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Sample records for gamma spectrometric determination

  1. Determination of uranium enrichment by using gamma-spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnyj, D.V.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Odejchuk, N.P.; Mikhailov, V.A.; Tovkanets, V.E.

    2009-01-01

    By using commercial analysis programs MGAU (LLNL, USA) and FRAM (LANL, USA) the summary error of gamma-spectrometric uranium enrichment measurements was investigated. Uranium samples with enrichments of 0,71; 4,46 and 20,1 % were measured. The coaxial high purity germanium detector (type GC) and the planar germanium detector (type LEGe) were used as gamma-radiation detectors. It was shown that experimental equipment and mathematical software available in NSC KIPT allow us to measure uranium enrichment by nondestructive method with accuracy of not worse than 2%.

  2. Gamma-spectrometric correction in radiometric determination of potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gejsler, M.

    1979-01-01

    The method is described of determination of potassium in mixed fertilizers in production conditions on a chemical enterprise in the GDR. Potassium content was determined according to the value of measured radiation from potassium-40. For measurement probes were used with radiation counters. While changing raw material, coming to the enterprise has been established that in raw phosphate, supplied from Morocco, there is low enough concentration of the natural radioactive isotopes of the uranium-radium series. In this connection, the two-cannel gamma-spectroscopy method has been developed taking into account influence of the background from these isotopes. Principles are explained of the method used and descriptions are given of the instruments used and sources of errors are listed. Relative standard deviation of the potassiun determination by this method equals nearly to 5% [ru

  3. Gamma spectrometric determination of depleted Uranium in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantelic, G.; Eremic Savkovic, M.; Javorina, L.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vuletic, V.; Milacic, S.

    2002-01-01

    The radiation protection is very important interdisciplinary research field due to the presence of the radiation in daily life. The systematic examination of radioactive contamination of various environmental samples was established forty years ago in the Institute of Occupational and Radiological Health Dr Dragomir Karajovic for the sake of preventive protection of population and environment from the harmful effect of ionizing radiation. The global sources of radionuclide contamination in our country are the fallout due to previous nuclear testing and the deposition of radionuclides from the region of Chernobyl accident. The contents of radionuclides were determined in aerosol, soil, fallout (wet and dry deposition), rivers, lakes, drinking water, human and animal food. The samples were collected in several locations of the Republic of Serbia and in regular time intervals, according to methods determined by the regulation. The regulations and the monitoring programs were updated after the Chernobyl accident. In the recent time, after the NATO aggression, we analyzed depleted uranium content in the environmental samples. We used high-resolution gamma spectrometry measurements, because of their simplicity and accuracy. Aims of the control were to asses the increase of radioactivity above the natural levels in the immediate and near vicinity of the bomb craters, to asses the corresponding effect of changed natural radioactivity on the health of the population living in these places and finding unexploded depleted uranium bullets

  4. Marine gamma spectrometric survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoglodov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Presented are theoretical problems physical and geochemical prerequisites and possibilities of practical application of the method of continuous submarine gamma-spectrometric survey and radiometric survey destined for rapid study of the surface layer of marine sediments. Shown is high efficiency and advantages of this method in comparison with traditional and widely spread in marine geology methods of bottom sediments investigation

  5. Efficiency and attenuation correction factors determination in gamma spectrometric assay of bulk samples using self radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.

    2009-02-01

    Gamma spectrometry forms the most important and capable tool for measuring radioactive materials. Determination of the efficiency and attenuation correction factors is the most tedious problem in the gamma spectrometric assay of bulk samples. A new experimental and easy method for these correction factors determination using self radiation was proposed in this work. An experimental study of the correlation between self attenuation correction factor and sample thickness and its practical application was also introduced. The work was performed on NORM and uranyl nitrate bulk sample. The results of proposed methods agreed with those of traditional ones.(author)

  6. Gamma Spectrometric Determination of U, Th, K and Some Geochemical Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodona, A.; Tashko, A.

    2001-01-01

    The application of 'in situ' gamma-spectrometric method (''infinite'' environment), made possible the simultanious determination of U, Th and K. 4 channel gamma-spectrometric analyser with NaI(TI) scintilation counter crystal detector (103 cm 3 φ=50x50mm) was used to determin U, Th(more than 1-2 ppm) and K (more than 1%) in laboratory conditions. The detector was inserted into a lead camera and calibrated for measurement geometry with vessel of ''Marineli'' type of a 17o cm 3 volume. The study of main factors, which influence in the gamma spectrometric measurements, (the technical, physical, geometrical and time parameters) has been carried out. International standards of U, Th, K and internal monitoring standard samples are used for the calibration. External analytical control has been realized by other radiometric and chemical methods. The detection limits ( 1 ppm Th, 2ppm U and 1% K) and the relative errors (17-20% for 1-10 ppm U, Th and 10-15% for more than 10 ppm U, Th and more than 1% K) guarantee a quantitative analysis that may be used successfully in the geochemical studies. Some geochemical applications, based on the content of Th, U and Th/U ratio in rocks samples that we have we have analyzed with this method, are shown in this paper. U, Th and their ratio are used as trace elements to indicate the differences between the acidic magmatic rocks of Albania (Th/U ratio=2-6 and>10). The bimodal character of Th/U scattering in ignimbrides and monzonites (Korabi zone) shows that in addition to the ''normal'' rocks, there are also some ones enriched with Th, So, the differential analysis of Th, U, and K may be used as geochemical exploration criteria for the radioactive and non-radioactive mineralization, such as REE (Rare Earth Elements), phospghorites, bauxites, placers etc. (authors)

  7. Rapid in situ gamma spectrometric determination of fallout radioactivity in the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, Peter

    1995-01-01

    The main aim of the present CRP is to identify the existing analytical methods and develop new ones, if possible, which provide rapid, reliable, and detailed information on the radioactive contamination of the environment after a major nuclear accident. Gamma spectrometry has long been regarded as one of the most applicable radioanalytical techniques but its use for environmental studies requires some further considerations. There are two possible approaches to measure environmental radioactivity: (a) taking samples of the different environmental media and measuring them in a laboratory or (b) taking the spectrometer to the place of interest and making in situ measurements. In the former case sampling is a crucial factor hindering the rapid analysis while the latter case is not always reliable due to the problems and uncertainties of the measurement interpretation. The application of in situ gamma spectrometry for the determination of environmental radioactivity has become increasingly attractive since the advent of the high resolution semiconductor gamma detectors, especially, more recently, portable high purity Ge diodes (HpGe). The applicability of this technique was very well proved after the Chernobyl reactor accident when in situ spectrometry played an important role in the rapid evaluation of the fall-out situation. Our measurements provided information on the amount and composition of the radioactive contamination of the ground surface already in the first hours. These measurements enabled us to predict the time variation of the environmental radioactivity after the stabilization of the situation. The portability of the system was an important factor in performing a rapid and efficient survey in different parts of the country. A serious disadvantage of this method is, however, that it requires some knowledge about the radionuclide distribution in the soil, which is normally determined by tedious and time consuming sample analysis of the different soil

  8. The fast gamma spectrometric method of the Am-241 determination in Chernobyl restricted zone soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleisberg, B.; Lukachina, V.V.; Kirsenko, V.N.; Tepikin, V.E.; Rajevsky, V.S.; Libman, V.A.; Stoljarevsky, I.P.; Isajev, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    The known methods of the 241 Am contents determination in environmental objects, as a rule, is based on ion-chromatographic or extraction separation techniques. This approach reflects widespread opinion, that only the α-spectrometric analysis termination is suitable to ensure necessary sensitivity of the overall method of 241 Am actively determination. Really, the minimal detectable activity for such methods is about 0.05 Bq/kg (considering that Am is usually concentrated during separation procedure). However, because of α-spectrometry does not permit to separate the α-peaks of the 241 Am, and 238 Pu, but also in view of high requests to the α-spectrometric specimen purity, the multistage and laborious chemical procedures to separate 241 Am from plutonium radionuclides and other elements (with a thorough control of each separation stage) are needed

  9. Processing of gamma-ray spectrometric logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umiastowski, K.; Dumesnil, P.

    1984-10-01

    CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) has developped a gamma-ray spectrometric tool, containing an analog-to-digital converter. This new tool permits to perform very precise uranium logs (natural gamma-ray spectrometry), neutron activation logs and litho-density logs (gamma-gamma spectrometric logs). Specific processing methods were developped to treate the particular problems of down-hole gamma-ray spectrometry. Extraction of the characteristic gamma-ray peak, even if they are superposed on the background radiation of very high intensity, is possible. This processing methode enables also to obtain geological informations contained in the continuous background of the spectrum. Computer programs are written in high level language for SIRIUS (VICTOR) and APOLLO computers. Exemples of uranium and neutron activation logs treatment are presented [fr

  10. Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radioactive Nuclides in NORM Samples - Method Validation for the Gamma-ray Spectrometric Determination of Natural Radionuclides in raw materials and by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Young-Yong; Lim, Jong-Myoung; Jang, Mee; Kim, Chang-Jong; Chung, Kun Ho; Kang, Mun Ja; Choi, Geun-Sik [Environmental Radioactivity Assessment Team, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111, Daedeok-daero 989, Yuseong, Daejeon, 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    226}Ra indicators such as {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi after the secular equilibrium in the NORM sample, were introduced for analyzing {sup 235}U, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 238}U using a HPGe detector. Their results were compared with {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U from the alpha spectrometer as well as the ICP-MS for the same samples. As a result, the most suitable method of choice can be selected to make gamma-ray spectrometric determination of natural radionuclides as considering an accuracy and time and cost constraints. Finally, a selected method was used to analyze the radioactive inventory in NORM samples and the radioactive equilibrium or disequilibrium state for {sup 238}U and {sup 226}Ra. (authors)

  11. Development of gallium arsenide gamma spectrometric detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kuru, I.

    1975-03-01

    GaAs semiconductor material has been considered to be a suitable material for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature since it has a wid-band gap, larger than that of silicon and germanium. The basic objective of this work is to develop a GaAs gamma-ray spectrometric detector which could be used for gamma spectrometric measurement of uranium and plutonium in nuclear fuel safeguards. Liquid phase epitaxial techniques using iron (Fe) as dopant have been developed in making high purity GaAs crystals suitable for gamma-ray spectrometer operating at room temperature. Concentration of Fe in the epitaxial crystal was controlled by initial growth temperature. The best quality epitaxial crystal was obtained under the following conditions: starting temperature is about 800degC, the proportion of Fe to Ga solvent is 1 to 300. Carrier concentration of epitaxial crystals grown distributed in the ranges of 10 12 cm -3 to 10 14 cm -3 at room temperature. The thickness of the crystals ranged from 38 μm to 120 μm. Au-GaAs surface barrier detector was made of epitaxial crystal. Some of the detector were encapsulated in a can with a 50 μm Be window by welding a can to the detector holder. The detector with high energy resolution and good charge collecting characteristics was selected by alpha spectrometry at room temperature. Energy resolution of the detector for gamma-rays up to about 200 keV was very good at room temperature operation. The best energy resolutions taken with a GaAs detector were 3 keV (fwhm) and 3.8 keV for 241 Am 59.6 keV and 57 Co 122 keV, respectively, at room temperature. In order to study the applicability of the detector for nuclear safeguards, the measurements of 235 U gamma-ray spectrum have been carried out at room temperature. It was clarified that the gamma-ray spectrum of enriched U sample could be measured in high resolution with GaAs detector at room temperature, and that the content of 235 U in enriched U sources could be determined by

  12. Gamma-spectrometric determination of {sup 232}U in uranium-bearing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsigrai, Jozsef [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), 76125 Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 2340 (Germany); Nguyen, Tam Cong [Centre for Energy Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (EK), 1525 Budapest 114, P.O. Box 49 (Hungary); Berlizov, Andrey [European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Transuranium Elements (ITU), 76125 Karlsruhe, P.O. Box 2340 (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    The {sup 232}U content of various uranium-bearing items was measured using low-background gamma spectrometry. The method is independent of the measurement geometry, sample form and chemical composition. Since {sup 232}U is an artificially produced isotope, it carries information about previous irradiation of the material, which is relevant for nuclear forensics, nuclear safeguards and for nuclear reactor operations. A correlation between the {sup 232}U content and {sup 235}U enrichment of the investigated samples has been established, which is consistent with theoretical predictions. It is also shown how the correlation of the mass ratio {sup 232}U/{sup 235}U vs. {sup 235}U content can be used to distinguish materials contaminated with reprocessed uranium from materials made of reprocessed uranium.

