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Sample records for gamma-emitting photoaffinity label

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Weidong; Tsipouras, Athanasios; Ok, Hyun; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Gawinowicz, M.A.; Nakanishi, Koji

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Labeled optically pure 3S- and 3R-(diazoacetoxy)-all-trans-retinals were incorporated separately into bacterioopsin to reconstitute functional bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues, 3S- and 3R-diazo-bRs. UV irradiation at 254 nm generated highly reactive carbenes, which cross-linked the radiolabeled retinals to amino acid residues in the vicinity of the β-ionone ring. The 3S- and 3R-diazo analogues were found to cross-link, respectively, to cyanogen bromide fragments CN 7/CN 9 and CN 8/CN 9. More specifically, Thr121 and Gly122 in fragment CN 7 were found to be cross-linked to the 3S-diazo analogue. The identification of cross-linked residues and fragments favors assignments of the seven helices A-G-F-E-D-C-B or B-C-D-E-F-G-A to helices 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 in the two-dimensional electron density map. The present results show that the chromophore chain is oriented with the ionone ring inclined toward the outside of the membrane (the 9-methyl group also faces the extracellular side of the membrane)

  2. Photoaffinity labeling of the follitropin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, J.; Ji, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    A photoactivatable derivative of human follitropin was used to identify the follitropin receptor on porcine granulosa cells. The hormone was condensed with a heterobifunctional reagent, the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of 4-azidobenzoylglycine, and radioiodinated. The 125 I-labeled hormone derivative associated with the same number of receptors as 125 I-hormone itself, but with a slightly lower Ka, 1.12 X 10(10) M-1 compared with 1.4 X 10(10) M-1 for the 125 I-hormone. The binding could be blocked with untreated hormone. Its alpha and beta subunits could be cross-linked to produce alpha beta dimer by photolysis. When the 125 I-hormone derivative bound to the cells was photolyzed for crosslinking and the products resolved by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions, two new bands (106 and 61 kDa) of lower electrophoretic mobility appeared in addition to the alpha, beta, and alpha beta bands. Formation of these crosslinked complexes required photolysis, and the 125 I-hormone derivative specifically bound to cells bearing the receptor. Binding could be blocked by excess untreated follitropin but not with human choriogonadotropin and thyrotropin. Under nonreducing conditions, one major band (104 kDa) of cross-linked complexes appeared. Upon reduction with dithiothreitol and second-dimensional electrophoresis, the 104-kDa band produced two smaller complexes of 75 and 61 kDa, indicating the loss of two components and the existence of intercomponent disulfides. Successful production of the 104-kDa complex requires blocking of free sulfhydryl groups with N-ethylmaleimide. It is, however, independent of various protease inhibitors or the temperature and the time period of hormone incubation with cells or the plasma membrane fraction. The mass estimates and the interaction with the hormone of the photoaffinity-labeled components are discussed

  3. Photoaffinity labeling of the follitropin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J.; Ji, T.H.

    1985-11-15

    A photoactivatable derivative of human follitropin was used to identify the follitropin receptor on porcine granulosa cells. The hormone was condensed with a heterobifunctional reagent, the N-hydroxysuccinimide ester of 4-azidobenzoylglycine, and radioiodinated. The SVI-labeled hormone derivative associated with the same number of receptors as SVI-hormone itself, but with a slightly lower Ka, 1.12 X 10(10) M-1 compared with 1.4 X 10(10) M-1 for the SVI-hormone. The binding could be blocked with untreated hormone. Its alpha and beta subunits could be cross-linked to produce alpha beta dimer by photolysis. When the SVI-hormone derivative bound to the cells was photolyzed for crosslinking and the products resolved by electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels under reducing conditions, two new bands (106 and 61 kDa) of lower electrophoretic mobility appeared in addition to the alpha, beta, and alpha beta bands. Formation of these crosslinked complexes required photolysis, and the SVI-hormone derivative specifically bound to cells bearing the receptor. Binding could be blocked by excess untreated follitropin but not with human choriogonadotropin and thyrotropin. Under nonreducing conditions, one major band (104 kDa) of cross-linked complexes appeared. Upon reduction with dithiothreitol and second-dimensional electrophoresis, the 104-kDa band produced two smaller complexes of 75 and 61 kDa, indicating the loss of two components and the existence of intercomponent disulfides. Successful production of the 104-kDa complex requires blocking of free sulfhydryl groups with N-ethylmaleimide. It is, however, independent of various protease inhibitors or the temperature and the time period of hormone incubation with cells or the plasma membrane fraction. The mass estimates and the interaction with the hormone of the photoaffinity-labeled components are discussed.

  4. Photoaffinity Labeling Studies on a Promoter of Dendritic Spine Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibucao, Kevin Carlo Abril

    The small molecule BTA-EG4 has been shown to be a promoter of dendritic spine formation. The mechanism behind this phenomenon, however, is not well understood. The work in this dissertation is motivated by this gap in knowledge. The first part of this dissertation focuses on photoaffinity labeling studies to identify the cellular targets of BTA-EG4. Chapter 1 provides a summary of Alzheimer's disease, the rational design of BTA-EG 4, and methods to determine targets of small molecules. In Chapter 2, the synthesis of a BTA-EG4-based photoaffinity labeling probe and photodegradation studies are presented. Kinetic studies demonstrate that the probe photolyzes rapidly under UV light. In Chapter 3, photoaffinity labeling studies and subsequent protein identification experiments are reported. Competition experiments with the photoaffinity labeling probe and BTA-EG4 demonstrate that the probe labels a 55-kDa protein specifically. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the 55-kDa protein is the actin binding protein fascin 1. The second part of this dissertation focuses on the major protein identified from photoaffinity labeling studies, fascin 1. Chapter 4 provides a brief survey of the structure and function of fascin 1. In Chapter 5, characterizations of the interaction between BTA-EG4 and fascin 1 are reported. Isothermal titration calorimetry confirms the physical binding between fascin 1 and BTA-EG6, a BTA-EG4 analog. Slow speed sedimentation assays reveal that BTA-EG4 does not affect the actin-bundling activity of fascin 1. However, GST pull-down experiments show that BTA-EG4 inhibits the binding of fascin 1 with the GTPase Rab35. In addition, this work demonstrates that BTA-EG4 may be mechanistically distinct from the known fascin inhibitor G2.

  5. Synthesis of I-125 labeled photoaffinity rapamycin analogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, A.Y.L.; Yamashita, D.S.; Holt, D.A.; Heys, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Two no-carrier-added 125 I-labelled photoaffinity rapamycin analogs were prepared: 7-demethoxy-7-(4-azido-3- 125 I-benzyloxy) rapamycin and its C 28 -C 29 seco analog. The key reactions of the synthesis were substitution of the C 7 methoxyl of rapamycin with 4-azido-3-tributylstannylbenzyloxy group, exchange of tributyltin with 125 I using Na 125 I and Chloramine-T, and a ZnCl 2 mediated retro-Aldol cleavage of the C 28 -C 29 bond of rapamycin. (author)

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of the oxysterol binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, F.R.; Kandutsch, A.A.; Anzalone, L.; Spencer, T.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cytosolic receptor protein for oxygenated sterols, that is thought to be involved in the regulation of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol biosynthesis, can be labeled covalently by the photoactivated affinity compound [5,6- 3 H]-7,7'-azocholestane-3β,25-diol (I). Several other compounds were tested including 25-hydroxycholesta-4,6-dien-3-one, 25-azido-27-norcholest-5-en-3β-ol,3β,25-dihydroxycholest-5-en-7-one and 3β-hydroxycholesta-8(14),9(11)-dien-15-one. However, these sterols either did not bind to the receptor with adequate affinity or did not react covalently with the receptor during photolysis. Compound I binds to the receptor with very high affinity (K/sub d/ = 30 nM). After activation with long wavelength UV, two tritium labeled proteins, M/sub r/ approximately 95K and 65K daltons, are found upon SDS gel electrophoresis. No labeling occurs when the binding reaction is carried out in the presence of a large excess of 25-hydroxycholesterol. It is possible that the smaller polypeptide is a degradation product. Under the reaction conditions investigated so far labeling is relatively inefficient (< 1% of bound sterol). These results are generally consistent with previous information suggesting that the M/sub r/ of the receptor subunit is 97,000. Covalent labeling of the receptor should greatly facilitate its further purification and characterization

  7. Photoaffinity labelling of high affinity dopamine binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, G.M.; McCarry, B.E.; Mishra, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    A photoactive analogue of the dopamine agonist 2-amino-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronapthalene (ADTN) has been synthesized and used to photoaffinity label dopamine binding proteins prepared from bovine caudate nucleus. N-(3-]N'-4-azidobenzamidol]-aminopropyl)-aminopropyl)-ADTN (AzB-AP-ADTN) was incubated with caudate membranes and irradiated with UV light. Membranes were then repeatedly washed by centrifugation to remove excess photolabel. A binding assay, using ( 3 H)-SCH 23390 (a D 1 specific antagonist), was then performed to evaluate the loss of receptor density in the photolyzed preparation. AzB-AP-ADTN irreversibly blocked ( 3 H)-SCH 23390 binding in a dose-dependent manner. Scatchard analysis revealed a decrease in the B/sub max/, with no significant change in the K/sub d/, of ( 3 H)-SCH 23390 binding. Compounds which compete for D 1 receptor binding (such as dopamine, SKF 38393 or apomorphine), proteted the SCH 23390 binding site from inactivation. This data would suggest that the novel photoaffinity ligand, AzB-AP-ADTN, can covalently label the D 1 (adenylate cyclase linked) dopamine receptor

  8. A one-pot radiosynthesis of [125I]iodoazido photoaffinity labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, A.A.; Dannals, R.F.; Ravert, H.T.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.; Grigoriadis, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A useful method for preparing radioiodinated photoaffinity labels from alkyl anilines which offer significant advantages over present methods is described. The one-pot synthesis gives good radiochemical yields (40-64%) of pure, high specific activity (350-1500 mCi/μmol) 124 I labelled iodaryl azides while minimising manipulation of radioactive materials. Purification of the [ 125 I]iodoazido photoaffinity labels is achieved by high performance liquid chromatography. (author)

  9. Photoaffinity labelling of a small protein component of a purified (Na+-K+)ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, T.B.; Lazdunski, M.

    1979-01-01

    Studies have been carried out on the photoaffinity labelling of the (Na + -K + )ATPase from the electric organ of Electrophorus electricus. The aims were to see if different photoaffinity labels of the ouabain binding site, are capable of labelling a small protein component and to know if there is a small protein component, in addition to the major protein chains with molecular weights in the regions of 100 000 and 50 000, which is present in other purified (Na + -K + )ATPase preparations. (Auth.)

  10. m-Acetylanilido-GTP, a novel photoaffinity label for GTP-binding proteins: synthesis and application.

    OpenAIRE

    Zor, T; Halifa, I; Kleinhaus, S; Chorev, M; Selinger, Z

    1995-01-01

    A novel photoaffinity label, m-acetylanilido-GTP (m-AcAGTP), was synthesized and used to identify GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). This GTP analogue is easily prepared and can be used for photoaffinity labelling of G-proteins without chromatographic purification. In the presence of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline, it activates turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase. This activation persists even when the beta-adrenergic receptor is subsequently blocked by antagonist, indicating that ...

  11. Human platelet vasopressin receptor identification by direct ultraviolet photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibonnier, M.

    1987-01-01

    Tritiated vasopressin ([ 3 H]AVP) was directly crosslinked to its human platelet receptor by using an ultraviolet irradiation procedure. After preincubation with [ 3 H]AVP, the hydrodynamic parameters of the hormone-receptor complexes solubilized with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane sulfonate were derived from Sephacryl S-300 superfine gel filtration and from sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation experiments. The following values were obtained: Stoke's radius = 5.48 +/- 0.1 nm, apparent sedimentation coefficient = 5.55 +/- 0.1 S, and calculated molecular weight = 132,000. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-8% polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions, [ 3 H]AVP preferentially and specifically labeled a 125,000-dalton protein. The labeling of this protein was suppressed by addition of excess cold vasopressin, whereas angiotensin II did not inhibit incorporation of tritiated vasopressin in this protein. These results suggest that direct UV-photoaffinity labelling with [ 3 H]AVP is a suitable tool for the purification of the human platelet vasopressin receptor

  12. Photoaffinity labeling of the progesterone receptor from human endometrial carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, C.L.; Satyaswaroop, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    A nude mouse model for the growth of human endometrial carcinoma and hormonal modulation of the progesterone receptor (PR) was established previously. This study describes the effect of 17 beta-estradiol and tamoxifen (TAM) on growth rate and PR concentration in a hormonally responsive human endometrial tumor (EnCa 101) grown in this experimental system and presents the first characterization of human endometrial carcinoma PR. EnCa 101 was transplanted subcutaneously into ovariectomized, BALB/c, nu/nu athymic mice and grown under 17 beta-estradiol-stimulated, TAM-stimulated, and control conditions. Both 17 beta-estradiol and TAM increased the growth rate of EnCa 101 in nude mice, and a parallel increase in the cytosol PR concentration was observed. PR was partially purified by phosphocellulose and DEAE cellulose chromatography, and the DEAE eluate was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and photoaffinity labeling with [17 alpha-methyl- 3 H]promegestone ([ 3 H]R5020). Two PR-negative tumors (EnCa K and EnCa V) were also examined in parallel. Photolabeling and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of EnCa 101 grown in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol or TAM revealed incorporation of [3H]R5020 into proteins of molecular weight approximately 116,000 and 85,000. Labeled proteins of molecular weight 66,000, 45,000, and 35,000 were also observed. No incorporation of [ 3 H]R5020 was observed in EnCa 101 grown in the absence of estrogen, nor was any observed in EnCa K or EnCa V

  13. (125I)Iodoazidococaine, a photoaffinity label for the haloperidol-sensitive sigma receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahoun, J.R.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    A carrier-free radioiodinated cocaine photoaffinity label, (-)-3-( 125 I)iodo-4-azidococaine [( 125 I)IACoc], has been synthesized and used as a probe for cocaine-binding proteins. Photoaffinity labeling with 0.5 nM ( 125 I)IACoc resulted in selective derivatization of a 26-kDa polypeptide with the pharmacology of a sigma receptor in membranes derived from whole rat brain, rat liver, and human placenta. ( 125 I)IACoc labeling of the 26-kDa polypeptide was also inhibited by 10 μM imipramine, amitriptyline, fluoxetine, benztropine, and tetrabenazine. The size of the ( 125 I)I-ACoc-labeled proteins is consistent with the size of proteins photolabeled in guinea pig brain and liver membranes by using the sigma photolabel azido-[ 3 H]DTG. Kinetic analysis of ( 125 I)IACoc binding to rat liver microsomes revealed two sites with K d values of 19 and 126 pM, respectively. The presence or absence of proteolytic inhibitors during membrane preparation did not alter the size of the photolabeled sigma receptor, indicating that the 26-kDa polypeptide was not derived from a larger protein. In summary, ( 125 I)IACoc is a potent and highly specific photoaffinity label for the haloperidol-sensitive sigma receptor and will be useful for its biochemical and molecular characterization

  14. Identification of rat brain opioid (enkephalin) receptor by photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    A photoreactive, radioactive enkephalin derivative was prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Rat brain and spinal cord plasma membranes were incubated with this radioiodinated photoprobe and were subsequently photolysed. Autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the solubilized and reduced membranes showed that a protein having an apparent molecular weight of 46,000 daltons was specifically labeled, suggesting that this protein may be the opioid (enkephalin) receptor

  15. Photoaffinity labeling of the pactamycin binding site on eubacterial ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, F.; Amils, R.; Ballesta, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Pactamycin, an inhibitor of the initial steps of protein synthesis, has an acetophenone group in its chemical structure that makes the drug a potentially photoreactive molecule. In addition, the presence of a phenolic residue makes it easily susceptible to radioactive labeling. Through iodination, one radioactive derivative of pactamycin has been obtained with biological activities similar to the unmodified drug when tested on in vivo and cell-free systems. With the use of [ 125 I]iodopactamycin, ribosomes of Escherichia coli have been photolabeled under conditions that preserve the activity of the particles and guarantee the specificity of the binding sites. Under these conditions, RNA is preferentially labeled when free, small ribosomal subunits are photolabeled, but proteins are the main target in the whole ribosome. This indicates that an important conformational change takes place in the binding site on association of the two subunits. The major labeled proteins are S2, S4, S18, S21, and L13. These proteins in the pactamycin binding site are probably related to the initiation step of protein synthesis

  16. Photoaffinity analogues of methotrexate as folate antagonist binding probes. 1. Photoaffinity labeling of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase and amino acid sequence of the binding region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.M.; Smith, P.L.; Klein, T.E.; Freisheim, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    N/sup α/-(4-Amino-4-deoxy-10-methylpteroyl)-N/sup epsilon/-(4-azido-5-[ 125 I]iodosalicylyl)-L-lysine, a photoaffinity analogue of methotrexate, is only 2-fold less potent than methotrexate in the inhibition of murine L1210 dihydrofolate reductase. Irradiation of the enzyme in the presence of an equimolar concentration of the 125 I-labeled analogue ultimately leads to an 8% incorporation of the photoprobe. A 100-fold molar excess of methotrexate essentially blocks this incorporation. Cyanogen bromide digestion of the labeled enzyme, followed by high-pressure liquid chromatography purification of the generated peptides, indicates that greater than 85% of the total radioactivity is incorporated into a single cyanogen bromide peptide. Sequence analysis revealed this peptide to be residues 53-111, with a majority of the radioactivity centered around residues 63-65 (Lys-Asn-Arg). These data demonstrate that the photoaffinity analogue specifically binds to dihydrofolate reductase and covalently modifies the enzyme following irradiation and is therefore a photolabeling agent useful for probing the inhibitor binding domain of the enzyme

  17. Use of a nitrotryptophan-containing peptide for photoaffinity labeling the pancreatic cholecystokinin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueppelberg, U.G.; Gaisano, H.Y.; Powers, S.P.; Miller, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the preparation and characterization of a new type of intrinsic photoaffinity labeling probe, on the basis of the incorporation of a photolabile nitrotryptophan into a biologically relevant domain of a peptide. The model system used was the pancreatic cholecystokinin (CCK) receptor, previously affinity labeled with a variety of probes. Those studies have suggested that an M r = 85,000-95,000 protein is more likely to be labeled as the site of covalent attachment approaches the receptor-binding domain of this hormone. Indeed, CCK has a Trp in the center of its receptor-binding region, and replacement of that residue with 6-nitrotryptophan resulted in a photolabile probe which affinity labeled the same M r = 85,000-95,000 pancreatic membrane protein. This probe, 125 I-D-Tyr-Gly-[(Nle 28,31 ,6-NO 2 -Trp 30 )CCK-26-33], was synthesized by solid-phase and solution techniques and characterized by mass spectrometry. Following oxidative iodination, it was purified on HPLC to 2000 Ci/mmol. Binding to pancreatic membranes was rapid, temperature dependent, reversible, saturable, and specific and was with high affinity. While its binding affinity was only 3-fold lower than that of native CCK-8, this probe was 70-fold less potent than native hormone in stimulating amylase secretion and equally efficacious to native hormone

  18. Specific photoaffinity labeling of two plasma membrane polypeptides with an azido auxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, G.R.; Rayle, D.L.; Jones, A.M.; Lomax, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) hypocotyl tissue by aqueous phase partitioning and assessed for homogeneity by the use of membrane-specific enzyme assays. The highly pure plasma membrane vesicles maintained a pH differential across the membrane and accumulated a tritiated azido analogue of 3-indoleacetic acid (IAA), 5-azido-[7- 3 H]IAA([ 3 H]N 3 IAA), in a manner similar to the accumulation of [ 3 H]IAA. The association of the [ 3 H]N 3 IAA with membrane vesicles was saturable and subject to competition by IAA and auxin analogues. Auxin-binding proteins were photoaffinity labeled by addition of [ 3 H]N 3 IAA to plasma membrane vesicles prior to exposure to UV light and detected by subsequent NaDodSO 4 /PAGE and fluorography. When the reaction temperature was lowered to -196 degree C, high-specific-activity labeling of a 40-kDa and a 42-kDa polypeptide was observed. Collectively, these results suggest that the radiolabeled polypeptides are auxin receptors. The covalent nature of the label should facilitate purification and further characterization of the receptors

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of pituitary GnRH receptors: significance of the position of photolabel on the ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolics, K.; Szonyi, E.; Ramachandran, J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoreactive derivatives of GnRH and its analogues were prepared by incorporation of the 2-nitro-4(5)-azidophenylsulfenyl [2,4(5)-NAPS] group into amino acid residues at position 1, 3, 6, or 8 of the decapeptide sequence. The modification of Trp 3 by the 2,4-NAPS group led to a complete loss of the luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing as well as LH-release-inhibiting activity of the peptide. The [D-Lys(2,4-NAPS)] 6 analog was a very potent agonist that, after covalent attachment by photoaffinity labeling, caused prolonged LH secretion at a submaximal rate. [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, a full agonist with a relative potency of 7% of GnRH, after photoaffinity labeling caused prolonged maximal LH release from cultured pituitary cells. In contrast, [Orn(2,5-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, although being equipotent with the 2,4-NAPS isomer in terms of LH releasing ability, was unable to cause prolonged LH release after photoaffinity labeling. Thus, [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 GnRH is very effective photolabeling ligand of the functionally significant pituitary GnRH receptor. Based on this compound, a pituitary peptidase resistant derivative, D-Phe 6 , [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH-(1-9)-ethylamide, was synthesized. This derivative showed high-affinity binding to pituitary membranes with a K/sub d/ comparable to those of other GnRH analogues. A radioiodinated form of this peptide was used for pituitary GnRH-receptor labeling. This derivative labeled 59- and 57-kDa proteins in rat and 58- and 56-kDa proteins in bovine pituitary membrane preparations, respectively. This peptide also labeled pituitary GnRH receptors in the solubilized state and therefore appears to be a suitable ligand for the isolation and further characterization of the receptor

  20. The diagnosis of the gastric cancer using catheter-type semiconductor radiation detector. Comparison of diagnostic values of. beta. -emitting radionuclide label with. gamma. -emitting label

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassa, R; Iwase, T [Asahi Life Foundation, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. for Adult Diseases; Sugita, T; Iio, M

    1975-06-01

    The diagnostic usefulness of /sup 32/P-phosphate for human gastric cancer, using a catheter-type semiconductor radiation detector (CASRAD) combined with gastrofiberscope technique, has already been reported by the authors. They have in addition used sup(99m)Tc-bleomycin, sup(99m)Tc-tetracycline in the diagnosis of experimental rabbit gastric cancer, too. In the present study, further refinement of the technique for the ..beta..-ray labeled substance (/sup 32/P-phosphate) for detection of the gastric cancer was compared with that of ..gamma..-ray labeled substance (sup(99m)Tc-tetracycline). A more correct diagnosis of the gastric cancer by in vivo measurement of beta activity could be obtained, when the collimater, made of stainless steel, was attached to the top of the detector. In this way contribution to the count from the adjacent tissues or organs could be eliminated. They were unable to produce an effective and useful collimater for ..gamma..-ray labeled substance which could to be used safely in vivo. Because of the unsatisfactory collimater, radioactivities of the adjacent organs caused on increase in the radioactivity of the background. Therefore inspite of the recent introduction of various sup(99m)Tc-tumor agents, these labels were not applicable to the CASRAD method. For such a small detector system, ..beta..-labels, represented by /sup 32/P-phosphate, was still prefererable to ..gamma..-labels.

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of steroid 5 alpha-reductase of rat liver and prostate microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, T.; Cheung, A.H.; Reynolds, G.F.; Rasmusson, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    21-Diazo-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (Diazo-MAPD) inhibits steroid 5 alpha-reductase in liver microsomes of female rats with a K/sub i/ value of 8.7 +/- 1.7 nM, and the inhibition is competitive with testosterone. It also inhibits the binding of a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, [ 3 H] 17 beta-N,N-diethylcarbamoyl-4-methyl-4-aza-5 alpha-androstan-3-one ([ 3 H]4-MA), to the enzyme in liver microsomes. The inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase activity and of inhibitor binding activity by diazo-MAPD becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. [1,2- 3 H]Diazo-MAPD binds to a single high affinity site in liver microsomes of female rats, and this binding requires NADPH. Without UV irradiation, this binding is reversible, and it becomes irreversible upon UV irradiation. Both the initial reversible binding and the subsequent irreversible conjugation after UV irradiation are inhibited by inhibitors (diazo-MAPD and 4-MA) and substrates (progesterone and testosterone) of 5 alpha-reductase, but they are not inhibited by 5 alpha-reduced steroids. Photoaffinity labeled liver microsomes of female rats were solubilized and fractionated by high performance gel filtration. The radioactive conjugate eluted in one major peak at Mr 50,000

  2. A V1-vascular vasopressin antagonist suitable for radioiodination and photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibonnier, M.; Chehade, N.; Hinko, A.

    1990-01-01

    We have previously characterized the V1-vascular arginine vasopressin (AVP) receptors of human platelets. We now report on a radiomonoiodinated and photoreactive V1-vascular AVP antagonist (V1-ag) to be used for the purification of human V1-vascular AVP receptors. The V1-ag, d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)Tyr(NH2)AVP was modified by radiomonoiodination of d(CH2)5-Tyr(Me)Tyr(NH2)AVP with the Iodogen technique, and derivatization of d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)Tyr[125I](NH2)-AVP with the photoreactive crosslinker, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate (HSAB) (each step included HPLC purification). In competition experiments, the affinity of these V1-ag for the human platelet AVP receptors remained excellent. Irreversible photoaffinity labeling of the platelet V1-vascular AVP receptor was successfully achieved by UV lamp exposure (365 nm, 20 min). Thus, AzBz-d(CH2)5Tyr(Me)Tyr[125I](NH2)AVP is a promising tool to use for the purification of human V1-vascular AVP receptors

  3. Juvenile hormone-binding proteins of Melanoplus bivittatus identified by EFDA photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winder, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Proteins that bind juvenile hormone in the hemolymph and fat body of the grasshopper, Melanoplus bivittatus were identified by photoaffinity labeling with radiolabeled epoxyfarnesyl diazoacetate ( 3 H-EFDA), and were characterized by electrophoretic analysis. A protocol was developed which allowed detection of 3 H-EFDA that was covalently linked to proteins upon exposure to ultraviolet light at 254 nm. Quantification of protein-linked 3 H-EFDA by liquid scintillation spectrometry took advantage of the differential solubility of unlinked 3 H-EFDA in toluene alone, and of the protein-linked 3 H-EFDA in toluene plus the detergent, Triton X-100. Competition between EFDA and juvenile hormone (JH) for binding to JH-specific binding sites was measured by hydroxyapatite protein binding assays in the presence of radiolabeled JH or EFDA and competing non-radiolabeled hormone. The protein-linked EFDA was detected on fluorograms of SDS or nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels (PAGE), and by liquid scintillation spectrometry of membranes to which the proteins had been electrophoretically transferred. Proteins which specifically bound JH were identified by photolabeling proteins in the presence and absence of nonlabeled JH-III

  4. Photoaffinity labeling of cAMP-dependent protein kinase by 4-azido-2-nitrophenyladenylyl pyrophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.R.; Ho, H.T.; Wong, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    A photoaffinity analogue of ATP, 4-azido-2-nitrophenyl-adenylyl pyrophosphate (ANAP) has been synthesized to investigate the topographical interaction between the catalytic and the regulatory subunits of the bovine heart type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The synthesis involves coupling of 4-azido-2-nitrophenyl phosphate with adenosine 5'-monophosphomorpholidate. ANAP has an absorption maximum at 260 nm (molar absorptivity = 35.4 x 10 3 M -1 cm -1 ) and a shoulder at 320 nm. Kinetically, ANAP inhibits the enzyme competitively against ATP with a Ki of 0.37 mM. The catalytic subunit is inactivated by ANAP upon photolysis in the presence of magnesium ion. ATP protects the enzyme from photoinactivation but the regulatory subunit does not. Gel electrophoretic analysis of the enzyme labeled by [ 14 C]ANAP shows that the photoincorporated ANAP is associated mainly with the catalytic subunit, even when the regulator dimer is in twelve fold excess. Little or no ANAP is found incorporated into the regulator subunit. The data suggest that the photoreactive portion of ANAP does not lie within reach of the regulatory protein when the analogue is bound to the catalytic subunit

  5. Photoaffinity labelling of the active site of the rat glutathione transferases 3-3 and 1-1 and human glutathione transferase A1-1.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, R J; Björnestedt, R; Douglas, K T; McKie, J H; King, M D; Coles, B; Ketterer, B; Mannervik, B

    1994-01-01

    The glutathione transferases (GSTs) form a group of enzymes responsible for a wide range of molecular detoxications. The photoaffinity label S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione was used to study the hydrophobic region of the active site of the rat liver GST 1-1 and 2-2 isoenzymes (class Alpha) as well as the rat class-Mu GST 3-3. Photoaffinity labelling was carried out using a version of S-(2-nitro-4-azidophenyl)glutathione tritiated in the arylazido ring. The labelling occurred with higher ...

