of very high energy (VHE) gamma rays by the Whipple Collaboration in 1995 \\citep{2344Catanese98}. This detection was recently confirmed by the HEGRA Collaboration \\citep{2344Hegra03}. As is typical for high-frequency peaked blazars, the VHE gamma-ray emission is highly variable. On the night of 20 December, 1995, a gamma-ray flare of 5.3-sigma significance was detected, the brightest ou...

  14. Distinguish natural sources out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in Gamma ray spectrum analyses

    Mao Yahong; Liu Yigang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Methods: In gamma ray spectrum analyses, the activity concentration of every daughter is the same as that of its parent when the material is in secular equilibrium. The activity concentrations of daughters and their parents are different when the material is out of secular equilibrium. Results: It is different to determine whether the exposures from these materials should be exempted that materials containing natural radionuclides are in or out of secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters. Conclusion: It is important to determine materials containing natural radionuclides in or out secular equilibrium with their parents or daughters in gamma ray spectrum analyses. (authors)

  15. THE DETECTABILITY OF DARK MATTER ANNIHILATION WITH FERMI USING THE ANISOTROPY ENERGY SPECTRUM OF THE GAMMA-RAY BACKGROUND

    Hensley, Brandon S.; Pavlidou, Vasiliki; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2010-01-01

    The energy dependence of the anisotropy (the anisotropy energy spectrum) of the large-scale diffuse gamma-ray background can reveal the presence of multiple source populations. Annihilating dark matter in the substructure of the Milky Way halo could give rise to a modulation in the anisotropy energy spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray emission measured by Fermi, enabling the detection of a dark matter signal. We determine the detectability of a dark-matter-induced modulation for scenarios in which unresolved blazars are the primary contributor to the measured emission above ∼1 GeV and find that in some scenarios pair-annihilation cross sections on the order of the value expected for thermal relic dark matter can produce a detectable feature. We anticipate that the sensitivity of this technique to specific dark matter models could be improved by tailored likelihood analysis methods.

  16. Calculation of the energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays between 1 and 1000 MeV

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.A.R.

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays at 4 g/cm 2 has been calculated for cut-off rigidities of 4.5, 10 and 16 GV. The considered processes for the production of these gamma-rays were the π 0 decay plus the bremsstrahlung from primary, secondary like splash and re-entrant albedo electrons. The calculations indicated that the spectrum could be fitted to a power law in energy, with the exponential index varying from 1.1 in the energy range 1 - 10 MeV, to 1.4 in the energy range 10 - 200 MeV and 1.8 in the energy range 200 - 1000 MeV. These results are discussed [pt

  17. Spectrum and frequency of chlorophyll mutations in urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) induced by EMS and gamma rays

    Sharma, A.K.; Singh, V.P.; Sarma, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    In mutation breeding experiment, plants with altered characteristics such as chlorophyll changes, sterility, plant lethality etc. could be the marker of the mutability of a variety. In fact, spectrum and frequency of chlorophyll mutations have been studied in the great detail. The chlorophyll mutation is the clear-cut indication of non-directional nature of mutation and possibility of induction of useful mutations. The spectrum and frequency of chlorophyll mutation was estimated by using gamma rays (100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses), EMS (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8%) and combination of gamma rays (100, 200, 300 400 Gy) with 0.2 % concentration EMS on two cultivars, namely, Pant Urd-19 and Pant Urd-30 of urdbean ( Vigna mungo L. Hepper). Five different types of chlorophyll mutations viz., albina, xantha, viridis, chlorina and maculata were identified in both the cultivars. Almost all the combination treatments produced maximum frequency and wider spectrum of chlorophyll mutations followed by single treatment of gamma rays or EMS. The frequency of chlorophyll mutation increased with higher doses of mutagens but decreased at highest dose. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. India. 76(8), I, 2006. 64-68. (author)

  18. Spectrum-to-dose conversion operator value function of a Ge(Li) in-situ environmental gamma-ray spectrometer

    Terada, Hiromi; Sakai, Eiji; Katagiri, Masaki

    1976-05-01

    A spectrum-to-dose conversion operator value function was obtained for a 73cm 3 closed-end coaxial Ge(Li) in-situ environmental gamma-ray spectrometer; factors influencing the function are considered. (auth.)

  19. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy to predict soil properties using windows and full-spectrum analysis methods.

    Mahmood, Hafiz Sultan; Hoogmoed, Willem B; van Henten, Eldert J

    2013-11-27

    Fine-scale spatial information on soil properties is needed to successfully implement precision agriculture. Proximal gamma-ray spectroscopy has recently emerged as a promising tool to collect fine-scale soil information. The objective of this study was to evaluate a proximal gamma-ray spectrometer to predict several soil properties using energy-windows and full-spectrum analysis methods in two differently managed sandy loam fields: conventional and organic. In the conventional field, both methods predicted clay, pH and total nitrogen with a good accuracy (R2 ≥ 0.56) in the top 0-15 cm soil depth, whereas in the organic field, only clay content was predicted with such accuracy. The highest prediction accuracy was found for total nitrogen (R2 = 0.75) in the conventional field in the energy-windows method. Predictions were better in the top 0-15 cm soil depths than in the 15-30 cm soil depths for individual and combined fields. This implies that gamma-ray spectroscopy can generally benefit soil characterisation for annual crops where the condition of the seedbed is important. Small differences in soil structure (conventional vs. organic) cannot be determined. As for the methodology, we conclude that the energy-windows method can establish relations between radionuclide data and soil properties as accurate as the full-spectrum analysis method.

  20. Spectrum, time structure and direction of incidence of the August 16, 1976 gamma ray burst

    Sommer, H.; Mueller, D.; Horstman, H.; Bassani, L.

    1977-01-01

    Two major bursts of energetic photons have been recorded with a new balloon-borne instrument during the second transatlantic flight in 1976: One in coincidence with a type III solar radio burst on August 16 and a very energetic gamma ray burst of non-solar origin starting at 16:15.5 UT of August 16. Spectral information of the gamma ray burst has been obtained up to 2 MeV. A crude position of the burst source has been derived from data of a directional detector array after correcting for absorption and scattering in the earth's atmosphere. (author)

  1. Application of full spectrum analysis technique for NaI(TI) based gamma ray spectral monitoring system

    Pant, Amar D.; Verma, Amit K.; Narayani, K.; Anilkumar, S.; Singh, Rajvir

    2016-01-01

    NaI(Tl) is commonly used for the gamma spectrometry analysis in laboratories. It continues to be the first choice for gamma spectrometry in many applications even today. Many gamma spectrometric methods are developed to experimentally determine activity of radionuclides in samples. Detectors used worldwide for gamma radiation monitoring are either GM based or scintillator based detector based on count rate. For radiation early warning systems radionuclide specific radiation monitoring methodology is required i.e. gamma ray spectrometry based environmental monitoring system. A computer program has been developed for gamma spectral monitoring by the use of full spectrum analysis (FSA). In this measured spectra are fitted using individual spectral components by least square fitting (LSF). The method is found very useful in situations, where radionuclide specific environmental radiation monitoring is required. The paper describes the details of the FSA procedure for the on line acquisition and analysis of gamma ray spectra from Nal(Tl) detectors

  2. Correlation between peak energy and Fourier power density spectrum slope in gamma-ray bursts

    Dichiara, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Amati, L.; Frontera, F.; Margutti, R.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission still defies explanation, in spite of recent progress made, for example, on the occasional presence of a thermal component in the spectrum along with the ubiquitous non-thermal component that is modelled with a Band function. The combination of finite duration and aperiodic modulations make GRBs hard to characterise temporally. Although correlations between GRB luminosity and spectral hardness on one side and time variability on the other side have long been known, the loose and often arbitrary definition of the latter makes the interpretation uncertain. Aims: We characterise the temporal variability in an objective way and search for a connection with rest-frame spectral properties for a number of well-observed GRBs. Methods: We studied the individual power density spectra (PDS) of 123 long GRBs with measured redshift, rest-frame peak energy Ep,I of the time-averaged ν Fν spectrum, and well-constrained PDS slope α detected with Swift, Fermi and past spacecraft. The PDS were modelled with a power law either with or without a break adopting a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo technique. Results: We find a highly significant Ep,I-α anti-correlation. The null hypothesis probability is ~10-9. Conclusions: In the framework of the internal shock synchrotron model, the Ep,I-α anti-correlation can hardly be reconciled with the predicted Ep,I ∝ Γ-2, unless either variable microphysical parameters of the shocks or continual electron acceleration are assumed. Alternatively, in the context of models based on magnetic reconnection, the PDS slope and Ep,I are linked to the ejecta magnetisation at the dissipation site, so that more magnetised outflows would produce more variable GRB light curves at short timescales (≲1 s), shallower PDS, and higher values of Ep,I. Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  3. An emergency response intercomparison exercise using a synthetically generated gamma-ray spectrum

    Dowdall, M.; Selnæs, O.G.; Standring, W.J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Although high resolution gamma ray spectrometry serves as the primary analytical technique in emergency response situations, chances for laboratories to practice analysing the type of spectra that may be expected in the early phase of such a situation are limited. This problem is more acute for l...

  4. The development of a new edition of the gamma-ray spectrum catalogues designed for presentation in electronic format

    Heath, R.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    New editions of the original Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogues are being prepared for publication in electronic format. The objective of this program is to produce versions of the Catalogues in CD-ROM format and as an Internet resource. Additions to the original content of the Catalogues will include integrated decay scheme drawings, tables of related decay data, and updated text on the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. Related decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) are then added, and all data converted to the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format for CD-ROM production and availability on the large-volume Ge detectors, alpha-particle spectra, prompt neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma-ray spectra, and gross fission product spectra characteristic of fuel cycle waste materials. Characterization of radioactivity in materials is a requirement in many phases of radioactive waste management. Movement, shipping, treatment, all activities which involve handling of mixed waste or TRU categories of waste at all DOE sites will require that measurements and assessment documentation utilize basic nuclear data which are tracable to internationally accepted standard values. This program will involve the identification of data needs unique to the development and application of specialized detector systems for radioactive waste characterization. 8 refs., 8 figs.

  5. The development of a new edition of the gamma-ray spectrum catalogues designed for presentation in electronic format

    Heath, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    New editions of the original Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogues are being prepared for publication in electronic format. The objective of this program is to produce versions of the Catalogues in CD-ROM format and as an Internet resource. Additions to the original content of the Catalogues will include integrated decay scheme drawings, tables of related decay data, and updated text on the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. Related decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) are then added, and all data converted to the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format for CD-ROM production and availability on the large-volume Ge detectors, alpha-particle spectra, prompt neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma-ray spectra, and gross fission product spectra characteristic of fuel cycle waste materials. Characterization of radioactivity in materials is a requirement in many phases of radioactive waste management. Movement, shipping, treatment, all activities which involve handling of mixed waste or TRU categories of waste at all DOE sites will require that measurements and assessment documentation utilize basic nuclear data which are tracable to internationally accepted standard values. This program will involve the identification of data needs unique to the development and application of specialized detector systems for radioactive waste characterization. 8 refs., 8 figs

  6. The development of a new edition of the gamma-ray spectrum catalogues designed for presentation in electronic format

    Heath, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    New editions of the original Gamma-ray Spectrum Catalogues are being prepared for publication in electronic format. The objective of this program is to produce versions of the Catalogues in CD-ROM format and as an Internet resource. Additions to the original content of the Catalogues will include integrated decay scheme drawings, tables of related decay data, and updated text on the techniques of gamma-ray spectrometry. Related decay data from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) are then added, and all data converted to the Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format for CD-ROM production and availability on the Internet. At a later date the catalogues will be expanded to include spectra representing the response of large-volume Ge detectors, alpha-particle spectra, prompt neutron capture and inelastic scattering gamma-ray spectra, and gross fission product spectra characteristic of fuel cycle waste materials. Characterization of radioactivity in materials is a requirement in many phases of radioactive waste management. Movement, shipping, treatment, all activities which involve handling of mixed waste or TRU categories of waste at all DOE sites will require that measurements and assessment documentation utilize basic nuclear data which are tracable to internationally accepted standard values. This program will involve the identification of data needs unique to the development and application of specialized detector systems for radioactive waste characterization

  7. High-energy gamma-ray emission from solar flares: Constraining the accelerated proton spectrum

    Alexander, David; Dunphy, Philip P.; Mackinnon, Alexander L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a multi-component model to describe the gamma-ray emission, we investigate the flares of December 16, 1988 and March 6, 1989 which exhibited unambiguous evidence of neutral pion decay. The observations are then combined with theoretical calculations of pion production to constrain the accelerated proton spectra. The detection of pi(sup 0) emission alone can indicate much about the energy distribution and spectral variation of the protons accelerated to pion producing energies. Here both the intensity and detailed spectral shape of the Doppler-broadened pi(sup 0) decay feature are used to determine the spectral form of the accelerated proton energy distribution. The Doppler width of this gamma-ray emission provides a unique diagnostic of the spectral shape at high energies, independent of any normalisation. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this diagnostic has been used to constrain the proton spectra. The form of the energetic proton distribution is found to be severely limited by the observed intensity and Doppler width of the pi(sup 0) decay emission, demonstrating effectively the diagnostic capabilities of the pi(sup 0) decay gamma-rays. The spectral index derived from the gamma-ray intensity is found to be much harder than that derived from the Doppler width. To reconcile this apparent discrepancy we investigate the effects of introducing a high-energy cut-off in the accelerated proton distribution. With cut-off energies of around 0.5-0.8 GeV and relatively hard spectra, the observed intensities and broadening can be reproduced with a single energetic proton distribution above the pion production threshold.

  8. Spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normal states in {sup 192}Hg

    Henry, R.G.; Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Almost a hundred superdeformed bands were found in the mass 150 and 190 regions. Nevertheless, the energies and spins of the SD levels are still not measured (with one possible exception). Many attempts were made to decipher the highly-fragmented pathways connecting SD and normal states, but with hitherto no success. We adopted a new approach that consists of characterizing the overall spectral shape of the {gamma} rays linking SD and normal states.

  9. An optical spectrum of the afterglow of a gamma-ray burst at a redshift of z = 6.295.

    Kawai, N; Kosugi, G; Aoki, K; Yamada, T; Totani, T; Ohta, K; Iye, M; Hattori, T; Aoki, W; Furusawa, H; Hurley, K; Kawabata, K S; Kobayashi, N; Komiyama, Y; Mizumoto, Y; Nomoto, K; Noumaru, J; Ogasawara, R; Sato, R; Sekiguchi, K; Shirasaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Takata, T; Tamagawa, T; Terada, H; Watanabe, J; Yatsu, Y; Yoshida, A

    2006-03-09

    The prompt gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) should be detectable out to distances of z > 10 (ref. 1), and should therefore provide an excellent probe of the evolution of cosmic star formation, reionization of the intergalactic medium, and the metal enrichment history of the Universe. Hitherto, the highest measured redshift for a GRB has been z = 4.50 (ref. 5). Here we report the optical spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 050904 obtained 3.4 days after the burst; the spectrum shows a clear continuum at the long-wavelength end of the spectrum with a sharp cut-off at around 9,000 A due to Lyman alpha absorption at z approximately 6.3 (with a damping wing). A system of absorption lines of heavy elements at z = 6.295 +/- 0.002 was also detected, yielding the precise measurement of the redshift. The Si ii fine-structure lines suggest a dense, metal-enriched environment around the progenitor of the GRB.

  10. GAMANAL-PC: a program for gamma-ray spectrum analysis using a microcomputer

    Heimlich, M.; Beeley, P.A.; Page, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    GAMANAL was modified to operate on a microcomputer. The program uses an algorithm involving a Gaussian and a tailing term for fitting and resolving peaks obtained from spectrometers using Ge semiconductor detectors. Gamma-ray energies, intensities and absolute photon emission rates can be determined. A graphical output showing the original and fitted data can also be obtained. The results generated by the program are stored on disk as ASCII files for further analysis. This allows the use of other computer programs and languages in tasks such as decay curve analysis, radionuclide activity measurements and neutron activation analysis. (author) 11 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  11. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays and EMS on frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations in urdbean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper)

    Usharani, K.S.; Ananda Kumar, C.R.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll mutations act as a significant index in the judgment of induced genetic variations in mutagen treated populations. Different types of chlorophyll mutation have been observed in various crop plants. In the current study, the effect of different concentrations (40 kR, 50 kR and 60 kR) of gamma rays, Ethyl Methane Sulphonate (50 mM, 60 mM and 70 mM) in single and combination dose/concentration on the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutation and the effect of VBN 4 urdbean variety to such irradiation dose was observed. Results showed induction of broad spectrum of chlorophyll mutations which included albina, xantha, chlorina and viridis. Among these chlorina type was predominant in all the mutagenic treatments. The albina type of chlorophyll mutants occurred very rarely and was found only at 60 mM of EMS treatment and at 40 kR + 50 mM, 60 kR + 70 mM of combination treatments. Based on the chlorophyll mutation frequency, gamma rays were most effective followed by EMS and combination of treatments. (author)

  12. Conservative constraints on dark matter from the Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background spectrum

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria [Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Kilic, Can, E-mail: kev@umd.edu, E-mail: apr@umd.edu, E-mail: zchacko@umd.edu, E-mail: kilic@physics.rutgers.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    We examine the constraints on final state radiation from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates annihilating into various standard model final states, as imposed by the measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The expected isotropic diffuse signal from dark matter annihilation has contributions from the local Milky Way (MW) as well as from extragalactic dark matter. The signal from the MW is very insensitive to the adopted dark matter profile of the halos, and dominates the signal from extragalactic halos, which is sensitive to the low mass cut-off of the halo mass function. We adopt a conservative model for both the low halo mass survival cut-off and the substructure boost factor of the Galactic and extragalactic components, and only consider the primary final state radiation. This provides robust constraints which reach the thermal production cross-section for low mass WIMPs annihilating into hadronic modes. We also reanalyze limits from HESS observations of the Galactic Ridge region using a conservative model for the dark matter halo profile. When combined with the HESS constraint, the isotropic diffuse spectrum rules out all interpretations of the PAMELA positron excess based on dark matter annihilation into two lepton final states. Annihilation into four leptons through new intermediate states, although constrained by the data, is not excluded.

  13. Conservative constraints on dark matter from the Fermi-LAT isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background spectrum

    Abazajian, Kevork N.; Agrawal, Prateek; Chacko, Zackaria; Kilic, Can

    2010-01-01

    We examine the constraints on final state radiation from Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates annihilating into various standard model final states, as imposed by the measurement of the isotropic diffuse gamma-ray background by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. The expected isotropic diffuse signal from dark matter annihilation has contributions from the local Milky Way (MW) as well as from extragalactic dark matter. The signal from the MW is very insensitive to the adopted dark matter profile of the halos, and dominates the signal from extragalactic halos, which is sensitive to the low mass cut-off of the halo mass function. We adopt a conservative model for both the low halo mass survival cut-off and the substructure boost factor of the Galactic and extragalactic components, and only consider the primary final state radiation. This provides robust constraints which reach the thermal production cross-section for low mass WIMPs annihilating into hadronic modes. We also reanalyze limits from HESS observations of the Galactic Ridge region using a conservative model for the dark matter halo profile. When combined with the HESS constraint, the isotropic diffuse spectrum rules out all interpretations of the PAMELA positron excess based on dark matter annihilation into two lepton final states. Annihilation into four leptons through new intermediate states, although constrained by the data, is not excluded

  14. A computer code for calculation of radioactive nuclide generation and depletion, decay heat and {gamma} ray spectrum. FPGS90

    Ihara, Hitoshi; Katakura, Jun-ichi; Nakagawa, Tsuneo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-11-01

    In a nuclear reactor radioactive nuclides are generated and depleted with burning up of nuclear fuel. The radioactive nuclides, emitting {gamma} ray and {beta} ray, play role of radioactive source of decay heat in a reactor and radiation exposure. In safety evaluation of nuclear reactor and nuclear fuel cycle, it is needed to estimate the number of nuclides generated in nuclear fuel under various burn-up condition of many kinds of nuclear fuel used in a nuclear reactor. FPGS90 is a code calculating the number of nuclides, decay heat and spectrum of emitted {gamma} ray from fission products produced in a nuclear fuel under the various kinds of burn-up condition. The nuclear data library used in FPGS90 code is the library `JNDC Nuclear Data Library of Fission Products - second version -`, which is compiled by working group of Japanese Nuclear Data Committee for evaluating decay heat in a reactor. The code has a function of processing a so-called evaluated nuclear data file such as ENDF/B, JENDL, ENSDF and so on. It also has a function of making figures of calculated results. Using FPGS90 code it is possible to do all works from making library, calculating nuclide generation and decay heat through making figures of the calculated results. (author).

  15. Method for quantifying the uncertainty with the extraction of the raw data of a gamma ray spectrum by deconvolution software

    Vigineix, Thomas; Guillot, Nicolas; Saurel, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry is a passive non destructive assay most commonly used to identify and quantify the radionuclides present in complex huge objects such as nuclear waste packages. The treatment of spectra from the measurement of nuclear waste is done in two steps: the first step is to extract the raw data from the spectra (energies and the net photoelectric absorption peaks area) and the second step is to determine the detection efficiency of the measuring scene. Commercial software use different methods to extract the raw data spectrum but none are optimal in the treatment of spectra containing actinides. Spectra should be handled individually and requires settings and an important feedback part from the operator, which prevents the automatic process of spectrum and increases the risk of human error. In this context the Nuclear Measurement and Valuation Laboratory (LMNE) in the Atomic Energy Commission Valduc (CEA Valduc) has developed a new methodology for quantifying the uncertainty associated with the extraction of the raw data over spectrum. This methodology was applied with raw data and commercial software that need configuration by the operator (GENIE2000, Interwinner...). This robust and fully automated methodology of uncertainties calculation is performed on the entire process of the software. The methodology ensures for all peaks processed by the deconvolution software an extraction of energy peaks closed to 2 channels and an extraction of net areas with an uncertainty less than 5 percents. The methodology was tested experimentally with actinides spectrum. (authors)

  16. Comparison of a semi-empirical method with some model codes for gamma-ray spectrum calculation

    Sheng, Fan; Zhixiang, Zhao [Chinese Nuclear Data Center, Beijing, BJ (China)

    1996-06-01

    Gamma-ray spectra calculated by a semi-empirical method are compared with those calculated by the model codes such as GNASH, TNG, UNF and NDCP-1. The results of the calculations are discussed. (2 tabs., 3 figs.).

  17. Spectrum of atmospheric gamma rays to 10 MeV at lambda = 40 deg. [as function of altitude

    Peterson, L. E.; Schwartz, D. A.; Ling, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Results of measurements of the differential counting rate spectra due to atmospheric gamma rays as a function of altitude to 3.6 g/sq cm over Texas. Two gain settings and a 128-channel pulse height analyzer were used to cover the range from 0.2 to 10 MeV. The detector was a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI crystal, which was surrounded on five sides by a 2-cm-thick plastic anticoincidence shield for charged particle rejection. The system had a nearly isotropic response to photons above 0.2 MeV. The spectrum at ceiling appeared as a steep continuum with a power-law index of about 1.4. The only obvious feature was the 0.51-MeV positron annihilation line. The spectral shape was independent for depths less than 20 g/sq cm, the absolute intensity varying in proportion to the intensity of the cosmic ray secondary charged particles. Also, at depths less than 30 g/sq cm the observed flux variation with altitude can be described in terms of an empirical depth-dependent source function.

  18. Calculation of the spectrum of {gamma} rays connecting superdeformed and normally deformed nuclear states

    Dossing, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The decay out of superdeformed states occurs by coupling to compound nuclear states of normal deformation. The coupling is very weak, resulting in mixing of the SD state with one or two normal compound states. With a high energy available for decay, a statistical spectrum ensues. The shape of this statistical spectrum contains information on the level densities of the excited states below the SD level. The level densities are sensitively affected by the pair correlations. Thus decay-out of a SD state (which presents us with a means to start a statistical cascade from a highly-excited sharp state) provides a method for investigating the reduction of pairing with increasing thermal excitation energy.

  19. The angular power spectrum of the diffuse gamma-ray background as a probe of Galactic dark matter substructure

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Dark matter annihilation in Galactic substructure produces diffuse gamma-ray emission of remarkably constant intensity across the sky, and in general this signal dominates over the smooth halo signal at angles greater than a few tens of degrees from the Galactic Center. The large-scale isotropy of the emission from substructure suggests that it may be difficult to extract this Galactic dark matter signal from the extragalactic gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure induces...

  20. EVIDENCE FOR ENHANCED {sup 3}HE IN FLARE-ACCELERATED PARTICLES BASED ON NEW CALCULATIONS OF THE GAMMA-RAY LINE SPECTRUM

    Murphy, R. J. [Code 7650, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Kozlovsky, B. [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Share, G. H., E-mail: murphy@ssd5.nrl.navy.mil, E-mail: benz@wise.tau.ac.il, E-mail: share@astro.umd.edu [University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The {sup 3}He abundance in impulsive solar energetic particle (SEP) events is enhanced up to several orders of magnitude compared to its photospheric value of [{sup 3}He]/[{sup 4}He] = 1–3 × 10{sup −4}. Interplanetary magnetic field and timing observations suggest that these events are related to solar flares. Observations of {sup 3}He in flare-accelerated ions would clarify the relationship between these two phenomena. Energetic {sup 3}He interactions in the solar atmosphere produce gamma-ray nuclear-deexcitation lines, both lines that are also produced by protons and α particles and lines that are essentially unique to {sup 3}He. Gamma-ray spectroscopy can, therefore, reveal enhanced levels of accelerated {sup 3}He. In this paper, we identify all significant deexcitation lines produced by {sup 3}He interactions in the solar atmosphere. We evaluate their production cross sections and incorporate them into our nuclear deexcitation-line code. We find that enhanced {sup 3}He can affect the entire gamma-ray spectrum. We identify gamma-ray line features for which the yield ratios depend dramatically on the {sup 3}He abundance. We determine the accelerated {sup 3}He/ α ratio by comparing these ratios with flux ratios measured previously from the gamma-ray spectrum obtained by summing the 19 strongest flares observed with the Solar Maximum Mission Gamma-Ray Spectrometer. All six flux ratios investigated show enhanced {sup 3}He, confirming earlier suggestions. The {sup 3}He/ α weighted mean of these new measurements ranges from 0.05 to 0.3 (depending on the assumed accelerated α /proton ratio) and has a <1 × 10{sup −3} probability of being consistent with the photospheric value. With the improved code, we can now exploit the full potential of gamma-ray spectroscopy to establish the relationship between flare-accelerated ions and {sup 3}He-rich SEPs.

  1. On the intrinsic shape of the gamma-ray spectrum for Fermi blazars

    Kang, Shi-Ju; Wu, Qingwen; Zheng, Yong-Gang; Yin, Yue; Song, Jia-Li; Zou, Hang; Feng, Jian-Chao; Dong, Ai-Jun; Wu, Zhong-Zu; Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Wu, Lin-Hui

    2018-05-01

    The curvature of the γ-ray spectrumin blazarsmay reflect the intrinsic distribution of emitting electrons, which will further give some information on the possible acceleration and cooling processes in the emitting region. The γ-ray spectra of Fermi blazars are normally fitted either by a single power-law (PL) or a log-normal (call Logarithmic Parabola, LP) form. The possible reason for this difference is not clear. We statistically explore this issue based on the different observational properties of 1419 Fermi blazars in the 3LAC Clean Sample.We find that the γ-ray flux (100MeV–100GeV) and variability index follow bimodal distributions for PL and LP blazars, where the γ-ray flux and variability index show a positive correlation. However, the distributions of γ-ray luminosity and redshift follow a unimodal distribution. Our results suggest that the bimodal distribution of γ-ray fluxes for LP and PL blazars may not be intrinsic and all blazars may have an intrinsically curved γ-ray spectrum, and the PL spectrum is just caused by the fitting effect due to less photons.

  2. Spectrum of {gamma} rays from the decay of SD to normal states in {sup 191}Hg

    Gassmann, D.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T. [and others

    1995-08-01

    In B.a.7. we propose that the statistical spectrum emitted from a sharp single excited state serves as a probe of pairing in excited states. A specific test of this proposal is the comparison of the spectra from even-even and odd-even nuclei. Whereas a pair gap exists in an even-even nucleus, it gets filled in an odd-even nucleus. Consequently, low-energy transitions can arise in the latter case, whereas they are calculated to be absent in the former case because very few levels exist in the cold gap region. In addition, transitions between 1.4 - 2.2 MeV, which {open_quotes}jump{close_quotes} across the gap, are predicted to have lower yield in the odd-even nuclei. Serendipitously, decay from a superdeformed state serves as a good initial excited sharp state. We extracted the spectrum pairwise-coincident with SD lines in {sup 191}Hg from Gammasphere data and compared it with the equivalent spectra from the even-even nuclei {sup 192,194}Hg. The differences that are predicted to occur are indeed observed. Thus, the data support our proposal that the reduction of pairing with thermal excitation energy can be probed with statistical decay spectra.

  3. Gamma ray generator

    Firestone, Richard B; Reijonen, Jani

    2014-05-27

    An embodiment of a gamma ray generator includes a neutron generator and a moderator. The moderator is coupled to the neutron generator. The moderator includes a neutron capture material. In operation, the neutron generator produces neutrons and the neutron capture material captures at least some of the neutrons to produces gamma rays. An application of the gamma ray generator is as a source of gamma rays for calibration of gamma ray detectors.

  4. DISCERNING THE GAMMA-RAY-EMITTING REGION IN THE FLAT SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    Zheng, Y. G. [Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, 650092 (China); Yang, C. Y.; Wang, J. C. [Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China); Zhang, L., E-mail: ynzyg@ynu.edu.cn, E-mail: chyy@ynao.ac.cn [Department of Astronomy, Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 (China)

    2017-01-01

    A model-dependent method is proposed to determine the location of the γ -ray-emitting region for a given flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ). In the model, the extra-relativistic electrons are injected at the base of the jet and non-thermal photons are produced by both synchrotron radiation and inverse-Compton (IC) scattering in the energy dissipation region. The target photons dominating IC scattering originate from both synchrotron photons and external ambient photon fields, and the energy density of external radiation field is a function of the distance between the position of the dissipation region and a central supermassive black hole, and their spectra are seen in the comoving frame. Moreover, the energy dissipation region could be determined by the model parameter through reproducing the γ -ray spectra. Such a model is applied to reproduce the quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength observed data for 36 FSRQs. In order to define the width of the broad-line region (BLR) shell and dusty molecular torus (MT) shell, a simple numerical constraint is used to determine the outer boundary of the BLR and dusty MT. Our results show that (1) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located at the range from 0.1 to 10 pc; (2) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located outside the BLRs and within the dusty molecular tori; and (3) the γ -ray-emitting regions are located closer to the dusty MT ranges than the BLRs. Therefore, it may be concluded that direct evidence for the far site scenario could be obtained on the basis of the model results.

  5. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  6. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-08-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models.

  7. Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes

    Marisaldi, Martino; Fuschino, Fabio; Labanti, Claudio; Tavani, Marco; Argan, Andrea; Del Monte, Ettore; Longo, Francesco; Barbiellini, Guido; Giuliani, Andrea; Trois, Alessio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Gianotti, Fulvio; Trifoglio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Lightning and thunderstorm systems in general have been recently recognized as powerful particle accelerators, capable of producing electrons, positrons, gamma-rays and neutrons with energies as high as several tens of MeV. In fact, these natural systems turn out to be the highest energy and most efficient natural particle accelerators on Earth. Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGFs) are millisecond long, very intense bursts of gamma-rays and are one of the most intriguing manifestation of these natural accelerators. Only three currently operative missions are capable of detecting TGFs from space: the RHESSI, Fermi and AGILE satellites. In this paper we review the characteristics of TGFs, including energy spectrum, timing structure, beam geometry and correlation with lightning, and the basic principles of the associated production models. Then we focus on the recent AGILE discoveries concerning the high energy extension of the TGF spectrum up to 100 MeV, which is difficult to reconcile with current theoretical models

  8. Theoretical determination of spectrum-exposure rate conversion operator of HPGe detector and its application to the measurement of environmental gamma-ray exposure rate

    Park, Ch.M.; Choi, B.I.; Kwak, S.S.; Ji, P.K.; Kim, T.W.; Park, Y.W.; Yoon, B.K.

    1993-01-01

    A conversion operator between spectrum and exposure rate, using a portable HPGe detector for environmental radiation monitoring, was determined theoretically under the assumption of uniform distribution of radiation source on the ground surface. The measurement results were compared with those of a pressurized ionization chamber. The results obtained with the HPGe detector were slightly lower. The method can be easily applied to any gamma ray detector to obtain a spectrum - exposure-rate conversion factor for computing the exposure rate of environmental gamma radiation. (N.T.) 15 refs.; 6 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. Gamma-Ray Interactions for Reachback Analysts

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Myers, Steven Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This presentation is a part of the DHS LSS spectroscopy training course and presents an overview of the following concepts: identification and measurement of gamma rays; use of gamma counts and energies in research. Understanding the basic physics of how gamma rays interact with matter can clarify how certain features in a spectrum were produced.

  10. Measurement of the Crab nebula (M1) gamma rays emission spectrum above 1 TeV using the Cerenkov light detection of atmospheric showers

    Djannati-Atai, Arache

    1995-01-01

    One of the major impediments towards reliable measurements in ground-based gamma ray astronomy comes from the lack of a tagged cosmic beam of gamma rays for calibrating the detectors. The main aim of this thesis - done within the framework of the Themistocle experiment - has been to provide a calibration method using the known flux of hadronic cosmic rays as a test beam. After a brief review of the most recent results in gamma ray astronomy and an introduction to the atmospheric Cerenkov technique, we describe the setup of the Themistocle experiment. We then present the calibration method, its performances and the procedures set up for the simulation of the hadronic air showers and the detector. The application of the calibration method to data from almost 400 hours of observation of the Crab nebula will then allow us to give one of the most accurate measurements of its spectrum between 3 and 13 TeV, measurement which is an important step towards the Crab becoming a standard cradle in this energy range. (author) [fr

  11. Gamma-ray burst spectra

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    A review of recent results in gamma-ray burst spectroscopy is given. Particular attention is paid to the recent discovery of emission and absorption features in the burst spectra. These lines represent the strongest evidence to date that gamma-ray bursts originate on or near neutron stars. Line parameters give information on the temperature, magnetic field and possibly the gravitational potential of the neutron star. The behavior of the continuum spectrum is also discussed. A remarkably good fit to nearly all bursts is obtained with a thermal-bremsstrahlung-like continuum. Significant evolution is observed of both the continuum and line features within most events

  12. Gamma ray beam transmutation

    Imasaki, K.; Li, D.; Miyamoto, S.; Amano, S.; Motizuki, T.

    2007-01-01

    We have proposed a new approach to nuclear transmutation by a gamma ray beam of Compton scattered laser photon. We obtained 20 MeV gamma ray in this way to obtain transmutation rates with the giant resonance of 1 97Au and 1 29Iodine. The rate of the transmutation agreed with the theoretical calculation. Experiments on energy spectrum of positron, electron and neutron from targets were performed for the energy balance and design of the system scheme. The reaction rate was about 1.5∼4% for appropriate photon energies and neutron production rate was up to 4% in the measurements. We had stored laser photon more than 5000 times in a small cavity which implied for a significant improvement of system efficiency. Using these technologies, we have designed an actual transmutation system for 1 29Iodine which has a 16 million year's activity. In my presentation, I will address the properties of this scheme, experiments results and transmutation system for iodine transmutation

  13. Advance features in the SPAN and SPAN/XRF gamma ray and X ray spectrum analysis software

    Wang Liyu

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the advanced techniques, integral peak background, experimental peak shape and complex peak shape, which have been used successfully in the software packages SPAN and SPAN/XRF to process gamma ray and X ray spectra from HPGe and Si(Li) detector. Main features of SPAN and SPAN/XRF are also described. The software runs on PC and has convenient graphical capabilities and a powerful user interface. (author)

  14. Time evolution of gamma rays from supernova remnants

    Gaggero, Daniele; Zandanel, Fabio; Cristofari, Pierre; Gabici, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    We present a systematic phenomenological study focused on the time evolution of the non-thermal radiation - from radio waves to gamma rays - emitted by typical supernova remnants via hadronic and leptonic mechanisms, for two classes of progenitors: thermonuclear and core-collapse. To this aim, we develop a numerical tool designed to model the evolution of the cosmic ray spectrum inside a supernova remnant, and compute the associated multi-wavelength emission. We demonstrate the potential of this tool in the context of future population studies based on large collection of high-energy gamma-ray data. We discuss and explore the relevant parameter space involved in the problem, and focus in particular on their impact on the maximum energy of accelerated particles, in order to study the effectiveness and duration of the PeVatron phase. We outline the crucial role of the ambient medium through which the shock propagates during the remnant evolution. In particular, we point out the role of dense clumps in creating a significant hardening in the hadronic gamma-ray spectrum.

  15. Gamma ray astronomy

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1975-01-01

    The first certain detection of celestial high energy gamma rays came from a satellite experiment flown on the third Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-111). A Gamma ray spark chamber telescope with substantively greater sensitivity and angular resolution (a few degrees) flown on the second Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-II) has now provided a better picture of the gamma ray sky, and particularly the galactic plane and pulsars. This paper will summarize the present picture of gamma ray astronomy as it has developed at this conference from measurements made with experiments carried out on balloons, those remaining on the ground, and ones flown on satellites. (orig.) [de

  16. Gamma-ray sources

    Hermsen, W.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the celestial gamma-ray fine-scale structure based on over half of the data which may ultimately be available from the COS-B satellite. A catalogue consisting of 25 gamma-ray sources measured at energies above 100 MeV is presented. (Auth.)

  17. Gamma ray astronomy

    Hillier, R.

    1984-01-01

    The book reviews the development of gamma ray astronomy over the past twenty five years. A large section of the book is devoted to the problems of background radiation and the design of detectors. Gamma rays from the sun, the galactic disc, the galaxy, and extra galactic sources; are also discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Temporal Evolution of the Gamma-ray Burst Afterglow Spectrum for an Observer: GeV–TeV Synchrotron Self-Compton Light Curve

    Fukushima, Takuma; Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka, 560-0043 (Japan); To, Sho; Asano, Katsuaki, E-mail: fukushima@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp, E-mail: tosho@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: asanok@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2017-08-01

    We numerically simulate the gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission with a one-zone time-dependent code. The temporal evolutions of the decelerating shocked shell and energy distributions of electrons and photons are consistently calculated. The photon spectrum and light curves for an observer are obtained taking into account the relativistic propagation of the shocked shell and the curvature of the emission surface. We find that the onset time of the afterglow is significantly earlier than the previous analytical estimate. The analytical formulae of the shock propagation and light curve for the radiative case are also different from our results. Our results show that even if the emission mechanism is switching from synchrotron to synchrotron self-Compton, the gamma-ray light curves can be a smooth power law, which agrees with the observed light curve and the late detection of a 32 GeV photon in GRB 130427A. The uncertainty of the model parameters obtained with the analytical formula is discussed, especially in connection with the closure relation between spectral index and decay index.

  19. Gamma-ray spectrum of the radiaoctive dust produced by the super-hydrogen bomb test explosion on March 1, 1954

    Shimizu, S.

    1987-03-15

    The super-hydrogen bomb test explosion, the so-called Bravo test of a fission-fusion-fission bomb, was carried out on Bikini Atoll in the mid-Pacific on March 1, 1954. Twenty-three Japanese fishermen on board a fishing boat about 90 miles north-east of the test site were attacked unexpectedly by the fallout, radioactive fine debris of coral reef. Within several months after the accident by radiochemical analysis about 20 different nuclides of fission products and, in addition, a considerable amount of /sup 235/U were discovered from the fallout. As we have been preserving a minute amount of the original fallout dust collected on board the fishing boat 31 years ago, measurements of ..gamma.. rays from it have recently been used to find some active nuclides, if still existing. In the ..gamma..-ray spectrum observed there exist evident peaks of ..gamma.. and X-rays from /sup 241/Am, /sup 155/Eu, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 60/Co. Absolute intensities of these four nuclides, still remaining 31 years after the explosion of the bomb, have been estimated. Some discussion on our finding is presented.

  20. Rey: a computer code for the determination of the radionuclides activities from the gamma-ray spectrum data

    Palomares, J.; Perez, A.; Travesi, A.

    1978-01-01

    The Fortran IV computer Code, REY (REsolution and Identification), has been developed for the automatic resolution of the gamma-ray spectra from high resolution Ge-Li detectors. The Code searches the full energy peaks in the spectra background as the base line under the peak and calculates the energy of the statistically significant peaks. Also the Code assigns each peak to the most probable isotope and makes a selection of all the possible radioisotopes of the spectra, according the relative intensities of all the peaks in the whole spectra. Finally, it obtains the activities, in microcuries of each isotope, according the geometry used in the measurement. Although the Code is a general purpose one, their actual library of nuclear data is adapted for the analysis of liquid effluents from nuclear power plants. A computer with a 16 core memory and a hard disk are sufficient for this code.(author)

  1. Gamma-ray Output Spectra from 239 Pu Fission

    Ullmann, John

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray multiplicities, individual gamma-ray energy spectra, and total gamma energy spectra following neutron-induced fission of 239 Pu were measured using the DANCE detector at Los Alamos. Corrections for detector response were made using a forward-modeling technique based on propagating sets of gamma rays generated from a paramaterized model through a GEANT model of the DANCE array and adjusting the parameters for best fit to the measured spectra. The results for the gamma-ray spectrum and multiplicity are in general agreement with previous results, but the measured total gamma-ray energy is about 10% higher. A dependence of the gamma-ray spectrum on the gamma-ray multplicity was also observed. Global model calculations of the multiplicity and gamma energy distributions are in good agreement with the data, but predict a slightly softer total-energy distribution

  2. Possible galactic origin of. gamma. -ray bursts

    Manchanda, R K; Ramsden, D [Southampton Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1977-03-31

    It is stated that extragalactic models for the origin of non-solar ..gamma..-ray bursts include supernova bursts in remote galaxies, and the collapse of the cores of active stars, whilst galactic models are based on flare stars, thermonuclear explosions in neutron stars and the sudden accretion of cometary gas on to neutron stars. The acceptability of any of these models may be tested by the observed size spectrum of the ..gamma..-ray bursts. The extragalactic models predict a power law spectrum with number index -1.5, whilst for the galactic models the number index will be -1. Experimental data on ..gamma..-ray bursts is, however, still meagre, and so far only 44 confirmed events have been recorded by satellite-borne instruments. The number spectrum of the observed ..gamma..-ray bursts indicates that the observed distribution for events with an energy < 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/ is flat; this makes the choice of any model completely arbitrary. An analysis of the observed ..gamma..-ray events is here presented that suggests very interesting possibilities for their origin. There appears to be a preferred mean energy for ..gamma..-ray bursts; some 90% of the recorded events show a mean energy between 5 x 10/sup -5/ and 5 x 10/sup -4/ erg/cm/sup 2/, contrary to the predicted characteristics of the number spectrum of various models. A remarkable similarity is found between the distribution of ..gamma..-ray bursts and that of supernova remnants, suggesting a genetic relationship between the two and the galactic origin of the ..gamma..-ray bursts, and the burst source could be identified with completely run down neutron stars, formed during supernova explosions.

  3. A LINGERING NON-THERMAL COMPONENT IN THE GAMMA-RAY BURST PROMPT EMISSION: PREDICTING GeV EMISSION FROM THE MeV SPECTRUM

    Basak, Rupal; Rao, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    The high-energy GeV emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by Fermi/LAT has a significantly different morphology compared to the lower energy MeV emission detected by Fermi/GBM. Though the late-time GeV emission is believed to be synchrotron radiation produced via an external shock, this emission as early as the prompt phase is puzzling. A meaningful connection between these two emissions can be drawn only by an accurate description of the prompt MeV spectrum. We perform a time-resolved spectroscopy of the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data of long GRBs with significant GeV emission, using a model consisting of two blackbodies and a power law. We examine in detail the evolution of the spectral components and find that GRBs with high GeV emission (GRB 090902B and GRB 090926A) have a delayed onset of the power-law component in the GBM spectrum, which lingers at the later part of the prompt emission. This behavior mimics the flux evolution in the Large Area Telescope (LAT). In contrast, bright GBM GRBs with an order of magnitude lower GeV emission (GRB 100724B and GRB 091003) show a coupled variability of the total and the power-law flux. Further, by analyzing the data for a set of 17 GRBs, we find a strong correlation between the power-law fluence in the MeV and the LAT fluence (Pearson correlation: r = 0.88 and Spearman correlation: ρ = 0.81). We demonstrate that this correlation is not influenced by the correlation between the total and the power-law fluences at a confidence level of 2.3σ. We speculate the possible radiation mechanisms responsible for the correlation

  4. Processing of gamma-ray spectrometric logs

    Umiastowski, K.; Dumesnil, P.

    1984-10-01

    CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developped a gamma-ray spectrometric tool, containing an analog-to-digital converter. This new tool permits to perform very precise uranium logs (natural gamma-ray spectrometry), neutron activation logs and litho-density logs (gamma-gamma spectrometric logs). Specific processing methods were developped to treate the particular problems of down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Extraction of the characteristic gamma-ray peak, even if they are superposed on the background radiation of very high intensity, is possible. This processing methode enables also to obtain geological informations contained in the continuous background of the spectrum. Computer programs are written in high level language for SIRIUS (VICTOR) and APOLLO computers. Exemples of uranium and neutron activation logs treatment are presented [fr

  5. Measurement of the Shape of the Optical-IR Spectrum of Prompt Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Grossan, Bruce; Kistaubayev, M.; Smoot, G.; Scherr, L.

    2017-06-01

    While the afterglow phase of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has been extensively measured, detections of prompt emission (i.e. during bright X-gamma emission) are more limited. Some prompt optical measurements are regularly made, but these are typically in a single wide band, with limited time resolution, and no measurement of spectral shape. Some models predict a synchrotron self-absorption spectral break somewhere in the IR-optical region. Measurement of the absorption frequency would give extensive information on each burst, including the electron Lorentz factor, the radius of emission, and more (Shen & Zhang 2008). Thus far the best prompt observations have been explained invoking a variety of models, but often with a non-unique interpretation. To understand this apparently heterogeneous behavior, and to reduce the number of possible models, it is critical to add data on the optical - IR spectral shape.Long GRB prompt X-gamma emission typically lasts ~40-80 s. The Swift BAT instrument rapidly measures GRB positions to within a few arc minutes and communicates them via the internet within a few seconds. We have measured the time for a fast-moving D=700 mm telescope to point and settle to be less than 9 s anywhere on the observable sky. Therefore, the majority of prompt optical-IR emission can be measured responding to BAT positions with this telescope. In this presentation, we describe our observing and science programs, and give our design for the Burst Simultaneous Three-channel Instrument (BSTI), which uses dichroics to send eparate bands to 3 cameras. Two EMCCD cameras, give high-time resolution in B and V; a third camera with a HgCdTe sensor covers H band, allowing us to study extinguished bursts. For a total exposure time of 10 s, we find a 5 sigma sensitivity of 21.3 and 20.3 mag in B and R for 1" seeing and Kitt Peak sky brightness, much fainter than typical previous prompt detections. We estimate 5 sigma H-band sensitivity for an IR optimized telescope to be

  6. X-ray echoes from gamma-ray bursts

    Dermer, C.D.; Hurley, K.C.; Hartmann, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of an echo of reflected radiation in time histories of gamma-ray burst spectra can provide important information about the existence of binary companions or accretion disks in gamma-ray burst systems. Because of the nature of Compton scattering, the spectrum of the echo will be attenuated at gamma-ray energies compared with the spectrum of the primary burst emission. The expected temporal and spectral signatures of the echo and a search for such echoes are described, and implications for gamma-ray burst models are discussed. 35 refs

  7. Effects of Shielding on Gamma Rays

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-13

    The interaction of gamma rays with matter results in an effect we call attenuation (i.e. ‘shielding’). Attenuation can dramatically alter the appearance of a spectrum. Attenuating materials may actually create features in a spectrum via x-ray fluorescence

  8. Prognoses of prospective areas for uranium metallogenesis with full-spectrum information of airborne gamma-ray survey

    Hu Mingkao; Shen Zhengxin; Li Binghai; Cai Genqing

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the development of airborne radioactive survey and the background of carrying out full-spectrum study. It also introduces the method, standard and application example of using the full-spectrum information of airborne gamma spectrum to predict U-metallogenic prospective areas. The field checking has found that uranium in the water of the prospective area is three magnitude higher than that in the normal area. The developmment and the application of this method will play a multiplier role in reusing the library stored data evaluating uranium resource potential in our Country. (authors)

  9. Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Pellizza, L. J.

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest transient sources in the gamma-ray sky. Since their discovery in the late 1960s, the investigation of the astrophysical sys- tems in which these phenomena take place, and the physical mechanisms that drive them, has become a vast and prolific area of modern astrophysics. In this work I will briefly describe the most relevant observations of these sources, and the models that describe their nature, emphasizing on the in- vestigations about the progenitor astrophysical systems. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  10. Gamma Ray Bursts

    Gehrels, Neil; Meszaros, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are bright flashes of gamma-rays coming from the cosmos. They occur roughly once per day ,last typically lOs of seconds and are the most luminous events in the universe. More than three decades after their discovery, and after pioneering advances from space and ground experiments, they still remain mysterious. The launch of the Swift and Fermi satellites in 2004 and 2008 brought in a trove of qualitatively new data. In this review we survey the interplay between these recent observations and the theoretical models of the prompt GRB emission and the subsequent afterglows.

  11. Galactic x-ray and gamma-ray emission and the nature of the interstellar electron spectrum

    Protheroe, R J; Wolfendale, A W [Durham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Physics

    1980-12-01

    An analysis is made of all available data, both direct and indirect, on the energy spectrum of cosmic ray electrons. It is shown that the data are consistent with an injection spectrum having a constant exponent, ..gamma.. = 2.1 +- 0.1, over a wide range of energy: 10-10sup(g) MeV. Attention is drawn to the role of a possible deficit of sources in reducing the intensity of local electrons both above 10 GeV and below a few hundred MeV.

  12. Galactic X-ray and gamma-ray emission and the nature of the interstellar electron spectrum

    Protheroe, R.J.; Wolfendale, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    An analysis is made of all available data, both direct and indirect, on the energy spectrum of cosmic ray electrons. It is shown that the data are consistent with an injection spectrum having a constant exponent, γ = 2.1 +- 0.1, over a wide range of energy: 10-10sup(g) MeV. Attention is drawn to the role of a possible deficit of sources in reducing the intensity of local electrons both above 10 GeV and below a few hundred MeV. (orig.)