  13. Gamma spectrometric analyses of environmental samples at PINSTECH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruq, M.U.; Parveen, N.; Ahmed, B.; Aziz, A.

    1979-01-01

    Gamma spectrometric analyses of air and other environmental samples from PINSTECH were carried out. Air particulate samples were analyzed by a Ge(Li) detector on a computer-based multichannel analyzer. Other environmental samples were analyzed by a Na(T1) scintillation detector spectrometer and a multichannel analyzer with manual analysis. Concentration of radionuclides in the media was determined and the sources of their production were identified. Age of the fall out was estimated from the ratios of the fission products. (authors)

  14. The use of car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey in a basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tengyao; Lu Shili; Luo Zongquan.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the geological results in a basin in the Inner Mongolia which were obtained by using our newly-developed and assembled car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric system. Combined with the work of regional geology and remote sensing, five relatively favourable uranium zones were located within the working area. The field procedures of car-borne gamma-ray spectrometry for less rigid regions is discussed. The gamma-ray spectrometric profiling is mainly used for regional reconnaissance. In the case of enhanced anomalious radioactivity the profiling with varying directions is adopted and the data are plotted on scale 1:50000 topographic map. It is suggested that the car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric system can be calibrated both by the pads specified for portable spectrometers and by testing site when the calibration facility for the car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric system is not available. The effect of rainfall on car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey and the simplified field qualitative determination of U-Ra disequilibrium are also briefly discussed

  15. Gamma spectrometric determination of radioactivity in milk, milk products and breast-milk after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raics, Peter; Gyarmati, Edit

    1988-01-01

    Ge(Li) spectrometer was used to determine specific activities for nuclides 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 103 Ru, 129 Te m , 132 Te, 131 I, 134 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 La. Measurements lasted for 70 days. Maximum specific activities of commercial milk and breast-milk for 131 I were 225, and 133 Bq/l, respectively. Milk samples of cows stalled by different feeds, of scalded, unscalded milk, and of milk products were compared. Radioacitivity of powdered milk, parsley and red currant was also measured. Detailed results for nuclides as a function of time are listed in five tables. (author) 10 refs.; 5 tabs

  16. System for Gamma an X rays fluorescence spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso Abad, D.; Arista Romeu, E.; Bolanos Perez, L. and others

    1997-01-01

    A system for spectrometry of gamma or fluorescence X rays is presented. It sis composed by a Si(Li) semiconductors detector, a charge sensitive preamplifier, a high voltage power supply, a spectrometric amplifier and a monolithic 1024 channels multichannel analyzers or an IBM compatible 4096 channels add - on- card multichannel analyzer. The system can be configured as a 1024 or 4096 channels gamma or fluorescent X rays spectrometer

  17. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Mattila, A.; Ramebaeck, H.; Aage, H.K.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-12-01

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  18. Gamma spectrometric discrimination of special nuclear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Mattila, A. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Ramebaeck, H. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm (Sweden); Aage, H.K. [Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2012-12-15

    This report presents details pertaining to an exercise conducted as part of the NKS-B programme using synthetic gamma ray spectra to simulate the type of data that may be encountered in the interception of material potentially containing special nuclear materials. A range of scenarios were developed involving sources that may or may not contain special nuclear materials. Gamma spectral data was provided to participants as well as ancillary data and participants were asked, under time constraint, to determine whether or not the data was indicative of circumstances involving special nuclear materials. The situations varied such that different approaches were required in order to obtain the correct result in each context. In the majority of cases participants were able to correctly ascertain whether or not the situations involved special nuclear material. Although fulfilling the primary goal of the exercise, some participants were not in a position to correctly identify with certainty the material involved, Situations in which the smuggled material was being masked by another source proved to be the most challenging for participants. (Author)

  19. Gamma spectrometric system based on the personal computer Pravetz-83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanakiev, K; Grigorov, T.; Vuchkov, M.

    1985-01-01

    A gamma spectrometric system based on a personal microcomputer Pravets-85 is described. The analog modules are NIM standard. ADC data are stored in the memory of the computer via a DMA channel and a real-time data processing is possible. The results from a series of tests indicate that the performance of the system is comparable with that of comercially avalable computerized spectrometers Ortec and Canberra

  20. Gamma spectrometrical examination of irradiated fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristof, Edvard; Pregl, Gvido

    1988-01-01

    Gamma scanning is the only non-destructive technique for quantitative measuring of fission or activation products in spent fuel. The negligence of local variation of the linear attenuation coefficient of gamma rays in the irradiated fuel remains the main source of systematic error. To eliminate it we combine the (single) emission gamma ray scanning technique with a transmission measurement. Mathematical procedure joined with the experiment is particularly convenient for fuel elements of circular cross-section. In such a manner good results are obtainable even for relatively small number of measuring data. Accomplished routines enable to esteem the finite width of the collimation slit. The experiment has been partially automated. Trial measurements were carried out, and the measured data were successfully processed

  1. Actively shielded low level gamma - spectrometric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrdja, D.; Bikit, I.; Forkapic, S.; Slivka, J.; Veskovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the adjusting and testing of the actively shielded low level gamma-spectrometry system are presented. The veto action of the shield reduces the background in the energy region of 50 keV to the 2800 keV for about 3 times. (author) [sr

  2. Gamma spectrometric methods for measuring plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnink, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nondestructive analyses of plutonium can be made by detecting and measuring the gamma rays emitted by a sample. Although qualitative and semiquantitative assays can be performed with relative ease, only recently have methods been developed, using computer analysis techniques, that provide quantitative results. This paper reviews some new techniques developed for measuring plutonium. The features of plutonium gamma-ray spectra are reviewed and some of the computer methods used for spectrum analysis are discussed. The discussion includes a description of a powerful computer method of unfolding complex peak multiplets that uses the standard linear least-squares techniques of data analysis. This computer method is based on the generation of response profiles for the isotopes composing a plutonium sample and requires a description of the peak positions, relative intensities, and line shapes. The principles that plutonium isotopic measurements are based on are also developed, followed by illustrations of the measurement procedures as applied to the quantitative analysis of plutonium liquid and solid samples

  3. Gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles emitted during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balashazy, I.; Szabadine-Szende, G.; Loerinc, M.; Zombori, P.

    1987-05-01

    Ge(Li) gamma-spectrometric examination of hot particles prepared from air filtered dust of Budapest air after the Chernobyl accident is presented. The method of separating hot particles is described and their concentration in the air is determined. The radioactive isotope composition of hot particles is discussed and compared with that of dust samples. Finally, the inhalation probability and radiation burden of hot particles are evaluated. (author)

  4. The theoretical study of full spectrum analysis method for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Weichong

    2011-01-01

    Spectra of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry was found to be the synthesis of spectral components of radioelement sources by analyzing the constitution of radioactive sources for airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey and establishing the models of gamma-ray measurement. The mathematical equation for analysising airborne gamma-ray full spectrometric data can be expressed into matrix and related expansions were developed for the mineral resources exploration, environmental radiation measurement, nuclear emergency monitoring, and so on. Theoretical study showed that the atmospheric radon could be directly computed by airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data with full spectrum analysis without the use of the accessional upward-looking detectors. (authors)

  5. Uncertainty assessment in gamma spectrometric measurements of plutonium isotope ratios and age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H., E-mail: henrik.ramebeck@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Nygren, U.; Tovedal, A. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Division of CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umea (Sweden); Ekberg, C.; Skarnemark, G. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-09-15

    A method for the assessment of the combined uncertainty in gamma spectrometric measurements of plutonium composition and age was evaluated. Two materials were measured. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-SFMS) was used as a reference method for comparing the results obtained with the gamma spectrometric method for one of the materials. For this material (weapons grade plutonium) the measurement results were in agreement between the two methods for all measurands. Moreover, the combined uncertainty in all isotope ratios considered in this material (R{sub Pu238/Pu239}, R{sub Pu240/Pu239}, R{sub Pu241/Pu239}, and R{sub Am241/Pu241} for age determination) were limited by counting statistics. However, the combined uncertainty for the other material (fuel grade plutonium) were limited by the response fit, which shows that the uncertainty in the response function is important to include in the combined measurement uncertainty of gamma spectrometric measurements of plutonium.

  6. Car-borne multichannel gamma-ray spectrometric system model CZD-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Shili; Zhai Yugui; Ma Yanfang; Jiao Cangwen; Zhang Biao

    1998-01-01

    The car-borne multichannel gamma-ray spectrometric system Mode CZD-6 is composed of a HDY-256 of portable multichannel gamma-ray spectrometer developed by the Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology and a large volume scintillation detector. the position for each measurement point is determined by the GPS instrument. Its latitude and longitude, as well as measured 256 channels of γ-spectrometric data are collected by a notebook computer, which can show the 256 channels of spectra for each point during measuring processes. The complete system can be loaded in a field car. This system has been used to environmental radioactive monitoring after calibration by airborne radiometric models in Shijiazhuang, Hebei province. A lot of data confirm that the system works stably and reliably, and is a fast and advanced approach for environmental γ-spectrometric monitoring. It can be used not only to determination of contents of natural radioactive elements in environments, but also to monitoring nuclear pollution and emergency treatment in nuclear accidents significantly

  7. Anomaly disentanglement on the basis of automatic processing of the aerial gamma-spectrometric survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlovskij, V.A.; Zaika, S.D.; Lomtadze, V.V.

    1976-01-01

    Automated processing airborne gamma spectrometric data has been introduced with the use of the BESM-4 computer. Discrimination of anomalies is effected using a variable interval 200-300 m within which maximum values in the general counting channel and their coordinates are found; reference points are detected too against which one can determine the excess and amplitude of the anomalies. The discriminated anomalies are fixed on printer and charts of anomalies are constructed. The charts and tables characterizing the anomaly help in the identification of its potentialities and hence underlie a decision to start ground works

  8. Determination of actinides by alpha spectrometric methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanda, D.

    2011-01-01

    defined attributes of mass activities of radionuclides in oyster mushroom's sporocarps compared to their sub-base. We used two methods to separate the monitored radionuclides in a radiochemical analyse. The first of them was an extraction fluid - fluid with Aliquat-336 to separate Pu and TOPO to separate Am. The second method was a proceeding modified by us and utilizing principles of an extraction chromatography with TRU Resin and DGA Resin sorbents made by Eichrom Company. An effectivity and a suitability of both applied methods were monitored following the attributes of radiochemical extractions used in tracer's radionuclides 242 Pu a 243 Am in this particular type of environmental samples. The reliability of the modified methodology, in accordance to selected criteria for validation of analytical method, was proved by comparison of both above mentioned methods. material delivered from IAEA, which presented a soil sample with code identification Soil IAEA-375. The obtained values of mass activities of 239 + 240 Pu, 239 Pu and 241 Am used in reference material, demonstrated a conformity with IAEA values, whereby we fulfilled one of the significant conditions of validate process. At the end of this thesis we applied the modified method of extraction chromatography with UTEVA Resin sorbent to define mass activities of uranium on soil and water samples where we monitored attributes of radiochemical extractions of 232 U tracer's radionuclide as the criteria of utilizability. The reliability of our modified method was verified by participation in international interlaboratory comparative proficiency tests and our results were in accordance with results of the reference laboratory. It means also a fulfilment of notable standard of the validate process. The results of all realized experimentations of radionuclides separation whether by extraction fluid - fluid or by extraction chromatography were determined by alpha-spectrometric measurements. (author)

  9. A system design of gamma-ray spectrometric data processing for gold prospecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xueqin; Cheng Xuchu; Fang Lianxi; Huang Zuofeng.