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeling, D.J.; Fallowfield, C.; Lawrie, K.M.; Saunders, D.; Richardson, S.; Ife, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A photoaffinity label for the lumenal K+ site of the gastric (H+ + K+)-ATPase has been identified. Seven azido derivatives based upon the reversible K+ site inhibitor SCH 28080 were studied, one of which, m-ATIP (8-(3-azidophenylmethoxy)-1,2,3-trimethylimidazo[1,2-a] pyridinium iodide), was subsequently synthesized in radiolabeled form. In the absence of UV irradiation, m-ATIP inhibited K+ -stimulated ATPase activity in lyophilized gastric vesicles competitively with respect to K+, with a Ki value of 2.4 microM at pH 7.0. Irradiation of lyophilized gastric vesicles at pH 7.0 with [ 14 C]m-ATIP in the presence of 0.2 mM ATP resulted in a time-dependent inactivation of ATPase activity that was associated with an incorporation of radioactivity into a 100-kDa polypeptide representing the catalytic subunit of the (H+ + K+)-ATPase. Both inactivation and incorporation were blocked in the presence of 10 mM KCl but not with 10 mM NaCl, consistent with interaction at the K+ site. The level of incorporation required to produce complete inhibition of ATPase activity was 1.9 +/- 0.2 times the number of catalytic phosphorylation sites in the same preparation. Tryptic digestion of gastric vesicle membranes, labeled with [ 14 C]m-ATIP, failed to release the radioactivity from the membranes suggesting that the site of interaction was close to or within the membrane-spanning sections of this ion pump

  7. Photoaffinity labeling the substance P receptor using a derivative of substance P containing para-benzoylphenylalanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, N.D.; White, C.F.; Leeman, S.E.; Cerpa, R.; Kaiser, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    A novel photoreactive substance P (SP) analogue has been synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis methodology to incorporate the amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine [L-Phe(pBz)] in place of the Phe 8 residue of SP. [Phe 8 (OpBz)]SP was equipotent with SP in competing for SP binding sites on rat submaxillary gland membranes and had potent sialagogic activity in vivo. In the absence of light, the 125 I-labeled Bolton-Hunter conjugate of [Phe 8 (pBz)]SP bound in a saturable and reversible manner to an apparently homogeneous class of binding sites with an affinity K D = 0.4 nM. The binding of 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP was inhibited competitively by various tachykinin peptides and analogues with the appropriate specificity for SP/NK-1 receptors. Upon photolysis, up to 70% of the specifically bound 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP underwent covalent linkage to two polypeptides of M r = 53 000 and 46 000, identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. Quantitative analysis of the inhibitory effects of SP and related peptides on 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP photoincorporation indicated that the binding sites of the two photolabeled polypeptides have the same peptide specificity, namely, that typical of NK-1-type SP receptors. Further information on the relationship between the two labeled SP binding sites was provided by enzymatic digestion studies. The highly specific and remarkably efficient photolabeling achieved with 125 I-[Phe 8 (pBz)]SP suggests that this photoaffinity probe will be of considerable value for the characterization of the molecular structure of the SP receptor

  8. Synthesis of N-p-azidophenylethyl-7,8-dihydronormorphine and its 7,8-ditritio analogue. Potential opiate receptor photoaffinity labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, G.K.; Rapoport, Henry

    1985-01-01

    The morphine derivatives N-p-azidophenylethyl-7,8-dihydronormorphine and its 7,8-ditritio analogue were synthesized from morphine. This material, a potential photoaffinity label with high specific radio-activity and with opiate agonist activity comparable to morphine, may be useful for labeling of opiate receptors. (author)

  9. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver microsomal morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase by ( sup 3 H)flunitrazepam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomassin, J.; Tephly, T.R. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Benzodiazepines have been shown to competitively inhibit morphine glucuronidation in rat and human hepatic microsomes. Flunitrazepam exerted a potent competitive inhibition of rat hepatic morphine UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UDPGT) activity (Ki = 130 microM). It has no effect on the activity of p-nitrophenol, 17 beta-hydroxysteroid, 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid, or 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGTs. Because flunitrazepam is an effective photoaffinity label for benzodiazepine receptors, studied were performed in solubilized rat hepatic microsomes and with partially purified preparations of morphine UDPGT to determine the enhancement of flunitrazepam inhibition and binding to morphine UDPGT promoted by exposure to UV light. Under UV light, flunitrazepam inhibition was markedly enhanced. UV light exposure also led to a marked increase in binding of (3H)flunitrazepam to microsomal protein, which was protected substantially by preincubation with morphine. Testosterone, androsterone, and UDP-glucuronic acid did not protect against UV-enhanced flunitrazepam binding, and morphine did not reverse flunitrazepam binding once binding had occurred. As morphine UDPGT was purified, a good correlation was found between the increases in specific activity of morphine UDPGT and flunitrazepam binding to protein. Chromatofocusing chromatography showed that flunitrazepam bound only to fractions containing active morphine UDPGT, and no binding to 4-hydroxybiphenyl UDPGT was observed. Fluorography of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gel of solubilized hepatic microsomes that had been treated with (3H) flunitrazepam under UV light revealed a band with a monomeric molecular weight between 54,000 and 58,000. This monomeric molecular weight compares favorably with the reported monomeric molecular weight of homogeneous morphine UDPGT (56,000).

  10. Photoaffinity labeling of mammalian α1-adrenergic receptors: identification of the ligand binding subunit with a high affinity radioiodinated probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F.; Dickinson, K.E.J.; Heald, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    A description is given of the synthesised and characterization of a novel high affinity radioiodinated α 1 -adrenergic receptor photoaffinity probe, 4-amino-6,7-dimethoxy-2-[4-[5-(4-azido-3-[ 125 I]iodophenyl)pentanoyl]-1-piperazinyl] quinazoline. In the absence of light, this ligand binds with high affinity (K/sub d/ = 130 pm) in a reverisble and saturable manner to sites in rat hepatic plasma membranes. The binding is stereoselective and competitively inhibited by adrenergic agonists and antagonists with an α 1 -adrenergic specificity. Upon photolysis, this ligand incorporates irreversibly into plasma membranes prepared from several mammalian tissues including rat liver, rat, guinea pig, and rabbit spleen, rabbit lung, and rabbit aorta vascular smooth muscle cells, also with typical α 1 -adrenergic specificity. Autoradiograms of such membrane samples subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis reveal a major specifically labeled polypeptide at M/sub 4/ = 78,000-85,000, depending on the tissue used, in addition to some lower molecular weight peptides. Protease inhibitors, in particular EDTA, a metalloprotease inhibitor, dramatically increases the predominance of the M/sub r/ = 78,000-85,000 polypeptide while attenuating the labeling of the lower molecular weight bands. This new high affinity radioiodinated photoaffinity probe should be of great value for the molecular characterization of the α 1 -adrenergic receptor

  11. Design of photoaffinity labeling probes derived from 3,4,5-trimethylfuran-2(5H)-one for mode of action elucidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pošta, Martin; Soós, V.; Beier, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 72, 27/28 (2016), s. 3809-3817 ISSN 0040-4020 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : photoaffinity labeling probes * protein cross-linking * smoke * butenolides Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.651, year: 2016

  12. Solubilization and separation of the human erythrocyte D-glucose transporter covalently and noncovalently photoaffinity-labeled with [3H]cytochalasin B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurokawa, T.; Tillotson, L.G.; Chen, C.C.; Isselbacher, K.J.

    1986-01-01

    The D-glucose transporter in the human erythrocyte membranes was photoaffinity-labeled with [ 3 H]cytochalasin B and solubilized with n-octyl β-D-glucopyranoside (octyl glucoside). [ 3 H]Cytochalasin B-bound proteins were further isolated by using Sephadex G-50 chromatography. The amount of [ 3 H]cytochalasin B associated with the membrane proteins was approximately 10% of the total radioactivity in the octyl glucoside extract. The solubilized photoaffinity-labeled D-glucose transporter was isolated and found to consist of two major peaks by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. The radioactivity of peak II was considerably greater than that of peak I. The incorporation of [ 3 H]cytochalasin B into both peaks was blocked by the presence of D-glucose during photolysis. These results indicate the [ 3 H]cytochalasin B was covalently bound to the D-glucose transporter only in peak II and that peak II could be generated by the photoaffinity labeling of peak I. However, the D-glucose transport activity was associated only with peak I. These findings suggest that the anionic domain of the D-glucose transporter becomes exposed because of the conformational changes of the protein as a result of covalent binding with [ 3 H]cytochalasin B by photoaffinity labeling

  13. Photoaffinity labeling of myosin subfragment-one-with 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmood, R.

    1985-01-01

    The photoaffinity analogue 3'(2')-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl adenosine 5'-triphosphate (Bz 2 ATP) contains the photoreactive benzophenone group esterified at the 2' or 3' hydroxyl groups of ribose. MgBz 2 ADP has a single binding site on skeletal myosin chymotryptic subfragment-one (SF 1 ) with a binding constant of 3.2 x 10 5 M -1 . Bz 2 ATP is also a substrate for the ATPase activity of SF 1 in the presence of different cations. The irradiation of SF 1 with [ 3 H]Bz 2 ATP photoinactivates the ATPase activity with concomitant incorporation of the analogue into the enzyme. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of photolabeled SF 1 after milk trypsin digestion shows that all three tryptic peptides, 25 K, 50K, and 20 K, and both light chains are labeled. The presence of ATP during irradiation reduces labeling of the 50 K peptide only indicating that the other peptides are non-specifically labeled. To reduce the non-specific labeling [ 3 H]Bz 2 ATP is trapped on SF 1 by cross-linking the two reactive thiols, SH 1 and SH 2 , by N,N'-p-phenylene dimaleimide or Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline complexes. The Co(II)/Co(III) phenanthroline modified [ 14 C]Bz 2 ATP-SF 1 , after proteolytic digestion, yields five labeled peptides which were purified by gel filtration and high performance liquid chromatography

  14. Identification of a third form of NaK-ATPase catalytic subunit in rat brain by photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowndes, J.M.; Millan, N.M.; Ruoho, A.E.; Hokin-Neaverson, M.

    1987-01-01

    Using photoaffinity labeling, they have found a form of the NaK-ATPase catalytic subunit, α(-), in the rat brain that is distinct from the α and α(+) forms. Strong radiolabeling of α(-) was obtained with [ 125 I]azido-iodophenethylamido-succinyl-cymarin (AISC). AISC is a new cardiotonic steroid photolabel which they have synthesized and characterized chemically and biochemically. This compound labels α(-) better than the photolabels that they have previously reported. SDS-PAGE (5%) of photolabeled rat brain microsomes showed that α(-) migrated with faster mobility than the dog kidney α subunit. The α(-) appears to have different specificity for different cardiotonic steroids than either α(+) or α. The radiolabeling of rat brain α(+) and dog kidney α with [ 125 I]AISC was protectable by ouabain; in contrast, 1 mM ouabain did not reduce the [ 125 I]AISC-labeling of α(-), although the labeling was protected with 200 μM cymarin or AISC. The results indicate that the α(-) form of the NaK-ATPase in rat brain binds cymarin and its derivative but has little affinity for ouabain. It is possible that α(-) may be the translation product of the rat brain α(III) mRNA which has recently been described

  15. Synthesis of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]propyl ether, a second-generation photoaffinity analogue of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3: Photoaffinity labeling of rat serum vitamin D binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Holick, M.F.; Bouillon, R.; Van Baelen, H.

    1991-01-01

    Vulnerability of 25-hydroxy-[26,27- 3 H]vitamin D 3 3β-N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)glycinate, a photoaffinity analogue of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 (25-OH-D 3 ) toward standard conditions of carboxymethylationin promoted the authors to synthesize 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]propyl ether (25-ANE), a hydrolytically stable photoaffinity analogue of 25-OH-D 3 , and 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitro-[3,5- 3 H]phenyl)amino]propyl ether ( 3 H-25-ANE), the radiolabeled counterpart of 25-ANE competes for the 25-OH-D 3 binding site in rat serum vitamin D binding protein (rDBP). On the other hand, UV exposure of a sample of purified rat DBP (rDBP), preincubated in the dark with 3 H-25-ANE, covalently labeled the protein. However, very little covalent labeling was observed in the absence of UV light or in the presence of a large excess of 25-OH-D 3 . These results provide strong evidence for the covalent labeling of the 25-OH-D 3 binding site in rDPB by 3 H-25-ANE

  16. Identification of a 23 kDa protein from maize photoaffinity-labelled with 5-azido-[7-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid.

    OpenAIRE

    Feldwisch, J; Zettl, R; Campos, N; Palme, K

    1995-01-01

    A 23 kDa protein (p23) was identified in microsomal extracts from maize coleoptiles by photoaffinity labelling with 5-azido-[7-3H]indol-3-ylacetic acid ([3H]N3IAA). Labelling of p23 was blocked by unlabelled IAA, N3IAA, indol-3-ylbutyric acid and indol-3-yl-lactate. In addition, labelling was efficiently decreased by tryptophan, as well as by the scavenger p-aminobenzoic acid. Labelling was, however, not affected by synthetic auxins such as 1-naphthylacetic acid or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic a...

  17. Photoaffinity labeling of the human erythrocyte monosaccharide transporter with an aryl azide derivative of D-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, M.F.; Wadzinski, B.E.; Lowndes, J.M.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    A photoreactive, radioiodinated derivative of glucose, N-(4-iodoazidosalicyl)-6-amido-6-deoxyglucopyranose (IASA-glc), has been synthesized and used as a photoaffinity label for the human erythrocyte monosaccharide transporter. Photoinactivation and photoinsertion are both light-dependent and result in a marked decrease in the absorption spectra of the compound. When [ 125 I]IASA-glc was photolyzed with erythrocyte ghost membranes, photoinsertion of radiolabel was observed in three major regions, spectrin, band 3, and a protein of 58,000 daltons located in the zone 4.5 region. Of the three regions which were photolabeled, only labeling of polypeptides in the zone 4.5 region was partially blocked by D-glucose. In the non-iodinated form, N-(4-azidosalicyl)-6-amido-6-deoxy-glucopyranose inhibited the labeling of the transporter by [ 125 I]IASA-glc more effectively than D-glucose. The ability to synthesize this [ 125 I]containing photoprobe for the monosaccharide transporter at carrier-free levels offers several new advantages for investigating the structure of this transport protein in the erythrocyte

  18. Affinity purification of human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor alpha-chain. Demonstration of binding by photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, S.; Shibuya, K.; Miyazono, K.; Tojo, A.; Oka, Y.; Miyagawa, K.; Takaku, F.

    1990-01-01

    The human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) receptor alpha-chain, a low affinity component of the receptor, was solubilized and affinity-purified from human placenta using biotinylated GM-CSF. Scatchard analysis of 125 I-GM-CSF binding to the placental membrane extract disclosed that the GM-CSF receptor had a dissociation constant (Kd) of 0.5-0.8 nM, corresponding to the Kd value of the GM-CSF receptor alpha-chain on the intact placental membrane. Affinity labeling of the solubilized protein using a photoreactive cross-linking agent, N-hydroxysuccinimidyl-4-azidobenzoate (HSAB), demonstrated a single specific band of 70-95 kDa representing a ligand-receptor complex. Approximately 2 g of the placental membrane extract was subjected to a biotinylated GM-CSF-fixed streptavidin-agarose column, resulting in a single major band at 70 kDa on a silver-stained sodium dodecyl sulfate gel. The radioiodination for the purified material disclosed that the purified protein had an approximate molecular mass of 70 kDa and a pI of 6.6. Binding activity of the purified material was demonstrated by photoaffinity labeling using HSAB- 125 I-GM-CSF, producing a similar specific band at 70-95 kDa as was demonstrated for the crude protein

  19. Photoaffinity labeling of the dopamine reuptake carrier protein with 3-azido 3H GBR-12935

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, S.P.; Martenson, R.E.; Laing, P.; Thurkauf, A.; Decosta, B.; Rice, K.C.; Paul, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    A high affinity tritiated azido-diphenylpiperazine derivative, 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935, was synthesized as a potential photoaffinity probe of the dopamine transporter. Initially, the reversible binding of 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 to crude synaptosomal membranes from the rat striatum was characterized. Specific binding was sodium dependent and inhibited by a variety of drugs that are known to potently inhibit dopamine uptake. Other neurotransmitter uptake inhibitors, as well as cis-flupenthixol, a potent inhibitor of 3 H GBR-12935 binding to piperazine binding sites, failed to inhibit specific binding at concentrations of less than or equal to 10 microM. A good correlation was observed between the relative potencies of these drugs in inhibiting dopamine uptake into synaptosomes and in inhibiting specific 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 binding to rat striatal membranes. These data suggest that 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935, like other diphenylpiperazines such as 3 H GBR-12935 and 3 H GBR-12909, binds primarily to the dopamine transporter under defined assay conditions. After UV photolysis of crude synaptosomal membranes preincubated with 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 (1-2 nM), a single radiolabeled polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 80 kDa was observed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography. Photoincorporation of 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 into this polypeptide was inhibited selectively by compounds that inhibit the uptake of dopamine and was completely dependent on the presence of Na+. No photolabeled proteins were observed when cerebellar membranes were substituted for striatal membranes. Essentially complete adsorption of the radiolabeled 80-kDa polypeptide to wheat germ agglutinin and elution with N-acetyl-D-glucosamine strongly suggest that the dopamine transporter polypeptide photolabeled by 3-azido 3 H GBR-12935 is glycosylated

  20. (/sup 3/H)Clonazepam, like (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam, is a photoaffinity label for the central type of benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sieghart, W. (Vienna Univ. (Austria)); Moehler, H. (Hoffmann-La Roche (F.) and Co., Basel (Switzerland))

    1982-06-16

    (/sup 3/H)Clonazepam, like (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam, is irreversibly bound to membrane proteins of brain tissue when exposed to UV light. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by fluorography, the same pattern of photolabelled proteins was obtained in cerebellum and in hippocampus when either (/sup 3/H)clonazepam or (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam was used as photoaffinity label. Since (/sup 3/H)clonazepam does not interact with the peripheral type of benzodiazepine binding site present in the brain, these results confirm previous evidence that the proteins photolabelled with (/sup 3/H)flunitrazepam are associated with the central type of benzodiazepine receptor.

  1. Identification of the D-1 dopamine receptor subunit in rat striatum after photoaffinity labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuno, T; Tanaka, C [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-12-28

    When rat striatal membranes, photolabeled with (/sup 3/H)dopamine under assay conditions similar to those used for dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase, were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, several radioactively labeled bands appeared. Labeling of these bands was reduced in the presence of non-radioactive dopamine during photolysis, but was unaffected by the presence of sulpiride. Haloperidol preferentially reduced the labeling of the main band which had a molecular weight of about 57,000 rather than the other weakly labeled bands. Labeling of this 57,000 dalton protein was not apparent when rat cerebellar membranes were used and was markedly eliminated by kainic acid-induced lesions that destroyed the intrastriatal nerve cell bodies. These results indicate that this 57,000 dalton protein is the binding subunit of the D-1 dopamine receptor.

  2. Photoaffinity labeling of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase with a farnesyl pyrophosphate analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, T.; Muth, J.; Allen, C.M.

    1985-01-01

    The prenyl transferase undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase was partially purified from the cytosolic fraction of Escherichia coli. Its enzymic products were characterized as a family of cis-polyprenyl phosphates, which ranged in carbon number from C55 to C25. The enzyme is constituted of two subunits of approximately 30,000 molecular weight. A radiolabeled photolabile analogue of t,t-farnesyl pyrophosphate, [ 3 H]2-diazo-3-trifluoropropionyloxy geranyl pyrophosphate, was shown to label Lactobacillus plantarum and E. coli undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase on UV irradiation in the presence of isopentenyl pyrophosphate and divalent cations. The only labeled polypeptide migrated on electrophoresis in a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel at a molecular weight of approximately 30,000. No protein was radiolabeled when the natural substrate, t,t-farnesyl pyrophosphate was included in the irradiation mixture. Irradiation in the presence of MgCl 2 without isopentenyl pyrophosphate gave less labeling of the polypeptide. Irradiation with only isopentenyl pyrophosphate gave little labeling of the polypeptide. When the enzyme was irradiated with 3H-photoprobe, [ 14 C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and MgCl 2 , the labeled polypeptide gave a ratio of 14 C/ 3 H that indicated the product must also bind to the enzyme on irradiation. These results demonstrate the ability to radiolabel the allylic pyrophosphate binding site and possibly product binding site of undecaprenyl pyrophosphate synthetase by a process which is favored when both cosubstrate and divalent cations are present

  3. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver ribosomes by N-(2-Nitro-4-azidobenzoyl)puromycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Stahl, J.; Bielka, H.

    1979-01-01

    N-(2-nitro-4-azidobenzoyl)-[ 3 H]puromycin (NAB-puromycin) was synthesized as a photoreactive derivative of puromycin in order to detect ribosomal proteins located near the peptidyltransferase centre of rat liver ribosomes. Irradiation of ribosome-NAB-puromycin complexes leads to covalent attachment of the affinity label to proteins of the large ribosomal subunit, in particular to proteins L28/29, and, to a somewhat lower extent, to proteins L4, L6, L10 and L24. The results are discussed in the light of earlier studies performed with other affinity labels that attacked the peptidyltransferase region of rat liver ribosomes. (author)

  4. Identification of UDPG-binding polypeptides and purified (1,3)-β-glucan synthase by photoaffinity labelling with 5-azido-UDPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, D.J.; Wu, A.; Read, S.M.; Wasserman, B.P.; Drake, R.R.; Haley, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    The photoaffinity probe 5-azido-uridine 5'-β-[ 32 P]-diphosphate glucose was used to identify the major UDPG-binding polypeptide of red beet (1,3)-β-glucan synthase. Glucan synthase was purified from plasma membranes by sequential solubilization with CHAPS followed by product entrapment. Two major polypeptides at 72 and 54 kD were labelled by probe. Labelling of both was abolished with increasing levels of cold UDPG. However, labelling of the 54 kD polypeptide was dependent upon the presence of divalent cations. These data suggest that the 54 kD polypeptide is a substrate-binding and cation-regulated component of the glucan synthase complex

  5. Photoaffinity labeling of opiate receptors using intrinsically photoactive 3H-opiates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooper, G.N.; Levinson, N.R.; Copeland, C.F.; Bowen, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Opiate receptors in rat and cow brain membranes have been labeled irreversibly using the intrinsic photolability of 3H-opiates. Membranes were incubated with 3H-ligand and then irradiated with UV light of 254 nm. Nonspecific binding was determined in the presence of 10 microM unlabeled levallorphan. Irreversible binding was defined as binding which survived heat or acid denaturation of membranes. Specific incorporation of label into denatured samples was observed only when unbound or loosely bound 3H-ligand was washed free from the membranes prior to irradiation. There was a general correlation between photosensitivity of the 3H-ligand and its ability to photolabel receptors. Hence, photolabeling presumably results by covalent attachment of highly reactive species generated during photochemical decomposition of ligand. With 3H-etorphine, optimal irradiation time was 5 min. In addition to 3H-etorphine, receptors could be labeled irreversibly with 3H-oxymorphone, 3H-dihydromorphine, and 3H-ethylketocyclazocine. Of the specific binding present in irradiated, nondenatured samples, 45-60% remained attached to receptors upon denaturation. 3H-Ethylketocyclazocine exhibited an 86% yield of incorporation. Signal-to-noise levels of 50-80% could be achieved in denatured samples. Therefore, this method provides a means of covalently labeling opiate receptors in high yield and with high signal-to-noise ratios. The opioid peptides, 3H-D-Ala2,D-Leu5-enkephalin, 3H-D-Ser2,Leu5,Thr6-enkephalin, 3H-D-Ala2,Met5-enkephalin amide, and 3H-D-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol5-enkephalin, as well as the benzomorphan, 3H-bremazocine, apparently lack the structural characteristics which allow photolabeling

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of opiate (enkephalin) receptor of rat brain plasma membranes with 125I(D-Ala2, p-N3-Phe4-Met5)-enkephalin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeung, C.W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A photoreactive (D-Ala 2 , p-N 3 -Phe 4 -Met 5 )enkephalin derivative was prepared, iodinated with carrier free 125 I and then purified by high performance liquid chromatography. The purified radioactive photoprobe was monoiodinated at the amino terminal tyrosine residue. This radioactive photoprobe was used to photoaffinity label plasma membranes prepared from rat brain, spinal cord and cerebellum. The photolabeled plasma membranes were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. A 46,000-daltons band was specifically photolabeled in the plasma membranes of brain and spinal cord but not in the plasma membranes from cerebellum. The photolabeling of this band was inhibited by peptides related to enkephalin by not but substance P or gastrin tetrapeptide. These data demonstrate that the labeled 46,000-daltons band is a protein of the opiate (enkephalin)receptor

  7. Identification of an intracellular protein that specifically interacts with photoaffinity-labeled oncogenic p21 protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, G.; Ronai, Z.A.; Pincus, M.R.; Brandt-Rauf, P.W.; Weinstein, I.B.; Murphy, R.B.; Delohery, T.M.; Nishimura, S.; Yamaizumi, Z.

    1989-01-01

    An oncogenic 21-kDa (p21) protein (Harvey RAS protein with Val-12) has been covalently modified with a functional reagent that contains a photoactivatable aromatic azide group. This modified p21 protein has been introduced quantitatively into NIH 3T3 cells using an erythrocyte-mediated fusion technique. The introduced p21 protein was capable of inducing enhanced pinocytosis and DNA synthesis in the recipient cells. To identify the putative intracellular protein(s) that specifically interact with modified p21 protein, the cells were pulsed with [ 35 S]methionine at selected times after fusion and then UV-irradiated to activate the azide group. The resulting nitrene covalently binds to amino acid residues in adjacent proteins, thus linking the p21 protein to these proteins. The cells were then lysed, and the lysate was immunoprecipitated with the anti-p21 monoclonal antibody Y13-259. The immunoprecipitate was analyzed by SDS/PAGE to identify p21 - protein complexes. By using this technique, the authors found that three protein complexes of 51, 64, and 82 kDa were labeled specifically and reproducibly. The most prominent band is the 64-kDa protein complex that shows a time-dependent rise and fall, peaking within a 5-hr period after introduction of the p21 protein the cells. These studies provide evidence that in vitro the p21 protein becomes associated with a protein whose mass is about 43 kDa. They suggest that the formation of this complex may play a role in mediating early events involved with cell transformation induced by RAS oncogenes

  8. Identification of an intracellular protein that specifically interacts with photoaffinity-labeled oncogenic p21 protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G; Ronai, Z A; Pincus, M R; Brandt-Rauf, P W; Murphy, R B; Delohery, T M; Nishimura, S; Yamaizumi, Z; Weinstein, I B

    1989-11-01

    An oncogenic 21-kDa (p21) protein (Harvey RAS protein with Val-12) has been covalently modified with a functional reagent that contains a photoactivatable aromatic azide group. This modified p21 protein has been introduced quantitatively into NIH 3T3 cells using an erythrocyte-mediated fusion technique. The introduced p21 protein was capable of inducing enhanced pinocytosis and DNA synthesis in the recipient cells. To identify the putative intracellular protein(s) that specifically interact with the modified p21 protein, the cells were pulsed with [35S]methionine at selected times after fusion and then UV-irradiated to activate the azide group. The resulting nitrene covalently binds to amino acid residues in adjacent proteins, thus linking the p21 protein to these proteins. The cells were then lysed, and the lysate was immunoprecipitated with the anti-p21 monoclonal antibody Y13-259. The immunoprecipitate was analyzed by SDS/PAGE to identify p21-protein complexes. By using this technique, we found that three protein complexes of 51, 64, and 82 kDa were labeled specifically and reproducibly. The most prominent band is the 64-kDa protein complex that shows a time-dependent rise and fall, peaking within a 5-hr period after introduction of the p21 protein into the cells. These studies provide evidence that in vitro the p21 protein becomes associated with a protein whose mass is about 43 kDa. We suggest that the formation of this complex may play a role in mediating early events involved with cell transformation induced by RAS oncogenes.