  13. Gamma ray astronomy

    Broomhead, Laurent.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear gamma astronomy is presented, in particular the Gamma Ray Observatory, an enormous eight tonnes machine fitted with gamma telescopes, scheduled for launching around 1985. It is thereby hoped to study the natural nuclear reactions which occur when stars explode [fr

  14. Gamma ray calibration system

    Rosauer, P.J.; Flaherty, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    This invention is in the field of gamma ray inspection devices for tubular products and the like employing an improved calibrating block which prevents the sensing system from being overloaded when no tubular product is present, and also provides the operator with a means for visually detecting the presence of wall thicknesses which are less than a required minimum. (author)

  15. FERMI/LARGE AREA TELESCOPE DISCOVERY OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO QUASAR PKS 1454-354

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bogaert, G.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope of high-energy γ-ray (GeV) emission from the flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1454-354 (z = 1.424). On 2008 September 4, the source rose to a peak flux of (3.5 ± 0.7) x 10 -6 ph cm -2 s -1 (E > 100 MeV) on a timescale of hours and then slowly dropped over the following 2 days. No significant spectral changes occurred during the flare. Fermi/LAT observations also showed that PKS 1454-354 is the most probable counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1500-3509. Multiwavelength measurements performed during the following days (7 September with Swift; 6-7 September with the ground-based optical telescope Automated Telescope for Optical Monitoring; 13 September with the Australia Telescope Compact Array) resulted in radio, optical, UV, and X-ray fluxes greater than archival data, confirming the activity of PKS 1454-354.

  16. Measurement and calculation of secondary gamma rays resulting from exposure of Fe, Pb, and H/sub 2/O to the ARERR-1 spectrum

    Makarious, A.S.; Ford, W.E. III; Turnbull, K.R.

    1977-08-01

    Integral experiments were performed to measure the angular distribution of secondary gamma rays produced when various thicknesses of Fe, Pb, and H/sub 2/O samples were exposed to bare and to B/sub 4/C-filtered neutron beams from the Research Reactor of Egypt. For selected experiments, multigroup coupled neutron-gamma cross sections and a discrete ordinates transport theory code (DOT4PI-M) were used to calculate the secondary gamma rays and the transport of primary gamma rays. Integral comparisons between the calculated and measured spectra were favorable. Graphical comparisons of the measured flux for various angles of incidence of the neutron beams on the samples, for various angles of exit on the transmitted side of the samples, and for various sample thicknesses are shown. The comparisons show that the angular distribution of secondary gamma rays for the three materials changes slightly with a change in the angle of beam incident on the sample, but increasing the angle between the normal to the sample and the detector by 60/sup 0/ decreases the measured secondary gamma-ray flux up to a factor of two. An investigation was made to determine the consequences of using single scatter Compton theory versus using discrete ordinates transport calculations to estimate the primary gamma-ray contribution to the measured photon spectra.

  17. Observation of gamma-ray bursts with GINGA

    Murakami, Toshio; Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    Gamma-ray Burst Detector System (GBD) on board the scientific satellite 'GINGA' which was launched on Feb. 5, 1987, was realized as an international cooperation between ISAS and LANL. It has recorded more than 40 Gamma-Ray Burst candidates during 20 months observation. Although many observational evidences were accumulated in past 20 years after the discovery of gamma-ray burst by LANL scientists, there are not enough evidence to determine the origin and the production mechanism of the gamma-ray burst. GBD consists of a proportional counter and a NaI scintillation counter so that it became possible to observe energy spectrum of the gamma-ray burst with high energy resolution over wide range of energy (1.5-380 keV) together with high time resolution. As the result of observation, the following facts are obtained: (1) A large fraction of observed gamma-ray bursts has a long X-ray tail after the harder part of gamma-ray emission has terminated. (2) Clear spectral absorption features with harmonic in energy was observed in some of the energy spectrum of gamma-ray bursts. These evidences support the hypothesis that the strongly magnetized neutron star is the origin of gamma-ray burst. (author)

  18. Pulser injection with subsequent removal for gamma-ray spectrometry

    Hartwell, J.K.; Goodwin, S.G.; Johnson, L.O.; Killian, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a module for use with a gamma-ray spectroscopy system. The system includes a gamma-ray detector for detecting gamma-ray events and producing a signal representing the gamma-ray events, a converter responsive to the detector and capable of converting the signal to a spectrum, a storage memory responsive to the converter and capable of storing the spectrum at address locations in memory, and a pulser capable of injecting pulses into the signal produced by the detector. The module comprises: means for generating a logic pulse for controlling the pulser, the controlling means adapted for coupling to the pulser; means for generating separation of events logic to isolate the components of a combined gamma-ray---pulse spectrum, the separation of events logic means adapted for coupling to the converter and the storage memory with the capability of storing pulses at address locations in the storage memory separate from the gamma-ray events; means for receiving an imitating signal from the converter to generate a plurality of operations by the module; means for tracking variations in a gamma-ray---pulse spectrum brought on by external parameter changes; and means for interfacing with commercially developed gamma-ray spectrometry equipment

  19. VHE Gamma-ray Supernova Remnants

    Funk, Stefan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-01-22

    Increasing observational evidence gathered especially in X-rays and {gamma}-rays during the course of the last few years support the notion that Supernova remnants (SNRs) are Galactic particle accelerators up to energies close to the ''knee'' in the energy spectrum of Cosmic rays. This review summarizes the current status of {gamma}-ray observations of SNRs. Shell-type as well as plerionic type SNRs are addressed and prospect for observations of these two source classes with the upcoming GLAST satellite in the energy regime above 100 MeV are given.

  20. Gamma-ray bursts

    Wijers, Ralph A M J; Woosley, Stan

    2012-01-01

    Cosmic gamma ray bursts (GRBs) have fascinated scientists and the public alike since their discovery in the late 1960s. Their story is told here by some of the scientists who participated in their discovery and, after many decades of false starts, solved the problem of their origin. Fourteen chapters by active researchers in the field present a detailed history of the discovery, a comprehensive theoretical description of GRB central engine and emission models, a discussion of GRB host galaxies and a guide to how GRBs can be used as cosmological tools. Observations are grouped into three sets from the satellites CGRO, BeppoSAX and Swift, and followed by a discussion of multi-wavelength observations. This is the first edited volume on GRB astrophysics that presents a fully comprehensive review of the subject. Utilizing the latest research, Gamma-ray Bursts is an essential desktop companion for graduate students and researchers in astrophysics.

  1. Gamma ray camera

    Wang, S.-H.; Robbins, C.D.

    1979-01-01

    An Anger gamma ray camera is improved by the substitution of a gamma ray sensitive, proximity type image intensifier tube for the scintillator screen in the Anger camera. The image intensifier tube has a negatively charged flat scintillator screen, a flat photocathode layer, and a grounded, flat output phosphor display screen, all of which have the same dimension to maintain unit image magnification; all components are contained within a grounded metallic tube, with a metallic, inwardly curved input window between the scintillator screen and a collimator. The display screen can be viewed by an array of photomultipliers or solid state detectors. There are two photocathodes and two phosphor screens to give a two stage intensification, the two stages being optically coupled by a light guide. (author)

  2. THE SPECTRUM OF ISOTROPIC DIFFUSE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION BETWEEN 100 MeV AND 820 GeV

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics, Clemson, SC 29634-0978 (United States); Albert, A.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Caliandro, G. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Université Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bechtol, K. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bissaldi, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, and Università di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Bregeon, J. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Université Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Bruel, P., E-mail: markus.ackermann@desy.de, E-mail: bechtol@kicp.uchicago.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, École Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2015-01-20

    The γ-ray sky can be decomposed into individually detected sources, diffuse emission attributed to the interactions of Galactic cosmic rays with gas and radiation fields, and a residual all-sky emission component commonly called the isotropic diffuse γ-ray background (IGRB). The IGRB comprises all extragalactic emissions too faint or too diffuse to be resolved in a given survey, as well as any residual Galactic foregrounds that are approximately isotropic. The first IGRB measurement with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) used 10 months of sky-survey data and considered an energy range between 200 MeV and 100 GeV. Improvements in event selection and characterization of cosmic-ray backgrounds, better understanding of the diffuse Galactic emission (DGE), and a longer data accumulation of 50 months allow for a refinement and extension of the IGRB measurement with the LAT, now covering the energy range from 100 MeV to 820 GeV. The IGRB spectrum shows a significant high-energy cutoff feature and can be well described over nearly four decades in energy by a power law with exponential cutoff having a spectral index of 2.32 ± 0.02 and a break energy of (279 ± 52) GeV using our baseline DGE model. The total intensity attributed to the IGRB is (7.2 ± 0.6) × 10{sup –6} cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} sr{sup –1} above 100 MeV, with an additional +15%/–30% systematic uncertainty due to the Galactic diffuse foregrounds.

  3. The reference peak areas of the 1995 IAEA test spectra for gamma-ray spectrum analysis programs are absolute and traceable

    Blaauw, M

    1999-01-01

    A previously validated algorithm for absolute peak area determination was used to verify the reference peak areas supplied with the 1995 IAEA test spectra for gamma-ray spectrometry. These reference peak areas turn out to be absolute and traceable to a precision of 0.9%: The reference peak areas are possibly too low by a factor 0.992+-0.009. It is proposed to employ the test spectra and reference areas to validate the peak areas obtained with any algorithm in gamma-ray spectrometry. (author)

  4. Mutagenic effects of gamma rays on the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll and viable macro mutations in chilli (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Rangaiah, S.; Manjunath, A.; Puttaramanaik

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, uniform dry and healthy seeds of two cultivars of chilli namely Ceylon and Byadagi were exposed to 60 Co gamma rays at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 krad doses at BARC, Mumbai. Thus there were total 18 treatments, eight different doses of gamma rays and one control in each cultivar. The M2 populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll and viable mutations. The treated populations were compared with the respective control populations for chlorophyll mutations (M2 and M3) and viable mutations (M2)' The results of the study are presented

  5. gamma. -ray. Present status and problems

    Okudaira, K [Rikkyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science

    1975-01-01

    As ..gamma..-ray advances straightly through space, the study on cosmic ..gamma..-ray will give the information concerning the origin directly. However, the intensity is weak, and the avoidance of background is a serious problem. The wide-spread components were studied by OSO-3. The intensity of the galactic disc component around 100 MeV was reported as (3.4+-1.0)x10/sup -5/ photons (cm/sup 2/, radian, sec)/sup -1/ by OSO-3 and 0.2x10/sup -4/ photons (cm/sup 2/, radian sec)/sup -1/ by SAS-2, and corresponds to the calculated ..gamma.. yield from ..pi../sup 0/. The strong disc component, so-called galactic center region, has been observed, and is due to the mixture of ..gamma..-ray from ..pi../sup 0/ and inverse Compton ..gamma..-ray. A peak at 476+-24 KeV was found as well as the continuous component. Special care must be taken for the observation of isotropic component, since it is hardly distinguished from the background. It is considered that the isotropic component is due to the inverse Compton scattering of 3/sup 0/K radiation in super-galactic space and the contribution from outer galaxy. The nearest point source of ..gamma..-ray is the sun. Among the other point sources, the crab nebula is the most reliable one. The energy flux of pulse component showed the spectrum of E/sup -1/. ..gamma..-ray bursts were observed by man-made satellites Vela-5 and 6. Theoretical explanation is still incomplete regarding the bursts. (Kato, T.).

  6. Lunar based gamma ray astronomy

    Haymes, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy represents the study of the universe on the basis of the electromagnetic radiation with the highest energy. Gamma ray astronomy provides a crucial tool for the understanding of astronomical phenomena, taking into account nucleosynthesis in supernovae, black holes, active galaxies, quasars, the sources of cosmic rays, neutron stars, and matter-antimatter annihilation. Difficulties concerning the conduction of studies by gamma ray astronomy are related to the necessity to perform such studies far from earth because the atmosphere is a source of gamma rays. Studies involving the use of gamma ray instruments in earth orbit have been conducted, and more gamma ray astronomy observations are planned for the future. Imperfections of studies conducted in low earth orbit could be overcome by estalishing an observatory on the moon which represents a satellite orbiting at 60 earth radii. Details concerning such an observatory are discussed. 5 references

  7. Observation of solar gamma-ray by Hinotori

    Yoshimori, Masato; Okudaira, Kiyoaki; Hirashima, Yo; Kondo, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    The solar gamma-ray emitted by solar flare was observed. The gamma-ray is the electromagnetic radiation with the energy more than 300 keV. The line gamma-ray intensity and the time profile were observed. The gamma-ray detector CsI (Tl) was loaded on Hinotori, and the observed gamma-ray was analyzed by a multi-channel analyzer. The observed line gamma-ray was the radiation from Fe-56 and Ne-20. The line gamma-ray from C-12 and O-16 was also seen. These gamma-ray is the direct evidence of the nuclear reaction on the sun. The observed spectrum suggested the existence of the lines from Mg-24 and Si-28. The intensity of the 2.22 MeV gamma-line was small. This fact showed that the origin of this line was different from other nuclear gamma-ray. Two kinds of hard X-ray bursts were detected. The one was impulsive burst, and the other was gradual burst. There was no time difference between the hard X-ray and the gamma-ray of the impulsive burst. The impulsive burst may be explained by the beam model. The delay of time profile in the high energy gamma-ray of the gradual burst was observed. This means that the time when accelerated electrons cause bremsstrahlung depends on the electron energy. The long trapping of electrons at the top of magnetic loop is suggested. (Kato, T.)

  8. Limits for an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the diffuse Galactic soft gamma-ray emission

    Pohl, M.

    1998-01-01

    origin of the soft Galactic gamma-ray continuum through inverse bremsstrahlung. A flux of low-energy cosmic rays strong enough to produce the observed spectrum of gamma-rays implies substantial gamma-ray emission at a few MeV through nuclear de-excitation. It is shown that the existing limits on excess 3......-7 MeV emission from the Galactic plane, in concert with the constraints from pi(0)-decay gamma-ray emission at higher energies, are in serious conflict with an inverse bremsstrahlung origin of the Galactic soft gamma-ray emission for any physically plausible low-energy cosmic ray spectrum. While...

  9. Observational techniques of gamma rays astronomy in low energy

    Costa, J.M. da.

    1982-02-01

    Due to the absorption of great part of the gamma-ray spectrum of cosmic origin, by the earth's atmosphere at heights above 20Km, gamma-ray astronomy achieved its full development only after the advent of the space age. Ballons and satellites are the space vehicles which have been used to transport gamma-ray telescopes to observational heights in the atmosphere, or out of it. The results of these experiments can determine the sources, the energy spectra and the intensities of the cosmic gamma-rays, and provide other important information of astrophysical interest. The detection of gamma-rays of cosmic origin is very difficult. The observational techniques used in gamma-ray astronomy are dependent on the energy range of the gamma-rays which one desires to detect. The most common telescopes of low energy gamma-ray astronomy (50KeV - 20MeV) use NaI(Tl) scintillators, or germanium diodes, as principal detectors, surrounded by an active shield (anticoincidence) of organic or inorganic scintillators. (Author) [pt

  10. Discoveries by the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Fermi is a large space gamma-ray mission developed by NASA and the DOE with major contributions from France, Germany, Italy, Japan and Sweden. It was launched in June 2008 and has been performing flawlessly since then. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) operating in the 20 MeV to 300 GeV range and a smaller monitor instrument is the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) operating in the 8 keV to 40 MeV range. New findings are occurring every week. Some of the key discoveries are: 1) Discovery of many new gamma-ray pulsars, including gamma-ray only and millisecond pulsars. 2) Detection of high energy gamma-ray emission from globular clusters, most likely due to summed emission from msec pulsars. 3) Discovery of delayed and extended high energy gamma-ray emission from short and long gamma-ray busts. 4) Detection of approximately 250 gamma-ray bursts per year with the GBM instrument. 5) Most accurate measurement of the cosmic ray electron spectrum between 30 GeV and 1 TeV, showing some excess above the conventional diffusion model. The talk will present the new discoveries and their implications.

  11. Gamma Ray Bursts - Observations

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    We are in an exciting period of discovery for gamma-ray bursts. The Swift observatory is detecting 100 bursts per year, providing arcsecond localizations and sensitive observations of the prompt and afterglow emission. The Fermi observatory is observing 250 bursts per year with its medium-energy GRB instrument and about 10 bursts per year with its high-energy LAT instrument. In addition, rapid-response telescopes on the ground are providing new capabilities to study optical emission during the prompt phase and spectral signatures of the host galaxies. The combined data set is enabling great advances in our understanding of GRBs including afterglow physics, short burst origin, and high energy emission.

  12. Measurement of Gamma-ray Energy Spectrum According to Temperature Variation Using a Fiber-Optic Radiation Sensor Based on YSO:Ce Crystal

    Jeon, H.; Yoo, W. J.; Shin, S. H.; Jang, J. S.; Kim, J. S.; Kwon, G.; Lee, D. E.; Jang, K. W.; Lee, B. [BK21 Plus Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Konkuk University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As an alternative to conventional radiation detectors, various fiber-optic radiation sensors (FORSs) have been investigated for gamma-ray monitoring because of their various desirable advantages, such as their small sensing volume, substantial flexibility, remote operation, ability to make real-time measurement, and immunity to high electromagnetic interference. In general, the basic principle of a radiation detection using scintillators is to measure the scintillating light signals generated from the interactions between the scintillators and the radiations. To measure gamma-ray, the inorganic scintillators used in the FORS should have some properties, such as high atomic material, high light yields, fast decay time, high density, and high stopping power. For these reasons, a cerium-doped lutetium yttrium orthosilicate (LYSO:Ce) crystal has been introduced as a promising scintillator in various radiation sensor applications. According to the recent studies, however, LYSO:Ce crystal is impossible to be applied in high-temperature conditions because it serves the fluctuations of its light yields with the temperature variation (i.e., thermosluminescence). In this study, to obtain gamma-ray energy spectra by measuring scintillating light signals emitted from the scintillators in high-temperature conditions, we first fabricated an FORS system using various inorganic scintillator crystals and then evaluated the light yields of each inorganic scintillator. As a promising scintillator for use in high-temperature conditions, a cerium-doped yttrium orthosilicate (YSO:Ce) crystal was selected and evaluated its thermal property according to the elevated temperature up to 300 .deg. C. We fabricated an FORS using inorganic scintillator and an optical fiber bundle. To select an adequate scintillator to apply in high-temperature conditions, the gamma-ray energy spectra were obtained by using four kinds of inorganic scintillators. From the experimental results, we selected YSO

  13. Local gamma ray events as tests of the antimatter theory of gamma ray bursts

    Sofia, S.; Wilson, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Nearby examples of the antimatter 'chunks' postulated by Sofia and Van Horn to explain the cosmic gamma ray bursts may produce detectable gamma ray events when struck by solar system meteoroids. These events would have a much shorter time scale and higher energy spectrum than the bursts already observed. In order to have a reasonably high event rate, the local meteoroid population must extend to a distance from the Sun of the order of 0.1 pc, but the required distance could become much lower if the instrumental threshold is improved. The expected gamma ray flux for interaction of the antimatter bodies with the solar wind is also examined, and found to be far below present instrumental capabilities. (Auth.)

  14. Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe

    Zhang, T. X.

    2015-07-01

    Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.

  15. Comptonization of gamma rays by cold electrons

    Xu, Yueming; Ross, R.R.; Mccray, R.

    1991-01-01

    An analytic method is developed for calculating the emergent spectrum of gamma-rays and X-rays scattered in a homogeneous medium with low-temperature electrons. The Klein-Nishina corrections of the scattering cross section and absorption processes are taken in account. The wavelength relaxation and the spatial diffusion problems are solved separately, and the emergent spectrum is calculated by convolving the evolution function of the spectrum in an infinite medium with the photon luminosity resulting from the spatial diffusion in a finite sphere. The analytic results are compared with that of Monte Carlo calculations and it is concluded that the analytic result is quite accurate. 9 refs

  16. Advances in gamma-ray burst astronomy

    Cline, T.L.; Desai, U.D.

    1976-01-01

    Work at Goddard is presently being carried out in three major areas of gamma-ray burst research: (1) A pair of simultaneously operating 0.8-m 2 burst detectors were successfully balloon-borne at locations 800 miles apart on 9 May, 1975, each to atmospheric depths of 3 to 4 g cm -2 , for a 20-h period of coincident data coverage. This experiment investigates the size spectrum of bursts in the 10 -7 to 10 -6 erg cm -2 size region where dozens of events per day are expected on a -1.5 index integral power-law extrapolation. Considerable separation in latitude was used to avoid possible atmospheric and auroral secondary effects. Its results are not yet available. (2) A deep-space burst detector, the first spacecraft instrument built specifically for gamma-ray burst studies, was recently successfully integrated into the Helios-B space probe. Its use at distances of up to 2 AU will make possible the first high-resolution directional study of gamma-ray burst source locations. Similar modifications to several other space vehicles are also being prepared. (3) The gamma-ray instrument on the IMP-7 satellite is presently the most sensitive burst detector still operating in orbit. Its results have shown that all measured event-average energy spectra are consistent with being alike. Using this characteristic spectrum to select IMP-7 candidate events of smaller size than those detected using other spacecraft in coincidence, a size spectrum is constructed which fits the -1.5 index power law down to 2.5 x 10 -5 erg cm -2 per event, at an occurrence rate of about once per month. (Auth.)

  17. Apparatus for gamma ray radiography

    Kobayashi, Masatoshi; Enomoto, Shigemasa; Oga, Hiroshi

    1979-01-01

    This is the standard of Japan Non-Destructive Inspection Society, NDIS 1101-79, which stipulates on the design, construction and testing method of the apparatuses for gamma ray radiography used for taking industrial radiograms. The gamma ray apparatuses stipulated in this standard are those containing sealed radioactive isotopes exceeding 100 μCi, which emit gamma ray. The gamma ray apparatuses are classified into three groups according to their movability. The general design conditions, the irradiation dose rate and the sealed radiation sources for the gamma ray apparatuses are stipulated. The construction of the gamma ray apparatuses must be in accordance with the notification No. 52 of the Ministry of Labor, and safety devices and collimators must be equipped. The main bodies of the gamma ray apparatuses must pass the vibration test, penetration test, impact test and shielding efficiency test. The method of each test is described. The attached equipments must be also tested. The tests according to this standard are carried out by the makers of the apparatuses. The test records must be made when the apparatuses have passed the tests, and the test certificates are attached. The limit of guarantee by the endurance test must be clearly shown. The items to be shown on the apparatuses are stipulated. (Kako, I.)

  18. SU-E-T-359: Emulation of Yb-169 Gamma-Ray Spectrum Using Metal-Filtered 250 KVp X-Rays for Pre-Clinical Studies of Gold Nanoparticle-Aided Radiation Therapy

    Reynoso, F; Cho, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To develop an external beam surrogate of the Yb-169 brachytherapy source applying a filter-based spectrum modulation technique to 250 kVp x-rays. In-vitro/vivo studies performed with the modulated 250 kVp beam will help gauge the benefits of implementing gold nanoparticle-aided radiotherapy with the Yb-169 source. Methods: A previously validated MCNP5 model of the Phillips RT-250 orthovoltage unit was used to obtain the percentage depth dose (PDD) and filtered photon spectra for a variety of filtration and irradiation conditions. Photon spectra were obtained using the average flux F4 tally in air right after all collimation. A 30 x 30 x 30 cm 3 water phantom was used to compute the PDD along the central axis (CAX) under the standards conditions of a 10 x 10 cm 2 field size at 50 cm SSD. Cylindrical cells of 4 cm in diameter and the energy deposition F6 tally were used along the CAX to score the doses down to 20 cm depth. The number of particle history was set to 2 x 10 8 in order to keep the relative uncertainty within each cell < 0.3%. The secondary electron spectrum within a gold-loaded tissue due to each photon spectrum was also calculated using EGSnrc and compared with that due to Yb-169 gamma rays. Results: Under the practical constraints for the spectrum modulation task, 250 kVp x-rays filtered by a 0.25 mm Erbium (Er) foil produced the best match with Yb-169 gamma rays, in terms of PDD and, more importantly, secondary electron spectrum. Conclusion: Modulation of 250kVp x-ray spectrum by an Er-filter was found effective in emulating the gamma ray spectrum of Yb-169. Possible benefits as predicted from the current MC model such as enhanced radiosensitization with the Er-filtered beam (as a surrogate of Yb-169) was confirmed with a separate in-vitro study. Supported by DOD/PCRP grant W81XWH-12-1-0198

  19. Applied gamma-ray spectrometry

    Dams, R; Crouthamel, Carl E

    1970-01-01

    Applied Gamma-Ray Spectrometry covers real life application of the gamma-ray and the devices used in their experimental studies. This book is organized into 9 chapters, and starts with discussions of the various decay processes, the possible interaction mechanisms of gamma radiation with matter, and the intrinsic and extrinsic variables, which affect the observed gamma-ray and X-ray spectra. The subsequent chapters deal with the properties and fabrication of scintillation detectors, semiconductor detectors, and proportional gas counters. These chapters present some of the most widely utilized

  20. Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the flat spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 [Constraining the location of rapid gamma-ray flares in the FSRQ 3C 273

    Rani, B.; Lott, B.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present a γ-ray photon flux and spectral variability study of the flat-spectrum radio quasar 3C 273 over a rapid flaring activity period between September 2009 to April 2010. Five major flares were observed in the source during this period. The most rapid flare observed in the source has a flux doubling time of 1.1 hr. The rapid γ-ray flares allow us to constrain the location and size of the γ-ray emission region in the source. The γγ-opacity constrains the Doppler factor δ_γ ≥ 10 for the highest energy (15 GeV) photon observed by the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). Causality arguments constrain the size of the emission region to 1.6 × 10"1"5 cm. The γ-ray spectra measured over this period show clear deviations from a simple power law with a break in the 1–2 GeV energy range. We discuss possible explanations for the origin of the γ-ray spectral breaks. Our study suggests that the γ-ray emission region in 3C 273 is located within the broad line region (< 1.6 pc). As a result, the spectral behavior and temporal characteristics of the individual flares indicate the presence of multiple shock scenarios at the base of the jet.

  1. Galaxy formation from annihilation-generated supersonic turbulence in the baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology and the gamma ray background spectrum

    Stecker, F. W.; Puget, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Following the big-bang baryon symmetric cosmology of Omnes, the redshift was calculated to be on the order of 500-600. It is show that, at these redshifts, annihilation pressure at the boundaries between regions of matter and antimatter drives large scale supersonic turbulence which can trigger galaxy formation. This picture is consistent with the gamma-ray background observations discussed previously. Gravitational binding of galaxies then occurs at a redshift of about 70, at which time vortical turbulent velocities of about 3 x 10 to the 7th power cm/s lead to angular momenta for galaxies comparable with measured values.

  2. Real time gamma-ray signature identifier

    Rowland, Mark [Alamo, CA; Gosnell, Tom B [Moraga, CA; Ham, Cheryl [Livermore, CA; Perkins, Dwight [Livermore, CA; Wong, James [Dublin, CA

    2012-05-15

    A real time gamma-ray signature/source identification method and system using principal components analysis (PCA) for transforming and substantially reducing one or more comprehensive spectral libraries of nuclear materials types and configurations into a corresponding concise representation/signature(s) representing and indexing each individual predetermined spectrum in principal component (PC) space, wherein an unknown gamma-ray signature may be compared against the representative signature to find a match or at least characterize the unknown signature from among all the entries in the library with a single regression or simple projection into the PC space, so as to substantially reduce processing time and computing resources and enable real-time characterization and/or identification.

  3. Neutron energy spectrum influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development of tungsten

    Fukuda, Makoto, E-mail: makoto.fukuda@qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan); Kiran Kumar, N.A.P.; Koyanagi, Takaaki; Garrison, Lauren M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Snead, Lance L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139 (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, 37831 (United States); Hasegawa, Akira [Tohoku University, Sendai, 980-8579 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Neutron irradiation to single crystal pure tungsten was performed in the mixed spectrum High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). To investigate the influences of neutron energy spectrum, the microstructure and irradiation hardening were compared with previous data obtained from the irradiation campaigns in the mixed spectrum Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR) and the sodium-cooled fast reactor Joyo. The irradiation temperatures were in the range of ∼90–∼800 °C and fast neutron fluences were 0.02–9.00 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Post irradiation evaluation included Vickers hardness measurements and transmission electron microscopy. The hardness and microstructure changes exhibited a clear dependence on the neutron energy spectrum. The hardness appeared to increase with increasing thermal neutron flux when fast fluence exceeds 1 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV). Irradiation induced precipitates considered to be χ- and σ-phases were observed in samples irradiated to >1 × 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2} (E > 0.1 MeV), which were pronounced at high dose and due to the very high thermal neutron flux of HFIR. Although the irradiation hardening mainly caused by defects clusters in a low dose regime, the transmutation-induced precipitation appeared to impose additional significant hardening of the tungsten. - Highlights: • The microstructure and irradiation hardening of single crystal pure W irradiated in HFIR was investigated. • The neutron energy spectrum influence was evaluated by comparing the HFIR results with previous work in Joyo and JMTR. • In the dose range up to ∼1 dpa, the neutron energy spectrum influence of irradiation hardening was not clear. • In the dose range above 1 dpa, the neutron energy influence on irradiation hardening and microstructural development was clearly observed. • The irradiation induced precipitates caused significant irradiation hardening of pure W irradiated in HFIR.

  4. Gamma rays at airplane altitudes

    Iwai, J.; Koss, T.; Lord, J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, J.; Woosley, J.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of the gamma ray flux above 1 TeV in the atmosphere is needed to better understand the anomalous showers from point sources. Suggestions are made for future experiments on board airplanes

  5. APPLE-3: improvement of APPLE for neutron and gamma-ray flux, spectrum and reaction rate plotting code, and of its code manual

    Kawasaki, Hiromitu; Maki, Koichi; Seki, Yasushi.

    1991-03-01

    A code APPLE was produced in 1976 for calculating and plotting tritium breeding ratio and tritium production rate distributions. That code was improved as 'APPLE-2' in 1982, to calculate and plot not only tritium breeding ratio but also distributions of neutron and gamma-ray fluxes, their spectra, nuclear heating rates and other reaction rates, and dose rate distributions during operation and after shutdown in 1982. The code APPLE-2 can calculate and plot these nuclear properties derived from neutron and gamma-ray fluxes by ANISN (one dimensional transport code), DOT3.5 (two dimensional transport code) and MORSE (three dimensional Monte Carlo code). We revised the code APPLE-2 as 'APPLE-3' by adding many functions to the APPLE-2 code in accordance with users' requirements proposed in recent progress of fusion reaction nuclear design. With minor modification of APPLE-2, a number of inconsistencies have been found between the code manual and the input data in the code. In the present report, the new functions added to APPLE-2 and improved users' manual are explained. (author)

  6. About cosmic gamma ray lines

    Diehl, Roland

    2017-06-01

    Gamma ray lines from cosmic sources convey the action of nuclear reactions in cosmic sites and their impacts on astrophysical objects. Gamma rays at characteristic energies result from nuclear transitions following radioactive decays or high-energy collisions with excitation of nuclei. The gamma-ray line from the annihilation of positrons at 511 keV falls into the same energy window, although of different origin. We present here the concepts of cosmic gamma ray spectrometry and the corresponding instruments and missions, followed by a discussion of recent results and the challenges and open issues for the future. Among the lessons learned are the diffuse radioactive afterglow of massive-star nucleosynthesis in 26Al and 60Fe gamma rays, which is now being exploited towards the cycle of matter driven by massive stars and their supernovae; large interstellar cavities and superbubbles have been recognised to be of key importance here. Also, constraints on the complex processes making stars explode as either thermonuclear or core-collapse supernovae are being illuminated by gamma-ray lines, in this case from shortlived radioactivities from 56Ni and 44Ti decays. In particular, the three-dimensionality and asphericities that have recently been recognised as important are enlightened in different ways through such gamma-ray line spectroscopy. Finally, the distribution of positron annihilation gamma ray emission with its puzzling bulge-dominated intensity disctribution is measured through spatially-resolved spectra, which indicate that annihilation conditions may differ in different parts of our Galaxy. But it is now understood that a variety of sources may feed positrons into the interstellar medium, and their characteristics largely get lost during slowing down and propagation of positrons before annihilation; a recent microquasar flare was caught as an opportunity to see positrons annihilate at a source.

  7. A new measurement-while-drilling gamma ray log calibrator

    Meisner, J.; Brooks, A.; Wisniewski, W.

    1985-01-01

    Many of the present methods of calibration for both wireline and MWD gamma ray detectors use a point source at a fixed distance from the detector. MWD calibration errors are introduced from scattering effects, from spectral differences, from position sensitivity and form lack of cylindrical geometry. A new method has been developed at Exploration Logging INc. (EXLOG) that eliminates these errors. The method uses a wrap-around or annular calibrator, referenced to the University of Houston gamma ray API pit. The new calibrator is designed to simulate the API pit's gamma ray emission spectrum with a finite amount of natural source material in the annular shape. Because of the thickness of steel between the MWD gamma ray detector and the formation, there is theoretical necessity for spectral matching. A simple theoretical approach was used to calibrate the new calibrator. Spectral matching allows a closer approximation to wireline logs and makes it possible to estimate the relative spectral content of a formation

  8. The self-absorption effect of gamma rays in 239Pu

    Hsiaohua Hsu

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear materials assay with gamma-ray spectrum measurement is a well-established method for safeguards. However, for a thick source, the self-absorption of characteristic low-energy gamma rays has been a handicap to accurate assay. The author has carried out Monte Carlo simulations to study this effect using the 239 Pu α-decay gamma-ray spectrum as an example. The thickness of a plutonium metal source can be considered a function of gamma-ray intensity ratios. In a practical application, gamma-ray intensity ratios can be obtained from a measured spectrum. With the help of calculated curves, scientists can find the source thickness and make corrections to gamma-ray intensities, which then lead to an accurate quantitative determination of radioactive isotopes in the material

  9. Monte Carlo simulations of plutonium gamma-ray spectra

    Koenig, Z.M.; Carlson, J.B.; Wang, Tzu-Fang; Ruhter, W.D.

    1993-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations were investigated as a means of simulating the gamma-ray spectra of Pu. These simulated spectra will be used to develop and evaluate gamma-ray analysis techniques for various nondestructive measurements. Simulated spectra of calculational standards can be used for code intercomparisons, to understand systematic biases and to estimate minimum detection levels of existing and proposed nondestructive analysis instruments. The capability to simulate gamma-ray spectra from HPGe detectors could significantly reduce the costs of preparing large numbers of real reference materials. MCNP was used for the Monte Carlo transport of the photons. Results from the MCNP calculations were folded in with a detector response function for a realistic spectrum. Plutonium spectrum peaks were produced with Lorentzian shapes, for the x-rays, and Gaussian distributions. The MGA code determined the Pu isotopes and specific power of this calculated spectrum and compared it to a similar analysis on a measured spectrum

  10. Gamma-Ray Pulsars Models and Predictions

    Harding, A K

    2001-01-01

    Pulsed emission from gamma-ray pulsars originates inside the magnetosphere, from radiation by charged particles accelerated near the magnetic poles or in the outer gaps. In polar cap models, the high energy spectrum is cut off by magnetic pair production above an energy that is dependent on the local magnetic field strength. While most young pulsars with surface fields in the range B = 10^{12} - 10^{13} G are expected to have high energy cutoffs around several GeV, the gamma-ray spectra of old pulsars having lower surface fields may extend to 50 GeV. Although the gamma-ray emission of older pulsars is weaker, detecting pulsed emission at high energies from nearby sources would be an important confirmation of polar cap models. Outer gap models predict more gradual high-energy turnovers at around 10 GeV, but also predict an inverse Compton component extending to TeV energies. Detection of pulsed TeV emission, which would not survive attenuation at the polar caps, is thus an important test of outer gap models. N...

  11. SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY-BRIGHT BLAZARS WITH OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND GAMMA-RAY VARIABILITY

    Itoh, Ryosuke; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Kanda, Yuka; Shiki, Kensei; Kawabata, Miho; Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Takata, Koji; Ui, Takahiro [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Nalewajko, Krzysztof; Madejski, Greg M. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Road M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Uemura, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuyuki T.; Kawabata, Koji S.; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Ohsugi, Takashi [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Schinzel, Frank K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Moritani, Yuki [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Sasada, Mahito [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Yamanaka, Masayuki, E-mail: itoh@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: itoh@hp.phys.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Konan University, Okamoto, Kobe, Hyogo 658-8501 (Japan); and others

    2016-12-10

    Blazars are highly variable active galactic nuclei that emit radiation at all wavelengths from radio to gamma rays. Polarized radiation from blazars is one key piece of evidence for synchrotron radiation at low energies, and it also varies dramatically. The polarization of blazars is of interest for understanding the origin, confinement, and propagation of jets. However, even though numerous measurements have been performed, the mechanisms behind jet creation, composition, and variability are still debated. We performed simultaneous gamma-ray and optical photopolarimetry observations of 45 blazars between 2008 July and 2014 December to investigate the mechanisms of variability and search for a basic relation between the several subclasses of blazars. We identify a correlation between the maximum degree of optical linear polarization and the gamma-ray luminosity or the ratio of gamma-ray to optical fluxes. Since the maximum polarization degree depends on the condition of the magnetic field (chaotic or ordered), this result implies a systematic difference in the intrinsic alignment of magnetic fields in parsec-scale relativistic jets between different types of blazars (flat-spectrum radio quasars vs. BL Lacs) and consequently between different types of radio galaxies (FR I versus FR II).

  12. The holistic analysis of gamma-ray spectra in instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Blaauw, M

    1993-11-15

    The subject is the computerized analysis of the gamma-ray spectra in INAA. This analysis can be separated in three parts: The conversion of the spectra to information on {gamma}-ray energies and their relative intensities (spectrum reduction), the determination of the relation between the intensity of a {gamma}-ray and the amount of the corresponding element present in the sample (standardization) and the attribution of the {gamma}-ray energies to the elements, including the subsequent computation of the amounts of the elements (interpretation). A {gamma}-ray spectrum can be considered to be the linear sum of the {gamma}-ray spectra of the individual radionuclides present in the sample. Knowing the relative activities of the different radionuclides that may be produced by activation of a single element, a {gamma}-ray spectrum in INAA can also be considered to be the linear sum of the spectra of the elements. This principle has hitherto not been used in INAA to analyze the spectra by linear least squares methods, using all {gamma}-ray energies observed in the spectrum. The implementation of this `holistic` approach required that attention be paid to both spectrum reduction, standardization and interpretation. The thesis describes the methods developed for the holistic analysis of {gamma}-ray spectra in INAA, and present results of experimental comparisons between the holistic and other approaches. (orig./HP).

  13. Cosmic gamma-ray burst

    Yamagami, Takamasa

    1985-01-01

    Ballon experiments for searching gamma-ray burst were carried out by employing rotating-cross modulation collimators. From a very long observation of total 315 hours during 1975 to 1979, three gamma-ray intensity anomalies were observed which were speculated as a gamma-ray burst. As for the first gamma-ray intensity anomaly observed in 1975, the burst source could be located precisely but the source, heavenly body, could not be specified. Gamma-ray burst source estimation was made by analyzing distribution of burst source in the celestial sphere, burst size distribution, and burst peak. Using the above-mentioned data together with previously published ones, apparent inconsistency was found between the observed results and the adopted theory that the source was in the Galaxy, and this inconsistency was found due to the different time profiles of the burst observed with instruments of different efficiency. It was concluded by these analysis results that employment of logN - logP (relation between burst frequency and burst count) was better than that of logN - logS (burst size) in the examination of gamma-ray burst because the former was less uncertain than the latter. Analyzing the author's observed gamma-ray burst data and the related published data, it was clarified that the burst distribution was almost P -312 for the burst peak value larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec. The author could indicate that the calculated celestial distribution of burst source was consistent with the observed results by the derivation using the logN - logP relationship and that the burst larger than 10 -6 erg/cm 2 .sec happens about one thousand times a year, about ten times of the previous value. (Takagi, S.)

  14. Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory

    1991-01-01

    This photograph shows the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (GRO) being deployed by the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the STS-37 mission in April 1991. The GRO reentered Earth atmosphere and ended its successful mission in June 2000. For nearly 9 years, the GRO Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE), designed and built by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), kept an unblinking watch on the universe to alert scientists to the invisible, mysterious gamma-ray bursts that had puzzled them for decades. By studying gamma-rays from objects like black holes, pulsars, quasars, neutron stars, and other exotic objects, scientists could discover clues to the birth, evolution, and death of stars, galaxies, and the universe. The gamma-ray instrument was one of four major science instruments aboard the Compton. It consisted of eight detectors, or modules, located at each corner of the rectangular satellite to simultaneously scan the entire universe for bursts of gamma-rays ranging in duration from fractions of a second to minutes. In January 1999, the instrument, via the Internet, cued a computer-controlled telescope at Las Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico, within 20 seconds of registering a burst. With this capability, the gamma-ray experiment came to serve as a gamma-ray burst alert for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and major gound-based observatories around the world. Thirty-seven universities, observatories, and NASA centers in 19 states, and 11 more institutions in Europe and Russia, participated in the BATSE science program.

  15. Extragalactic Gamma-Ray Astrophysics

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades, various classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei have been established as sources of high-energy radiation extending over a very broad range from soft gamma-rays (photon energies E~MeV) up to very-high-energy gamma-rays (E>100 GeV). These include blazars of different types, as well as young and evolved radio galaxies. The observed gamma-ray emission from such implies efficient particle acceleration processes taking place in highly magnetized and relativistic jets produced by supermassive black holes, processes that have yet to be identified and properly understood. In addition, nearby starforming and starburst galaxies, some of which host radio-quiet Seyfert-type nuclei, have been detected in the gamma-ray range as well. In their cases, the observed gamma-ray emission is due to non-thermal activity in the interstellar medium, possibly including also a contribution from accretion disks and nuclear outflows. Finally, the high-energy emission from clusters of galaxies remains elusive...

  16. The Gamma-ray Sky with Fermi

    Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays reveal extreme, nonthermal conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been exploring the gamma-ray sky for more than four years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge gamma-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  17. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    Weekes, T.C.

    1989-01-01

    It is apparent that very high gamma-ray astronomy, at the very end of the electromagnetic spectrum, is just at the threshold of becoming an important channel of astronomical information. The author discusses how, to fully develop, it requires telescopes with improved minimum flux sensitivity; development of techniques that characterize the nature of the primary; more overlapping observations to remove any question of the reality of the detected phenomenon; more consistency in the application of statistics among experimenters and more openness about methods used; development of models that will predict the phenomenon to be expected rather than explain what has been observed; and more accurate calibrations to determine absolute fluxes and energies

  18. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    Hovgaard, Jens

    A new method - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition, NASVD - for processing gamma-ray spectra has been developed as part of a Ph.D. project. By using this technique one is able to decompose a large set of data - for example from airborne gamma-ray surveys - into a few spectral components....... By knowing the spectral components and their amplitudes in each of the measured spectra one is able to extract more information from the data than possible with the methods used otherwise....

  19. Gamma-ray Imaging Methods

    Vetter, K; Mihailescu, L; Nelson, K; Valentine, J; Wright, D

    2006-10-05

    In this document we discuss specific implementations for gamma-ray imaging instruments including the principle of operation and describe systems which have been built and demonstrated as well as systems currently under development. There are several fundamentally different technologies each with specific operational requirements and performance trade offs. We provide an overview of the different gamma-ray imaging techniques and briefly discuss challenges and limitations associated with each modality (in the appendix we give detailed descriptions of specific implementations for many of these technologies). In Section 3 we summarize the performance and operational aspects in tabular form as an aid for comparing technologies and mapping technologies to potential applications.

  20. Gamma ray induced chlorophyll and morphological mutants in grasspea

    Das, P.K.; Kundagrami, S.

    2000-01-01

    Higher dose of gamma ray treatment such as 30 kR promoted larger chlorophyll as well as morphological mutation frequency and spectrum. In both M 1 and M 2 generation marginata significantly out numbered other types of chlorophyll mutations. On the other hand, along morphological mutations stunted growth types were recovered more frequently. Both the genotypes Nirmal and P-24 differed greatly for their mutagenic specificity. In both M 1 and M 2 generation Nirmal recorded higher chlorophyll and morphological mutation frequency and spectrum indicating differential genotype response to different dosages of gamma ray treatment. (author)

  1. Cadmium depletion impacts on hardening neutron spectrum for advanced fuel testing in ATR

    Chang, Gray S.

    2011-01-01

    For transmuting long-lived isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products effectively is in a fast neutron spectrum reactor. In the absence of a fast spectrum test reactor in the United States of America (USA), initial irradiation testing of candidate fuels can be performed in a thermal test reactor that has been modified to produce a test region with a hardened neutron spectrum. A test region is achieved with a Cadmium (Cd) filter which can harden the neutron spectrum to a spectrum similar (although still somewhat softer) to that of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). A fuel test loop with a Cd-filter has been installed within the East Flux Trap (EFT) of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A detailed comparison analyses between the cadmium (Cd) filter hardened neutron spectrum in the ATR and the LMFBR fast neutron spectrum have been performed using MCWO. MCWO is a set of scripting tools that are used to couple the Monte Carlo transport code MCNP with the isotope depletion and buildup code ORIGEN-2.2. The MCWO-calculated results indicate that the Cd-filter can effectively flatten the Rim-Effect and reduce the linear heat rate (LHGR) to meet the advanced fuel testing project requirements at the beginning of irradiation (BOI). However, the filtering characteristics of Cd as a strong absorber quickly depletes over time, and the Cd-filter must be replaced for every two typical operating cycles within the EFT of the ATR. The designed Cd-filter can effectively depress the LHGR in experimental fuels and harden the neutron spectrum enough to adequately flatten the Rim-Effect in the test region. (author)

  2. Spectra of {gamma} rays feeding superdeformed bands

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Henry, R.G. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The spectrum of {gamma}rays coincident with SD transitions contains the transitions which populate the SD band. This spectrum can provide information on the feeding mechanism and on the properties (moment of inertia, collectivity) of excited SD states. We used a model we developed to explain the feeding of SD bands, to calculate the spectrum of feeding {gamma}rays. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the trigger conditions present in our Eurogam experiment. Both experimental and theoretical spectra contain a statistical component and a broad E2 peak (from transitions occurring between excited states in the SD well). There is good resemblance between the measured and calculated spectra although the calculated multiplicity of an E2 bump is low by {approximately}30%. Work is continuing to improve the quality of the fits, which will result in a better understanding of excited SD states. In addition, a model for the last steps, which cool the {gamma} cascade into the SD yrast line, needs to be developed. A strong M1/E2 low-energy component, which we believe is responsible for this cooling, was observed.

  3. Induced micro-mutations in rice - the frequency and spectrum of gamma ray induced height variations in rice variety-Jaya

    Nair, N.K.; Ninan, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Seeds of rice variety, Jaya, treated with moderate doses of (10, 20 and 30 kR) gamma rays were subjected to study the relative magnitude of induced variability and the type of mutations induced for height of plant in M 2 and M 3 generations. Progenies of 3352 M 1 spikes, totalling to 35691 M 2 plants and their subsequent progenies in M 3 were analysed. To get wider variability, very large populations in all the generations were studied. The mean value, genetic variance and phenotypic frequency distribution with and between generations were studied. The treated population showed no significant shift in mean values from that of control. The variance was greater in the irradiated material compared to control. The variability was found to shift in both plus and minus direction from that of control with a higher frequency in the minus direction in M 2 . A high frequency of dwarf mutants was observed in 20 kR treated population in the M 2 generation. The segregation ratio was higher in M 2 compared to M 3 generation. (author)

  4. Applying ISO 11929:2010 Standard to detection limit calculation in least-squares based multi-nuclide gamma-ray spectrum evaluation

    Kanisch, G., E-mail: guenter.kanisch@hanse.net

    2017-05-21

    The concepts of ISO 11929 (2010) are applied to evaluation of radionuclide activities from more complex multi-nuclide gamma-ray spectra. From net peak areas estimated by peak fitting, activities and their standard uncertainties are calculated by weighted linear least-squares method with an additional step, where uncertainties of the design matrix elements are taken into account. A numerical treatment of the standard's uncertainty function, based on ISO 11929 Annex C.5, leads to a procedure for deriving decision threshold and detection limit values. The methods shown allow resolving interferences between radionuclide activities also in case of calculating detection limits where they can improve the latter by including more than one gamma line per radionuclide. The co'mmon single nuclide weighted mean is extended to an interference-corrected (generalized) weighted mean, which, combined with the least-squares method, allows faster detection limit calculations. In addition, a new grouped uncertainty budget was inferred, which for each radionuclide gives uncertainty budgets from seven main variables, such as net count rates, peak efficiencies, gamma emission intensities and others; grouping refers to summation over lists of peaks per radionuclide.

  5. Optical observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Fynbo, J.P.U.

    2004-01-01

    We briefly review the status and recent progress in the field of optical observations of gamma-ray burst afterglows. We will focus on the fundamental observational evidence for the relationship between gamma-ray bursts and the final evolutionary phases of massive stars. In particular, we will address (i) gamma-ray burst host galaxies, (ii) optically dark gamma-ray burst afterglows, (iii) the gamma-ray burst-supernova connection, and (iv) the relation between X-ray flashes, gamma-ray bursts, and supernovae

  6. Equipment for x- and gamma ray radiography

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following topics related to the equipment for x - and gamma ray radiography are discussed in this chapter. The topics are x-ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of x-ray, generation of x-ray, mechanism of x-ray production, x-ray equipment, power supply, distribution of x-ray intensity along the tube: gamma ray source for Industrial Radiography: properties of gamma rays, gamma ray sources, gamma ray projectors on cameras, source changing. Care of Radiographic Equipments: Merits and Demerits of x and Gamma Rays

  7. Observation of cosmic gamma ray burst by Hinotori

    Okudaira, Kiyoaki; Yoshimori, Masato; Hirashima, Yo; Kondo, Ichiro.

    1982-01-01

    The solar gamma ray detecor (SGR) on Hinotori has no collimator, and the collimator of a hard X-ray monitor is not effective for gamma ray with energy more than 100 KeV. Accordingly, the detection system can detect cosmic gamma ray burst, and two bursts were observed. The first burst was detected on February 28, 1981, and the source of the burst was in the direction of 81 degree from Venus. The time profile and the spectrum were observed. In July 21, 1981, the second burst was detected. The time profile obtained with the SGR was compared with those of PVO (Pioneer Venus Orbiter) and LASL-ISEE. The time difference among the data of time profiles indicated that the source of the burst was not the sun. The spectrum was also measured. (Kato, T.)