    1992-01-01

    Based on different correlation between gamma-ray spectrometric data and gold grade in different types of gold deposits, it is necessary and possible to establish a mathematical model of gamma-ray spectrometric data processing for predicting specific gold deposits. A system design of gamma-ray spectrometric data processing for prospecting gold deposits has been worked out according to the mathematical method and procedure of data processing. The prediction effectiveness of commonly used multiple linear regression analysis is always not ideal but regression accuracy will be evidently increased after pre-processing of the calculated weight, deviation and favorability on gamma-ray spectrometric data. This system can establish more than ten models at the same time which enable users to have more choice. Tree structure and Chinese menu prompting are adopted in this system which can be utilized separately, sub-systems at different levels can be also individually operated. It can be transplanted to data processing of other similar geological deposit models (including non-gamma ray spectrometric data). The system is rapid, accurate, simple, convenient and flexible in use, more practical and easily popularized

  10. Gamma spectrometric method for measuring natural radioactivity of building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, A.; Feher, I.

    1976-11-01

    The natural 232 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K concentrations of building materials were determined by gamma spectrometry. Altogether 121 samples from all over Hungary, one from each factory producing building materials, were examined. The presented data had preliminary character. The results were compared to the relating ones from abroad. (Sz.N.Z.)

  11. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Borsaru, M.

    2007-01-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated

  12. Characterization of HPGe gamma spectrometric detectors systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at the Colombian Geological Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, O., E-mail: osierra@sgc.gov.co; Parrado, G., E-mail: gparrado@sgc.gov.co; Cañón, Y.; Porras, A.; Alonso, D.; Herrera, D. C.; Peña, M., E-mail: mlpena@sgc.gov.co; Orozco, J. [Colombian Geological Survey, Nuclear Affairs Technical Division, Neutron Activation Analysis Laboratory, Bogota D. C. (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    This paper presents the progress made by the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) laboratory at the Colombian Geological Survey (SGC in its Spanish acronym), towards the characterization of its gamma spectrometric systems for Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), with the aim of introducing corrections to the measurements by variations in sample geometry. Characterization includes the empirical determination of the interaction point of gamma radiation inside the Germanium crystal, through the application of a linear model and the use of a fast Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) software to estimate correction factors for differences in counting efficiency that arise from variations in sample density between samples and standards.

  13. A Chemical Eight Group Separation Method for Routine Use in Gamma Spectrometric Analysis. II. Detailed analytical schema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1961-06-15

    A detailed ion-exchange procedure for the separation of chemical elements in eight groups suitable for subsequent gamma spectrometric analysis is described. The method has been in use for gamma spectrometry of some inorganic - but mostly organic - samples for one year. The separation time for inorganic samples, is usually about 1.5 hours and for organic samples as least 2 hours. One man can separate and count three samples per day. In comparative measurements of short-lived isotopes in biological material 10-12 elements can be analysed thus making possible 30 - 35 determinations per day for one man.

  14. Spectrometric determination of ammonium-nitrogen with quinol in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quinol is proposed as a reagent for the spectrometric determination of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) in aqueous medium. Quinol forms a pink complex with ammonium salt in aqueous medium. Hydrogen peroxide is needed for colour accentuation. The quinol/ammonium charge transfer complex has absorption maximum ...

  15. Gamma-spectrometric analysis of river sediments collected around phosphate fertilizer industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo, M.C.; Garcia-Leon, M.; Mundi, M.; Respaldiza, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis has been carried out on sediments collected in an estuarine system formed by two major rivers in southern Spain. The results show clearly that important amounts of natural radioactivity are accumulating on the bed of both rivers. This radioactivity appears to originate from effluent from several phoshate fertilizer factories adjacent to the estuary. (author)

  16. In situ gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of radionuclide distributions at a commercial shallow land burial site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, L.J.; Campbell, R.M.

    1984-10-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometric analysis conducted at the Maxey Flats, Kentucky (USA) shallow land burial site confirmed that the waste radionuclides have been retained largely within the restricted area of the burial site. Concentrations of 137 Cs and 60 Co were comparable with those originating from global fallout and lower than concentrations measured in several other areas having similar rainfall. In-situ spectrometric analyses, corroborated by soil sample and vegetation analyses, indicate that the site has influenced 60 Co levels slightly in the west drainage channel, but 137 Cs did not originate from the site. Concentrations of 60 Co, 90 Sr and 137 Cs determined in subsurface soils by well logging techniques confirmed that subsurface migration of waste-derived radionuclides to points outside the restricted area has not been a significant source of contamination of the environs adjacent to the site. 8 references, 8 figures

  17. Selection and optimization of spectrometric amplifiers for gamma spectrometry: part II - linearity, live time correction factors and software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Marco Antonio Proenca Vieira de; Pugliesi, Reinaldo

    1996-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to establish simple criteria to choose the best combination of electronic modules to achieve an adequate high resolution gamma spectrometer. Linearity, live time correction factors and softwares of a gamma spectrometric system composed by a Hp Ge detector have been studied by using several kinds of spectrometric amplifiers: Canberra 2021, Canberra 2025, Ortec 673 and Tennelec 244 and the MCA cards Ortec and Nucleus. The results showed low values of integral non-linearity for all spectrometric amplifiers connected to the Ortec and Nucleus boards. The MCA card should be able to correct amplifier dead time for 17 kcps count rates. (author)

  18. A method for exploring the distribution of radioelements at depth using gamma-ray spectrometric data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingyang

    1997-01-01

    Based on the inherent relation between radioelements and terrestrial heat flow, theoretically shows the possibility of exploring the distribution of radioelements at depth using gamma-ray spectrometric data, and a data-processing and synthesizing method has been adopted to deduce the calculation formula. The practical application in the uranium mineralized area No. 2801 in Yunnan Province proves that this method is of practical value, and it has been successfully applied to the data processing and good results have been obtained

  19. Photometric and emission-spectrometric determination of boron in steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierig, D.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the photometric determination of boron in unalloyed and alloyed steels is described, in which Curcumine is used as reagent. A separation of boron is not necessary. Limit of detection: 0.0003% B. The decomposition of boron nitride in the steel is achieved by heating the whole sample in fuming sulphuric acid/phosphoric acid. For the emission spectrometric investigation of solid steel samples and for the spectrochemical analysis of solutions with plasma excitation working parameters are given and possibilities of interferences are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  20. Spectrometric gamma radiation of shale cores applied to sweet spot discrimination in Eastern Pomerania, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skupio, Rafal; de Alemar Barberes, Gabriel

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes the application and calculation of hydrocarbon anomalies in two different boreholes located in Eastern Pomerania (northern Poland). Spectrometric data from borehole geophysical probe (borehole 1) and portable gamma logger (borehole 2) were used to analyze shale formations. The results from borehole 1 presented a statistically significant, moderate correlation between calculated hydrocarbon anomalies and hydrocarbon saturation data obtained from well log interpretation. Borehole 2 has been analyzed focusing on the gamma radiation of the core samples, and the positive results of borehole 1. Hydrocarbon anomalies calculated from spectral gamma radiation are reliable indicators of sweet spots, based solely on a cursory evaluation of core measurements. These preliminary information acquired from gamma-ray measurements could help increase sampling precision of further geochemical analysis.

  1. Significance of Airborne Gamma-ray spectrometric data of Umm bisilla Area, central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabie, S I [Nuclear materials authority, Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Umm bisilla area, located in the Central Eastern Desert of Egypt, consists mainly of basement rocks. The present investigation of the airborne spectrometric data is to define the meaningful anomalies from the raw data by applying the significance factor techniques, by calculating the significant radioactive provinces. Determination of the gross structural pattern and broad variations in composition of the crystalline basement, to define the relationships between the tectonic features of the area as interpreted from aeromagnetic data, with the significant anomalies revealed from spectrometric data was carried out through the application of different magnetic techniques. Five significant uraniferous zones were detected associated with Umm Bisilla granite, amphibolite, and grey granite. The intersection of the structural lineaments interpreted from aeromagnetic data illustrated good correlation with the significant uranium anomalous zones interpreted from spectrometric data, and indicated that the concentration is structurally. 15 figs.

  2. Levelling Airborne and Ground Gamma-Ray Spectrometric Data to Assist Uranium Exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matolin, M., E-mail: matolin@natur.cuni.cz [Charles University, Prague (Czech Republic); Minty, B. [Geoscience Australia, Canberra (Australia)

    2014-05-15

    Geophysical methods can be used for mapping in both 2 and 3 dimensions, as well as the direct detection of ore bodies. The gamma-ray spectrometric method is an efficient method for the regional assessment of uranium potential and the detection of surface mineralization. However, the full potential of the method can only be realized when the data are adequately standardized. Examples of this standardization at both regional and local scales are dealt in this paper. At a regional scale, it is shown how the levelling of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry data over Australia increases the value of the resulting data, and on a local scale a geometrical correction for ground gamma-ray spectrometry in shallow holes that improves the accuracy of measurements is introduced. (author)

  3. The application study on the prospecting for gold by car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric method in northern Hebei and other areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongxiang; Liu Tengyao; Zhang Peng; Lu Shili; Zhai Yugui; Ma Yanfang

    1995-01-01

    The prospecting method for gold by car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey is a new geophysical and geochemical technique in the search for concealed gold deposits which can be used to effectively predict the regional gold metallogenetic potential area. The method of car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric survey was adopted and 63416 data at gamma-ray spectrometric measuring sites from rock masses (or strata) in northern Hebei and other areas (49100 km 2 ) are obtained. On the basis of the size of geological bodies, the sliding filtering technique was applied to process the gamma-ray spectrometric data from regional geological bodies and maps showing the parameter distribution characteristics were plotted (11 sheets). In accordance with the thorough on the distribution characteristics of gamma-ray spectrometric parameters that reflect the regional geological environment of gold metallogenesis, a set of gamma-ray spectrometric combination parameters in correlation with regional gold metallogenesis has been established and the characteristic information of gamma-ray spectrometric parameters has been extracted. Combined with geological information, the gold metallogenetic geological environment in the working area was studied, and two potential areas were predicted. After verification, gold mineralization was encountered in some areas. The study results show that the car-borne gamma-ray spectrometric method used for regional gold prospecting is a rapid, economical and effective one

  4. Determination of iodine to compliment mass spectrometric measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, F.A.

    1994-11-01

    The dose of iodine-129 to facility personnel and the general public as a result of past, present, and future activities at DOE sites is of continuing interest, WINCO received about 160 samples annually in a variety of natural matrices, including snow, milk, thyroid tissue, and sagebrush, in which iodine-129 is determined in order to evaluate this dose, Currently, total iodine and the isotopic ratio of iodine-127 to iodine-129 are determined by mass spectrometry. These two measurements determine the concentration of iodine-129 in each sample, These measurements require at least 16 h of mass spectrometer operator time for each sample. A variety of methods are available which concentrate and determine small quantities of iodine. Although useful, these approaches would increase both time and cost. The objective of this effort was to determine total iodine by an alternative method in order to decrease the load on mass spectrometry by 25 to 50%. The preparation of each sample for mass spectrometric analysis involves a common step--collection of iodide on an ion exchange bed. This was the focal point of the effort since the results would be applicable to all samples

  5. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of mineral elements in mammalian bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udoh, Anthony P.