  9. Photoaffinity labelling of MSH receptors on Anolis melanophores: irradiation technique and MSH photolabels for irreversible stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberle, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    Excised dorsal skin of Anolis carolinensis was exposed to high intensity UV-irradiation in the presence of different photoreactive alpha-MSH derivatives. The resulting covalent binding of the hormone to its receptor induced irreversible pigment dispersion. The duration of the longlasting response depended on the type and length of irradiation; it was maximal after two 5 min irradiation phases with a light intensity of approximately 180 mW/cm 2 and a spectrum from 310 to 550 nm, fresh hormone being added after the first phase. [N alpha-(4-Azidophenylacetyl-serine1]-alpha-MSH (I), [2'-(2-nitro-4-azidophenylsulphenyl)-tryptophan 9 ]-alpha-MSH (II) and [p-azidophenylalanine 13 ]-alpha-MSH (III) all inserted into the receptor to about the same extent, as judged from the persistence of the longlasting signal. In contrast, [D-alanine1, p-azidophenylalanin2 2 , norvaline 4 ]-alpha-MSH (IV) and [N alpha-(4-azidophenylacetyl)-serine1, leucine 9 ]-alpha-MSH (V) gave much less insertion and [leucine 9 , p-azidophenylalanine 13 ]-alpha-MSH (VI) hardly any insertion when applied in the same relative excess (5-fold the concentration inducing a maximal response). Covalent attachment of the cleavable photolabel [N alpha-(4-azidophenyl)-1, 3'-dithio-propionyl-serine1]-alpha-MSH (VII) and subsequent washing of the skin in buffer containing 1% beta-mercaptoethanol released the peptide from the receptor. Insertion of the C-terminal photolabel [p-azidophenylalanine 13 ]-alpha-MSH was reduced by the weak antagonist H-Phe-Ala-Trp-Gly-Gly-Pro-Val-NH 2 . These experiments prove that hormone receptors can be covalently labelled in tissue with very limited light transparency

  10. Photoaffinity Labeling of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter with a Novel Perfluorophenylazido Chloroquine†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekostaj, Jacqueline K.; Natarajan, Jayakumar K.; Paguio, Michelle F.; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Several models describing how amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs have been proposed. Further progress requires molecular analysis of interactions between purified reconstituted PfCRT protein and these drugs. We have thus designed and synthesized several perfluorophenyl azido (pfpa) CQ analogues for PfCRT photolabeling studies. One particularly useful probe (AzBCQ) places the pfpa group at the terminal aliphatic N of CQ via a flexible four-carbon ester linker and includes a convenient biotin tag. This probe photolabels PfCRT in situ with high specificity. Using reconstituted proteoliposomes harboring partially purified recombinant PfCRT, we analyze AzBCQ photolabeling versus competition with CQ and other drugs to probe the nature of the CQ binding site. We also inspect how pH, the chemoreversal agent verapamil (VPL), and various amino acid mutations in PfCRT that cause CQ resistance (CQR) affect the efficiency of AzBCQ photolabeling. Upon gel isolation of AzBCQ-labeled PfCRT followed by trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry analysis, we are able to define a single AzBCQ covalent attachment site lying within the digestive vacuolar-disposed loop between putative helices 9 and 10 of PfCRT. Taken together, the data provide important new insight into PfCRT function and, along with previous results, allow us to propose a model for a single CQ binding site in the PfCRT protein. PMID:18767816

  11. Photoaffinity labeling of the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter with a novel perfluorophenylazido chloroquine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekostaj, Jacqueline K; Natarajan, Jayakumar K; Paguio, Michelle F; Wolf, Christian; Roepe, Paul D

    2008-09-30

    Several models describing how amino acid substitutions in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) confer resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and other antimalarial drugs have been proposed. Further progress requires molecular analysis of interactions between purified reconstituted PfCRT protein and these drugs. We have thus designed and synthesized several perfluorophenyl azido (pfpa) CQ analogues for PfCRT photolabeling studies. One particularly useful probe (AzBCQ) places the pfpa group at the terminal aliphatic N of CQ via a flexible four-carbon ester linker and includes a convenient biotin tag. This probe photolabels PfCRT in situ with high specificity. Using reconstituted proteoliposomes harboring partially purified recombinant PfCRT, we analyze AzBCQ photolabeling versus competition with CQ and other drugs to probe the nature of the CQ binding site. We also inspect how pH, the chemoreversal agent verapamil (VPL), and various amino acid mutations in PfCRT that cause CQ resistance (CQR) affect the efficiency of AzBCQ photolabeling. Upon gel isolation of AzBCQ-labeled PfCRT followed by trypsin digestion and mass spectrometry analysis, we are able to define a single AzBCQ covalent attachment site lying within the digestive vacuolar-disposed loop between putative helices 9 and 10 of PfCRT. Taken together, the data provide important new insight into PfCRT function and, along with previous results, allow us to propose a model for a single CQ binding site in the PfCRT protein.

  12. [3H]Azidodantrolene photoaffinity labeling, synthetic domain peptides and monoclonal antibody reactivity identify the dantrolene binding sequence on RyR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pletzer, Kalanethee; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Bhat, Manju B.; Ma, Jianjie; Ikemoto, Noriaki; Jimenez, Leslie S.; Morimoto, Hiromi; Williams, Philip G.; Parness, Jerome

    2002-06-14

    Dantrolene is a drug that suppresses intracellular Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum in normal skeletal muscle and is used as a therapeutic agent in individuals susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. Though its precise mechanism of action has not been elucidated, we have identified the N-terminal region (amino acids 1-1400) of the skeletal muscle isoform of the ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the primary Ca2+ release channel in sarcoplasmic reticulum, as a molecular target for dantrolene using the photoaffinity analog [3H]azidodantrolene(1). Here, we demonstrate that heterologously expressed RyR1 retains its capacity to be specifically labeled with [3H]azidodantrolene,indicating that muscle specific factors are not required for this ligand-receptor interaction. Synthetic domain peptides of RyR1, previously shown to affect RyR1 function in vitro and in vivo, were exploited as potential drug binding site mimics and used in photoaffinity labeling experiments. Only DP1 and DP1-2, peptide s containing the amino acid sequence corresponding to RyR1 residues 590-609, were specifically labeled by [3H]azidodantrolene. A monoclonal anti-RyR1 antibody which recognizes RyR1 and its 1400 amino acid N-terminal fragment, recognizes DP1 and DP1-2 in both Western blots and immunoprecipitation assays, and specifically inhibits [3H]azidodantrolene photolabeling of RyR1 and its N-terminal fragment in sarcoplasmic reticulum. Our results indicate that synthetic domain peptides can mimic a native, ligand binding conformation in vitro, and that the dantrolene binding site and the epitope for the monoclonal antibody on RyR1 are equivalent and composed of amino-acids 590-609.

  13. Mixed gamma emitting gas standard and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFarland, R.C.; McFarland, P.A.

    1986-01-01

    The invention in one aspect pertains to a method of calibrating gamma spectroscopy systems for gas counting in a variety of counting containers comprising withdrawing a precision volume of a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard from a precision volume vial and delivering the withdrawn precision volume of the gas standard to the interior of a gas counting container. Another aspect of the invention pertains to a mixed gamma-emitting gas standard, comprising a precision spherical vial of predetermined volume, multiple mixed emitting gas components enclosed within the vial, and means for withdrawing from the vial a predetermined amount of the components wherein the gas standard is used to calibrate a gamma spectrometer system for gas counting over a wide energy range without the use of additional standards. A third aspect comprehends a gamma spectrometer calibration system for gas counting, comprising a precision volume spherical glass vial for receiving mixed multiisotope gas components, and two tubular arms extending from the vial. A ground glass stopcock is positioned on each arm, and the outer end of one arm is provided with a rubber septum port

  14. Photoaffinity labeling of [3H]flunitrazepam- and [3H]Ro15-4513-bound pellets in rat cerebral cortex and cerebellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, T.H.; Yu, Onnfoh; Rosenberg, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Irreversible incorporation of [ 3 H]flunitrazepam and [ 3 H]Ro15-4513 into GABA/benzodiazepine receptor subunits was studied by UV/irradiation using ligand-bound membrane pellets from rat cerebral cortical and cerebellar synaptic membranes. Specific incorporation for [ 3 H]flunitrazepam was greater in the pellet than in the suspension. The incorporation was identical for [ 3 H]Ro15-4513 in both pellet and suspension. With the ligand-bound pellets, 50% of the available binding sites were photolabeled by both ligands in cortex and cerebellum. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of [ 3 H]flunitrazepam photo-labeled receptor revealed the same number of major sites in both brain regions. In contrast, [ 3 H]Ro15-4513 appears to label fewer sites in cortex and cerebellum. Photoaffinity labeling with [ 3 H]flunitrazepam in ligand-bound membrane pellet provides a more selective and reliable method for studying the subunit structure of GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex

  15. A novel photoaffinity ligand for the phencyclidine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor labels a Mr 120,000 polypeptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonders, M.S.; Barmettler, P.; Lee, J.A.; Kitahara, Y.; Keana, J.F.; Weber, E.

    1990-01-01

    A radiolabeled photoaffinity ligand has been developed for the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-preferring excitatory amino acid receptor complex. [3H]3-Azido-(5S, 10R)(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H- dibenzo[a,d]cyclohepten-5,10-imine [3H]3-azido-MK-801 demonstrated nearly identical affinity, density of binding sites, selectivity, pH sensitivity, and pharmacological profile in reversible binding assays with guinea pig brain homogenates to those displayed by its parent compound, MK-801. When employed in a photo-labeling protocol designed to optimize specific incorporation, [3H]3-azido-MK-801 labeled a single protein band which migrated in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels with Mr = 120,000. Incorporation of tritium into this band was completely inhibited when homogenates and [3H]3-azido-MK-801 were coincubated with 10 microM phencyclidine. These data suggest that the phencyclidine site of the NMDA receptor complex is at least in part comprised of a Mr = 120,000 polypeptide

  16. Comparative characterization of thyroid hormone receptors and binding proteins in rat liver nucleus, plasma membrane, and cytosol by photoaffinity labeling with L-thyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozin, B.; Cahnmann, H.J.; Nikodem, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Photoaffinity labeling with underivatized thyroxine (T4) was used to identify and compare the T4 binding proteins in rat liver cytosol, nuclear extract, and purified plasma membrane. When these subcellular fractions were incubated with a tracer concentration of [125I]T4, irradiated with light above 300 nm, and individually analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the radioactivity profiles revealed the presence of T4 binding proteins of molecular masses of 70, 52, 43, 37, 30, and 26 kilodaltons (kDa) in cytosol, of 96, 56, 45, and 35 kDa in nuclear extract, and of 70, 44, and 30 kDa in plasma membrane. Competition experiments performed in the presence of a 1000-fold excess of unlabeled T4 demonstrated that these binding proteins display different hormone binding activities. The similar electrophoretic mobilities of some binding proteins present in the different subcellular fractions, i.e., the 70-, 43-45-, and 30-kDa proteins, suggested that these proteins might be identical. However, double-labeling experiments in which plasma membrane, nuclear extract, and cytosol were photolabeled with either [125I] or [131I]T4 and mixed, two at a time, in all possible combinations showed that from one cellular fraction to another, the radioactivity peaks corresponding to the approximately 70-, 43-45-, and 30-kDa proteins were not superimposed. Their relative positions on the gel differed by one or two slices, which indicated differences in molecular mass of 1.9-3.6 kDa. Moreover, enzymatic digestion with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease of these three proteins, prepared from each subcellular fraction, yielded dissimilar peptide patterns

  17. Photoaffinity labeling of human serum vitamin D binding protein and chemical cleavage of the labeled protein: Identification of an 11.5-kDa peptide containing the putative 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Holick, M.F.; Bouillon, R.; Baelen, H.V.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe photoaffinity labeling and related studies of human serum vitamin D binding protein (hDBP) with 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)amino]propyl ether (25-ANE) and its radiolabeled counterpart, i.e., 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 3β-3'-[N-(4-azido-2-nitro-[3,5- 3 H]phenyl)amino]propyl ether ( 3 H-25-ANE). They have carried out studies to demonstrate that (1) 25-ANE competes with 25-OH-D 3 for the binding site of the latter in hDBP and (2) 3 H-25-ANE is capable of covalently labeling the hDBP molecule when exposed ot UV light. Treatment of a sample of purified hDBP, labeled with 3 H-25-ANE, with BNPS-skatole produced two Coomassie Blue stained peptide fragments, and the majority of the radioactivity was assoicated with the smaller of the two peptide fragments (16.5 kDa). On the other hand, cleavage of the labeled protein with cyanogen bromide produced a peptide (11.5 kDa) containing most of the covalently attached radioactivity. Considering the primary amino acid structure of hDBP, this peptide fragment (11.5 kDa) represents the N-terminus through residue 108 of the intact protein. Thus, the results tentatively identify this segment of the protein containing the binding pocket for 25-OH-D 3

  18. Direct photoaffinity labeling by nucleotides of the apparent catalytic site on the heavy chains of smooth muscle and Acanthamoeba myosins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruta, H.; Korn, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    The heavy chains of Acanthamoeba myosins, IA, IB and II, turkey gizzard myosin, and rabbit skeletal muscle myosin subfragment-1 were specifically labeled by radioactive ATP, ADP, and UTP, each of which is a substrate or product of myosin ATPase activity, when irradiated with uv light at 0 0 C. With UTP, as much as 0.45 mol/mol of Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and 1 mol/mol of turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain was incorporated. Evidence that the ligands were associated with the catalytic site included the observations that reaction occurred only with nucleotides that are substrates or products of the ATPase activity; that the reaction was blocked by pyrophosphate which is an inhibitor of the ATPase activity; that ATP was bound as ADP; and that label was probably restricted to a single peptide following limited subtilisin proteolysis of labeled Acanthamoeba myosin IA heavy chain and extensive cleavage with CNBr and trypsin of labeled turkey gizzard myosin heavy chain

  19. Equivalent molecular mass of cytosolic and nuclear forms of Ah receptor from Hepa-1 cells determined by photoaffinity labeling with 2,3,7,8-[3H]tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prokipcak, R.D.; Okey, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    The structure of the Ah receptor previously has been extensively characterized by reversible binding of the high affinity ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. We report the use of [ 3 H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin as a photoaffinity ligand for Ah receptor from the mouse hepatoma cell line Hepa-1c1c9. Both cytosolic and nuclear forms of Ah receptor could be specifically photoaffinity-labeled, which allowed determination of molecular mass for the two forms under denaturing conditions. After analysis by fluorography of polyacrylamide gels run in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, molecular mass for the cytosolic form of Ah receptor was estimated at 92,000 +/- 4,300 and that for the nuclear form was estimated at 93,500 +/- 3,400. Receptor in mixture of cytosol and nuclear extract (each labeled separately with [ 3 H]2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) migrated as a single band. These results are consistent with the presence of a common ligand-binding subunit of identical molecular mass in both cytosolic and nuclear complexes

  20. Photoaffinity labeling of serum vitamin D binding protein by 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, R.P.; Kutner, A.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1987-01-01

    3-Deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was covalently incorporated in the 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 binding site of purified human plasma vitamin D binding protein. Competition experiments showed that 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 bind at the same site on the protein. Tritiated 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was synthesized from tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, retaining the high specific activity of the parent compound. The tritiated azido label bound reversibly to human vitamin D binding protein in the dark and covalently to human vitamin D binding protein after exposure to ultraviolet light. Reversible binding of tritiated 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was compared to tritiated 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 binding to human vitamin D binding protein. Scatchard analysis of the data indicated equivalent maximum density binding sites with a KD,app of 0.21 nM for 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and a KD,app of 1.3 nM for the azido derivative. Covalent binding was observed only after exposure to ultraviolet irradiation, with an average of 3% of the reversibly bound label becoming covalently bound to vitamin D binding protein. The covalent binding was reduced 70-80% when 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was present, indicating strong covalent binding at the vitamin D binding site of the protein. When tritiated 3-deoxy-3-azido-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was incubated with human plasma in the absence and presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, 12% of the azido derivative was reversibly bound to vitamin D binding protein. After ultraviolet irradiation, four plasma proteins covalently bound the azido label, but vitamin D binding protein was the only protein of the four that was unlabeled in the presence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3

  1. Identification of the glucose transporter in mammalian cell membranes using an 125(I)-forskolin photoaffinity label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruoho, A.; Wadzinski, B.; Shanahan, M.

    1987-01-01

    The glucose transporter has been identified in a variety of mammlian cell membranes using a carrier-free photoactivatable radioiodinated derivative of forskolin, 3-iodo-4-azidophenethylamido-7-0-succinyldeacetyl-forskolin, [I-125]IAPS-Fsk, at 1-10 nM. The membranes which have been photolabeled with [I-125]IAPS-Fsk are: rat cardiac sarcolemmal membranes, rat cortex and cerebellum synaptic membranes, human placental membranes, and wild type S49 lymphoma cell membranes. The glucose transporter in rat cardiac sarcolemmal membranes and rat cortex and cerebellum synaptic membranes was determined to be 45 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Photolysis of human placental membranes and S49 lymphoma membranes with [I-125]IAPS-Fsk followed by SDS-PAGE indicated specific derivatization of a broad band (45-55 kDa) in placental membranes and a narrower band (45 kDa) in the S49 lymphoma membranes. Digestion of the [I-125]IPAS-Fsk labelled placental and S49 lymphoma membranes with endo-B-galactosidase showed a reduction in the apparent molecular weight of the radiolabelled band to 40 kDa. Trypsinization of labelled placental and lymphoma membranes produced an 18 kDa radiolabelled proteolytic fragment. [I-125]IAPS-Fsk is a highly effective probe for identifying low levels of glucose transporters in mammalian tissues

  2. Photoaffinity labeling with cholesterol analogues precisely maps a cholesterol-binding site in voltage-dependent anion channel-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelier, Melissa M; Cheng, Wayland W L; Bergdoll, Lucie; Chen, Zi-Wei; Janetka, James W; Abramson, Jeff; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel; Covey, Douglas F; Whitelegge, Julian P; Evers, Alex S

    2017-06-02

    Voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) is a highly regulated β-barrel membrane protein that mediates transport of ions and metabolites between the mitochondria and cytosol of the cell. VDAC1 co-purifies with cholesterol and is functionally regulated by cholesterol, among other endogenous lipids. Molecular modeling studies based on NMR observations have suggested five cholesterol-binding sites in VDAC1, but direct experimental evidence for these sites is lacking. Here, to determine the sites of cholesterol binding, we photolabeled purified mouse VDAC1 (mVDAC1) with photoactivatable cholesterol analogues and analyzed the photolabeled sites with both top-down mass spectrometry (MS), and bottom-up MS paired with a clickable, stable isotope-labeled tag, FLI -tag. Using cholesterol analogues with a diazirine in either the 7 position of the steroid ring (LKM38) or the aliphatic tail (KK174), we mapped a binding pocket in mVDAC1 localized to Thr 83 and Glu 73 , respectively. When Glu 73 was mutated to a glutamine, KK174 no longer photolabeled this residue, but instead labeled the nearby Tyr 62 within this same binding pocket. The combination of analytical strategies employed in this work permits detailed molecular mapping of a cholesterol-binding site in a protein, including an orientation of the sterol within the site. Our work raises the interesting possibility that cholesterol-mediated regulation of VDAC1 may be facilitated through a specific binding site at the functionally important Glu 73 residue. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Gastrointestinal transit of gamma-emitting radionuclide labelled preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fell, J.T.; Hunter, E.; Sharma, H.

    1982-01-01

    This work is concerned with the behaviour of solid doses e.g. tablets and capsules in vivo. Methods of determining disintegration times and gastric emptying in the fasting and non-fasting states in an upright and in the supine positions are examined. Disintegration times in vivo and in vitro are compared. (U.K.)

  4. Bioaccumulation of gamma emitting radionuclides in Polysiphonia fucoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamara Zalewska

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the bioaccumulation abilities of Polysiphonia fucoides, a red algae specific to the southern Baltic Sea, towards (of) gamma emitting isotopes. A laboratory experiment was carried out to determine changes in the activities of some isotopes - 54 Mn, 57 Co, 65 Zn, 110m Ag, 113 Sn, 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 241 Am - occurring in P. fucoides exposed to a seawater medium containing these isotopes over the course of 1 month. All analyzed isotopes showed the greatest increase of radioactive activity in plant tissue in the first 24 h of exposure. The temporary concentration factors of cesium isotopes were increasing linearly during the experiment from 114 to 274 in the case of 137 Cs, and from 144 to 351 in the case of 134 Cs. The level of the initial concentration factor of cesium isotopes in the plant proved to be independent of the initial concentration of the isotope in seawater and it took the lowest (125 dm 3 kg -1 ) level among the studied isotopes. In the case of a mixture of gamma emitting isotopes, a linear relation between the individual isotope activity in P. fucoides and its initial concentration in seawater was established after the first day of exposure; the isotopes initial concentration factors ranged from 767 to 874 dm 3 kg -1 . Having reached the maximal concentration level, a statistically significant decline in radioactivity concentrations of the five isotopes in the plant tissue was observed. A half-life of biological removal of the isotopes from the plant tissue was established at: 3.8 days in the case of 54 Mn, 4 days- 57 Co, 4 days- 60 Co, 4.2 days- 137 Cs and 241 Am-3.5 days. (author)

  5. Gamma emitting radionuclides of the Test Reactor Area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides. The potential hazards to man and the environment were considered through the biological export of radioactive materials from the ponds. Both biotic and abiotic pond compartments were sampled. Fall and winter biomass estimates showed that benthic periphyton comprised 52%, macrophytes and littoral vegetation 35%, and seston 10% of the total for all biotic compartments. Concentrations and concentration factors (CFs) for fall and winter are presented for Cr-51, Co-60, Zr-95, I-131, Cs-137, Ba-140, and Ce-141. Concentrations and CFs ranged over seven orders of magnitude for the various nuclides and compartments. Seston and zooplankton had the highest concentrations followed by periphyton, sediment, macrophytes, littoral plants, willow, and filtered water. Arthropods had variable concentrations and CFs. Significant seasonal differences were observed for concentrations and CFs in seston, macrophytes, and littoral vegetation. A compartmental inventory of total gamma emitting activity accounted for 254 Ci (9.25 TBq) of the 731 Ci (24.8 TBq) estimated to remain in the ponds at the time of sampling. Filtered water and surface sediments contained 99% of the total radioactivity, while periphyton and seston had most of the remaining 1%. An estimate of the avian export rate of radioactivity from the TRA ponds showed that potentially harvestable mourning doves had the lowest rate with 0.02 μCi/y. External tissues of migratory waterfowl were found to contribute 90% of the total exported activity for all birds. The total avian export rate was estimated to be 1350 μCi/y during 1975

  6. Synthesis, characterization and inhibitory activities of (4-N3[3,5-3H]Phe10)PKI(6-22)amide and its precursors: photoaffinity labeling peptides for the active site of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B M; Lundquist, L J; Walsh, D A; Glass, D B

    1989-06-01

    PKI(6-22)amide is a 17 residue peptide corresponding to the active portion of the heat-stable inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. The peptide is a potent (Ki = 1.6 nM), competitive inhibitor of the enzyme. The photoreactive peptide analog (4-azidophenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide was synthesized in both its non-radiolabeled and tritiated forms by chemical modification of precursor peptides that were prepared by stepwise solid-phase synthesis. (4-Amino[3,5-3H]phenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide, the precursor for the radiolabeled arylazide peptide, was obtained by catalytic reduction of the corresponding peptide containing the 3,5-diiodo-4-aminophenylalanine residue at position 10. The purified PKI peptides were analyzed by HPLC, amino acid analysis, and u.v. spectra. In the dark, (4-azidophenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide inhibited the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase with a Ki value of 2.8 nM. The photoreactivity of the arylazide peptide was demonstrated by time-dependent u.v. spectral changes on exposure to light. Photolysis of the catalytic subunit (4-azido[3,5-3H]phenylalanine10)PKI(6-22)amide complex resulted in specific covalent labeling of the enzyme. The data indicate that this peptide is a useful photoaffinity labeling reagent for the active site of the protein kinase.

  7. Photoaffinity studies of the tubulin-colchicine binding site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    A variety of colchicine derivatives were synthesized and coupled with 3,3,3-trifluoro-2-diazapropionyl chloride (TFDP-Cl) to produce colchicine photoaffinity analogs for use in tubulin labelling studies. Photoaffinity analogs of allocolchicine and podophylotoxin were also made using the same photoreactive moiety. Several labels were found to be effective inhibitors of tubulin polymerization. The approximate tubulin binding constants of the labels, calculated from polymerization inhibition data, varied between 2.2 x 10 5 to 2.5 x 10 3 M -1 . The labels chosen for use in tubulin labelling experiments were (N-TFDP) deacetyl-thiocolchicine 1, (O-TFDP)thiocolchifoline 2, and (O-TFDP)-2-demethylthiocolchicine 3. Compound 1 was found to bind tubulin reversibly and to competitively inhibit colchicine binding. Methods for the incorporation of tritium and 14 C in these labels were developed. Conditions were found which caused labels to insert into solvent without photorearrangement of the colchicine skeleton. Catalytic base caused the α-diazo amide of 1 to rearrange to a triazole

  8. Recent Advances in Target Characterization and Identification by Photoaffinity Probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang J. Chung

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Target identification of biologically active molecules such as natural products, synthetic small molecules, peptides, and oligonucleotides mainly relies on affinity chromatography, activity-based probes, or photoaffinity labeling (PAL. Amongst them, activity-based probes and PAL have offered great advantages in target identification technology due to their ability to form covalent bonds with the corresponding targets. Activity-based probe technology mainly relies on the chemical reactivity of the target proteins, thereby limiting the majority of the biological targets to enzymes or proteins which display reactive residues at the probe-binding site. In general, the probes should bear a reactive moiety such as an epoxide, a Michael acceptor, or a reactive alkyl halide in their structures. On the other hand, photoaffinity probes (PAPs are composed of a target-specific ligand and a photoactivatable functional group. When bound to the corresponding target proteins and activated with wavelength-specific light, PAPs generate highly reactive chemical species that covalently cross-link proximal amino acid residues. This process is better known as PAL and is widely employed to identify cellular targets of biologically active molecules. This review highlights recent advances in target identification by PAL, with a focus on the structure and chemistry of the photoaffinity probes developed in the recent decade, coupled to the target proteins identified using these probes.