  8. On response operator in semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry

    Krnac, S [Slovak Technical Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia); Povinec, P [International Atomic Energy Agency, Monaco (Monaco). MEL; Ragan, R [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    Some results of the scaling confirmation factor analysis (SCFA) application in semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry presented in this contribution points out to a new ground for evaluation the gamma-ray spectra. This whole-spectrum processing approach considerably increases detection sensitivity, especially, if significant interferences being present in the measured spectrum. Precision of the SCFA method is determined by choice of a sufficient number of suitable calibration gamma-ray sources in the energy region of interest, by setting up an acceptable latent hypothesis and by chosen experimental quantification of spectra. The SCFA method is very advantageous to use, for instance, in ultra low-level gamma-spectrometry where counting rates in full energy peaks are extremely low as compared with background interferences. It enables to increase of the sensitivity by the 5-10 times in comparison with the traditional full energy peak net area method (J.K.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs.

  9. On response operator in semiconductor gamma ray spectrometry

    Krnac, S.; Povinec, P.

    1995-01-01

    Some results of the scaling confirmation factor analysis (SCFA) application in semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometry presented in this contribution points out to a new ground for evaluation the gamma-ray spectra. This whole-spectrum processing approach considerably increases detection sensitivity, especially, if significant interferences being present in the measured spectrum. Precision of the SCFA method is determined by choice of a sufficient number of suitable calibration gamma-ray sources in the energy region of interest, by setting up an acceptable latent hypothesis and by chosen experimental quantification of spectra. The SCFA method is very advantageous to use, for instance, in ultra low-level gamma-spectrometry where counting rates in full energy peaks are extremely low as compared with background interferences. It enables to increase of the sensitivity by the 5-10 times in comparison with the traditional full energy peak net area method (J.K.). 1 fig., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  10. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  11. A method for synthesizing response functions of NaI detectors to gamma rays

    Sie, S.H.

    1978-08-01

    A simple method of parametrizing the response function of NaI detectors to gamma rays is described, based on decomposition of the pulse-height spectrum into components associated with the actual detection processes. Smooth dependence of the derived parameters on the gamma-ray energy made it possible to generate a lineshape for any gamma-ray energy by suitable interpolation techniques. The method is applied in analysis of spectra measured with a 7.6 x 7.6 cm NaI detector in continuum gamma-ray study following (HI,xn) reaction

  12. The Gamma-ray Universe through Fermi

    Thompson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, reveal extreme conditions in the Universe. The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and its smaller cousin AGILE have been exploring the gamma-ray sky for several years, enabling a search for powerful transients like gamma-ray bursts, novae, solar flares, and flaring active galactic nuclei, as well as long-term studies including pulsars, binary systems, supernova remnants, and searches for predicted sources of gamma rays such as dark matter annihilation. Some results include a stringent limit on Lorentz invariance derived from a gamma-ray burst, unexpected gamma-ray variability from the Crab Nebula, a huge ga.nuna-ray structure associated with the center of our galaxy, surprising behavior from some gamma-ray binary systems, and a possible constraint on some WIMP models for dark matter.

  13. Cosmic gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    Ando, Shin'ichiro

    2007-01-01

    High-energy photons from pair annihilation of dark matter particles contribute to the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) observed in a wide energy range. The precise shape of the energy spectrum of CGB depends on the nature of dark matter particles. In order to discriminate between the signals from dark matter annihilation and other astrophysical sources, however, the information from the energy spectrum of CGB may not be sufficient. We show that dark matter annihilation not only contributes to the mean CGB intensity, but also produces a characteristic anisotropy, which provides a powerful tool for testing the origins of the observed CGB. We show that the expected sensitivity of future gamma-ray detectors such as GLAST should allow us to measure the angular power spectrum of CGB anisotropy, if dark matter particles are supersymmetric neutralinos and they account for most of the observed mean intensity. As the intensity of photons from annihilation is proportional to the density squared, we show that the predicted shape of the angular power spectrum of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation is different from that due to other astrophysical sources such as blazars, whose intensity is linearly proportional to density. Therefore, the angular power spectrum of the CGB provides a 'smoking-gun' signature of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation

  14. A comparison of ionizing radiation damage in CMOS devices from 60Co gamma rays, electrons and protons

    He Baoping; Yao Zhibin; Zhang Fengqi

    2009-01-01

    Radiation hardened CC4007RH and non-radiation hardened CC4011 devices were irradiated using 60 Co gamma rays, 1 MeV electrons and 1-9 MeV protons to compare the ionizing radiation damage of the gamma rays with the charged particles. For all devices examined, with experimental uncertainty, the radiation induced threshold voltage shifts (ΔV th ) generated by 60 Co gamma rays are equal to that of 1 MeV electron and 1-7 MeV proton radiation under 0 gate bias condition. Under 5 V gate bias condition, the distinction of threshold voltage shifts (ΔV th ) generated by 60 Co gamma rays and 1 MeV electrons irradiation are not large, and the radiation damage for protons below 9 MeV is always less than that of 60 Co gamma rays. The lower energy the proton has, the less serious the radiation damage becomes. (authors)

  15. Multifrequency Observations of Gamma-Ray Burst

    Greiner, J.

    1995-01-01

    Neither a flaring nor a quiescent counterpart to a gamma-ray burst has yet been convincingly identified at any wavelength region. The present status of the search for counterparts of classical gamma-ray bursts is given. Particular emphasis is put on the search for flaring counterparts, i.e. emission during or shortly after the gamma-ray emission.

  16. Stellar Sources of Gamma-ray Bursts

    Luchkov, B. I.

    2011-01-01

    Correlation analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby star locations (catalog Gliese) reveals 4 coincidences with good angular accuracy. The random probability is 4\\times 10^{-5}, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. Some additional search of stellar gamma-ray bursts is discussed.

  17. Gamma-rays from deep inelastic collisions

    Stephens, F.S.

    1981-01-01

    My objective in this talk is to consider the question: 'What can be learned about deep inelastic collisions (DIC) from studying the associated gamma-rays'. First, I discuss the origin and nature of the gamma-rays from DIC, then the kinds of information gamma-ray spectra contain, and finally come to the combination of these two subjects. (orig./HSI)

  18. Common Gamma-ray Glows above Thunderclouds

    Kelley, Nicole; Smith, David; Dwyer, Joseph; Hazelton, Bryna; Grefenstette, Brian; Lowell, Alex; Splitt, Michael; Lazarus, Steven; Rassoul, Hamid

    2013-04-01

    Gamma-ray glows are continuous, long duration gamma- and x-ray emission seen coming from thunderclouds. The Airborne for Energetic Lightning Emissions (ADELE) observed 12 gamma-ray glows during its summer 2009 flight campaign over the areas of Colorado and Florida in the United States. For these glows we shall present their spectra, relationship to lightning activity and how their duration and size changes as a function of distance. Gamma-ray glows follow the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) spectrum and have been previously measured from the ground and inside the cloud. ADELE measured most glows as it flew above the screening layer of the cloud. During the brightest glow on August 21, 2009, we can show that we are flying directly into a downward facing relativistic runaway avalanche, indicative of flying between the upper positive and negative screening layer of the cloud. In order to explain the brightness of this glow, RREA with an electric field approaching the limit for relativistic feedback must be occurring. Using all 12 glows, we show that lightning activity diminishes during the onset of the glow. Using this along with the fact that glows occur as the field approaches the level necessary for feedback, we attempt to distinguish between two possibilities: that glows are evidence that RREA with feedback, rather than lightning, is sometimes the primary channel for discharging the cloud, or else that the overall discharging is still controlled by lightning, with glows simply appearing during times when a subsidence of lightning allows the field to rise above the threshold for RREA.

  19. Determination of correction factors for borehole natural gamma-ray measurements by Monte Carlo simulations

    Maucec, M.; Hendriks, Peter; Limburg, J.; de Meijer, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra measured in boreholes has to take into account borehole parameters such as the presence of casings and borehole diameter. For large, high-efficiency gamma-ray detectors, such as BGO-based systems, which employ full-spectrum data analysis, corresponding

  20. Gamma-ray astrophysics

    Fichtel, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    The most striking feature of the celestial sphere when viewed in the frequency range of γ-rays is the emission from the galactic plane, which is particularly intense in the galactic longitudinal region from 300 0 to 50 0 . The longitudinal and latitudinal distributions are generally correlated with galactic structural features and when studied in detail suggest a non-uniform distribution of cosmic rays in the galaxy. Several point γ-ray sources have now been observed, including four radio pulsars. This last result is particularly striking since only one radio pulsar has been seen at either optical or X-ray frequencies. Nuclear γ-ray lines have been seen from the Sun during a large solar flare and future satellite experiments are planned to search for γ-ray lines from supernovae and their remnants. A general apparently diffuse flux of γ-rays has also been seen whose energy spectrum has interesting implications; however, in view of the possible contribution of point sources and the observation of galactic features such as Gould's belt, its interpretation must await γ-ray experiments with finer spatial and energy resolution, as well as greater sensitivity. (Auth.)

  1. Gamma-ray and neutrino diffuse emissions of the Galaxy above the TeV

    Gaggero, Daniele; Marinelli, Antonio; Urbano, Alfredo; Valli, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    As recently shown, Fermi-LAT measurements of the diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galaxy favor the presence of a smooth softening in the primary cosmic-ray spectrum with increasing Galactocentric distance. This result can be interpreted in terms of a spatial-dependent rigidity scaling of the diffusion coefficient. The DRAGON code was used to build a model based on such feature. That scenario correctly reproduces the latest Fermi-LAT results as well as local cosmic-ray measurements from PAMELA, AMS-02 and CREAM. Here we show that the model, if extrapolated at larger energies, grasps both the gamma-ray flux measured by MILAGRO at 15 TeV and the H.E.S.S. data from the Galactic ridge, assuming that the cosmic-ray spectral hardening found by those experiments at about 250 GeV/n is present in the whole inner Galactic plane region. Moreover, we show as that model also predicts a neutrino emission which may account for a significant fraction, as well as for the correct spectral shape, of the astrophysical flux mea...

  2. Is dark matter visible by galactic gamma rays?

    The EGRET excess in the diffuse galactic gamma ray data above 1 GeV shows all features expected from dark matter WIMP annihilation: (a) It is present and has the same spectrum in all sky directions, not just in the galactic plane. (b) The intensity of the excess shows the 1/2 profile expected for a flat rotation curve outside ...

  3. Is dark matter visible by galactic gamma rays?

    Abstract. The EGRET excess in the diffuse galactic gamma ray data above 1 GeV shows all features expected from dark matter WIMP annihilation: (a) It is present and has the same spectrum in all sky directions, not just in the galactic plane. (b) The intensity of the excess shows the 1/r2 profile expected for a flat rotation ...

  4. Gamma-ray isotopic analysis development at Los Alamos

    Thomas E. Sampson

    1999-11-01

    This report describes the development history and characteristics of software developed in the Safeguards Science and Technology group at Los Alamos for gamma-ray isotopic analysis. This software analyzes the gamma-ray spectrum from measurements performed on actinide samples (principally plutonium and uranium) of arbitrary size, geometry, and physical and chemical composition. The results are obtained without calibration using only fundamental tabulated nuclear constants. Characteristics of the current software versions are discussed in some detail and many examples of implemented measurement systems are shown.

  5. Theoretical Study of Gamma-ray Pulsars

    Kwong Sang Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the non-stationary three dimensional two-layer outer gap model to explain gamma-ray emissions from a pulsar magnetosphere. We found out that for some pulsars like the Geminga pulsar, it was hard to explain emissions above a level of around 1 GeV. We then developed the model into a non-stationary model. In this model we assigned a power-law distribution to one or more of the spectral parameters proposed in the previous model and calculated the weighted phaseaveraged spectrum. Though this model is suitable for some pulsars, it still cannot explain the high energy emission of the Geminga pulsar. An Inverse-Compton Scattering component between the primary particles and the radio photons in the outer magnetosphere was introduced into the model, and this component produced a sufficient number of GeV photons in the spectrum of the Geminga pulsar.

  6. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  7. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  8. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from pulsars

    Morini, M.

    1983-01-01

    A model is proposed for pulsar optical and gamma-ray emission where relativistic electrons beams: (i) scatter the blackbody photons from the polar cap surface giving inverse Compton gamma-rays and (ii) produce synchrotron optical photons in the light cylinder region which are then inverse Compton scattered giving other gamma-rays. The model is applied to the Vela pulsar, explaining the first gamma-ray pulse by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons near the light cylinder and the second gamma-ray pulse partly by inverse Compton scattering of synchrotron photons and partly by inverse Compton scattering of the thermal blackbody photons near the star surface. (author)

  9. Gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon at high pressure

    Smith, G.C.; Mahler, G.J.; Yu, B.; Kane, W.R.; Markey, J.K.

    1994-01-01

    A prototype gamma-ray spectrometer utilizing xenon gas near the critical point (166 degrees C, 58 atm) is under development. The spectrometer will function as a room-temperature ionization chamber detecting gamma rays in the energy range 100 keV2 MeV, with an energy resolution intermediate between semiconductor (Ge) and scintillation (NaI) spectrometers. The energy resolution is superior to that of a NaI scintillation spectrometer by a substantial margin (approximately a factor 5), and accordingly, much more information can be extracted from a given gamma-ray spectrum. Unlike germanium detectors, the spectrometer possesses the capability for sustained operation under ambient temperature conditions without a requirement for liquid nitrogen

  10. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  11. Mutagenic effectiveness and efficiency of EMS, DES and gamma-rays in rice

    Kaul, M.L.H.; Bhan, A.K.

    1977-01-01

    Data on chlorophyll mutation frequency after treatment with EMS, DES and gamma-rays and sequential administration of gamma-rays and the two alkylating agents in three varieties of rice have been used to work out quantitatively the effectiveness and efficiency of each mutagen and combination treatment. For effectiveness, the order is EMS > DES and for efficiency it is EMS > DES > gamma-rays. In some sequential treatments (Gamma-rays + DES in 'IR8' and 'Basmati'; DES + gamma-rays in 'IR8' and 'Jhona'; Gamma-rays + EMS in 'IR8' and 'Basmati'; and EMS + gamma-rays in 'IR8', 'Jhona' and 'Basmati') mutation frequency is more than additive (synergistic) but these treatments are decisively less efficient because of their relatively high injurious effects in the M 1 generation. EMS induces more albinas than gamma-rays do. The mutational spectrum patterns induced by gamma-rays and DES are alike. In general, combination treatments tend to increase the frequency of albinas over other types of chlorophyll mutants. (orig.) [de

  12. THE ORIGIN OF GAMMA RAYS FROM GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    Cheng, K. S.; Chernyshov, D. O.; Dogiel, V. A.; Hui, C. Y.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2010-01-01

    Fermi has detected gamma-ray emission from eight globular clusters (GCs). It is commonly believed that the energy sources of these gamma rays are millisecond pulsars (MSPs) inside GCs. Also it has been standard to explain the spectra of most Fermi Large Area Telescope pulsars including MSPs resulting from the curvature radiation (CR) of relativistic electrons/positrons inside the pulsar magnetosphere. Therefore, gamma rays from GCs are expected to be the collection of CR from all MSPs inside the clusters. However, the angular resolution is not high enough to pinpoint the nature of the emission. In this paper, we calculate the gamma rays produced by the inverse Compton (IC) scattering between relativistic electrons/positrons in the pulsar wind of MSPs in the GCs and background soft photons including cosmic microwave/relic photons, background star lights in the clusters, the galactic infrared photons, and the galactic star lights. We show that the gamma-ray spectrum from 47 Tucanae can be explained equally well by upward scattering of either the relic photons, the galactic infrared photons, or the galactic star lights, whereas the gamma-ray spectra from the other seven GCs are best fitted by the upward scattering of either the galactic infrared photons or the galactic star lights. We also find that the observed gamma-ray luminosity is correlated better with the combined factor of the encounter rate and the background soft photon energy density. Therefore, the IC scattering may also contribute to the observed gamma-ray emission from GCs detected by Fermi in addition to the standard CR process. Furthermore, we find that the emission region of high-energy photons from GCs produced by the IC scattering is substantially larger than the cores of GCs with a radius >10 pc. The diffuse radio and X-rays emitted from GCs can also be produced by the synchrotron radiation and IC scattering, respectively. We suggest that future observations including radio, X-rays, and gamma rays

  13. TEV GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE GALACTIC CENTER RIDGE BY VERITAS

    Archer, A.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V. [Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M. [Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Bird, R.; Collins-Hughes, E. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Buchovecky, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Byrum, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Cardenzana, J. V; Eisch, J. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Chen, X. [Institute of Physics and Astronomy, University of Potsdam, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Ciupik, L. [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium and Astronomy Museum, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Connolly, M. P. [School of Physics, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway (Ireland); Falcone, A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Fleischhack, H. [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Flinders, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Fortson, L., E-mail: asmith44@umd.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); and others

    2016-04-20

    The Galactic Center ridge has been observed extensively in the past by both GeV and TeV gamma-ray instruments revealing a wealth of structure, including a diffuse component and the point sources G0.9+0.1 (a composite supernova remnant) and Sgr A* (believed to be associated with the supermassive black hole located at the center of our Galaxy). Previous very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray observations with the H.E.S.S. experiment have also detected an extended TeV gamma-ray component along the Galactic plane in the >300 GeV gamma-ray regime. Here we report on observations of the Galactic Center ridge from 2010 to 2014 by the VERITAS telescope array in the >2 TeV energy range. From these observations we (1) provide improved measurements of the differential energy spectrum for Sgr A* in the >2 TeV gamma-ray regime, (2) provide a detection in the >2 TeV gamma-ray emission from the composite SNR G0.9+0.1 and an improved determination of its multi-TeV gamma-ray energy spectrum, and (3) report on the detection of VER J1746-289, a localized enhancement of >2 TeV gamma-ray emission along the Galactic plane.

  14. Distribution of iron and titanium on the lunar surface from lunar prospector gamma ray spectra

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Lawrence, David J.; Elphic, R.C.; Gasnault, O.M.; Maurice, S.; Moore, K.R.; Binder, A.B.

    2001-01-01

    Gamma ray pulse height spectra acquired by the Lunar Prospector (LP) Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) contain information on the abundance of major elements in the lunar surface, including O, Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, K, and Th. With the exception of Th and K, prompt gamma rays produced by cosmic ray interactions with surface materials are used to determine elemental abundance. Most of these gamma rays are produced by inelastic scattering of fast neutrons and by neutron capture. The production of neutron-induced gamma rays reaches a maximum deep below the surface (e.g. ∼140 g/cm 2 for inelastic scattering and ∼50 g/cm 2 for capture). Consequently, gamma rays sense the bulk composition of lunar materials, in contrast to optical methods (e.g. Clementine Spectral Reflectance (CSR)), which only sample the top few microns. Because most of the gamma rays are produced deep beneath the surface, few escape unscattered and the continuum of scattered gamma rays dominates the spectrum. In addition, due to the resolution of the spectrometer, there are few well-isolated peaks and peak fitting algorithms must be used to deconvolve the spectrum in order to determine the contribution of individual elements.

  15. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Teegarden, B.J

    1999-02-11

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world.

  16. Space instrumentation for gamma-ray astronomy

    Teegarden, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    The decade of the 1990s has witnessed a renaissance in the field of gamma-ray astronomy. The seminal event was the launch of the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO) in April 1991. There have been a flood of major discoveries from CGRO including breakthroughs in gamma-ray bursts, annihilation radiation, and blazars. The Italian SAX satellite was launched in April 1996. Although not primarily a gamma-ray mission, it has added a new dimension to our understanding of gamma-ray bursts. Along with these new discoveries a firm groundwork has been laid for missions and new technology development that should maintain a healthy and vigorous field throughout most of the next decade. These include the ESA INTEGRAL mission (INTErnational Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, to be launched in mid-2001) and the NASA GLAST mission (Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope) with a likely launch in the middle of the next decade. These two missions will extend the observational capabilities well beyond those of CGRO. New technologies (to gamma-ray astronomy), such as cooled germanium detectors, silicon strip detectors, and CdTe detectors are planned for these new missions. Additional promising new technologies such as CdZnTe strip detectors, scintillator fibers, and a gamma-ray lens for future gamma-ray astronomy missions are under development in laboratories around the world

  17. Coincidence gamma-ray spectrometry

    Markovic, Nikola; Roos, Per; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors is often the technique of choice in an environmental radioactivity laboratory. When measuring environmental samples associated activities are usually low so an important parameter that describes the performance of the spectrometer...... for a nuclide of interest is the minimum detectable activity (MDA). There are many ways for lowering the MDAs in gamma spectrometry. Recently, developments of fast and compact digital acquisition systems have led to growing number of multiple HPGe detector spectrometers. In these applications all detected...

  18. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts

    Hurley, K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the essential aspects of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenon, with emphasis on the more recent results. GRBs are introduced by their time histories, which provide some evidence for a compact object origin. The energy spectra of bursts are presented and they are seen to demonstrate practically unambiguously that the origin of some GRBs involves neutron stars. Counterpart searches are reviewed briefly and the statistical properties of bursters treated. This paper presents a review of the three known repeating bursters (the Soft Gamma Repeaters). Extragalactic and galactic models are discussed and future prospects are assessed

  19. Gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP)

    Mihara, Tatehiro; Murakami, Toshio; Yonetoku, Daisuke; Gunji, Shuichi; Kubo, Shin

    2013-01-01

    The gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP: GAmma-ray burst Polarimeter), which had been almost handcrafted by scientists, has succeeded in working normally in interplanetary space, and in detecting the polarization of the gamma-ray from a mysterious astronomical object 'gamma-ray burst'. It is the first result of the detectors in the world exclusively aiming at detecting gamma-ray polarization. We mainly describe the hardware of our GAP equipment and show the method of preparing equipment to work in the cosmic space with a tight budget. The mechanical structure, the electronic circuits, the software on the equipment, the data analysis on the earth, and the scientific results gained by the observation just over one year, are presented after explaining the principle of gamma-ray polarization detection. Our design to protect equipment against mechanical shock and cosmic radiation may provide useful information for future preparation of compact satellite. (J.P.N.)

  20. Gamma-Ray Astronomy Technology Needs

    Gehrels, N.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    In recent decades gamma-ray observations have become a valuable tool for studying the universe. Progress made in diverse 8re1lS such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), nucleosynthesis, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has complimented and enriched our astrophysical understanding in many ways. We present an overview of current and future planned space y-ray missions and discussion technology needs for- the next generation of space gamma-ray instruments.

  1. Calculation of the flux density of gamma rays above the surface of Venus and the Earth

    Surkov, Yu.A.; Manvelyan, O.S.

    1987-01-01

    In this article the authors present the results of calculating the flux density of unscattered gamma rays as a function of height above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth. At each height they calculate the areas which will collect a certain fraction of the gamma rays. The authors calculate the spectra of scattered gamma rays, as well as their integrated fluxes at various heights above the surface of Venus. They consider how the atmosphere will affect the recording of gamma rays. Their results enable them to evaluate the optimal conditions for measuring the gamma-ray fields above the surfaces of Venus and the Earth and to determine the area of the planet which can be investigated in this way. These results are also necessary if they are to determine the elemental composition of the rock from the characteristic recorded spectrum of gamma radiation

  2. Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT

    Anderson, B.; Atwood, W.B.; Dormody, M.; Johnson, R.P.; Porter, T.A.; Primack, J.R.; Sadrozinski, H.F.W.; Parkinson, P.M.S.; Ziegler, M.; Abdo, A.A.; Dermer, C.D.; Grove, J.E.; Gwon, C.; Johnson, W.N.; Lovellette, M.N.; Makeev, A.; Ray, P.S.; Strickman, M.S.; Wolff, M.T.; Wood, K.S.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Funk, S.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E.D.; Borgland, A.W.; Cameron, R.A.; Chiang, J.; Claus, R.; Digel, S.W.; Silva, E.D.E.; Drell, P.S.; Dubois, R.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Hayashida, M.; Johannesson, G.; Kamae, T.; Kocian, M.L.; Lande, J.; Madejski, G.M.; Michelson, P.F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Monzani, M.E.; Moskalenko, I.V.; Murgia, S.; Nolan, P.L.; Paneque, D.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Rochester, L.S.; Romani, R.W.; Tajima, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J.G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T.L.; Van Etten, A.; Waite, A.P.; Wang, P.; Watters, K.; Axelsson, M.; Conrad, J.; Meurer, C.; Ryde, F.; Ylinen, T.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Kuss, M.; Latronico, L.; Omodei, N.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Razzano, M.; Sgro, C.; Spandre, G.; Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J.M.; Grenier, I.A.; Pierbattista, M.; Starck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants. (authors)

  3. Gamma-ray burst models.

    King, Andrew

    2007-05-15

    I consider various possibilities for making gamma-ray bursts, particularly from close binaries. In addition to the much-studied neutron star+neutron star and black hole+neutron star cases usually considered good candidates for short-duration bursts, there are also other possibilities. In particular, neutron star+massive white dwarf has several desirable features. These systems are likely to produce long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), in some cases definitely without an accompanying supernova, as observed recently. This class of burst would have a strong correlation with star formation and occur close to the host galaxy. However, rare members of the class need not be near star-forming regions and could have any type of host galaxy. Thus, a long-duration burst far from any star-forming region would also be a signature of this class. Estimates based on the existence of a known progenitor suggest that this type of GRB may be quite common, in agreement with the fact that the absence of a supernova can only be established in nearby bursts.

  4. Gamma ray emission from pulsars

    Salvati, M.; Massaro, E.

    1978-01-01

    A model for the production of gamma rays in a pulsar environment is presented, together with numerical computations fitted to the observations of PSR 0833-45. It is assumed that the primary particles are accelerated close to the star surface and then injected along the open field lines, which cause them to emit curvature radiation. The equation describing the particles' braking is integrated exactly up to the first order in the pulsar rotational frequency, and the transfer problem for the curvature photons is solved with the aberration, the Doppler shif, and the pair production absorption being taken into account. The latter effect is due not only to the transverse component of the magnetic field, but also to the electric field induced by the rotation. The synchrotron radiation emitted by the secondary particles is also included, subject to the 'on-the-spot' approximation. It is found that the observed gamma rays originate in the innermost regions of the magnetosphere, where the open lines' bundle is narrow and the geometrical beaming is effective. As shown by the computed pulse profiles, the duty cycle turns out to be equal to a few percent, comparable to the one of PSR 0833-45. The averaged spectra indicate that a substantial fraction of the primary photons do outlive the interaction with the magnetisphere; furthermore, the agreement in shape with the observational curves suggests that the acceleration output is fiarly close to a monoenergetic beam of particles. (orig.) [de

  5. Dark gamma-ray bursts

    Brdar, Vedran; Kopp, Joachim; Liu, Jia

    2017-03-01

    Many theories of dark matter (DM) predict that DM particles can be captured by stars via scattering on ordinary matter. They subsequently condense into a DM core close to the center of the star and eventually annihilate. In this work, we trace DM capture and annihilation rates throughout the life of a massive star and show that this evolution culminates in an intense annihilation burst coincident with the death of the star in a core collapse supernova. The reason is that, along with the stellar interior, also its DM core heats up and contracts, so that the DM density increases rapidly during the final stages of stellar evolution. We argue that, counterintuitively, the annihilation burst is more intense if DM annihilation is a p -wave process than for s -wave annihilation because in the former case, more DM particles survive until the supernova. If among the DM annihilation products are particles like dark photons that can escape the exploding star and decay to standard model particles later, the annihilation burst results in a flash of gamma rays accompanying the supernova. For a galactic supernova, this "dark gamma-ray burst" may be observable in the Čerenkov Telescope Array.

  6. Relativistic motion in gamma-ray bursts

    Krolik, J.H.; Pier, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Three fundamental problems affect models of gamma-ray bursts, i.e., the energy source, the ability of high-energy photons to escape the radiation region, and the comparative weakness of X-ray emission. It is indicated that relativistic bulk motion of the gamma-ray-emitting plasma generically provides a solution to all three of these problems. Results show that, if the plasma that produces gamma-ray bursts has a bulk relativistic velocity with Lorentz factor gamma of about 10, several of the most troubling problems having to do with gamma-ray bursts are solved. 42 refs

  7. Radio Observations of Gamma-ray Novae

    Linford, Justin D.; Chomiuk, L.; Ribeiro, V.; project, E.-Nova

    2014-01-01

    Recent detection of gamma-ray emission from classical novae by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope surprised many in the astronomical community. We present results from radio observations, obtained using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of three gamma-ray novae: Mon2012, Sco2012, and Del2013. Radio observations allow for the calculation of ejecta masses, place limits on the distances, and provide information about the gamma-ray emission mechanism for these sources.

  8. Measurement of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections of structural materials for fusion reactor. Extraction of discrete and continuum components

    Kondo, Tetsuo; Morotomi, Ryutaro; Nishio, Takashi; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    A new method to deal with measured spectrum of secondary gamma-rays induced by D-T neutrons with Ge detector is proposed. Subtracting background components and discrete peaks from the raw secondary gamma-ray spectrum, the continuum component of secondary gamma-ray was successfully extracted. By using unfolding process, the continuum component of the secondary gamma-ray production cross section was derived. The measured cross section data obtained by this method are very useful for precise evaluation of secondary gamma-ray production cross sections. (author)

  9. Gravitational Waves versus X and Gamma Ray Emission in a Short Gamma-Ray Burst

    Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2012-01-01

    The recent progress in the understanding the physical nature of neutron star equilibrium configurations and the first observational evidence of a genuinely short gamma-ray burst, GRB 090227B, allows to give an estimate of the gravitational waves versus the X and Gamma-ray emission in a short gamma-ray burst.

  10. Gamma ray induced somatic mutations in rose

    Datta, S.K.

    1989-01-01

    Budwood of 32 rose cultivars (Rosa spp.) was exposed to 3-4 krad of gamma rays and eyes were grafted on Rosa indica var. odorata root stock. Radiosensitivity with respect to sprouting, survival and plant height, and mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and dose of gamma rays. Somatic mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimera in 21 cultivars. The size of the mutant sector varied from a narrow streak on a petal to a whole flower and from a portion of a branch to an entire branch. 14 mutants were detected in M 1 V 1 , four in M 1 V 2 and three in M 1 V 3 . Maximum number of mutations was detected following 3 krad treatment. Eyes from mutant branches were grafted again on root stock and non-chimeric mutants were aimed at by vegetative propagation. Mutants from 11 cultivars only could be isolated in pure form. Isolation of non-chimeric mutants sometimes is difficult due to weak growth of a mutant branch. In such a case, all normal looking branches are removed to force a better growth of the mutant branch. It is advisable to maintain irradiated plants at least for four years with drastic pruning in each year. Nine mutants viz. 'Sharada', 'Sukumari', 'Tangerine Contempo', 'Yellow Contempo', 'Pink Contempo', 'Striped Contempo', 'Twinkle', 'Curio' and 'Light Pink Prize' have already been released as new cultivars for commercialization [ref. MBNL No. 23 and 31] and others are being multiplied and assessed. The mutation spectrum appears to be wider for the cultivars 'Contempo' and 'Imperator'. Pigment composition of the original variety is relevant for the kind of flower colour mutations that can be induced

  11. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L., E-mail: fta777@hotmail.co [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Centro Regional de Estudis Nucleares, Calle Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced {chi}{sup 2} criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  12. An optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectrometry

    De la Torre, F.; Rios M, C.; Ruvalcaba A, M. G.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L.

    2010-10-01

    This work aims to obtain an optimum analysis sequence for environmental gamma-ray spectroscopy by means of Genie 2000 (Canberra). Twenty different analysis sequences were customized using different peak area percentages and different algorithms for: 1) peak finding, and 2) peak area determination, and with or without the use of a library -based on evaluated nuclear data- of common gamma-ray emitters in environmental samples. The use of an optimum analysis sequence with certified nuclear information avoids the problems originated by the significant variations in out-of-date nuclear parameters of commercial software libraries. Interference-free gamma ray energies with absolute emission probabilities greater than 3.75% were included in the customized library. The gamma-ray spectroscopy system (based on a Ge Re-3522 Canberra detector) was calibrated both in energy and shape by means of the IAEA-2002 reference spectra for software intercomparison. To test the performance of the analysis sequences, the IAEA-2002 reference spectrum was used. The z-score and the reduced χ 2 criteria were used to determine the optimum analysis sequence. The results show an appreciable variation in the peak area determinations and their corresponding uncertainties. Particularly, the combination of second derivative peak locate with simple peak area integration algorithms provides the greater accuracy. Lower accuracy comes from the combination of library directed peak locate algorithm and Genie's Gamma-M peak area determination. (Author)

  13. Plutonium isotopic measurements by gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Haas, F.X.; Lemming, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A nondestructive technique is described for calculating plutonium-238, plutonium-240, plutonium-241 and americium-241 relative to plutonium-239 from measured peak areas in the high resolution gamma-ray spectra of solid plutonium samples. Gamma-ray attenuation effects were minimized by selecting sets of neighboring peaks in the spectrum whose components are due to the different isotopes. Since the detector efficiencies are approximately the same for adjacent peaks, the accuracy of the isotopic ratios is dependent on the half-lives, branching intensities, and measured peak areas. The data presented describe the results obtained by analyzing gamma-ray spectra in the energy region from 120 to 700 keV. Most of the data analyzed were obtained from plutonium material containing 6 percent plutonium-240. Sample weights varied from 0.25 g to approximately 1.2 kg. The methods were also applied to plutonium samples containing up to 23 percent plutonium-240 with weights of 0.25 to 200 g. Results obtained by gamma-ray spectroscopy are compared to chemical analyses of aliquots taken from the bulk samples

  14. An Overview of the XGAM Code and Related Software for Gamma-ray Analysis

    Younes, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    The XGAM spectrum-fitting code and associated software were developed specifically to analyze the complex gamma-ray spectra that can result from neutron-induced reactions. The XGAM code is designed to fit a spectrum over the entire available gamma-ray energy range as a single entity, in contrast to the more traditional piecewise approaches. This global-fit philosophy enforces background continuity as well as consistency between local and global behavior throughout the spectrum, and in a natural way. This report presents XGAM and the suite of programs built around it with an emphasis on how they fit into an overall analysis methodology for complex gamma-ray data. An application to the analysis of time-dependent delayed gamma-ray yields from 235U fission is shown in order to showcase the codes and how they interact.

  15. Handbook on Mobile Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C

    2003-01-01

    Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing......Basic physics and mathematics for Airborne and Car-borne Gamma-ray Spectrometry supplemented with practical examples and methods for advanced data processing...

  16. Gamma ray astronomy from satellites and balloons

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of gamma ray astronomy topics presented at the Cosmic Ray Conference. The major conclusions at the Cosmic Ray Conference in the field of gamma ray astronomy are given. (1) MeV-emission of gamma-ray bursts is a common feature. Variations in duration and energy spectra from burst to burst may explain the discrepancy between the measured log N - log S dependence and the observed isotropy of bursts. (2) The gamma-ray line at 1.809 MeV from Al(26) is the first detected line from a radioactive nucleosynthesis product. In order to understand its origin it will be necessary to measure its longitude distribution in the Milky Way. (3) The indications of a gamma-ray excess found from the direction of Loop I is consistent with the picture that the bulk of cosmic rays below 100 GeV is produced in galactic supernova remnants. (4) The interpretation of the large scale distribution of gamma rays in the Milky Way is controversial. At present an extragalactic origin of the cosmic ray nuclei in the GeV-range cannot be excluded from the gamma ray data. (5) The detection of MeV-emission from Cen A is a promising step towards the interesting field of extragalactic gamma ray astronomy

  17. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Kern, J [Fribourg Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs.

  18. Prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA)

    Kern, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with a brief description of the principles of prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA), with the detection of gamma-rays, the PGAA project at SINQ and with the expected performances. 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  19. A high energy gamma ray astronomy experiment

    Hofstadter, R.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes work involving NASA's Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). GRO exemplifies the near zero principle because it investigates new gamma ray phenomena by relying on the space program to take us into the region of zero interference above the earth's atmosphere. In its present form GRO has four experiments

  20. Intercomparison of gamma ray analysis software packages

    1998-04-01

    The IAEA undertook an intercomparison exercise to review available software for gamma ray spectra analysis. This document describes the methods used in the intercomparison exercise, characterizes the software packages reviewed and presents the results obtained. Only direct results are given without any recommendation for a particular software or method for gamma ray spectra analysis

  1. A new approach for beam hardening correction based on the local spectrum distributions

    Rasoulpour, Naser; Kamali-Asl, Alireza; Hemmati, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Energy dependence of material absorption and polychromatic nature of x-ray beams in the Computed Tomography (CT) causes a phenomenon which called “beam hardening”. The purpose of this study is to provide a novel approach for Beam Hardening (BH) correction. This approach is based on the linear attenuation coefficients of Local Spectrum Distributions (LSDs) in the various depths of a phantom. The proposed method includes two steps. Firstly, the hardened spectra in various depths of the phantom (or LSDs) are estimated based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm for arbitrary thickness interval of known materials in the phantom. The performance of LSD estimation technique is evaluated by applying random Gaussian noise to transmission data. Then, the linear attenuation coefficients with regarding to the mean energy of LSDs are obtained. Secondly, a correction function based on the calculated attenuation coefficients is derived in order to correct polychromatic raw data. Since a correction function has been used for the conversion of the polychromatic data to the monochromatic data, the effect of BH in proposed reconstruction must be reduced in comparison with polychromatic reconstruction. The proposed approach has been assessed in the phantoms which involve less than two materials, but the correction function has been extended for using in the constructed phantoms with more than two materials. The relative mean energy difference in the LSDs estimations based on the noise-free transmission data was less than 1.5%. Also, it shows an acceptable value when a random Gaussian noise is applied to the transmission data. The amount of cupping artifact in the proposed reconstruction method has been effectively reduced and proposed reconstruction profile is uniform more than polychromatic reconstruction profile. - Highlights: • A novel Beam Hardening (BH) correction approach was described. • A new concept named Local Spectrum Distributions (LSDs) was used to BH

  2. A new approach for beam hardening correction based on the local spectrum distributions

    Rasoulpour, Naser; Kamali-Asl, Alireza, E-mail: a_kamali@sbu.ac.ir; Hemmati, Hamidreza

    2015-09-11

    Energy dependence of material absorption and polychromatic nature of x-ray beams in the Computed Tomography (CT) causes a phenomenon which called “beam hardening”. The purpose of this study is to provide a novel approach for Beam Hardening (BH) correction. This approach is based on the linear attenuation coefficients of Local Spectrum Distributions (LSDs) in the various depths of a phantom. The proposed method includes two steps. Firstly, the hardened spectra in various depths of the phantom (or LSDs) are estimated based on the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm for arbitrary thickness interval of known materials in the phantom. The performance of LSD estimation technique is evaluated by applying random Gaussian noise to transmission data. Then, the linear attenuation coefficients with regarding to the mean energy of LSDs are obtained. Secondly, a correction function based on the calculated attenuation coefficients is derived in order to correct polychromatic raw data. Since a correction function has been used for the conversion of the polychromatic data to the monochromatic data, the effect of BH in proposed reconstruction must be reduced in comparison with polychromatic reconstruction. The proposed approach has been assessed in the phantoms which involve less than two materials, but the correction function has been extended for using in the constructed phantoms with more than two materials. The relative mean energy difference in the LSDs estimations based on the noise-free transmission data was less than 1.5%. Also, it shows an acceptable value when a random Gaussian noise is applied to the transmission data. The amount of cupping artifact in the proposed reconstruction method has been effectively reduced and proposed reconstruction profile is uniform more than polychromatic reconstruction profile. - Highlights: • A novel Beam Hardening (BH) correction approach was described. • A new concept named Local Spectrum Distributions (LSDs) was used to BH

  3. Very high-energy gamma rays from gamma-ray bursts.

    Chadwick, Paula M

    2007-05-15

    Very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy has undergone a transformation in the last few years, with telescopes of unprecedented sensitivity having greatly expanded the source catalogue. Such progress makes the detection of a gamma-ray burst at the highest energies much more likely than previously. This paper describes the facilities currently operating and their chances for detecting gamma-ray bursts, and reviews predictions for VHE gamma-ray emission from gamma-ray bursts. Results to date are summarized.

  4. Observations of the highest energy gamma-rays from gamma-ray bursts

    Dingus, Brenda L.

    2001-01-01

    EGRET has extended the highest energy observations of gamma-ray bursts to GeV gamma rays. Such high energies imply the fireball that is radiating the gamma-rays has a bulk Lorentz factor of several hundred. However, EGRET only detected a few gamma-ray bursts. GLAST will likely detect several hundred bursts and may extend the maximum energy to a few 100 GeV. Meanwhile new ground based detectors with sensitivity to gamma-ray bursts are beginning operation, and one recently reported evidence for TeV emission from a burst

  5. Spectra of gamma-ray bursts at high energies

    Matz, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    Between 1980 February and 1983 August the Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite (SMM) observed 71 gamma-ray bursts. These events form a representative subset of the class of classical gamma-ray bursts. Since their discovery more than 15 years ago, hundreds of gamma-ray bursts have been detected; however, most observations have been limited to an energy range of roughly 30 keV-1 MeV. The large sensitive area and spectral range of the GRS allow, for the first time, an investigation of the high energy (>1 MeV) behavior of a substantial number of gamma-ray bursts. It is found that high-energy emission is seen in a large fraction of all events and that the data are consistent with all bursts emitting to at least 5 MeV with no cut-offs. Further, no burst spectrum measured by GRS has a clear high-energy cut-off. The high-energy emission can be a significant part of the total burst energy on the average about 30% of the observed energy above 30 keV is contained in the >1 MeV photons. The fact that the observations are consistent with the presence of high-energy emission in all events implies a limit on the preferential beaming of high-energy photons, from any mechanism. Single-photon pair-production in a strong magnetic field produces such beaming; assuming that the low-energy emission is isotropic, the data imply an upper limit of 1 x 10 12 G on the typical magnetic field at burst radiation sites

  6. Fermi Discovery of Gamma-Ray Emission from NGC 1275

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Asano, K.; /Tokyo Inst. Tech.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Blandford, R.D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle; Caliandro, G.A.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /SISSA, Trieste /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Montpellier U. /ASDC, Frascati /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    We report the discovery of high-energy (E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray emission from NGC 1275, a giant elliptical galaxy lying at the center of the Perseus cluster of galaxies, based on observations made with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The positional center of the {gamma}-ray source is only {approx}3{prime} away from the NGC 1275 nucleus, well within the 95% LAT error circle of {approx}5{prime}. The spatial distribution of {gamma}-ray photons is consistent with a point source. The average flux and power-law photon index measured with the LAT from 2008 August 4 to 2008 December 5 are F{sub {gamma}} = (2.10 {+-} 0.23) x 10{sup -7} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and {Gamma} = 2.17 {+-} 0.05, respectively. The measurements are statistically consistent with constant flux during the four-month LAT observing period. Previous EGRET observations gave an upper limit of F{sub {gamma}} < 3.72 x 10{sup -8} ph (>100 MeV) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} to the {gamma}-ray flux from NGC 1275. This indicates that the source is variable on timescales of years to decades, and therefore restricts the fraction of emission that can be produced in extended regions of the galaxy cluster. Contemporaneous and historical radio observations are also reported. The broadband spectrum of NGC 1275 is modeled with a simple one-zone synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton model and a model with a decelerating jet flow.

  7. Gamma rays from Cygnus X-1: Modeling and nonthermal pair production

    Dermer, C.D.; Liang, E.P.

    1988-02-01

    The gamma-ray bump observed between 0.5 and 2 MeV in the spectrum of Cygnus X-1 can be interpreted as the thermal emissions from a hot (kT/approximately/400 keV) pair-dominated cloud. We argue that the X-rays and gamma rays are produced in separate emission regions, and calculate the photon-photon pair production rate from X-ray and gamma-ray interactions in the vicinity of Cyg X-1 by employing a simplified geometry for the two emitting regions

  8. Programs for the automatic gamma-ray measurement with CANBERRA 8100/QUANTA system

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sakai, Eiji; Kubo, Katsumi.

    1982-07-01

    Some programs have been prepared for the automatic operation of the CANBERRA 8100/QUANTA System for the gamma-ray spectrum measurement. The main parts of these programs are: (1) to collect and record on magnetic disks the data of gamma-ray spectra automatically, while the recorded data are analyzed to estimate the nuclides which generate photopeaks of spectra and to calculate those concentrations; (2) to draw plotted diagrams of pulse height distributions of gamma-ray spectra data and other data by the additional digital plotter; and etc. (author)

  9. Reduction of Compton background from hydrogen in prompt gamma-ray analysis by multiple photon detection

    Toh, Y.; Oshima, M.; Kimura, A.; Koizumi, M.; Furutaka, K.; Hatsukawa, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Low-energy photons produced by the Compton scattering from hydrogen increase the background in the lower-energy region of the gamma-ray spectrum. This results in an increase in the detection limit for trace elements. In multiple photon detection prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA), only those elements that simultaneously emit two or more prompt gamma-rays, which have cascade relation and are emitted within a short interval, can be measured. Therefore, the influence of hydrogen can be reduced. In this study, standard polymer and food samples are measured. The hydrogen background is reduced in MPGA. (author)

  10. Gamma ray lines from a universal extra dimension

    Bertone, Gianfranco; Jackson, C. B.; Shaughnessy, Gabe; Tait, Tim M.P.; Vallinotto, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    Indirect Dark Matter searches are based on the observation of secondary particles produced by the annihilation or decay of Dark Matter. Among them, gamma-rays are perhaps the most promising messengers, as they do not suffer deflection or absorption on Galactic scales, so their observation would directly reveal the position and the energy spectrum of the emitting source. Here, we study the detailed gamma-ray energy spectrum of Kaluza--Klein Dark Matter in a theory with 5 Universal Extra Dimensions. We focus in particular on the two body annihilation of Dark Matter particles into a photon and another particle, which produces monochromatic photons, resulting in a line in the energy spectrum of gamma rays. Previous calculations in the context of the five dimensional UED model have computed the line signal from annihilations into \\gamma \\gamma, but we extend these results to include \\gamma Z and \\gamma H final states. We find that these spectral lines are subdominant compared to the predicted \\gamma \\gamma signal, but they would be important as follow-up signals in the event of the observation of the \\gamma \\gamma line, in order to distinguish the 5d UED model from other theoretical scenarios.

  11. Recent improvements in plutonium gamma-ray analysis using MGA

    Ruhter, W.D.; Gunnink, R.

    1992-06-01

    MGA is a gamma-ray spectrum analysis program for determining relative plutonium isotopic abundances. It can determine plutonium isotopic abundances better than 1% using a high-resolution, low-energy, planar germanium detector and measurement times ten minutes or less. We have modified MGA to allow determination of absolute plutonium isotopic abundances in solutions. With calibration of a detector using a known solution concentration in a well-defined sample geometry, plutonium solution concentrations can be determined. MGA can include analysis of a second spectrum of the high-energy spectrum to include determination of fission product abundances relative to total plutonium. For the high-energy gamma-ray measurements we have devised a new hardware configuration, so that both the low- and high-energy gamma-ray detectors are mounted in a single cryostat thereby reducing weight and volume of the detector systems. We describe the detector configuration, and the performance of the MGA program for determining plutonium concentrations in solutions and fission product abundances

  12. Measurements of the low-energy gamma-ray continuum emission from the Galactic Center direction

    Jardim, M.V.A.; Martin, I.M.; Jardim, J.O.D.

    1982-07-01

    The measurement of the gamma-ray continuum emission from the Galactic Center (GC) can provide us information about the physical processes taking place there at the site of emission. Using the data obtained with a balloon-borne gamma-ray telescope to measure gamma-rays in the energy interval between 0,3 and 3 MeV, which was launched on March 28, 1980 from Cachoeira Paulista (SP), we calculeted two points for the continuum spectrum in the range between 0,34 and 0,67 MeV. The points are related to the GC emission radiated in the longitude interval - 31 0 0 . The measurements are compatible with the observations in 1969 and 1972 by Haymes et alii and Johnson, respectively. The power law spectrum suggests that the main component for the gamma-ray continuum emission below 10 MeV is dominated by the bremsstrahlung due to relativistic electrons. (Author) [pt

  13. Study of gamma ray analysis software's. Application to activation analysis of geological samples

    Silva, Luiz Roberto Nogueira da

    1998-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of the gamma-ray analysis software VISPECT, in relation to two commercial gamma-ray analysis software packages, OMNIGAM (EG and G Ortec) and SAMPO 90 (Canberra) was performed. For this evaluation, artificial gamma ray spectra were created, presenting peaks of different intensities and located at four different regions of the spectrum. Multiplet peaks with equal and different intensities, but with different channel separations, were also created. The results obtained showed a good performance of VISPECT in detecting and analysing single and multiplet peaks of different intensities in the gamma-ray spectrum. Neutron activation analysis of the geological reference material GS-N (IWG-GIT) and of the granite G-94, used in a Proficiency Testing Trial of Analytical Geochemistry Laboratories, was also performed , in order to evaluate the VISEPCT software in the analysis of real samples. The results obtained by using VISPECT were as good or better than the ones obtained using the other programs. (author)

  14. Future prospects for. gamma. -ray astronomy

    Fichtel, C [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Greenbelt, MD (USA). Goddard Space Flight Center

    1981-06-30

    As ..gamma..-ray astronomy moves from the discovery to the exploratory phase, the promise of ..gamma..-ray astrophysics noted by theorists in the late 1940s and 1950s is beginning to be realized. In the future, satellites should carry instruments that will have over an order of magnitude greater sensitivity than those flown thus far, and, for at least some portions of the ..gamma..-ray energy range, these detectors will also have substantially improved energy and angular resolution. The information to be obtained from these experiments should greatly enhance our knowledge of several astrophysical phenomena including the very energetic and nuclear processes associated with compact objects, astrophysical nucleosynthesis, solar particle acceleration, the chemical composition of the planets and other bodies of the Solar System, the structure of our Galaxy, the origin and dynamic pressure effects of the cosmic rays, high energy particles and energetic processes in other galaxies especially active ones, and the degree of matter-antimatter symmetry of the Universe. The ..gamma..-ray results of the forthcoming programs such as Gamma-I, the Gamma Ray Observatory, the ..gamma..-ray burst network, Solar Polar, and very high energy ..gamma..-ray telescopes on the ground will almost certainly provide justification for more sophisticated telescopes. These advanced instruments might be placed on the Space Platform currently under study by N.A.S.A.