    2000-01-01

    The phosphorus content of the major bones of male and female selected mammals was determined using the yellow vanadomolybdate colorimetric method. For each animal, the bone with the highest phosphorus content was used as pilot sample. Varying concentrations of strontium were added to solutions of the ashed pilot samples to minimize phosphorus interference in the determination of calcium and magnesium using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry operated on the air-acetylene mode. At least 6,000 ppm (0.6%) of strontium was required to give optimum results for calcium. The amount of magnesium obtained from the analysis was not affected by the addition of strontium. With the incorporation of strontium in the sample solution, all elements of interest can be determined in the same sample solution. Based on this, a procedure is proposed for the determination of calcium and other elements in bones. Average recoveries of spiked calcium and magnesium were 97.85% and 98.16%, respectively at the 95% confidence level. The coefficients of variation obtained for replicate determinations using one of the samples were 0.00% for calcium, lead and sodium, 2.93% for magnesium, 3.27% for iron and 3.92% for zinc at the concentration levels found in that sample. Results from the proposed procedure compared well with those from classical chemical methods at the 95% confidence level. It is evident that calcium phosphorus, magnesium and sodium which are the most abundant elements in the bones are distributed in varying amounts both in the different types of bones and different animal species, although the general trend is Ca > P > Na > Mg for each bone considered. The calcium - phosphorus ratio is generally 3:1. The work set out to propose an atomic absorption spectrometric method for the multi-element analysis of mammalian bones with a single sample preparation and to study the distribution pattern of these elements in the bones. (Author)

  6. A Chemical Eight Group Separation Method for Routine Use in Gamma Spectrometric Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K

    1961-04-15

    A method for the separation of chemical elements in 8 groups suitable for gamma spectrometric analysis has been developed. One group of elements is separated by distillation during dissolution of the sample. The other groups are obtained by means of short ion exchange columns coupled in series An anion exchange column saturated with chloride ions separates chloride complexes, peroxides and other anions from a 3-n HCl + 0.3 % H{sub 2}O{sub 2} sample solution. Some of the chloride complexes are eluted with 0.1-n HCl + 0.3 % H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and subsequently adsorbed as cations on a cation exchange column in hydrogen form. A few eluted elements which do not form cations in this case are found in the effluent. Elements passing the anion exchange column in chloride form without adsorption are separated from a H{sub 2}O solution as citrate complexes, hydroxides, cations and hexametaphosphate complexes. This is done by coupling in series two anion exchange columns subsequently in citrate and hydroxide form and followed by a cation exchanger in sodium form. A mixed bed column ends the series. The behaviour in the separation series of most elements forming gamma emitting isotopes with half lives exceeding 10 minutes on irradiation with thermal neutrons has been studied. The method has been used, routinely for one year.

  7. An Attempt to automate the lithological classification of rocks using geological, gamma-spectrometric and satellite image datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouad, M. K.; Mielik, M. L.; Gharieb, A. N.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims essentially at proving that the application of the integrated airborne gamma spectrometric and satellite image data is capable of refining the mapped surface geology, and identification of anomalous zones of radioelement content that could provide favorable exploration targets for radioactive mineralizations.The application of the appropriate statistical technique to correlate between satellite image data and gamma-spectrometric data is of great significance in this respect. Experience shows that Landsat T M data in 7 spectral bands are successfully used in such studies rather than MSS. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques are applied to airborne spectrometric and different spectral Landsat T M data. Reduction of the data from n-dimensionality, both qualitatively as color composite image, and quantitatively, as principal component analysis, is performed using some statistical control parameters. This technique shows distinct efficiency in defining areas where different lit ho facies occur. An area located at the north of the Eastern Desert of Egypt, north of Hurgada town, was chosen to test the proposed technique of integrated interpretation of data of different physical nature. The reduced data are represented and interpreted both qualitatively and quantitatively. The advantages and limitations of applying such technique to the different airborne spectrometric, and Landsat T M data are identified. (authors)

  8. Spectrometric methods for the determination of chlorine in crude oil and petroleum derivatives — A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, Adriana; Saavedra, Alvaro; Tristão, Maria Luiza B.; Mendes, Luiz A.N.; Aucélio, Ricardo Q.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine determination in crude oil is made in order to guarantee that the oil does not contain levels of this element that might cause damages in the oil processing equipment. In petroleum products, the determination of chlorine is made, for instance, to evaluate if there are proper concentrations of organochloride compounds, which are used as additives. Such determinations are currently performed following official guidelines from the ASTM International and from the United States Environmental Protection Agency as well as protocols indicated by the Universal Oil Products. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy plays an important role in many of these official methods. In contrast, other spectrometric methods based on optical and mass detection are plagued by limitations related to both the fundamental characteristics of non-metals and to the complex sample matrices, which reflects in the small number of articles devoted to these applications. In this review, the current status of the spectrometric methods, especially the role played by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, is evaluated in terms of the determination of chlorine in crude oil and petroleum derivatives. Comparison of the performance of the methods, limitations and potential new approaches to ensure proper spectrometric determinations of chlorine is indicated. - Highlights: • Critical evaluation of spectrometric methods for chlorine in petroleum products. • Reviews on element determination in petroleum have not address the case of chlorine. • Peculiarities of the spectrometric determination of Cl in petroleum are discussed. • The spectrometric approaches are detailed and compared to the official methods. • New trends in chlorine determination in petroleum products are indicated

  9. Radiochemical separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of Americium in different matrixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.; Paligoric, D.

    2009-01-01

    A method of separation and alpha-spectrometric determination of americium, developed in VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences is described in the paper. The procedure is convenient to be used for 241 Am determination in environmental matrixes as well as samples of human origin if a very small concentrations are expected, using 243 Am as a tracer for radiochemical yield recovery. (author) [sr

  10. The AS-76 interlaboratory experiment on the alpha spectrometric determination of Pu-238. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyrich, W.; Spannagel, G.

    1979-12-01

    In cooperation with 26 laboratories of 11 countries or international organizations, the Safeguards Project of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center carried out the interlaboratory program AS-76. It focused on the alpha-spectrometric determination of the Pu-238 isotope. The performance of the program as well as the results obtained are described. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  11. Quantification of uncertainty in gamma spectrometric analysis of food and environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yii Mei Wo; Zaharudin Ahmad; Norfaizal Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Gamma Spectrometry is widely used to determine the activity of gamma-ray emitter radionuclide inside a sample. Reporting the activity of the measurement for a sample should not be a single value only but it shall be associated with a reasonable uncertainty value since disintegration of radionuclide is a random/spontaneous process. This paper will focus on how the uncertainty was estimated, quantified and calculated, when measuring the activity of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in food and Ra-226, Ra-228 and K-40 in the environmental samples. (Author)

  12. Gamma-spectrometric and total alpha-beta counting methods for radioactivity analysis of deuterium depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, Ov. S.; Mladin, C.; Vladu, Mihaela; Bulubasa, G.; Bidica, N.

    2008-01-01

    According to national regulations, as well as to the EU directive on the quality of drinking water, the radionuclide concentrations represent some of the drinking water quality parameters. Among the most important radioactivity content parameters are: the total alpha and total beta concentration (Bq/l); K-40 content, and the gamma-nuclides volume activities. The paper presents the measuring methods for low-level total alpha and/or beta counting of volume samples, as well as the high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometric method used to measure the volume activity of nuclides in drinking water. These methods are applied to monitor the radioactivity content and quality of the QLARIVIA brand of Deuterium depleted water (DDW). There are discussed the performances of these applied methods as well as some preliminary results. (authors)

  13. Evaluation of radioactive environmental hazards in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria using airborne spectrometric gamma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne spectrometric gamma data are used in this paper to estimate the degree of radioactive hazard on humanity in Area-3, Northern Palmyrides, Central Syria. Exposure Rate (ER), Absorbed Dose Rate (ADR), Annual Effective Dose Rate (AEDR), and Heat Production (HP) of the eleven radiometric units included in the established lithological scored map in the study area have been computed to evaluate the radiation background influence in humans. The results obtained indicate that a human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. The highest radiogenetic heat production values in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations characterized by relatively high values of uranium and thorium. - Highlights: • Degree of radioactive hazard has been estimated by using airborne spectrometric gamma data. • ER, ADR, AEDR, and HP of the eleven radiometric units have been computed. • Comparison of AEDR of Area-3 with the AEDR of Area-1. • Human body in Area-3 is subjected to radiation hazards in the acceptable limits for long duration exposure. • The highest heat production in Area-3 correspond to the phosphatic locations.

  14. Measurement of fission yields for 232-Th (n,f) at 14,7 MeV by direct gamma spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chouak, K.; Berrada, M.; Embarech, K.

    1994-01-01

    Fission yields for the reaction 232-Th (n,f) were measured at 14,7 MeV using the activation technique with direct gamma spectrometric method. Neutrons were produced via the T(d,n) sup 4 He reaction. The neutron fluences were determined relative to the well-known sup 2 sup 7 Al(n,p) sup 2 sup 7 Mg or sup 2 sup 7 Al(n,alpha) sup 2 sup 4 Na cross section, according to the irradiation time. Yields of fission products were determined by measuring the induced gamma ray activities of the irradiated Th foils, using a calibrated Ge(Li) detector. All necessary corrections were taken into account: self absorption, coincidence losses and natural gamma rays. Fifty six cumulative yields were measured and only twenty one corresponding results were found in the literature (Crouch,1977). A satisfactory agreement is observed between our results and the published data with the exception of the masses:A=134 and A=140. 1 tab., 2 refs. (author)

  15. [Determination of trace cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L X; Ding, B M; Jiang, D; Liu, D Y; Yu, B; Zhu, B L; Ding, L

    2016-05-20

    To establish a method to determine cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine with 2% nitric acid diluted two-fold, to quantify the curve, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Co was linear within 2.5~40.0 ng/ml with r>0.999. Spike experiment showed that Co received good recovery rate, which was 90.8%~94.8%. Intra-assay precisions were 3.2%~5.1% for Co, inter-assay precisions were 4.4%~5.2% for Co. The method by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr to determine urine Co was fast, accurate and with low matrix effect. It could meet the requirement in GBZ/T 210.5-2008.

  16. Gamma spectrometric validation of measurements test of radionuclides in food matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis G.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T.

    2013-01-01

    In a testing laboratory the quality system encompasses a set of activities planned and systematic, which ensure the traceability process of an analysis, which is based on the standards NBR ISO/TEC 17025. With the need for analysis of radionuclides in food products to meet the requirements of import and export, accreditation of testing on this standard becomes increasingly necessary. The Gamma Spectrometry is a technique used for direct determination of radionuclides in different matrices, among them the food, being possible the simultaneous determination of different radionuclides in the same sample without the need for a chemical separation. In the process of Accreditation the methodology validation is an important step that includes testing accuracy, traceability, linearity and recovery. This paper describes the procedures used to validate the assay for determining radionuclides using gamma spectrometry in food. These procedures were performed through analysis of a certificated reference material by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Soil 327), analysis of samples of milk powder prepared from the doping with certified liquid standards also by the results obtained in the participation of tests of proficiency in analysis of environmental samples. (author)

  17. Uranium determination using atomic spectrometric techniques: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Juracir S.; Teixeira, Leonardo S.G.; Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Godoy, Jose M.; Ferreira, Sergio L.C.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the determination of uranium using spectroanalytical techniques that are aimed at total determination such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES); and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) that also enables the determination of uranium isotopes. The advantages and shortcomings related to interferences, precision, accuracy, sample type and equipment employed in the analysis are taken into account, as well as the complexity and costs (i.e., acquisition, operation and maintenance) associated with each of the techniques. Strategies to improve their performance that employ separation and/or preconcentration steps are considered, with an emphasis given to solid-phase extraction because of its advantages compared to other preconcentration procedures.