  9. Membrane vesicles from multidrug-resistant human carcinoma cells contain a specific 150,000-170,000 dalton protein detected by photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, M.M.; Safa, A.R.; Felsted, R.L.; Gottesman, M.M.; Pastan, I.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have selected multidrug-resistant human KB carcinoma cells in high levels of colchicine (KB-C4) or vinblastine (KB-V1) which are cross-resistant to many other structurally unrelated chemotheraputic agents. To determine the mechanism of reduced drug accumulation, they measured 3 H-vinblastine ( 3 H-VBL) association with membrane vesicles made from parental drug sensitive, drug-resistant and revertant cells. Membrane vesicles from highly multidrug resistant cells exhibited increased specific and saturable binding of vinblastine, (Kd = 1 μM) that was temperature dependent and trypsin sensitive. To identify the molecules which bind vinblastine, membrane vesicles were exposed to two photo-activatable analogs of vinblastine, (N-P-(azido-3,5,-[ 3 H]-benzoyl)-N'-β-aminoethylvindisine ( 3 H-NAB) and N-P-(azido-3-[ 125 I]-solicyl)-N'-β-aminoethylvindesine ( 125 I-NASV). The specific labeling of a 150,000-170,000 dalton protein in membrane vesicles from multidrug-resistant KB-C4 and KB-V1 cells was found. 125 I-NASV labeling was inhibited by vinblastine, vincrinstine and verapamil but not by colchicine or dexamethasone. The 150,000-170,000 dalton protein may have an important role in the multidrug resistance phenotype

  10. ORNL shielded facilities capable of remote handling of highly radioactive beta--gamma emitting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, W.R.

    1977-09-01

    A survey of ORNL facilities having adequate shielding and containment for the remote handling of experimental quantities of highly radioactive beta-gamma emitting materials is summarized. Portions of the detailed descriptions of these facilities previously published in ORNL/TM-1268 are still valid and are repeated

  11. The distribution and abundance of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, R.S.

    1985-03-01

    The distribution of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lake Ontario sediments was investigated. Samples were collected using a systematic design in the vicinity of Pickering and Darlington, and supplemented by lakewide offshore samples. Naturally occurring 40 K was the predominant source of gamma activity. 60 Co was the only potentially CANDU released radionuclide which showed a distributional association with the Pickering 'A' NGS discharge

  12. Metrological aspects of radiochemical methods for determining activity of gamma-emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The author considers the problem of metrological compatibility of the two stages in the radiochemical method of determining the activity of a gamma-emitting nuclide: chemical isolation of the nuclide and radiometric measurement of its activity. The authors show that preparation of the specimen in liquid form provides for important advantages compared with the traditional application of the solid residue onto a flat substate. The work here is of interest for analytical chemists who are involved with determination of the activity of gamma emitting nuclides such as Ru 103, Rh 106, Sn 113, Cs 134, Cs 137, La 140, Ce 141, Ce 144, Hg 203, Na 24, Mn 54, Fe 59, Co 60, Zn 65, Zr 95, and Nb 95, for example, in waste water or in emissions to the atmosphere, with the goal of protecting the environment

  13. Activity concentrations and mean annual effective dose from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the Lebanese diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasreddine, L.; Hwalla, N.; El Samad, O.; Baydoun, R.; Hamze, M.; Parent-Massin, D.

    2008-01-01

    Since the primary factor contributing to the internal effective dose in the human organism is contaminated food, the control of radionuclides in food represents the most important means of protection. This study was conducted to determine the levels of the dietary exposure of the Lebanese population to gamma-emitting radioisotopes. The activity concentrations of gamma-emitting radioisotopes have been measured in food samples that represent the market basket of an adult urban population in Lebanon. The artificial radionuclide 137 Cs was measured above detection limits in only fish, meat and milk-based deserts. The most abundant natural radionuclide was 40 K (31-121 Bq kg -1 ), with the highest content in fish and meat samples. The annual mean effective dose contributed by 40 K in the reference typical diet was estimated equal to 186 μSv y -1 , a value reasonably consistent with findings reported by several other countries. (authors)

  14. Photoaffinity labeling of the rat plasma vitamin D binding protein with [26,27-3H]-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 3 beta-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)glycinate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, R.; Holick, S.A.; Hanafin, N.; Holick, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    It is well recognized that the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is important for the transport of vitamin D, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-D), and its metabolites. In an attempt to better understand the molecular-binding properties of this ubiquitous protein, we designed and synthesized a photoaffinity analogue of 25-OH-D3 and its radiolabeled counterpart. This analogue, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 3 beta-[N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)glycinate] (25-OH-D3-ANG), was recognized by the rat DBP and was about 10 times less active than 25-OH-D3 in terms of binding. Incubation of [ 3 H]25-OH-D3 or [ 3 H]25-OH-D3-ANG with rat DBP revealed that both compounds were specifically bound to a protein with a sedimentation coefficient of 4.1 S. Each was displaced with a 500-fold excess of 25-OH-D3. When [ 3 H]25-OH-D3-ANG was exposed to UV radiation in the presence of rat DBP followed by the addition of a 500-fold excess of 25-OH-D3, there was no displacement of tritium from the 4.1S peak. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis autoradiographic analysis of [ 3 H]25-OH-D3-ANG exposed to UV radiation in the presence of rat DBP followed by the addition of a 500-fold excess of 25-OH-D3 revealed one major band with a molecular weight of 52 000. These data provide strong evidence that [ 3 H]25-OH-D3-ANG was covalently linked to the rat DBP. This photoaffinity probe should provide a valuable tool for the analysis of the binding site on this transport protein

  15. Sex pheromone receptor proteins. Visualization using a radiolabeled photoaffinity analog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, R.G.; Prestwich, G.D.; Riddiford, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A tritium-labeled photoaffinity analog of a moth pheromone was used to covalently modify pheromone-selective binding proteins in the antennal sensillum lymph and sensory dendritic membranes of the male silk moth, Antheraea polyphemus. This analog, (E,Z)-6,11-[ 3 H]hexadecadienyl diazoacetate, allowed visualization of a 15-kilodalton soluble protein and a 69-kilodalton membrane protein in fluorescence autoradiograms of electrophoretically separated antennal proteins. Covalent modification of these proteins was specifically reduced when incubation and UV irradiation were conducted in the presence of excess unlabeled pheromone, (E,Z)-6,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. These experiments constitute the first direct evidence for a membrane protein of a chemosensory neuron interacting in a specific fashion with a biologically relevant odorant

  16. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E. (NutraSweet Company, Mt. Prospect, IL (United States)); Williams, D.S. (Amersham International plc, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Cardiff Labs.); Gresk, C.J.; Markos, C.S. (Searle Research and Development, Skokie, IL (United States))

    1992-08-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author).

  17. Understanding the mechanism of sweet taste: synthesis of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, S.; Kellogg, M.S.; DuBois, G.E.; Williams, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Syntheses of tritium labeled guanidineacetic acid sweetener and a tritiated photoaffinity labeling reagent via the catalytic hydrogenation of the dibromo intermediates are described. These labeled compounds were required for the investigation of sweet taste mechanism. (author)

  18. Mobility of gamma-emitting fission products in typical black and laterite soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on the movement of the gamma-emitting fission products 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce, surface deposited on columns of the black and laterite soils revealed that the mobility of these nuclides in the two soils depended mainly on the ionic form of the nuclide, soil reaction and predominant clay mineral type in the soil. Results showed a rapid breakthrough of 106 Ru in the black soil and considerable migration to the lower layers in the laterite soil on leaching with rain water, or moderately high calcium or sodium irrigation waters. While near complete fixation of 144 Ce and 137 Cs in the top contaminated layer of both soils was observed, a slight movement of 125 Sb only in the black soil was noticed. Incorporation of organic matter had no effects on the movement of fission products in both soil types, whereas ethylenediaminetraacetic acid (EDTA) induced variable movement of the different radionuclides in the two soil types. (author)

  19. Fractionation of gamma-emitting fission products absorbed by red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce that accumulated in the edible pods of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants grown in nutrient culture were subjected to chemical fractionation. The results indicated that the largest fraction of 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 144 Ce was associated with ionic forms including salts of organic acids, phosphates, carbonates and some protein-bound forms extracted with dilute mineral acids (acid fraction). The association of these radionuclides with lipids including lipophyllic pigments, free amino acids and amino sugars (ethanol fraction) was next in significance. The association of 137 Cs was, however, greater with the ethanol fraction than with the acid fraction. Considerably reduced amounts of the fission products were present in the pectates, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids. (U.K.)

  20. Procedure for the elaboration of extended sources beta and/or gamma emitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejera R, A.; Cortes P, A.; Becerril V, A.

    1991-12-01

    In the laboratory of radioactive standards they have been come manufacturing punctual sources gauged gamma emitting during several years. Before the demand of extended radioactive homogeneous sources of beta particles emitting, in particular with nuclides that are simultaneously gamma and beta emitting, it was designed a procedure for it elaboration based on the one that we use at the moment for the elaboration of the punctual gamma sources. This procedure consists on the integration of a compact group of this type of sources on a single extended support, sealed one of its faces with a film of transparent material in satisfactory grade to the beta particles. In this work this procedure is described and it is applied in the elaboration of two sources that its were requested by the Laguna Verde Central (CFE), one with area of 20 cm 2 and the other one of 100 cm 2 . The homogeneity, measure as the dispersion of the activities of the aliquot ones distributed in the active surfaces was inside 2%. The percentage of attenuation of the beta particles was also measured by the film (window) with the one that the sources were sealed. (Author)

  1. Comparative uptake of gamma-emitting fission product nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1974-01-01

    The comparative uptake of long-lived gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce, present in global fallout from nuclear explosions, by maize (Zea mays L) plants was examined in water culture experiments. Over identical duration of plant growth, the extent of accumulation of the radionuclides in aerial tissues was in the following decreasing order: 137 Cs >, 125 Sb >, 106 Ru > and 144 Ce. In roots, however, the retention of 144 Ce and 106 Ru was greater than that of 137 Cs and 125 Sb. Complementary studies with maize and rice (Oryza sativa L) grown on two contrasting soil types, namely, laterite and black clay loam indicated that 137 Cs uptake by plants was markedly greater than that of the other radionuclides in both soil types. Plant uptake of 106 Ru and 125 Sb was significantly higher than that of 144 Ce in the black soil. In the laterite, however, 144 Ce uptake far exceeded that of 106 Ru and 125 Sb. In general, maize removed higher amounts of the radionuclides than rice from both soil types. (author)

  2. Seasonal distribution and uptake of gamma emitting radionuclides at the test reactor area leaching ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive leaching ponds adjacent to the Test Reactor Area (TRA) located on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site were investigated to determine the seasonal distribution and ecological behavior of gamma emitting radionuclides in various pond compartments. The physical, chemical and biological properties of the TRA ponds were documented including basic morphometry, water chemistry and species identification. Penetrating radiation exposure rates at the ponds ranged from 35 to 65 mR/d at the water surface and up to 3400 mR/d one meter above bottom sediments. Seasonal concentrations and concentration ratios were determined for 16 principle radionuclides in filtered water, sediment, seston, zooplankton, net plankton, nannoplankton, periphyton, macrophytes, thistle, speedwell and willow. Seston and nannoplankton had the highest concentration ratios with substantial decreases observed for higher trophic level compartments. Significant (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001) seasonal effects wee found for concentration ratios. Radionuclides without nutrient analogs had the highest ratios in spring for periphyton, macrophytes and littoral plants. Concentration ratios were highest in summer, fall or winter for radionuclides with nutrient analogs

  3. Photoaffinity Labeling of Developing Jojoba Seed Microsomal Membranes with a Photoreactive Analog of Acyl-Coenzyme A (Acyl-CoA) (Identification of a Putative Acyl-CoA:Fatty Alcohol Acyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shockey, J. M.; Rajasekharan, R.; Kemp, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis, Link) is the only plant known that synthesizes liquid wax. The final step in liquid wax biosynthesis is catalyzed by an integral membrane enzyme, fatty acyl-coenzyme A (CoA):fatty alcohol acyltransferase, which transfers an acyl chain from acyl-CoA to a fatty alcohol to form the wax ester. To purify the acyltransferase, we have labeled the enzyme with a radioiodinated, photoreactive analog of acyl-CoA, 12-[N-(4-azidosalicyl)amino] dodecanoyl-CoA (ASD-CoA). This molecule acts as an inhibitor of acyltransferase activity in the dark and as an irreversible inhibitor upon exposure to ultraviolet light. Oleoyl-CoA protects enzymatic activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Photolysis of microsomal membranes with labeled ASD-CoA resulted in strong labeling of two polypeptides of 57 and 52 kD. Increasing concentrations of oleoyl-CoA reduced the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide dramatically, whereas the labeling of the 52-kD polypeptide was much less responsive to oleoyl-CoA. Also, unlike the other polypeptide, the labeling of the 57-kD polypeptide was enhanced considerably when photolyzed in the presence of dodecanol. These results suggest that a 57-kD polypeptide from jojoba microsomes may be the acyl-CoA:fatty alcohol acyltransferase.

  4. [3H]CGP 61594, the first photoaffinity ligand for the glycine site of NMDA receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, D.; Honer, M.; Mohler, H.; Heckendorn, R.; Pozza, M.F.; Allgeier, H.; Angst, C.

    1999-01-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors requires the presence of glycine as a coagonist which binds to a site that is allosterically linked to the glutamate binding site. To identify the protein constituents of the glycine binding site in situ the photoaffinity label [ 3 H]CGP 61594 was synthesized. In reversible binding assays using crude rat brain membranes, [ 3 H]CGP 61594 labeled with high affinity (K D =23 nM) the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. This was evident from the Scatchard analysis, the displacing potencies of various glycine site ligands and the allosteric modulation of [ 3 H]CGP 61594 binding by ligands of the glutamate and polyamine sites. Electrophysiological experiments in a neocortical slice preparation identified CGP 61594 as a glycine antagonist. Upon UV-irradiation, a protein band of 115 kDa was specifically photolabeled by [ 3 H]CGP 61594 in brain membrane preparations. The photolabeled protein was identified as the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor by NR1 subunit-specific immunoaffinity chromatography. Thus, [ 3 H]CGP 61594 is the first photoaffinity label for the glycine site of NMDA receptors. It will serve as a tool for the identification of structural elements that are involved in the formation of the glycine binding domain of NMDA receptors in situ and will thereby complement the mutational analysis of recombinant receptors. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Gamma-emitting radionuclides in the bottom sediments of some Finnish lakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilus, E.; Puhakainen, M.; Saxen, R.

    1993-10-01

    In 1988 and 1990 bottom sediment and surface water samples were taken from eight large lakes representing all five categories of deposition regions contaminated by the chernobyl fallout in Finland. All samples were analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides. The 137 Cs concentrations in surface waters varied in 1988 from 20 to 310 Bq/m 3 and in 1990 from 78 to 170 Bq/m 3 . The other radionuclides of Chernobyl origin detected in water samples were 106 Ru, 125 Sb and 134 Cs. In the sediments the total amount of 137 Cs per square metre varied in 1988 from 1100 to 160 000 Bq/m 2 and in 1990 from 14 000 to 250 000 Bq/m 2 . The maximum values were in Lake Pyhaejaervi. The maximum concentration of 137 Cs in the surface layer of sediment (0-2cm) was 55 700 Bq/kg dry wt in Lake Naesijaervi. In addition to the cesium isotopes 137 Cs and 134 Cs , Chernobyl derived 106 Ru, 125 Sb amd 144 Ce were detected i the surface layer of sediment in most lakes. 54 Mn, 60 Co and 110m Ag were also detected in some lakes situated in the regions most contaminated by the Chernobyl fallout. In 1988 the maximum concentrations of 137 Cs and 134 Cs were in the uppermost layer of sediment (0-2cm) at almost all stations. In 1990, the cesium peaks already occurred at many stations in the second slice (2-5cm), which may indicate downward diffusion of cesium in sediments or mixing of sediment layers during sampling. The most important factors affecting cesium values in sediments were the local amount of deposition and the type of sediment. This study did not reveal any correletion between the maximum depth of the lake and the area of the lake with the cesium amounts in the sediments. (orig.). (23 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.)

  6. A photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niznik, H B; Guan, J H; Neumeyer, J L; Seeman, P

    1985-02-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [3H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol. The degree of D2 dopamine receptor photoinduced inactivation by azidoclebopride was not significantly affected by scavengers such as p-aminobenzoic acid and dithiothreitol. Furthermore, irradiation of striatal membranes with a concentration of azidoclebopride sufficient to inactivate dopamine D2 receptors by 60% did not significantly reduce dopamine D1, serotonin (S2), benzodiazepine, alpha 1- or beta-noradrenergic receptors. This study describes the use of a novel and selective photoaffinity ligand for brain dopamine D2 receptors. The molecule, in radiolabeled form, may aid in the

  7. [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594, the first photoaffinity ligand for the glycine site of NMDA receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benke, D.; Honer, M.; Mohler, H. [Institute of Pharmacology, ETH and University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Heckendorn, R.; Pozza, M.F.; Allgeier, H.; Angst, C. [NS Research, Novartis Pharma AG, CH-4002 Basle (Switzerland)

    1999-02-01

    Activation of NMDA receptors requires the presence of glycine as a coagonist which binds to a site that is allosterically linked to the glutamate binding site. To identify the protein constituents of the glycine binding site in situ the photoaffinity label [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 was synthesized. In reversible binding assays using crude rat brain membranes, [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 labeled with high affinity (K{sub D}=23 nM) the glycine site of the NMDA receptor. This was evident from the Scatchard analysis, the displacing potencies of various glycine site ligands and the allosteric modulation of [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 binding by ligands of the glutamate and polyamine sites. Electrophysiological experiments in a neocortical slice preparation identified CGP 61594 as a glycine antagonist. Upon UV-irradiation, a protein band of 115 kDa was specifically photolabeled by [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 in brain membrane preparations. The photolabeled protein was identified as the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor by NR1 subunit-specific immunoaffinity chromatography. Thus, [{sup 3}H]CGP 61594 is the first photoaffinity label for the glycine site of NMDA receptors. It will serve as a tool for the identification of structural elements that are involved in the formation of the glycine binding domain of NMDA receptors in situ and will thereby complement the mutational analysis of recombinant receptors. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Identification of the ligand-binding subunit of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine1A receptor with N-(p-azido-m-[125I] iodophenethyl)spiperone, a high affinity radioiodinated photoaffinity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.R.; Fargin, A.; Lohse, M.J.; Regan, J.W.; Senogles, S.E.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The ligand-binding subunit of the human 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor transiently expressed in COS-7 cells and of the native human 5-HT1A receptor derived from hippocampus and frontal cortex were identified by photoaffinity labeling with N-(p-azido-m-[125I]iodophenethyl)spiperone [( 125I]N3-NAPS), previously characterized as a high affinity radioiodinated D2-dopamine receptor probe. The identity of the ligand-binding subunit was confirmed by immunoprecipitation with an antipeptide rabbit antiserum, JWR21, raised against a synthetic peptide derived from the predicted amino acid sequence of the putative third intracellular loop of the human 5-HT1A receptor. In transiently transfected COS-7 cells expressing 14 +/- 3 pmol/mg of protein human 5-HT1A receptors, a single broad 75-kDa band was photoaffinity labeled by [125I]N3-NAPS. This band displayed the expected pharmacology of the 5-HT1A receptor, as evidenced by the ability of a series of competing ligands to block [125I]N3-NAPS photoincorporation. Moreover, antiserum JWR21 specifically and quantitatively immunoprecipitated the 75-kDa photoaffinity-labeled band from a soluble extract of the transfected COS-7 cell membranes, further confirming its identity. Finally, utilizing a combination of photoaffinity labeling and immunoprecipitation, the native ligand-binding subunit of 62-64 kDa was identified in human hippocampus and frontal cortex. The availability of the high specific activity, high affinity, photoaffinity ligand [125I]N3-NAPS and of a potent immunoprecipitating antiserum (JWR21) should greatly facilitate the biochemical characterization of the human 5-HT1A receptor

  9. Influence of radiation-dose pattern from inhaled beta--gamma-emitting radionuclides on canine peripheral lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.; Boecker, B.B.; Pickrell, J.A.; Hobbs, C.H.; McClellan, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    As part of studies assess the biological hazards associated with inhaled radionuclides, periodic hematologic evaluations were performed on beagle dogs given a single nose-only exposure to aerosols of beta--gamma-emitting isotopes. The physical form and specific radionuclides selected produced radiation-dose patterns representative of those which might be encountered in the event of human accidental exposures. Dogs received graded lung burdens of either 90 Y, 91 Y, 144 Ce, or 90 Sr, each in fused clay. Differences in the effective half-lives of these radionuclides resulted in a spectrum of cumulative radiation doses to lung delivered at a variety of dose rates. Since the form in which the radionuclides were inhaled was relatively insoluble, the lung and intrathoracic tissues represented the primary recipient of the dose. Regardless of the effective half-life of radionuclide retention, a dose-related depression of peripheral lymphocytes was observed at various times after inhalation exposure. The time at which maximum depression and subsequent recovery occurred, however, was most directly related to the effective half-life of the radionuclide. Of special interest was the persistence of lymphopenia through 2 1 / 2 years after exposure to 144 Ce and 90 Sr in fused clay where, other than tracheobronchial lymph nodes, the lymphoid tissue received very little radiation dose. The possible mechanisms responsible for lymphocyte depression from these various radiation-dose patterns are discussed

  10. Identification of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit by photoaffinity crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrington, W.W.; Jacobson, K.A.; Hutchison, A.J.; Williams, M.; Stiles, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    A high-affinity iodinated agonist radioligand for the A2 adenosine receptor has been synthesized to facilitate studies of the A2 adenosine receptor binding subunit. The radioligand 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC (125I-labeled 2-[4-(2-[2-[(4- aminophenyl)methylcarbonylamino]ethylaminocarbonyl]- ethyl)phenyl]ethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine) was synthesized and found to bind to the A2 adenosine receptor in bovine striatal membranes with high affinity (Kd = 1.5 nM) and A2 receptor selectivity. Competitive binding studies reveal the appropriate A2 receptor pharmacologic potency order with 5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (NECA) greater than (-)-N6-[(R)-1-methyl- 2-phenylethyl]adenosine (R-PIA) greater than (+)-N6-[(S)-1-methyl-2- phenylethyl]adenosine (S-PIA). Adenylate cyclase assays, in human platelet membranes, demonstrate a dose-dependent stimulation of cAMP production. PAPA-APEC (1 microM) produces a 43% increase in cAMP production, which is essentially the same degree of increase produced by 5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (the prototypic A2 receptor agonist). These findings combined with the observed guanine nucleotide-mediated decrease in binding suggest that PAPA-APEC is a full A2 agonist. The A2 receptor binding subunit was identified by photoaffinity-crosslinking studies using 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC and the heterobifunctional crosslinking agent N-succinimidyl 6-(4'-azido-2'-nitrophenylamino)hexanoate (SANPAH). After covalent incorporation, a single specifically radiolabeled protein with an apparent molecular mass of 45 kDa was observed on NaDodSO4/PAGE/autoradiography. Incorporation of 125I-labeled PAPA-APEC into this polypeptide is blocked by agonists and antagonists with the expected potency for A2 receptors and is decreased in the presence of 10(-4) M guanosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate

  11. Response-surface models for deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {beta}/{gamma} -emitting sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.R.

    1995-12-01

    Individuals who work at nuclear reactor facilities can be at risk for deterministic effects in the skin from exposure to discrete {Beta}- and {gamma}-emitting ({Beta}{gamma}E) sources (e.g., {Beta}{gamma}E hot particles) on the skin or clothing. Deterministic effects are non-cancer effects that have a threshold and increase in severity as dose increases (e.g., ulcer in skin). Hot {Beta}{gamma}E particles are {sup 60}Co- or nuclear fuel-derived particles with diameters > 10 {mu}m and < 3 mm and contain at least 3.7 kBq (0.1 {mu}Ci) of radioactivity. For such {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin, it is the beta component of the dose that is most important. To develop exposure limitation systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for systems that adequately control exposure of workers to discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources, models are needed for evaluating the risk of deterministic effects of localized {Beta} irradiation of the skin. The purpose of this study was to develop dose-rate and irradiated-area dependent, response-surface models for evaluating risks of significant deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin by discrete {Beta}{gamma}E sources and to use modeling results to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure to such sources. The significance of the research results as follows: (1) response-surface models are now available for evaluating the risk of specific deterministic effects of localized irradiation of the skin; (2) modeling results have been used to recommend approaches to limiting occupational exposure of workers to {Beta} radiation from {Beta}{gamma}E sources on the skin or on clothing; and (3) the generic irradiated-volume, weighting-factor approach to limiting exposure can be applied to other organs including the eye, the ear, and organs of the respiratory or gastrointestinal tract and can be used for both deterministic and stochastic effects.

  12. Novel photoaffinity ligands for the GA-receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suttle, J.C.; Hultstrand, J.F.; Tanaka, F.S.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that certain N-substituted phthalimides (NSPs) exhibit GA-like activity in a range of specific bioassays and that bioactive NSPs compete with [ 3 H]-GA 4 for soluble binding sites in cucumber homogenates. As such, these compounds may prove useful in the purification and characterization of GA receptor proteins. To this end, five azido-NSPs have been synthesized and are currently being screened for biological activity and photochemical stability. Three azido-NSPs elicit α-amylase production in barley half-seeds and stimulate tissue elongation in d 5 maize, lettuce, sunflower, and soybean. Further evaluations are in progress and these data as well as the utility of these compounds as photo-affinity ligands will be discussed

  13. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in

  14. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in air filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Kim, C.-K.; Sansone, U.; Ferrari, M.; Sill, D.

    2006-10-01

    This report summarises the results of the IAEA-CU-2006-11 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in air filters, organised within the frame of the IAEA Technical Cooperation project RER/8/009 ''Air Pollution Monitoring in the Mediterranean Region''. The proficiency test was conducted by the Reference Materials Group of the Chemistry Unit (Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory) of the IAEA's analytical laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria) in cooperation with the Radiological and Environmental Sciences Laboratory, Department of Energy in the United States of America. The objective of TC project RER/8/009 is to contribute to air quality improvement through the establishment of a network for air monitoring and the design of a remedial strategy where the monitoring shows poor air quality. A spiked air filter with known activities of gamma emitting radionuclides prepared by the Department of Energy of the United States of America was used in this proficiency test. 14 spiked filters were distributed to the participating laboratories in April 2006. The deadline for receiving the results from the participants was set at 31 July 2006. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse the samples employing the methods used in their routine work, so that their performance on the test samples could be directly related to the real performance of the laboratory. Each laboratory was given a confidential code to assure the anonymity of the evaluation results. From the 14 initially registered, 11 laboratories reported their results back to the IAEA. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were evaluated against the reference values assigned to the reference air filter, and a rating system was applied

  15. I. Use of m- and p-azidobenzamidines, 4-fluoro-3-nitro-phenylazide, and 3-azido-1,2,4-triazole as photoaffinity probes of tryptic binding site conformation. II. Analysis of tryptophan in proteins by an acidic reaction of 3-diazonium-1,2,4-triazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeTraglia, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    Meta- and para-azidobenzamidine have been prepared and evaluated as photoaffinity labels. The compounds inhibit trypsin reversibly in the dark and are competitive with substrate binding. Upon photolysis, irreversible noncompetitive inhibition is observed and is dependent upon concentration, photolysis time, and pH. Specificity of the probes is indicated by experiments in which p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester, a trypsin substrate, is used to protect against photoinactivation.

  16. Controls of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides performed whole-body counter measures on children's population from Bjelorussia, Russia and Ucraina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Battisti, P.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.; Rampa, E.; Ticconi, R.

    1994-12-01

    This report summarizes the results obtained in 9 measurement campaigns, performed at the ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) centres of Bologna and Roma-Casaccia from April 1991 to September 1992, for the assessment of internal contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides. Homogeneous samples were selected for the controls, each one representing the children's population from given area. 15 areas were investigated and 24 examined; 20 of them were from Bjelorussia. 266 children, 124 male and 142 female subjects, were controlled. The instruments were intercalibrated according to the body size, from 20.25 kg to 81 kg. Body contamination only from 1 37 Cs and 1 34 Cs was detected. Evaluations were performed in order to test appropriate use of ICRP caesium biokynetic model for children aged 8 to 15 years. Statistical distribution of body activity data were carefully analyzed. It is demonstrated that the data are well fitted by lognormal distribution and a difference between sexes in terms of activity. A significant difference between sexes was found in terms of activity intake

  17. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide open proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Trinkl, A.; Makarewicz, M.; Yonezawa, C.; Kim, C.K.; Kis-Benedek, G.; Benesch, T.; Schorn, R.