  15. Revealing dark matter substructure with anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background

    Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2008-01-01

    The majority of gamma-ray emission from Galactic dark matter annihilation is likely to be detected as a contribution to the diffuse gamma-ray background. I show that dark matter substructure in the halo of the Galaxy induces characteristic anisotropies in the diffuse background that could be used to determine the small-scale dark matter distribution. I calculate the angular power spectrum of the emission from dark matter substructure for several models of the subhalo population, and show that...

  16. Calculation Analysis of Calibration Factors of Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometer

    Zhao Jun; Zhu Jinhui; Xie Honggang; He Qinglin

    2009-01-01

    To determine the calibration factors of an airborne gamma-ray spectrometer measuring large area gamma-ray emitting source at deferent flying height, a series of Monte Carlo simulations were drawn. Response energy spectrums of NaI crystals in airplane caused by nature-decay-series calibration-pads, and calibration factors on different heights above Cs-137 plane source, were obtained. The calculated results agreed with the experimental data well. (authors)

  17. Development and Application of Devices for Remote Monitoring of Gamma-Ray Contamination at RECOM Ltd

    Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Chesnokov, A.V.; Sudarkin, A.N.; Urutskoev, L.I.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for remote monitoring of gamma-ray contamination develop at RECOM Ltd. are described and typical examples of their application are show. The following devices are discussed: spectrum-sensitive collimated devices for mapping of radioactivity on contaminated surfaces- scanning collimated Gamma Locator, device for field Cs-137 contamination mapping-CORAD; devices for gamma-ray imaging computer-controlled High-Energy Radiation Visualizer (HERV) and Coded Mask Imager

  18. The analysis of the gamma-ray pulseheight spectra resulting from the NaI detector

    Huang Zhengde; Zhang Guishan; Chen Qun; Cao Zhong

    1990-01-01

    The analysis of the Gamma-ray pulse-height spectra resulting from NaI detector is described by using weighted least square iteration. The computer program has the function of searching for Gamma-ray peak automatically. It can be used in the analysis of continuous, discrete or their superposition spectra. Besides, there are some function of the spectrum smooth,the correction of the shift in gain and zero energy channel intercept. Some results of the computer program are presented

  19. Pulsed neutron logging system for inelastic scattering gamma rays with gain compensation

    Schultz, W.E.; Smith, H.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention includes methods for linearizing the gain of borehole gamma ray energy measurement apparatus. A known energy peak (or peaks) which is prominent in the gamma ray energy spectra of borehole measurements is monitored and any drift in its apparent location in the energy spectrum is used to generate an error voltage. The error voltage is applied in an inverse feedback manner to control the gain of system amplifiers to cancel the drift

  20. Recombining plasma in the gamma-ray-emitting mixed-morphology supernova remnant 3C 391

    Ergin, T.; Sezer, A. [TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute, ODTU Campus, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Saha, L.; Majumdar, P.; Chatterjee, A. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal 700064 (India); Bayirli, A.; Ercan, E. N., E-mail: tulun.ergin@tubitak.gov.tr [Physics Department, Bogazici University, Bebek, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-07-20

    A group of middle-aged mixed-morphology (MM) supernova remnants (SNRs) interacting with molecular clouds (MCs) has been discovered to be strong GeV gamma-ray emitters by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope (Fermi-LAT). The recent observations of the Suzaku X-ray satellite have revealed that some of these interacting gamma-ray-emitting SNRs, such as IC443, W49B, W44, and G359.1-0.5, have overionized plasmas. 3C 391 (G31.9+0.0) is another Galactic MM SNR interacting with MCs. It was observed in GeV gamma rays by Fermi-LAT as well as in the 0.3-10.0 keV X-ray band by Suzaku. In this work, 3C 391 was detected in GeV gamma rays with a significance of ∼18σ and we showed that the GeV emission is point-like in nature. The GeV gamma-ray spectrum was shown to be best explained by the decay of neutral pions assuming that the protons follow a broken power-law distribution. We revealed radiative recombination structures of silicon and sulfur from 3C 391 using Suzaku data. In this paper, we discuss the possible origin of this type of radiative plasma and hadronic gamma rays.

  1. On Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Ruffini, Remo; Bianco, Carlo Luciano; Caito, Letizia; Chardonnet, Pascal; Cherubini, Christian; Dainotti, Maria Giovanna; Fraschetti, Federico; Geralico, Andrea; Guida, Roberto; Patricelli, Barbara; Rotondo, Michael; Hernandez, Jorge Armando Rueda; Vereshchagin, Gregory; Xue, She-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    (Shortened) We show by example how the uncoding of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) offers unprecedented possibilities to foster new knowledge in fundamental physics and in astrophysics. After recalling some of the classic work on vacuum polarization in uniform electric fields by Klein, Sauter, Heisenberg, Euler and Schwinger, we summarize some of the efforts to observe these effects in heavy ions and high energy ion collisions. We then turn to the theory of vacuum polarization around a Kerr-Newman black hole, leading to the extraction of the blackholic energy, to the concept of dyadosphere and dyadotorus, and to the creation of an electron-positron-photon plasma. We then present a new theoretical approach encompassing the physics of neutron stars and heavy nuclei. It is shown that configurations of nuclear matter in bulk with global charge neutrality can exist on macroscopic scales and with electric fields close to the critical value near their surfaces. These configurations may represent an initial condition for the...

  2. A signature of anisotropic cosmic-ray transport in the gamma-ray sky

    Cerri, Silvio Sergio; Grasso, Dario [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' E. Fermi' ' , Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Gaggero, Daniele [GRAPPA, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vittino, Andrea [Physik-Department T30d, Technische Universität München, James Franck-Str. 1, D-85748, Garching (Germany); Evoli, Carmelo, E-mail: silvio.cerri@df.unipi.it, E-mail: d.gaggero@uva.nl, E-mail: andrea.vittino@tum.de, E-mail: carmelo.evoli@gssi.it, E-mail: dario.grasso@pi.infn.it [Gran Sasso Science Institute, Viale Francesco Crispi 7, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2017-10-01

    A crucial process in Galactic cosmic-ray (CR) transport is the spatial diffusion due to the interaction with the interstellar turbulent magnetic field. Usually, CR diffusion is assumed to be uniform and isotropic all across the Galaxy. However, this picture is clearly inaccurate: several data-driven and theoretical arguments, as well as dedicated numerical simulations, show that diffusion exhibits highly anisotropic properties with respect to the direction of a background (ordered) magnetic field (i.e., parallel or perpendicular to it). In this paper we focus on a recently discovered anomaly in the hadronic CR spectrum inferred by the Fermi-LAT gamma-ray data at different positions in the Galaxy, i.e. the progressive hardening of the proton slope at low Galactocentric radii. We propose the idea that this feature can be interpreted as a signature of anisotropic diffusion in the complex Galactic magnetic field: in particular, the harder slope in the inner Galaxy is due, in our scenario, to the parallel diffusive escape along the poloidal component of the large-scale, regular, magnetic field. We implement this idea in a numerical framework, based on the DRAGON code, and perform detailed numerical tests on the accuracy of our setup. We discuss how the effect proposed depends on the relevant free parameters involved. Based on low-energy extrapolation of the few focused numerical simulations aimed at determining the scalings of the anisotropic diffusion coefficients, we finally present a set of plausible models that reproduce the behavior of the CR proton slopes inferred by gamma-ray data.

  3. Organization of a multichannel analyzer for gamma ray spectrometry

    Robinet, Genevieve

    1988-06-01

    This report describes the software organization of a medium scale multichannel analyzer for qualitative and quantitative measurements of the gamma rays emitted by radioactive samples. The first part reminds basis of radioactivity, principle of gamma ray detection, and data processing used for interpretation of a nuclear spectrum. The second part describes first the general organization of the software and then gives some details on interactivity, multidetector capabilites, and integration of complex algorithms for peak search and nuclide identification;problems encountered during the design phase are mentioned and solutions are given. Basic ideas are presented for further developments, such as expert system which should improve interpretation of the results. This present software has been integrated in a manufactured multichannel analyzer named 'POLYGAM NU416'. [fr

  4. Simulating Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes using SWORD (Invited)

    Gwon, C.; Grove, J.; Dwyer, J. R.; Mattson, K.; Polaski, D.; Jackson, L.

    2013-12-01

    We report on simulations of the relativistic feedback discharges involved with the production of terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs). The simulations were conducted using Geant4 using the SoftWare for the Optimization of Radiation Detectors (SWORD) framework. SWORD provides a graphical interface for setting up simulations in select high-energy radiation transport engines. Using Geant4, we determine avalanche length, the energy spectrum of the electrons and gamma-rays as they leave the field region, and the feedback factor describing the degree to which the production of energetic particles is self-sustaining. We validate our simulations against previous work in order to determine the reliability of our results. This work is funded by the Office of Naval Research.

  5. Neutron Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    Sleaford, B. W.; Summers, N.; Escher, J.; Firestone, R. B.; Basunia, S.; Hurst, A.; Krticka, M.; Molnar, G.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Z.; Choi, H. D.

    2011-01-01

    The neutron capture reaction is useful in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly as it gives unambiguous information on its composition. This can be done passively or actively where an external neutron source is used to probe an unknown assembly. There are known capture gamma-ray data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes for various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes that was developed as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project. EGAF is being used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the quasi continuum contribution to the gamma cascades is not experimentally resolved. The continuum contains up to 90% of all the decay energy and is modeled here with the statistical nuclear structure code DICEBOX. This code also provides a consistency check of the level scheme nuclear structure evaluation. The calculated continuum is of sufficient accuracy to include in the ENDF libraries. This analysis also determines new total thermal capture cross sections and provides an improved RIPL database. For higher energy neutron capture there is less experimental data available making benchmarking of the modeling codes more difficult. We are investigating the capture spectra from higher energy neutrons experimentally using surrogate reactions and modeling this with Hauser-Feshbach codes. This can then be used to benchmark CASINO, a version of DICEBOX modified for neutron capture at higher energy. This can be used to simulate spectra from neutron capture at incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV to improve the gamma-ray spectrum in neutron data libraries used for transport modeling of unknown assemblies.

  6. Neutron Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    Sleaford, B.W.; Firestone, R.B.; Summers, N.; Escher, J.; Hurst, A.; Krticka, M.; Basunia, S.; Molnar, G.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Z.; Choi, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    The neutron capture reaction is useful in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly as it gives unambiguous information on its composition. this can be done passively or actively where an external neutron source is used to probe an unknown assembly. There are known capture gamma-ray data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes for various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes that was developed as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research project. EGAF is being used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the quasi continuum contribution to the gamma cascades is not experimentally resolved. The continuum contains up to 90% of all the decay energy and is modeled here with the statistical nuclear structure code DICEBOX. This code also provides a consistency check of the level scheme nuclear structure evaluation. The calculated continuum is of sufficient accuracy to include in the ENDF libraries. This analysis also determines new total thermal capture cross sections and provides an improved RIPL database. For higher energy neutron capture there is less experimental data available making benchmarking of the modeling codes more difficult. They are investigating the capture spectra from higher energy neutrons experimentally using surrogate reactions and modeling this with Hauser-Feshbach codes. This can then be used to benchmark CASINO, a version of DICEBOX modified for neutron capture at higher energy. This can be used to simulate spectra from neutron capture at incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV to improve the gamma-ray spectrum in neutron data libraries used for transport modeling of unknown assemblies.

  7. Capture Gamma-Ray Libraries for Nuclear Applications

    Sleaford, B.W.; Firestone, Richard B.; Summers, N.; Escher, J.; Hurst, A.; Krticka, M.; Basunia, S.; Molnar, G.; Belgya, T.; Revay, Z.; Choi, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    The neutron capture reaction is useful in identifying and analyzing the gamma-ray spectrum from an unknown assembly as it gives unambiguous information on its composition. This can be done passively or actively where an external neutron source is used to probe an unknown assembly. There are known capture gamma-ray data gaps in the ENDF libraries used by transport codes for various nuclear applications. The Evaluated Gamma-ray Activation file (EGAF) is a new thermal neutron capture database of discrete line spectra and cross sections for over 260 isotopes that was developed as part of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project. EGAF has been used to improve the capture gamma production in ENDF libraries. For medium to heavy nuclei the quasi continuum contribution to the gamma cascades is not experimentally resolved. The continuum contains up to 90% of all the decay energy an is modeled here with the statistical nuclear structure code DICEBOX. This code also provides a consistency check of the level scheme nuclear structure evaluation. The calculated continuum is of sufficient accuracy to include in the ENDF libraries. This analysis also determines new total thermal capture cross sections and provides an improved RIPL database. For higher energy neutron capture there is less experimental data available making benchmarking of the modeling codes more difficult. We use CASINO, a version of DICEBOX that is modified for this purpose. This can be used to simulate the neutron capture at incident neutron energies up to 20 MeV to improve the gamma-ray spectrum in neutron data libraries used for transport modelling of unknown assemblies.

  8. Neutron detection gamma ray sensitivity criteria

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Mace, Emily K.; Stephens, Daniel L.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2011-01-01

    The shortage of 3 He has triggered the search for effective alternative neutron detection technologies for national security and safeguards applications. Any new detection technology must satisfy two basic criteria: (1) it must meet a neutron detection efficiency requirement, and (2) it must be insensitive to gamma-ray interference at a prescribed level, while still meeting the neutron detection requirement. It is the purpose of this paper to define measureable gamma ray sensitivity criteria for neutron detectors. Quantitative requirements are specified for: intrinsic gamma ray detection efficiency and gamma ray absolute rejection. The gamma absolute rejection ratio for neutrons (GARRn) is defined, and it is proposed that the requirement for neutron detection be 0.9 3 He based neutron detector is provided showing that this technology can meet the stated requirements. Results from tests of some alternative technologies are also reported.

  9. Gamma-Ray Pulsar Studies With GLAST

    Thompson, D.J.; /NASA, Goddard

    2011-11-23

    Some pulsars have their maximum observable energy output in the gamma-ray band, offering the possibility of using these high-energy photons as probes of the particle acceleration and interaction processes in pulsar magnetospheres. After an extended hiatus between satellite missions, the recently-launched AGILE mission and the upcoming Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) Large Area Telescope (LAT) will allow gamma-ray tests of the theoretical models developed based on past discoveries. With its greatly improved sensitivity, better angular resolution, and larger energy reach than older instruments, GLAST LAT should detect dozens to hundreds of new gamma-ray pulsars and measure luminosities, light curves, and phase-resolved spectra with unprecedented resolution. It will also have the potential to find radio-quiet pulsars like Geminga, using blind search techniques. Cooperation with radio and X-ray pulsar astronomers is an important aspect of the LAT team's planning for pulsar studies.

  10. Gamma ray astronomy with COS-B

    Swanenburg, B.N.

    1981-01-01

    Observational results in the field of gamma-ray astronomy that have been obtained to date with the COS-B satellite are discussed and questions raised by these observations are summarized. Following a brief review of the instrumental characteristics of COS-B and the extent of COS-B gamma-ray coverage of the sky, particular attention is given to the questions raised by the discovery of many unidentified gamma-ray sources with no apparent optical, X-ray or radio counterparts and the detection of high-energy gamma radiation from the quasar 3C 273, which suggests the role of gamma-ray emission in the creation of other radiation

  11. Thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    Tuli, J.K.

    1983-01-01

    The energy and intensity of gamma rays as seen in thermal neutron capture are presented. Only those (n,α), E = thermal, reactions for which the residual nucleus mass number is greater than or equal to 45 are included. These correspond to evaluations published in Nuclear Data Sheets. The publication source data are contained in the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF). The data presented here do not involve any additional evaluation. Appendix I lists all the residual nuclides for which the data are included here. Appendix II gives a cumulated index to A-chain evaluations including the year of publication. The capture gamma ray data are given in two tables - the Table 1 is the list of all gamma rays seen in (n,#betta#) reaction given in the order of increasing energy; the Table II lists the gamma rays according to the nuclide

  12. Gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation methodology

    Gugiu, Daniela; Roth, Csaba; Ghinescu, Alecse

    2010-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a well established nuclear technique, suited to investigate the microstructural or elemental composition and can be applied to studies of a large variety of samples. The work with large samples involves, beside the development of large irradiation devices with well know neutron field characteristics, the knowledge of perturbing phenomena and adequate evaluation of correction factors like: neutron self shielding, extended source correction, gamma ray auto absorption. The objective of the works presented in this paper is to validate an appropriate methodology for gamma ray auto absorption correction evaluation for large inhomogeneous samples. For this purpose a benchmark experiment has been defined - a simple gamma ray transmission experiment, easy to be reproduced. The gamma ray attenuation in pottery samples has been measured and computed using MCNP5 code. The results show a good agreement between the computed and measured values, proving that the proposed methodology is able to evaluate the correction factors. (authors)

  13. Observations of gamma-ray bursts

    Strong, I.B.; Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    Observational data on gamma-ray bursts are reviewed. Information is grouped into temporal properties, energy fluxes and spectral properties, and directions and distributions of the sources in space. (BJG)

  14. Gamma-rays from decaying dark matter

    Bertone, G. [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. d' Astrophysique; Buchmueller, W.; Covi, L.; Ibarra, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    We study the prospects for detecting gamma-rays from decaying Dark Matter (DM), focusing in particular on gravitino DM in R-parity breaking vacua. Given the substantially different angular distribution of the predicted gamma-ray signal with respect to the case of annihilating DM, and the relatively poor (of order 0.1 ) angular resolution of gamma-ray detectors, the best strategy for detection is in this case to look for an exotic contribution to the gamma-ray flux at high galactic latitudes, where the decaying DM contribution would resemble an astrophysical extragalactic component, similar to the one inferred by EGRET observations. Upcoming experiments such as GLAST and AMS-02 may identify this exotic contribution and discriminate it from astrophysical sources, or place significant constraints on the mass and lifetime of DM particles. (orig.)

  15. Multiple Gamma-Ray Detection Capability of a CeBr3 Detector for Gamma Spectroscopy

    A. A. Naqvi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed cerium tribromide (CeBr3 detector has reduced intrinsic gamma-ray activity with gamma energy restricted to 1400–2200 keV energy range. This narrower region of background gamma rays allows the CeBr3 detector to detect more than one gamma ray to analyze the gamma-ray spectrum. Use of multiple gamma-ray intensities in elemental analysis instead of a single one improves the accuracy of the estimated results. Multigamma-ray detection capability of a cylindrical 75 mm × 75 mm (diameter × height CeBr3 detector has been tested by analyzing the chlorine concentration in water samples using eight chlorine prompt gamma rays over 517 to 8578 keV energies utilizing a D-D portable neutron generator-based PGNAA setup and measuring the corresponding minimum detection limit (MDC of chlorine. The measured MDC of chlorine for gamma rays with 517–8578 keV energies varies from 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% to 0.80 ± 0.24. The best value of MDC was measured to be 0.07 ± 0.02 wt% for 788 keV gamma rays. The experimental results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations. The study has shown excellent detection capabilities of the CeBr3 detector for eight prompt gamma rays over 517–8578 keV energy range without significant background interference.

  16. Magic gamma rays, extra-atmospheric source

    Bolufer, P.

    2010-01-01

    Without the atmospheric layer, the cosmos radiation would kill every living, our planet would be like the moon. The cosmic gamma ray to collide with gases in land cover, as it is disintegrated. They are harmless, they form a cone of light that points to the cosmic source comes from. On April 25, 2009 was born on the island of Palma Magic II and Magic I the best observer of atmospheric gamma rays of low intensity. (Author)

  17. Gamma Ray Bursts-Afterglows and Counterparts

    Fishman, Gerald J

    1998-01-01

    Several breakthrough discoveries were made last year of x-ray, optical and radio afterglows and counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, and a redshift has been associated with at least one of these. These discoveries were made possible by the fast, accurate gamma-ray burst locations of the BeppoSAX satellite. It is now generally believed that the burst sources are at cosmological distances and that they represent the most powerful explosions in the Universe. These observations also open new possibilities for the study of early star formation, the physics of extreme conditions and perhaps even cosmology. This session will concentrate on recent x-ray, optical and radio afterglow observations of gamma-ray bursts, associated redshift measurements, and counterpart observations. Several review and theory talks will also be presented, along with a summary of the astrophysical implications of the observations. There will be additional poster contributions on observations of gamma-ray burst source locations at wavelengths other than gamma rays. Posters are also solicited that describe new observational capabilities for rapid follow-up observations of gamma-ray bursts.

  18. Gamma-ray lines from radiative dark matter decay

    Garny, Mathias; Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David; Weniger, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The decay of dark matter particles which are coupled predominantly to charged leptons has been proposed as a possible origin of excess high-energy positrons and electrons observed by cosmic-ray telescopes PAMELA and Fermi LAT. Even though the dark matter itself is electrically neutral, the tree-level decay of dark matter into charged lepton pairs will generically induce radiative two-body decays of dark matter at the quantum level. Using an effective theory of leptophilic dark matter decay, we calculate the rates of radiative two-body decays for scalar and fermionic dark matter particles. Due to the absence of astrophysical sources of monochromatic gamma rays, the observation of a line in the diffuse gamma-ray spectrum would constitute a strong indication of a particle physics origin of these photons. We estimate the intensity of the gamma-ray line that may be present in the energy range of a few TeV if the dark matter decay interpretation of the leptonic cosmic-ray anomalies is correct and comment on observational prospects of present and future Imaging Cherenkov Telescopes, in particular the CTA

  19. Gamma ray imager on the DIII-D tokamak

    Pace, D. C., E-mail: pacedc@fusion.gat.com; Taussig, D.; Eidietis, N. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Watkins, M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Cooper, C. M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Hollmann, E. M. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Riso, V. [State University of New York-Buffalo, 12 Capen Hall, Buffalo, New York 14260-1660 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    A gamma ray camera is built for the DIII-D tokamak [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] that provides spatial localization and energy resolution of gamma flux by combining a lead pinhole camera with custom-built detectors and optimized viewing geometry. This diagnostic system is installed on the outer midplane of the tokamak such that its 123 collimated sightlines extend across the tokamak radius while also covering most of the vertical extent of the plasma volume. A set of 30 bismuth germanate detectors can be secured in any of the available sightlines, allowing for customizable coverage in experiments with runaway electrons in the energy range of 1–60 MeV. Commissioning of the gamma ray imager includes the quantification of electromagnetic noise sources in the tokamak machine hall and a measurement of the energy spectrum of background gamma radiation. First measurements of gamma rays coming from the plasma provide a suitable testbed for implementing pulse height analysis that provides the energy of detected gamma photons.

  20. The measurement of gamma ray induced heating in a mixed neutron and gamma ray environment

    Chiu, H.K.

    1991-10-01

    The problem of measuring the gamma heating in a mixed DT neutron and gamma ray environment was explored. A new detector technique was developed to make this measurement. Gamma heating measurements were made in a low-Z assembly irradiated with 14-Mev neutrons and (n, n') gammas produced by a Texas Nuclear Model 9400 neutron generator. Heating measurements were made in the mid-line of the lattice using a proportional counter operating in the Continuously-varied Bias-voltage Acquisition mode. The neutron-induced signal was separated from the gamma-induced signal by exploiting the signal rise-time differences inherent to radiations of different linear energy transfer coefficient, which are observable in a proportional counter. The operating limits of this measurement technique were explored by varying the counter position in the low-Z lattice, hence changing the irradiation spectrum observed. The experiment was modelled numerically to help interpret the measured results. The transport of neutrons and gamma rays in the assembly was modelled using the one- dimensional radiation transport code ANISN/PC. The cross-section set used for these calculations was derived from the ENDF/B-V library using the code MC 2 -2 for the case of DT neutrons slowing down in a low-Z material. The calculated neutron and gamma spectra in the slab and the relevant mass-stopping powers were used to construct weighting factors which relate the energy deposition in the counter fill-gas to that in the counter wall and in the surrounding material. The gamma energy deposition at various positions in the lattice is estimated by applying these weighting factors to the measured gamma energy deposition in the counter at those locations

  1. Timing of Pulsed Prompt Gamma Rays for Background Discrimination

    Hueso-Gonzalez, F.; Golnik, C.; Berthel, M.; Dreyer, A.; Kormoll, T.; Rohling, H.; Pausch, G.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Schoene, S.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

    2013-06-01

    In the context of particle therapy, particle range verification is a major challenge for the quality assurance of the treatment. One approach is the measurement of the prompt gamma rays resulting from the tissue irradiation. A Compton camera based on several planes of position sensitive gamma ray detectors, together with an imaging algorithm, is expected to reconstruct the prompt gamma ray emission density profile, which is correlated with the dose distribution. At Helmholtz- Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) and OncoRay, a camera prototype has been developed consisting of two scatter planes (CdZnTe cross strip detectors) and an absorber plane (Lu 2 SiO 5 block detector). The data acquisition is based on VME electronics and handled by software developed on the ROOT platform. The prototype was tested at the linear electron accelerator ELBE at HZDR, which was set up to produce bunched bremsstrahlung photons. Their spectrum has similarities with the one expected from prompt gamma rays in the clinical case, and these are also bunched with the accelerator frequency. The time correlation between the pulsed prompt photons and the measured signals was used for background discrimination, achieving a time resolution of 3 ns (2 ns) FWHM for the CZT (LSO) detector. A time-walk correction was applied for the LSO detector and improved its resolution to 1 ns. In conclusion, the detectors are suitable for time-resolved background discrimination in pulsed clinical particle accelerators. Ongoing tasks are the test of the imaging algorithms and the quantitative comparison with simulations. Further experiments will be performed at proton accelerators. (authors)

  2. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometry and computer data processing

    Raghuwanshi, S.S.; Bhishma Kumar; Tewari, S.G.

    1993-01-01

    The physical basis for the measurement of radioelemental concentrations of U, Th, and K on the surface of the earth by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) are described in this paper. The yield of an infinite radioactive plane source for a particular gamma energy helps to know the sampled volume in AGRS, the ground coverage, the ground resolution, the effective planning of the survey, flight line spacing, and sampling time. The infinite source-yield enables the determination of the attenuation coefficients in actual surveys and lays down the criteria for a standard test strip. Scattering of gamma-rays in matter is discussed in order to study its influence in the measurements from air. The theoretical gamma-ray spectrum from terrestrial U, Th, and K are discussed in contrast to its realistic picture which poses problems for their direct use for measurements. The criterion of FWHM (full width at half maximum) and inter-energy distance with their yields is described which finally helps to select the energy windows for (window and MCA) AGRS system. Factors which affect the measurements of radioelemental concentration in AGRS surveys include both correctable and non-correctable ones. Correctable factors are : (a) non-terrestrial sources of gamma-rays aircraft, cosmic, and airborne background (H) (B); (b) interference due to gamma-scattering inter channel effects (l); (c) height variations (H) due to navigation and topography; (d) temperature (T) of ambient air; and (e) pressure (P) of air at flying altitude. For removal of background effects, measurements over test strip and calibration pads are necessary for making the corrections in the order - BIH. These methods are described in the paper. The non-correctable factors include effects, due to terrain moisture, vegetation, and others. The possible ways to eliminate these effects are also briefly described. (author). 17 refs., 13 figs

  3. Gamma-ray boxes from axion-mediated dark matter

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Gehler, Sergio López; Pato, Miguel; Lee, Hyun Min; Park, Wan-Il

    2013-01-01

    We compute the gamma-ray output of axion-mediated dark matter and derive the corresponding constraints set by recent data. In such scenarios the dark matter candidate is a Dirac fermion that pair-annihilates into axions and/or scalars. Provided that the axion decays (at least partly) into photons, these models naturally give rise to a box-shaped gamma-ray spectrum that may present two distinct phenomenological behaviours: a narrow box, resembling a line at half the dark matter mass, or a wide box, spanning an extensive energy range up to the dark matter mass. Remarkably, we find that in both cases a sizable gamma-ray flux is predicted for a thermal relic without fine-tuning the model parameters nor invoking boost factors. This large output is in line with recent Fermi-LAT observations towards the galactic centre region and is on the verge of being excluded. We then make use of the Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. data to derive robust, model-independent upper limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section for the narrow and wide box scenarios. H.E.S.S. constraints, in particular, turn out to match the ones from Fermi-LAT at hundreds of GeV and extend to multi-TeV masses. Future Čerenkov telescopes will likely probe gamma-ray boxes from thermal dark matter relics in the whole multi-TeV range, a region hardly accessible to direct detection, collider searches and other indirect detection strategies

  4. The Gamma-Ray Imager GRI

    Wunderer, Cornelia B.; GRI Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are accelerated to extreme relativistic energies by mechanisms which are still poorly understood, and nuclear reactions are synthesizing the basic constituents of our world. Cosmic accelerators and cosmic explosions are major science themes that are addressed in the gamma-ray regime. ESA's INTEGRAL observatory currently provides the astronomical community with a unique tool to investigate the sky up to MeV energies and hundreds of sources, new classes of objects, extraordinary views of antimatter annihilation in our Galaxy, and fingerprints of recent nucleosynthesis processes have been discovered. NASA's GLAST mission will similarly take the next step in surveying the high-energy ( GeV) sky, and NuSTAR will pioneer focusing observations at hard X-ray energies (to 80 keV). There will be clearly a growing need to perform deeper, more focused investigations of gamma-ray sources in the 100-keV to MeV regime. Recent technological advances in the domain of gamma-ray focusing using Laue diffraction and multilayer-coated mirror techniques have paved the way towards a gamma-ray mission, providing major improvements compared to past missions regarding sensitivity and angular resolution. Such a future Gamma-Ray Imager will allow the study of particle acceleration processes and explosion physics in unprecedented detail, providing essential clues on the innermost nature of the most violent and most energetic processes in the Universe.

  5. Localization of Gamma-Ray Bursts Using the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor

    Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M.S.; Goldstein, A.; Meegan, C.A.; Paciesas, W.S.; Preece, R.D.; Wilson-Hodge, C.A.; Gibby, M.H.; Greiner, J.; Gruber, D.; Jenke, P.; Kippen, R.M.; Pelassa, V.; Xiong, S.; Yu, H-F.; Bhat, P.N.; Burgess, J.M.; Byrne, D.; Fitzpatrick, G.; Foley, S.; Giles, M.M.; Guiriec, S.; van der Horst, A.J.; von Kienlin, A.; McBreen, S.; McGlynn, S.; Tierney, D.; Zhang, B..B.

    2015-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) has detected over 1400 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) since it began science operations in 2008 July. We use a subset of over 300 GRBs localized by instruments such as Swift, the Fermi Large Area Telescope, INTEGRAL, and MAXI, or through triangulations from the

  6. Gamma-Ray Lenses for Astrophysics-and the Gamma-Ray Imager Mission GRI

    Wunderer, C. B.; Ballmoos, P. V.; Barriere, N.

    2009-01-01

    Observations of the gamma-ray sky reveal the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe. While at lower wavebands the observed emission is generally dominated by thermal processes, the gamma-ray sky provides us with a view on the non-thermal Universe. Here particles are acc...

  7. Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239PuBe and 241AmBe

    Vega-Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Becerra-Ferreiro, A.M.; Carrillo-Nunez, Aureliano

    2002-01-01

    Neutron and gamma-ray spectra of 239 PuBe and 241 AmBe were measured and their dosimetric features were calculated. Neutron spectra were measured using a multisphere neutron spectrometer with a 6 LiI(Eu) scintillator. The 239 PuBe neutron spectrum was measured in an open environment, while the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum was measured in a closed environment. Gamma-ray spectra were measured using a NaI(Tl) scintillator using the same experimental conditions for both sources. The effect of measuring conditions for the 241 AmBe neutron spectrum indicates the presence of epithermal and thermal neutrons. The low-resolution neutron spectra obtained with the multisphere spectrometer allows one to calculate the dosimetric features of neutron sources. At 100 cm both sources produce approximately the same count rate as that of the 4.4 MeV gamma-ray per unit of alpha emitter activity

  8. Measurements of atmospheric and gamma rays-balloon experiments at subantartic region

    Jayanthi, U.B.; Correa, R.V.; Blanco, F.G.

    1986-01-01

    The results of two stratospheric balloon experiments conducted to measure the atmospheric X and gamma rays are presented. These experiments, conducted at Comandante Ferraz base in subantarctic region, have provided the spectrum of ground radioactivity in gamma rays (0.2 to 2.9 MeV) and atmospheric X-ray spectra at different altitudes. We specifically chose to discuss the observed ceiling spectrum of X-rays in the 28 to 180KeV region observed at 7.0 g. cm -2 . We have utilized the data of other experiments with different telescope geometries, to evaluate the builup effects due to cosmic ray secondaries in atmosphere. This behaviour, previoulsy studied for atmospheric gamma rays, permitted to compare the up/down flux rations to explain the observed atmospheric X-ray spectrum. (Author) [pt

  9. Observing with a space-borne gamma-ray telescope: selected results from INTEGRAL

    Schanne, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory, i.e. the INTEGRAL satellite of ESA, in orbit since about 3 years, performs gamma-ray observations of the sky in the 15 keV to 8 MeV energy range. Thanks to its imager IBIS, and in particular the ISGRI detection plane based on 16384 CdTe pixels, it achieves an excellent angular resolution (12 arcmin) for point source studies with good continuum spectrum sensitivity. Thanks to its spectrometer SPI, based on 19 germanium detectors maintained at 85 K by a cryogenic system, located inside an active BGO veto shield, it achieves excellent spectral resolution of about 2 keV for 1 MeV photons, which permits astrophysical gamma-ray line studies with good narrow-line sensitivity. In this paper we review some goals of gamma-ray astronomy from space and present the INTEGRAL satellite, in particular its instruments ISGRI and SPI. Ground and in-flight calibration results from SPI are presented, before presenting some selected astrophysical results from INTEGRAL. In particular results on point source searches are presented, followed by results on nuclear astrophysics, exemplified by the study of the 1809 keV gamma-ray line from radioactive 26 Al nuclei produced by the ongoing stellar nucleosynthesis in the Galaxy. Finally a review on the study of the positron-electron annihilation in the Galactic center region, producing 511 keV gamma-rays, is presented

  10. Observations Of Gamma-ray Loud Blazars With The VLBA At 5 GHz

    Linford, Justin; Taylor, G. B.; Romani, R.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Richards, J. L.; Helmboldt, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been scanning the sky for more than a year. About half of the sources detected by Fermi's Large Area Telesope (LAT) are active galactic nuclei (AGN). Nearly all of these gamma-ray loud AGN are blazars; strong, compact radio emitters that exhibit variability in their flux and apparent superluminal motion in their jets. Several groups are currently monitoring the radio properties of these gamma-ray loud blazars. We present results from both archival and contemporaneous observations of 200 LAT-detected blazars using the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) at a frequency of 5 GHz (wavelength of 6 cm). Our large, flux-limited sample provides unique insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emissions. We explore the parsec-scale properties of the cores and jets of these highly energetic objects, including core polarization. We compare the gamma-ray loud blazars to their gamma-ray quiet counterparts in the VLBA Imaging and Polarimetry Survey (VIPS). We also investigate the differences between the BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) and flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs).

  11. SPATIAL AND SPECTRAL MODELING OF THE GAMMA-RAY DISTRIBUTION IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    Foreman, Gary; Chu, You-Hua; Gruendl, Robert; Fields, Brian; Ricker, Paul [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois, 1002 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hughes, Annie, E-mail: gforema2@illinois.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-07-20

    We perform spatial and spectral analyses of the LMC gamma-ray emission collected over 66 months by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In our spatial analysis, we model the LMC cosmic-ray distribution and gamma-ray production using observed maps of the LMC interstellar medium, star formation history, interstellar radiation field, and synchrotron emission. We use bootstrapping of the data to quantify the robustness of spatial model performance. We model the LMC gamma-ray spectrum using fitting functions derived from the physics of π{sup 0} decay, Bremsstrahlung, and inverse Compton scattering. We find the integrated gamma-ray flux of the LMC from 200 MeV to 20 GeV to be 1.37 ± 0.02 × 10{sup −7} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}, of which we attribute about 6% to inverse Compton scattering and 44% to Bremsstrahlung. From our work, we conclude that the spectral index of the LMC cosmic-ray proton population is 2.4 ± 0.2, and we find that cosmic-ray energy loss through gamma-ray production is concentrated within a few 100 pc of acceleration sites. Assuming cosmic-ray energy equipartition with magnetic fields, we estimate LMC cosmic rays encounter an average magnetic field strength ∼3 μG.

  12. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M. [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia, Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC), Universitat de Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bosch-Ramon, V., E-mail: vzabalza@am.ub.es [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 31 Fitzwilliam Place, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  13. Energy–angle correlation of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from an HEU source

    Miloshevsky, G., E-mail: gennady@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A.

    2014-06-01

    Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) yield very unique fission signatures, namely correlated neutrons and gamma-rays. A major challenge is not only to detect, but also to rapidly identify and recognize SNM with certainty. Accounting for particle multiplicity and correlations is one of standard ways to detect SNM. However, many parameter data such as joint distributions of energy, angle, lifetime, and multiplicity of neutrons and gamma-rays can lead to better recognition of SNM signatures in the background radiation noise. These joint distributions are not well understood. The Monte Carlo simulations of the transport of neutrons and gamma-rays produced from spontaneous and interrogation-induced fission of SNM are carried out using the developed MONSOL computer code. The energy spectra of neutrons and gamma-rays from a bare Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) source are investigated. The energy spectrum of gamma-rays shows spectral lines by which HEU isotopes can be identified, while those of neutrons do not show any characteristic lines. The joint probability density function (JPDF) of the energy–angle association of neutrons and gamma-rays is constructed. Marginal probability density functions (MPDFs) of energy and angle are derived from JPDF. A probabilistic model is developed for the analysis of JPDF and MPDFs. This probabilistic model is used to evaluate mean values, standard deviations, covariance and correlation between the energy and angle of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the HEU source. For both neutrons and gamma-rays, it is found that the energy–angle variables are only weakly correlated.

  14. Gamma-Ray Emission from Galaxy Clusters : DARK MATTER AND COSMIC-RAYS

    Pinzke, Anders

    The quest for the first detection of a galaxy cluster in the high energy gamma-ray regime is ongoing, and even though clusters are observed in several other wave-bands, there is still no firm detection in gamma-rays. To complement the observational efforts we estimate the gamma-ray contributions from both annihilating dark matter and cosmic-ray (CR) proton as well as CR electron induced emission. Using high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters, we find a universal concave shaped CR proton spectrum independent of the simulated galaxy cluster. Specifically, the gamma-ray spectra from decaying neutral pions, which are produced by CR protons, dominate the cluster emission. Furthermore, based on our derived flux and luminosity functions, we identify the galaxy clusters with the brightest galaxy clusters in gamma-rays. While this emission is challenging to detect using the Fermi satellite, major observations with Cherenkov telescopes in the near future may put important constraints on the CR physics in clusters. To extend these predictions, we use a dark matter model that fits the recent electron and positron data from Fermi, PAMELA, and H.E.S.S. with remarkable precision, and make predictions about the expected gamma-ray flux from nearby clusters. In order to remain consistent with the EGRET upper limit on the gamma-ray emission from Virgo, we constrain the minimum mass of substructures for cold dark matter halos. In addition, we find comparable levels of gamma-ray emission from CR interactions and dark matter annihilations without Sommerfeld enhancement.

  15. Discovery of Giant Gamma-ray Bubbles in the Milky Way

    Su, Meng

    Based on data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, we have discovered two gigantic gamma-ray emitting bubble structures in our Milky Way (known as the Fermi bubbles), extending ˜50 degrees above and below the Galactic center with a width of ˜40 degrees in longitude. The gamma-ray emission associated with these bubbles has a significantly harder spectrum (dN/dE ˜ E-2) than the inverse Compton emission from known cosmic ray electrons in the Galactic disk, or the gamma-rays produced by decay of pions from proton-ISM collisions. There is no significant difference in the spectrum or gamma-ray luminosity between the north and south bubbles. The bubbles are spatially correlated with the hard-spectrum microwave excess known as the WMAP haze; we also found features in the ROSAT soft X-ray maps at 1.5 -- 2 keV which line up with the edges of the bubbles. The Fermi bubbles are most likely created by some large episode of energy injection in the Galactic center, such as past accretion events onto the central massive black hole, or a nuclear starburst in the last ˜ 10 Myr. Study of the origin and evolution of the bubbles also has the potential to improve our understanding of recent energetic events in the inner Galaxy and the high-latitude cosmic ray population. Furthermore, we have recently identified a gamma-ray cocoon feature within the southern bubble, with a jet-like feature along the cocoon's axis of symmetry, and another directly opposite the Galactic center in the north. If confirmed, these jets are the first resolved gamma-ray jets ever seen.

  16. Fuzzy correlations of gamma-ray bursts

    Hartmann, D.H.; Linder, E.V.; Blumenthal, G.R.

    1991-01-01

    The origin of gamma-ray bursts is not known, both in the sense of the nature of the source emitting the radiation and literally, the position of the burst on the sky. Lacking unambiguously identified counterparts in any wavelength band studied to date, statistical approaches are required to determine the burster distance scale. Angular correlation analysis is one of the most powerful tools in this regard. However, poor detector resolution gives large localization errors, effectively beam smearing the positions. The resulting fuzzy angular correlation function is investigated and the generic isotropization that smearing induces on any intrinsic clustering is discussed. In particular, the extent to which gamma-ray burst observations by the BATSE detector aboard the Gamma-Ray Observatory might recover an intrinsic source correlation is investigated. 16 refs

  17. Prompt Gamma Ray Spectroscopy for process monitoring

    Zoller, W.H.; Holmes, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    Prompt Gamma Ray Spectroscopy (PGRS) is a very powerful analytical technique able to measure many metallic, contamination problem elements. The technique involves measurement of gamma rays that are emitted by nuclei upon capturing a neutron. This method is sensitive not only to the target element but also to the particular isotope of that element. PGRS is capable of measuring dissolved metal ions in a flowing system. In the field, isotopic neutron sources are used to produce the desired neutron flux ( 252 Cf can produce neutron flux of the order of 10 8 neutrons/cm 2 --sec.). Due to high penetrating power of gamma radiation, high efficiency gamma ray detectors can be placed in an appropriate geometry to maximize sensitivity, providing real-time monitoring with low detection level capabilities

  18. Librarian driven analysis of gamma ray spectra

    Kondrashov, V.; Petersone, I.

    2002-01-01

    For a set of a priori given radionuclides extracted from a general nuclide data library, the authors use median estimates of the gamma-peak areas and estimates of their errors to produce a list of possible radionuclides matching gamma ray line(s). The identification of a given radionuclide is obtained by searching for a match with the energy information of a database. This procedure is performed in an interactive graphic mode by markers that superimpose, on the spectral data, the energy information and yields provided by a general gamma ray data library. This library of experimental data includes approximately 17,000 gamma ray energy lines related to 756 known gamma emitter radionuclides listed by the ICRP. (author)

  19. Technology Needs for Gamma Ray Astronomy

    Gehrels, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy is currently in an exciting period of multiple missions and a wealth of data. Results from INTEGRAL, Fermi, AGILE, Suzaku and Swift are making large contributions to our knowledge of high energy processes in the universe. The advances are due to new detector and imaging technologies. The steps to date have been from scintillators to solid state detectors for sensors and from light buckets to coded aperture masks and pair telescopes for imagers. A key direction for the future is toward focusing telescopes pushing into the hard X-ray regime and Compton telescopes and pair telescopes with fine spatial resolution for medium and high energy gamma rays. These technologies will provide finer imaging of gamma-ray sources. Importantly, they will also enable large steps forward in sensitivity by reducing background.

  20. Very high energy gamma-ray astronomy

    Weekes, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    Current interest in gamma-ray astronomy at energies above 100 GeV comes from the identification of Cygnus X-3 and other X-ray binaries as sources. In addition there are reports of emission from radio pulsars and a variety of other objects. The statistical significance of many of the observations is not high and many reported effects await confirmation, but there are a sufficient number of independent reports that very high energy gamma-ray astronomy must now be considered to have an observational basis. The observations are summarized with particular emphasis on those reported since 1980. The techniques used - the detection of small air showers using the secondary photons and particles at ground level - are unusual and are described. Future prospects for the field are discussed in relation to new ground-based experiments, satellite gamma-ray studies and proposed neutrino astronomy experiments. (orig.) With 296 refs

  1. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1980-04-01

    Relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays were evaluated for 16 nuclides, 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 133 Ba, 139 Ce, sup(180m)Hf, 198 Au, 203 Hg and 207 Bi. For most of these nuclides disintegration rates can be determined by means of β-γ or X-γ coincidence method. Since decay schemes of these nuclides are established, intensities per decay of strong gamma rays were accurately evaluated by using weak beta-ray branching ratios, relative gamma-ray intensities and internal conversion coefficients. Half-lives of the nuclides were also evaluated. Use of the nuclides, therefore, are recommended for precision intensity calibration of the detectors. (author)

  2. GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J0852.0-4622 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    Tanaka, T.; Allafort, A.; Funk, S.; Tajima, H.; Uchiyama, Y.; Ballet, J.; Giordano, F.; Hewitt, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Tibolla, O.

    2011-01-01

    We report on gamma-ray observations of the supernova remnant (SNR) RX J0852.0-4622 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. In the Fermi-LAT data, we find a spatially extended source at the location of the SNR. The extension is consistent with the SNR size seen in other wavelengths such as X-rays and TeV gamma rays, leading to the identification of the gamma-ray source with the SNR. The spectrum is well described as a power law with a photon index of Γ = 1.85 ± 0.06 (stat) +0.18 -0.19 (sys), which smoothly connects to the H.E.S.S. spectrum in the TeV energy band. We discuss the gamma-ray emission mechanism based on multiwavelength data. The broadband data can be fit well by a model in which the gamma rays are of hadronic origin. We also consider a scenario with inverse Compton scattering of electrons as the emission mechanism of the gamma rays. Although the leptonic model predicts a harder spectrum in the Fermi-LAT energy range, the model can fit the data considering the statistical and systematic errors.

  3. Cosmology with Gamma-Ray Bursts Using k-correction

    A. Kovács

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the case of Gamma Ray Bursts with measured redshift, we can calculate the k-correction to get the fluence and energy that were actually produced in the comoving system of the GRB. To achieve this we have to use well-fitted parameters of GRB spectrum, available in the GCN database. The output of the calculations is the comoving isotropic energy Eiso, but this is not the endpoint: this data can be useful forestimating the ΩM parameter of the Universe and for making a GRB Hubble diagram usig Amati’s relation.

  4. Are there nuclear contributions to gamma ray burst spectra

    Matz, S.M.; Chupp, E.L.; Forrest, D.J.; Share, G.H.; Nolan, P.L.; Rieger, E.

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the spectra of 38 γ-ray bursts observed by the Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GRS) on the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite for evidence of a nuclear contribution to the high energy flux. A sum of spectra from the nine bursts with detectable flux >4 MeV suggests but does not require a drop-off above 7 MeV. A cutoff between 7 and 8 MeV is consistent with a high energy spectrum dominated by nuclear lines

  5. Visual gamma-ray analysis. VIPF program (WINDOW 95)

    Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    VIsual Peak Fitting (VIPF) program for the analysis of gamma radiation peaks from Ge detectors which works on WINDOWS 95 as an operating system has been developed. Gamma-ray peaks are simulated as Gauss function with 1st- or 2nd-order polynomial function for the background spectrum. Any function can be further added to for parameter fitting. The VIPF program can be obtained through internet by down-loading: http://w3.rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~yamada. Details of the program procedure, explanation of the fitting function to be used and peak search routine, and manuals of the code are given. (Ohno, S.)

  6. Gamma-ray spectral map of standard pottery. Pt. 1

    Yellin, J.

    1984-01-01

    The gamma-ray spectrum of a neutron activated Standard Pottery is analyzed completely by means of spectral line shape fitting. A detailed spectral map of the standard is presented as it is typically used in pottery analysis. The spectrum obtained by a planar geometry Ge(Li) detector converts the energy range 11 to 409 keV. The map is intended to serve as a guide to the uninitiated user of Standard Pottery as well as a basis of comparison with other standards employed in pottery provenience work. It is shown that the process of calibrating detectors for spectral line interference can be greatly aided by means of a general approach to spectrum analysis and that much usefull information can be obtained by a general approach to pottery spectrum analysis. (orig.)

  7. Parsec-Scale Properties of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Linford, Justin Dee

    The parsec-scale radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been investigated using observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Comparisons between LAT and non-LAT detected samples were made using both archival and contemporaneous data. In total, 244 sources were used in the LAT-detected sample. This very large, radio flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. It has been found that LAT-detected BL Lac objects are very similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects in most properties, although LAT BL Lac objects may have longer jets. The LAT flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from non-LAT FSRQs and are likely extreme members of the FSRQ population. Archival radio data indicated that there was no significant correlation between radio flux density and gamma-ray flux, especially at lower flux levels. However, contemporaneous observations showed a strong correlation. Most of the differences between the LAT and non-LAT populations are related to the cores of the sources, indicating that the gamma-ray emission may originate near the base of the jets (i.e., within a few pc of the central engine). There is some indication that LAT-detected sources may have larger jet opening angles than the non-LAT sources. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, suggesting that gamma-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields at the base of the jets of the blazars. Observations of sources in two epochs indicate that core fractional polarization was higher when the objects were detected by the LAT. The low-synchrotron peaked (LSP) BL Lac object sample shows indications of contamination by FSRQs which happen to have undetectable emission lines. There is evidence that the LSP BL Lac objects are more strongly beamed than the rest of the BL Lac

  8. Light Dawns on Dark Gamma-ray Bursts

    2010-12-01

    data with new observations made using GROND [2] - a dedicated gamma-ray burst follow-up observation instrument, which is attached to the 2.2-metre MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla in Chile. In doing so, astronomers have conclusively solved the puzzle of the missing optical afterglow. What makes GROND exciting for the study of afterglows is its very fast response time - it can observe a burst within minutes of an alert coming from Swift using a special system called the Rapid Response Mode - and its ability to observe simultaneously through seven filters covering both the visible and near-infrared parts of the spectrum. By combining GROND data taken through these seven filters with Swift observations, astronomers were able to accurately determine the amount of light emitted by the afterglow at widely differing wavelengths, all the way from high energy X-rays to the near-infrared. The astronomers used this information to directly measure the amount of obscuring dust that the light passed through en route to Earth. Previously, astronomers had to rely on rough estimates of the dust content [3]. The team used a range of data, including their own measurements from GROND, in addition to observations made by other large telescopes including the ESO Very Large Telescope, to estimate the distances to nearly all of the bursts in their sample. While they found that a significant proportion of bursts are dimmed to about 60-80 percent of the original intensity by obscuring dust, this effect is exaggerated for the very distant bursts, letting the observer see only 30-50 percent of the light [4]. The astronomers conclude that most dark gamma-ray bursts are therefore simply those that have had their small amount of visible light completely stripped away before it reaches us. "Compared to many instruments on large telescopes, GROND is a low cost and relatively simple instrument, yet it has been able to conclusively resolve the mystery surrounding dark gamma-ray bursts," says Greiner. Notes

  9. Gamma-ray standards for detector calibration

    Lorenz, A.