  18. A contribution of airborne magnetic, gamma ray spectrometric data in understanding the structure of the Central Jebilet Hercynian massif and implications for mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maacha, Lhou; Jaffal, Mohammed; Jarni, Abdelmajid; Kchikach, Azzouz; Mouguina, El Mostafa; Zouhair, Mohamed; Ennaciri, Aomar; Saddiqi, Omar

    2017-10-01

    The Central Jebilet massif, well-known for its mining potential, has been explored for several years by the Managem Group, in collaboration with the National Office of Hydrocarbons and Mines (ONHYM), Morocco. This massif was surveyed by high-resolution magnetic and gamma-ray spectrometric methods in 1997 as part of a broader exploration program. In order to better exploit the results of this survey in understanding the structure of the Central Jebilet massif, we performed a series of processing of the collected data. The qualitative interpretation of this data highlighted the various magnetic domains, structures (e.g., lineaments and faults), and mafic intrusions. Euler deconvolution calculations provided estimates of the spatial location and depth of the magnetic sources, and spectral analysis of the magnetic data allowed further refinement of these depth estimates. Quantitative interpretation of some anomalies associated with exposed gossans allowed the characterization of their causative bodies, inferred to be sulfide deposits. The magnetic character of both the potential massive-sulfide bodies and the basic magmatic rocks (gabbro) were determined by the aeromagnetic data. Gamma ray spectrometric data has helped facilitate lithological discrimination and alteration zones, based on the radio-elemental distribution in the area. For example, the Thorium to Potassium ratio (Th/K) was used to highlight potassic alteration zones associated with massive-sulfide deposits in the Central Jebilet. The combined magnetic and radiometric study reveals the magnetic character of the Central Jebilet gossans, due to the content of pyrrhotite, which along with potassic alterations, has been recognized in all the known deposits of the Marrakech region. The results of this geophysical campaign supplement the existing geological and structural maps of Central Jebilet massif.

  19. A comparison of semiconductor gamma spectrometric analysis using the peak net area calculations and the whole spectrum processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krnac, S.; Koskelo, M.; Venkatamaran, R.

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the results of gamma spectrometric analysis using the Scaling Confirmatory Factor Analysis (SCFA) method to that of Genie2K, which uses a more traditional method. Gamma ray spectra had had been acquired for several gamma standard sources, all of which except Co-57 and Eu-152 being single gamma ray emitting nuclides. These standard sources spanned the energy range from 60 keV (Am-241) to 1116 keV (Zn-65). The standard sources were counted at 3 different geometries at 3 different geometries, with source-detector distances of 0, 5, and 15 cm. Using single gamma ray spectra collected at a given counting geometry, and the certificate file, an efficiency calibration was created for that geometry. Three different test spectra, one for each counting geometry, had been created by combining several of the standard source spectra. The efficiency calibrations created for the 3 geometries were loaded into the respective spectrum files. Each test spectrum was analyzed using the standard Genie2K engines; Peak locate, Peak search, Interactive peak fit, Background subs-traction, Efficiency correction, and Nuclide Identification with interference analysis. The results of the various calculation steps were reported. In all 3 test cases, the SCFA method identified all the nuclides correctly. The K-40 activities calculated by the SCFA method were reasonably close to that from Genie2K analysis. In general, the quantitative results of the SCFA method were impressive in all 3 cases. On a positive note, the SCFA method did identify low yield gamma lines in Eu-152, which were not identified by the Genie2K analysis. This substantiates claim that the SCFA is more sensitive than the traditional method of spectrum analysis. (authors)

  20. Decision Threshold and Detection Limit in Spectrometric Measurements. Part 1: Application to Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, C.; Gasco, C.; Lopez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarised the author's lecture of the advanced gamma spectrometry course organised by CIEMAT. The characteristic limits determination in gamma spectrometry generally is obtained through the programming that the trade marks offers to the client with the objective of the automatic calculation of the activity concentrations existing in a sample. In this report, the examples shown in the ISO 11929 standard are compared to the programming realised by Genie 2k for determining characteristic limits. The main difference of both is located in the uncertainty calculations due to the efficiency calibration that is considered by ISO and not by Genie 2K. Through implementation in the software developed by trade marks will be possible to introduce this uncertainty and to assimilate to the calculation done by ISO 11929. In the second part of this report will be analyzed the more complicated samples of this application as counting in a whole body counter (following ISO-28218 about Performance Criteria for radio bioassay), multiplet, overlapping, addition of several peaks for obtaining the activity concentration, etc. (Author) 19 refs.

  1. Mass-spectrometric determination in individual coated HTR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigl, A.

    1976-11-01

    A method is described which allows the simultaneous determination of fission and reaction gases in individual coated particles at temperatures up to 2000 0 C. The particles are heated under high-vacuum in a micro resistance-furnace up to the desired temperature. After preselected times the particles are crushed by action of a pneumatic cylinder. The gases liberated are fed into a quadrupoleanalyzer where they are analyzed in a dynamic mode. A peak selector allows the simultaneous measurement of up to four gases. The method is used routinely for the determination of fission gases (Kr and Xe) and of carbon monoxide which is formed as a reaction gas from oxide fuel. Precision and accuracy are in the order of a few percent. Detection limits for routine measurements are about 10 -7 cm 3 (STP) for KR and Xe and 2 x 10 -5 cm 3 (STP) for CO but can be lowered by special techniques. (author)

  2. Application of airborne gamma spectrometric survey data to estimating terrestrial gamma-ray dose rates: An example in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Revzan, K.L.; Smith, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    The authors examine the applicability of radioelement data from the National Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance (NARR) to estimate terrestrial gamma-ray absorbed dose rates, by comparing dose rates calculated from aeroradiometric surveys of U, Th, and K concentrations in 1 x 2 degree quadrangles with dose rates calculated from a radiogeologic data base and the distribution of lithologies in California. Gamma-ray dose rates increase generally from north to south following lithological trends. Low values of 25--30 nG/h occur in the northernmost quadrangles where low-radioactivity basaltic and ultramafic rocks predominate. Dose rates then increase southward due to the preponderance of clastic sediments and basic volcanics of the Franciscan Formation and Sierran metamorphics in north central and central California, and to increasing exposure southward of the Sierra Nevada batholith, Tertiary marine sedimentary rocks, intermediate to acidic volcanics, and granitic rocks of the Coast Ranges. High values, to 100 nGy/h occur in southeastern California, due primarily to the presence of high-radioactivity Precambrian and pre Cenozoic metamorphic rocks. Lithologic-based estimates of mean dose rates in the quadrangles generally match those from aeroradiometric data, with statewide means of 63 and 60 nGy/h, respectively. These are intermediate between a population-weighted global average of 51 nGy/h and a weighted continental average of 70 nGy/h, based on the global distribution of rock types. The concurrence of lithologically- and aeroradiometrically- determined dose rates in California, with its varied geology and topography encompassing settings representative of the continents, indicates that the NARR data are applicable to estimates of terrestrial absorbed dose rates from natural gamma emitters

  3. Processing of data issued from a {gamma} spectrometer; Traitement des informations issues d'un spectrometre {gamma}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    The purpose of the following report is the study of computation method applied to analysis by gamma spectrometry. We first study quantitative analysis by the least-squares method, improved by a gain-shift correction. Then the single full-energy peaks and the resolution of complex peaks are dealt with. In both cases, the calculation principle, then the systematic tests achieved in order to-prove their validity and determine their application ranges are described and finally some experimental results appropriate to illustrate their possibilities are presented. (author) [French] Le present rapport a pour objet l'etude de methodes de calcul applicables a l'analyse par spectrometrie gamma. On etudie d'abord l'analyse quantitative par la methode des moindres carres, completee par une correction de derive du gain. Puis on examine les pics d'absorption totale simples et la resolution des pics complexes. Dans les deux cas, on expose le principe des calculs et les essais systematiques effectues pour eprouver leur validite et definir leurs domaines d'application, ainsi que quelques resultats experimentaux propres a illustrer leurs possibilites.

  4. Determination of trace quantities of uranium in rocks mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, Mauricio Hiromitu

    1980-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation on the thermionic emission of uranium deposited on a single flat type rhenium filament has been carried out. The study was aimed at determining the influence of various forms of deposition on the emission sensitivity and thermal stability of U + , UO + and UO 2 + ions. Based on these investigations, a technique, involving an addition of a small quantity of colloidal suspension of graphite on top of the uranyl nitrate sample deposited, was chosen because of its higher, emission sensitivity for uranium metal ions. The experimental parameters of the technique were optimised and the technique was employed in the determination of trace quantities of uranium in rock samples using mass spectrometric isotope dilution method. For the mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis National Bureau of Standards uranium isotopic standard NBS-U 970 was employed as a tracer, where as the mass discrimination effect in the uranium isotope analysis was corrected using the uranium isotopic standard NBS-U500. Uranium was determined in each of the seven granite samples from Wyoming, USA and two USGS standard rocks. The precision of the analysis was found to be ±1% . The uranium values obtained on the rock samples were compared with the analyses of other investigators. Influence of the sample splitting on the uranium analysis was discussed in the light of the analytical results obtained.(author)

  5. Analysis of cows' milk in the content of radioactive cs137 gamma-spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagidulin, Z.Z.; Isayev, R.Sh.; Guseynova, I.A.

    2010-01-01

    Full text : The most intense pollution of the environment Cs137 (after the ban of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests), was the result of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The consequence of this accident was the accumulation of large amounts of Cs-137 in the atmosphere, which was the source of the global fallout of this isotope in the Earth's surface, including the territory of Azerbaijan. When considering livestock as one of the links of contamination by radioactive substances in food chains should be recognized that the main risk associated with the accumulation of radioactive Cs137 in the soil, plants and animal products originating ultimately in the human diet. The aim of this study was to determine the radioactive Cs137 in cow's milk. Subsequent samples of milk were purchased in stores and have been measured in the native form. Pal Sud milk produced in Azerbaijan. On Health - Russia. Savushkin product - Belarus. As a radiometric measurement setup Cs137 in cow's milk was used semiconductor gamma-ray spectrometer with a detection unit based on the detection of high-purity germanium (manufactured by Canberra) in the lead shielding.

  6. Determination of plutonium-241 half-life by mass spectrometric measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiyama, Takashi; Wada, Yukio; Onishi, Koichi

    1982-01-01

    Much data for Pu-241 half-life have been reported, but these values range from 13.8 years to 15.1 years depending on investigators. In order to define the half-life of Pu-241, the half-life was calculated by analyzing the mass spectrometry data obtained in the author's laboratory over the past six years on Plutonium Isotopic Standard Reference Materials prepared at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS). The sample used for this work consisted of SRM-947 and SRM-948 prepared at NBS. Before mass spectrometric analysis, the plutonium aliquot was separated from its Am-241 daughter by anion exchange chromatography, since Am-241 is not distinguished from Pu-241 in the mass spectrometer. 241 Pu/ 239 Pu and 241 Pu/ 240 Pu ratios were calculated from the values of mass spectrometric measurement. From the relation of log N to time, the half-life of Pu-241 was determined, based on the slope using a least squares fit. The half-life of Pu-241 was estimated to be 14.29+-0.15 years. (Yoshitake, I.)