    2007-05-01

    The results of analytical measurements play a vital role in our daily lives. Analytical data may be the basis upon which economic, legal or environmental management decisions are made, and they are essential in international trade, environmental protection, safe transportation, law enforcement, consumer safety and the preservation of human health. As an incorrect decision can be extremely costly and detrimental, it is essential that such measurements are accurate, reliable, cost effective and defensible. In addition, measurements performed by laboratories located worldwide should yield traceable and comparable results. Proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. The IAEA-CU-2006-03 world-wide proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in water grass and soil is conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria), which is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and individual evaluation report for each laboratory

  18. Absorption of gamma-emitting fission products and activation products by rice under flooded and unflooded conditions from two tropical soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of gamma-emitting fission products 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce and activation products 59 Fe, 58 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn by rice plants grown on two contrasting tropical soils, namely, a blak soil (pellustert) and a laterite (oxisol), and the effects of flooding were studied under controlled conditions. Results indicated greater uptake of 106 Ru and 125 Sb from the black soil than from the laterite. In contrast, the uptake of 144 Ce and 137 Cs was greater in the laterite than in the black soil. Flooding treatment enhanced the uptake of all these fission products by rice plants in the laterite soil whereas this effect was observed only for 125 Sb and 137 Cs in the black soil. The plant uptake of activation products from the two soil types showed maximum accumulation of 65 Zn followed by 54 Mn, 59 Fe and 58 Co in both soil types. Besides, uptake of these nuclides was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment for rice while showing a reduction of 59 Fe uptake showed an increase in plant uptake of 58 Co, 54 Mn and 65 Zn in both soil types. (orig.)

  19. Absorption of gamma-emitting fission products and activation products by rice under flooded and unflooded conditions from two tropical soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, T J; Mistry, K B [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Biology and Agriculture Div.

    1980-01-01

    The absorption of gamma-emitting fission products /sup 106/Ru, /sup 125/Sb, /sup 137/Cs and /sup 144/Ce and activation products /sup 59/Fe, /sup 58/Co, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 65/Zn by rice plants grown on two contrasting tropical soils, namely, a blak soil (pellustert) and a laterite (oxisol), and the effects of flooding were studied under controlled conditions. Results indicated greater uptake of /sup 106/Ru and /sup 125/Sb from the black soil than from the laterite. In contrast, the uptake of /sup 144/Ce and /sup 137/Cs was greater in the laterite than in the black soil. Flooding treatment enhanced the uptake of all these fission products by rice plants in the laterite soil whereas this effect was observed only for /sup 125/Sb and /sup 137/Cs in the black soil. The plant uptake of activation products from the two soil types showed maximum accumulation of /sup 65/Zn followed by /sup 54/Mn, /sup 59/Fe and /sup 58/Co in both soil types. Besides, uptake of these nuclides was greater from the laterite soil than from the black soil. Flooding treatment for rice while showing a reduction of /sup 59/Fe uptake showed an increase in plant uptake of /sup 58/Co, /sup 54/Mn and /sup 65/Zn in both soil types.

  20. A study of gamma-emitting radionuclides present into the sediments and algae of the ''Baie de l'Orne'' (Central Normandy Coast) collecting during the years 1980 - 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepy, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    The present status of some environmental effects of existing sources of gamma-emitting radionuclides, along the Central part of the Normandy Coast (Calvados shores and river Orne mouth) was determined. A systematic study was made on the behaviour of the marine sediments and brown alga 'Laminaria digitata' with regard to their properties as indicators of radioactive contamination. Marine sediments were collected into the river Orne at fixed locations and into the sea in and around the estuary from 1977 to 1982. Algae samples were picked up along the coast from 1980 to 1982, mostly on the western part of the Orne estuary. Dosimetry techniques employed have produced accurate and reliable results, despite the very low levels of activity involved. Gamma-emitting radionuclides present in the environment (chiefly 106 Ru, 137 Cs, 95 Zr) were identified and measured. Their behaviour into the marine sediments and into Laminaria Digitata were determined. This study provides evidence on the presence of numerous gamma-emitting radionuclides into the marine environment of the Central part of the Normandy coast, but, altogether with very low levels of radioactivity [fr

  1. Active site labeling of the guanine-7-methyltransferase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streaker, E.; Sitz, T.O.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the guanine-7-methyltransferase have defined three domains in the active site: the S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) region, the cap region (GpppG), and the RNA binding domain (--NpNpNpNpNp---). The authors attempted to label the SAM binding domain by a photoaffinity label using 8-azido-SAM and another method using 3 H-SAM and long exposures to uv-light. Neither method was successful. The next approach was to attempt to label the cap-RNA binding domain (GpppGpNpNpNpNpN) by synthesizing RNA containing 8-azido-Ap using an in vitro transcription system and T7 RNA polymerase. The 8-azido-ATP inhibited the T7 RNA polymerase preventing the synthesis of RNA. As they were unable to synthesize the photoaffinity label, they next tried to synthesize an end labeled RNA and directly label by long exposures to uv-light. When the enzyme was incubated with 32 P-labeled RNA for 15 min at 37 degrees and then exposed to a germicidal lamp for various times at O degrees, optimal labeling occurred after 45 min. Various enzyme preparations were labeled by this method and two polypeptides were found to specifically bind the non-methylated mRNA analog. This labeling method should allow characterization of the subunit structure and generate information about the nature of the RNA binding domain

  2. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Martin, P.; Makarewicz, M.; Mohagheghi, A.

    2007-03-01

    The Cooperative Monitoring Centre of Sandia National Laboratories of the United States (SNL) has initiated the Radiation Measurements Cross Calibration (RMCC) project. The RMCC aims to promote regional cooperation in the Middle East for preparedness for radiological emergencies. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is cooperating with Sandia National Laboratories in this project. On a practical level, the initial aim of the RMCC is to establish a network of experts to cooperatively standardize nuclear monitoring and measurement capabilities in the Middle East by applying internationally recognized standards for laboratory radiation measurements. One of the project activities is to assist selected radiation measurement laboratories to participate in a quality assurance program and proficiency tests. During the second Workshop of the RMCC Project, organised by Sandia National Laboratories in Doha, Qatar, 12-17 November 2005, it was agreed to request the Chemistry Unit at the Agency's Seibersdorf laboratories to organise a special Proficiency Test (PT) for participants, for gamma-emitters in sea water. It is well known that proficiency testing is a method for regularly assessing the accuracy of the analytical data produced by the laboratories of particular measurements. According to the requirements of the RMCC project the IAEA-CU-2006-08 proficiency test (PT) on the determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in sea water was conducted by the Chemistry Unit of the IAEA's Laboratories located in Seibersdorf (Austria). The Chemistry Unit is actively involved in the production and characterization of matrix reference materials of terrestrial origin, widely used for method validation and organization of proficiency tests and intercomparison studies. The Chemistry Unit is a part of the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory. This report describes the sample preparation methodology, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each nuclide and

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF HUMAN LIVER MICROSOMAL UDP-GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASES USING PHOTOAFFINITY ANALOGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LITTLE, JM; DRAKE, RR; VONK, R; KUIPERS, F; LESTER, R; RADOMINSKA, A

    The photoaffinity analogs [beta-P-32]5-azido-UDP-glucuronic acid ([P-32]5N3UDP-GlcUA) and [beta-P-32]5-azido-UDP-glucose ([P-32]5N(3)UDP-Glc) were used to characterize UDP-glycosyl-transferases of microsomes prepared from human liver. Photoincorporation of both probes into proteins in the 50- to

  4. Irreversible stimulation of Xenopus melanophores by photoaffinity labelling with p-azidophenylalanine13-α-melanotropin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graan, P.N.E. de; Eberle, A.N.

    1980-01-01

    α-melanotropin induces pigment dispersion in melanophores and pigment formation in melanocytes and melanoma cells. The pigmentdispersingeffect of MSH is completely reversible in vitro, as the melanosomes reaggregate readily upon removal of the hormone. The primary site of action of

  5. Photoaffinity ligand for dopamine D2 receptors: azidoclebopride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niznik, H.B.; Guan, J.H.; Neumeyer, J.L.; Seeman, P.

    1985-01-01

    In order to label D2 dopamine receptors selectively and covalently by means of a photosensitive compound, azidoclebopride was synthesized directly from clebopride. The dissociation constant (KD) of clebopride for the D2 dopamine receptor (canine brain striatum) was 1.5 nM, while that for azidoclebopride was 21 nM. The affinities of both clebopride and azidoclebopride were markedly reduced in the absence of sodium chloride. In the presence of ultraviolet light, azidoclebopride inactivated D2 dopamine receptors irreversibly, as indicated by the inability of the receptors to bind [ 3 H]spiperone. Maximal photoinactivation of about 60% of the D2 dopamine receptors occurred at 1 microM azidoclebopride; 30% of the receptors were inactivated at 80 nM azidoclebopride (pseudo-IC50). Dopamine agonists selectively protected the D2 receptors from being inactivated by azidoclebopride, the order of potency being (-)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than apomorphine greater than (+/-)-6,7-dihydroxy-2-aminotetralin greater than (+)-N-n-propylnorapomorphine greater than dopamine greater than noradrenaline greater than serotonin. Similarly, dopaminergic antagonists prevented the photoinactivation of D2 receptors by azidoclebopride with the following order of potency: spiperone greater than (+)-butaclamol greater than haloperidol greater than clebopride greater than (-)-sulpiride greater than (-)-butaclamol

  6. Reducing Uncertainties in the Production of the Gamma-emitting Nuclei {sup 26}Al, {sup 44}Ti, and {sup 60}Fe in Core-collapse Supernovae by Using Effective Helium Burning Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, Sam M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 640 South Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); West, Christopher; Heger, Alexander, E-mail: austin@nscl.msu.edu, E-mail: christopher.west@metrostate.edu, E-mail: Alexander.Heger@Monash.edu [Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics—Center for the Evolution of the Elements, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We have used effective reaction rates (ERRs) for the helium burning reactions to predict the yield of the gamma-emitting nuclei {sup 26}Al, {sup 44}Ti, and {sup 60}Fe in core-collapse supernovae (SNe). The variations in the predicted yields for values of the reaction rates allowed by the ERR are much smaller than obtained previously, and smaller than other uncertainties. A “filter” for SN nucleosynthesis yields based on pre-SN structure was used to estimate the effect of failed SNe on the initial mass function averaged yields; this substantially reduced the yields of all these isotopes, but the predicted yield ratio {sup 60}Fe/{sup 26}Al was little affected. The robustness of this ratio is promising for comparison with data, but it is larger than observed in nature; possible causes for this discrepancy are discussed.

  7. Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of neurosteroid photoaffinity ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savechenkov, Pavel Y.; Chiara, David C.; Desai, Rooma; Stern, Alexander T.; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Ziemba, Alexis M.; Szabo, Andrea L.; Zhang, Yinghui; Cohen, Jonathan B.; Forman, Stuart A.; Miller, Keith W.; Bruzik, Karol S.

    2017-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of GABAA receptors (GABAAR), but the locations of their GABAAR binding sites remain poorly defined. To discover these sites, we synthesized two photoreactive analogs of alphaxalone, an anesthetic neurosteroid targeting GABAAR, 11β-(4-azido-2,3,5,6-tetrafluorobenzoyloxy)allopregnanolone, (F4N3Bzoxy-AP) and 11-aziallopregnanolone (11-AziAP). Both photoprobes acted with equal or higher potency than alphaxalone as general anesthetics and potentiators of GABAAR responses, left-shifting the GABA concentration – response curve for human α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and enhancing [3H]muscimol binding to α1β3γ2 GABAARs expressed in HEK293 cells. With EC50 of 110 nM, 11-AziAP is one the most potent general anesthetics reported. [3H]F4N3Bzoxy-AP and [3H]11-AziAP, at anesthetic concentrations, photoincorporated into α- and β-subunits of purified α1β3γ2 GABAARs, but labeling at the subunit level was not inhibited by alphaxalone (30 μM). The enhancement of photolabeling by 3H-azietomidate and 3H-mTFD-MPAB in the presence of either of the two steroid photoprobes indicates the neurosteroid binding site is different from, but allosterically related to, the etomidate and barbiturate sites. Our observations are consistent with two hypotheses. First, F4N3Bzoxy-AP and 11-aziAP bind to a high affinity site in such a pose that the 11-photoactivatable moiety, that is rigidly attached to the steroid backbone, points away from the protein. Second, F4N3Bzoxy-AP, 11-aziAP and other steroid anesthetics, which are present at very high concentration at the lipid-protein interface due to their high lipophilicity, act via low affinity sites, as proposed by Akk et al. (Psychoneuroendocrinology 2009, 34S1, S59-S66).

  8. Affinity Labeling of Membrane Receptors Using Tissue-Penetrating Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin C. Wong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling, a useful in vivo biochemical tool, is limited when applied in vivo because of the poor tissue penetration by ultraviolet (UV photons. This study investigates affinity labeling using tissue-penetrating radiation to overcome the tissue attenuation and irreversibly label membrane receptor proteins. Using X-ray (115 kVp at low doses (<50 cGy or Rad, specific and irreversible binding was found on striatal dopamine transporters with 3 photoaffinity ligands for dopamine transporters, to different extents. Upon X-ray exposure (115 kVp, RTI-38 and RTI-78 ligands showed irreversible and specific binding to the dopamine transporter similar to those seen with UV exposure under other conditions. Similarly, gamma rays at higher energy (662 keV also affect irreversible binding of photoreactive ligands to peripheral benzodiazepine receptors (by PK14105 and to the dopamine (D2 membrane receptors (by azidoclebopride, respectively. This study reports that X-ray and gamma rays induced affinity labeling of membrane receptors in a manner similar to UV with photoreactive ligands of the dopamine transporter, D2 dopamine receptor (D2R, and peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBDZR. It may provide specific noninvasive irreversible block or stimulation of a receptor using tissue-penetrating radiation targeting selected anatomic sites.

  9. Comparison of labels for Carafate in a gastric ulcer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, L.C.; Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate three radiolabels for the drug Carafate (basic aluminum sucrose octasulfate), which, when ingested orally, is believed to coat gastric ulcers and protect them from digestive enzymes to promote healing. In order to study the mode of action and residence time in the stomach using external imaging, a gamma-emitting label which is truly bound to the molecule is needed. Carafate has been radiolabeled with Se-75, In-111 (both chemically incorporated into the molecule) and with Tc-99m-HSA which physically adheres to Carafate. In the presence of stomach acid, Carafate polymerizes; when the labeled Carafates were mixed in vitro with 0.1N HCl, >90% of the radio-activity was associated with the polymer in the case of Se-75 and Tc-99m, but the In-111 label was less stable (25-35% bound to polymer). The three labeled preparations were administered orally to rats with gastric ulcers, and the transit of each was followed by gamma camera imaging. Gamma camera images confirmed radioactivity remaining at the ulcer site after unbound material had emptied from the stomach, and the focal activity persisted for >5 hours. The stomachs were then removed, washed and dissected at 5.5 hours and in vitro measurements of ulcer crater: normal stomach tissue radioactivity ratios averaged 15.4, 6.3, and 5.6 for the Se-75, In-111, and Tc-99m-HSA labels, respectively. Biodistribution studies of oral Se-75-Carafate in rats and pigs indicated that very little is absorbed from the GI tract and the distribution is similar to that of C-14-Carafate. It is concluded that Se-75 is the best marker for Carafate of these three gamma-emitting labels and Se-75-Carafate is suitable for studying the kinetics of the drug Carafate in human subjects

  10. A photoaffinity scan maps regions of the p85 SH2 domain involved in phosphoprotein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K P; Shoelson, S E

    1993-03-15

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains are modular phosphotyrosine binding pockets found within a wide variety of cytoplasmic signaling molecules. Here we develop a new approach to analyzing protein-protein interfaces termed photoaffinity scanning, and apply the method to map regions of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 SH2 domain that participate in phospho-protein binding. Each residue except phosphotyrosine (pY) within a tightly binding, IRS-1-derived phosphopeptide (GNGDpYMPMSPKS) was substituted with the photoactive amino acid, benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa). Whereas most substitutions had little effect on binding affinity, Bpa substitution of either Met (+1 and +3 with respect to pY) reduced affinity 50-100-fold to confirm their importance in the pYMXM recognition motif. In three cases photolysis of SH2 domain/Bpa phosphopeptide complexes led to cross-linking of > 50% of the SH2 domain; cross-link positions were identified by microsequence, amino acid composition, and electrospray mass spectrometric analyses. Bpa-1 cross-links within alpha-helix I, whereas Bpa+1 and Bpa+4 cross-link the SH2 domain within the flexible loop C-terminal to alpha-helix II. Moreover, cross-linking at any position prevents SH2 domain cleavage at a trypsin-sensitive site within the flexible loop between beta-strands 1 and 2. Therefore, at least three distinct SH2 regions in addition to the beta-sheet participate in phosphoprotein binding; the loop cross-linked by phosphopeptide residues C-terminal to pY appears to confer specificity to the phosphoprotein/SH2 domain interaction.

  11. Mechanism of A2 adenosine receptor activation. I. Blockade of A2 adenosine receptors by photoaffinity labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohse, M.J.; Klotz, K.N.; Schwabe, U.

    1991-01-01

    It has previously been shown that covalent incorporation of the photoreactive adenosine derivative (R)-2-azido-N6-p-hydroxy-phenylisopropyladenosine [(R)-AHPIA] into the A1 adenosine receptor of intact fat cells leads to a persistent activation of this receptor, resulting in a reduction of cellular cAMP levels. In contrast, covalent incorporation of (R)-AHPIA into human platelet membranes, which contain only stimulatory A2 adenosine receptors, reduces adenylate cyclase stimulation via these receptors. This effect of (R)-AHPIA is specific for the A2 receptor and can be prevented by the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline. Binding studies indicate that up to 90% of A2 receptors can be blocked by photoincorporation of (R)-AHPIA. However, the remaining 10-20% of A2 receptors are sufficient to mediate an adenylate cyclase stimulation of up to 50% of the control value. Similarly, the activation via these 10-20% of receptors occurs with a half-life that is only 2 times longer than that in control membranes. This indicates the presence of a receptor reserve, with respect to both the extent and the rate of adenylate cyclase stimulation. These observations require a modification of the models of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling

  12. Lifetimes and reactivities of some 1,2-didehydroazepines commonly used in photoaffinity labeling experiments in aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, Mary S; Shi, Xiaofeng; Platz, Matthew S

    2006-01-17

    The reactive 1,2-didehydroazepine (cyclic ketenimine) intermediates produced upon photolysis of phenyl azide, 3-hydroxyphenyl azide, 3-methoxyphenyl azide, and 3-nitrophenyl azide in water and in HEPES buffer were studied by laser flash photolysis techniques with UV-vis detection of the transient intermediates. The lifetimes of the 1,2-didehydroazepines were obtained along with the absolute rate constants of their reactions with typical amino acids, nucleosides, and other simple reagents present in a biochemical milieu. The nitro substituent greatly accelerates the bimolecular reactions of the cyclic ketenimines, and the 3-methoxy group greatly decelerates the absolute reactivity of 1,2-didehydroazepines. The intermediate produced by photolysis of 3-hydroxyphenyl azide is much more reactive than the intermediate produced by photolysis of 3-methoxyphenyl azide. We propose that the hydroxyl-substituted 1,2-didehydoazepines rapidly (ketenimines undergo hydrolysis. Azepinones react more rapidly with nucleophiles than do methoxy-substituted 1,2-didehydroazepines and are the active species present upon the photolysis of 3-hydroxyphenyl azide in aqueous solution.

  13. Validation of radioisotopic labelling techniques in gastric emptying studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, R.; Stanghellini, V.; Raiti, C.; Calamelli, R.; Salgemini, R.; Barbara, L.; Zarabini, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Several techniques are currently employed to label solid and liquid foods with gamma-emitting radioisotopes in order to carry out gamma-camera gastric emptying studies. The present study describes an in vitro technique for evaluating the labelling stability of some of the most commonly employed radiomarkers of both the solid and liquid phases. Technetium-99m-sulphur colloid ( 99m Tc-SC) in vivo and in vitro labelled liver of chickens and other animal species appears to be almost ideal marker of the solid phase (97% of radioactivity still bound to the solid phase after incubation in gastric juice for 90 minutes). On the contrary, 51 CrCl 3 -beef ground meat (81%) and 99m Tc-SC egg white (69%) are unsatisfactory markers of the solid phase. Likewise, 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA cannot be considered satisfactory fluid-phase agents, because of the high proportion of radioactivity that leaves the liquid phase to become bound to the solid phase (respectively 76% and 49% after 90 minutes of incubation). This validation technique appears to be simple, feasible and reprodicible, and can be applied in any Nuclear Medicine Department to evaluate the validity of the labelling procedures, in order to improve the accuracy of the results of radioisotopic gastric emptying studies

  14. Clearance of labelled creatinine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.; Liverant, J.

    1982-01-01

    Creatinine, extensively used in clinical work to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (G.F.R.) has caused controversy. Using simultaneously on dogs a gamma emitting agent measuring G.F.R., creatinine clearance proved to be higher. Aided by quantitative determinations and compartmental analysis fortunately the respective dilution spaces can be calculated. In the majority of these animals creatinine spaces are larger but in some equal to the ones of inulin

  15. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  16. Monoclonal antibodies and coupling reagents to cell membrane proteins for leukocyte labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, J.G.; Gagne, G.; Subramanian, G.; Schneider, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Current gamma-emitting agents for tagging leukocytes, In-111 oxine or tropolone, label all cell types indiscriminantly, and nuclear localization in lymphocytes results in radiation damage. Coupling reagents and murine monoclonal antibodies (Mab) specific for cell surface antigens of human leukocytes were tried as cell labeling agents to avoid nuclear localization. 10/sup 8/ mixed human leukocytes in Hepes buffer were added to tubes coated with 5 mg of dry cyclic dianhydride of DTPA for 15 minutes at room temperature. After washing, 0.1 ml of In-111 Cl in ACD (pH 6.8) was added. After 30 minutes, a cell labeling yield of 23% was obtained. Washing the cells in an elutriation centrifuge showed that this label was irreversible. Mab for cell surface antigens of human granulocytes were labeled with 300 μCi of I-125 using the Iodobead technic and unbound activity was removed by gel column chromatography. 1-10 μg were added to 10/sup 8/ mixed leukocytes in 0.5 ml plasma or saline for 1 hr. With Mab anti-leu M4 (clone G7 E11), an IgM, the cell labeling yield was 21%, irreversible, and specific for granulocytes. With anti-human leukocyte Mab NEI-042 (clone 9.4), and IgG2a, and anti-granulocyte Mab MAS-065 (clone FMCl1) an IgG1, the cell labeling was relatively unstable. Labeling of leukocyte subpopulations with Mab is feasible, and the binding of multivalent IgM is stronger than that of other immunoglobulins. DTPA cyclic anhydride is firmly bound to cell membranes, but the labeling is non-specific

  17. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  18. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  19. Some radiopharmaceuticals derived from carbon-eleven labelled phosgene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeda, D.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with some applications of the short lived cyclotron produced radioisotope carbon-11 (half life 20.4 min.) For medical use. Both chemical manipulation of highly radioactive gamma emitting material in order to prepare suitable 11 C-labelled radiopharmaceuticals and two clinical studies are discussed. The first chapter comprises a general introduction concerning the application of the ''tracer principle'' to the short lived positron emitting radionuclides 18 F, 11 C, 13 N and 15 O in medicine. Chapter two deals with the synthesis of 11 COCl 2 . This product is a useful new 11 C-synthon with many potential applications. In chapter three the synthesis of 11 C-urea from 11 C-phosgene for medical use is described. The method uses the reaction of 11 COCl 2 with aqueous ammonia. Chapter four deals with the synthesis of 11 C-barbituric acids and 11 C-hydantoins and presents a clinical study on epilepsy, using 2- 11 C-5,5-diphenylhydantoin ( 11 C-DPH). Patients having intractable epilepsy and patients having no epilepsy were given intravenously a single dose of 11 C-DPH after which the accumulation of the radioactivity in the brain was followed by positron emission tomography. No regional concentration differences could be found near epileptic foci. There was a faint indication that there are some differences in uptake for whole brain between the two categories of patients. (Auth.)

  20. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  1. Covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic ligand-binding site with para-(bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol. A highly potent beta-adrenergic affinity label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.E.; Heald, S.L.; Jeffs, P.W.; Lefkowitz, R.J.; Caron, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Para-(Bromoacetamidyl)benzylcarazolol (pBABC) was synthesized and found to be an extremely potent affinity label for beta-adrenergic receptors. Its interaction with mammalian (rabbit and hamster lung) and nonmammalian (turkey and frog erythrocyte) beta-adrenergic receptors was similar, displaying EC 50 values of 400-900 pM for inhibiting 125 I-cyanopindolol binding to these receptors. pBABC reduced the number of beta-adrenergic receptors in frog erythrocyte membranes, without any change in the affinity of the remaining sites for [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol. pBABC has been radioiodinated. As assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, this affinity probe specifically labeled the beta-adrenergic peptide of a purified preparation of hamster lung, with high efficiency (approximately 40%) and with a pharmacological specificity characteristic of an interaction at the beta 2-adrenergic receptor ligand-binding site. Comparison of the proteolyzed products derived from purified receptor labeled with [ 125 I]pBABC and with the photoaffinity agent [ 125 I]p-azidobenzylcarazolol suggested that covalent labeling of the beta-adrenergic receptor by these probes occurs at similar domains of the beta-adrenergic receptor

  2. Identification of a Substrate-binding Site in a Peroxisomal β-Oxidation Enzyme by Photoaffinity Labeling with a Novel Palmitoyl Derivative*

    OpenAIRE

    Kashiwayama, Yoshinori; Tomohiro, Takenori; Narita, Kotomi; Suzumura, Miyuki; Glumoff, Tuomo; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Imanaka, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisomes play an essential role in a number of important metabolic pathways including β-oxidation of fatty acids and their derivatives. Therefore, peroxisomes possess various β-oxidation enzymes and specialized fatty acid transport systems. However, the molecular mechanisms of these proteins, especially in terms of substrate binding, are still unknown. In this study, to identify the substrate-binding sites of these proteins, we synthesized a photoreactive palmitic acid analogue bearing a d...

  3. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  5. Agonist-induced alterations in lymphocyte β-adrenergic receptor photoaffintiy labelling: effects of phenylarsine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, R.D.; McArdle, W.; Lai, C.

    1986-01-01

    In several models, desensitization of the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) is associated with a decrease in binding of hydrophilic but not hydrophobic βAR ligands. This suggests a sequestration of cell surface βAR. Desensitization of the lymphobyte βAR is also associated with a selective reduction in the photoaffinity labelling of a 55K βAR protein as compared to a 68K βAR protein. In order to examine the relationship between sequestration and reduction in labelling of the 55K peptide, the authors have studied the effect of phenylarsine oxide (PAO; an inhibitor of sequestration) on lymphocyte βAR desensitization. Incubation of cells with PAO prior to desensitization did not block the consequent reduction in isoproterenol-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. However, the agonist-induced reduction in binding of the hydrophilic βAR ligand CGP-12177 was blocked by PAO (without PAO:57 +/- 4% of control, with PAO: 97 +/- 2% of control). Photolabelling studies with [ 125 I] iodocyanopindolol diazirine revealed that PAO pretreatment also blocked the selective loss in labelling of the 55K βAR protein seen with desensitization. These data suggest that loss of labelling of the 55K protein of the βAR is closely coupled to βAR sequestration

  6. The preparation of Tc-99m labeled liposomes by a cationic SP/DOPE formulation for tumor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, M.D.; Hsieh, D.S.; Huang, W.S.