    1985-10-01

    The proceeedings are reported of a Consultants' Meeting on Gamma-ray Standards for Detector Calibration, held at the CEN, Grenoble in France, from 30-31 May 1985. The meeting provided a forum to assess the requirements for a suitable file to be used internationally for the calibration of X- and gamma-ray detectors. A provisional list of nuclides was drawn up, and an initial assessment of the status of the required data was agreed to be performed by the participants before the end of 1985. (author)

  10. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory High Resolution Camera will be used in a vigorous program of observations to search for new sources of very-high-energy gamma rays. In addition, a search for antimatter using the moon-earth system as an ion spectrometer will be begun. The first phase of GRANITE, the new 37-element 11-m camera, will be concluded with first light scheduled for September, 1991. The two cameras will operate in support of the Gamma Ray Observatory mission in the winter of 1991/2

  11. Gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring method and apparatus

    Stagg, William R; Policke, Timothy A

    2017-05-16

    The present invention relates generally to the field of gamma ray spectroscopy monitoring and a system for accomplishing same to monitor one or more aspects of various isotope production processes. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a monitoring system, and method of utilizing same, for monitoring one or more aspects of an isotope production process where the monitoring system comprises: (A) at least one sample cell; (B) at least one measuring port; (C) at least one adjustable collimator device; (D) at least one shutter; and (E) at least one high resolution gamma ray spectrometer.

  12. Gamma ray energy tracking in GRETINA

    Lee, I. Y.

    2011-10-01

    The next generation of stable and exotic beam accelerators will provide physics opportunities to study nuclei farther away from the line of stability. However, these experiments will be more demanding on instrumentation performance. These come from the lower production rate for more exotic beams, worse beam impurities, and large beam velocity from the fragmentation and inverse reactions. Gamma-ray spectroscopy will be one of the most effective tools to study exotic nuclei. However, to fully exploit the physics reach provided by these new facilities, better gamma-ray detector will be needed. In the last 10 years, a new concept, gamma-ray energy tracking array, was developed. Tracking arrays will increase the detection sensitivity by factors of several hundred compared to current arrays used in nuclear physics research. Particularly, the capability of reconstructing the position of the interaction with millimeters resolution is needed to correct the Doppler broadening of gamma rays emitted from high velocity nuclei. GRETINA is a gamma-ray tracking array which uses 28 Ge crystals, each with 36 segments, to cover ¼ of the 4 π of the 4 π solid angle. The gamma ray tracking technique requires detailed pulse shape information from each of the segments. These pulses are digitized using 14-bit 100 MHz flash ADCs, and digital signal analysis algorithms implemented in the on-board FPGAs provides energy, time and selection of pulse traces. A digital trigger system, provided flexible trigger functions including a fast trigger output, and also allows complicated trigger decisions to be made up to 20 microseconds. Further analyzed, carried out in a computer cluster, determine the energy, time, and three-dimensional positions of all gamma-ray interactions in the array. This information is then utilized, together with the characteristics of Compton scattering and pair-production processes, to track the scattering sequences of the gamma rays. GRETINA construction is completed in

  13. Gamma-ray lasers or grasers

    Wilson, G.V.H.; George, E.P.; Hora, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for controlling the emission and direction of gamma rays from excited nuclei contained in a sample source of suitable geometry having its major axis parallel to the proposed direction of gamma ray emission, comprising subjecting said sample source to thermal or dynamic polarization at temperatures approaching absolute zero in the presence of a strong magnetic field, and when a pulse of coherent gamma radiation is required along said major axis rotating the active nuclei through 90 0 by employing a short pulse of radio frequency oscillations in an auxilliary coil around the sample source

  14. Nuclear Forensics using Gamma-ray Spectroscopy

    Norman E. B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of George Dracoulis’s research career was devoted to utilising gamma-ray spectroscopy in fundamental studies in nuclear physics. This same technology is useful in a wide range of applications in the area of nuclear forensics. Over the last several years, our research group has made use of both high- and low-resolution gamma-ray spectrometers to: identify the first sample of plutonium large enough to be weighed; determine the yield of the Trinity nuclear explosion; measure fission fragment yields as a function of target nucleus and neutron energy; and observe fallout in the U. S. from the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident.

  15. Gamma-ray surveys in uranium exploration

    1979-01-01

    This report is intended to provide newcomers to uranium exploration with an up-to-date statement of the principal factors to be considered in planning and using gamma-ray surveys. Since the report incorporates the results of recent research, and since its preparation was influenced by the cumulative experience of its contributors, it should also be useful to those who already have some knowledge of radioactivity surveys and methods. The intention is that the information and explanations given in the report will make it possible for gamma-ray surveys to be used in the most efficient way for a given exploration task

  16. ICIT contribution to JET gamma-ray diagnostics enhancement

    Soare, S.; Curuia, M.; Zoita, V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Gamma-ray emission of tokamak plasmas is the result of the interaction of fast ions (fusion reaction products, including alpha particles, NBI ions, ICRH-accelerated ions) with main plasma impurities (e.g., carbon, beryllium). Gamma-ray diagnostics involve both gamma-ray imaging (cameras) and gamma-ray spectrometry (spectrometers). For the JET tokamak, gamma-ray diagnostics have been used to provide information on the characteristics of the fast ion population in plasmas. Two gamma-ray diagnostics enhancements project have been launched by JET and the MEdC/EURATOM Association has agreed to lead both of them with ICIT as projects leader. (authors)

  17. Found: A Galaxy's Missing Gamma Rays

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Recent reanalysis of data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has resulted in the first detection of high-energy gamma rays emitted from a nearby galaxy. This discovery reveals more about how supernovae interact with their environments.Colliding Supernova RemnantAfter a stellar explosion, the supernovas ejecta expand, eventually encountering the ambient interstellar medium. According to models, this generates a strong shock, and a fraction of the kinetic energy of the ejecta is transferred into cosmic rays high-energy radiation composed primarily of protons and atomic nuclei. Much is still unknown about this process, however. One open question is: what fraction of the supernovas explosion power goes into accelerating these cosmic rays?In theory, one way to answer this is by looking for gamma rays. In a starburst galaxy, the collision of the supernova-accelerated cosmic rays with the dense interstellar medium is predicted to produce high-energy gamma rays. That radiation should then escape the galaxy and be visible to us.Pass 8 to the RescueObservational tests of this model, however, have beenstumped by Arp 220. This nearby ultraluminous infrared galaxy is the product of a galaxy merger ~700 million years ago that fueled a frenzy of starbirth. Due to its dusty interior and extreme levels of star formation, Arp 220 has long been predicted to emit the gamma rays produced by supernova-accelerated cosmic rays. But though weve looked, gamma-ray emission has never been detected from this galaxy until now.In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fang-Kun Peng (Nanjing University) reprocessed 7.5 years of Fermi observations using the new Pass 8 analysis software. The resulting increase in resolution revealed the first detection of GeV emission from Arp 220!Acceleration EfficiencyGamma-ray luminosity vs. total infrared luminosity for LAT-detected star-forming galaxies and Seyferts. Arp 220s luminosities are consistent with the scaling relation. [Peng et al. 2016

  18. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, Marco; Atwood, William B.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, Milan; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; Berenji, Bijan; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bogaert, G.; Borgland, Anders W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 ± 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 ± 0.004 ± 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 ± 3 ± 11) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 . The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE -# Gamma#e (-E/E c ) where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 ± 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E c = 2.4 ± 0.3 ± 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is -2 but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  19. Utilizing experimentally derived multi-channel gamma-ray spectra for the analysis of airborne data

    Grasty, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectra derived from measurements on radioactive concrete calibration pads using plywood sheets to simulate the attenuation effect of air have been successfully tested on airbone data. Cesium-137 at 662 keV, from atomic weapons tests was found to contribute significantly to the airborne spectrum. By fitting the experimental spectra, above the cesium energy, to airborne data, significant increases in accuracy were obtained for the measurement of uranium and thorium, compared to the standard 3-window method. By including a cesium spectrum is the analysis of gamma-ray data from a survey carried out in Saskatchewan, it was found that background radiation due to atmospheric bismuth-214 could be measured more reliably than by using a constant over-water background. Similar results were obtained by monitoring low energy lead-214 gamma-rays at 352 keV

  20. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed

  1. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  2. Gamma ray observations of the solar system

    1981-01-01

    Two general categories are discussed concerning the evolution of the solar system: the dualistic view, the planetesimal approach; and the monistic view, the nebular hypothesis. The major points of each view are given and the models that are developed from these views are described. Possible applications of gamma ray astronomical observations to the question of the dynamic evolution of the solar system are discussed.

  3. Black Hole Accretion in Gamma Ray Bursts

    Agnieszka Janiuk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure and evolution of the hyperaccreting disks and outflows in the gamma ray bursts central engines. The torus around a stellar mass black hole is composed of free nucleons, Helium, electron-positron pairs, and is cooled by neutrino emission. Accretion of matter powers the relativistic jets, responsible for the gamma ray prompt emission. The significant number density of neutrons in the disk and outflowing material will cause subsequent formation of heavier nuclei. We study the process of nucleosynthesis and its possible observational consequences. We also apply our scenario to the recent observation of the gravitational wave signal, detected on 14 September 2015 by the two Advanced LIGO detectors, and related to an inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. A gamma ray burst that could possibly be related with the GW150914 event was observed by the Fermi satellite. It had a duration of about 1 s and appeared about 0.4 s after the gravitational-wave signal. We propose that a collapsing massive star and a black hole in a close binary could lead to the event. The gamma ray burst was powered by a weak neutrino flux produced in the star remnant’s matter. Low spin and kick velocity of the merged black hole are reproduced in our simulations. Coincident gravitational-wave emission originates from the merger of the collapsed core and the companion black hole.

  4. Swift: A gamma ray burst MIDEX

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Swift is a first of its kind multiwavelength transient observatory for gamma-ray burst astronomy. It has the optimum capabilities for the next breakthroughs in determining the origin of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows as well as using bursts to probe the early Universe. Swift will also perform the first sensitive hard X-ray survey of the sky. The mission is being developed by an international collaboration and consists of three instruments, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT), the X-ray Telescope (XRT), and the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT). The BAT, a wide-field gamma-ray detector, will detect ∼1 gamma-ray burst per day with a sensitivity 5 times that of BATSE. The sensitive narrow-field XRT and UVOT will be autonomously slewed to the burst location in 20 to 70 seconds to determine 0.3-5.0 arcsec positions and perform optical, UV, and X-ray spectrophotometry. On-board measurements of redshift will also be done for hundreds of bursts. Swift will incorporate superb, low-cost instruments using existing flight-spare hardware and designs. Strong education/public outreach and follow-up programs will help to engage the public and astronomical community. Swift has been selected by NASA for development and launch in late 2003

  5. Gamma-ray bursts at high redshift

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are much brighter than supernovae, and could therefore possibly probe the Universe to high redshift. The presently established GRB redshifts range from 0.83 to 5, and quite possibly even beyond that. Since most proposed mechanisms for GRB link them closely to deaths of massive

  6. Coakial gamma ray detector and method therefor

    Harchol, M.

    1977-01-01

    A coaxial gamma ray detector is fabricated using intrinsic Ge semiconductor material in a geometry whereby full depletion of electrical carriers is prevented within a small region proximate the point of electrical contact thereby allowing greater biasing potentials across the detector and, consequently, providing reduced electronic noise and increased energy resolution

  7. Developments in mercuric iodide gamma ray imaging

    Patt, B E; Beyerle, A G; Dolin, R C; Ortale, C [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Goleta, CA (USA). Santa Barbara Operations

    1989-11-01

    A mercuric iodide (HgI{sub 2}) gamma ray imaging array and camera system previously described have been characterized for spatial and energy resolution. Based on these data a new camera is being developed to more fully exploit the potential of the array. Characterization results and design criteria for the new camera will be presented. (orig.).

  8. Current segmented gamma-ray scanner technology

    Bjork, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    A new generation of segmented gamma-ray scanners has been developed at Los Alamos for scrap and waste measurements at the Savannah River Plant and the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. The new designs are highly automated and exhibit special features such as good segmentation and thorough shielding to improve performance

  9. Gamma-Ray Telescope and Uncertainty Principle

    Shivalingaswamy, T.; Kagali, B. A.

    2012-01-01

    Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle is one of the important basic principles of quantum mechanics. In most of the books on quantum mechanics, this uncertainty principle is generally illustrated with the help of a gamma ray microscope, wherein neither the image formation criterion nor the lens properties are taken into account. Thus a better…

  10. Gamma-ray astronomy: A historical perspective

    Lingenfelter, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    This is a brief review of the course theoretical gamma-ray astronomy has taken over the past thirty years. An examination is given of what the theoretical expectations were; to what extent they were realized; how well they anticipated new directions of research; and alternatively, how often were new directions unexpected

  11. Gamma-ray Emission from Globular Clusters

    Pak-Hin T. Tam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few years, the data obtained using the Large Area Telescope (LAT aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has provided new insights on high-energy processes in globular clusters, particularly those involving compact objects such as MilliSecond Pulsars (MSPs. Gamma-ray emission in the 100 MeV to 10 GeV range has been detected from more than a dozen globular clusters in our galaxy, including 47 Tucanae and Terzan 5. Based on a sample of known gammaray globular clusters, the empirical relations between gamma-ray luminosity and properties of globular clusters such as their stellar encounter rate, metallicity, and possible optical and infrared photon energy densities, have been derived. The measured gamma-ray spectra are generally described by a power law with a cut-off at a few gigaelectronvolts. Together with the detection of pulsed γ-rays from two MSPs in two different globular clusters, such spectral signature lends support to the hypothesis that γ-rays from globular clusters represent collective curvature emission from magnetospheres of MSPs in the clusters. Alternative models, involving Inverse-Compton (IC emission of relativistic electrons that are accelerated close to MSPs or pulsar wind nebula shocks, have also been suggested. Observations at >100 GeV by using Fermi/LAT and atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes such as H.E.S.S.-II, MAGIC-II, VERITAS, and CTA will help to settle some questions unanswered by current data.

  12. On the origin of gamma rays in Fermi blazars: beyond the broad line region.

    Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Tosti, G.; Antolini, E.; Tramacere, A.

    2018-05-01

    The gamma-ray emission in broad-line blazars is generally explained as inverse Compton (IC) radiation of relativistic electrons in the jet scattering optical-UV photons from the Broad Line Region (BLR), the so-called BLR External Compton scenario. We test this scenario on the Fermi gamma-ray spectra of 106 broad-line blazars detected with the highest significance or largest BLR, by looking for cut-off signatures at high energies compatible with γ-γ interactions with BLR photons. We do not find evidence for the expected BLR absorption. For 2/3 of the sources, we can exclude any significant absorption (τmax 5). We conclude that for 9 out of 10 objects, the jet does not interact with BLR photons. Gamma-rays seem either produced outside the BLR most of the time, or the BLR is ˜100 × larger than given by reverberation mapping. This means that i) External Compton on BLR photons is disfavoured as the main gamma-ray mechanism, vs IC on IR photons from the torus or synchrotron self-Compton; ii) the Fermi gamma-ray spectrum is mostly intrinsic, determined by the interaction of the particle distribution with the seed-photons spectrum; iii) without suppression by the BLR, broad-line blazars can become copious emitters above 100 GeV, as demonstrated by 3C 454.3. We expect the CTA sky to be much richer of broad-line blazars than previously thought.

  13. Portable gamma-ray holdup and attributes measurements of high- and variable-burnup plutonium

    Wenz, T.R.; Russo, P.A.; Miller, M.C.; Menlove, H.O.; Takahashi, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Aoki, I.

    1991-01-01

    High burnup-plutonium holdup has been assayed quantitatively by low resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The assay was calibrated with four plutonium standards representing a range of fuel burnup and 241 Am content. Selection of a calibration standard based on its qualitative spectral similarity to gamma-ray spectra of the process material is partially responsible for the success of these holdup measurements. The spectral analysis method is based on the determination of net counts in a single spectral region of interest (ROI). However, the low-resolution gamma-ray assay signal for the high-burnup plutonium includes unknown amounts of contamination from 241 Am. For most needs, the range of calibration standards required for this selection procedure is not available. A new low-resolution gamma-ray spectral analysis procedure for assay of 239 Pu has been developed. The procedure uses the calculated isotope activity ratios and the measured net counts in three spectral ROIs to evaluate and remove the 241 Am contamination from the 239 Pu assay signal on a spectrum-by-spectrum basis. The calibration for the new procedure requires only a single plutonium standard. The procedure also provides a measure of the burnup and age attributes of holdup deposits. The new procedure has been demonstrated using portable gamma-ray spectroscopy equipment for a wide range of plutonium standards and has also been applied to the assay of 239 Pu holdup in a mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility. 10 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Detecting gamma-ray anisotropies from decaying dark matter. Prospects for Fermi LAT

    Ibarra, Alejandro; Tran, David

    2009-09-01

    Decaying dark matter particles could be indirectly detected as an excess over a simple power law in the energy spectrum of the diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background. Furthermore, since the Earth is not located at the center of the Galactic dark matter halo, the exotic contribution from dark matter decay to the diffuse gamma-ray flux is expected to be anisotropic, offering a complementary method for the indirect search for decaying dark matter particles. In this paper we discuss in detail the expected dipole-like anisotropies in the dark matter signal, taking also into account the radiation from inverse Compton scattering of electrons and positrons from dark matter decay. A different source for anisotropies in the gamma-ray flux are the dark matter density fluctuations on cosmic scales. We calculate the corresponding angular power spectrum of the gamma-ray flux and comment on observational prospects. Finally, we calculate the expected anisotropies for the decaying dark matter scenarios that can reproduce the electron/positron excesses reported by PAMELA and the Fermi LAT, and we estimate the prospects for detecting the predicted gamma-ray anisotropy in the near future. (orig.)

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of the scattered component of neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analyzer responses

    Jin, Y.; Verghese, K.; Gardner, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a major part of our efforts to simulate the entire spectral response of the neutron capture prompt gamma-ray analyzer for bulk media (or conveyor belt) samples by the Monte Carlo method. This would allow one to use such a model to augment or, in most cases, essentially replace experiments in the calibration and optimum design of these analyzers. In previous work, we simulated the unscattered gamma-ray intensities, but would like to simulate the entire spectral response as we did with the energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence analyzers. To accomplish this, one must account for the scattered gamma rays as well as the unscattered and one must have available the detector response function to translate the incident gamma-ray spectrum calculated by the Monte Carlo simulation into the detected pulse-height spectrum. We recently completed our work on the germanium detector response function, and the present paper describes our efforts to simulate the entire spectral response by using it with Monte Carlo predicted unscattered and scattered gamma rays

  16. GAMMA RAYS FROM THE TYCHO SUPERNOVA REMNANT: MULTI-ZONE VERSUS SINGLE-ZONE MODELING

    Atoyan, Armen [Department of Mathematics, Concordia University, 1455 de Maisonneuve Blvd. West, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1M8 (Canada); Dermer, Charles D., E-mail: atoyan@mathstat.concordia.ca, E-mail: charles.dermer@nrl.navy.mil [Code 7653, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5352 (United States)

    2012-04-20

    Recent Fermi and VERITAS observations of the prototypical Type Ia supernova remnant (SNR) Tycho have discovered {gamma}-rays with energies E in the range 0.4 GeV {approx}< E {approx}< 10 TeV. Crucial for the theory of Galactic cosmic-ray origin is whether the {gamma}-rays from SNRs are produced by accelerated hadrons (protons and ions) or by relativistic electrons. Here we show that strong constraints on the leptonic model imposed in the framework of the commonly used single-zone model are essentially removed if the analysis of the broadband radiation spectrum of Tycho is done in the two-zone (or, in general, multi-zone) approach, which is likely to apply to every SNR. Importantly, we show that the single-zone approach may underpredict the {gamma}-ray fluxes by an order of magnitude. A hadronic model can, however, also fit the detected {gamma}-ray spectrum. The difference between {gamma}-ray fluxes of hadronic and leptonic origins becomes significant only at {approx}<300 MeV, which could be revealed by spectral measurements of Tycho and other SNRs at these energies.

  17. Measurement of prompt fission gamma-ray spectra in fast neutron-induced fission

    Laborie, J.M.; Belier, G.; Taieb, J.

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of prompt fission gamma-ray emission has been of major interest in reactor physics for a few years. Since very few experimental spectra were ever published until now, new measurements would be also valuable to improve our understanding of the fission process. An experimental method is currently being developed to measure the prompt fission gamma-ray spectrum from some tens keV up to 10 MeV at least. The mean multiplicity and total energy could be deduced. In this method, the gamma-rays are measured with a bismuth germanate (BGO) detector which has the advantage to present a high P/T ratio and a high efficiency compared to other gamma-ray detectors. The prompt fission neutrons are rejected by the time of flight technique between the BGO detector and a fission trigger given by a fission chamber or a scintillating active target. Energy and efficiency calibration of the BGO detector were carried out up to 10.76 MeV by means of the Al-27(p, gamma) reaction. First prompt fission gamma-ray spectrum measurements performed for the spontaneous fission of Cf-252 and for 1.7 and 15.6 MeV neutron-induced fission of U-238 at the CEA, DAM, DIF Van de Graaff accelerator, will be presented. (authors)

  18. Unattented mode monitoring of high resolution gamma-ray spectra

    Smith, B.G.R.; Van Dyck, P.; Debraix, P.

    1991-01-01

    An Isotope Monitoring System (IMS) for unattended spectrum acquisition is described. This consists of a simple low cost flexible software package running on a Compaq 80386 and controlling up to 4 Canberra Packard System 100 multi-channel analyzer (MCA) cards. The IMS permits the independent configuration of each of the 4 MCA cards for different monitoring cycles and for different spectrum acquisition cycles each being based upon different trigger criteria. In this way IMS is able to automatically identify events, time tag them, and acquire and store valid spectra corresponding to those event. An additional feature of IMS permits to run a Multigroup Analysis (MGA) software package for the determination of plutonium isotopic compositions in batch mode. One particular application is discussed which consists of 4 high resolution gamma-ray detector systems connected together to the IMS for unattended spectrum acquisition. The off-line batch mode analysis of the spectra using MGA is also discussed

  19. Matrix of response functions for xenon gamma-ray detector

    Shustov, A.E.; Vlasik, K.F.; Grachev, V.M.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Novikov, A.S.; P'ya, S.N.; Ulin, S.E.; Uteshev, Z.M.; Chernysheva, I.V.

    2014-01-01

    An approach of creation of response matrix using simulation GEANT4 gamma-ray Monte-Carlo method has been described for gamma-ray spectrometer based on high pressure xenon impulse ionization chamber with a shielding grid [ru

  20. Cosmic gamma-ray background radiation. Current understandings and problems

    Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    The cosmic gamma-ray background radiation is one of the most fundamental observables in the gamma-ray band. Although the origin of the cosmic gamma-ray background radiation has been a mystery for a long time, the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope has recently measured it at 0.1-820 GeV and revealed that the cosmic GeV gamma-ray background is composed of blazars, radio galaxies, and star-forming galaxies. However, Fermi still leaves the following questions. Those are dark matter contribution, origins of the cosmic MeV gamma-ray background, and the connection to the IceCube TeV-PeV neutrino events. In this proceeding, I will review the current understandings of the cosmic gamma-ray background and discuss future prospects of cosmic gamma-ray background radiation studies. (author)

  1. Applications of Monte Carlo simulations of gamma-ray spectra

    Clark, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    A short, convenient computer program based on the Monte Carlo method that was developed to generate simulated gamma-ray spectra has been found to have useful applications in research and teaching. In research, we use it to predict spectra in neutron activation analysis (NAA), particularly in prompt gamma-ray NAA (PGNAA). In teaching, it is used to illustrate the dependence of detector response functions on the nature of gamma-ray interactions, the incident gamma-ray energy, and detector geometry

  2. Interstellar medium structure and content and gamma ray astronomy

    Lebrun, F.

    1982-05-01

    A general description of gamma-ray astronomy is presented with special emphasis on the study of diffuse gamma-ray emission. This is followed by a collection of reflections and observations on the structure and the gas and dust content of the local interstellar medium. Results of gamma-ray observations on the local interstellar medium are given. The last part is devoted to the whole of the galactic gamma-ray emission and its interpretation [fr

  3. Silicon detectors for x and gamma-ray with high radiation resistance

    Cimpoca, Valerica; Popescu, Ion V.; Ruscu, Radu

    2001-01-01

    Silicon detectors are widely used in X and gamma-ray spectroscopy for direct detection or coupled with scintillators in high energy nuclear physics (modern collider experiments are representative), medicine and industrial applications. In X and gamma dosimetry, a low detection limit (under 6 KeV) with silicon detectors becomes available. Work at the room temperature is now possible due to the silicon processing evolution, which assures low reverse current and high life time of carriers. For several years, modern semiconductor detectors have been the primary choice for the measurement of nuclear radiation in various scientific fields. Nowadays the recently developed high resolution silicon detectors found their way in medical applications. As a consequence many efforts have been devoted to the development of high sensitivity and radiation hardened X and gamma-ray detectors for the energy range of 5 - 150 keV. The paper presents some results concerning the technology and behaviour of X and Gamma ray silicon detectors used in physics research, industrial and medical radiography. The electrical characteristics of these detectors, their modification after exposure to radiation and the results of spectroscopic X and Gamma-ray measurements are discussed. The results indicated that the proposed detectors enables the development of reliable silicon detectors to be used in controlling the low and high radiation levels encountered in a lot of application

  4. Gamma-ray burst observations: the present situation

    Vedrenne, G.

    1984-01-01

    Recent results in gamma ray burst investigations concerning the spectral variability on a short time scale, precise locations, and the discovery of optical flashes in gamma ray burst positions on archival plates are presented. The implications of optical and X-ray observations of gamma ray burst error boxes are also discussed. 72 references

  5. Egret observations of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission

    Sreekumar, P.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    The all-sky survey in high-energy gamma rays (E > 30 MeV) carried out by EGRET aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory provides a unique opportunity to examine in detail the diffuse gamma-ray emission. The observed diffuse emission has a Galactic component arising from cosmic-ray interactions wi...

  6. Dust extinction in high-z galaxies with gamma-ray burst afterglow spectroscopy

    Elíasdóttir, Á.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the clear detection of the 2175 Å dust absorption feature in the optical afterglow spectrum of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 070802 at a redshift of z = 2.45. This is the highest redshift for a detected 2175 Å dust bump to date, and it is the first clear detection of the 2175 Å bump...

  7. A spectral study of gamma-ray emitting active galactic nuclei

    Pohl, M.; Hartman, R.C.; Jones, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we present a statistical analysis of the gamma-ray spectra of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQ) compared to those of BL Lacs. The average spectra and possible systematic deviations from power-law behaviour are investigated by summing up the intensity and the power-law fit statistic...

  8. Optical flare observed in the flaring gamma-ray blazar Ton 599

    Pursimo, Tapio; Sagues, Ana; Telting, John; Ojha, Roopesh

    2017-11-01

    We report optical photometry of the flat spectrum radio quasar Ton 599, obtained with the 2.56m Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma, to look for any enhanced optical activity associated with a recent flare in the daily averaged gamma-ray flux (ATel#10931, ATel#10937).

  9. Rapid, autonomous analysis of HPGe gamma-ray spectra II: Uranium identification and characterization

    Gosnell, Thomas B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wong, Jamess L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-02-11

    RadID is a gamma-ray spectrum analysis program originally written to assist in the detection of the illicit movement of nuclear material. In this second of the three-document series we discuss how RadID detects the presence of uranium isotopes and determines a number of its characteristics, most notably or processed material and enriched estimates.

  10. Gamma rays and the case for baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology

    Stecker, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The baryon symmetric big-bang cosmologies offer an explanation of the present photon-baryon ratio in the universe, the best present explanation of the diffuse gamma-ray background spectrum in the 1 to 200 MeV range, and a mechanism for galaxy formation. In the context of an open universe model, the value of omega which best fits the present gamma-ray data is omega equals approx. 0.1 which does not conflict with upper limits on Comptonization distortion of the 3K background radiation. In regard to He production, evidence is discussed that nucleosynthesis of He may have taken place after the galaxies were formed.

  11. Search for Very High-energy Gamma Rays from the Northern Fermi Bubble Region with HAWC

    Abeysekara, AU; Albert, A; Alfaro, R; Alvarez, C; Alvarez, JD; Arceo, R; Arteaga-Velázquez, JC; Ayala Solares, HA; Barber, AS; Bautista-Elivar, N; Becerril, A; Belmont-Moreno, E; BenZvi, SY; Berley, D; Braun, J

    2017-01-01

    © 2017. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved. We present a search for very high-energy gamma-ray emission from the Northern Fermi Bubble region using data collected with the High Altitude Water Cherenkov gamma-ray observatory. The size of the data set is 290 days. No significant excess is observed in the Northern Fermi Bubble region, so upper limits above 1 TeV are calculated. The upper limits are between and . The upper limits disfavor a proton injection spectrum that exten...

  12. Catalogue of response spectra for unfolding in situ gamma-ray pulse-height distributions

    Dymke, N.

    1982-01-01

    To unfold in situ gamma-ray pulse-height distributions by means of a response matrix technique, the matrix must be in keeping with the measurement geometry, detector size, and energy range to be covered by the measurements. A methodology has been described for determination of standard gamma-ray spectra needed in deriving response matrices and a spectrum catalogue compiled containing graphs and data for the 0-3 MeV (4 x 4 in. NaI(Tl)) and 0-8 MeV (1.5 x 1.5 in. NaI(Tl)) ranges. (author)

  13. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAYS FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT GRB 130427A WITH THE HAWC GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATORY

    Abeysekara, A. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Alfaro, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez, C.; Arceo, R. [CEFyMAP, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Álvarez, J. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Cotti, U.; De León, C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Solares, H. A. Ayala [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Barber, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Baughman, B. M.; Braun, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bautista-Elivar, N. [Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Municipio de Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico); BenZvi, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Rosales, M. Bonilla; Carramiñana, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Caballero-Mora, K. S. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. (Mexico); Castillo, M.; Cotzomi, J. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico); De la Fuente, E., E-mail: dirk.lennarz@gatech.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC collaboration; and others

    2015-02-20

    The first limits on the prompt emission from the long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A in the >100 GeV energy band are reported. GRB 130427A was the most powerful burst ever detected with a redshift z ≲ 0.5 and featured the longest lasting emission above 100 MeV. The energy spectrum extends at least up to 95 GeV, clearly in the range observable by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory, a new extensive air shower detector currently under construction in central Mexico. The burst occurred under unfavorable observation conditions, low in the sky and when HAWC was running 10% of the final detector. Based on the observed light curve at MeV-GeV energies, eight different time periods have been searched for prompt and delayed emission from this GRB. In all cases, no statistically significant excess of counts has been found and upper limits have been placed. It is shown that a similar GRB close to zenith would be easily detected by the full HAWC detector, which will be completed soon. The detection rate of the full HAWC detector may be as high as one to two GRBs per year. A detection could provide important information regarding the high energy processes at work and the observation of a possible cut-off beyond the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range could be the signature of gamma-ray absorption, either in the GRB or along the line of sight due to the extragalactic background light.

  14. Soft gamma-ray production in active galactic nuclei

    Sikora, M; Zbyszewska, M

    1985-02-01

    Recent studies by Lightman (1982), Svensson (1984), an others on the pair-equilibrium states of mildly relativistic thermal plasma, including magnetic fields and optical sources are considered. Resulting constraints on luminosities and proton densities together with observational data permit the selection of an accretion scenario in which a high-energy spectrum, similar to that of NGC 4151, is produced. It is shown that soft gamma-ray production via thermal bremsstrahlung can occur in the central region of the two-temperature, geometrically thick part of the disc. On the other hand, the power-law X-ray spectrum is expected to be generated in the intermediate region due to Comptonization of optical photons coming from an outer, geometrically thin part of the disc. Implications for the relation between quasars and Seyfert galaxies are discussed. 27 references.

  15. Relativistic effects in gamma-ray bursts

    Eriksen, Erik; Groen, Oeyvind

    1999-01-01

    According to recent models of the sources of gamma-ray bursts the extremely energetic emission is caused by shells expanding with ultrarelativistic velocity. With the recent identification of optical sources at the positions of some gamma-ray bursts these ''fireball'' models have acquired an actuality that invites to use them as a motivating application when teaching special relativity. We demonstrate several relativistic effects associated with these models which are very pronounced due to the great velocity of the shell. For example a burst lasting for a month in the rest frame of an element of the shell lasts for a few seconds only, in the rest frame of our detector. It is shown how the observed properties of a burst are modified by aberration and the Doppler effect. The apparent luminosity as a function of time is calculated. Modifications due to the motion of the star away from the observer are calculated. (Author)

  16. Fissile interrogation using gamma rays from oxygen

    Smith, Donald; Micklich, Bradley J.; Fessler, Andreas

    2004-04-20

    The subject apparatus provides a means to identify the presence of fissionable material or other nuclear material contained within an item to be tested. The system employs a portable accelerator to accelerate and direct protons to a fluorine-compound target. The interaction of the protons with the fluorine-compound target produces gamma rays which are directed at the item to be tested. If the item to be tested contains either a fissionable material or other nuclear material the interaction of the gamma rays with the material contained within the test item with result in the production of neutrons. A system of neutron detectors is positioned to intercept any neutrons generated by the test item. The results from the neutron detectors are analyzed to determine the presence of a fissionable material or other nuclear material.

  17. Environmental Effects of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Martin, Osmel; Zarauza, Dario; Cardenas, Rolando

    2007-01-01

    Gamma rays bursts, coming from very massive stars, are the most powerful explosions in our Universe. Some authors have linked them to some of the climatic changes and consequent biological mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic eon. However, the consequences of their direct impact on primitive Earth, is today a hot topic of debate. On the other hand, it is usually assumed that they were more common in earlier stages of our galaxy. So it is important to evaluate its potential effects on terrestrial paleoenvironments. We outline some simple models to estimate their influence mainly on the primordial atmospheric chemistry of Earth and on the climate in general. To do that, we consider different scenarios where the atmospheric composition diverges substantially from the atmosphere today, and compute the evolution of principal chemical species under the intense radiational stress of a gamma ray burst. Furthermore, the possible impact on the isotopic composition, geochemistry and the biosphere are mentioned in general way

  18. TeV gamma-ray astronomy

    Cui Wei

    2009-01-01

    The field of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy has enjoyed rapid growth in recent years. As an increasing number of sources are detected at TeV energies, the field has matured and become a viable branch of modern astronomy. Lying at the uppermost end of the electromagnetic rainbow, TeV photons are always preciously few in number but carry essential information about the particle acceleration and radiative processes involved in extreme astronomical settings. Together with observations at longer wavelengths, TeV gamma-ray observations have drastically improved our view of the universe. In this review, we briefly describe recent progress in the field. We will conclude by providing a personal perspective on the future of the field, in particular, on the significant roles that China could play in advancing this young but exciting field. (invited reviews)

  19. Attenuation of the gamma rays in tissues

    Arcos P, A.; Rodriguez N, S.; Pinedo S, A.; Amador V, P.; Chacon R, A.; Vega C, H.R.

    2005-01-01

    The mass and lineal attenuation coefficient and of hepatic tissue, muscular, osseous and of brain before gamma rays of 10 -3 to 10 5 MeV were calculated. For the case of the osseous tissue the calculation was made for the cartilage, the cortical tissue and the bone marrow. During the calculations the elementary composition of the tissues of human origin was used. The calculations include by separate the Photoelectric effect, the Compton scattering and the Pair production, as well as the total. For to establish a comparison with the attenuation capacities, the coefficients of the water, the aluminum and the lead also were calculated. The study was complemented measuring the attenuation coefficient of hepatic tissue of bovine before gamma rays of 0.662 MeV of a source of 137 Cs. The measurement was made through of an experiment of photons transmission through samples frozen of hepatic tissue and with a Geiger-Mueller detector. (Author)

  20. The Future of Gamma Ray Astrophysics

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, gamma ray astrophysics has entered the astrophysical mainstream. Extremely successful space-borne (GeV) and ground-based (TeV) detectors, combined with a multitude of partner telescopes, have revealed a fascinating “astroscape" of active galactic nuclei, pulsars, gamma ray bursts, supernova remnants, binary stars, star-forming galaxies, novae much more, exhibiting major pathways along which large energy releases can flow. From  a basic physics perspective, exquisitely sensitive measurements have constrained the nature of dark matter, the cosmological origin of magnetic field and the properties of black holes. These advances have motivated the development of new facilities, including HAWC, DAMPE, CTA and SVOM, which will further our understanding of the high energy universe. Topics that will receive special attention include merging neutron star binaries, clusters of galaxies, galactic cosmic rays and putative, TeV dark matter.

  1. Fermi observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080916C.

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Burrows, D; Busetto, G; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, A; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Deklotz, M; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hernando Morat, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Mészáros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Preece, R; Rainò, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgrò, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, J-L; Stecker, F W; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tagliaferri, G; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-03-27

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  2. Sensitivity of self-powered detector probes to electron and gamma-ray fields

    Lone, M A; Wong, P Y [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple, passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPD`s are used in nuclear reactors to monitor neutron and gamma fields. Responses of SPD`s to electrons and {gamma}-rays of various energies were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. Transmission filters were studied for the design of threshold SPD probes used for online monitoring of the energy spectrum of high-power industrial electron accelerator beams. Filters were also investigated for the enhancement of {gamma}-ray sensitivity of an SPD placed in a mixed electron and {gamma}-ray field. (author). 30 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

  3. SNM gamma-ray fingerprint monitor functional requirements and design specifications

    Bieber, A.M. Jr.; Kane, W.R.

    1994-07-01

    A number of DOE facilities need to perform confirmatory inventory measurements on items of special nuclear material (SNM). The DOE Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) has tasked the Safeguards, Safety and Nonproliferation Division (SSN) of the Department of Advanced Technology at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to develop a high-resolution gamma-ray-spectroscopy-based instrument for performing confirmatory inventory measurements on such materials, a ''gamma-ray fingerprint monitor'' (GRFM). This document is a conceptual design for the SSN GRFM system. This conceptual design is based on previous experience with measurements of plutonium-bearing materials and comparison of gamma-ray spectrum features, not on actual tests of the procedures or hardware described. As a result, modifications may be necessary when actual prototype hardware and software are tested in realistic circumstances on actual materials of interest

  4. Fermi Observations of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from GRB 080916C

    Abdo, A A; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, Guido; Baring, Matthew G; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, Thompson H; Burrows, David N; Busetto, Giovanni; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, Annalisa; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, Lynn R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; DeKlotz, M; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, Alessandro; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto e Silva, Eduardo; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, Justin D; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, Thomas Lynn; Godfrey, Gary L; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J.Eric; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, Alice K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth A; Hernando Morata, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, Frederick Gabriel Ivar; Kuss, Michael; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, Sheila; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Miszaros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, Igor Vladimirovich; Murgia, Simona; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okumura, Akira; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, Vahe; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, Troy A; Preece, R; Rainr, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, Soebur; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, Thierry; Reyes, Luis C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P.M.Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgro, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, Jean-Luc; Stecker, Floyd William; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, Daniel J; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, Diego F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  5. Nature of gamma-ray burst sources

    Ventura, J.

    1983-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that gamma ray bursts have a local galactic origin involving neutron stars. In this light we make a critical review of physics of the thermonuclear runaway model placing emphasis on self-consistency. We further show that some of the proposed models can be observationally excluded in the light of existing data from the Einstein Observatory. The possibility of gamma bursts arising in low mass binaries is finally discussed in the light of evolutionary scenarios leading to low luminosity systems

  6. Evaluation of gamma-ray intensities

    Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Inoue, Hikaru; Hoshi, Masaharu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Iwata, Yosei.

    1978-03-01

    Results of literature survey and evaluation of relative intensities and intensities per decay of gamma rays are presented. Evaluations were made for 22 Na, 24 Na, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 48 V, 54 Mn, 57 Co, 60 Co, 85 Sr, 88 Y, 95 Nb, 95 Zr, sup(108m)Ag, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, 144 Pr, 203 Hg, and 207 Bi. For eight of the nuclides, the half-lives were also evaluated. (auth.)

  7. Gamma-ray standards for detector calibration

    Christmas, P.; Nichols, A.L.; Lorenz, A.

    1987-09-01

    The first official meeting of the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on the Measurement and Evaluation of X- and Gamma-ray Standards for Detector Calibration was held in Rome from 11 to 13 June 1987. Work undertaken by the CRP members was reviewed in detail: specific problems in the evaluations were identified and actions placed on the participants to resolve these issues. (author). 3 tabs

  8. Gamma-ray bursts - a critical review

    Tudose, Valeriu; Biermann, Peter

    2003-01-01

    We present a short general introduction into the field of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) research, summarizing the past and the present status. We give an general view of the GRBs observations to date, both in the prompt emission phase as well as in the afterglow phase, and a brief primer into the theory, mainly in the frame-work of the fireball model. (authors)

  9. Balloon observation of gamma-ray burst

    Nishimura, Jun; Fujii, Masami; Yamagami, Takamasa; Oda, Minoru; Ogawara, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Cosmic gamma-ray burst is an interesting high energy astrophysical phenomenon, but the burst mechanism has not been well understood. Since 1975, long duration balloon flight has been conducted to search for gamma-ray bursts and to determine the source locations. A rotating cross-modulation collimator was employed to determine the locations of sources, and four NaI(Tl) scintillation counters were employed to detect hard X-ray with energy from 20 to 200 keV. The balloon light was performed at altitude of 8.3 mb from September 28, 1977, and the observation time of 79 hours was achieved. In this experiment, the monitor counter was not mounted. The count increase was observed at 16 h 22 m 31 s JST on October 1, 1977. The event disappeared after 1 sec. The total flux is estimated to be 1.6 x 10 -6 erg/cm 2 sec at the top of the atmosphere. When this event was observed, the solar-terrestrial environment was also quiet. Thus, this event was attributed to a small gamma-ray burst. Unfortunately, the duration of the burst was so short that the position of the burst source was not able to be determined. (Yoshimori, M.)

  10. Prompt Gamma Ray Analysis of Soil Samples

    Naqvi, A.A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Haseeb, S.M.A.; Hussein, Tanvir; Khateeb-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.H. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-07-01

    Neutron moderation effects were measured in bulk soil samples through prompt gamma ray measurements from water and benzene contaminated soil samples using 14 MeV neutron inelastic scattering. The prompt gamma rays were measured using a cylindrical 76 mm x 76 mm (diameter x height) LaBr{sub 3}:Ce detector. Since neutron moderation effects strongly depend upon hydrogen concentration of the sample, for comparison purposes, moderation effects were studied from samples containing different hydrogen concentrations. The soil samples with different hydrogen concentration were prepared by mixing soil with water as well as benzene in different weight proportions. Then, the effects of increasing water and benzene concentrations on the yields of hydrogen, carbon and silicon prompt gamma rays were measured. Moderation effects are more pronounced in soil samples mixed with water as compared to those from soil samples mixed with benzene. This is due to the fact that benzene contaminated soil samples have about 30% less hydrogen concentration by weight than the water contaminated soil samples. Results of the study will be presented. (authors)

  11. AGILE: A gamma-ray mission

    Tavani, M.; Caraveo, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Perotti, F.; Vercellone, S.; Barbiellini, G.; Budini, G.; Longo, F.; Prest, M.; Vallazza, E.; Cocco, V.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Pittori, C.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Lapshov, I.; Morelli, E.; Rubini, A.; Soffitta, P.

    2000-01-01

    AGILE is an innovative, cost-effective gamma-ray mission selected by the Italian Space Agency for a Program of Small Scientific Missions. The AGILE gamma-ray imaging detector (GRID, made of a Silicon tracker and CsI Mini-Calorimeter) is designed to detect and image photons in the 30 MeV-50 GeV energy band with good sensitivity and very large field of view (FOV ∼3 sr). The X-ray detector, Super-AGILE, sensitive in the 10-40 keV band and integrated on top of the GRID gamma-ray tracker will provide imaging (1-3 arcmin) and moderate spectroscopy. For selected sky areas, AGILE might achieve a flux sensitivity (above 100 MeV) better than 5x10 -8 ph cm 2 s -1 at the completion of its scientific program. AGILE will operate as an Observatory open to the international community and is planned to be operational during the year 2002 for a nominal 2-year mission. It will be an ideal 'bridge' between EGRET and GLAST, and the only mission entirely dedicated to high-energy astrophysics above 30 MeV during that period

  12. Gamma ray irradiation characteristics of SM fibers

    Ito, Ryuichi; Okano, Hiroaki; Hashiba, Keichi; Nakai, Hisanori

    1987-01-01

    1.3 μm range single mode (SM) optical fibers have been used for wide application of mainly long distance communication. At present, in order to realize the larger capacity and longer distance between relay points, the development of 1.5 μm range SM fibers of low dispersion and small loss has been actively promoted. As for the radiation withstanding property of SM fibers, report is scarce. The authors reported on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics of 1.3 μm range SM fibers, but since 1.5 μm range SM fibers are designed with the different structure from that of 1.3 μm fibers, it is necessary to evaluate from new viewpoint. In this report, mainly on the structure having triangular distribution, the effect that the manufacturing condition and the structural defects of glass exert on the gamma ray irradiation characteristics is described. The specimens were mainly dispersion shift type fibers (DSF), and for comparison, single window, double window and 1.3 μm SM fibers were examined. Co-60 gamma ray was irradiated, and the optical loss and electron spin resonance were measured. By low temperature and low speed drawing, the good result in the optical loss was obtained. The presence of oxygen at the time of sintering materials had no effect. The dependence of the ESR on the drawing condition was not very remarkable. (Kako, I.)

  13. A gamma-ray discriminating neutron scintillator

    Eschbach, P.A.; Miller, S.D.; Cole, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    A neutron scintillator has been developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which responds directly to as little as 10 mrem/hour dose equivalent rate fast neutron fields. The scintillator is composed of CaF 2 :Eu or of NaI grains within a silicone rubber or polystyrene matrix, respectively. Neutrons colliding with the plastic matrix provide knockon protons, which in turn deposit energy within the grains of phosphor to produce pulses of light. Neutron interactions are discriminated from gamma-ray events on the basis of pulse height. Unlike NE-213 liquid scintillators, this solid scintillator requires no pulseshape discrimination and therefore requires less hardware. Neutron events are anywhere from two to three times larger than the gamma-ray exposures are compared to 0.7 MeV gamma-ray exposures. The CaF 2 :Eu/silicone rubber scintillator is nearly optically transparent, and can be made into a very sizable detector (4 cm x 1.5 cm) without degrading pulse height. This CaF 2 :Eu scintillator has been observed to have an absolute efficiency of 0.1% when exposed to 5-MeV accelerator-generated neutrons (where the absolute efficiency is the ratio of observed neutron events divided by the number of fast neutrons striking the detector)

  14. Radio Flares from Gamma-ray Bursts

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Gomboc, A.

    2015-06-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1-1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time.

  15. RADIO FLARES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Kobayashi, S.; Virgili, F. J.; Harrison, R.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.

    2015-01-01

    We present predictions of centimeter and millimeter radio emission from reverse shocks (RSs) in the early afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with the goal of determining their detectability with current and future radio facilities. Using a range of GRB properties, such as peak optical brightness and time, isotropic equivalent gamma-ray energy, and redshift, we simulate radio light curves in a framework generalized for any circumburst medium structure and including a parameterization of the shell thickness regime that is more realistic than the simple assumption of thick- or thin-shell approximations. Building on earlier work by Mundell et al. and Melandri et al. in which the typical frequency of the RS was suggested to lie at radio rather than optical wavelengths at early times, we show that the brightest and most distinct RS radio signatures are detectable up to 0.1–1 day after the burst, emphasizing the need for rapid radio follow-up. Detection is easier for bursts with later optical peaks, high isotropic energies, lower circumburst medium densities, and at observing frequencies that are less prone to synchrotron self-absorption effects—typically above a few GHz. Given recent detections of polarized prompt gamma-ray and optical RS emission, we suggest that detection of polarized radio/millimeter emission will unambiguously confirm the presence of low-frequency RSs at early time

  16. Gamma rays from the interstellar medium

    Bloemen, J.B.G.M.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes new gamma-ray views on cosmic rays and the interstellar medium. The author describes the COS-B data base and the pre-launch and in-flight calibration data used for all analyses. Diffuse galactic gamma radiation (> 50 MeV) may be either a result of cosmic-ray-matter interactions, or of the cosmic-ray electrons with the interstellar radiation field (mainly at optical and infrared wavelengths), through the inverse-Compton process. A detailed comparison between the gamma-ray observations of the large complex of interstellar clouds in Orion and Monoceros and the CO and HI surveys of this region is given. It gives insight into the cloud penetration of cosmic rays and in the relation between CO detections and molecular hydrogen column densities. Next, the radial distribution of gamma rays in the Galaxy is studied, as well as the galactic centre (more precisely, the central 400 pc), which contains a large concentration of CO molecules. The H 2 /CO abundance and the cosmic-ray density in the galactic centre are discussed and compared to the findings for the galactic disk. In various analyses in this thesis a likelihood-ratio method is applied for parameter estimation and hypothesis testing. A general description of this method is added as an appendix. (Auth.)

  17. Processing of gamma-ray spectra employing a Fourier deconvolver for the analysis of complex spectra

    Madan, V.K.; Rattan, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    Processing of a nuclear spectrum e.g. gamma ray spectrum is concerned with the estimation of energies and intensities of radiation. The processing involves filtering, peak detection and its significance, baseline delineation, the qualitative and the quantitative analysis of singlets and multiplets present in the spectrum. The methodology for the analysis of singlets is well established. However, the analysis of multiplets provides a challenge and is a extremely difficult problem. This report incorporates a Fourier deconvolver for the quantitative analysis of doublets separated by more than a full width at half maximum. The method is easy to implement. The report discusses the methodology, mathematical analysis, and the results obtained by analyzing both synthetic and observed spectra. A computer program, developed for the analysis of a nuclear spectrum, was verified by analyzing a 152 Eu gamma ray spectrum. The proposed technique compared favourably with SAMPO and MDFT method. (author). 16 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Neutrino emission from gamma-ray burst fireballs, revised.