  7. Automation of a gamma spectrometric analysis method for naturally occuring radionuclides in different materials (NORM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzocchi, Olaf

    2009-06-01

    This work presents an improvement over the standard analysis routine used in the Physikalisches Messlabor to detect gamma peaks in spectra from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). The new routine introduces the use of custom libraries of known gamma peaks, in order to ease the work of the software than can therefore detect more peaks. As final result, the user performing the analysis has less chances of making errors and can also analyse more spectra in the same amount of time. A new software, with an optimised interface able to further enhance the productivity of the user, is developed and validated. (orig.)

  8. Autonomous long-term gamma-spectrometric monitoring of submarine groundwater discharge trends in Hawaii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulai, Henrietta; Waters, Ch.A.; Kennedy, Joseph; Kamenik, Jan; Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez; Babinec, James; Jolly, James; Williamson, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We developed a fully autonomous underwater gamma-spectrometer for long-term coastal submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) monitoring. The instrument represents a significant improvement over previous submarine gamma-spectrometers in that it is very robust, has high sensitivity allowing high temporal resolution, and is completely autonomous. Here we describe the technical parameters of the new instrument as well as data collected over its 9-month deployment in Kiholo Bay, HI, USA. We also present methods to convert the measured activities to SGD rates. In Kiholo Bay, the derived SGD matched previous estimates but in addition it revealed previously undocumented short- and long-term patterns in SGD. (author)

  9. Determination of radium isotopes by BaSO4 coprecipitation for the preparation of alpha-spectrometric sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Fernandez, F.; Gomez, J.M.G.

    1997-01-01

    A coprecipitation procedure for the preparation of α-spectrometric sources for radium, using BaSO 4 as carrier, has been applied to the determination of alpha radium isotopes in water samples. The use of 133 Ba as a suitable tracer for radium determination and possible losses of radon isotopes from the sources are studied and discussed. (author)

  10. In-situ high-resolution gamma-spectrometric survey of burial ground-monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1981-09-01

    In situ high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry with an intrinsic germanium detector assembly of special design surveyed the burial ground monitoring wells to locate and identify gamma emitters that may have migrated from the burial trenches toward the water table. Gamma-ray spectra were acquired as a function of depth in each well and recorded on magnetic tape. These spectra were reduced by a series of computer programs to produce count rate versus depth profiles for natural and man-made activities. The original spectra and the profiles have been archived on magnetic tape for comparison with similar future surveys. Large amounts of man-made activities were observed in some of the burial trenches; however, below the trench bottoms, only very low but detectable amounts of 60 Co and 137 Cs were observed in eleven wells. The highest level of man-made gamma activity observed below the trench bottoms has a count rate roughly equal to that observed for uranium daughter activities which are natural to the subsoil

  11. Reduction of beta-interference in gamma-spectrometric measurements of neutron-irradiated geological material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garmann, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    The analytical technique for INAA, when applied to geological materials, is improved by introducing an electromagnetic field between sample and detector. This field lowers the bremsstrahlung background intensity in the gamma-spectrum by reducing the number of beta-particles reaching the detector. Thus precision, accuracy and lower detection limit are improved. The technique was used on alkalisyenite and on meteoritic material, rocks containing high quantities of sodium and iron, respectively. After neutron irradiation, the induced nuclides sup(24)Na and sup(59)Fe are responsible for high bremsstrahlung interference, which under normal analyitical conditions would mask any x-ray or gamma-ray peaks of interest. The technique is easily applied to multielement analysis of geological and biological materials. It can be combined with sophisticated spectrum-treating techniques such as spectrum stripping and spectrum smoothing, or coincidence-anticoincidence circuits. (author)

  12. Airborne gamma spectrometric survey in the Chernobyl exclusion zone based on oktokopter UAV type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabulonov, Yu.L.; Burtnyak, V.M.; Zolkin, I.O.

    2015-01-01

    The results of field studies of radioactive contamination condition of RWTSP ''Red Forest'' and ''Neftebaza'' in the Chernobyl zone, obtained by the authors in June 2015 are represented. The technique of detection of local inhomogeneities on the soil surface without contrasting borders by airborne gamma spectrometry from the board of oktokopter UAV type is worked through. The technique of searching and contouring of hidden burial of radioactive waste is practiced

  13. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H.

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here

  14. Gas Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric Determination of Myo-inositol in Humans Utilizing a Deuterated Internal Standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jan Rud; Larsen, Elfinn; Harbo, Helge

    1982-01-01

    The isotopic dilution technique was used for determining the content of myo-inositol in human urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocyte samples. A deuterated myo-inositol, synthesized from inosose-2 by base-catalysed exchange of hydrogens by deuterium, followed by reduction of the inosose with 2H2......, was added as internal standard to the samples at an early stage in the analytical procedure. After separation and derivatization to the hexa-acetate, the gas chromatographic mass spectrometric analysis was carried out. A 25 m fused silica capillary column coated with methyl silicone was used, and the ions...... selected for monitoring were m/z 210 and m/z 214, which are characteristic and abundant fragment ions from unlabelled and hexadeuterated myo-inositolhexa-acetate, respectively. Calibration curves from water, urine, plasma and haemolysed erythrocytes show parallel, linear responses in the ratio between...

  15. Separation Techniques for Uranium and Plutonium at Trace Levels for the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, M. Y.; Han, S. H.; Kim, J. G.; Park, Y. J.; Kim, W. H

    2005-12-15

    This report describes the state of the art and the progress of the chemical separation and purification techniques required for the thermal ionization mass spectrometric determination of uranium and plutonium in environmental samples at trace or ultratrace levels. Various techniques, such as precipitation, solvent extraction, extraction chromatography, and ion exchange chromatography, for separation of uranium and plutonium were evaluated. Sample preparation methods and dissolution techniques for environmental samples were also discussed. Especially, both extraction chromatographic and anion exchange chromatographic procedures for uranium and plutonium in environmental samples, such as soil, sediment, plant, seawater, urine, and bone ash were reviewed in detail in order to propose some suitable methods for the separation and purification of uranium and plutonium from the safeguards environmental or swipe samples. A survey of the IAEA strengthened safeguards system, the clean room facility of IAEA's NWAL(Network of Analytical Laboratories), and the analytical techniques for safeguards environmental samples was also discussed here.

  16. Determination of isotope fractionation effect using a double spike (242Pu+240Pu) during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitambar, S.A.; Parab, A.R.; Khodade, P.S.; Jain, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope fractionation effect during the mass spectrometric analysis of plutonium has been investigated using a double spike ( 242 Pu+ 240 Pu) and the determination of concentration of plutonium in dissolver solution of irradiated fuel is reported. (author). 6 refs., 2 tables

  17. A new code for spectrometric analysis for environmental radiological surveillance on monitors focused on gamma radioactivity on aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Blas, Alfredo; Tapia, Carlos; Riego, Albert; Garcia, Roger; Dies, Javier; Diaz, Pedro [Nuclear Engineering Research Group, Departament of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Technical University of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain); Toral, Juan [Raditel Serveis, Tarragona (Spain); Batalla, Enric [Radiological Activities Corrdination Service - SCAR, Generalitat de Catalunya. Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-07-01

    pGamma is a code developed by the NERG group of the Technical University of Catalonia - Barcelona Tech for the analysis of gamma spectra generated by the Equipment for the Continuous Measurement and Identification of Gamma Radioactivity on Aerosols with Paper Filter developed for our group and Raditel Servies company. Nowadays the code is in the process of adaptation for the monitors of the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network of the Local Government of Catalonia (Generalitat of Catalonia), Spain. The code is a Spectrum Analysis System, it identifies the gamma emitters on the spectrum, determines its Concentration of Activity, generates alarms depending on the Activity of the emitters and generates a report. The Spectrum Analysis System includes a library with emitters of interest, NORM and artificial. The code is being used on the three stations with the aerosol monitor of the Network (Asco and Vandellos, near both Nuclear Power Plants and Barcelona). (authors)

  18. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-04-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of (238)U, (232)Th, (137)Cs and (40)K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K activities range 24-231, 20-70, and 242-1434 Bq kg(-1) respectively. The geographic distribution of (238)U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of (238)U than of (232)Th. The (238)U activities become lower than (232)Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. (137)Cs activity ranges 0.4-86.8 kBq m(-2). The lowest activity of (137)Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The (137)Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to (137)Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectrometric gamma investigations concerning zinc-lead ores and the products of their processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girczys, J.; Skowronek, J.; Zrodlowski, B.

    1983-01-01

    Zinc-lead ore and products of its enrichment were investigated using gamma spectrometry for the content of uranium, thorium and potassium 40. It was stated that the mean content of these elements in a deposit does not diverge from their mean concentration in the lithosphere. They also accompany the surrounding rocks. As a result of mechanical processing of this ore radionuclides pass discards in which they do not form concentrations dangerous for life, either. In the exploitation areas and in the surroundings there is no state of ecological hazard. (author)

  20. Gamma-spectrometry method of phosphorus determination in representative samples and boreholes. A methodical handbook. Gamma-spektrometricheskij metod opredeleniya sodezhaniya fosfora v predstavitel'nykh probakh i skvazhinakh. Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lejpunskaya, D I; Rudyk, Yu M; Mitryushin, A M [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Geofiziki i Geokhimii, Moscow (USSR)

    1975-01-01

    In this methods handbook a radiometric method using gamma spectrometric measurements of natural radioactivity (U, Ra) for determining the P content of phosphorites is presented. Serial apparatus is described and recommendations ar given for improving it. Examples of the use of the method on samples and in boreholes are given.

  1. Gamma-spectrometric measurement of radioactivity in agricultural soils of the Lombardia region, northern Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidotti, Laura; Carini, Franca; Rossi, Riccardo; Gatti, Marina; Cenci, Roberto M.; Beone, Gian Maria

    2015-01-01

    This work is part of a wider monitoring project of the agricultural soils in Lombardia, which aims to build a database of topsoil properties and the potentially toxic elements, organic pollutants and gamma emitting radionuclides that the topsoils contain. A total of 156 agricultural soils were sampled according to the LUCAS (Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey) standard procedure. The aim was to provide a baseline to document the conditions present at the time of sampling. The results of the project concerning soil radioactivity are presented here. The aim was to assess the content of 238 U, 232 Th, 137 Cs and 40 K by measuring soil samples by gamma spectrometry. 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K activities range 24–231, 20–70, and 242–1434 Bq kg −1 respectively. The geographic distribution of 238 U reflects the geophysical framework of the Lombardia region: the soils with high content of uranium are distributed for the most part in the South Alpine belt, where the presence of magmatic rocks is widespread. These soils show an higher activity of 238 U than of 232 Th. The 238 U activities become lower than 232 Th when soils are located in the plain, originating from basic sedimentary rocks. 137 Cs activity ranges 0.4–86.8 kBq m −2 . The lowest activity of 137 Cs is in the plain, whereas the highest is in the North on soils kept as lawn or pasture. The 137 Cs activity of some samples suggests the presence of accumulation processes that lead to 137 Cs enriched soils. This is the first survey of gamma emitting radionuclides in Lombardia that is based on the LUCAS standard sampling. The results from this monitoring campaign are important for the human radiation exposure and provide the zero point, which will be useful for assessing future effects due to external factors such as human activities. - Highlights: • A monitoring campaign of agricultural soils was carried out in Lombardia, Italy. • 156 topsoils were sampled according to the European standard

  2. On the accuracy of gamma spectrometric isotope ratio measurements of uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebäck, H., E-mail: henrik.ramebeck@foi.se [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umeå (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Lagerkvist, P.; Holmgren, S.; Jonsson, S.; Sandström, B.; Tovedal, A. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umeå (Sweden); Vesterlund, A. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, CBRN Defence and Security, SE-901 82 Umeå (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Vidmar, T. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Kastlander, J. [Swedish Defence Research Agency, FOI, Defence and Security, Systems and Technology, SE-164 90 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-04-11

    The isotopic composition of uranium was measured using high resolution gamma spectrometry. Two acid solutions and two samples in the form of UO{sub 2} pellets were measured. The measurements were done in close geometries, i.e. directly on the endcap of the high purity germanium detector (HPGe). Applying no corrections for count losses due to true coincidence summing (TCS) resulted in up to about 40% deviation in the abundance of {sup 235}U from the results obtained with mass spectrometry. However, after correction for TCS, excellent agreement was achieved between the results obtained using two different measurement methods, or a certified value. Moreover, after corrections, the fitted relative response curves correlated excellently with simulated responses, for the different geometries, of the HPGe detector.