    2002-01-01

    direct labeling. The DNA inclusion labeling indicated the most unstable labeling of the five radiolabeled liposomes. Conclusion: The SP/DOPE liposomes can be radiolabeled with gamma emitting Tc-99m for tumor imaging. Tc-99m HMPAO may be reduced to its hydrophilic form, and as a result the complex is irreversibly trapped in the interior of liposomes. It is suggested that radiolabeling SP/DOPE with rhenium-186 or 188 can be investigated for tumor therapy in the further study

  7. Natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in egyptian cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.; El Kamel, A.H.; Nosier, A.; Moustafa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of cement manufactured in Egypt and the various raw materials, which compose the product, have been analyzed using gamma-spectroscopy, in order to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides and associated radiological hazard. The mean of specific activity due to all the three radionuclides (226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K ) were found to be 20±4 , 11± 2, 320 ± 18 (gypsum), 41 ±8, 27± 5, 410± 27 (clay), 58 ± 11, 18 3, 321± 20 (Iron ore) and 37.6 ± 6, 11.8 ± 3, 178.6 ± 15 Bq.kg-1 (Portland cement), respectively. 40 K concentration could not be detected in Slag; limestone; Sulphate resistant cement; Clinker and White cement, while the mean activity concentrations of 226 R a and 232 T h are 239 ± 16, 48.7 ± 7; 31.5 ±5, 10 ± 2; 47 ± 7, 20 ± 4; 23 ± 5, 10.4 ± 3 and 23 ± 5, 11 ±3 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations of these natural radionuclides were compared with data of some countries. The present values are in the same range and sometimes less than those in other countries

  8. Natural gamma-emitting radionuclides in egyptian cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.; Nosier, A.; Moustafa, A.

    2005-01-01

    Samples of cement manufactured in Egypt and the various raw materials, which compose the product, have been analyzed using gamma-spectroscopy, in order to determine the concentration of natural radionuclides and associated radiological hazard. The mean of specific activity due to all the three radionuclides (226 R a, 232 T h and 40 K ) were found to be 20 ± 4 , 11 ± 2, 320 ± 18 (gypsum), 41 ± 8, 27 ± 5, 410 ± 27 (clay), 58 ± 11, 18 3, 321 ± 20 (Iron ore) and 37.6 ± 6, 11.8 ± 3, 178.6 ± 15 Bq.kg-1 (Portland cement), respectively. 40 K concentration could not be detected in Slag; limestone; Sulphate resistant cement; Clinker and White cement, while the mean activity concentrations of 226 R a and 232 T h are 239 ± 16, 48.7 ± 7; 31.5 ± 5, 10 ± 2; 47 3 ± 7, 20 ± 4; 23 ± 5, 10.4 ± 3 and 23 ± 5, 11 ± 3 Bq.kg-1, respectively. The measured activity concentrations of these natural radionuclides were compared with data of some countries. The present values are in the same range and sometimes less than those in other countries

  9. 90Sr content in 90Y-labeled SIR-spheres and Zevalin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metyko, John; Erwin, William; Poston, John; Jimenez, Sandra

    2014-11-01

    Three different 90Y internally administered radionuclide therapies are currently used in both standard-of-care and clinical trial procedures atMD Anderson Cancer Center. TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres therapies utilize 90Y-labeled microspheres, while Zevalin is an 90Y-labeled radioimmunotherapeutic agent. Several publications have indicated radionuclidic impurities resulting from 90Y production methods. The 90Y in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin are produced from a 90Sr/90Y generator, which leaves measurable quantities of 90Sr in the final product. TheraSphere 90Y is produced in a nuclear reactor which results in a large number of impurities, most notably 88Y and 91Y. Product information sheets reference these impurities with specific limits given. These limits represent a tiny fraction of the total product activity, and in the case of TheraSphere and SIR-Spheres gamma-emitting impurities, this has been verified in the literature. An analysis of 90Sr impurities in SIR-Spheres and Zevalin is presented in this paper. Impurity quantities were found to be within the vendors’ documented limits.

  10. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  11. 125I-labeled crosslinking reagent that is hydrophilic, photoactivatable, and cleavable through an azo linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, J.B.; Blobel, G.

    1984-01-01

    A radioactive crosslinking reagent, N-[4-(p-azido-m-[ 125 I]iodophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropyl-N'-oxysulfosuccinimide ester, has been synthesized. The reagent is photoactivatable, water-soluble, cleavable through an azo linkage, and labeled with 125 I at the carrier-free specific activity of 2000 Ci/mmol. Any protein derivatized with the reagent is thus converted into an 125 I-labeled photoaffinity probe. Crosslinks are formed following photolysis with 366-nm light, and cleavage by sodium dithionite results in the donation of radioactivity to the distal partner in crosslinked complexes. The newly labeled proteins are then analyzed by gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The compound was prepared by iodination of N-[4-(p-aminophenylazo)benzoyl]-3-aminopropionic acid using carrier-free Na 125 I and chloramine-T, followed by azide formation and conversion to the water-soluble sulfosuccinimide ester. As a model system, protein A-Sepharose was derivatized with the reagent under subdued light. Each derivatized protein A molecule contained only one crosslinker. The derivatized protein A-Sepharose was then photolyzed in the presence of human serum and subsequently treated with sodium dithionite. Analysis of the serum by gel electrophoresis revealed that 1.1% of the radioactive label originally present on the protein A-Sepharose was transferred to the heavy chain of IgG, which was the most intensely labeled protein in the gel. The next most intensely labeled protein was IgG light chain, which incorporated radioactivity that was lower by a factor of 3.6 than that of the heavy chain. 36 references, 3 figures

  12. Photoaffinity cross-linking of a radioiodinated probe, 125I-A55453, into alpha 1-adrenergic receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, K.E.; Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.; Heald, S.L.; Wikberg, J.E.; DeBernardis, J.F.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized a high-affinity alpha 1-adrenergic receptor probe, 4-amino-6,7-dimethoxy-2[4'- [5''(3'''- 125 I-iodo-4'''-aminophenyl)pentanoyl]-1'-piperazinyl] quinazoline ( 125 I-A55453). This ligand binds reversibly to rat hepatic plasma membranes with high affinity (KD . 77 +/- 6 pM), and it labels the same number of specific prazosin-competable sites as the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-selective radioligand [ 125 I] iodo-2-[beta-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylaminomethyl]tetralone. Specific binding is stereoselective and competed for by alpha-adrenergic agents with an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor specificity. 125 I-A55453 can be covalently photoincorporated into peptides of rat hepatic and splenic membranes using the bifunctional photoactive cross-linker, N-succinimidyl-6- (4'-azido-2'-nitrophenylamino)hexanoate. Following photolysis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of labeled hepatic membranes reveals a major specifically labeled peptide of Mr . 82,000 (+/- 1,000) with minor peptides at Mr . 50,000 (+/- 500), and 40,000 (+/- 300). Covalent incorporation of 125 I-A55453 into the Mr . 82,000 peptide is inhibited by adrenergic drugs with an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor specificity. Labeled splenic membranes demonstrate a broad band of photoincorporated radioactivity centered at Mr . 82,000, and covalent incorporation into this peptide is also attenuated with an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor specificity. This new high-affinity radioiodinated probe has features which should make it useful for the molecular characterization of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in tissues

  13. Interaction of biodegradative threonine dehydratase (TD) of Escherichia coli with 8-azido-AMP, a photoaffinity analog of AMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, R.V.; Datta, P.

    1987-01-01

    Stimulation of TD activity by AMP (Ka = 40 μM) is known to accompany the conversion of monomeric form of the enzyme to its tetramer and a decrease in the Km for threonine. In comparison, 8-azido-AMP (N 3 AMP) simulated TD activity only partially, lowered the Km for threonine and stabilized a dimeric form of the protein. Competition experiments revealed that N 3 AMP exerted an apparent dominant effect in counteracting the AMP-mediated enzyme activation, indicating complex mutual interactions between these ligands. UV irradiation of TD with increasing concentrations of 3 H-N 3 AMP (up to 150 μM) resulted in gradual loss of enzyme activity and concomitant incorporation of N 3 AMP into protein; upon complete inactivation, 0.75 mol of N 3 AMP was bound per mol tetramer. The presence of AMP during photolysis reduced the extent of enzyme inactivation as well as the incorporation of N 3 AMP into protein. Photolabeling of TD with 20 μM 3 H-N 3 AMP revealed one labeled tryptic peptide; at higher N 3 AMP concentrations (>300 μM), two labeled peptides were found, one of which was identical to that found with low N 3 AMP concentration. The cumulative results suggest that N 3 AMP can act as an allosteric modifier and that the peptide labeled at low N 3 AMP may represent the AMP binding site on the protein molecule

  14. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  15. Synthesis of 17α-[(E)-2-[125I]iodoethenyl]androsta-4-6-dien-17β-o l-3-one, an active -site-directed photoaffinity radiolabel for androgen-binding proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Cruz, P.J.; Smith, H.E.; Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN; Danzo, B.J.; Clanton, J.A.; Mason, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    The active-site-directed photoaffinity radiolabel for androgen-binding proteins, 17α-[(E)-2-[ 125 I]iodoethenyl]androsta-4,6-dien-17β-ol-3-one, was prepared by reaction of 17α-[(E)-2-tributyltin(IV)ethenyl]androsta-4,6-dien-17β-ol-3-one with carrier added sodium iodide-125 in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and acetic acid. Purification by HPLC gave the radiolabeled steroid in 52% radiochemical yield with a specific activity of 27 Ci/mmol and 100% radiochemical purity. (author)

  16. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  17. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  18. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  19. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  20. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  1. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  2. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  3. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  4. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  5. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  7. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  8. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  9. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  10. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  2. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  3. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  4. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  5. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  6. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  7. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  8. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  9. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  10. Omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) site distribution in the rat immune system: an autoradiographic study with the photoaffinity ligand [3H]PK 14105

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, J.; Dubois, A.; Dennis, T.; Hamel, E.; Scatton, B.

    1989-01-01

    The anatomical distribution of omega 3 (peripheral type benzodiazepine binding) sites in the immune system organs of the rat has been studied autoradiographically at both macroscopic and microscopic levels of resolution using either reversible or irreversible (UV irradiation) labeling with [ 3 H]PK 14105. In thymus sections, [ 3 H]PK 14105 labeled with high affinity (Kd, derived from saturation experiments = 10.8 nM) a single population of sites which possessed the pharmacological characteristics of omega 3 sites. In the thymus gland, higher omega 3 site densities were detected in the cortex than in the medulla; in these subregions, silver grains were associated to small (10-18 microns diameter) cells. In the spleen, omega 3 sites were more abundant in the white than in the red pulp. In the white pulp, silver grains were denser in the marginal zone than in the vicinity of the central artery and labeling was, as in the thymus, associated to small cytoplasm-poor cells. In the red pulp, omega 3 site associated silver grains were observed mainly in the Bilroth cords. In the lymph nodes, the medullary region showed a higher labeling than the surrounding follicles and paracortex. A significant accumulation of silver grains was observed in the lymph node medullary cords. In the intestine, Peyer patches were particularly enriched in omega 3 sites (especially in the periphery of the follicles). The distribution of omega 3 sites in the immune system organs suggests a preferential labeling of cells of T and monocytic lineages. This is consistent with the proposed immunoregulatory properties of some omega 3 site ligands

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  13. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  14. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  15. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  16. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  17. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  18. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  19. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  20. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  1. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  2. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  3. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  4. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  5. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  6. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  7. Application of the latest ICRP recommendations to the protection of patients. Optimization of the diagnostic use of labelled aerosols in pulmonary pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beau, P.G.; Roy, M.; Gongora, G.

    1982-01-01

    The philosophy developed by ICRP in Publication 26 for the protection of workers and the population from the potential risk associated with the operation of nuclear facilities applies, in the medical field, to the exposure of patients. The essential step appears to be optimization through reduction of the doses delivered, due allowance being made for physiological, technological and ethical requirements. This approach is illustrated by the example of a nuclear technique developed for the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary diseases. The study of pulmonary clearance, involving complex phenomena, some of which occur over a long period, is well suited for optimization research. The present study was carried out with three aerosols combining an inert vector insoluble in biological media and a gamma-emitting tracer allowing measurements with an external detector. The first aerosol, 111 In-labelled iron hydroxide, is well suited to the study of tracheo-bronchial clearance, which, being rapid, requires only a short-term investigation. 51 Cr-labelled polystyrene latex is suitable for the study of alveolar clearance; a slow process, this requires a long-term investigation, which is performed by means of a gamma-spectrometric apparatus. The third aerosol, colloidal 198 Au, could not be used for the optimization approach. Reduction of the dose delivered is continued until the disadvantages resulting therefrom outweigh the expected benefit. Diminution of the activity administered has consequences for the measurement itself and the investigation as a whole. A study is made of these consequences, their acceptability, the instrumentation and methodology needed to overcome them, and their limits

  8. Selective T-cell Ablation with Bismuth-213 Labeled Anti-TCR Alpha Beta as Nonmyeloablative Conditioning for Allogeneic Canine Marrow Transplantion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethge, W. A.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storb, R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Santos, E. B.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Sandmaier, B. M.

    2003-01-01

    Two major immunological barriers, the host versus graft (HVG) and the graft versus host (GVH) reaction, must be overcome for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. T-cells are involved in these barriers in the major histocompatibility complex-identical settings. We hypothesized that selective ablation of T-cells using radioimmunotherapy, together with postgrafting immunosuppression, would ensure stable allogeneic engraftment. We developed a canine model of nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation in which host immune reactions are impaired by a single dose of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and where both GVH and residual HVG reactions are controlled by postgrafting immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporine (CSP). We substituted the alpha-emitter bismuth-213 linked to a monoclonal antibody against TCR(alpha,beta)using the metal-binding chelate CHX-A-DTPA, for 2 Gy TBI. Biodistribution studies using a gamma-emitting indium-111-labeled anti-TCR mAb showed uptake primarily in blood, marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and liver. In a dosimetry study, 4 dogs were treated with 0.13-0.46 mg/kg TCR mAb labeled with 3.7-5.6 mCi/kg (137-207 MBq/kg) Bi-213. The treatment was administered in 6 injections on days -3 and -2 followed by transplantion of dog leukocyte antigen-identical marrow on day 0 and postgrafting immunosuppression with MMF and CSP. Therapy was well tolerated except for elevations of transaminases, which were transient in all but one dog. No other organ toxicities or signs of graft-versus-host-disease were noted. The dogs had prompt allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and achieved stable mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimerism with donor contributions ranging from 5-55 % with >30 weeks follow up

  9. Selective T-cell Ablation with Bismuth-213 Labeled Anti-TCR Alpha Beta as Nonmyeloablative Conditionaing for Allogeneic Canine Marrow Transplantion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethge, W. A.; Wilbur, D. Scott; Storb, R.; Hamlin, Donald K.; Santos, E. B.; Brechbiel, M. W.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Sandmaier, B. M.

    2003-06-15

    Two major immunological barriers, the host versus graft (HVG) and the graft versus host (GVH) reaction, must be overcome for successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. T-cells are involved in these barriers in the major histocompatibility complex-identical settings. We hypothesized that selective ablation of T-cells using radioimmunotherapy, together with postgrafting immunosuppression, would ensure stable allogeneic engraftment. We developed a canine model of nonmyeloablative marrow transplantation in which host immune reactions are impaired by a single dose of 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI), and where both GVH and residual HVG reactions are controlled by postgrafting immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and cyclosporine (CSP). We substituted the alpha-emitter bismuth-213 linked to a monoclonal antibody against TCR(alpha,beta)using the metal-binding chelate CHX-A”-DTPA, for 2 Gy TBI. Biodistribution studies using a gamma-emitting indium-111-labeled anti-TCR mAb showed uptake primarily in blood, marrow, lymph nodes, spleen and liver. In a dosimetry study, 4 dogs were treated with 0.13-0.46 mg/kg TCR mAb labeled with 3.7-5.6 mCi/kg (137-207 MBq/kg) Bi-213. The treatment was administered in 6 injections on days -3 and -2 followed by transplantion of dog leukocyte antigen-identical marrow on day 0 and postgrafting immunosuppression with MMF and CSP. Therapy was well tolerated except for elevations of transaminases, which were transient in all but one dog. No other organ toxicities or signs of graft-versus-host-disease were noted. The dogs had prompt allogeneic hematopoietic engraftment and achieved stable mixed donor-host hematopoietic chimerism with donor contributions ranging from 5-55 % with >30 weeks follow up.

  10. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  11. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  12. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  13. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  14. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  15. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  16. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  18. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  19. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  20. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  1. PET imaging of soluble yttrium-86-labeled carbon nanotubes in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R McDevitt

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The potential medical applications of nanomaterials are shaping the landscape of the nanobiotechnology field and driving it forward. A key factor in determining the suitability of these nanomaterials must be how they interface with biological systems. Single walled carbon nanotubes (CNT are being investigated as platforms for the delivery of biological, radiological, and chemical payloads to target tissues. CNT are mechanically robust graphene cylinders comprised of sp(2-bonded carbon atoms and possessing highly regular structures with defined periodicity. CNT exhibit unique mechanochemical properties that can be exploited for the development of novel drug delivery platforms. In order to evaluate the potential usefulness of this CNT scaffold, we undertook an imaging study to determine the tissue biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of prototypical DOTA-functionalized CNT labeled with yttrium-86 and indium-111 ((86Y-CNT and (111In-CNT, respectively in a mouse model.The (86Y-CNT construct was synthesized from amine-functionalized, water-soluble CNT by covalently attaching multiple copies of DOTA chelates and then radiolabeling with the positron-emitting metal-ion, yttrium-86. A gamma-emitting (111In-CNT construct was similarly prepared and purified. The constructs were characterized spectroscopically, microscopically, and chromatographically. The whole-body distribution and clearance of yttrium-86 was characterized at 3 and 24 hours post-injection using positron emission tomography (PET. The yttrium-86 cleared the blood within 3 hours and distributed predominantly to the kidneys, liver, spleen and bone. Although the activity that accumulated in the kidney cleared with time, the whole-body clearance was slow. Differential uptake in these target tissues was observed following intravenous or intraperitoneal injection.The whole-body PET images indicated that the major sites of accumulation of activity resulting from the administration of (86Y-CNT were

  2. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edvardsson, K A; Hagsgaard, S [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden); Swensson, A [Dept. of Occupational Medicine, Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1966-11-15

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the {beta} {gamma}-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other {beta} {gamma}-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier.

  3. Studies of gastrointestinal function with the use of gamma-emitting isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzoli, F.; Fromm, H.; Wahner, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of calcium can be measured conveniently with the use of /sup 47/Ca, but the degree or efficiency of calcium absorption cannot be used as a reliable measure of intestinal function or as an indicator of an intestinal absorptive abnormality. Calcium absorption is influenced not only by intestinal mucosal function but also by other factors, including vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, serum calcium levels, drugs (antibiotics, corticosteroids), age (growth, lactation, pregnancy), intestinal and systemic acid-base changes, and dietary intake of calcium itself and of other substances such as amino acids, magnesium, oxalate, ethanol, and phytates. Because these factors have to be taken into consideration, tests of calcium absorption can be used only for complex metabolic studies in research, and not for routine diagnostic purposes. Therefore, only a brief description of the principles of the radioisotope tests of calcium absorption is given

  4. Decontamination Experiments on Intact Pig Skin Contaminated with Beta-Gamma- Emitting Nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edvardsson, K.A.; Hagsgaard, S.; Swensson, A.

    1966-11-01

    A number of decontamination experiments have been performed on intact pig skin. In most of the experiments NaI-131 in water solution has been utilized because this nuclide is widely used within the Studsvik research establishment, is easy to detect and relatively harmless, and is practical to use in these experiments. Among the β γ-nuclides studied 1-131 has furthermore proved to be the one most difficult to remove from the skin. The following conclusions and recommendations regarding the decontamination of skin are therefore valid primarily for iodine in the form of Nal, but are probably also applicable to many other β γ-nuclides. a) A prolonged interval between contamination and decontamination has a negative effect on the result of the decontamination. Therefore start decontamination as soon as possible after the contamination. b) Soap and water has proved to be the most suitable decontamination agent. A number of other agents have appeared to be harmful to the skin. Therefore, first of all use only soap and water in connection with gentle rubbing. c) No clear connection between the temperature of the water for washing and the result of the decontamination has been demonstrated. d) Skin not degreased before the contamination seems to be somewhat easier to decontaminate than degreased skin, particularly if the activity has been on the skin for a long time. Therefore do not remove the sebum of the skin when engaged on radioactive work involving contamination risks. e) Irrigation of the contaminated surface with a solution containing the corresponding inactive ions or ordinary water in large quantities may considerably decrease the skin contamination. f) In radioactive work of long duration involving high risks of contamination prophylactic measures in the form of a protective substance ('invisible glove'), type Kerodex, may make decontamination easier

  5. Gamma emitting radionuclides in fruits and vegetables produced in the Canary Islands: domestic consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triguero-Perez, M.; Duarte-Rodriguez, X.; Lopez-Perez, M.; Hernandez-Armas, J.

    2011-01-01

    Determine the possible effects due to ingestion of radionuclides that can be found in health food is of interest from the viewpoint of radiation protection of the population. these determinations and analysis of the consequences on the health of people and jobs has led to studies that have had consequences in the form of rules to follow and values have to be attended to limit dictated by national and international agencies. (Author)

  6. ALMERA Proficiency Test: Determination of Gamma Emitting Radionuclides in Simulated Air Filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The activity concentration of radionuclides in air is a critical factor in assessing the air quality and the potential impact of possible pollutants. Air is in fact one of the main pathways for human exposure to radioactivity. Radioactivity may be present in the atmosphere due to natural processes; intentional (low level) anthropogenic release; or as a consequence of nuclear or radiological incident. The resulting environmental impact should be considered carefully to ensure safety and compliance with environmental regulations. A reliable determination of radionuclides in air is necessary for regular monitoring of air quality to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. This proficiency test (PT) is one of the series of the ALMERA network proficiency tests organised on regular basis by the Terrestrial Environment Laboratory in Seibersdorf, designed to assess the technical capacity of ALMERA Members in analysing radionuclides to identify any analytical problems and to support ALMERA laboratories to maintain their preparedness to provide rapid and reliable analytical results. The range of simulated air filters used in this PT for analysis has been mainly at environmental level. The PT set consisted of four filters. The participating laboratories were requested to analyze Mn-54, Co-57, Fe-59, Co-60, Zn-65, Cd-109, Ba-133, Cs-134, Cs-137, Eu-152 and Am-241 in filters 01, 02 and 03. The participants were informed that only some of the listed radionuclides were present in the filters and the levels of the radionuclides were such that they could be measured within a 6-hour measurement period using a conventional HPGe gammaspectrometer of 35% relative efficiency. Filter 04, was containing only Co-60 and Ba-133 with known activities to the participants, had to be used as a control for the efficiency calibration. The tasks of IAEA were to prepare and distribute the simulated air filters to the participating laboratories, to collect and interpret analytical results reported by the participants and to compile a comprehensive evaluation report. The certified massic activity values of all radionuclides used in this PT were traceable to international standards of radioactivity. 276 test items (simulated air filter) were prepared and distributed to 69 participants from 46 countries on 15 September 2009. The deadline for results reporting was set to three working days from the date of package delivery confirmed by the forwarder tracking system. However, the on-line results' reporting system was available for each participant during one week from the date of package delivery. The whole proficiency test was concluded in one month by 16 October 2009. 52 laboratories reported their results to the IAEA. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were compared with the reference values assigned to the filters, and a rating system was applied

  7. Late effects of low-energy gamma-emitting stents in a rabbit iliac artery model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, Bradley H.; Li, Chris; Whittingham, Heather A.; Tio, Fermin O.; Kutryk, Michael J.B.; Janicki, Christian; Sparkes, John D.; Turnlund, Todd; Sweet, William L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the long-term dose response of novel low-dose γ-emitting stents in a rabbit iliac artery model. Methods and Materials: Control stents (n=24) and 103 Pd stents 1.0 to 4.0 mCi (n=36) were implanted in the iliac arteries of 30 New Zealand rabbits. Stents were evaluated by intravascular ultrasound (immediately post procedure and before killing) and by histomorphometry. Results: At 26 weeks, 28 rabbits were killed, with no evidence of stent thrombosis. In the body of the stent there was a dose-response relationship with 50% inhibition of intimal hyperplasia at the highest activity compared to control stents (p=0.07) and a significant increase in intimal hyperplasia at the lowest activity (p 103 Pd stents is feasible with reduction of in-stent hyperplasia in a dose-related manner. However, significant narrowing at the stent edges, increased in-stent hyperplasia at lower activities, and incomplete vascular healing with persistence of immature neointima at higher activities are significant limitations

  8. The assessment of low-level contamination from gamma-emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, P.W.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate a new analytical technique to improve the radionuclide activity estimate from area measurements of small-area spectral peaks obtained using multi-channel spectrometry. These improvements are based on the application of Bayesian peak fitting, a method of peak fitting that allows the information contained in a spectrum to be used more fully than is possible with the method of gross counting currently employed. The study carried out showed that activity estimates and confidence intervals for activity could be more precisely defined, and the time-related costs reduced up to 50% when making activity measurements by the peak-fitting method (for a fixed detection limit) instead of gross counting. Testing of the method under real conditions would be the logical follow-up to the work achieved

  9. Screening procedures for alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Gardner, S.E.; Johnson, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    The gross actinide and beta screening methods currently used by the Bioassay Laboratory at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories have been documented and tested. The gross gamma method has also been documented. The gross actinide method was tested with Th-nat, Pu-239, Np-237, Am-241 and Cm-244 and the average percent recoveries were 90, 99, 45, 72 and 78, respectively. The gross beta method was tested with Sr-90/Y-90, Ce-144/Pr-144, Pm-147 and Ba-133 and the average percent recoveries were 78, 100, 46 and 46, respectively. Detection limits for the gross actinide (alpha) method are found to be about 0.4 mBq and about 39 mBq for the gross beta method

  10. External exposure doses due to gamma emitting natural radionuclides in some Egyptian building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharram, B M; Suliman, M N; Zahran, N F; Shennawy, S E; El Sayed, A R

    2012-01-01

    Using of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K and their progeny results in an external exposures of the housing of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for typical Egyptian rooms are calculated using the analytical method and activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in some building materials. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling assumed. Different room models are assumed to discuss variation of indoor dose rates according to variation in room construction. Activity concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K content in eight samples representative Clay soil and different building materials used in most recent Egyptian building were measured using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The specific activity for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K, from the selected samples, were in the range 14.15-60.64, 2.75-84.66 and 7.35-554.4Bqkg(-1), respectively. The average indoor absorbed dose rates in air ranged from 0.005μGyh(-1) to 0.071μGyh(-1) and the corresponding population-weighted annual effective dose due to external gamma radiation varies from 0.025 to 0.345mSv. An outdoor dose rate for typical building samples in addition to some radiological hazards has been introduced for comparison. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  12. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  13. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...

  15. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  16. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  17. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  18. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  19. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  20. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-01

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface

  2. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  3. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  4. 49 CFR 172.450 - EMPTY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EMPTY label. 172.450 Section 172.450... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.450 EMPTY label. (a) Each EMPTY label, except for size, must be as follows....) in height. (2) The label must be white with black printing. (b) [Reserved] ...

  5. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  6. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  7. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must... chart. Labels for these products must state the minimum net weight of the insulation in the package. You...

  8. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FISSILE label. 172.441 Section 172.441... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be... FISSILE label must be white. [69 FR 3669, Jan. 26, 2004] ...

  9. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXIDIZER label. 172.426 Section 172.426... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be... OXIDIZER label must be yellow. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ...

  10. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  11. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  12. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  13. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  14. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  15. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  16. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adding the 13 C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12 C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used ( 2 D, 13 C) glucose leads not only to the 13 C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13 C labelling of the backbone C α and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone ( 1 H, 15 N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial..., CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline labels. The label is 3″ (7.62 cm) wide × 21/2″ (6.35 cm) long. The...

  5. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  6. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  7. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  8. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  9. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  10. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  11. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  12. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  13. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  14. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  15. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  16. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  17. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  18. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  19. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements of...

  20. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  1. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 309.17 Section 309.17 Commercial... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications § 309.17 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout: (1) Non-liquid...