    Hümmer, Svenja; Baerwald, Philipp; Winter, Walter

    2012-06-08

    We review the neutrino flux from gamma-ray bursts, which is estimated from gamma-ray observations and used for the interpretation of recent IceCube data, from a particle physics perspective. We numerically calculate the neutrino flux for the same astrophysical assumptions as the analytical fireball neutrino model, including the dominant pion and kaon production modes, flavor mixing, and magnetic field effects on the secondary muons, pions, and kaons. We demonstrate that taking into account the full energy dependencies of all spectra, the normalization of the expected neutrino flux reduces by about one order of magnitude and the spectrum shifts to higher energies, where we can pin down the exact origin of the discrepancies by the recomputation of the analytical models. We also reproduce the IceCube-40 analysis for exactly the same bursts and same assumptions and illustrate the impact of uncertainties. We conclude that the baryonic loading of the fireballs, which is an important control parameter for the emission of cosmic rays, can be constrained significantly with the full-scale experiment after about ten years.

  19. Gamma-Ray Peak Integration: Accuracy and Precision

    Richard M. Lindstrom

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy of singlet gamma-ray peak areas obtained by a peak analysis program is immaterial. If the same algorithm is used for sample measurement as for calibration and if the peak shapes are similar, then biases in the integration method cancel. Reproducibility is the only important issue. Even the uncertainty of the areas computed by the program is trivial because the true standard uncertainty can be experimentally assessed by repeated measurements of the same source. Reproducible peak integration was important in a recent standard reference material certification task. The primary tool used for spectrum analysis was SUM, a National Institute of Standards and Technology interactive program to sum peaks and subtract a linear background, using the same channels to integrate all 20 spectra. For comparison, this work examines other peak integration programs. Unlike some published comparisons of peak performance in which synthetic spectra were used, this experiment used spectra collected for a real (though exacting) analytical project, analyzed by conventional software used in routine ways. Because both components of the 559- to 564-keV doublet are from 76 As, they were integrated together with SUM. The other programs, however, deconvoluted the peaks. A sensitive test of the fitting algorithm is the ratio of reported peak areas. In almost all the cases, this ratio was much more variable than expected from the reported uncertainties reported by the program. Other comparisons to be reported indicate that peak integration is still an imperfect tool in the analysis of gamma-ray spectra

  20. Fundamentals of gamma-ray measurements and radiometric analyses

    Hochel, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    There are four primary modes of radioactive decay. All can be measured using various types of detectors and are the basis of many analytical techniques and much of what we know about the nucleus and its structure. Alpha particle emission occurs mostly in heavy nuclei of atomic number, Z, greater than 82 like Po, Ra, Th, and U, etc. Beta particles are simply electrons. They are emitted from the nucleus with a distribution of energies ranging from 0--3 MeV. Gamma-rays are photons with energies ranging from a few keV to 10 MeV or more. They usually follow alpha or beta decay, and depending on their energy, can have considerable range in matter. Neutrons are emitted in fission processes and also from a few of the highly excited fission product nuclei. Fission neutrons typically have energies of 1--2 MeV. Like gamma-rays, they have long ranges. The energies involved in nuclear decay processes are much higher than anything encountered in, say, chemical reactions. They are at the very top of the electromagnetic spectrum -- about a million times more energetic than visible light. As a result, these particles always produce ionization, either directly or indirectly, as they pass through matter. It is this ionization which is the basis of all radiation detectors

  1. Catalog of gamma-rays unplaced in radioactive decay schemes

    Narita, Tsutomu; Kitao, Kensuke.

    1991-03-01

    A catalog is made for gamma-rays emitted in decay of radioactive nuclides but not placed in their decay schemes. It consists of two tables. In Table 1, the number of these unplaced gamma-ray components by a nuclide is given together with the fraction of total intensity of these gamma-rays to that of all observed gamma-rays. In Table 2, the unplaced gamma-rays are arranged in order of increasing energy. Each line of this table contains the gamma-ray energy, intensity, nuclide identification, and energies and intensities of the most prominent gamma-rays from the decay of the radionuclides. This catalog is a compilation from Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) maintained by National Nuclear Data Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory, of at February 1990. (author)

  2. Lunar occultations for gamma-ray source measurements

    Koch, David G.; Hughes, E. B.; Nolan, Patrick L.

    1990-01-01

    The unambiguous association of discrete gamma-ray sources with objects radiating at other wavelengths, the separation of discrete sources from the extended emission within the Galaxy, the mapping of gamma-ray emission from nearby galaxies and the measurement of structure within a discrete source cannot presently be accomplished at gamma-ray energies. In the past, the detection processes used in high-energy gamma-ray astronomy have not allowed for good angular resolution. This problem can be overcome by placing gamma-ray detectors on the moon and using the horizon as an occulting edge to achieve arcsec resolution. For purposes of discussion, this concept is examined for gamma rays above 100 MeV for which pair production dominates the detection process and locally-generated nuclear gamma rays do not contribute to the background.

  3. Physical constraints on models of gamma-ray bursters

    Epstein, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    This report deals with the constraints that can be placed on models of gamma-ray burst sources based on only the well-established observational facts and physical principles. The premise is developed that the very hard x-ray and gamma-ray continua spectra are well-established aspects of gamma-ray bursts. Recent theoretical work on gamma-ray bursts are summarized with emphasis on the geometrical properties of the models. Constraints on the source models which are implied by the x-ray and gamma-ray spectra are described. The allowed ranges for the luminosity and characteristic dimension for gamma-ray burst sources are shown. Some of the deductions and inferences about the nature of the gamma-ray burst sources are summarized. 67 refs., 3 figs

  4. Properties of the Intergalactic Magnetic Field Constrained by Gamma-Ray Observations of Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Veres, P.; Dermer, C. D.; Dhuga, K. S. [Department of Physics, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    The magnetic field in intergalactic space gives important information about magnetogenesis in the early universe. The properties of this field can be probed by searching for radiation of secondary e {sup +} e {sup −} pairs created by TeV photons that produce GeV range radiation by Compton-scattering cosmic microwave background photons. The arrival times of the GeV “echo” photons depend strongly on the magnetic field strength and coherence length. A Monte Carlo code that accurately treats pair creation is developed to simulate the spectrum and time-dependence of the echo radiation. The extrapolation of the spectrum of powerful gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) like GRB 130427A to TeV energies is used to demonstrate how the intergalactic magnetic field can be constrained if it falls in the 10{sup −21}–10{sup −17} G range for a 1 Mpc coherence length.

  5. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Abdo, Aous A.; Ackermann, M.; Atwood, W.B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, Guido; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M.; Baughman, B.M.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, Elliott D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A.W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, Thompson H.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power (dot E) = 3.5 x 10 33 ergs s -1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 with cut-off energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L γ /(dot E) ≅ 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  6. PULSED GAMMA RAYS FROM THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J0030+0451 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Battelino, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Baughman, B. M.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar (MSP) PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second MSP to be detected in gamma rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory. The spin-down power E-dot=3.5x10 33 erg s -1 is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, 0.07 ± 0.01 and 0.08 ± 0.02 wide, respectively, separated by 0.44 ± 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 ± 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cutoff power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 ± 1.05 ± 1.35) x 10 -8 cm -2 s -1 with cutoff energy (1.7 ± 0.4 ± 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 ± 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L γ /E-dot≅15 percent for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  7. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From the Millisecond Pulsar J0030+0451 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M. /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASDC, Frascati /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Trieste /Hiroshima U.; /more authors..

    2011-11-17

    We report the discovery of gamma-ray pulsations from the nearby isolated millisecond pulsar PSR J0030+0451 with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). This discovery makes PSR J0030+0451 the second millisecond pulsar to be detected in gamma-rays after PSR J0218+4232, observed by the EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. The spin-down power {dot E} = 3.5 x 10{sup 33} ergs s{sup -1} is an order of magnitude lower than the empirical lower bound of previously known gamma-ray pulsars. The emission profile is characterized by two narrow peaks, respectively 0.07 {+-} 0.01 and 0.08 {+-} 0.02 wide, separated by 0.44 {+-} 0.02 in phase. The first gamma-ray peak falls 0.15 {+-} 0.01 after the main radio peak. The pulse shape is similar to that of the 'normal' gamma-ray pulsars. An exponentially cut-off power-law fit of the emission spectrum leads to an integral photon flux above 100 MeV of (6.76 {+-} 1.05 {+-} 1.35) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} with cut-off energy (1.7 {+-} 0.4 {+-} 0.5) GeV. Based on its parallax distance of (300 {+-} 90) pc, we obtain a gamma-ray efficiency L{sub {gamma}}/{dot E} {approx_equal} 15% for the conversion of spin-down energy rate into gamma-ray radiation, assuming isotropic emission.

  8. Modeling high-energy gamma-rays from the Fermi Bubbles

    Splettstoesser, Megan

    2015-09-17

    In 2010, the Fermi Bubbles were discovered at the galactic center of the Milky Way. These giant gamma-ray structures, extending 55° in galactic latitude and 20°-30° in galactic longitude, were not predicted. We wish to develop a model for the gamma-ray emission of the Fermi Bubbles. To do so, we assume that second order Fermi acceleration requires charged particles and irregular magnetic fields- both of which are present in the disk of the Milky Way galaxy. By solving the steady-state case of the transport equation, I compute the proton spectrum due to second order Fermi acceleration. I compare the analytical solutions of the proton spectrum to a numerical solution. I find that the numerical solution to the transport equation converges to the analytical solution in all cases. The gamma-ray spectrum due to proton-proton interaction is compared to Fermi Bubble data (from Ackermann et al. 2014), and I find that second order Fermi acceleration is a good fit for the gamma-ray spectrum of the Fermi Bubbles at low energies with an injection source term of S = 1.5 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹. I find that a non-steady-state solution to the gamma-ray spectrum with an injection source term of S = 2 x 10⁻¹⁰ GeV⁻¹cm⁻³yr⁻¹ matches the bubble data at high energies.

  9. A link between prompt optical and prompt gamma-ray emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    Vestrand, W T; Wozniak, P R; Wren, J A; Fenimore, E E; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Casperson, D; Davis, H; Evans, S; Galassi, M; McGowan, K E; Schier, J A; Asa, J W; Barthelmy, S D; Cummings, J R; Gehrels, N; Hullinger, D; Krimm, H A; Markwardt, C B; McLean, K; Palmer, D; Parsons, A; Tueller, J

    2005-05-12

    The prompt optical emission that arrives with the gamma-rays from a cosmic gamma-ray burst (GRB) is a signature of the engine powering the burst, the properties of the ultra-relativistic ejecta of the explosion, and the ejecta's interactions with the surroundings. Until now, only GRB 990123 had been detected at optical wavelengths during the burst phase. Its prompt optical emission was variable and uncorrelated with the prompt gamma-ray emission, suggesting that the optical emission was generated by a reverse shock arising from the ejecta's collision with surrounding material. Here we report prompt optical emission from GRB 041219a. It is variable and correlated with the prompt gamma-rays, indicating a common origin for the optical light and the gamma-rays. Within the context of the standard fireball model of GRBs, we attribute this new optical component to internal shocks driven into the burst ejecta by variations of the inner engine. The correlated optical emission is a direct probe of the jet isolated from the medium. The timing of the uncorrelated optical emission is strongly dependent on the nature of the medium.

  10. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from galactic dark matter annihilation. Anisotropy signatures

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter; Miniati, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    High energy electrons and positrons from annihilating dark matter can imprint unique angular anisotropies on the diffuse gamma-ray flux by inverse Compton scattering off the interstellar radiation field. We develop a numerical tool to compute gamma-ray emission from such electrons and positrons diffusing in the smooth host halo and in substructure halos with masses down to 10 -6 M s un. We show that, unlike the total gamma-ray angular power spectrum observed by Fermi-LAT, the angular power spectrum from inverse Compton scattering is exponentially suppressed below an angular scale determined by the diffusion length of electrons and positrons. For TeV scale dark matter with a canonical thermal freeze-out cross section 3 x 10 -26 cm 3 /s, this feature may be detectable by Fermi-LAT in the energy range 100-300 GeV after more sophisticated foreground subtraction. We also find that the total flux and the shape of the angular power spectrum depends sensitively on the spatial distribution of subhalos in the Milky Way. Finally, the contribution from the smooth host halo component to the gamma-ray mean intensity is negligibly small compared to subhalos. (orig.)

  11. Shaly sand evaluation using gamma ray spectrometry, applied to the North Sea Jurassic

    Marett, G.; Chevalier, P.; Souhaite, P.; Suau, J.

    1976-01-01

    In formations where radioactive minerals other than clay are present, their effects on log responses result in a reduction of the accuracy of determination of the shale fraction. The gamma ray log, which is one of the primary indicators for shaliness determination, is the most affected; other logs used in shaliness indicators are also influenced, particularly when heavy minerals are present, such as those encountered in the micaceous sandstones of the North Sea Jurassic. For comparison purposes, possible ways to correct for heavy radioactive minerals using a conventional logging suite are described. Computer processed examples illustrate the results obtained. A different approach is through an analysis of the natural gamma ray spectrum of the formation, as determined with the gamma ray spectrometry tool. Natural gamma rays originate from the radioactive isotope of potassium and the radioactive elements of the uranium and thorium series. Each of these three elements contributes its distinctive spectrum to that of the formation in proportion to its abundance. Thus, by analysis of the formation spectrum, the presence of each can be detected and its amount estimated. This makes possible quantitative corrections to the shaliness indicators. A computer program which performs the necessary computations is described, and several log examples using this technique are presented

  12. Inverse Compton gamma-rays from galactic dark matter annihilation. Anisotropy signatures

    Zhang, Le; Sigl, Guenter [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Miniati, Francesco [ETH Zuerich (Switzerland). Physics Dept.

    2010-08-15

    High energy electrons and positrons from annihilating dark matter can imprint unique angular anisotropies on the diffuse gamma-ray flux by inverse Compton scattering off the interstellar radiation field. We develop a numerical tool to compute gamma-ray emission from such electrons and positrons diffusing in the smooth host halo and in substructure halos with masses down to 10{sup -6}M{sub s}un. We show that, unlike the total gamma-ray angular power spectrum observed by Fermi-LAT, the angular power spectrum from inverse Compton scattering is exponentially suppressed below an angular scale determined by the diffusion length of electrons and positrons. For TeV scale dark matter with a canonical thermal freeze-out cross section 3 x 10{sup -26} cm{sup 3}/s, this feature may be detectable by Fermi-LAT in the energy range 100-300 GeV after more sophisticated foreground subtraction. We also find that the total flux and the shape of the angular power spectrum depends sensitively on the spatial distribution of subhalos in the Milky Way. Finally, the contribution from the smooth host halo component to the gamma-ray mean intensity is negligibly small compared to subhalos. (orig.)

  13. Influence of uvrB and pKM101 on the spectrum of spontaneous, UV- and gamma-ray-induced base substitutions that revert hisG46 in Salmonella typhimurium

    Eisenstadt, E; Kahng, L -S; Miller, J K; Barnes, W M

    1989-01-01

    Oligonucleotide probes were used to identify base substitutions in 1089 revertants of hisG46 in Salmonella typhimurium that arose spontaneously or following irradiation with UV- or ..gamma..-rays. The hisG46 allele, carrying a mutant CCC codon (Pro) in place of the wild-type codon CTC (Leu69) reverted via 6 distinguishable mutational events: C to T transitions at codon sites 1 or 2, C to A or C to G transversions at codon site 1, C to A at codon site 2, and an extragenic suppressor mutation. The distribution of hisG46 revertants differed among treatments and was influenced by the DNA-repair capacity of the bacteria. Plasmid pKM101 enhanced the frequencies of both spontaneous adn induced mutations; transversion events were enhanced more efficiently by pKM101 than were transition events. Compared to Uvr/sup +/ bacteria, Uvr/sup -/ bacteria had higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced mutations; transition mutations were enhanced more efficiently than were transversion mutations. The inflence of DNA-repair activiteis on the mutational spectra provides some insights on the origins of spontaneous and UV-induced mutations. (author). 75 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs.

  14. MODELING THE GAMMA-RAY EMISSION IN THE GALACTIC CENTER WITH A FADING COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATOR

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Wang, Xiang-Yu; Prosekin, Anton [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Chang, Xiao-Chuan, E-mail: ruoyu@mpi-hd.mpg.de, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-12-20

    Recent HESS observations of the ∼200 pc scale diffuse gamma-ray emission from the central molecular zone (CMZ) suggest the presence of a PeV cosmic-ray accelerator (PeVatron) located in the inner 10 pc region of the Galactic center. Interestingly, the gamma-ray spectrum of the point-like source (HESS J1745-290) in the Galactic center shows a cutoff at ∼10 TeV, implying a cutoff around 100 TeV in the cosmic-ray proton spectrum. Here we propose that the gamma-ray emission from the inner and the outer regions may be explained self-consistently by run-away protons from a single yet fading accelerator. In this model, gamma-rays from the CMZ region are produced by protons injected in the past, while gamma-rays from the inner region are produced by protons injected more recently. We suggest that the blast wave formed in a tidal disruption event (TDE) caused by the supermassive black hole (Sgr A*) could serve as such a fading accelerator. With typical parameters of the TDE blast wave, gamma-ray spectra of both the CMZ region and HESS J1745-290 can be reproduced simultaneously. Meanwhile, we find that the cosmic-ray energy density profile in the CMZ region may also be reproduced in the fading accelerator model when appropriate combinations of the particle injection history and the diffusion coefficient of cosmic rays are adopted.

  15. The Extragalactic Background Light and the Gamma-ray Opacity of the Universe

    Dwek, Eli; Krennrich, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is one of the fundamental observational quantities in cosmology. All energy releases from resolved and unresolved extragalactic sources, and the light from any truly diffuse background, excluding the cosmic microwave background (CMB), contribute to its intensity and spectral energy distribution. It therefore plays a crucial role in cosmological tests for the formation and evolution of stellar objects and galaxies, and for setting limits on exotic energy releases in the universe. The EBL also plays an important role in the propagation of very high energy gamma-rays which are attenuated en route to Earth by pair producing gamma-gamma interactions with the EBL and CMB. The EBL affects the spectrum of the sources, predominantly blazars, in the approx 10 GeV to 10 TeV energy regime. Knowledge of the EBL intensity and spectrum will allow the determination of the intrinsic blazar spectrum in a crucial energy regime that can be used to test particle acceleration mechanisms and VHE gamma-ray production models. Conversely, knowledge of the intrinsic gamma-ray spectrum and the detection of blazars at increasingly higher redshifts will set strong limits on the EBL and its evolution. This paper reviews the latest developments in the determination of the EBL and its impact on the current understanding of the origin and production mechanisms of gamma-rays in blazars, and on energy releases in the universe. The review concludes with a summary and future directions in Cherenkov Telescope Array techniques and in infrared ground-based and space observatories that will greatly improve our knowledge of the EBL and the origin and production of very high energy gamma-rays.

  16. Cosmological Gamma-Ray Bursts and Hypernovae Conclusively Linked

    2003-06-01

    Clearest-Ever Evidence from VLT Spectra of Powerful Event Summary A very bright burst of gamma-rays was observed on March 29, 2003 by NASA's High Energy Transient Explorer (HETE-II) , in a sky region within the constellation Leo. Within 90 min, a new, very bright light source (the "optical afterglow") was detected in the same direction by means of a 40-inch telescope at the Siding Spring Observatory (Australia) and also in Japan. The gamma-ray burst was designated GRB 030329 , according to the date. And within 24 hours, a first, very detailed spectrum of this new object was obtained by the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile). It allowed to determine the distance as about 2,650 million light-years (redshift 0.1685). Continued observations with the FORS1 and FORS2 multi-mode instruments on the VLT during the following month allowed an international team of astronomers [1] to document in unprecedented detail the changes in the spectrum of the optical afterglow of this gamma-ray burst . Their detailed report appears in the June 19 issue of the research journal "Nature". The spectra show the gradual and clear emergence of a supernova spectrum of the most energetic class known, a "hypernova" . This is caused by the explosion of a very heavy star - presumably over 25 times heavier than the Sun. The measured expansion velocity (in excess of 30,000 km/sec) and the total energy released were exceptionally high, even within the elect hypernova class. From a comparison with more nearby hypernovae, the astronomers are able to fix with good accuracy the moment of the stellar explosion. It turns out to be within an interval of plus/minus two days of the gamma-ray burst. This unique conclusion provides compelling evidence that the two events are directly connected. These observations therefore indicate a common physical process behind the hypernova explosion and the associated emission of strong gamma-ray

  17. GAMMA RAYS FROM STAR FORMATION IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES

    Storm, Emma M.; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Profumo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Star formation in galaxies is observed to be associated with gamma-ray emission, presumably from non-thermal processes connected to the acceleration of cosmic-ray nuclei and electrons. The detection of gamma rays from starburst galaxies by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has allowed the determination of a functional relationship between star formation rate and gamma-ray luminosity. Since star formation is known to scale with total infrared (8-1000 μm) and radio (1.4 GHz) luminosity, the observed infrared and radio emission from a star-forming galaxy can be used to quantitatively infer the galaxy's gamma-ray luminosity. Similarly, star-forming galaxies within galaxy clusters allow us to derive lower limits on the gamma-ray emission from clusters, which have not yet been conclusively detected in gamma rays. In this study, we apply the functional relationships between gamma-ray luminosity and radio and IR luminosities of galaxies derived by the Fermi Collaboration to a sample of the best candidate galaxy clusters for detection in gamma rays in order to place lower limits on the gamma-ray emission associated with star formation in galaxy clusters. We find that several clusters have predicted gamma-ray emission from star formation that are within an order of magnitude of the upper limits derived in Ackermann et al. based on non-detection by Fermi-LAT. Given the current gamma-ray limits, star formation likely plays a significant role in the gamma-ray emission in some clusters, especially those with cool cores. We predict that both Fermi-LAT over the course of its lifetime and the future Cerenkov Telescope Array will be able to detect gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies in clusters.

  18. Currie detection limits in gamma-ray spectroscopy

    Geer, L.-E. de

    2004-01-01

    Currie Hypothesis testing is applied to gamma-ray spectral data, where an optimum part of the peak is used and the background is considered well known from nearby channels. With this, the risk of making Type I errors is about 100 times lower than commonly assumed. A programme, PeakMaker, produces random peaks with given characteristics on the screen and calculations are done to facilitate a full use of Poisson statistics in spectrum analyses. Short technical note summary: The Currie decision limit concept applied to spectral data is reinterpreted, which gives better consistency between the selected error risk and the observed error rates. A PeakMaker program is described and the few count problem is analyzed

  19. The Prompt and High Energy Emission of Gamma Ray Bursts

    Meszaros, P.

    2009-01-01

    I discuss some recent developments concerning the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts, in particular the jet properties and radiation mechanisms, as exemplified by the naked-eye burst GRB 080319b, and the prompt X-ray emission of XRB080109/SN2008d, where the progenitor has, for the first time, been shown to contribute to the prompt emission. I discuss then some recent theoretical calculations of the GeV/TeV spectrum of GRB in the context of both leptonic SSC models and hadronic models. The recent observations by the Fermi satellite of GRB 080916C are then reviewed, and their implications for such models are discussed, together with its interesting determination of a bulk Lorentz factor, and the highest lower limit on the quantum gravity energy scale so far.

  20. Pocket PC-based portable gamma-ray spectrometer

    Kamontip Ploykrachang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A portable gamma-ray spectrometer based on a Pocket PC has been developed. A 12-bit pipeline analog-to-digitalconverter (ADC associated with an implemented pulse height histogram function on field programmable gate array (FPGAoperating at 15 MHz is employed for pulse height analysis from built-in pulse amplifier. The system, which interfaces withthe Pocket PC via an enhanced RS-232 serial port under the microcontroller facilitation, is utilized for spectrum acquisition,display and analysis. The pulse height analysis capability of the system was tested and it was found that the ADC integralnonlinearity of ±0.45% was obtained with the throughput rate at 160 kcps. The overall system performance was tested usinga PIN photodiode-CsI(Tl crystal coupled scintillation detector and gamma standard radioactive sources of Cs-137 andCo-60. Low cost and the compact system size as a result of the implemented logical function are also discussed.

  1. Digital gamma-ray spectroscopy based on FPGA technology

    Bolic, M

    2002-01-01

    A digital pulse processing system convenient for high rate gamma-ray spectroscopy with NaI(Tl) detectors has been designed. The new programmable logic device has been used for implementation of dedicated high-speed pulse processor, as the central part of the system. The processor is capable to operate at the speed of fast ADC, preserving maximum throughput of the system. Special care has been taken to reduce the distortion of energy spectrum caused by pile-up at high-count rates. The developed system is highly flexible, and the parameters of its operation can be changed in software. The performance of the system was tested for high counting rate of 400000 s sup - sup 1.

  2. Model H-90A gamma-ray spectrometer with microcomputer

    Zhang Biao; Dong Chen; Zhao Zhiming

    1994-11-01

    Model H-90A is a 4-channel differential Gamma-ray spectrometer with microcomputer. It consists of a console and NaI(TL) crystal detector with a diameter of φ75 mm x 75 mm. The instrument has excellent performance such as automatic spectrum stabilization, automatic regular timing measurement and automatic calculation of uranium, thorium and potassium contents and their ratios. Original data can be manually and automatically stored. The instrument is provided with shut down supply protective device, reading out can be repeated or be further processed through RS-232 interface output in the case of connection with computer. The working command is inputted by 'soft key' and performed by slice microcomputer automatically through software. It can be used not only in radioactive geological mapping, geochemical research and rapid field assay of radioactive elements in mineral and rock samples, but also for exploration and reconnaissance survey for uranium, thorium, potassium and seeking gold, as well as environmental monitoring

  3. Uranium measurement by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    Grasty, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    In the airborne measurement of uranium, window type gamma-ray spectrometers are used and it is necessary to correct for scattered high energy radiation from thallium 208 in the thorium decay series. This radiation can be scattered in the crystal, in the ground, and in the air. A theory, analogous to the theory of radioactive decay, is developed; it can adequately explain the spectrum buildup in the uranium window for a point source of thorium oxide immersed to different depths in water and for a detector above the water. The theory is extended to predict the buildup as a function of altitude for detectors of different sizes and shows that errors in the airborne measurement of uranium can be significant if no allowance is made for radiation scattered in the ground and in the air

  4. Verification of Gamma-ray Sensitivity for BF3 Neutron Detection System

    Choi, Yu Sun; Cho, Jin Bok; Lyou, Seok Jean

    2016-01-01

    The BF3(Boron Tri-Fluorides) gas filled neutron detector(hereafter BF3 Detector) is commonly used for nuclear reactor’s startup channel due to its relatively high neutron efficiency and good discrimination against gamma-ray backgrounds. In order to measure how much this gamma-ray will affect on BF3 neutron detector performance in view of gamma noise discrimination, Multi-Channel Analyzer(MCA) is utilized for spectrum based signal analysis. The pre-test of BF3 Detector should be performed in an area where the ionization does not exceed 2.5 micro Gy/Hr(Ref.1). In this paper, the discrimination level (Voltage Unit) is verified by experimentally measurement if that discrimination level is acceptable within the criteria or not before installation. The maximum discrimination level, so called LLD, is determined by experimentally measurement. This BF3 Detector (LND20372) is insensitive under 540 micro Gy/Hr of gamma ray and 0.3V of LLD could cut off a background and gamma induced signal in a laboratory. MCA could be a convenient tool for spectrum analysis of signals that induced from gamma ray and a time saving tool rather than oscilloscope investigation due to its function to integrate all input signals at a sudden duration

  5. Variable code gamma ray imaging system

    Macovski, A.; Rosenfeld, D.

    1979-01-01

    A gamma-ray source distribution in the body is imaged onto a detector using an array of apertures. The transmission of each aperture is modulated using a code such that the individual views of the source through each aperture can be decoded and separated. The codes are chosen to maximize the signal to noise ratio for each source distribution. These codes determine the photon collection efficiency of the aperture array. Planar arrays are used for volumetric reconstructions and circular arrays for cross-sectional reconstructions. 14 claims

  6. Detection circuit for gamma-ray burst

    Murakami, Hiroyuki; Yamagami, Takamasa; Mori, Kunishiro; Uchiyama, Sadayuki.

    1982-01-01

    A new gamma-ray burst detection system is described. The system was developed as an environmental monitor of an accelerator, and can be used as the burst detection system. The system detects the arrival time of burst. The difference between the arrival times detected at different places will give information on the burst source. The frequency of detecting false burst was estimated, and the detection limit under the estimated frequency of false burst was also calculated. Decision whether the signal is false or true burst was made by the statistical treatment. (Kato, T.)

  7. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Whipple Observatory's atmospheric Cerenkov camera has detected TeV radiation from four galactic sources: the Crab Nebula, Cygnus X-3, Hercules X-1, and 4U0115+63. Recent simulations encourage the view that unwanted cosmic-ray background showers may be suppressed by a large factor. Emphasis in the coming year will be on determining optimum selection criteria for enhancing gamma-ray signals and in developing a prototype camera with finer angular resolution as a first step towards implementation of the HERCULES concept

  8. Gamma ray induced decomposition of lanthanide nitrates

    Joshi, N.G.; Garg, A.N.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma ray induced decomposition of the lanthanide nitrates, Ln(NO 3 ) 3 .xH 2 O where Ln=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm and Yb has been studied at different absorbed doses up to 600 kGy. G(NO 2 - ) values depend on the absorbed dose and the nature of the outer cation. It has been observed that those lanthanides which exhibit variable valency (Ce and Eu) show lower G-values. An attempt has been made to correlate thermal and radiolytic decomposition processes. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Gamma ray bursts from extragalactic sources

    Hoyle, Fred; Burbidge, Geoffrey

    1992-01-01

    The properties of gamma ray bursts of classical type are found to be explicable in terms of high speed collisions between stars. A model is proposed in which the frequency of such collisions can be calculated. The model is then applied to the nuclei of galaxies in general on the basis that galaxies, or at least some fraction of them, originate in the expulsion of stars from creation centers. Evidence that low level activity of this kind is also taking place at the center of our own Galaxy is discussed. The implications for galactic evolution are discussed and a negative view of black holes is taken.

  10. Gamma ray thermometrical facility for nuclear reactor

    Smith, R.D.; Regazzoni, Pierre.

    1981-01-01

    This invention concerns a gamma ray thermometer for nuclear reactors, fitted with a thermal bridge for use as a centring device. In accordance with the invention, an elastic device fills all the annular space between the gamma thermometer and the orifice through which the thermometer is introduced. This elastic device has the two-fold role of providing a thermal bridge at the gamma thermometer location suitable as a heat well, and of acting as a device for centring the thermometer in the orifice into which it has been introduced [fr

  11. Principles and techniques of gamma ray tracers

    Claxton, K.T.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive tracer techniques provide a very sensitive means of studying physical and chemical processes in a whole variety of different media. Some of the techniques and principles of radioactive tracers and their application to practical engineering systems are discussed. Information which has been found useful in the design of high temperature liquid sodium facilities employing radio-tracers, is presented. The report deals solely with the use of gamma-emitting species as the tracer. These find particular application for in-situ studies on engineering systems where the highly penetrating properties of gamma rays are needed for detection through strongly absorbent media such as stainless steel pepe walls. (author)

  12. Gamma ray constraints on decaying dark matter

    Cirelli, M.; Moulin, E.; Panci, P.

    2012-01-01

    We derive new bounds on decaying dark matter from the gamma ray measurements of (i) the isotropic residual (extragalactic) background by Fermi and (ii) the Fornax galaxy cluster by H.E.S.S. We find that those from (i) are among the most stringent constraints currently available, for a large range...... of dark matter masses and a variety of decay modes, excluding half-lives up to similar to 10(26) to few 10(27) seconds. In particular, they rule out the interpretation in terms of decaying dark matter of the e(+/-) spectral features in PAMELA, Fermi and H.E.S.S., unless very conservative choices...

  13. Gamma ray spectroscopy with Arduino UNO

    Lavelle, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    We review a simple gamma ray spectrometer constructed on a solderless breadboard. The spectrometer's detector consists of a CsI(Tl) scintillator and silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and its readout is facilitated by an Arduino UNO. The system is low cost and utilizes a minimum of components while still achieving satisfactory charge linearity and noise levels. This instrument can be used in instructional laboratories to introduce both radiation detection and analog signal processing concepts. We also expect it will be of interest to those seeking to introduce gamma spectroscopy to the expanding ecosystem of Arduino hardware.

  14. Recent developments in airborne gamma ray surveying

    Grasty, Robert L.

    1999-01-01

    Standardized procedures have been developed for converting airborne gamma ray measurements to ground concentrations of potassium, uranium and thorium. These procedures make use of an airborne calibration range whose ground concentrations should be measured with a calibrated portable spectrometer rather than by taking geochemical samples. Airborne sensitivities and height attenuation coefficients are normally determined from flights over the calibration range but may not be applicable in mountainous areas. Mathematical techniques have been now developed to reduce statistical noise in the airborne measurements by utilizing up to 256 channels of spectral information. (author)

  15. Astrophysical interpretation of the anisotropies in the unresolved gamma-ray background

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco; Zechlin, Hannes-S.

    2017-06-01

    Recently, a new measurement of the auto- and cross-correlation angular power spectrum (APS) of the isotropic gamma-ray background was performed, based on 81 months of data of the Fermi Large-Area Telescope (LAT). Here, we fit, for the first time, the new APS data with a model describing the emission of unresolved blazars. These sources are expected to dominate the anisotropy signal. The model we employ in our analysis reproduces well the blazars resolved by Fermi LAT. When considering the APS obtained by masking the sources listed in the 3FGL catalog, we find that unresolved blazars underproduce the measured APS below ˜1 GeV . Contrary to past results, this suggests the presence of a new contribution to the low-energy APS, with a significance of, at least, 5 σ . The excess can be ascribed to a new class of faint gamma-ray emitters. If we consider the APS obtained by masking the sources in the 2FGL catalog, there is no underproduction of the APS below 1 GeV, but the new source class is still preferred over the blazars-only scenario (with a significance larger than 10 σ ). The properties of the new source class and the level of anisotropies induced in the isotropic gamma-ray background are the same, independent of the APS data used. In particular, the new gamma-ray emitters must have a soft energy spectrum, with a spectral index ranging, approximately, from 2.7 to 3.2. This complicates their interpretation in terms of known sources, since, normally, star-forming and radio galaxies are observed with a harder spectrum. The new source class identified here is also expected to contribute significantly to the intensity of the isotropic gamma-ray background.

  16. Contribution to gamma ray transport calculation in heterogeneous media

    Bourdet, L.

    1985-04-01

    This thesis presents the development of gamma transport calculation codes in three dimension heterogeneous geometries. These codes allow us to define the protection against gamma-rays or verify their efficiency. The laws that govern the interactions of gamma-rays with matters are briefly revised. A library with the all necessary constants for these codes is created. TRIPOLI-2, a code that treats in exact way the neutron transport in matters using Monte-Carlo method, has been adapted to deal with the transport of gamma-rays in matters as well. TRINISHI, a code which considers only one collision, has been realized to treat heterogeneous geometries containing voids. Elaborating a formula that calculates the albedo for gamma-ray reflection (the code ALBANE) allows us to solve the problem of gamma-ray reflection on plane surfaces. NARCISSE-2 deals with gamma-rays that suffer only one reflection on the inner walls of any closed volume (rooms, halls...) [fr

  17. Review of GRANAT observations of gamma-ray bursts

    Terekhov, O.; Denissenko, D.; Sunyaev, R.

    1995-01-01

    The GRANAT observatory was launched into a high apogee orbit on 1 December, 1989. Three instruments onboard GRANAT - PHEBUS, WATCH and SIGMA are able to detect gamma-ray bursts in a very broad energy range from 6 keV up to 100 MeV. Over 250 gamma-ray bursts were detected. We discuss the results...... of the observations of the time histories and spectral evolution of the detected events provided by the different instruments in different energy ranges. Short Gamma-Ray Bursts ( 2 s) events. Evidence of the existence...... of four differently behaving componenents in gamma-ray burst spectra is discussed. Statistical properties of the gamma-ray burst sources based on the 5 years of observations with (∼ 10−6 erg/cm2) sensitivity as well as the results of high sensitivity (∼ 10−8 erg/cm2) search for Gamma-Ray Bursts within...

  18. Highlights of GeV Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    Thompson, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Because high-energy gamma rays are primarily produced by high-energy particle interactions, the gamma-ray survey of the sky by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope offers a view of sites of cosmic ray production and interactions. Gamma-ray bursts, pulsars, pulsar wind nebulae, binary sources, and Active Galactic Nuclei are all phenomena that reveal particle acceleration through their gamma-ray emission. Diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, Solar System gamma-ray sources, and energetic radiation from supernova remnants are likely tracers of high-energy particle interactions with matter and photon fields. This paper will present a broad overview of the constantly changing sky seen with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi spacecraft.

  19. Microwave-gamma ray water in crude monitor

    Paap, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A microwave-gamma ray water-in-crude monitoring system measures the percent quantity of fresh water or salt water in crude oil flowing in a pipe line. The system includes a measuring cell arranged with the pipe line so that the crude oil flows through the measuring cell. A microwave transmitter subsystem and a gamma ray source are arranged with the measuring cell so that microwave energy and gamma rays are transmitted through the measuring cell. A microwave receiving subsystem and a gamma ray detector provide signals corresponding to received microwave energy and to the received gamma rays, respectively. Apparatus connected to the microwave receiver and to the gamma ray detector provides an indication of the percentage of water in the crude oil

  20. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    Grenier, Isabelle

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008. In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  1. Collimatorless imaging of gamma rays with help of gamma-ray tracking

    Marel, J V D

    2001-01-01

    In many gamma-ray detector systems that are built for imaging purposes Compton scattered photons are suppressed as much as possible. However, the information from photons that scattered inside a detector system can be used to reconstruct the tracks of the photons with help of gamma-ray tracking. Estimates of the incident directions of the photons can be made and an image can be created. Examples of potential applications for this technique are the use as a gamma-camera in medical imaging (e.g. SPECT) or as a detector for PET. Due to the omission of collimators, much higher detection efficiencies can be achieved, reducing the doses required for an image. A gamma-ray tracking method, called backtracking, has been developed for nuclear spectroscopy. The method tracks gamma-rays originating from a point source in the center of a spherical detector system consisting of position-sensitive germanium detectors. This method can also be used as a tracking technique for imaging of an unknown source distribution. With he...

  2. Near stellar sources of gamma-ray bursts

    Luchkov, B. I.; Markin, P. D.

    2012-01-01

    Correlation analysis of gamma-ray burst coordinates and nearby stars, registered on 2008-2011, revealed 5 coincidences with angular accuracy better than 0.1 degree. The random probability is $7\\times 10^{-7}$, so evidencing that coincident stars are indeed gamma-ray burst sources. The proposed method should be continued in order to provide their share in common balance of cosmic gamma-ray bursts.

  3. Fermi GBM Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Fishman, G. J.; Bhat, P. N.; Paciesas, W. S.; Preece, R.; Kippen, R. M.; vonKienlin, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation explores the relationship between Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes (TGF) and lightning. Using data from the World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), and the gamma ray observations from Fermi's Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), the study reviews any causal relationship between TGFs and lightning. The conclusion of the study is that the TGF and lightning are simultaneous with out a causal relationship.

  4. Sensitivity of Gamma-Ray Detectors to Polarization

    Yadigaroglu, I. -A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the largest gamma-ray detector to date, EGRET, does not have useful polarization sensitivity. We have explored here some improved approaches to analyzing gamma-ray pair production events, leading to important gains in sensitivity to polarization. The performance of the next generation gamma-ray instrument GLAST is investigated using a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the complete detector.

  5. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  6. Section on prospects for dark matter detection of the white paper on the status and future of ground-based TeV gamma-ray astronomy.

    Byrum, K.; Horan, D.; Tait, T.; Wanger, R.; Zaharijas, G.; Buckley , J.; Baltz, E. A.; Bertone, G.; Dingus, B.; Fegan, S.; Ferrer, F.; Gondolo, P.; Hall, J.; Hooper, D.; Horan, D.; Koushiappas, S.; Krawczynksi, H.; LeBohec, S.; Pohl, M.; Profumo, S.; Silk , J; Vassilev, V.; Wood , M.; Wakely, S.; High Energy Physics; FNAL; Univ. of St. Louis; Stanford Univ.; Insti. d' Astrophysique; LANL; Univ. of California; Washington Univ.; Univ. of Utah; Brown Univ.; Oxford Univ.; Iowa State Univ.; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-05-13

    This is a report on the findings of the dark matter science working group for the white paper on the status and future of TeV gamma-ray astronomy. The white paper was commissioned by the American Physical Society, and the full white paper can be found on astro-ph (arXiv:0810.0444). This detailed section discusses the prospects for dark matter detection with future gamma-ray experiments, and the complementarity of gamma-ray measurements with other indirect, direct or accelerator-based searches. We conclude that any comprehensive search for dark matter should include gamma-ray observations, both to identify the dark matter particle (through the characteristics of the gamma-ray spectrum) and to measure the distribution of dark matter in galactic halos.

  7. SPECTRAL ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF THE {gamma}-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXY NGC 253

    Abramowski, A. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Acero, F. [Laboratoire Univers et Particules de Montpellier, Universite Montpellier 2, CNRS/IN2P3, CC 72, Place Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Aharonian, F.; Bernloehr, K.; Bochow, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, P.O. Box 103980, D-69029 Heidelberg (Germany); Akhperjanian, A. G. [National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Armenia, Yerevan (Armenia); Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Brucker, J. [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Barnacka, A. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, ul. Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Becherini, Y. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/lrfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 10, rue Alice Domon et Leonie Duquet, F-75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Becker, J. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Birsin, E. [Institut fuer Physik, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Biteau, J.; Brun, F. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Boisson, C. [LUTH, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot, 5 Place Jules Janssen, F-92190 Meudon (France); Bolmont, J. [LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Universite Denis Diderot Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, 4 Place Jussieu, F-75252, Paris Cedex 5 (France); Bordas, P. [Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Sand 1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Brun, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM/IRFU, F-91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Bulik, T., E-mail: stefan.ohm@le.ac.uk [Astronomical Observatory, The University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Collaboration: H.E.S.S. Collaboration; and others

    2012-10-01

    Very high energy (VHE; E {>=} 100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV {<=} E {<=} 100 GeV) data from {gamma}-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analyzed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE {gamma}-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.14 {+-} 0.18{sub stat} {+-} 0.30{sub sys} and differential flux normalization at 1 TeV of F{sub 0} = (9.6 {+-} 1.5{sub stat}(+ 5.7, -2.9){sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -14} TeV{sup -1} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE {gamma}-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of {Gamma} 2.24 {+-} 0.14{sub stat} {+-} 0.03{sub sys} and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 {+-} 1.0{sub stat} {+-} 0.3{sub sys}) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray data results in a differential photon index {Gamma} = 2.34 {+-} 0.03 with a p-value of 30%. The {gamma}-ray observations indicate that at least about 20% of the energy of the cosmic rays (CRs) capable of producing hadronic interactions is channeled into pion production. The smooth alignment between the spectra in the HE and VHE {gamma}-ray domain suggests that the same transport processes dominate in the entire energy range. Advection is most likely responsible for charged particle removal from the starburst nucleus from GeV to multiple TeV energies. In a hadronic scenario for the {gamma}-ray production, the single overall power-law spectrum observed would therefore correspond to the mean energy spectrum produced by the ensemble of CR sources in the starburst region.

  8. Very high energy gamma ray astrophysics

    Lamb, R.C.; Lewis, D.A.

    1990-02-01

    Our scientific goal is to discover and study by means of gamma-ray astronomy those regions of the universe where particles are accelerated to extreme energies. The atmospheric Cherenkov technique provides a unique and potentially sensitive window in the region of 10 11 to approximately 10 14 eV for this purpose. The Whipple Observatory Collaboration is currently engaged in the development of a Cherenkov camera which has the ultimate capability of distinguishing gamma-ray showers from the numerous cosmic-ray background showers by imaging the Cherenkov light from each shower. We have recently demonstrated the potential of the imaging technique with our 18 sigma detection of TeV photons from the Crab Nebula using a camera of 10 elements, pixel spacing 0.25 degrees. This detection represents a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity compared to a non-imaging detector. The next step in the development of the detector is to obtain a second large reflector, similar to the present 10 meter instrument, for stereoscopic viewing of showers. This project, named GRANITE, is now approved by DOE. With GRANITE it should be possible to probe more deeply in space by a factor of 7, and to fully investigate the possibility of new physics which has been suggested by reports of anomalous radiation from Hercules X-1. 18 refs

  9. Gamma rays from pulsar outer gaps

    Chiang, J.; Romani, R.W.; Cheng Ho

    1993-01-01

    We describe a gamma ray pulsar code which computes the high energy photon emissivities from vacuum gaps in the outer magnetosphere, after the model outlined by Cheng, Ho and Ruderman (1986) and Ho (1989). Pair-production due to photon-photon interactions and radiation processes including curvature, synchrotron and inverse Compton processes are computed with an iterative scheme which converges to self-consistent photon and particle distributions for a sampling of locations in the outer magnetosphere. We follow the photons from these distributions as they propagate through the pulsar magnetosphere toward a distant observer. We include the effects of relativistic aberration, time-of-flight delays and reabsorption by photon-photon pair-production to determine an intensity map of the high energy pulsar emission on the sky. Using data from radio and optical observations to constrain the geometry of the magnetosphere as well as the possible observer viewing angles, we derive light curves and phase dependent spectra which can be directly compared to data from the Compton Observatory. Observations for Crab, Vela and the recently identified gamma ray pulsars Geminga, PSR1706-44 aNd PSR 1509-58 will provide important tests of our model calculations, help us to improve our picture of the relevant physics at work in pulsar magnetospheres and allow us to comment on the implications for future pulsar discoveries

  10. ASSOCIATING LONG-TERM {gamma}-RAY VARIABILITY WITH THE SUPERORBITAL PERIOD OF LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303

    Ackermann, M.; Buehler, R. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Ballet, J.; Casandjian, J. M. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E.; Cecchi, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P. [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Caliandro, G. A. [Institute of Space Sciences (IEEE-CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain); Cameron, R. A. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Caraveo, P. A. [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Cavazzuti, E. [Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) Science Data Center, I-00044 Frascati (Roma) (Italy); Chekhtman, A., E-mail: andrea.caliandro@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: hadasch@ieec.uab.es, E-mail: dtorres@ieec.uab.es [Center for Earth Observing and Space Research, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States); and others

    2013-08-20

    Gamma-ray binaries are stellar systems for which the spectral energy distribution (discounting the thermal stellar emission) peaks at high energies. Detected from radio to TeV gamma rays, the {gamma}-ray binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 is highly variable across all frequencies. One aspect of this system's variability is the modulation of its emission with the timescale set by the {approx}26.4960 day orbital period. Here we show that, during the time of our observations, the {gamma}-ray emission of LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 also presents a sinusoidal variability consistent with the previously known superorbital period of 1667 days. This modulation is more prominently seen at orbital phases around apastron, whereas it does not introduce a visible change close to periastron. It is also found in the appearance and disappearance of variability at the orbital period in the power spectrum of the data. This behavior could be explained by a quasi-cyclical evolution of the equatorial outflow of the Be companion star, whose features influence the conditions for generating gamma rays. These findings open the possibility to use {gamma}-ray observations to study the outflows of massive stars in eccentric binary systems.

  11. SEARCHING FOR OVERIONIZED PLASMA IN THE GAMMA-RAY-EMITTING SUPERNOVA REMNANT G349.7+0.2

    Ergin, T.; Sezer, A. [TUBITAK Space Technologies Research Institute, ODTU Campus, 06531, Ankara (Turkey); Saha, L.; Majumdar, P. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal 700064 (India); Gök, F. [Akdeniz University, Faculty of Education, Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education, Antalya, 07058 (Turkey); Ercan, E. N., E-mail: tulun.ergin@tubitak.gov.tr [Bogazici University, Physics Department, Bebek, 34342, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-05-10

    G349.7+0.2 is a supernova remnant (SNR) expanding in a dense medium of molecular clouds and interacting with clumps of molecular material emitting gamma-rays. We analyzed the gamma-ray data of the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and detected G349.7+0.2 in the energy range of 0.2–300 GeV with a significance of ∼13σ, showing no extended morphology. Modeling of the gamma-ray spectrum revealed that the GeV gamma-ray emission dominantly originates from the decay of neutral pions, where the protons follow a broken power-law distribution with a spectral break at ∼12 GeV. To search for features of radiative recombination continua in the eastern and western regions of the remnant, we analyzed the Suzaku data of G349.7+0.2 and found no evidence for overionized plasma. In this paper, we discuss possible scenarios to explain the hadronic gamma-ray emission in G349.7+0.2 and the mixed morphology nature of this SNR.

  12. GRAP, Gamma-Ray Level-Scheme Assignment

    Franklyn, C.B.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: An interactive program for allocating gamma-rays to an energy level scheme. Procedure allows for searching for new candidate levels of the form: 1) L1 + G(A) + G(B) = L2; 2) G(A) + G(B) = G(C); 3) G(A) + G(B) = C (C is a user defined number); 4) L1 + G(A) + G(B) + G(C) = L2. Procedure indicates intensity balance of feed and decay of each energy level. Provides for optimization of a level energy (and associated error). Overall procedure allows for pre-defining of certain gamma-rays as belonging to particular regions of the level scheme, for example, high energy transition levels, or due to beta- decay. 2 - Method of solution: Search for cases in which the energy difference between two energy levels is equal to a gamma-ray energy within user-defined limits. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maximum number of gamma-rays: 999; Maximum gamma ray energy: 32000 units; Minimum gamma ray energy: 10 units; Maximum gamma-ray intensity: 32000 units; Minimum gamma-ray intensity: 0.001 units; Maximum number of levels: 255; Maximum level energy: 32000 units; Minimum level energy: 10 units; Maximum error on energy, intensity: 32 units; Minimum error on energy, intensity: 0.001 units; Maximum number of combinations: 6400 (ca); Maximum number of gamma-ray types : 127

  13. High-energy gamma-ray emission in compact binaries

    Cerutti, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Four gamma-ray sources have been associated with binary systems in our Galaxy: the micro-quasar Cygnus X-3 and the gamma-ray binaries LS I +61 degrees 303, LS 5039 and PSR B1259-63. These systems are composed of a massive companion star and a compact object of unknown nature, except in PSR B1259-63 where there is a young pulsar. I propose a comprehensive theoretical model for the high-energy gamma-ray emission and variability in gamma-ray emitting binaries. In this model, the high-energy radiation is produced by inverse Compton scattering of stellar photons on ultra-relativistic electron-positron pairs injected by a young pulsar in gamma-ray binaries and in a relativistic jet in micro-quasars. Considering anisotropic inverse Compton scattering, pair production and pair cascade emission, the TeV gamma-ray emission is well explained in LS 5039. Nevertheless, this model cannot account for the gamma-ray emission in LS I +61 degrees 303 and PSR B1259-63. Other processes should dominate in these complex systems. In Cygnus X-3, the gamma-ray radiation is convincingly reproduced by Doppler-boosted Compton emission of pairs in a relativistic jet. Gamma-ray binaries and micro-quasars provide a novel environment for the study of pulsar winds and relativistic jets at very small spatial scales. (author)

  14. Gamma-ray spectroscopy on irradiated fuel rods

    Terremoto, Luis Antonio Albiac

    2009-01-01

    The recording of gamma-ray spectra along an irradiated fuel rod allows the fission products to be qualitatively and quantitatively examined. Among all nondestructive examinations performed on irradiated fuel rods by gamma-ray spectroscopy, the most comprehensive one is the average burnup measurement, which is quantitative. Moreover, burnup measurements by means of gamma-ray spectroscopy are less time-consuming and waste-generating than burnup measurements by radiochemical, destructive methods. This work presents the theoretical foundations and experimental techniques necessary to measure, using nondestructive gamma-ray spectroscopy, the average burnup of irradiated fuel rods in a laboratory equipped with hot cells. (author)

  15. Fermi Large Area Telescope Bright Gamma-ray Source List

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Ajello, M.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Atwood, W.B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Axelsson, M.; /Stockholm U., OKC /Stockholm U.; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Band, D.L.; /NASA, Goddard /NASA, Goddard; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Bechtol, K.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bellazzini, R.; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, B.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bignami, G.F.; /Pavia U.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bonamente, E.; /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U.; Borgland, A.W.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /ASDC, Frascati /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /NASA, Goddard /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Stockholm U., OKC /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /ASDC, Frascati /NASA, Goddard /Maryland U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /UC, Santa Cruz /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Ecole Polytechnique /NASA, Goddard; /more authors..