  3. Determination of deuterium in metal by vacuum fusion-mass spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yukio; Akiyama, Shigeo; Ochiai, Ken-ichi; Asakura, Toshiro; Tsutsumi, Ken-ichi

    1976-01-01

    A specimen of deuterium-enriched Zircaloy was prepared to study a method for the determination of deuterium in metal. The measuring apparatus consists of vacuum fusion section (10 -5 -10 -4 Torr), gas extracting and collecting section, the section of introducing both standard D 2 and HD gases into a gas holder, and mass spectrometric analysis section. The deuterium in Zircaloy can be extracted by 100% for 5 min. at 1600 0 C. The main components of the extracted gas are H 2 , D 2 , HD, CO, H 2 O and N 2 . Deuterium is determined by the calculation from the determinations of D 2 and HD. The amounts of D 2 and HD gases in the specimen were obtained from the calibration curve prepared and the spectrum intensity of D 2 + and HD + resulted from specimen analysis. As a result of the analysis of D 2 -enriched Zircaloy, it has been found that the precision of the determination is within the coefficient variation of about 3% for the extracted D 2 gas amount of 10 -3 -10 -2 ml (STP), including the deuterium segregation in the specimen, and the determination limit was 1 x 10 -5 ml (STP). (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometric method is described for the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in geological materials. The sample is digested with HF-HCl-H2O2; the final solution for analysis is in 10 % (v/v) HCl. Copper and zinc are determined directly by aspirating the solution into an air-acetylene flame. A separate aliquot of the solution is used for determination of lead; lead is extracted into TOPO-MIBK from the acidic solution in the presence of iodide and ascorbic acid. For a 0.50-g sample, the limits of determination are 10-2000 p.p.m. for Cu and Zn, and 5-5000 p.p.m. for Pb. As much as 40 % Fe or Ca. and 10 % Al, Mg, or Mn in the sample do not interfere. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of copper, zinc, and lead in a wide range of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, calcareous and carbonate samples. ?? 1976.

  5. Review of procedures involving separation and preconcentration for the determination of cadmium using spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Sergio L.C.; Andrade, Jailson B. de; Korn, Maria das Gracas A.; Pereira, Madson de G.; Lemos, Valfredo A.; Santos, Walter N.L. dos; Rodrigues, Frederico de Medeiros; Souza, Anderson S.; Ferreira, Hadla S.; Silva, Erik G.P. da

    2007-01-01

    Spectrometric techniques for the analysis of trace cadmium have developed rapidly due to the increasing need for accurate measurements at extremely low levels of this element in diverse matrices. This review covers separation and preconcentration procedures, such as electrochemical deposition, precipitation, coprecipitation, solid phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and cloud point extraction (CPE), and consider the features of the their application with several spectrometric techniques

  6. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. I: a review of the method and of the geochemical behavior of K, Th and U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo

    2009-01-01

    This contribution is part of a research project on the Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), cropping out in the Ponta Grossa Arch (Parana state, SE Brazil). An initial study used the gamma-spectrometric data of the Serra do Mar Sul Aero geophysical Project, performed during the 70's for CPRM. Later, terrestrial gamma-spectrometric surveys focused on the study of the differentiated Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG) in the NW corner of CGC, and the Serra do Carambei Granite, to the SW. In this paper, the results obtained for JMG are presented in two parts. The first deals with methodology and the presentation of several gamma-spectrometric 'color-scale' maps, indicating that results obtained in granites depend strongly on a climatic factor, given the mobility of K during weathering in subtropical climates with strong rainfalls, also favoring a greater mobility of U. Minerals that are U and Th hosts, documented in granites, are reviewed, together with the weathering processes that control the mobility of K, U and Th in soils. Strong K signals in granitic areas submitted to these climates document the presence of fresh rock and/or effects of hydrothermal alteration, while weak or nil signals are evidence of strong leaching of K during weathering. U and Th will be retained in the residual soils, in part leading to their selective enrichment, also coupled with soil migration to lower topographic levels by colluvial transport. The larger solubility of U (as uranyl ion) allows its liberation under oxidizing conditions, and its migration, limited by the possibility of absorption in newly formed mineral and organic soil phases. Th should be retained almost totally in resistant phases and, when liberated in solution, will mostly be fixed in organic and inorganic soil substances. (author)

  7. Column preconcentration and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of rhodium in some food and standard samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taher, Mohammad Ali; Pourmohammad, Fatemeh; Fazelirad, Hamid

    2015-12-01

    In the present work, an electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric method has been developed for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of rhodium after adsorption of its 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol/tetraphenylborate ion associated complex at the surface of alumina. Several factors affecting the extraction efficiency such as the pH, type of eluent, sample and eluent flow rates, sorption capacity of alumina and sample volume were investigated and optimized. The relative standard deviation for eight measurements of 0.1 ng/mL of rhodium was ±6.3%. In this method, the detection limit was 0.003 ng/mL in the original solution. The sorption capacity of alumina and the linear range for Rh(III) were evaluated as 0.8 mg/g and 0.015-0.45 ng/mL in the original solution, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the extraction and determination of rhodium content in some food and standard samples with high recovery values. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Axial and Diametral Scanning Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H; Ronqvist, N

    1967-02-15

    In the gamma spectrometric determination of burn-up the use of a single fission product as a monitor of the specimen fission rate is subject to errors caused by activity saturation or, in certain cases, fission product migration. Results are presented of experiments in which all the resolvable gamma peaks in the fission product spectrum have been used to calculate the fission rate; these results form a pattern which reflect errors in the literature values of the gamma branching ratios, fission yields etc., and also represent a series of empirical correction factors. Axial and diametral scanning experiments on a long-irradiated low-enrichment fuel element are also described and demonstrate that it is possible to differentiate between fissions in U-235 and in Pu-239 respectively by means of the ratios of the Ru-106 activity to the activities of the other fission products.

  9. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of carbon isotope composition in unpurified samples: methamphetamine example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, I A; Liu, R H; Legendre, M G; Piotrowski, E G; Furner, R L

    1986-10-01

    A gas chromatograph/quadrupole mass spectrometer system, operated in electron impact/selected ion monitoring mode, is used to determine the intensity ratio of the m/z 59 and the m/z 58 ions of the [C3H8N]+ fragment derived from methamphetamine samples synthesized with varying amounts of 13C-labeled methylamine. Crude products are introduced into the gas chromatograph without prior cleanup. The ratios measured were in excellent agreement with those calculated. A change in 0.25% use of 13C-methylamine is sufficient for product differentiation. The feasibility of using isotope labeling and subsequent mass spectrometric isotope ratio measurement as the basis of a compound tracing mechanism is discussed. Specifically, if methamphetamine samples manufactured from legal sources are asked to incorporate distinct 13C compositions, their sources can be traced when samples are diverted into illegal channels. Samples derived from illicit preparations can also be traced if the manufacturers of a precursor (methylamine in this case) incorporate distinct 13C compositions in their products.

  10. Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric determination of patulin in apple juice using atmospheric pressure photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Masahiko; Daishima, Shigeki; Nakahara, Taketoshi

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a comparison between atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and the recently introduced atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) technique for the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric (LC/MS) determination of patulin in clear apple juice. A column switching technique for on-line extraction of clear apple juice was developed. The parameters investigated for the optimization of APPI were the ion source parameters fragmentor voltage, capillary voltage, and vaporizer temperature, and also mobile phase composition and flow rate. Furthermore, chemical noise and signal suppression of analyte signals due to sample matrix interference were investigated for both APCI and APPI. The results indicated that APPI provides lower chemical noise and signal suppression in comparison with APCI. The linear range for patulin in apple juice (correlation coefficient >0.999) was 0.2-100 ng mL(-1). Mean recoveries of patulin in three apple juices ranged from 94.5 to 103.2%, and the limit of detection (S/N = 3), repeatability and reproducibility were 1.03-1.50 ng mL(-1), 3.9-5.1% and 7.3-8.2%, respectively. The total analysis time was 10.0 min. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparison of accelerator mass spectrometric measurement with liquid scintillation counting measurement for the determination of 14C in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuike, Kaeko; Yamada, Yoshimune; Amano, Hikaru

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of organically-bound 14 C in tree-ring cellulose of a Japanese Black Pine grown in Shika-machi (37.0 deg. N, 136.8 deg. E) and those of a Japanese Cedar grown in Kanazawa (36.5 deg. N, 136.7 deg. E), Japan, were analyzed for the ring-years from 1989 to 1998 by the accelerator mass spectrometric measurement. The results were compared with those of the same samples analyzed by the liquid scintillation counting measurement to determine the reliability of liquid scintillation counting measurement. An important result of this study is that the sensitivity and reproducibility of accelerator mass spectrometric measurement was almost equal to that of liquid scintillation counting measurement.

  12. Continuous flow hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination and speciation of arsenic in wine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadjova, Irina B. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, 1 James Bourchier Blvd., Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria); Lampugnani, Leonardo [C.N.R. Istituto per i processi chimico-fisici, Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)]. E-mail: lampugnani@ipcf.cnr.it; Onor, Massimo [C.N.R. Istituto per i processi chimico-fisici, Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); D' Ulivo, Alessandro [C.N.R. Istituto per i processi chimico-fisici, Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Tsalev, Dimiter L. [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Sofia, 1 James Bourchier Blvd., Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2005-07-15

    Methods for the atomic fluorescence spectrometric (AFS) determination of total arsenic and arsenic species in wines based on continuous flow hydride generation (HG) with atomization in miniature diffusion flame (MDF) are described. For hydride-forming arsenic, L-cysteine is used as reagent for pre-reduction and complexation of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate. Concentrations of hydrochloric acid and tetrahydroborate are optimized in order to minimize interference by ethanol. Procedure permits determination of the sum of these four species in 5-10-fold diluted samples with limit of detection (LOD) 0.3 and 0.6 {mu}g l{sup -1} As in white and red wines, respectively, with precision between 2% and 8% RSD at As levels within 0.5-10 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Selective arsine generation from different reaction media is used for non-chromatographic determination of arsenic species in wines: citrate buffer at pH 5.1 for As(III); 0.2 mol l{sup -1} acetic acid for arsenite + dimethylarsinate (DMA); 8 mol l{sup -1} HCl for total inorganic arsenic [As(III) + As(V)]; and monomethylarsonate (MMA) calculated by difference. Calibration with aqueous and ethanol-matched standard solutions of As(III) is used for 10- and 5-fold diluted samples, respectively. The LODs are 0.4 {mu}g l{sup -1} for As(III) and 0.3 {mu}g l{sup -1} for the other three As species and precision is within 4-8% RSDs. Arsenic species in wine were also determined by coupling of ion chromatographic separation on an anion exchange column and HG-flame AFS detection. Methods were validated by means of recovery studies and comparative analyses by HG-AFS and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The LODs were 0.12, 0.27, 0.15 and 0.13 {mu}g l{sup -1} (as As) and RSDs were 2-6%, 5-9%, 3-7% and 2-5% for As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA arsenic species, respectively. Bottled red and white wines from Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia and Italy were analyzed by non

  13. Continuous flow hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination and speciation of arsenic in wine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadjova, Irina B.; Lampugnani, Leonardo; Onor, Massimo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Tsalev, Dimiter L.