  2. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  3. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  4. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Lyu, Siwei; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some

  5. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Jia, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some

  6. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  7. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  8. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  9. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  10. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  11. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  12. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  13. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  14. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  15. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  16. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  17. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  18. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  19. Rock Music Gets a Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutietta, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

  20. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  1. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  2. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  3. Synthesis of positron labeled photoactive compounds: 18F labeled aryl azides for positron labeling of biochemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Naota; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    The authors have prepared various [ 18 F] fluorine labeled aryl azides as a novel photoactive compounds suitable for positron labeling of biochemical molecules. The introduction of fluorine substituents to aryl azides can be expected to have dramatic effects on their nature and reactivity toward photolysis. Positron labeled reagents for labeling proteins or peptides have recently attracted considerable attention due to their wide applicability in biochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET). Various labeled azide compounds are often used in biochemistry for radiolabeling biological molecules by photolysis, but there have been no reports on the preparation or use of fluorine-18 labeled azides. The authors now report a novel synthesis of 18 F-labeled aryl azides which will have wide application in the biochemistry and nuclear medicine as a means for 18 F-fluorine labeling for proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 2 tabs

  4. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-06-01

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  6. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  7. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  9. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  10. Different approaches to labelling parasitoids using strontium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Wäckers, F.L.; Steindl, P.; Günther, D.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    Labelling parasitoids with trace elements is a potentially powerful technique for studying dispersal and trophic interactions in these usually small insects. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of different methods for trace element labelling of the

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  12. 21 CFR 357.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.280 Section 357.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 357.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  13. 21 CFR 357.180 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.180 Section 357.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 357.180 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the...

  14. 21 CFR 333.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 333.280 Section 333.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 333.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  15. Injective Labeled Oriented Trees are Aspherical

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A labeled oriented tree is called injective if each generator occurs at most once as an edge label. We show that injective labeled oriented trees are aspherical. The proof relies on a new relative asphericity test based on a lemma of Stallings.

  16. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna Thankgod

    2016-01-01

    such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other

  17. Three rules suffice for good label placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Kapoor, V.; Strijk, T.

    2001-01-01

    The general label-placement problem consists in labeling a set of features (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each feature. The problem arises when annotating classical cartographical maps, diagrams, or graph drawings.

  18. A combinatorial framework for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Whitesides, S.

    1998-01-01

    The general map labeling problem consists in labeling a set of sites (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each site. A map can be a classical cartographical map, a diagram, a graph or any other figure that needs to be

  19. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issued a final rule defining “gluten-free” for food labeling, which will help consumers, especially those living with ... free” label on foods. Food Facts: Gluten and Food Labeling: FDA’s Regulation of “Gluten-Free” Claims Blog: A ...

  20. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  1. Predictive labeling with dependency pairs using SAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koprowski, A.; Middeldorp, A.; Pfenning, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper combines predictive labeling with dependency pairs and reports on its implementation. Our starting point is the method of proving termination of rewrite systems using semantic labeling with infinite models in combination with lexicographic path orders. We replace semantic labeling with

  2. On the Lucky labeling of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadi, Arash; Dehghan, Ali; Mollaahmadi, Esmael

    2010-01-01

    Suppose the vertices of a graph $G$ were labeled arbitrarily by positive integers, and let $Sum(v)$ denote the sum of labels over all neighbors of vertex $v$. A labeling is lucky if the function $Sum$ is a proper coloring of $G$, that is, if we have $Sum(u) \

  3. 27 CFR 19.604 - Caution label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caution label. 19.604... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Marks § 19.604 Caution label... denaturer may be printed on such label, but no other extraneous matter will be permitted thereon without the...

  4. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labelling requirements. 15.19 Section 15.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.19 Labelling... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the unique...

  5. 27 CFR 26.39 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 26.39 Section 26.39 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... United States From Puerto Rico § 26.39 Labels. All labels affixed to bottles of liquors coming into the...

  6. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section 18.55... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and...

  7. 27 CFR 19.704 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 19.704 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Samples of Spirits § 19.704 Labels. (a) On each container of spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of § 19.701, the proprietor shall affix a label showing the...

  8. 46 CFR 188.10-37 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Label. 188.10-37 Section 188.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-37 Label. This term means the label required by 49 CFR part 172...

  9. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  10. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  11. Synthesis of isotopically labeled ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    In this work were synthesized ketamine isotopomers. Ketamine is used in human medicine and veterinary sectors. It has very broad spectrum of pharmacological effects: anesthetic, analgesic, hallucinogenic, bronchodilator, cardiovascular and antidepressive, which is currently in the research. At first was synthesized precursor of ketamine, N- desmethylketamine which was subsequently labeled the deuterium, tritium and carbon- 14. For the determination of purity and identity mass spectrometry and...

  12. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J C; Lewis, A

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting ..cap alpha..-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin.

  13. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  14. Menakar Label Fundamentalisme Untuk Muslim

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Susilo

    2014-01-01

    This study was developed referring to the negative connotation in using the word “fundamentalism ” and its using as an individual or group label. The method used in this study were literature review using many literatures about Islam and fundamentalism in any perspectives. Based on psychology perspective, it said that fundamentalism is an individual psychological construct associated with beliefs and individual interpretation of something, such as ideology, nationality, and religion. Accordin...

  15. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  16. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  17. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, Valeria Viorica; Mihailescu, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O 4 - stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  19. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  20. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. METHOD AND MODULE FOR OPTICAL SUBCARRIER LABELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM......) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload...... encoded carrier signal and the label encoded subcarrier signal can be coupled directly without prior filtering....

  2. Protein labelling with stable isotopes: strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirsac, P.N.; Gilles, N.; Jamin, N.; Toma, F.; Gabrielsen, O.; Boulain, J.C.; Menez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A protein labelling technique with stable isotopes has been developed at the CEA: a labelled complete medium has been developed, performing as well as the Luria medium, but differing from it because it contains not only free aminated acids and peptides, but also sugars (96% of D-glucopyrannose) and labelled nucleosides. These precursors are produced from a labelled photosynthetic micro-organisms biomass, obtained with micro-algae having incorporated carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and deuterium during their culture. Labelling costs are reduced. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  3. Spin labelling of human erythrocytes with nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagalj, C.; DePaoli, T.C.P.; Hager, A.A.; Palaoro, L.A.; Rubin de Celis, E.; Farach, H.A.; Poole, C.P. jr

    1984-01-01

    Human erythrocytes were labelled with nitroxide, the spin label SYNVAR 101, under various experimantal conditions. A study was made of the influence of antireductants on the labelling efficiency and the kinetics of the radical decay during the labelling process

  4. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  5. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  6. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  7. Food nutrition labelling practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yexuan; Li, Ji; Lo, Y Martin; Tang, Qingya; Wang, Youfa

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the food nutrition labelling practice in China before the Chinese Food Nutrition Labeling Regulation (CFNLR) era. Nutrition information of pre-packaged foods collected from a supermarket between December 2007 and January 2008 was analysed and compared with findings from a survey conducted in Beijing. Information collected from a supermarket in Shanghai. A total of 850 pre-packaged foods. In the Shanghai survey, the overall labelling rate was 30·9 %, similar to that found in the Beijing study (29·7 %). While only 20·5 % of the snacks in Shanghai had nutrition labelling, the percentage of food items labelled with SFA (8·6 %), trans fatty acid (4·7 %) or fibre (12·1 %) was very low. Of those food items with nutrition labels, a considerable proportion (7-15 %) did not label energy, fat, carbohydrate or protein. Food products manufactured by Taiwan and Hong Kong companies had a lower labelling rate (13·6 %) than those manufactured by domestic (31·6 %) or international manufacturers (33·8 %). The very low food nutrition labelling rate among products sold in large chain supermarkets in major cities of China before CFNLR emphasizes the need for such critical regulations to be implemented in order to reinforce industrial compliance with accurate nutrition labelling.

  8. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between doses to human body organs and exposure in a cloud of gamma emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1976-10-01

    Monte Carlo computer techniques were recently developed in USA to derive the photon spectrum in a semi-infinite cloud of monoenergetic photon source of uniform concentration and the dose to human body organs was estimated computationally using further Monte Carlo techniques. These results are used here to derive the exposure to be expected from a cloud emitting monoenergetic photons at discrete energies between 0.01 and 4 MeV. The exposure contributions from scattered and unscattered photon fluxes are identified at each energy and the total exposure is related to doses in a range of human body organs. It is intended to use these values of rads per Roentgen to convert the exposures calculated by the reactor safety analysis code WEERIE and those derived from environmental measurements of known airborne discharges (e.g. 41 Ar, 85 Kr, 133 Xe) into doses to human body organs. (author)

  10. Decay Curves and Half-Lives of Gamma-Emitting States from a Study of Prompt Fission Gamma Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albinsson, H [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)

    1971-04-15

    Measurements were made on the time distributions of the prompt gamma radiation emitted from fragments in the thermal-neutron induced fission of 235U. The gamma radiation emitted during different time intervals after the fission event was studied with the help of a collimator, the position of which was changed along the path of the fragments. In this way decay curves were obtained from which half-lives could be estimated. Time components with half-lives of 7.5, 18 and 60 ps were found and their relative intensities were calculated. Half-lives and associated intensities are in good agreement with earlier data from uranium and californium fission. Problems involved in this type of study are discussed. The collimator technique has proved to be effective for determination of half lives down to less than 10 ps

  11. Development of gamma emitting receptor-binding radiotracers for imaging the brain and pancreas. Progress report, February 1983-September 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reba, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility of measuring the change in receptor concentration as a function of disease by external imaging was investigated. The structure-binding-relationship which provides optimal localization of radiolabelled antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain was studied. These relationships were also studied with respect to localization in the pancreas

  12. Discrimination of irradiated MOX fuel from UOX fuel by multivariate statistical analysis of simulated activities of gamma-emitting isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åberg Lindell, M.; Andersson, P.; Grape, S.; Hellesen, C.; Håkansson, A.; Thulin, M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper investigates how concentrations of certain fission products and their related gamma-ray emissions can be used to discriminate between uranium oxide (UOX) and mixed oxide (MOX) type fuel. Discrimination of irradiated MOX fuel from irradiated UOX fuel is important in nuclear facilities and for transport of nuclear fuel, for purposes of both criticality safety and nuclear safeguards. Although facility operators keep records on the identity and properties of each fuel, tools for nuclear safeguards inspectors that enable independent verification of the fuel are critical in the recovery of continuity of knowledge, should it be lost. A discrimination methodology for classification of UOX and MOX fuel, based on passive gamma-ray spectroscopy data and multivariate analysis methods, is presented. Nuclear fuels and their gamma-ray emissions were simulated in the Monte Carlo code Serpent, and the resulting data was used as input to train seven different multivariate classification techniques. The trained classifiers were subsequently implemented and evaluated with respect to their capabilities to correctly predict the classes of unknown fuel items. The best results concerning successful discrimination of UOX and MOX-fuel were acquired when using non-linear classification techniques, such as the k nearest neighbors method and the Gaussian kernel support vector machine. For fuel with cooling times up to 20 years, when it is considered that gamma-rays from the isotope 134Cs can still be efficiently measured, success rates of 100% were obtained. A sensitivity analysis indicated that these methods were also robust.

  13. In situ measurement of some gamma-emitting radionuclides in plant communities of the South Carolina coastal plain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragsdale, H.L.; Tanner, B.K.; Coleman, R.N.; Palms, J.M.; Wood, R.E.

    1978-01-01

    In situ and laboratory gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements were taken in nine scrub oak forests and nine old fields to determine the applicability of in situ analysis in the coastal plain. Data collected at each of the 18 sites included a 2-hr count, soil density and moisture estimates, and vegetation measurements. Samples returned to the laboratory for radiometric analysis included litter and herbaceous vegetation and soil cores. Analysis of the gamma-emitter detection frequencies, concentrations, and burdens showed good to excellent agreement between laboratory and in situ methods. Generally, forests were determined to be superior in situ sampling systems. Laboratory analysis of collected samples may be a superior technique for gamma emitters with low energies, low concentrations, or nonuniform distributions in the soil. Three potential uses of in situ Ge(Li) spectrometers were identified and discussed in terms of their limits and of the replicate ecosystems appropriate for in situ analyses. Although the variety and the biogeochemical cycling regimes of southeastern coastal plain ecosystems complicate in situ analyses, it was concluded that comparable and probably accurate results can be achieved using in situ technology

  14. Determination of gamma emitting radionuclides in environmental air and precipitation samples with a Ge(Li) detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Rosner, G.; Winkler, R.; Sansoni, B.

    1977-01-01

    The concentrations of the radionuclides 7 Be, 54 Mn, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs, 140 Ba/ 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce in ground level air and of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs and 144 Ce in precipitation were determined since 1970 and 1971 respectively at Neuherberg, 10 km north of Munich, by gamma spectrometry using a 60 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector. Dust samples were collected twice a month 1 m above ground from about 40,000 m 3 of air on 46 cm x 28 cm microsorbane filters and pressed to small cylinders of 35 cm 3 in size. Sensitivity of the procedure is of the order of 1 fCi/m 3 for air and of 10 pCi/m 2 per month for precipitation samples at a counting time of 1500 min. (author)

  15. Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jundi, J; Ulanovsky, A; Pröhl, G

    2009-10-01

    The use of building materials containing naturally occurring radionuclides as (40)K, (232)Th, and (238)U and their progeny results in external exposures of the residents of such buildings. In the present study, indoor dose rates for a typical Jordan concrete room are calculated using Monte Carlo method. Uniform chemical composition of the walls, floor and ceiling as well as uniform mass concentrations of the radionuclides in walls, floor and ceiling are assumed. Using activity concentrations of natural radionuclides typical for the Jordan houses and assuming them to be in secular equilibrium with their progeny, the maximum annual effective doses are estimated to be 0.16, 0.12 and 0.22 mSv a(-1) for (40)K, (232)Th- and (238)U-series, respectively. In a total, the maximum annual effective indoor dose due to external gamma-radiation is 0.50 mSv a(-1). Additionally, organ dose coefficients are calculated for all organs considered in ICRP Publication 74. Breast, skin and eye lenses have the maximum equivalent dose rate values due to indoor exposures caused by the natural radionuclides, while equivalent dose rates for uterus, colon (LLI) and small intestine are found to be the smallest. More specifically, organ dose rates (nSv a(-1)per Bq kg(-1)) vary from 0.044 to 0.060 for (40)K, from 0.44 to 0.60 for radionuclides from (238)U-series and from 0.60 to 0.81 for radionuclides from (232)Th-series. The obtained organ and effective dose conversion coefficients can be conveniently used in practical dose assessment tasks for the rooms of similar geometry and varying activity concentrations and local-specific occupancy factors.

  16. Radioactivity of some alpha, beta and gamma emitting radionuclides in surface marine sediments of different bays in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noureddine, A.; Baggoura, B.

    1999-01-01

    Samples of surface (0-15) cm marine sediments of different grain sizes, namely sand, muddy and fine sand, were collected in the western, central and east coast of Algeria, to measure concentrations of natural and artificial radioactivity. The aim of this study is to detect any radioactive contamination, its origin and also to determine the uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments

  17. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  18. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  19. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  20. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  1. Labeling of the spent fuel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Chagari, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the containers used to store spent fuel in an underground repository must meet federal guidelines that call for unique labels that identify the contents and processing history. Existing standards in the nuclear power industry and relevant ASME/ANSI codes have been reviewed for possible application to the spent-fuel container labeling. An Array of labeling techniques were found that include recommendations for: fonts, word spacing, color combinations, label materials and mounting methods, placement, and content. The use of bar code, optical character recognition, and RF labels were also studied to meet the requirement that the container labels be consistent with the methods used to maintain the repository records

  2. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  3. Green power: naturemade - History of a label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the history of the set of 'naturemade' labels that are used to designate power generated in facilities that use renewable energy. Electricity from hydropower, wind-power, biogas and solar energy plants that fulfil particular ecological conditions receives a special label, 'Naturemade Star'. 'Normal' hydropower can be awarded the 'Naturemade Basic' label. The development of the labels is discussed in the light of increasing liberalisation of European electricity markets and increasing sales of 'green power' by electricity utilities. The need for certification of production facilities and the founding of the label's certification authority, the 'Verein fuer umweltgerechte Elektrizitaet' (VUE), a society for the promotion of environment-friendly electricity, are discussed. Criticisms made by certain environmental protection organisations on the awarding of the 'Naturemade Basic' label to projects that in their opinion do not help protect the environment are quoted. The article is completed with an interview on the subject with Ursula Stocker from the VUE

  4. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbon-14 labelled antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigner, H.P.; Freyberg, C.; Heck, R.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of [ 14 C] labelled antioxidants are described. We developed an efficient synthetic methodology to prepare a series of labelled amides with antioxidant activity, starting from [ 14 C] KCN and alkyl or aryl halides. By a combination of nucleophilic displacement of halides by [ 14 C] cyanide, mediated by ultrasound and subsequent mild and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles, labelled carboxylic acids were obtained. Labelled amines were prepared by reduction of the respective nitriles. Availability of [ 14 C] KCN, efficient introduction of the label by ultrasound mediated reaction and selective and mild hydrolysis by commercially available nitrilase (Rhodococcus sp.), makes possible a wide range of applications of this methodology in the synthesis of functionalized labelled compounds. (Author)

  5. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  6. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  7. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine. (author)

  8. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  9. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  10. 40 CFR 86.1606 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Control Information Update; (2) Full corporate name and trademark of the vehicle manufactuer; (3... tuneup specifications (if changed from the original label specifications) at the applicable altitude. ...

  11. 75 FR 21007 - Food Labeling; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., particularly small businesses, with firsthand working knowledge of FDA's requirements and compliance policies... Consumer Protection Act of 2004, (3) nutrition labeling requirements, (4) health and nutrition claims, and...

  12. Labelled antibiotics as tumour-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; McCready, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The published results of clinical and experimental studies of labelled bleomycins and tetracyclines are reviewed. None of the labelled antibiotics yet studied show anything approaching absolute tumour specificity. Clinical trials suggest that 57 Co-bleomycin is superior to either 111 In- or 99 Tcsup(m)-bleomycin and that it may possess some advantages over 67 Ga-citrate in respect of lower uptake in the abdomen and, possibly, lower uptakes in benign and inflammatory lesions. Radioiodine-labelled or 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled tetracyclines appear to be of little value in tumour localization. (author)

  13. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  14. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons,

  15. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  17. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  10. Tritium labelled steroids, preparation process and application to synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Process for preparing new steroids labelled with tritium in 6.7 and comprising in 3 a blocked ketonic group as ketal, thioketal or derivatives. Application of these products to the synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives [fr

  11. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Sample Labels ER29AU07.122 PROTOTYPE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.123 PROTOTYPE LABEL 2 ER29AU07.124 PROTOTYPE LABEL 3 ER29AU07.125 PROTOTYPE LABEL 4 ER29AU07.126 SAMPLE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.127 SAMPLE LABEL 2...

  12. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. Simplified procedure for labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hitoshi; Shiire, Yasushi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-12-01

    To utilize /sup 111/In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of /sup 111/In with oxine sulfate was 93.5 %. Labeling efficiency of /sup 111/In leukocytes was 93.8 %. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed. /sup 111/In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.

  13. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Pei Zhuguo; Hu Mingyang; Wang Bocheng; Zhou Xingqin

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [ 131 I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [ 131 I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [ 131 I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  14. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  15. Leukemic cell labeling with indium-111-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.; Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Yui, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Kariyone, S.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemic cells were labeled with In-111-oxine in patients with acute leukemia. In vitro labeling studies revealed that labeling efficiency reached maximum 80.8 +- 3.6% (mean +- 1SD) by 2 times washes after 20 minutes incubation time. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test and in vitro culture of leukemic cells, which showed no cellular damage during labeling procedure. Elution of In-111 from the labeled cells was 10.0 +- 1.2% at 12 hours after labeling. For in vivo leukemic cell kinetic studies, more than 10/sup 8/ leukemic cells separated from Ficoll-Hypacque sedimentation were labeled by 30 minutes of In-111-oxine incubation and two times washes at 37 0 C. In vivo studies were performed in 7 patients with acute myeloblastic, lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Labeled leukemic cells disappeared in single exponential fashion with half life of 9.6 to 31.8 hours. Total leukemic cell pool in peripheral circulation was calculated, which correlated well with peripheral leukemic cell counts (r=0.99). No relationship was observed between total leukemic cell pool and leukemic cell turnover rate. Migration patterns of labeled leukemic cells showed that pulmonary uptake was evident within 15 minutes after the infusion and returned to base-line. Splenic and hepatic uptake showed gradual increase up to 24 hours. Bone marrow accumulation was shown only in 2 cases. Presently, there are no suitable radionuclides for leukemic cell labeling. In-111-oxine labeled leukemic cells would overcome this difficulty

  16. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  17. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-04-06

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some of their labels are missing). The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from the provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the above base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called mixed graph with co-occurrence (MG-CO). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we further propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL respectively. In both formulations, the instance-level similarity is embedded through a quadratic smoothness term, while the semantic label hierarchy is used as a linear constraint. In MLMG-CO, the class co-occurrence is also formulated as a quadratic smoothness term, while the sparse and low rank decomposition is incorporated into MLMG-SL, through two additional matrices (one is assumed as sparse, and the other is assumed as low

  18. 10 CFR 61.57 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.57 Labeling. Each package of waste must be clearly labeled to identify whether it is Class A waste, Class B waste, or Class C waste, in accordance with § 61.55. ...

  19. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 355.60 Section 355.60 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 355.60 Professional... health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  1. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.55 Section 660.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... name such as polyspecific may appear in smaller type. (4) Visual inspection. When the label has been...

  2. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  3. Synthesis and application of labelled growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the investigation of the metabolism both of phytoeffectors like herbicides and plant growth regulators such compounds are needed in radioactive labelled form. The synthesis of radioactive labelled fluorodifen, nitrofen, ethephon, diphenylic acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, abscisic acid, hydroxybenzoic acids and different conjugates are described. Some examples of these compounds metabolism in plants are discussed [ru

  4. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  5. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to...

  6. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  7. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... foreign country equivalent, passport number, financial account number, or credit or debit card number. You..., the Commission assumes that the label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an... label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an hourly wage rate of $23.44 per hour...

  8. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  9. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of [1,2- 3 H]fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described. (author)

  10. A note on root projection and labelling*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This paper identifies a problem with a hypothesis put forward in Chomsky (2013) in relation to his labelling algorithm. Chomsky suggests that category-neutral roots do not qualify as labels and cannot project. However, I provide evidence that the derivation of particle verbs involves the projection of a ...

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  12. Radial contour labeling with straight leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermann, B.; Nöllenburg, M.; Rutter, I.

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of technical drawings as well as scientific illustrations such as medical drawings of human anatomy essentially depends on the placement of labels that describe all relevant parts of the figure. In order to not spoil or clutter the figure with text, the labels are often placed around

  13. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling or advertising of the device. (d) If such voluntary action is not taken, the Commissioner may take... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES General Provisions § 895.25 Labeling. (a) If the Commissioner determines that the...

  14. Imaging with 123I labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the clinical results obtained with radioiodinated aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. The radiopharmaceuticals were 123 I labelled p-phenylpentadecanoic (p-IPPA) and 123 I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). The possibility to evaluate the myocardial metabolic function in man noninvasively add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow-up of patients with heart disease. (Auth.)

  15. Hippuran-123 I: labelling and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.F. de; Colturato, M.T.; Herrerias, R.; Muramoto, E.

    1992-01-01

    The o-iodo hippuric acid labelling with radioiodine is a radiopharmaceutical used with more frequently for evaluation the kidney function. Several reactive kits for labelling with 123 I are prepared. Controls of radiochemical purity and biological distribution are made. The reactive kit of hippuran is kept at 4 C during 2 years. (C.G.C.)

  16. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Design. (1) Except for size and color, the printing, inner border, and symbol on each label must be as... withstand, without deterioration or a substantial change in color, a 30-day exposure to conditions incident... shown in the appropriate section of this subpart. (d) Color. (1) The background color on each label must...

  17. Energy labelling of refrigerated display cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Energy labelling of refrigerated display cabinets is a method to quickly assess the energy efficiency of a certain cabinet compared to the market average consumptions for similar cabinets. Labelling is also a method to obtain comparable data on cabinets from different manufacturers, which has time

  18. Mixed labelling in multitarget particle filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Sviestins, Egils; Driessen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The so-called mixed labelling problem inherent to a joint state multitarget particle filter implementation is treated. The mixed labelling problem would be prohibitive for track extraction from a joint state multitarget particle filter. It is shown, using the theory of Markov chains, that the mixed

  19. 19 CFR 12.18 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 12.18 Section 12.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.18 Labels. Each...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  1. Conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin have been followed by measuring the spin label's (isothiocyanate) correlation time for temperatures between 18 0 C and 44 0 C. The correlation time was calculated from Electrom Paramagnetic Ressonance Spectra using the components of the espectroscopic and hiperfine tensors obtained by fitting the powder spectra using Lefebvre and Maruani's program- [pt

  2. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Figuring Out Food Labels KidsHealth / For Kids / Figuring Out Food Labels What's in this article? ...

  3. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  4. 7 CFR 56.73 - Misleading labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 56.73 Section 56.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Denial of Service § 56.73 Misleading labeling. The use of the terms...

  5. Two Responses to Hastings on Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Katherine M. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two comments respond to an R. P. Hastings article on labeling of individuals with mental retardation. The first comment notes that diagnoses should not be used as labels but as identifications of disorders a person has. The second comment calls for people to come forth with synonyms for "mental retardation" that will not immediately be stigmatic.…

  6. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  7. Proposal for a New Energy Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Energy labeling is believed to have great impact on the energy efficiency of household appliances sold. Many different labeling schemes exist around the world. As far as is known, none of these facilitates the easy tightening of specifications to keep up with technological advancements. The present...

  8. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing...

  9. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the...

  10. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  12. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Esteban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3 H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF 3 -Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3 H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 70 0 C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  13. Preparation of 188Re labelled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Minghua; Cao Rongzhen; Li Wenxin; Sheng Rong; Yin Duanzhi; He Weiyu; Zhou Wei; Wang Yongxian

    1998-01-01

    A simple technique of directly labelling antibodies with 188 Re has been developed. The reduction of antibody disulfide groups was achieved by incubation of antibody with ascorbic acid (pH = 6.5) for an hour at room temperature and a solution of excess SnCl 2 in sodium gluconate was added to the AA-reduced antibody followed by the addition of perrhenate. Some factors that influence labelling efficiency, such as the pH of the reaction mixture, the labelling time, and the amount of antibodies and reductive agent, were studied experimentally and a better labelling method was established. The labelling yields, as determined by paper chromatography, were greater than 80%

  14. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  15. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty

    2004-07-01

    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  16. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  17. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature......-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. RESULTS: The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. CONCLUSION: AccASL is able to label...

  18. Diagnosis of the gastric cancer by radionuclides and their labels, using catheter-type semiconductor radiation detector (CASRAD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassa, R [Asahi Life Foundation, Tokyo (Japan). Inst. for Adult Diseases; Iio, M; Sugita, T

    1980-08-01

    A new method of differential diagnosis of gastric cancer was reported. After intravenous /sup 32/P administration, lesions were counted by a small catheter-type radiation detector system under gastrofiberscopic direct vision control. Optimum counting time was examined in man and it was found to be between 20 to 50 hours after intravenous administration of /sup 32/P. With the currently available technology of miniature detectors, the ..beta..-emitting carcinophilic agent was still found to be the agent of choice to this end, since ..gamma..-emitting carcinophilic agents cannot provide data originated only from the gastric mucosa in question.

  19. Does the Drug Facts Label for nonprescription drugs meet its design objectives? A new procedure for assessing label effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Ryan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness. The Drug Facts Label was no better than the Cohesive-Prose Label or the Scrambled-Prose Label in promoting attentiveness, recall and organization of drug facts, or misconception refutation. Discussion focuses on the need for refutational labels based on a sequence-of-events text schema.