    2009-05-15

    Following its launch in 2008 June, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi) began a sky survey in August. The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on Fermi in three months produced a deeper and better resolved map of the {gamma}-ray sky than any previous space mission. We present here initial results for energies above 100 MeV for the 205 most significant (statistical significance greater than {approx}10{sigma}) {gamma}-ray sources in these data. These are the best characterized and best localized point-like (i.e., spatially unresolved) {gamma}-ray sources in the early mission data.

  16. Delayed Fission Gamma-ray Characteristics of Th-232 U-233 U-235 U-238 and Pu-239

    Lane, Taylor [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Parma, Edward J. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Delayed fission gamma-rays play an important role in determining the time dependent ioniz- ing dose for experiments in the central irradiation cavity of the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR). Delayed gamma-rays are produced from both fission product decay and from acti- vation of materials in the core, such as cladding and support structures. Knowing both the delayed gamma-ray emission rate and the time-dependent gamma-ray energy spectrum is nec- essary in order to properly determine the dose contributions from delayed fission gamma-rays. This information is especially important when attempting to deconvolute the time-dependent neutron, prompt gamma-ray, and delayed gamma-ray contribution to the response of a diamond photo-conducting diode (PCD) or fission chamber in time frames of milliseconds to seconds following a reactor pulse. This work focused on investigating delayed gamma-ray character- istics produced from fission products from thermal, fast, and high energy fission of Th-232, U-233, U-235, U-238, and Pu-239. This work uses a modified version of CINDER2008, a transmutation code developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory, to model time and energy dependent photon characteristics due to fission. This modified code adds the capability to track photon-induced transmutations, photo-fission, and the subsequent radiation caused by fission products due to photo-fission. The data is compared against previous work done with SNL- modified CINDER2008 [ 1 ] and experimental data [ 2 , 3 ] and other published literature, includ- ing ENDF/B-VII.1 [ 4 ]. The ability to produce a high-fidelity (7,428 group) energy-dependent photon fluence at various times post-fission can improve the delayed photon characterization for radiation effects tests at research reactors, as well as other applications.

  17. Inter-pulse high-resolution gamma-ray spectra using a 14 MeV pulsed neutron generator

    Evans, L.G.; Trombka, J.I.; Jensen, D.H.; Stephenson, W.A.; Hoover, R.A.; Mikesell, J.L.; Tanner, A.B.; Senftle, F.E.

    1984-01-01

    A neutron generator pulsed at 100 s-1 was suspended in an artificial borehole containing a 7.7 metric ton mixture of sand, aragonite, magnetite, sulfur, and salt. Two Ge(HP) gamma-ray detectors were used: one in a borehole sonde, and one at the outside wall of the sample tank opposite the neutron generator target. Gamma-ray spectra were collected by the outside detector during each of 10 discrete time windows during the 10 ms period following the onset of gamma-ray build-up after each neutron burst. The sample was measured first when dry and then when saturated with water. In the dry sample, gamma rays due to inelastic neutron scattering, neutron capture, and decay were counted during the first (150 ??s) time window. Subsequently only capture and decay gamma rays were observed. In the wet sample, only neutron capture and decay gamma rays were observed. Neutron capture gamma rays dominated the spectrum during the period from 150 to 400 ??s after the neutron burst in both samples, but decreased with time much more rapidly in the wet sample. A signal-to-noise-ratio (S/N) analysis indicates that optimum conditions for neutron capture analysis occurred in the 350-800 ??s window. A poor S/N in the first 100-150 ??s is due to a large background continuum during the first time interval. Time gating can be used to enhance gamma-ray spectra, depending on the nuclides in the target material and the reactions needed to produce them, and should improve the sensitivity of in situ well logging. ?? 1984.

  18. Research on digital airborne gamma-ray spectrometry

    Ge Liangquan; Lai Wanchang; Zeng Guoqiang; Fan Zhenguo; Xiong Shengqing; Ni Weizhong

    2010-01-01

    Airborne Gamma-ray Spectrometry (AGS) is a main supporting technique for looking for uranium deposits and other non-radioactive mineral deposit, as well as for investigating environmental radiation pollution and monitoring nuclear equipment. This paper describes the newest achievements about the AGS instrument developed by Chengdu university of Technology. Those are: 1) the probe of AGS is composed of 5 NaI(Tl) + PMT scintillation counters with 10 x 10 x 40 mm size, and a special temperature sensor, preamplifier with circuit negative feedback and high voltage with lower electronic noise have been designed. 2)A Y/U double channel digital controlled gain amplifier for adjusting the spectrum drift finely and high speed ADC and CPLD are designed to perform digitalized spectroscopy and to improve the energy resolution and pulse through output rate (more than 100k/s). 3) Two self-stabilization spectrum loops have been designed for spectrum stability: The first loop is roughly adjusted by temperature and the second loop is finely by Kalman filter. 4) The significant characters of new AGS system are: the detective gamma energy range is 0.02∼10.0 MeV, the spectrum drift is ±1 channel, the collecting period is 0.5-1 s, and 20 NaI(Tl)+PMT scintillation counters can be operated at the same time. (authors)

  19. What Can Simbol-X Do for Gamma-ray Binaries?

    Cerutti, B.; Dubus, G.; Henri, G.; Hill, A. B.; Szostek, A.

    2009-05-01

    Gamma-ray binaries have been uncovered as a new class of Galactic objects in the very high energy sky (>100 GeV). The three systems known today have hard X-ray spectra (photon index ~1.5), extended radio emission and a high luminosity in gamma-rays. Recent monitoring campaigns of LSI +61°303 in X-rays have confirmed variability in these systems and revealed a spectral hardening with increasing flux. In a generic one-zone leptonic model, the cooling of relativistic electrons accounts for the main spectral and temporal features observed at high energy. Persistent hard X-ray emission is expected to extend well beyond 10 keV. We explain how Simbol-X will constrain the existing models in connection with Fermi Space Telescope measurements. Because of its unprecedented sensitivity in hard X-rays, Simbol-X will also play a role in the discovery of new gamma-ray binaries, giving new insights into the evolution of compact binaries.

  20. What Can Simbol-X Do for Gamma-ray Binaries?

    Cerutti, B.; Dubus, G.; Henri, G.; Hill, A. B.; Szostek, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray binaries have been uncovered as a new class of Galactic objects in the very high energy sky (>100 GeV). The three systems known today have hard X-ray spectra (photon index ∼1.5), extended radio emission and a high luminosity in gamma-rays. Recent monitoring campaigns of LSI +61 deg. 303 in X-rays have confirmed variability in these systems and revealed a spectral hardening with increasing flux. In a generic one-zone leptonic model, the cooling of relativistic electrons accounts for the main spectral and temporal features observed at high energy. Persistent hard X-ray emission is expected to extend well beyond 10 keV. We explain how Simbol-X will constrain the existing models in connection with Fermi Space Telescope measurements. Because of its unprecedented sensitivity in hard X-rays, Simbol-X will also play a role in the discovery of new gamma-ray binaries, giving new insights into the evolution of compact binaries.

  1. In-flight observation of long duration gamma-ray glows by aircraft

    Kochkin, Pavlo; (Lex) van Deursen, A. P. J.; de Boer, Alte; Bardet, Michiel; Allasia, Cedric; Boissin, Jean Francois; Ostgaard, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    The Gamma-Ray Glow is a long-lasting (several seconds to minutes) X- and gamma radiation presumably originated from high-electric field of thunderclouds. Such glows were previously observed by aircraft, balloons, and from the ground. When detected on ground with other particles, i.e. electrons and neutrons, they are usually called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). Their measured spectra are often consistent with Relativistic Runaway Electron Avalanche (RREA) mechanism. That is why RREA is a commonly accepted explanation for their existence. The gamma-ray glows are observed to be interrupted by lightning discharge, which terminates the high-electric field region. In January 2016 an Airbus A340 factory test aircraft was performing intentional flights through thunderstorms over Northern Australia. The aircraft was equipped with a dedicated in-flight lightning detection system called ILDAS (http://ildas.nlr.nl). The system also contained two scintillation detectors each with 38x38 mm cylinder LaBr3 crystals. While being at 12 km altitude the system detected a gamma-ray flux enhancement 30 times the background counts. It lasted for 20 seconds and was abruptly terminated by a lightning flash. The flash hit the aircraft and its parameters were recorded with 10 ns sampling time including gamma radiation. Ground-based lightning detection network WWLLN detected 4 strikes in the nearby region, all in association with the same flash. The ILDAS system recorded the time-resolved spectrum of the glow. In 6 minutes, after making a U-turn, the aircraft passed the same glow region. Smaller gamma-ray enhancement was again detected. In this presentation we will show the mapped event timeline including airplane, gamma-ray glow, WWLLN, and cloud data. We will discuss the glow's properties, i.e. intensity and differential spectrum, and its possible origin. This result will also be compared to previously reported observations.

  2. Detection of SNM by delayed gamma rays from induced fission

    Rennhofer, H.; Crochemore, J.-M.; Roesgen, E.; Pedersen, B.

    2011-01-01

    The Pulsed Neutron Interrogation Test Assembly (PUNITA) is an experimental device for research in NDA methods and field applicable instrumentation for nuclear safeguards and security applications. PUNITA incorporates a standard 14-MeV (D-T) pulsed neutron generator inside a large graphite mantle. The generator target is surrounded by a thick tungsten filter with the purpose to increase the neutron output and to tailor the neutron energy spectrum. In this configuration a sample may be exposed to a relatively high average thermal neutron flux of about (2.2±0.1)x10 3 s -1 cm -2 at only 10% of the maximum target neutron emission. The sample cavity is large enough to allow variation of the experimental setup including the fissile sample, neutron and gamma detectors, and shielding materials. The response from SNM samples of different fissile material content was investigated with various field-applicable scintillation gamma detectors such as the 3x2 in. LaBr 3 detector. Shielding in the form of tungsten and cadmium was applied to the detector to improve the signal to background ratio. Gamma and neutron shields surrounding the samples were also tested for the purpose of simulating clandestine conduct. The energy spectra of delayed gamma rays were recorded in the range 100 keV-9 MeV. In addition time spectra of delayed gamma rays in the range 3.3-8 MeV were recorded in the time period of 10 ms-120 s after the 14-MeV neutron burst. The goal of the experiment was to optimize the sample/detector configuration including the energy range and time period for SNM detection. The results show, for example, that a 170 g sample of depleted uranium can be detected with the given setup in less than 3 min of investigation. Samples of higher enrichment or higher mass are detected in much shorter time.

  3. The 2HWC HAWC Observatory Gamma-Ray Catalog

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Barber, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Albert, A. [Physics Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alfaro, R.; Becerril, A.; Belmont-Moreno, E. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Alvarez, C.; Arceo, R.; Caballero-Mora, K. S. [Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Álvarez, J. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia (Mexico); Solares, H. A. Ayala; Brisbois, C. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Baughman, B.; Berley, D. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bautista-Elivar, N. [Universidad Politecnica de Pachuca, Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Gonzalez, J. Becerra [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); BenZvi, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Bernal, A. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City (Mexico); Braun, J., E-mail: riviere@umdgrb.umd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); and others

    2017-07-01

    We present the first catalog of TeV gamma-ray sources realized with data from the newly completed High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC). It is the most sensitive wide field-of-view TeV telescope currently in operation, with a one-year survey sensitivity of ∼5%–10% of the flux of the Crab Nebula. With an instantaneous field of view >1.5 sr and >90% duty cycle, it continuously surveys and monitors the sky for gamma-ray energies between hundreds of GeV and tens of TeV. HAWC is located in Mexico, at a latitude of 19° N, and was completed in 2015 March. Here, we present the 2HWC catalog, which is the result of the first source search performed with the complete HAWC detector. Realized with 507 days of data, it represents the most sensitive TeV survey to date for such a large fraction of the sky. A total of 39 sources were detected, with an expected number of false detections of 0.5 due to background fluctuation. Out of these sources, 19 are new sources that are not associated with previously known TeV sources (association criteria: <0.°5 away). The source list, including the position measurement, spectrum measurement, and uncertainties, is reported, then each source is briefly discussed. Of the 2HWC associated sources, 10 are reported in TeVCat as PWN or SNR: 2 as blazars and the remaining eight as unidentified.

  4. Advances in gamma ray resonant scattering and absorption long-lived isomeric nuclear states

    Davydov, Andrey V

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the basics and advanced topics of research of gamma ray physics. It describes measuring of  Fermi surfaces with gamma resonance spectroscopy and the theory of angular distributions of resonantly scattered gamma rays. The dependence of excited-nuclei average lifetime on the shape of the exciting-radiation spectrum and electron binding energies in the spectra of scattered gamma rays is described. Resonant excitation by gamma rays of nuclear isomeric states with long lifetime leads to the emission and absorption lines. In the book, a new gamma spectroscopic method, gravitational gamma spectrometry, is developed. It has a resolution hundred million times higher than the usual Mössbauer spectrometer. Another important topic of this book is resonant scattering of annihilation quanta by nuclei with excited states in connection with positron annihilation. The application of the methods described is to explain the phenomenon of Coulomb fragmentation of gamma-source molecules and resonant scatt...

  5. Prospects for Dark Matter Measurements with the Advanced Gamma Ray Imaging System (AGIS)

    Buckley, James

    2009-05-01

    AGIS, a concept for a future gamma-ray observatory consisting of an array of 50 atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, would provide a powerful new tool for determining the nature of dark matter and its role in structure formation in the universe. The advent of more sensitive direct detection experiments, the launch of Fermi and the startup of the LHC make the near future an exciting time for dark matter searches. Indirect measurements of cosmic-ray electrons may already provide a hint of dark matter in our local halo. However, gamma-ray measurements will provide the only means for mapping the dark matter in the halo of our galaxy and other galaxies. In addition, the spectrum of gamma-rays (either direct annihilation to lines or continuum emission from other annihilation channels) will be imprinted with the mass of the dark matter particle, and the particular annihilation channels providing key measurements needed to identify the dark matter particle. While current gamma-ray instruments fall short of the generic sensitivity required to measure the dark matter signal from any sources other than the (confused) region around the Galactic center, we show that the planned AGIS array will have the angular resolution, energy resolution, low threshold energy and large effective area required to detect emission from dark matter annihilation in Galactic substructure or nearby Dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

  6. Determining the solar-flare photospheric scale height from SMM gamma-ray measurements

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A connected series of Monte Carlo programs was developed to make systematic calculations of the energy, temporal and angular dependences of the gamma-ray line and neutron emission resulting from such accelerated ion interactions. Comparing the results of these calculations with the Solar Maximum Mission/Gamma Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) measurements of gamma-ray line and neutron fluxes, the total number and energy spectrum of the flare-accelerated ions trapped on magnetic loops at the Sun were determined and the angular distribution, pitch angle scattering, and mirroring of the ions on loop fields were constrained. Comparing the calculations with measurements of the time dependence of the neutron capture line emission, a determination of the He-3/H ratio in the photosphere was also made. The diagnostic capabilities of the SMM/GRS measurements were extended by developing a new technique to directly determine the effective photospheric scale height in solar flares from the neutron capture gamma-ray line measurements, and critically test current atmospheric models in the flare region.

  7. Anisotropies in the diffuse gamma-ray background measured by the Fermi-LAT

    Cuoco, A. [Stockholm University-Oskar Klein Center AlbaNova University Center, Fysikum, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Linden, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Mazziotta, M.N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, 70126 Bari (Italy); Siegal-Gaskins, J.M. [Einstein Postdoctoral Fellow, California Institute of Technology 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Vitale, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.vitale@roma2.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Tor Vergata, 00133 Roma (Italy); Komatsu, E. [Texas Cosmology Center and Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Dept. of Astronomy, 2511 Speedway, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2012-11-11

    The small angular scale fluctuations of the (on large scale) isotropic gamma-ray background (IGRB) carry information about the presence of unresolved source classes. A guaranteed contribution to the IGRB is expected from the unresolved gamma-ray AGN while other extragalactic sources, Galactic gamma-ray source populations and dark matter Galactic and extragalactic structures (and sub-structures) are candidate contributors. The IGRB was measured with unprecedented precision by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on-board of the Fermi gamma-ray observatory, and these data were used for measuring the IGRB angular power spectrum (APS). Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of Fermi-LAT all-sky observations were performed to provide a reference against which to compare the results obtained for the real data set. The Monte Carlo simulations are also a method for performing those detailed studies of the APS contributions of single source populations, which are required in order to identify the actual IGRB contributors. We present preliminary results of an anisotropy search in the IGRB. At angular scales <2 Degree-Sign (e.g., above multipole 155), angular power above the photon noise level is detected, at energies between 1 and 10 GeV in each energy bin, with statistical significance between 7.2 and 4.1{sigma}. The obtained energy dependences point to the presence of one or more unclustered source populations with the components having an average photon index {Gamma}=2.40{+-}0.07.

  8. The Radio/Gamma-Ray Connection from 120 MHz to 230 GHz

    Marcello Giroletti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio loud active galactic nuclei are composed of different spatial features, each one characterized by different spectral properties in the radio band. Among them, blazars are the most common class of sources detected at gamma-rays by Fermi, and their radio emission is dominated by the flat spectrum compact core. In this contribution, we explore the connection between emission at high energy revealed by Fermi and at radio frequencies. Taking as a reference the strong and very highly significant correlation found between gamma rays and cm-λ radio emission, we explore the different behaviours found as we change the energy range in gamma rays and in radio, therefore changing the physical parameters of the zones involved in the emitted radiation. We find that the correlation weakens when we consider (1 gamma rays of energy above 10 GeV (except for high synchrotron peaked blazars or (2 low frequency radio data taken by the Murchison Widefield Array; on the other hand, the correlation strengthens when we consider mm-λ data taken by Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA.

  9. Cross-correlation of weak lensing and gamma rays: implications for the nature of dark matter

    Tröster, Tilman; Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Regis, Marco; van Waerbeke, Ludovic; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Ando, Shin'ichiro; Bilicki, Maciej; Erben, Thomas; Fornengo, Nicolao; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Kuijken, Konrad; Viola, Massimo

    2017-05-01

    We measure the cross-correlation between Fermi gamma-ray photons and over 1000 deg2 of weak lensing data from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS), the Red Cluster Sequence Lensing Survey (RCSLenS), and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). We present the first measurement of tomographic weak lensing cross-correlations and the first application of spectral binning to cross-correlations between gamma rays and weak lensing. The measurements are performed using an angular power spectrum estimator while the covariance is estimated using an analytical prescription. We verify the accuracy of our covariance estimate by comparing it to two internal covariance estimators. Based on the non-detection of a cross-correlation signal, we derive constraints on weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter. We compute exclusion limits on the dark matter annihilation cross-section , decay rate Γdec and particle mass mDM. We find that in the absence of a cross-correlation signal, tomography does not significantly improve the constraining power of the analysis. Assuming a strong contribution to the gamma-ray flux due to small-scale clustering of dark matter and accounting for known astrophysical sources of gamma rays, we exclude the thermal relic cross-section for particle masses of mDM ≲ 20 GeV.

  10. Uranium enrichment measurements without calibration using gamma rays above 100 keV

    Ruhter, Wayne D.; Lanier, Robert G.; Hayden, Catherine F.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The verification of UF6 shipping cylinders is an important activity in routine safeguards inspections. Current measurement methods using either sodium-iodide or high-purity germanium detectors requires calibrations that are not always appropriate for field measurements, because of changes in geometry or container wall thickness. The introduction of the MGAU code demonstrated the usefulness of intrinsically calibrated measurements for inspections. MGAU uses the 100-keV region of the uranium gamma-ray spectrum. The thick walls of UF6 shipping cylinders preclude the routine use of MGAU for these measurements. We have developed a uranium enrichment measurement method for measurements using high- purity germanium detectors, which do not require calibration and uses uranium gamma rays above 100 keV. The method uses seven gamma rays from U-235 and U-238 to determine their relative detection efficiency intrinsically and with an additional gamma ray from U-234 the relative abundance of these three uranium isotopes. The method uses a function that describes the basic physical processes that predominately determine the relative detection efficiency curve, These are the detector efficiency, the absorption by the cylinder wall, and the self-absorption by the UF6 contents. We will describe this model and its performance on various uranium materials and detector types. (author)

  11. Measurements of gamma-ray dose from a moderated 252Cf source

    McDonald, J.C.; Griffith, R.V.; Plato, P.; Miklos, J.

    1983-06-01

    The gamma-ray dose fraction from a moderated 252 Cf source was determined by using three types of dosimetry systems. Measurements were carried out in air at a distance of 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere (50 cm from the source which is at the center of the sphere) to the geometrical center of each detector. The moderating sphere is 0.8-mm-thick stainless steel shell filled with D 2 O and covered with 0.5 mm of cadmium. Measurements were also carried out with instruments and dosimeters positioned at the surface of a 40 cm x 40 cm x 15 cm plexiglass irradiation phantom whose front surface was also 35 cm from the surface of the moderating sphere. A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic ionization chambers and a TE proportional counter (TEPC) were used to measure tissue dose, from which the neutron dose equivalent was computed. The ratio of gamma-ray dose to the neutron dose equivalent was determined by using a relatively neutron-insensitive Geiger-Mueller (GM) counter and thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). In addition, the event-size spectrum measured by the TEPC was also used to compute the gamma-ray dose fraction. The average value for the ratio of gamma-ray dose to neutron dose equivalent was found to be 0.18 with an uncertainty of about +-18%

  12. X-ray and. gamma. -ray sources: a comparison of their characteristics

    Freund, A K [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1979-11-01

    A comparison of the various source characteristics, in particular the available fluxes of radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region from (1) high power rotary anode X-ray generators, (2) radioactive ..gamma..-ray sources and (3) high energy electron storage rings is presented. Some of the specific characteristics and possible applications of synchrotron radiation as a source are discussed in detail, together with problems associated with the monochromatization of the continuous radiation in the X-ray/..gamma..-ray region. The new high energy machines PEP at Stanford, the 8 GeV storage ring CESR at Cornell and the PETRA storage ring in Hamburg, which will soon come into operation provide a spectrum of high intensity radiation reaching well above h..gamma..sub(photon)=100 keV. The possibilities of using ondulators (wigglers), and laser-electron scattering for constructing high repetition rate tunable ..gamma..-ray sources are also discussed. Finally the potentials of using the powerful spontaneous emission of ..gamma..-quanta by relativistic channeled particles are mentioned.

  13. Response function of NaI(Tl) detectors and multiple backscattering of gamma rays in aluminium

    Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    The response function, converting the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) detector to a true photon spectrum, is obtained experimentally with the help of an inverse matrix approach. The energy of gamma-ray photons continuously decreases as the number of scatterings increases in a sample having finite dimensions when one deals with the depth of the sample. The present experiments are undertaken to study the effect of target thickness on intensity distribution of gamma photons multiply backscattered from an aluminium target. A NaI(Tl) gamma-ray detector detects the photons backscattered from the aluminium target. The subtraction of analytically estimated singly scattered distribution from the observed intensity distribution (originating from interactions of primary gamma-ray photons with the target) results in multiply backscattered events. We observe that for each incident gamma photon energy, the number of multiply backscattered photons increases with increase in target thickness and then saturates at a particular target thickness called the saturation thickness (depth). Saturation thickness for multiply backscattering of gamma photons is found to decrease with increase in energy of incident gamma-ray photons

  14. Specialised software utilities for gamma-ray spectrometry. Computer codes to IAEA-TECDOC-1275

    2002-03-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'Software Utilities for Gamma-Ray Spectrometry' was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in 1996. In the CRP several basic applications of nuclear data handling were assayed which also dealt with the development of PC computer codes for various spectrometric purposes. This CD-ROM contains the following computer codes, produced under the CRP: ANGES, a program for the user controlled analysis of gamma-ray spectra from HPGe detectors; NUCL M AN, a program for the generation of gamma-ray libraries (using new, evaluated data) for specific applications; TRUE C OINC, a program to calculate true coincidence corrections; VOLUME, a program to calculate the full-energy peak efficiency calibration curve for homogeneous cylindrical sample geometries including self-attenuation correction; WINDIMEN, a program for the library driven analysis of gamma-ray spectra and for the quantification of radionuclide contents in the sample. RESFIT and DPPUNFOL, a set of programs for the definition of the detector resolution function and for unfolding of experimental annihilation spectra; MLMTEST, a program for the analysis of low-level NaI-spectra together with an extensive library of example reference spectra as well as a spectrum synthesizer

  15. Is the Universe More Transparent to Gamma Rays than Previously Thought?

    Stecker, Floyd W.; Scully, Sean T.

    2009-01-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has recently reported the detection of the strong gamma-ray blazar 3C279 during a 1-2 day flare. They have used their spectral observations to draw conclusions regarding upper limits on the opacity of the Universe to high energy gamma-rays and, by implication, upper limits on the extragalactic mid-infrared background radiation. In this paper we examine the effect of gamma-ray absorption by the extragalactic infrared radiation on intrinsic spectra for this blazar and compare our results with the observational data on 3C279. We find agreement with our previous results, contrary to the recent assertion of the MAGIC group that the Universe is more transparent to gamma-rays than our calculations indicate. Our analysis indicates that in the energy range between approx. 80 and approx. 500 GeV, 3C279 has a best-fit intrinsic spectrum with a spectral index approx. 1.78 using our fast evolution model and approx. 2.19 using our baseline model. However, we also find that spectral indices in the range of 1.0 to 3.0 are almost as equally acceptable as the best fit spectral indices. Assuming the same intrinsic spectral index for this flare as for the 1991 flare from 3C279 observed by EGRET, viz., 2.02, which lies between our best fit indeces, we estimate that the MAGIC flare was approx.3 times brighter than the EGRET flare observed 15 years earlier.

  16. Pulsed Gamma-Rays From PSR J2021 3651 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    Abdo, Aous A.; /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C.; Ackermann, M.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Ajello, Marco; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Atwood, William B.; /UC, Santa Cruz; Baldini, L.; /INFN, Pisa; Ballet, J.; /DAPNIA, Saclay; Barbiellini, Guido; /INFN, Trieste /Trieste U.; Bastieri, Denis; /INFN, Padua /Padua U.; Battelino, Milan; /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm; Baughman, B.M.; /Ohio State U.; Bechtol, K.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bellazzini, Ronaldo; /INFN, Pisa; Berenji, Bijan; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bloom, Elliott D.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bogaert, G.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Borgland, Anders W.; /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Bregeon, J.; /INFN, Pisa; Brez, A.; /INFN, Pisa; Brigida, M.; /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; Bruel, P.; /Ecole Polytechnique; Burnett, Thompson H.; /Washington U., Seattle /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Columbia U. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /DAPNIA, Saclay /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /George Mason U. /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /IASF, Milan /IASF, Milan /NASA, Goddard /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /INFN, Perugia /Perugia U. /LPCE, Orleans /Montpellier U. /Sonoma State U. /Royal Inst. Tech., Stockholm /Stockholm U. /ASI, Rome /NRAO, Charlottesville /Naval Research Lab, Wash., D.C. /INFN, Trieste /Pavia U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /UC, Santa Cruz /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., HEPL /KIPAC, Menlo Park /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /CENBG, Gradignan /CENBG, Gradignan /Manchester U. /Montpellier U. /Bari U. /INFN, Bari; /more authors..

    2011-11-30

    We report the detection of pulsed gamma-rays from the young, spin-powered radio pulsar PSR J2021+3651 using data acquired with the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The light curve consists of two narrow peaks of similar amplitude separated by 0.468 {+-} 0.002 in phase. The first peak lags the maximum of the 2 GHz radio pulse by 0.162 {+-} 0.004 {+-} 0.01 in phase. The integral gamma-ray photon flux above 100 MeV is (56 {+-} 3 {+-} 11) x 10{sup -8} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The photon spectrum is well-described by an exponentially cut-off power law of the form dF/dE = kE{sup -{Gamma}}e{sup (-E/E{sub c})} where the energy E is expressed in GeV. The photon index is {Gamma} = 1.5 {+-} 0.1 {+-} 0.1 and the exponential cut-off is E{sub c} = 2.4 {+-} 0.3 {+-} 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. The integral photon flux of the bridge is approximately 10% of the pulsed emission, and the upper limit on off-pulse gamma-ray emission from a putative pulsar wind nebula is < 10% of the pulsed emission at the 95% confidence level. Radio polarization measurements yield a rotation measure of RM = 524 {+-} 4 rad m{sup -2} but a poorly constrained magnetic geometry. Re-analysis of Chandra data enhanced the significance of the weak X-ray pulsations, and the first peak is roughly phase-aligned with the first gamma-ray peak. We discuss the emission region and beaming geometry based on the shape and spectrum of the gamma-ray light curve combined with radio and X-ray measurements, and the implications for the pulsar distance. Gamma-ray emission from the polar cap region seems unlikely for this pulsar.

  17. GROSS- GAMMA RAY OBSERVATORY ATTITUDE DYNAMICS SIMULATOR

    Garrick, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft will constitute a major advance in gamma ray astronomy by offering the first opportunity for comprehensive observations in the range of 0.1 to 30,000 megaelectronvolts (MeV). The Gamma Ray Observatory Attitude Dynamics Simulator, GROSS, is designed to simulate this mission. The GRO Dynamics Simulator consists of three separate programs: the Standalone Profile Program; the Simulator Program, which contains the Simulation Control Input/Output (SCIO) Subsystem, the Truth Model (TM) Subsystem, and the Onboard Computer (OBC) Subsystem; and the Postprocessor Program. The Standalone Profile Program models the environment of the spacecraft and generates a profile data set for use by the simulator. This data set contains items such as individual external torques; GRO spacecraft, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS), and solar and lunar ephemerides; and star data. The Standalone Profile Program is run before a simulation. The SCIO subsystem is the executive driver for the simulator. It accepts user input, initializes parameters, controls simulation, and generates output data files and simulation status display. The TM subsystem models the spacecraft dynamics, sensors, and actuators. It accepts ephemerides, star data, and environmental torques from the Standalone Profile Program. With these and actuator commands from the OBC subsystem, the TM subsystem propagates the current state of the spacecraft and generates sensor data for use by the OBC and SCIO subsystems. The OBC subsystem uses sensor data from the TM subsystem, a Kalman filter (for attitude determination), and control laws to compute actuator commands to the TM subsystem. The OBC subsystem also provides output data to the SCIO subsystem for output to the analysts. The Postprocessor Program is run after simulation is completed. It generates printer and CRT plots and tabular reports of the simulated data at the direction of the user. GROSS is written in FORTRAN 77 and

  18. modern utilization of accurate methods for gamma-ray spectral analysis detected by high pure germanium (HPGE) detectors through different applications

    El-Sayed, M.M.

    2006-01-01

    this thesis presents a novel way for application of wavelet transform theory in gamma-ray spectroscopy . this technique was applied for searching real and weak peaks, solving problem of multiplets, smoothing and de-noising gamma-ray spectra, and using artificial neural network for identifying peaks. a brief description about gamma-ray spectrum analysis is presented. we discussed the necessary formulas and algorithms of wavelet theory to solve these main problems in gamma -ray spectrum analysis. the algorithm of peak search was applied on different types of spectra, IAEA spectra and other sources of gamma spectra. the algorithm of multiplets algorithm was applied successfully on different types of multiplets. the algorithm of de noising was applied successfully on different sources of spectra.finally, a database for neutron activation laboratory is created. this data base consists of five routines, wavelet gamma spectrum analysis, peak identification, elemental concentration , neutron flux determination,and detector efficiency calculation

  19. Analysis of remotely accrued complex gamma ray spectra - proficiency test

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway))

    2009-03-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the early phase of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise was to provide participants with an opportunity to exercise in the type of situation and with the type of data that may result after a nuclear accident. Attempting to conduct such exercise internationally using actual samples presents practical and logistical difficulties and a synthetic spectrum was employed to negate some of these problems. A HPGe spectrum was synthesized containing a range of typical fallout isotopes and distributed, along with calibration information, to the participant laboratories. The participants were required to submit results within three hours of receipt and with the option of submitting further results within one week. The results provided by the laboratories indicate that all laboratories were able to identify and quantify some of the isotopes but only some labs were in a position to identify and quantify virtually all the constituents of the spectrum. Results indicate that there remain some problems with aspects such as true coincidence summation and using file formats with which labs may not be familiar with. The exercise provided a useful opportunity in exploring the possibilities of using synthetic spectra for exercise purposes and offered participants the chance to practice with the sort of scenario that may result after an accident. (au)

  20. New technique for tissue-equivalent gamma ray dosimetry

    Squillante, M.R.; Stern, I.; Nagarkar, V.; Entine, G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of semiconductor sensors in dosimeters is attractive for a variety of reasons including potential low cost and high sensitivity. However, the accurate measurement of the radiation dose to tissue using solid state detectors is made difficult by the relatively high atomic number of semiconductor materials. This leads to an over response to gamma ray energies below 100 keV and an under response above that. If the energy spectrum is known, corrections can be applied to yield accurate dose. In real life situations, however, the energy spectrum is not always known and may be difficult to determine at high flux rates. Also, in some cases, the energy spectrum may change with time. This paper reports that, by operating a custom-designed CdTe sensor in the pulse mode and measuring the average energy deposited, a nearly-linear relationship between the tissue dose rate and the sensor signal was obtained. Based on this technique, a prototype detector and dosimeter system were developed

  1. Analysis of remotely accrued complex gamma ray spectra - proficiency test

    Dowdall, M.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the early phase of a nuclear accident. The aim of the exercise was to provide participants with an opportunity to exercise in the type of situation and with the type of data that may result after a nuclear accident. Attempting to conduct such exercise internationally using actual samples presents practical and logistical difficulties and a synthetic spectrum was employed to negate some of these problems. A HPGe spectrum was synthesized containing a range of typical fallout isotopes and distributed, along with calibration information, to the participant laboratories. The participants were required to submit results within three hours of receipt and with the option of submitting further results within one week. The results provided by the laboratories indicate that all laboratories were able to identify and quantify some of the isotopes but only some labs were in a position to identify and quantify virtually all the constituents of the spectrum. Results indicate that there remain some problems with aspects such as true coincidence summation and using file formats with which labs may not be familiar with. The exercise provided a useful opportunity in exploring the possibilities of using synthetic spectra for exercise purposes and offered participants the chance to practice with the sort of scenario that may result after an accident. (au)

  2. Operating experience with gamma ray irradiators

    Fraser, F.M.; Ouwerkerk, T.

    1980-01-01

    The experience of Atomic Energy of Canada, Limited (AECL) with radioisotopes dates back to the mid-1940s when radium was marketed for medical purposes. Cobalt-60 came on the scene in 1949 and within a few years a thriving business in cancer teletherapy machines and research irradiators was developed. AECL's first full-scale cobalt-60 gamma ray sterilizer for medical products was installed in 1964. AECL now has over 50 plants and 30 million curies in service around the world. Sixteen years of design experience in cobalt-60 sources, radiation shielding, safety interlock systems, and source pass mechanisms have made gamma irradiators safe, reliable, and easy to operate. This proven technology is being applied in promising new fields such as sludge treatment and food preservation. Cesium-137 is expected to be extensively utilized as the gamma radiation source for these applications

  3. Gravitational wave: gamma-ray burst connections.

    Hough, Jim

    2007-05-15

    After 35 years of experimental research, we are rapidly approaching the point at which gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources may be directly detected by the long-baseline detectors LIGO (USA), GEO 600 (Germany/UK), VIRGO (Italy/France) and TAMA 300 (Japan), which are now in or coming into operation.A promising source of GWs is the coalescence of compact binary systems, events which are now believed to be the origin of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In this paper, a brief review of the state of the art in detector development and exploitation will be given, with particular relevance to a search for signals associated with GRBs, and plans for the future will be discussed.

  4. Gamma-ray burst theory after Swift.

    Piran, Tsvi; Fan, Yi-Zhong

    2007-05-15

    Afterglow observations in the pre-Swift era confirmed to a large extend the relativistic blast wave model for gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Together with the observations of properties of host galaxies and the association with (type Ic) SNe, this has led to the generally accepted collapsar origin of long GRBs. However, most of the afterglow data was collected hours after the burst. The X-ray telescope and the UV/optical telescope onboard Swift are able to slew to the direction of a burst in real time and record the early broadband afterglow light curves. These observations, and in particular the X-ray observations, resulted in many surprises. While we have anticipated a smooth transition from the prompt emission to the afterglow, many observed that early light curves are drastically different. We review here how these observations are changing our understanding of GRBs.

  5. New possibilities in prompt gamma ray spectrometry

    Borderie, B; Barrandon, J N [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 45 - Orleans-la-Source (France). Lab. du cyclotron; Pinault, J L [Bureau de Recherches Geologiques et Minieres (BRGM), 45 - Orleans (France)

    1977-01-01

    Prompt gamma ray spectrometry has been used as an analytical tool for many years. The high level of background noise does, however, remain a major problem with this technique. From simple theoretical consideration, conditions (particle, energy) were determined to reduce significantly the background noise under irradiation. Alpha particles of 3.5 MeV were chosen. Some fifty elements were studied, of which 24 gave interesting results. The detection limits obtained for a sample of niobium were as follows: approximately 1 ppm (10/sup -6/g/g) for the light elements Li, B, F and Na, and between 50 ppm and 1% for the others. Numerous applications may be envisaged in the geo- and cosmo-sciences.

  6. Dosimetry for terrestrial gamma-ray sources

    Abdullah, S.A.; Dickson, H.W.; Kerr, G.D.; Miah, M.F.K.; Perdue, P.T.

    1975-01-01

    Dose rates from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in soils of the Oak Ridge area have been determined from in situ and core sample measurements. Information on soil composition, density, and moisture content and on the distribution of cesium in the soil was obtained from the core samples. Measurements of radionuclide concentrations in the samples were made with a 4 x 4 in. NaI detector. Gamma-ray spectroscopy using a lithium-drifted germanium (GeLi) detector has been applied to the determination of radionuclide concentrations in soil and the associated gamma dose rates above the earth plane. An unshielded GeLi detector placed about 1 m above the earth detects gamma radiation from an area of about 100 m 2 . The equipment and data processing procedure are briefly described

  7. New lithology compensated capture gamma ray system

    Peatross, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    The results of the HYDROCARBON* log after a series of field tests in which gamma rays resulting from thermal neutron capture were measured utilizing an energy analyzer and a scintillation counter of unique construction are reported. A brief discussion covers the nuclear physics required for an understanding of gamma spectral logging. Included in the explanation will be the effects of different atoms on neutrons and photons. The HYDROCARBON log utilizes these nuclear principles to record cased hole measurements and quantitatively distinguish possible productive zones from non-productive zones. Different field examples are illustrated showing the response to shaly sands, porosity and water salinity. Interpretation techniques are discussed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The HYDROCARBON log has proven to be a reliable device in the determination of water saturation in sands behind casing even when shale content and porosity are not well known. This technique is also valuable in the location of the present position of gas--oil contacts and water levels

  8. A review of gamma ray bursts

    Rees, Martin J

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts, an enigma for more than 25 years, are now coming into focus. They involve extraordinary power outputs, and highly relativistic dynamics. The 'trigger' involves stellar-mass compact objects. The most plausible progenitors, ranging from neutron star binary mergers to collapsars (sometimes called 'hypernovae') eventually lead to the formation of a black hole with a torus of hot neutron-density material around it, the extractable energy being up to 10 sup 5 sup 4 ergs. Magnetic fields may exceed 10 sup 1 sup 5 G and particles may be accelerated up to > or approx. 10 sup 2 sup 0 eV. Details of the afterglow may be easier to understand than the initial trigger. Bursts at very high redshift can be astronomically-important as probes of the distant universe.

  9. Gamma-ray induced doppler broadening

    Robinson, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    The ultra high resolving power of the GAMS4 double-flat crystal spectrometer (M.S. Dewey et al Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 284 (1989) 151.) has been used to observe the Doppler broadening of gamma-rays emitted by nuclei recoiling at speeds as low as 10 -6 c. Such recoils may be induced by the previous emission of gamma-radiation following thermal neutron capture. If the population mechanism of an excited state is known (or can be approximated) and the slowing down mechanism can be modeled, then this technique can be used to extract the lifetime of excited nuclear states. The combination of this technique and the neutron capture reaction allows the study of states which cannot necessarily be accessed by other means. This has allowed the resolution of a number of long standing questions in low-spin nuclear structure. The basis of the technique is discussed and a number of examples given

  10. Gamma-Ray Bursts: A Radio Perspective

    Poonam Chandra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs are extremely energetic events at cosmological distances. They provide unique laboratory to investigate fundamental physical processes under extreme conditions. Due to extreme luminosities, GRBs are detectable at very high redshifts and potential tracers of cosmic star formation rate at early epoch. While the launch of Swift and Fermi has increased our understanding of GRBs tremendously, many new questions have opened up. Radio observations of GRBs uniquely probe the energetics and environments of the explosion. However, currently only 30% of the bursts are detected in radio bands. Radio observations with upcoming sensitive telescopes will potentially increase the sample size significantly and allow one to follow the individual bursts for a much longer duration and be able to answer some of the important issues related to true calorimetry, reverse shock emission, and environments around the massive stars exploding as GRBs in the early Universe.

  11. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  12. Gamma-Ray Burst Prompt Correlations

    M. G. Dainotti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism responsible for the prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs is still a debated issue. The prompt phase-related GRB correlations can allow discriminating among the most plausible theoretical models explaining this emission. We present an overview of the observational two-parameter correlations, their physical interpretations, and their use as redshift estimators and possibly as cosmological tools. The nowadays challenge is to make GRBs, the farthest stellar-scaled objects observed (up to redshift z=9.4, standard candles through well established and robust correlations. However, GRBs spanning several orders of magnitude in their energetics are far from being standard candles. We describe the advances in the prompt correlation research in the past decades, with particular focus paid to the discoveries in the last 20 years.

  13. Nuclear gamma ray lines from supernovae

    Jardim, J.O.D.

    1980-01-01

    From theoretical considerations of the behaviour of gamma ray line fluxes occurring after a supernova explosion, the 1.156 and 0.847 MeV lines are seen to be the most likely to be observed. The 1.156 MeV line has been previously observed by other investigators. Observations of the 0.847 MeV line, and 1.332, 1.173 and 0.059 MeV lines using a Ge(Li) telescope aboard a stratospheric balloon which was flown in Brazil in 1977 are reported. The observation using a NaI(Tl) detector of a line in the energy interval 1.5 - 1.6 MeV, which may be due to 0 18 (p,p') 0 18 sup (*) reaction is also reported. (Author) [pt

  14. Factors influencing in situ gamma-ray measurements

    Loonstra, E. H.; van Egmond, F. M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction In situ passive gamma-ray sensors are very well suitable for mapping physical soil properties. In order to make a qualitative sound soil map, high quality input parameters for calibration are required. This paper will focus on the factors that affect the output of in situ passive gamma-ray sensors, the primary source, soil, not taken into account. Factors The gamma-ray spectrum contains information of naturally occurring nuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th and man-made nuclides like 137Cs, as well as the total count rate. Factors that influence the concentration of these nuclides and the count rate can be classified in 3 categories. These are sensor design, environmental conditions and operational circumstances. Sensor design The main elements of an in situ gamma-ray sensor that influence the outcome and quality of the output are the crystal and the spectrum analysis method. Material and size of the crystal determine the energy resolution. Though widely used, NaI crystals are not the most efficient capturer of gamma radiation. Alternatives are BGO and CsI. BGO has a low peak resolution, which prohibits use in cases where man-made nuclides are subject of interest. The material is expensive and prone to temperature instability. CsI is robust compared to NaI and BGO. The density of CsI is higher than NaI, yielding better efficiency, especially for smaller crystal sizes. More volume results in higher energy efficiency. The reduction of the measured spectral information into concentration of radionuclides is mostly done using the Windows analysis method. In Windows, the activities of the nuclides are found by summing the intensities of the spectrum found in a certain interval surrounding a peak. A major flaw of the Windows method is the limited amount of spectral information that is incorporated into the analysis. Another weakness is the inherent use of ‘stripping factors' to account for contributions of radiation from nuclide A into the peak of nuclide B. This

  15. High dose gamma-ray standard

    Macrin, R.; Moraru, R.

    1999-01-01

    The high gamma-ray doses produced in a gamma irradiator are used, mainly, for radiation processing, i.e. sterilization of medical products, processing of food, modifications of polymers, irradiation of electronic devices, a.s.o. The used absorbed doses depend on the application and cover the range 10 Gy to 100 MGy. The regulations in our country require that the response of the dosimetry systems, used for the irradiation of food and medical products, be calibrated and traceable to the national standards. In order to be sure that the products receive the desired absorbed dose, appropriate dosimetric measurements must be performed, including the calibration of the dosemeters and their traceability to the national standards. The high dose gamma-ray measurements are predominantly based on the use of reference radiochemical dosemeters. Among them the ferrous sulfate can be used as reference dosemeter for low doses (up to 400 Gy) but due to its characteristics it deserves to be considered a standard dosemeter and to be used for transferring the conventional absorbed dose to other chemical dosemeters used for absorbed doses up to 100 MGy. The study of the ferrous sulfate dosemeter consisted in preparing many batches of solution by different operators in quality assurance conditions and in determining for all batches the linearity, the relative intrinsic error, the repeatability and the reproducibility. The principal results are the following: the linear regression coefficient: 0.999, the relative intrinsic error: max.6 %, the repeatability (for P* = 95 %): max.3 %, the reproducibility (P* = 95%): max.5 %. (authors)

  16. Activation of wine bentonite with gamma rays

    Goranov, N.; Antonov, M.

    1997-01-01

    The action of gamma rays on wine bentonite as well as influence of its adsorption and technologic qualities on the composition and stability of wines against protein darkening and precipitation has been studied. The experiments were carried out with wine bentonite produced in the firm Bentonite and irradiated with doses of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 MR. White and red wines have been treated with irradiated bentonite under laboratory conditions at 1.0 g/dm 3 . All samples are treated at the same conditions. The flocculation rate of the sediment was determined visually. Samples have been taken 24 h later from the cleared wine layers. The following parameters have been determined: clarification, filtration rate, phenolic compounds, calcium, colour intensity, total extracted substances, etc. The volume of the sediment has been determined also. The control samples have been taken from the same unirradiated wines. The results showed better and faster clarification in on the third, the 20th and the 24th hours with using of gamma-irradiated at doses 0.8 and 1.0 MR. The sediment was the most compact and its volume - the smallest compared to the samples treated with bentonite irradiated with doses of 0.6 and 0.4 MR. This ensures a faster clarification and better filtration of treated wines. The bentonite activated with doses of 0.8 and 1.0 MR adsorbs the phenolic compounds and the complex protein-phenolic molecules better. In the same time it adsorbs less extracted substances compared to untreated bentonite and so preserves all organoleptic properties of wine. The irradiated bentonite adsorbs less the monomers of anthocyan compounds which ensures brighter natural colour of wine. The gamma-rays activation consolidates calcium in the crystal lattice of bentonite particles and in this way eliminates the formation of crystal precipitates

  17. A new processing technique for airborne gamma-ray data

    Hovgaard, Jens

    1997-01-01

    The mathematical-statistical background for at new technique for processing gamma-ray spectra is presented. The technique - Noise Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - decomposes at set of gamma-ray spectra into a few basic spectra - the spectral components. The spectral components can be proce...

  18. Effectiveness of gamma ray irradiation and ethyl methane ...

    Survival rate and plantlet performance of DNKW001 in gamma ray + EMS 7uM treatment declined profoundly with increasing doses and LD50 was lower (104 Gy) than LD50 in gamma ray irradiation (177 Gy) alone. Variants of plantlets were detected in pre (white streaked leaf and bigger petiole with distorted leaf) and post ...

  19. Wolf-Rayet stars as gamma-ray burst progenitors

    Langer, N.; van Marle, A. -J; Yoon, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    It became clear in the last few years that long gamma-ray bursts are associated with the endpoints of massive star evolution. They occur in star forming regions at cosmological distances (Jakobsson et al., 2005), and are associated with supernova-type energies. The collapsar model explains gamma-ray

  20. The First Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Burst Catalog

    Ackermann, M.; et al., [Unknown; van der Horst, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In three years of observations since the beginning of nominal science operations in 2008 August, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has observed high-energy (gsim 20 MeV) γ-ray emission from 35 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Among these, 28 GRBs have been detected

  1. Gamma ray bursts observed with WATCH‐EURECA

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels; Castro-Tirado, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The WATCH wide field x‐ray monitor has the capability of independently locating bright Gamma Ray Bursts to 1° accuracy. We report the preliminary positions of 12 Gamma Ray Bursts observed with the WATCH monitor flown on the ES spacecraft EURECA during its 11 month mission. Also the recurrence...

  2. The many phases of gamma-ray burst afterglows

    Leventis, K.