  20. 99Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes: comparison with 111In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Roddie, M.E.; Zacharopoulos, G.P.; George, P.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Lavender, J.P.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The lipophilic complex, 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is an efficient leucocyte label, and labels granulocytes with more stability than mononuclear leucocytes. The recovery of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO granulocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes isolated and labelled in plasma using tropolone. The Tsub(1/2) of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled granulocytes in blood was less than that of 111 In-labelled granulocytes. The initial biodistribution of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled leucocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes, with a rapid initial lung transit, prominent splenic activity, bone marrow activity and minimal hepatic activity, although, unlike 111 In, 99 Tcsup(m) activity was also seen in urine, occasionally in the gallbladder, and, from about 4 h, consistently in the colon. Bone marrow activity was particularly prominent with 99 Tcsup(m). About 6% of 99 Tcsup(m) was excreted in the faeces up to 48 h after injection, and about 17% in urine up to 24 h. The time-activity curves of reticuloendothelial activity up to 24 h were broadly similar for the two labelled cell preparations. Clinical information given by the two agents was similar in 27 of 30 patients who received both. We conclude that with respect to granulocyte kinetics and clinical data, 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes are comparable with 111 In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes. (author)

  1. Efficient Multi-Label Feature Selection Using Entropy-Based Label Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-label feature selection is designed to select a subset of features according to their importance to multiple labels. This task can be achieved by ranking the dependencies of features and selecting the features with the highest rankings. In a multi-label feature selection problem, the algorithm may be faced with a dataset containing a large number of labels. Because the computational cost of multi-label feature selection increases according to the number of labels, the algorithm may suffer from a degradation in performance when processing very large datasets. In this study, we propose an efficient multi-label feature selection method based on an information-theoretic label selection strategy. By identifying a subset of labels that significantly influence the importance of features, the proposed method efficiently outputs a feature subset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can identify a feature subset much faster than conventional multi-label feature selection methods for large multi-label datasets.

  2. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  3. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  4. 27 CFR 4.50 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Approval of Labels of... of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. [T.D...

  5. 27 CFR 5.55 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Approval of... certificates of label approval and certificates of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures...

  6. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  7. Labelling of food: A challenge for many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikx Frans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.

  8. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  9. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...

  10. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine.

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  12. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.

    1985-01-01

    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  13. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  14. Reductive methods for isotopic labeling of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the reductive methylation of the amino groups of eight different antibiotics using 3 HCOH or H 14 COH are presented. The reductive labeling of an additional seven antibiotics by NaB 3 H 4 is also described. The specific activity of the methyl-labeled drugs was determined by a phosphocellulose paper binding assay. Two quantitative assays for these compounds based on the reactivity of the antibiotic amino groups with fluorescamine and of the aldehyde and ketone groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine are also presented. Data on the cellular uptake and ribosome binding of these labeled compounds are also presented

  15. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  16. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  17. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  19. SAIL--stereo-array isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainosho, Masatsune; Güntert, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Optimal stereospecific and regiospecific labeling of proteins with stable isotopes enhances the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the determination of the three-dimensional protein structures in solution. Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) offers sharpened lines, spectral simplification without loss of information and the ability to rapidly collect and automatically evaluate the structural restraints required to solve a high-quality solution structure for proteins up to twice as large as before. This review gives an overview of stable isotope labeling methods for NMR spectroscopy with proteins and provides an in-depth treatment of the SAIL technology.

  20. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolyzed castor oil and oleic acid by iodine monochloride and chloramine-T was investigated. The effect of iodinating agent and concentration of castor oil on labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrates in heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog fatty acids. Infrared study revealed that the OH group in ricinoleic acid may protect the sup(125)I added across the double bond with minor changes in biochemical properties causing better extraction by muscle of the heart. (author)

  1. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://www.mindboggle.info/data/ website.

  2. 101 Labeled Brain Images and a Consistent Human Cortical Labeling Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Arno; Tourville, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The “Desikan–Killiany–Tourville” (DKT) protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://mindboggle.info/data website. PMID:23227001

  3. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  4. Problems of Usage Labelling in English Lexicography*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ancies in the contextual usage labelling in the dictionaries were established and are discussed. ..... Likewise, the noun vagrant meaning 'a person who has no job .... tions: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the American Translators ...

  5. Read the Label First: Protect Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the importance of reading pet products labels before purchasing and using any product to insure the safety of your pets. Find tips for ways to reduce the changes of pets accessing potentially dangerous products.

  6. Read the Label First! Protect Your Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pesticides could harm children, pets, or the environment if not used and stored correctly. Choose a product that is labeled for your specific pest. EPA encourages consumers to consider using EPA-registered ...

  7. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations that will be published under this part; (c) Comparative acoustic rating information, which EPA... number or type identification; (f) The phrase “Federal law prohibits removal of this label prior to...

  8. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plastic, paper, metal, or other durable substances. Labels must be attached in such a manner that they... Act (15 U.S.C. 2605) as of (insert effective date of ban on distribution in commerce). Distribution of...

  10. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When ...

  11. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ...

  12. 75 FR 49818 - APPLIANCE LABELING RULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... particular, this Notice contains revised Spanish language text in that sample label which reads ``Costo Estimado Anual de Energ[iacute]a'' instead of ``Costo Anual Estimado;'' ``de la tarifa'' instead of ``del...

  13. Isotopic labelling with carbon-14 and tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    In this paper general methods of isotopic labelling with 14 C and with 3 H are briefly reviewed with special attention to examples of compounds likely to be of wide interest in biological research. (author)

  14. Evaluation of three methods of platelet labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortelmans, L.; Verbruggen, A.; Roo, M. de; Vermylen, J.

    1986-01-01

    The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111 In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method based on that described by W.A. Heaton et al. 1979 was optimized in the authors' laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients. (author)

  15. Evaluation of three methods of platelet labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortelmans, L; Verbruggen, A; De Roo, M; Vermylen, J

    1986-07-01

    The study of the kinetics of labelled platelets makes sense only when the platelets preserve their viability after separation and labelling. The separation and labelling procedures described in the manual of two producers of 111In-oxinate (Amersham, Mallinckrodt) have been evaluated by in vitro aggregation tests. The method of Mallinckrodt diminished the aggregation capacities of the thrombocytes. The labelled platelets with normal in vitro aggregation response (Amersham) were tested in vivo in 11 patients who underwent peripheral bypass surgery. The platelet half-life and the platelet accumulation on bypass grafts were checked one week post-operatively. Because of the poor in vivo response of both methods (exponential half-life curve and bad graft visualization), a third method was optimized in our laboratory with good in vitro and in vivo results in 12 patients.

  16. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Staying Safe Recipes & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  18. 21 CFR 1271.250 - Labeling controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Current Good Tissue Practice § 1271.250 Labeling controls. (a... available for distribution is accompanied by documentation of the donor eligibility determination as...

  19. Valuing labelling attributes with hedonic price analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Bodo

    2004-01-01

    The market share of New World wines sold in many European countries has increased dramatically over the past decade. More aggressive marketing, together with a more distinct and recognizable labeling scheme, are often regarded as the keys to the marketing success of these new wines. This article...... employs hedonic price analysis to identify the values that marketers and consumers place on the information carried by the label of Australian wines in the British wine retail market. Although many grape varieties are given a highly distinct valuation by market participants, our results also suggest...... that consumers consider regions jointly with grape varieties as proxies for brands. This contrasts with the general observation that grape varietal labeling is the distinctive feature of New World wines. Marketing implications are examined by considering the revenue impact of changes in labeling at the retail...

  20. 76 FR 79057 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Labeling, Reporting and recordkeeping... emitting diode (OLED) means a thin-film light- emitting device that typically consists of a series of...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health ... choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels ...

  2. Two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lifeng; Chao, Yuyan; Suzuki, Kenji

    2011-08-01

    Whenever one wants to distinguish, recognize, and/or measure objects (connected components) in binary images, labeling is required. This paper presents two efficient label-equivalence-based connected-component labeling algorithms for 3-D binary images. One is voxel based and the other is run based. For the voxel-based one, we present an efficient method of deciding the order for checking voxels in the mask. For the run-based one, instead of assigning each foreground voxel, we assign each run a provisional label. Moreover, we use run data to label foreground voxels without scanning any background voxel in the second scan. Experimental results have demonstrated that our voxel-based algorithm is efficient for 3-D binary images with complicated connected components, that our run-based one is efficient for those with simple connected components, and that both are much more efficient than conventional 3-D labeling algorithms.

  3. Multiple tag labeling method for DNA sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathies, R.A.; Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.

    1995-07-25

    A DNA sequencing method is described which uses single lane or channel electrophoresis. Sequencing fragments are separated in the lane and detected using a laser-excited, confocal fluorescence scanner. Each set of DNA sequencing fragments is separated in the same lane and then distinguished using a binary coding scheme employing only two different fluorescent labels. Also described is a method of using radioisotope labels. 5 figs.

  4. Impact of Food Labeling on Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Todua Nugzar

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluates the development and perspective implication of social marketing interventions for empowering healthy life and well-being of the population in Georgia. The objective of the research is to analyze the impact of food labeling for healthy behavior change of Georgian consumers. The study revealed the strong correlation between awareness and education of consumer on food labeling and healthy behavior changing. One of the important factors of chang...

  5. Indirect labeling of proteins with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti de; Lavinas, Tatiana; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Nilda P.S. de; Silva, Constancia P.G.; Tavares, Leoberto C.

    2000-01-01

    A procedure is described for the radioiodination of proteins using an iodinated derivative of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl)benzoate (ATE), previously described by Zalutsky. ATE was obtained in a high pure form and the iodination has been performed with 131-Iodine in 70-80% yield. Protein labeling studies performed with human IgG indicate that the ATE intermediate is an important alternative to conventional labeling methods. (author)

  6. Radioactive labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Geza; Sirokman, Ferenc

    1985-01-01

    Results achieved by the sup(14)C, sup(125)I and sup(3)H labelling of alkaloids with morphine skeleton for kinetic, receptor, metabolims and pharmacological investigations are summarized and evaluated. The methods for the preparation of sup(3)H labelled dihydromorphine, dihydroethylmorphine, dihydrocodeine, naloxone and naloxazone are described. The compounds have higher specific molar activity than those referred to in literature which makes them suitable for a number of investigations. (author)

  7. Stability of rhenium-188 labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, B. K.; Jung, J. M.; Jung, J. K.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    For clinical application of beta-emitter labeled antibody, high specific activity is important. Carrier-free Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generator is an ideal radionuclide for this purpose. However, low stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, especially in high specific activity, due to radiolytic decomposition by high energy (2.1 MeV) beta ray was problem. We studied the stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, and stabilizing effect of several nontoxic radical-quenching agents. Pre-reduced monoclonal antibody (CEA79.4) was labeled with Re-188 by incubating with generator-eluted Re-188-perrhenate in the presence of stannous tartrate for 2 hr at room temperature. Radiochemical purity of each preparation was determined by chromatography (ITLC-SG/acetone, ITLC-SG/Umezawa, Whatman No.1/saline). Human serum albumin was added to the labeled antibodies(2%). Stability of Re-188-CEA79.4 was investigated in the presence of vitamin C, ethanol, or Tween 80 as radical-quenching agents. Specific activities of 4.29∼5.11 MBq/μg were obtained. Labeling efficiencies were 88±4%(n=12). Very low stability after removal of stannous tartrate from the preparation was observed. If stored after purging with N 2 , all the preparations were stable for 10 hr. However, if contacted with air, stability decreased. Perrhenate and Re-188-tartrate was major impurity in declined preparation (12∼47 and 9∼38% each, after 10 hr). Colloid-formation was not a significant problem in all cases. Addition of vitamin C stabilized the labeled antibodies either under N 2 or under air by reducing the formation of perrhenate. High specific activity Re-188 labeled antibody is unstable, especially, in the presence of oxygen. Addition of vitamin C increased the stability

  8. Cyclic labellings with constraints at two distances

    OpenAIRE

    Leese, R; Noble, S D

    2004-01-01

    Motivated by problems in radio channel assignment, we consider the vertex-labelling of graphs with non-negative integers. The objective is to minimise the span of the labelling, subject to constraints imposed at graph distances one and two. We show that the minimum span is (up to rounding) a piecewise linear function of the constraints, and give a complete specification, together with associated optimal assignments, for trees and cycles.

  9. Private label brand equity: a conceptual framework

    OpenAIRE

    Xara-Brasil, Duarte; Marreiros, Cristina; Dionísio, Andreia

    2012-01-01

    Trabalho apresentado na AMA/ACRA First Triennial Conference, 18-21 de abril de 2012, Seattle, USA This paper presents a conceptual framework to analyze private label brand equity in a retail context. Several authors proposed brand equity models as Aaker (1996), Keller (1993) and Yoo and Donthu (2001), and specific research has been done in retail industry (Jara & Cliquet, 2009), (Pappu & Quester, 2006). To study private label brand equity, we suggest a framework based on the Yo...

  10. Living labeling techniques of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Qingyu; Chen Li

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their self-renew and multi- differentiation potentiality. With the transplantation of the MSCs which can promote the regeneration and repair of the injured tissue, a new route for the treatment of dieases is hopeful to be effective. To trace the distribution, migration, proliferation and differentiation of the implanted MSCs, there need effective labeling techniques, especially living labeling techniques. (authors)

  11. Manual airway labeling has limited reproducibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens; Feragen, Aasa; Thomsen, Laura Hohwü

    Purpose: Quantitative airway assessment is often performed in specific branches to enable comparison of measurements between patients and over time. Little is known on the accuracy in locating these branches. We determined inter- and intra-observer agreement of manual labeling of segmental bronch...... disagreement in expert labeling, possibly reflecting large anatomical heterogeneity and changes with inspiration. Consistent airway measurement cannot be guaranteed based on manual localization....

  12. In vitro labeling receptor autoradiography: loss of label during ethanol dehydration and preparative procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhar, M.J.; Unnerstall, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Slide-mounted tissue sections of brain were incubated with several reversibly binding [ 3 H]ligands to label receptors. Exposure of these labeled, mounted tissue sections to ethanol solutions for dehydration resulted in a substantial loss of receptor bound ligands in all cases, even when the tissues were fixed with formaldehyde vapors before exposure. Thus, serious problems can be introduced into in vitro labeling autoradiographic procedures by exposure of sections to aqueous or organic media. (Auth.)

  13. Comparison of ionisation properties of aetma-labeled saccharides with common labels

    OpenAIRE

    Partyka, J. (Jan); Foret, F. (František)

    2015-01-01

    We have tested (2-aminoethyl)trimethylammonium (AETMA) as a label for analysis of oligosaccharides by capillary electrophoresis with electrospray (ESI) mass spectrometry detection and compared its performance to taurine, 2-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzamide and 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid. The AETMA-labeled saccharides were provided higher ionization signals in positive mode than native sodium or ammonium adducts and equal or higher signals than saccharides labeled by the more commo...

  14. Thrombokinetics with In-111-oxine labelled platelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Tatsumi; Yui, Tokuo; Muroi, Shuichi; Matsuda, Shin; Kariyone, Shigeo

    1982-01-01

    Indium-111-oxine has been employed as a redioactive platelet label for thrombosis imaging and thrombokinetic studies in man. To evaluate it's suitability for platelet survival and turnover, thrombokinetic studies were carried out in hematological normal subjects, in patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) and chronic congestive splenomegaly. For In-111-oxine labelled platelets, platelets were collected by differential centrifugation from 44 ml of whole blood drawn into 6 ml of acid citrate dextrose solution. Platelet suspension was incubated with In-111-oxine, which was extracted before use by the method of Thakur and co-workers. The survival, recovery and turnover of In-111-labeled platelets were 8.6 +- 0.5 days, 63.0 +- 5.4% and 3.9 +- 0.3 x 10 4 / μl/day, respectively, which were similar with those of Cr-51 method. Platelet disappearance curves labelled with In-111 and Cr-51 simultaneously were similar in one case. In patients with ITP, platelet survival shortened in the same degree with Cr-51 method. The two simultaneous labeling studies between In-111 and Cr-51 showed no differences. In the patients with congestive splenomegaly, the same results were obtained. Thrombokinetic studies with In-111-oxine labelled platelets offer the advantages of reduced blood requirements, and the ability to perform external imaging of platelet distribution. (author)

  15. Gold Nanoparticle Labels Amplify Ellipsometric Signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbarao, Srivatsa

    2008-01-01

    The ellipsometric method reported in the immediately preceding article was developed in conjunction with a method of using gold nanoparticles as labels on biomolecules that one seeks to detect. The purpose of the labeling is to exploit the optical properties of the gold nanoparticles in order to amplify the measurable ellipsometric effects and thereby to enable ultrasensitive detection of the labeled biomolecules without need to develop more-complex ellipsometric instrumentation. The colorimetric, polarization, light-scattering, and other optical properties of nanoparticles depend on their sizes and shapes. In the present method, these size-and-shape-dependent properties are used to magnify the polarization of scattered light and the diattenuation and retardance of signals derived from ellipsometry. The size-and-shape-dependent optical properties of the nanoparticles make it possible to interrogate the nanoparticles by use of light of various wavelengths, as appropriate, to optimally detect particles of a specific type at high sensitivity. Hence, by incorporating gold nanoparticles bound to biomolecules as primary or secondary labels, the performance of ellipsometry as a means of detecting the biomolecules can be improved. The use of gold nanoparticles as labels in ellipsometry has been found to afford sensitivity that equals or exceeds the sensitivity achieved by use of fluorescence-based methods. Potential applications for ellipsometric detection of gold nanoparticle-labeled biomolecules include monitoring molecules of interest in biological samples, in-vitro diagnostics, process monitoring, general environmental monitoring, and detection of biohazards.

  16. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, E.F.J. de E-mail: e.f.j.de.vries@pet.azg.nl; Vroegh, Joke; Elsinga, P.H.; Vaalburg, Willem

    2003-04-01

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons, {alpha}-bromo-{alpha}'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-m-xylene and N-(4-[{sup 18}F]fluorobenzyl)-2-bromoacetamide were found to be the most promising. Labeling with the former synthon was less complicated and time consuming and gave higher uncorrected overall yields. The latter synthon required smaller amounts of the costly precursor to achieve acceptable labeling yields.

  17. Basic evaluation of 67Ga labeled digoxin derivative as a metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Konishi, Junji; Takemura, Yasutaka; Taniuchi, Hideyuki; Iijima, Naoko; Yokoyama, Akira.

    1993-01-01

    To develop metal-labeled digoxin radiopharmaceuticals with affinity with anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase, a digoxin derivative conjugated with deferoxamine was synthesized. The derivative had a high binding affinity with 67 Ga at deferoxamine introduced to the terminal sugar ring of digoxin. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative showed enough in vitro binding affinity and selectivity to anti-digoxin antibody as well as Na + , K + -ATPase. The 67 Ga labeled digoxin derivative is considered to be a potential metal-labeled bifunctional radiopharmaceutical for digoxin RIA as well as myocardial Na + , K + -ATPase imaging. (author)

  18. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with 99m using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of ∼80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for 99m Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3 ) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel 188 Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] complex to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate was investigated

  19. Do nutrition labels influence healthier food choices? Analysis of label viewing behaviour and subsequent food purchases in a labelling intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Jiang, Yannan; Blakely, Tony

    2018-02-01

    There are few objective data on how nutrition labels are used in real-world shopping situations, or how they affect dietary choices and patterns. The Starlight study was a four-week randomised, controlled trial of the effects of three different types of nutrition labels on consumer food purchases: Traffic Light Labels, Health Star Rating labels, or Nutrition Information Panels (control). Smartphone technology allowed participants to scan barcodes of packaged foods and receive randomly allocated labels on their phone screen, and to record their food purchases. The study app therefore provided objectively recorded data on label viewing behaviour and food purchases over a four-week period. A post-hoc analysis of trial data was undertaken to assess frequency of label use, label use by food group, and association between label use and the healthiness of packaged food products purchased. Over the four-week intervention, study participants (n = 1255) viewed nutrition labels for and/or purchased 66,915 barcoded packaged products. Labels were viewed for 23% of all purchased products, with decreasing frequency over time. Shoppers were most likely to view labels for convenience foods, cereals, snack foods, bread and bakery products, and oils. They were least likely to view labels for sugar and honey products, eggs, fish, fruit and vegetables, and meat. Products for which participants viewed the label and subsequently purchased the product during the same shopping episode were significantly healthier than products where labels were viewed but the product was not subsequently purchased: mean difference in nutrient profile score -0.90 (95% CI -1.54 to -0.26). In a secondary analysis of a nutrition labelling intervention trial, there was a significant association between label use and the healthiness of products purchased. Nutrition label use may therefore lead to healthier food purchases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. 50 CFR 216.91 - Dolphin-safe labeling standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dolphin-safe labeling standards. 216.91... MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.91 Dolphin-safe labeling standards. (a) It is a violation of... include on the label of those products the term “dolphin-safe” or any other term or symbol that claims or...

  1. 49 CFR 172.446 - CLASS 9 label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the six white spaces between them. The lower half of the label must be white with the class number “9... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CLASS 9 label. 172.446 Section 172.446... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.446 CLASS 9 label. (a) Except for size and color, the “CLASS 9...

  2. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of animals...

  3. 21 CFR 501.17 - Animal food labeling warning statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food labeling warning statements. 501.17... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING General Provisions § 501.17 Animal food labeling warning statements. (a) Self-pressurized containers. (1) The label of a food packaged in...

  4. 21 CFR 501.100 - Animal food; exemptions from labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Animal food; exemptions from labeling. 501.100... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ANIMAL FOOD LABELING Exemptions From Animal Food Labeling Requirements § 501.100 Animal food; exemptions from labeling. (a) The following foods are exempt...

  5. Design and operations at the National Tritium Labelling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, H.; Williams, P.G.

    1991-09-01

    The National Tritium Labelling Facility (NTLF) is a multipurpose facility engaged in tritium labeling research. It offers to the biomedical research community a fully equipped laboratory for the synthesis and analysis of tritium labeled compounds. The design of the tritiation system, its operations and some labeling techniques are presented

  6. UNDERSTANDING CONSUMERS' ATTITUDE TOWARD MEAT LABELS AND MEAT CONSUMPTION PATTERN

    OpenAIRE

    Rimal, Arbindra; Fletcher, Stanley M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper addressed consumers' attitude toward meat labels and the influence of different aspects of meat labels on beef, poultry and seafood consumption using a national survey data. Nutrition and ingredient information on meat labels were positively related with attitude toward meat labels as well as meat consumption frequency.

  7. 27 CFR 7.22 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Beverages § 7.22 Mandatory label information. There shall be stated: (a) On the brand label: (1) Brand name... alcohol. (b) On the brand label or on a separate label (back or front): (1) In the case of imported malt... PHENYLALANINE.” (Paragraph (b)(6) approved by the Office of Management and Budget under Control No. 1512-0469...

  8. 27 CFR 4.32 - Mandatory label information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Mandatory label information. (a) There shall be stated on the brand label: (1) Brand name, in accordance... the bottle. (c) There shall be stated on the brand label or on a back label a statement that the... the Office of Management and Budget under Control Number 1512-0469) [T.D. 6521, 25 FR 13835, Dec. 29...

  9. 40 CFR 600.306-86 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... general to specific labels or vice versa within a model type, the manufacturer shall, within five calendar... legibility of the fuel economy label is maintained. For this purpose, all fuel economy label information must... cause to be maintained on each automobile: (1) A general fuel economy label (initial, or updated as...

  10. 40 CFR 211.214 - Removal of label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal of label. 211.214 Section 211... PRODUCT NOISE LABELING Hearing Protective Devices § 211.214 Removal of label. Section 10(a)(4) of the Act prohibits any person from removing, prior to sale, any label required by this subpart, by either physical...

  11. 46 CFR 162.028-4 - Marine type label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine type label. 162.028-4 Section 162.028-4 Shipping... type label. (a) In addition to all other marking, every portable extinguisher shall bear a label containing the “marine type” listing manifest issued by a recognized laboratory. This label will include the...

  12. 30 CFR 47.41 - Requirement for container labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for container labels. 47.41 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.41 Requirement for container labels. (a) The operator must ensure that each container of a hazardous chemical has a label. If a...

  13. A comparative study on the radioactive labelling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, G.K.; Heertje, I.; Stijn, F. van

    1977-01-01

    The main methods in protein labelling are exchange labelling, iodination, acylation and alkylation. The universal application of the techniques is evaluated by a number of criteria, derived from the demand that labelled proteins should be as identical to the native ones as possible. From our experiences on labelling methods it is concluded that reductive methylation meets most requirements. (orig.) [de

  14. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to complying...

  15. Traffic light labelling: traduzindo a rotulagem de alimentos Traffic light labeling: translating food labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma adaptação do Traffic Light Labelling, ou "Semáforo Nutricional", adotado no Reino Unido e outros países da Europa, às normas vigentes no Brasil e classificar produtos industrializados comercializados no país. MÉTODOS: Esta ferramenta baseia-se na utilização das cores do semáforo para valorar concentrações de gorduras total, saturada e trans, açúcar, sódio e fibra correspondente a 100g ou 100mL do produto. O sinal vermelho indica que o nutriente está presente em quantidade excessiva; o amarelo, média e o verde, adequada. Para fibras as baixas concentrações têm cor vermelha e as recomendadas, verde. A adaptação e aplicação desses conceitos para consumidores brasileiros fundamentaram-se nas normas do Regulamento Técnico Referente à Informação Nutricional Complementar da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária e da Food Standards Agency. RESULTADOS: Foram classificados cem produtos industrializados, os quais foram selecionados da página eletrônica de um hipermercado brasileiro, optando pelos primeiros cinco a oito produtos listados na página, para cada uma das 17 categorias. A análise mostra que são altas as quantidades de gordura total, saturada e sódio e baixas as quantidades de gordura trans e fibra. CONCLUSÃO: A adaptação dessa metodologia visa facilitar a escolha de alimentos saudáveis, sensibilizando os consumidores quanto às desvantagens no que se refere a qualidade nutricional dos alimentos industrializados, e estimular as indústrias a melhorar a composição nutricional de seus produtos, sob a perspectiva de receberem maior quantidade de sinais verdes e menor quantidade de sinais vermelhos; assim, contribuindo para a prevenção de erros alimentares, obesidade e doenças crônicas não-transmissíveis, principais causas de incapacidade e mortes precoces no Brasil.OBJECTIVE: This study presented an adaptation of the Traffic Light Labeling or Nutrition Traffic Light adopted

  16. Preparation of radioactive labelled compounds. Pt. 2. 82Br labelled organic bromine compounds by isotopic exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, R.

    1988-05-01

    Studies on isotopic exchange between organic bromine compounds and 82 Br labelled dioxane dibromide in the presence of AlCl 3 are described. The results obtained enable to develop a simple and quick preparation method for the labelling with 82 Br [fr

  17. 76 FR 37291 - Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    .... FDA-2011-F-0171] Food Labeling; Calorie Labeling of Articles of Food in Vending Machines; Correction... certain articles of food sold from vending machines. The document published with several errors including... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Daniel Y. Reese, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-820), Food...

  18. FAST LABEL: Easy and efficient solution of joint multi-label and estimation problems

    KAUST Repository

    Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh; Hong, Byungwoo

    2014-01-01

    that plague local solutions. Further, in comparison to global methods for the multi-label problem, the method is more efficient and it is easy for a non-specialist to implement. We give sample Matlab code for the multi-label Chan-Vese problem in this paper

  19. Official Labeling, Criminal Embeddedness, and Subsequent Delinquency: A Longitudinal Test of Labeling Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Krohn, Marvin D.; Rivera, Craig J.

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the short-term impact of formal criminal labeling on involvement in deviant social networks and increased likelihood of subsequent delinquency. According to labeling theory, formal criminal intervention should affect the individual's immediate social networks. In many cases, the stigma of the criminal status may increase the…

  20. A Labeling Model Based on the Region of Movability for Point-Feature Label Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic point-feature label placement (PFLP is a fundamental task for map visualization. As the dominant solutions to the PFLP problem, fixed-position and slider models have been widely studied in previous research. However, the candidate labels generated with these models are set to certain fixed positions or a specified track line for sliding. Thus, the whole surrounding space of a point feature is not sufficiently used for labeling. Hence, this paper proposes a novel label model based on the region of movability, which comes from plane collision detection theory. The model defines a complete conflict-free search space for label placement. On the premise of no conflict with the point, line, and area features, the proposed model utilizes the surrounding zone of the point feature to generate candidate label positions. By combining with heuristic search method, the model achieves high-quality label placement. In addition, the flexibility of the proposed model enables placing arbitrarily shaped labels.