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts are the brightest sources in the universe. Their afterglows have been observed for about 15 years now, and their study has greatly advanced our understanding of these, mysterious until recently, events. In a way, gamma-ray bursts can be seen as huge cosmic bombs which convert

  3. Gamma ray bursts: Current status of observations and theory

    Meegan, C.A.

    1990-04-01

    Gamma ray bursts display a wide range of temporal and spectral characteristics, but typically last several seconds and emit most of their energy in a low energy, gamma ray region. The burst sources appear to be isotropically distributed on the sky. Several lines of evidence suggest magnetic neutron stars as sources for bursts. A variety of energy sources and emission mechanisms are proposed

  4. Supernova sheds light on gamma-ray bursts

    2003-01-01

    On 29 March the HETE-II satellite detected the most violent explosion in the universe to date - an enormous burst of gamma rays. Observers across the world recorded and studied the event. It appears to prove that gamma ray bursts originate in supernovae (1 page)

  5. X and gamma ray backgroud observations in Antarctic

    Jayanthi, U.B.

    1988-01-01

    Atmospheric X amd gamma rays are products of complex electromagnetic interation between charged particles and atmospheric constituents. The latitudinal dependence of the cosmic rays secondaries, auroral and South Atlantic Anomaly phenomena produce flux variations, especially the later temporal flux variations. We propose to discuss these variations in relevance to balloon flight observations of X and gamma ray atmospheric background at polar latitudes. (author) [pt

  6. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  7. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  8. Gamma Ray Tomographic Scan Method for Large Scale Industrial Plants

    Moon, Jin Ho; Jung, Sung Hee; Kim, Jong Bum; Park, Jang Geun

    2011-01-01

    The gamma ray tomography systems have been used to investigate a chemical process for last decade. There have been many cases of gamma ray tomography for laboratory scale work but not many cases for industrial scale work. Non-tomographic equipment with gamma-ray sources is often used in process diagnosis. Gamma radiography, gamma column scanning and the radioisotope tracer technique are examples of gamma ray application in industries. In spite of many outdoor non-gamma ray tomographic equipment, the most of gamma ray tomographic systems still remained as indoor equipment. But, as the gamma tomography has developed, the demand on gamma tomography for real scale plants also increased. To develop the industrial scale system, we introduced the gamma-ray tomographic system with fixed detectors and rotating source. The general system configuration is similar to 4 th generation geometry. But the main effort has been made to actualize the instant installation of the system for real scale industrial plant. This work would be a first attempt to apply the 4th generation industrial gamma tomographic scanning by experimental method. The individual 0.5-inch NaI detector was used for gamma ray detection by configuring circular shape around industrial plant. This tomographic scan method can reduce mechanical complexity and require a much smaller space than a conventional CT. Those properties make it easy to get measurement data for a real scale plant

  9. Bulk density calculations from prompt gamma ray yield

    Naqvi, A.A.; Nagadi, M.M.; Al-Amoudi, O.S.B.; Maslehuddin, M.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The gamma ray yield from a Prompt Gamma ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setup is a linear function of element concentration and neutron flux in a the sample with constant bulk density. If the sample bulk density varies as well, then the element concentration and the neutron flux has a nonlinear correlation with the gamma ray yield [1]. The measurement of gamma ray yield non-linearity from samples and a standard can be used to estimate the bulk density of the samples. In this study the prompt gamma ray yield from Blast Furnace Slag, Fly Ash, Silica Fumes and Superpozz cements samples have been measured as a function of their calcium and silicon concentration using KFUPM accelerator-based PGNAA setup [2]. Due to different bulk densities of the blended cement samples, the measured gamma ray yields have nonlinear correlation with calcium and silicon concentration of the samples. The non-linearity in the yield was observed to increase with gamma rays energy and element concentration. The bulk densities of the cement samples were calculated from ratio of gamma ray yield from blended cement and that from a Portland cement standard. The calculated bulk densities have good agreement with the published data. The result of this study will be presented

  10. Study of gamma ray multiplicity spectra for radiative capture of neutrons in 113,115In

    Georgiev, G.P.; Fajkov-Stanchik, Kh.; Grigor'ev, Yu.V.; Muradyan, G.V.; Yaneva, N.B.

    1997-08-01

    Neutron radiative capture measurements were performed for the enriched isotopes 113 In and 115 In on the neutron spectrometer at the Neutron Physics Laboratory of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research employing the gamma ray multiplicity technique and using a ''Romashka'' multi-sectional 4p detector on the 500 m time base of the IBR-30 booster. The gamma multiplicity spectra of resolved resonances were obtained for the 20-500 eV energy range. The mean gamma ray multiplicity was determined for each resonance. The dependence of the ratio S of the low-energy coincidence multiplicity spectrum to the high-energy coincidence multiplicity spectrum on resonance energy exhibits a non-statistical structure. This structure was found to correlate with the local neutron strength function. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 2 tabs

  11. Simulation study on unfolding methods for diagnostic X-rays and mixed gamma rays

    Hashimoto, Makoto; Ohtaka, Masahiko; Ara, Kuniaki; Kanno, Ikuo; Imamura, Ryo; Mikami, Kenta; Nomiya, Seiichiro; Onabe, Hideaki

    2009-01-01

    A photon detector operating in current mode that can sense X-ray energy distribution has been reported. This detector consists of a row of several segment detectors. The energy distribution is derived using an unfolding technique. In this paper, comparisons of the unfolding techniques among error reduction, spectrum surveillance, and neural network methods are discussed through simulation studies on the detection of diagnostic X-rays and gamma rays emitted by a mixture of 137 Cs and 60 Co. For diagnostic X-ray measurement, the spectrum surveillance and neural network methods appeared promising, while the error reduction method yielded poor results. However, in the case of measuring mixtures of gamma rays, the error reduction method was both sufficient and effective. (author)

  12. Annihilation vs. Decay: Constraining dark matter properties from a gamma-ray detection

    Palomares-Ruiz, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Most proposed dark matter candidates are stable and are produced thermally in the early Universe. However, there is also the possibility of unstable (but long-lived) dark matter, produced thermally or otherwise. We propose a strategy to distinguish between dark matter annihilation and/or decay in the case that a clear signal is detected in gamma-ray observations of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxies with current or future gamma-ray experiments. The sole measurement of the energy spectrum of an indirect signal would render the discrimination between these cases impossible. We show that by examining the dependence of the intensity and energy spectrum on the angular distribution of the emission, the origin could be identified as decay, annihilation, or both. In addition, once the type of signal is established, we show how these measurements could help to extract information about the dark matter properties, including mass, annihilation cross section, lifetime, dominant annihilation and decay channels, and the p...

  13. A new class of galactic discrete gamma ray sources: Chaotic winds of massive stars

    Chen, Wan; White, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    We propose a new class of galactic discrete gamma-ray sources, the chaotic, high mass-loss-rate winds from luminous early-type stars. Early-type stellar winds are highly unstable due to intrinsic line-driven instabilities, and so are permeated by numerous strong shocks. These shocks can accelerate a small fraction of thermal electrons and ions to relativistic energies via the first-order Fermi mechanism. A power-law-like photon spectrum extending from keV to above 10 MeV energies is produced by inverse Compton scattering of the extremely abundant stellar UV photons by the relativistic electrons. In addition, a typical pi(sup 0)-decay gamma-ray spectrum is generated by proton-ion interactions in the densest part of the winds.

  14. Development of low level 226Ra analysis for live fish using gamma-ray spectrometry

    Chandani, Z.; Prestwich, W. V.; Byun, S. H.

    2017-06-01

    A low level 226Ra analysis method for live fish was developed using a 4π NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. In order to find out the best algorithm for accomplishing the lowest detection limit, the gamma-ray spectrum from a 226Ra point was collected and nine different methods were attempted for spectral analysis. The lowest detection limit of 0.99 Bq for an hour counting occurred when the spectrum was integrated in the energy region of 50-2520 keV. To extend 226Ra analysis to live fish, a Monte Carlo simulation model with a cylindrical fish in a water container was built using the MCNP code. From simulation results, the spatial distribution of the efficiency and the efficiency correction factor for the live fish model were determined. The MCNP model will be able to be conveniently modified when a different fish or container geometry is employed as fish grow up in real experiments.

  15. A low-background gamma-ray assay laboratory for activation analysis

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Langland, J.K.; Lindstrom, D.J.; Slaback, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    The sources of background in a gamma-ray detector were experimentally determined in underground and surface counting rooms, and an optimized shield was constructed at NIST. The optimum thickness of lead was 10-15 cm, with a greater thickness giving an increased background due to the buildup of tertiary cosmic-ray particles. Neither cadmium, tin, copper nor plastic (hydrocarbon or fluorocarbon) was desirable as a shield liner, since all these increased the background continuum or introduced characteristic peaks into the background spectrum. Two broad peaks in the background result from inelastic scattering of cosmic-ray neutrons (0.02 cm -2 s -1 ) in germanium. These neutrons also excite the lower nuclear levels of lead and structural iron to produce additional gamma-ray peaks in the spectrum. The influence of the 20 MW NIST reactor, located 60 m from the detector, was undetectable. Comparisons among detectors and locations clearly separate cosmic from environmental components of the background. (orig.)

  16. MAGNETIC STRUCTURES IN GAMMA-RAY BURST JETS PROBED BY GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Wakashima, Yudai; Yonemochi, Hajime; Sakashita, Tomonori; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Gunji, Shuichi; Toukairin, Noriyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12, Koshirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Mihara, Tatehiro [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Toma, Kenji, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2012-10-10

    We report polarization measurements in two prompt emissions of gamma-ray bursts, GRB 110301A and GRB 110721A, observed with the gamma-ray burst polarimeter (GAP) on borad the IKAROS solar sail mission. We detected linear polarization signals from each burst with polarization degree of {Pi} = 70 {+-} 22% with statistical significance of 3.7{sigma} for GRB 110301A, and {Pi} = 84{sup +16}{sub -28}% with 3.3{sigma} confidence level for GRB 110721A. We did not detect any significant change of polarization angle. These two events had shorter durations and dimmer brightness compared with GRB 100826A, which showed a significant change of polarization angle, as reported in Yonetoku et al. Synchrotron emission model can be consistent with the data of the three GRBs, while the photospheric quasi-thermal emission model is not favored. We suggest that magnetic field structures in the emission region are globally ordered fields advected from the central engine.

  17. Terrestrial gamma-ray flash production by lightning

    Carlson, Brant E.

    Terrestrial gamma-ray flashes (TGFs) are brief flashes of gamma-rays originating in the Earth's atmosphere and observed by satellites. First observed in 1994 by the Burst And Transient Source Experiment on board the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory, TGFs consist of one or more ˜1 ms pulses of gamma-rays with a total fluence of ˜1/cm2, typically observed when the satellite is near active thunderstorms. TGFs have subsequently been observed by other satellites to have a very hard spectrum (harder than dN/d E ∝ 1/ E ) that extends from below 25 keV to above 20 MeV. When good lightning data exists, TGFs are closely associated with measurable lightning discharge. Such discharges are typically observed to occur within 300 km of the sub-satellite point and within several milliseconds of the TGF observation. The production of these intense energetic bursts of photons is the puzzle addressed herein. The presence of high-energy photons implies a source of bremsstrahlung, while bremsstrahlung implies a source of energetic electrons. As TGFs are associated with lightning, fields produced by lightning are naturally suggested to accelerate these electrons. Initial ideas about TGF production involved electric fields high above thunderstorms as suggested by upper atmospheric lightning research and the extreme energies required for lower-altitude sources. These fields, produced either quasi-statically by charges in the cloud and ionosphere or dynamically by radiation from lightning strokes, can indeed drive TGF production, but the requirements on the source lightning are too extreme and therefore not common enough to account for all existing observations. In this work, studies of satellite data, the physics of energetic electron and photon production, and consideration of lightning physics motivate a new mechanism for TGF production by lightning current pulses. This mechanism is then developed and used to make testable predictions. TGF data from satellite observations are compared

  18. Anisotropy of the cosmic gamma-ray background from dark matter annihilation

    Ando, Shin'ichiro; Komatsu, Eiichiro

    2006-01-01

    High-energy photons from pair annihilation of dark matter particles contribute to the cosmic gamma-ray background (CGB) observed in a wide energy range. Since dark matter particles are weakly interacting, annihilation can happen only in high density regions such as dark matter halos. The precise shape of the energy spectrum of CGB depends on the nature of dark matter particles--their mass and annihilation cross section, as well as the cosmological evolution of dark matter halos. In order to discriminate between the signals from dark matter annihilation and other astrophysical sources, however, the information from the energy spectrum of CGB may not be sufficient. We show that dark matter annihilation not only contributes to the mean CGB intensity, but also produces a characteristic anisotropy, which provides a powerful tool for testing the origins of the observed CGB. We develop the formalism based on a halo model approach to analytically calculate the three-dimensional power spectrum of dark matter clumping, which determines the power spectrum of annihilation signals. We show that the expected sensitivity of future gamma-ray detectors such as the Gamma Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) should allow us to measure the angular power spectrum of CGB anisotropy, if dark matter particles are supersymmetric neutralinos and they account for most of the observed mean intensity of CGB in GeV region. On the other hand, if dark matter has a relatively small mass, on the order of 20 MeV, and accounts for most of the CGB in MeV region, then the future Advanced Compton Telescope (ACT) should be able to measure the angular power spectrum in MeV region. As the intensity of photons from annihilation is proportional to the density squared, we show that the predicted shape of the angular power spectrum of gamma rays from dark matter annihilation is different from that due to other astrophysical sources such as blazars and supernovae, whose intensity is linearly proportional to

  19. The supernova-gamma-ray burst-jet connection.

    Hjorth, Jens

    2013-06-13

    The observed association between supernovae and gamma-ray bursts represents a cornerstone in our understanding of the nature of gamma-ray bursts. The collapsar model provides a theoretical framework for this connection. A key element is the launch of a bipolar jet (seen as a gamma-ray burst). The resulting hot cocoon disrupts the star, whereas the (56)Ni produced gives rise to radioactive heating of the ejecta, seen as a supernova. In this discussion paper, I summarize the observational status of the supernova-gamma-ray burst connection in the context of the 'engine' picture of jet-driven supernovae and highlight SN 2012bz/GRB 120422A--with its luminous supernova but intermediate high-energy luminosity--as a possible transition object between low-luminosity and jet gamma-ray bursts. The jet channel for supernova explosions may provide new insights into supernova explosions in general.

  20. Gamma-Ray Bursts: 4th Huntsville Symposium. Proceedings

    Meegan, C.A.; Preece, R.D.; Koshut, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Fourth Huntsville Gamma-Ray Bursts Symposium held in September, 1997 in Huntsville, Alabama, USA. This conference occurred at a crucial time in the history of the gamma-ray burst research. In early 1997, 30 years after the detection of the first gamma-ray burst by the Vela satellites, counterparts to bursts were finally detected at optical and radio wavelengths. The symposium attracted about 200 scientists from 16 countries. Some of the topics discussed include gamma-ray burst spectra, x-ray observations, optical observations, radio observations, host galaxies, shocks and afterglows and models of gamma-ray bursts. There were 183 papers presented, out of these, 16 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  1. Recent achievements in the field of gamma-ray bursts

    Lu Tan; Dai Zigao

    2001-01-01

    Recent progresses in the field of gamma-ray bursts is briefly introduced. Gamma-ray bursts are the most energetic explosion since the Big Bang of the universe. Within a few tens of seconds, the energy released in gamma-ray bursts could be several hundred times larger than that released form the sun in its whole life (about 10 billion years). The authors will first briefly discuss the observational facts, based on which the authors will discuss the standard fireball model, the dynamical behavior and evolution of gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. Then, various observational phenomena that contradict the standard model are given and the importance of these post-standard effects are pointed out. The questions related to the energy source of gamma-ray bursts are still unanswered, and other important questions also remain to be solved

  2. Photoneutron cross sections measurements in 9Be, 13C e 17O with thermal neutron capture gamma-rays

    Semmler, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Photoneutron cross sections measurements of 9 Be, 13 C and 17 O have been obtained in the energy interval between 1,6 and 10,8 MeV, using neutron capture gamma-rays with high resolution in energy (3 a 21 eV), produced by 21 target materials, placed inside a tangential beam port, near the core of the IPEN/CNEN-SP IEA-R1 (5 MW) research reactor. The samples have been irradiated inside a 4π geometry neutron detector system 'Long Counter', 520,5 cm away from the capture target. The capture gamma-ray flux was determined by means of the analysis of the gamma spectrum obtained by using a Ge(Li) solid-state detector (EG and G ORTEC, 25 cm 3 , 5%), previously calibrated with capture gamma-rays from a standard target of Nitrogen (Melamine). The neutron photoproduction cross section has been measured for each target capture gamma-ray spectrum (compound cross section). A inversion matrix methodology to solve inversion problems for unfolding the set of experimental compound cross sections, was used in order to obtain the cross sections at specific excitation energy values (principal gamma line energies of the capture targets). The cross sections obtained at the energy values of the principal gamma lines were compared with experimental data reported by other authors, with have employed different gamma-ray sources. A good agreement was observed among the experimental data in this work with reported in the literature. (author)

  3. Gamma-Ray imaging for nuclear security and safety: Towards 3-D gamma-ray vision

    Vetter, Kai; Barnowksi, Ross; Haefner, Andrew; Joshi, Tenzing H. Y.; Pavlovsky, Ryan; Quiter, Brian J.

    2018-01-01

    The development of portable gamma-ray imaging instruments in combination with the recent advances in sensor and related computer vision technologies enable unprecedented capabilities in the detection, localization, and mapping of radiological and nuclear materials in complex environments relevant for nuclear security and safety. Though multi-modal imaging has been established in medicine and biomedical imaging for some time, the potential of multi-modal data fusion for radiological localization and mapping problems in complex indoor and outdoor environments remains to be explored in detail. In contrast to the well-defined settings in medical or biological imaging associated with small field-of-view and well-constrained extension of the radiation field, in many radiological search and mapping scenarios, the radiation fields are not constrained and objects and sources are not necessarily known prior to the measurement. The ability to fuse radiological with contextual or scene data in three dimensions, in analog to radiological and functional imaging with anatomical fusion in medicine, provides new capabilities enhancing image clarity, context, quantitative estimates, and visualization of the data products. We have developed new means to register and fuse gamma-ray imaging with contextual data from portable or moving platforms. These developments enhance detection and mapping capabilities as well as provide unprecedented visualization of complex radiation fields, moving us one step closer to the realization of gamma-ray vision in three dimensions.

  4. Gamma-rays and the case for baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology

    Stecker, F. W.

    1977-01-01

    The baryon symmetric big-bang cosmologies offer an explanation of the present photon-baryon ratio in the universe, the best present explanation of the diffuse gamma-ray background spectrum in the 1-200 MeV range, and a mechanism for galaxy formation. In regard to He production, evidence is discussed that nucleosynthesis of He may have taken place after the galaxies were formed.

  5. Neutron activation analysis for sulphur in coal samples and moisture content by gamma-ray transmission

    Selvi, S.

    1993-01-01

    A neutron activation analysis method is described for the determination of sulphur in coal samples by analysing the beta spectrum emitted from 32 P and 33 P following the reactions 32 S(n, p) 32 P and 33 S(n, p) 33 P using 252 Cf as a source of neutrons. The transmission of the combined gamma-rays emitted from three 137 Cs and three 241 Am sources is used to measure the water content of the coal samples. (author)

  6. Multiwavelength Study of Gamma-Ray Bright Blazars

    Morozova, Daria; Larionov, V. M.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Jorstad, S. G.; Marscher, A. P.; Troitskii, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate total intensity radio images of 6 gamma-ray bright blazars (BL Lac, 3C 279, 3C 273, W Com, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A) and their optical and gamma-ray light curves to study connections between gamma-ray and optical brightness variations and changes in the parsec-scale radio structure. We use high-resolution maps obtained by the BU group at 43 GHz with the VLBA, optical light curves constructed by the St.Petersburg State U. (Russia) team using measurements with the 0.4 m telescope of St.Petersburg State U. (LX200) and the 0.7 m telescope of the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (AZT-8), and gamma-ray light curves, which we have constructed with data provided by the Fermi Large Area Telescope. Over the period from August 2008 to November 2009, superluminal motion is found in all 6 objects with apparent speed ranging from 2c to 40c. The blazars with faster apparent speeds, 3C 273, 3C 279, PKS 1510-089, and 3C 66A, exhibit stronger variability of the gamma-ray emission. There is a tendency for sources with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares to have faster jet speed than sources with gamma-ray light curves with no sharp peaks. Gamma-ray light curves with sharply peaked gamma-ray flares possess a stronger gamma-ray/optical correlations. The research at St.Petersburg State U. was funded by the Minister of Education and Science of the Russian Federation (state contract N#P123). The research at BU was funded in part by NASA Fermi Guest Investigator grant NNX08AV65G and by NSF grant AST-0907893. The VLBA is an instrument of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory, a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  7. Parsec-Scale Radio Properties of Gamma-ray Bright Blazars

    Linford, Justin

    2012-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio properties of blazars detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have been investigated using observations with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). Comparisons between LAT and non-LAT detected samples were made using both archival and contemporaneous data. In total, 244 sources were used in the LAT-detected sample. This very large, radio flux-limited sample of active galactic nuclei (AGN) provides insights into the mechanism that produces strong gamma-ray emission. It has been found that LAT-detected BL Lac objects are very similar to the non-LAT BL Lac objects in most properties, although LAT BL Lac objects may have longer jets. The LAT flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) are significantly different from non-LAT FSRQs and are likely extreme members of the FSRQ population. Archival radio data indicated that there was no significant correlation between radio flux density and gamma-ray flux, especially at lower flux levels. However, contemporaneous observations showed a strong correlation. Most of the differences between the LAT and non-LAT populations are related to the cores of the sources, indicating that the gamma-ray emission may originate near the base of the jets (i.e., within a few pc of the central engine). There is some indication that LAT-detected sources may have larger jet opening angles than the non-LAT sources. Strong core polarization is significantly more common among the LAT sources, suggesting that gamma-ray emission is related to strong, uniform magnetic fields at the base of the jets of the blazars. Observations of sources in two epochs indicate that core fractional polarization was higher when the objects were detected by the LAT. Included in our sample are several non-blazar AGN such as 3C84, M82, and NGC 6251.

  8. An Artificial Intelligence Classification Tool and Its Application to Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.; Giblin, Timothy; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Mallozzi, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    Despite being the most energetic phenomenon in the known universe, the astrophysics of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has still proven difficult to understand. It has only been within the past five years that the GRB distance scale has been firmly established, on the basis of a few dozen bursts with x-ray, optical, and radio afterglows. The afterglows indicate source redshifts of z=1 to z=5, total energy outputs of roughly 10(exp 52) ergs, and energy confined to the far x-ray to near gamma-ray regime of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multi-wavelength afterglow observations have thus far provided more insight on the nature of the GRB mechanism than the GRB observations; far more papers have been written about the few observed gamma-ray burst afterglows in the past few years than about the thousands of detected gamma-ray bursts. One reason the GRB central engine is still so poorly understood is that GRBs have complex, overlapping characteristics that do not appear to be produced by one homogeneous process. At least two subclasses have been found on the basis of duration, spectral hardness, and fluence (time integrated flux); Class 1 bursts are softer, longer, and brighter than Class 2 bursts (with two second durations indicating a rough division). A third GRB subclass, overlapping the other two, has been identified using statistical clustering techniques; Class 3 bursts are intermediate between Class 1 and Class 2 bursts in brightness and duration, but are softer than Class 1 bursts. We are developing a tool to aid scientists in the study of GRB properties. In the process of developing this tool, we are building a large gamma-ray burst classification database. We are also scientifically analyzing some GRB data as we develop the tool. Tool development thus proceeds in tandem with the dataset for which it is being designed. The tool invokes a modified KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) process, which is described as follows.

  9. Characteristics of the telescope for high energy gamma-ray astronomy selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory

    Hughes, E. B.; Hofstadter, R.; Rolfe, J.; Johansson, A.; Bertsch, D. L.; Cruickshank, W. J.; Ehrmann, C. H.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The high energy gamma-ray telescope selected for definition studies on the Gamma Ray Observatory provides a substantial improvement in observational capability over earlier instruments. It will have about 20 times more sensitivity, cover a much broader energy range, have considerably better energy resolution and provide a significantly improved angular resolution. The design and performance are described.

  10. The Gamma-Ray Blazar Content of the Northern Sky

    Michelson, Peter

    2003-07-16

    Using survey data, we have re-evaluated the correlation of flat spectrum radio sources with EGRET sources in the Northern sky. An analysis incorporating the radio and X-ray properties and the {gamma}-ray source localization is used to gauge the reliability of associations and to search for counterparts of previously unidentified EGRET sources. Above |b|=10{sup o}, where the classification is complete, we find that 70% of the Northern EGRET sources have counterparts similar to the bright EGRET blazars. For several of these we identify known blazar counterparts more likely than the earlier proposed 3EG association; for {approx}20 we have new identifications. Spectroscopic confirmation of these candidates is in progress and we have found flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac counterparts with redshifts as high as 4. We also find strong evidence for a set of 28 objects with no plausible counterpart like the known EGRET blazars. These thus represent either a new extragalactic population or a population of Galactic objects with a large scale height. The survey has been extended into the plane, where we find several new blazar candidates; the bulk of the sources are, however, Galactic. Looking ahead to the GLAST era, we predict that several of the present 3EG sources are composite and that higher resolution data will break these into multiple blazar IDs.

  11. High-energy gamma-ray emission from the Galactic Center

    Mayer-Hasselwander, H.A.; Bertsch, D.L.; Dingus, B.L.

    1998-01-01

    '. A compact sources model hints at an origin in pulsars. While the spectrum suggests middle-aged pulsars like Vela, too many are required to produce the observed flux. The only detected very young pulsar, the Crab pulsar, has an incompatible spectrum. However, it is not proven that the Crab spectrum...... is characteristic for all young pulsars: thus, a single or a few very young pulsars (at the GC not detectable in radio emission), provided their gamma-ray emission is larger than that of the Crab pulsar by a factor of 13, are likely candidates. Alternatively, more exotic scenarios, related to the postulated central...

  12. Modern utilization of accurate methods for gamma-ray spectral analysis detected by high pure germanium (HPGE) detectors through different applications

    El-Sayed, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    this thesis presents a novel way for application of wavelet trans-from theory in gamma -ray spectroscopy. this technique was applied for searching real and weak peaks, solving problem of multiplets, smoothing and de-noising gamma-ray spectra, and using artificial neural network for identifying peaks. a brief description about gamma-ray spectrum analysis is presented . we discussed the necessary formulas and algorithms of wavelet theory to solve these main problems in gamma ray spectrum analysis. the algorithm of peak search was applied on different types of spectra, IAEA spectra and other sources of gamma spectra. the algorithm of multiplets algorithm was applied successfully on different types of multiplets. the algorithm of denoising was applied successfully on different sources of spectra

  13. Gamma ray sensitivity of superheated liquid

    Sawamura, Teruko; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Narita, Masakuni

    2000-01-01

    The superheated drop detector (SDD) is composed of droplets of sensitive liquid with a low-boiling point and a medium supporting the dispersed droplets throughout the medium. The SDD has been mainly used for neutron dosimetry and recently also for gamma-rays. While for neutrons the conditions for bubble formation have been discussed, there has been little work for gamma-rays. We investigated the conditions for low LET radiation, such as protons and gamma-rays, and showed octafluoropropane (C 3 F 8 , boiling point -36.7degC) as advantageous liquid. The bubble formation condition is given by the energy density imparted from the charged particle to the sensitive liquid. The energy density requirement means that the energy must be deposited over a definite region length, effective to produce the vapor nucleus that becomes the visible bubble. Recently for γ-rays, Evans and Wang proposed the model that the vaporization was triggered by the energy deposition in a 'cluster' including many events in proximity in a superheated liquid. Measurements of the γ-ray sensitivity have not been sufficiently carried out and therefore the effective length or the cluster model has not been well-established. In this study the detection sensitivity was evaluated by measuring the life time of a liquid drop exposed to γ-rays. We developed a device trapping a superheated drop, where a single drop of test liquid was trapped and decompressed by an acoustic standing wave field. When a liquid drop with volume V[cm 3 ] is exposed to a γ-ray flux φ γ [cm -2 s -1 ], the average evaporation rate λ(T, P) [s -1 ] (T: temperature, P: decompressed pressure) is expressed as λ(T, P)=K γ Vφ γ (1), K γ [cm -1 ] is the γ-ray detection sensitivity per unit volume of the sensitive liquid and unit fluence. If the average rate of spontaneous evaporation is λ 0 (T, P), then the probability distribution of the life time t, the probability that t > τ, is expressed by X(τ)=exp{-(λ+λ 0 )

  14. Early Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Observations of the Quasar 3C454.3

    Abdo, A

    2009-05-07

    This is the first report of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of the quasar 3C 454.3, which has been undergoing pronounced long-term outbursts since 2000. The data from the Large Area Telescope (LAT), covering 2008 July 7-October 6, indicate strong, highly variable {gamma}-ray emission with an average flux of {approx} 3 x 10{sup -6} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, for energies > 100 MeV. The {gamma}-ray flux is variable, with strong, distinct, symmetrically-shaped flares for which the flux increases by a factor of several on a time scale of about three days. This variability indicates a compact emission region, and the requirement that the source is optically thin to pair-production implies relativistic beaming with Doppler factor {delta} > 8, consistent with the values inferred from VLBI observations of superluminal expansion ({delta} {approx} 25). The observed {gamma}-ray spectrum is not consistent with a simple power-law, but instead steepens strongly above {approx} 2 GeV, and is well described by a broken power-law with photon indices of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 3.5 below and above the break, respectively. This is the first direct observation of a break in the spectrum of a high luminosity blazar above 100 MeV, and it is likely direct evidence for an intrinsic break in the energy distribution of the radiating particles. Alternatively, the spectral softening above 2GeV could be due to -ray absorption via photonphoton pair production on the soft X-ray photon field of the host AGN, but such an interpretation would require the dissipation region to be located very close ({approx}< 100 gravitational radii) to the black hole, which would be inconsistent with the X-ray spectrum of the source.

  15. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    Herrmann, H W; Young, C S; Mack, J M; Kim, Y H; McEvoy, A; Evans, S; Sedillo, T; Batha, S; Schmitt, M; Wilson, D C; Langenbrunner, J R; Malone, R; Kaufman, M I; Cox, B C; Frogget, B; Tunnell, T W; Miller, E K; Ali, Z A; Stoeffl, W; Horsfield, C J

    2010-01-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ∼6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 10 13 -10 17 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 10 16 -10 20 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution

  16. ICF gamma-ray reaction history diagnostics

    Herrmann, H. W.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Batha, S.; Schmitt, M.; Wilson, D. C.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Malone, R.; Kaufman, M. I.; Cox, B. C.; Frogget, B.; Miller, E. K.; Ali, Z. A.; Tunnell, T. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.

    2010-08-01

    Reaction history measurements, such as nuclear bang time and burn width, are fundamental components of diagnosing ICF implosions and will be employed to help steer the National Ignition Facility (NIF) towards ignition. Fusion gammas provide a direct measure of nuclear interaction rate (unlike x-rays) without being compromised by Doppler spreading (unlike neutrons). Gas Cherenkov Detectors that convert fusion gamma rays to UV/visible Cherenkov photons for collection by fast optical recording systems have established their usefulness in illuminating ICF physics in several experimental campaigns at OMEGA. In particular, bang time precision better than 25 ps has been demonstrated, well below the 50 ps accuracy requirement defined by the NIF. NIF Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostics are being developed based on optimization of sensitivity, bandwidth, dynamic range, cost, and NIF-specific logistics, requirements and extreme radiation environment. Implementation will occur in two phases. The first phase consists of four channels mounted to the outside of the target chamber at ~6 m from target chamber center (GRH-6m) coupled to ultra-fast photo-multiplier tubes (PMT). This system is intended to operate in the 1013-1017 neutron yield range expected during the early THD campaign. It will have high enough bandwidth to provide accurate bang times and burn widths for the expected THD reaction histories (> 80 ps fwhm). Successful operation of the first GRH-6m channel has been demonstrated at OMEGA, allowing a verification of instrument sensitivity, timing and EMI/background suppression. The second phase will consist of several channels located just inside the target bay shield wall at 15 m from target chamber center (GRH-15m) with optical paths leading through the cement shield wall to well-shielded streak cameras and PMTs. This system is intended to operate in the 1016-1020 yield range expected during the DT ignition campaign, providing higher temporal resolution for the

  17. Prompt gamma-ray analysis of steel slag in concrete

    Naqvi, Akhtar Abbas; Garwan, Muhammad Ahmad; Nagadi, Mahmoud Mohammad; Rehman, Khateeb-ur; Raashid, Mohammad; Masalehuddin Mohiuddin, Mohammad; Al-Amoudi, Omar Saeed Baghabra

    2009-01-01

    Blast furnace slag (BFS) is added to Portland cement concrete to increase its durability, particularly its corrosion resistance. Monitoring the concentration of BFS in concrete for quality control purposes is desired. In this study, the concentration of BFS in concrete was measured by utilizing an accelerator-based prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The optimum size of the BFS cement concrete specimen that produces the maximum intensity of gamma rays at the detector location was calculated through Monte Carlo simulations. The simulation results were experimentally validated through the gamma-ray yield measurement from BFS cement concrete specimens having different radii. The concentration of BFS in the cement concrete specimens was assessed through calcium and silicon gamma-ray yield measurement from cement concrete specimens containing 5 to 80 wt% BFS. The yield of calcium gamma rays decreases with increasing BFS concentration in concrete while the yield of silicon gamma rays increases with increasing BFS concentration in concrete. The calcium-to-silicon gamma-ray yield ratio has an inverse relation with BFS concentration in concrete. (author)

  18. Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry data

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide an up-to-date review on the use of gamma ray spectrometry for radioelement mapping and, where appropriate, provide guidelines on the correct application of the method. It is a useful training guide for those new to the method. It gives a broad coverage of all aspects of the gamma ray method and provides a comprehensive list of references. The report gives an overview of the theoretical background to radioactivity and the gamma ray spectrometric method followed by a review of the application of the method to mapping the radiation environment. A brief outline is presented of the principles of radioactivity, the interaction of gamma rays with matter, instrumentation applied to the measurement of gamma rays, and the quantities and units in contemporary use in gamma ray spectrometry. This is followed by a review of the fundamentals of gamma ray spectrometry, and its application to ground and airborne mapping. Covered are also all aspects of the calibration and data processing procedures required for estimating the ground concentrations of the radioelements. The procedures required for the recovery of older survey data are also presented as well as an overview of data presentation and integration for mapping applications

  19. Design Study for Direction Variable Compton Scattering Gamma Ray

    Kii, T.; Omer, M.; Negm, H.; Choi, Y. W.; Kinjo, R.; Yoshida, K.; Konstantin, T.; Kimura, N.; Ishida, K.; Imon, H.; Shibata, M.; Shimahashi, K.; Komai, T.; Okumura, K.; Zen, H.; Masuda, K.; Hori, T.; Ohgaki, H.

    2013-03-01

    A monochromatic gamma ray beam is attractive for isotope-specific material/medical imaging or non-destructive inspection. A laser Compton scattering (LCS) gamma ray source which is based on the backward Compton scattering of laser light on high-energy electrons can generate energy variable quasi-monochromatic gamma ray. Due to the principle of the LCS gamma ray, the direction of the gamma beam is limited to the direction of the high-energy electrons. Then the target object is placed on the beam axis, and is usually moved if spatial scanning is required. In this work, we proposed an electron beam transport system consisting of four bending magnets which can stick the collision point and control the electron beam direction, and a laser system consisting of a spheroidal mirror and a parabolic mirror which can also stick the collision point. Then the collision point can be placed on one focus of the spheroid. Thus gamma ray direction and collision angle between the electron beam and the laser beam can be easily controlled. As the results, travelling direction of the LCS gamma ray can be controlled under the limitation of the beam transport system, energy of the gamma ray can be controlled by controlling incident angle of the colliding beams, and energy spread can be controlled by changing the divergence of the laser beam.

  20. The LASL gamma-ray burst astronomy program

    Klebesadel, R.W.; Evans, W.D.; Laros, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst observations performed by LASL began with the identification and initial report of the phenomenon from data acquired by the Vela satellites. The Vela instruments have recorded responses to 73 gamma-ray bursts over a ten-year interval, and are continuing to contribute toward these observations. Similar instrumentation was included aboard the NRL SOLRAD 11 spacecraft. These performed well but suffered an early demise. Recently, the LASL gamma-ray burst astronomy program has been enhanced through the implementation of experiments aboard the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and ISEF-C spacecraft. Both of these experiments are continuing to contribute data vital to trigonometric directional analyses. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of effective dose equivalent from environmental gamma rays

    Saito, K.; Tsutsumi, M.; Moriuchi, S.; Petoussi, N.; Zankl, M.; Veit, R.; Jacob, P.; Drexler, G.

    1991-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose equivalents for environmental gamma rays were calculated using human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods accounting rigorously the environmental gamma ray fields. It was suggested that body weight is the dominant factor to determine organ doses. The weight function expressing organ doses was introduced. Using this function, the variation in organ doses due to several physical factors were investigated. A detector having gamma-ray response similar to that of human bodies has been developed using a NaI(Tl) scintillator. (author)

  2. Gamma-ray bursts from black hole accretion disks

    Strong, I.B.

    1975-01-01

    The suggestion was first made more than a year ago that gamma-ray bursts might originate in the neighborhood of black holes, based on some rather circumstantial evidence linking Cygnus X-1, the prime black-hole candidate, with two of the then-known gamma-ray bursts. Since then additional evidence makes the idea still more plausible. The evidence is summarized briefly, a physical model for production of gamma-ray bursts is given, and several of the more interesting consequences of such an origin are pointed out. (orig.) [de

  3. Cellular response to low Gamma-ray doses

    Manzanares A, E; Vega C, H R; Leon, L.C. de . [Unidades Academicas de Estudios Nucleares, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. 336, 98000 Zacatecas (Mexico); Rebolledo D, O; Radillo J, F [Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias de la Universidad de Colima, Colima (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    Lymphocytes, obtained from healthy donors, were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp70 and Hsc70.Hsp70 protein was detected after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 1.25 c Gy gamma-ray dose, lymphocytes expressed Hsp70 protein, indicating a threshold response to gamma rays. (Author)

  4. High energy photons and neutrinos from gamma ray bursts

    Dar, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble space telescope has recently discovered thousands of gigantic comet-like objects in a ring around the central star in the nearest planetary nebula. It is suggested that such circumstellar rings exist around most of stars. Collisions of the relativistic debris from gamma ray bursts in dense stellar regions with such gigantic comet-like objects, which have been stripped off from the circumstellar rings by gravitational perturbations, produce detectable fluxes of high energy gamma-rays and neutrinos from gamma ray bursts

  5. Analytical applications of neutron capture gamma-rays

    Lindstrom, R.M.; Paul, R.L.; Anderson, D.L.; Paul, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    Field and industrial applications of neutron capture gamma-ray spectrometry with isotopic sources or neutron generators are economically important. Geochemical exploration in boreholes is done routinely with neutron probes. Coal and ores are assayed with analyzers adjacent to a conveyor belt in dozens of industrial facilities. The use of capture gamma rays for explosives detection has been described in the literature, both for scanning airline baggage and for characterizing obsolete munitions; a packaged system for the latter is available commercially. Generalizations are drawn from the history of the field, and predictions are made about the future usefulness of capture gamma rays. (author)

  6. Optical telescope BIRT in ORIGIN for gamma ray burst observing

    Content, Robert; Content, Robert; Sharples, Ray

    2012-01-01

    The ORIGIN concept is a space mission with a gamma ray, an X-ray and an optical telescope to observe the gamma ray bursts at large Z to determine the composition and density of the intergalactic matter in the line of sight. It was an answer to the ESA M3 call for proposal. The optical telescope i...... length. All 3 instruments use the same 2k x 2k detector simultaneously so that telescope pointing and tip-tilt control of a fold mirror permit to place the gamma ray burst on the desired instrument without any other mechanism. © 2012 SPIE....

  7. Cellular response to low Gamma-ray doses

    Manzanares A, E.; Vega C, H.R.; Leon, L.C. de; Rebolledo D, O.; Radillo J, F.

    2002-01-01

    Lymphocytes, obtained from healthy donors, were exposed to a low strength gamma-ray field to determine heat shock protein expression in function of radiation dose. Protein identification was carried out using mAb raised against Hsp70 and Hsc70.Hsp70 protein was detected after lymphocyte irradiation. In all cases, an increasing trend of relative amounts of Hsp70 in function to irradiation time was observed. After 1.25 c Gy gamma-ray dose, lymphocytes expressed Hsp70 protein, indicating a threshold response to gamma rays. (Author)

  8. Gamma ray astronomy and search for antimatter in the universe

    Schoenfelder, V.

    1989-01-01

    Gamma ray astronomy provides a powerful tool for searching antimatter in the universe; it probably provides the only means to determine, if the universe has baryon symmetry. Presently existing gamma-ray observations can be interpreted without postulating the existence of antimatter. However, the measurements are not precise enough to definitely exclude the possibility of its existence. The search for antimatter belongs to one of the main scientific objectives of the Gamma Ray Observatory GRO of NASA, which will be launched in 1990 by the Space Shuttle. (orig.)

  9. The quasi-continuum of gamma rays following the decay of superdeformed bands in the Hg region

    Lauritsen, T.; Khoo, T.L.; Janssens, R.V.F. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The quasi-continuum part of the spectrum associated with the decay-out of the yrast superdeformed band in {sup 194}Hg has been extracted. It has for the first time been possible to compare the spin and excitation energy determined from the analysis of the quasi-continuum {gamma} rays to the exact result obtained from the one-step linking transitions.

  10. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Vasudevan, K.; Jos, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M 1 V 1 generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m 2 area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing

  11. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events.

  12. Gamma ray induced mutants in Coleus

    Vasudevan, K; Jos, J S [Central Tuber Crops Research Institute, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    1988-07-01

    The germplasm collection of Chinese potato (Coleus parviflorus Benth) contains almost no variation for yield contributing traits. The crop does not produce seeds. Treatment of underground tubers with 1 kR, 2 kR, 3 kR and 4 kR gamma rays resulted in 50 morphologically different mutants which are maintained as mutant clones. In the M{sub 1}V{sub 1} generation, suspected mutant sprouts, were carefully removed and grown separately. The most interesting mutant types are the following: (i) erect mutant with spoon shaped light green leaves, 30 cm long inflorescences against 20 cm in the control, cylindrical tubers measuring ca. 7.0 cm long and 3 cm girth against 4 cm and 2.5 cm in the control (ii) early mutants 1 and 2, one having less leaf serration, the other having light green small leaves and dwarf type (iii) fleshy leaf mutant, dark green, thick and smooth leaves. Control plants spread almost in 1 m{sup 2} area and bear tubers from the nodes of branches. In the early mutants tuber formation is mainly restricted to the base of the plant, which makes harvest easier. The crop usually matures within 150 - 160 days, the early mutants are ready for harvest 100 days after planting. As the mutants are less spreading, the yield could be increased by closer spacing.

  13. Portable high energy gamma ray imagers

    Guru, S.V.; Squillante, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    To satisfy the needs of high energy gamma ray imagers for industrial nuclear imaging applications, three high energy gamma cameras are presented. The RMD-Pinhole camera uses a lead pinhole collimator and a segmented BGO detector viewed by a 3 in. square position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). This pinhole gamma camera displayed an energy resolution of 25.0% FWHM at the center of the camera at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 6.2 FWHM at 412 keV. The fixed multiple hole collimated camera (FMCC), used a multiple hole collimator and a continuous slab of NaI(Tl) detector viewed by the same PSPMT. The FMCC displayed an energy resolution of 12.4% FWHM at 662 keV at the center of the camera and an angular resolution of 6.0 FWHM at 412 keV. The rotating multiple hole collimated camera (RMCC) used a 180 antisymmetric rotation modulation collimator and CsI(Tl) detectors coupled to PIN silicon photodiodes. The RMCC displayed an energy resolution of 7.1% FWHM at 662 keV and an angular resolution of 4.0 FWHM at 810 keV. The performance of these imagers is discussed in this paper. (orig.)

  14. Uses Of Gamma Rays In Peas Breeding

    Ghunim, A.; Mobakher, H.; Salman, S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of peas varieties grown in Syria are introduced and they have variable characteristics and unstable in the productivity. Therefore this study aims to utilize physical mutagens as the developed technology in plant breeding to obtain high, stable productivity and suitable for human consumption and processing. Two green peas vars (onward, local homsi) were used in this study, and their dry seeds were subjected to different doses of Gamma rays (5.0,7.5,10.0) KR and planted conventional used methods at AL Taibba searching station (20 Km from Damascus) in 1985/1986 season. Individual selection from M2 was practiced based on yield traits. Starting from 1991/1992 season the best selected mutants were used in yield trials to be compared with the best common cultivars. After/3/years of yield trials, the advanced lines were incorporated into field test trials. Some morphological and phonological scores, i.e. green pods yield, dry seeds yield per area were achieved in addition to lab tests. Some strains have advanced in yield of green pods and dry seeds per area compared with the local check. Some other strains. Showed an increase in earliness, length of pods, number of seeds per pod, and number of pods per plant than the local check. Therefore these can be called promising strains and as nucleus for new vars. will be used into verifiable fields, and in large-scale cultivation in order to be released. (Authors)

  15. Characterization of a gamma-ray source based on a laser-plasma accelerator with applications to radiography

    Edwards, R.D.; Sinclair, M.A.; Goldsack, T.J.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F.N.; Clark, E.L.; Dangor, A.E.; Najmudin, Z.; Tatarakis, M.; Walton, B.; Zepf, M.; Ledingham, K.W.D.; Spencer, I.; Norreys, P.A.; Clarke, R.J.; Kodama, R.; Toyama, Y.; Tampo, M.

    2002-01-01

    The application of high intensity laser-produced gamma rays is discussed with regard to picosecond resolution deep-penetration radiography. The spectrum and angular distribution of these gamma rays is measured using an array of thermoluminescent detectors for both an underdense (gas) target and an overdense (solid) target. It is found that the use of an underdense target in a laser plasma accelerator configuration produces a much more intense and directional source. The peak dose is also increased significantly. Radiography is demonstrated in these experiments and the source size is also estimated

  16. Self-powered detector probes for electron and gamma-ray beam monitoring in high-power industrial accelerators

    Lone, M.A.

    1992-08-01

    A self-powered detector (SPD) is a simple passive device that consists of a coaxial probe with a metallic outer sleeve, a mineral oxide insulating layer, and a metallic inner core. SPDs are used in nuclear reactors for monitoring neutron and gamma ray fields. Responses of various SPDs to electron and gamma ray beams from industrial accelerators were investigated with Monte Carlo simulations. By judicious choice of transmission filters, threshold SPD probes were investigated for on-line monitoring of the beam energy spectrum of the high-power IMPELA industrial electron accelerator. (Author) (14 figs, 16 refs.)

  17. A study of the sensitivity of an imaging telescope (GRITS) for high energy gamma-ray astronomy. Final report

    Yearian, M.R.

    1990-08-01

    When a gamma-ray telescope is placed in Earth orbit, it is bombarded by a flux of cosmic protons much greater than the flux of interesting gammas. These protons can interact in the telescope's thermal shielding to produce detectable gamma rays, most of which are vetoed. Since the proton flux is so high, the unvetoed gamma rays constitute a significant background relative to some weak sources. This background increases the observing time required to pinpoint some sources and entirely obscures other sources. Although recent telescopes have been designed to minimize this background, its strength and spectral characteristics were not previously calculated in detail. Monte Carlo calculations are presented which characterize the strength, spectrum and other features of the cosmic proton background using FLUKA, a hadronic cascade program. Several gamma-ray telescopes, including SAS-2, EGRET and the Gamma Ray Imaging Telescope System (GRITS), are analyzed, and their proton-induced backgrounds are characterized. In all cases, the backgrounds are either shown to be low relative to interesting signals or suggestions are made which would reduce the background sufficiently to leave the telescope unimpaired. In addition, several limiting cases are examined for comparison to previous estimates and calibration measurements

  18. Fermi Bubble: Giant Gamma-Ray Bubbles in the Milky Way

    Su, Meng

    Data from the Fermi-LAT reveal two gigantic gamma-ray emitting bubble structures (known as the Fermibubbles), extending˜50° above and below the Galactic center symmetric about the Galactic plane, with a width of˜40∘ in longitude. The gamma-ray emission associated with these bubbles has a significantly harder spectrum ({dN}/{dE} ˜ {E}^{-2}) than the inverse Compton emission from known cosmic ray electrons in the Galactic disk, or the gamma-rays produced by decay of pions from proton-ISM collisions. The bubbles are spatially correlated with the hard-spectrum microwave excess known as the WMAPhaze; the edges of the bubbles also line up with features in the ROSATsoft X-ray maps at 1.5-2keV. The Fermibubble is most likely created by some large episode of energy injection in the Galactic center, such as past accretion events onto the central massive black hole, or a nuclear starburst in the last˜10Myr. Study of the origin and evolution of the bubbles also has the potential to improve our understanding of recent energetic events in the inner Galaxy and the high-latitude cosmic ray population.

  19. Topics in Astrophysical X-Ray and Gamma Ray Spectroscopy. Ph.D. Thesis - Maryland Univ.

    Bussard, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    A number of topics relating to astrophysical observations that have already been made or are currently planned of spectral features, mostly emission lines, in the X-ray and gamma ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum are investigated. These topics include: the production of characteristic X-ray and gamma ray lines by nonthermal ions, spectral features induced by processes occurring in strong magnetic fields, and the positron annihilation line at 0.5 MeV. The rate of X-ray production at 6.8 keV by the 2p to 1s transition in fast hydrogen- and helium-like iron ions, following both electron capture to excited levels and collisional excitation is calculated. The cross section for electron-ion Coulomb collisions in strong fields is also calculated.

  20. Monitoring the sulfur content of coal streams by thermal-neutron-capture gamma-ray analysis

    Martin, J.W.; Hall, A.W.

    1976-07-01

    A theory was developed for evaluating a complex, prompt gamma ray spectrum to serve as the basis for an instrument to monitor continuously the sulfur content of tonnage streams of coal. Equations for the energies and intensities of prompt gamma rays emitted from 13 most significant elements in coal are combined into a single equation that defines the basic electronic design of the meter. The sulfur content of up to 10 tons per hour of coal was determined in pilot plant tests with a prototype meter. The precision of 0.04 percent sulfur substantiates the validity of the theory. In subsequent industrial plant tests the precision was determined to be a comparable 0.05 percent sulfur