    2005-01-01

    Methods for the atomic fluorescence spectrometric (AFS) determination of total arsenic and arsenic species in wines based on continuous flow hydride generation (HG) with atomization in miniature diffusion flame (MDF) are described. For hydride-forming arsenic, L-cysteine is used as reagent for pre-reduction and complexation of arsenite, arsenate, monomethylarsonate and dimethylarsinate. Concentrations of hydrochloric acid and tetrahydroborate are optimized in order to minimize interference by ethanol. Procedure permits determination of the sum of these four species in 5-10-fold diluted samples with limit of detection (LOD) 0.3 and 0.6 μg l -1 As in white and red wines, respectively, with precision between 2% and 8% RSD at As levels within 0.5-10 μg l -1 . Selective arsine generation from different reaction media is used for non-chromatographic determination of arsenic species in wines: citrate buffer at pH 5.1 for As(III); 0.2 mol l -1 acetic acid for arsenite + dimethylarsinate (DMA); 8 mol l -1 HCl for total inorganic arsenic [As(III) + As(V)]; and monomethylarsonate (MMA) calculated by difference. Calibration with aqueous and ethanol-matched standard solutions of As(III) is used for 10- and 5-fold diluted samples, respectively. The LODs are 0.4 μg l -1 for As(III) and 0.3 μg l -1 for the other three As species and precision is within 4-8% RSDs. Arsenic species in wine were also determined by coupling of ion chromatographic separation on an anion exchange column and HG-flame AFS detection. Methods were validated by means of recovery studies and comparative analyses by HG-AFS and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The LODs were 0.12, 0.27, 0.15 and 0.13 μg l -1 (as As) and RSDs were 2-6%, 5-9%, 3-7% and 2-5% for As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA arsenic species, respectively. Bottled red and white wines from Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia and Italy were analyzed by non-chromatographic and chromatographic procedures and the As

  14. Determination of the hydraulic conductivity in column of undeformed soil by gamma rays transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson C.; Cavalcante, Fabio H.M.; Portezan Filho, Otavio; Coimbra, Melayne M.; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The water infiltration process in undeformed soil column and the measurement of redistribution process by gamma rays transmission in different depth allow the determination of Hydraulic Conductivity K(Θ) function, using the Sisson et al. (1980) method. A LRd (dystrophic dark red soil) soil column with 60 cm of height, 10 cm of width and 5 cm of thickness, was analyzed in laboratory, reproducing the field conditions concerning to the water infiltration and redistribution in the soil. The soil moisture content data was obtained with a radioactivity source 241 Am (100 mCi; 59,6 keV), NaI (Tl) 2x2 detector, coupled to an gamma rays spectrometric electronic chain and a measurement table that allowed the vertical displacement of the soil column. The results indicate a growing behavior for K(Θ) in relation to the depth. The collimators had 2 mm and 5 mm diameter for radioactivity source and detector respectively. (author)

  15. Carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction sorbents prior to atomic spectrometric determination of metal species: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero Latorre, C., E-mail: carlos.herrero@usc.es [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Alfonso X el Sabio s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Alvarez Mendez, J.; Barciela Garcia, J.; Garcia Martin, S.; Pena Crecente, R.M. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Alfonso X el Sabio s/n, 27002 Lugo (Spain)

    2012-10-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of CNTs as sorbent for metal species in solid phase extraction has been described. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physical and chemical strategies for functionalization of carbon nanotubes have been discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Published analytical methods concerning solid phase extraction and atomic spectrometric determination have been reviewed. - Abstract: New materials have significant impact on the development of new methods and instrumentation for chemical analysis. From the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes - due to their high adsorption and desorption capacities - have been employed as sorption substrates in solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of metal species from diverse matrices. Looking for successive improvements in sensitivity and selectivity, in the past few years, carbon nanotubes have been utilized as sorbents for solid phase extraction in three different ways: like as-grown, oxidized and functionalized nanotubes. In the present paper, an overview of the recent trends in the use of carbon nanotubes for solid phase extraction of metal species in environmental, biological and food samples is presented. The determination procedures involved the adsorption of metals on the nanotube surface, their quantitative desorption and subsequent measurement by means of atomic spectrometric techniques such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, among others. Synthesis, purification and types of carbon nanotubes, as well as the diverse chemical and physical strategies for their functionalization are described. Based on 140 references, the performance and general properties of the applications of solid phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for metal species atomic spectrometric determination are discussed.

  16. Carbon nanotubes as solid-phase extraction sorbents prior to atomic spectrometric determination of metal species: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero Latorre, C.; Álvarez Méndez, J.; Barciela García, J.; García Martín, S.; Peña Crecente, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The use of CNTs as sorbent for metal species in solid phase extraction has been described. ► Physical and chemical strategies for functionalization of carbon nanotubes have been discussed. ► Published analytical methods concerning solid phase extraction and atomic spectrometric determination have been reviewed. - Abstract: New materials have significant impact on the development of new methods and instrumentation for chemical analysis. From the discovery of carbon nanotubes in 1991, single and multi-walled carbon nanotubes – due to their high adsorption and desorption capacities – have been employed as sorption substrates in solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of metal species from diverse matrices. Looking for successive improvements in sensitivity and selectivity, in the past few years, carbon nanotubes have been utilized as sorbents for solid phase extraction in three different ways: like as-grown, oxidized and functionalized nanotubes. In the present paper, an overview of the recent trends in the use of carbon nanotubes for solid phase extraction of metal species in environmental, biological and food samples is presented. The determination procedures involved the adsorption of metals on the nanotube surface, their quantitative desorption and subsequent measurement by means of atomic spectrometric techniques such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry/mass spectrometry, among others. Synthesis, purification and types of carbon nanotubes, as well as the diverse chemical and physical strategies for their functionalization are described. Based on 140 references, the performance and general properties of the applications of solid phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for metal species atomic spectrometric determination are discussed.

  17. Application of instrumental neutron activation analysis of uranium in burn-up measurements using. gamma. -ray spectrometric method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, H E; Lu, W D

    1975-12-01

    In uranium burnup measurements, the amount of uranium in the irradiated sample needs to be determined, and the application of instrumental neutron activation analysis for this purpose is investigated. The method uses the gamma-ray activities of /sup 239/Np and some short-lived fission products of half-lives no longer than a few days to determine the quantities of /sup 238/U and /sup 235/U respectively. The advantages of the method include: (1) the amounts of both /sup 235/U and /sup 238/U of the sample can be simultaneously determined with good accuracy, (2) the same sample may be used to determine both the fission numbers and the amount of uranium remaining simultaneously or one after another, thus the exact amount of the sample is not necessarily known, (3) since the amount of the sample needed for the determination is usually small, i.e., about 10 ..mu..g, it should be easily handled even for high-level burnup samples. The error of the method is about 3 percent for a single measurement. The burnup values measured for an irradiated natural uranium sample from three aliquots using several fission products are in good agreement. The effective cross section for /sup 235/U deduced from the burnup and the integrated flux from a cobalt monitor is found to be 589 +- 19 barn which is in agreement with the literature value of 577 +- 1 barn.

  18. Development of a mass spectrometrical isotope dilution analysis for determination of trace iodine levels and its application for food samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindlmeier, W.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometrical isotope dilution procedure for the determination of trace amounts of iodine in various materials was developed using 129 I as indicator isotope, based on the determination of the 129 I/ 127 I isotope relationship. Negative thermionization was used as ionization method. The analysis procedure, which worked with a standard deviation of between 0,1 and 10% (depending on material tested), was used to determine the iodine level of table salt - both iodized and normal salt (3-6 ppm and less than 0,006 ppm respectively), and food samples with an organic matrix. For comparison the iodine levels were also measured with an iodine-selective electrode. Special preparation and separation procedures were done to suit the sample material. A comparison of the levels of iodine concentration in various powdered milks which were measured by international collaborators using varying methods shows the superior reproducibility of the MS-IDA. (RB) [de

  19. Measurement of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K radioactivity contents in by-product phosphogypsum from phosphate fertilizer industry using gamma ray spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirel, H.; Parmaksiz, A.; Vural, M.; Cakir, I.T.; Demircioglu, B.; Yucel, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Phosphatic fertilizers are produced from the industrial processing of rock phosphate ores which are known to contain naturally occurring radionuclides such as 238 U and its daughter products. A high volume by-product known as phosphogypsum (PG) from the production of phosphoric acid and phosphate fertilizer causes serious storage and environmental problems in phosphoric acid industries. During the phosphoric acid production process, 226 Ra (t 1/2 =1600 y) ends up in PG which has chemical analogous to calcium element. Since the stockpiles of PG near the phosphatic fertilizer plants are huge amounts, the radioactivity contained in PG has measured in view of environmental radioactivity problem. In this work, the natural radioactivity in eighty PG samples taken from a stock near Samsun phosphoric fertilizer plant was measured by a high resolution gamma ray spectrometer. The mean activity of 226 Ra in PG samples has been found to be 546 Bq.kg -1 . However, the activities of 232 Th and 40 K measured in PG samples are negligibly small. In the presented paper, the gamma spectrometric method employed for this work is discussed and the radiological risk impact of radon gas emanation from 226 Ra mainly contained in PG, has been assessed

  20. Validation of a stability-indicating spectrometric method for the determination of sulfacetamide sodium in pure form and ophthalmic preparations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sulfacetamide sodium is a widely used sulfonamide for ophthalmic infections. Objective: A number of analytical methods have been reported for the analysis of sulfacetamide but they lack the ability to determine both the active drug and its major degradation product, sulfanilamide, simultaneously in a sample. Materials and Methods: In the present study a simple, rapid and economical stability-indicating UV spectrometric method has been validated for the simultaneous assay of sulfacetamide sodium and sulfanilamide in pure form and in ophthalmic preparations. Results: The method has been found to be accurate (recovery 100.03 ±0.589% and precise (RSD 0.587% with detectable and quantifiable limits of 1.67×10–6 M (0.04 mg% and 5.07×10–6 M (0.13 mg%, respectively for the assay of pure sulfacetamide sodium. The method is also found to be accurate and precise to small changes in wavelength, pH and buffer concentration as well as to forced degradation. The study further includes the validation of the method for the assay of pure sulfanilamide in solution, which has been found to be accurate, precise and robust. Conclusion: The results indicate that the proposed two-component spectrometric method is stability-indicating and can be used for the simultaneous assay of both sulfacetamide sodium and sulfanilamide in synthetic mixtures and degraded solutions.

  1. Gamma spectrometric characterization of short cooling time nuclear spent fuels using hemispheric CdZnTe detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Lebrun, A; Szabó, J L; Arenas-Carrasco, J; Arlt, R; Dubreuil, A; Esmailpur-Kazerouni, K

    2000-01-01

    After years of cooling, nuclear spent fuel gamma emissions are mainly due to caesium isotopes which are emitters at 605, 662 and 796-801 keV. Extensive work has been done on such fuels using various CdTe or CdZnTe probes. When fuels have to be measured after short cooling time (during NPP outage) the spectrum is much more complex due to the important contributions of niobium and zirconium in the 700 keV range. For the first time in a nuclear power plant, four spent fuels of the Kozloduy VVER reactor no 4 were measured during outage, 37 days after shutdown of the reactor. In such conditions, good resolution is of particular interest, so a 20 mm sup 3 hemispheric crystal was used with a resolution better than 7 keV at 662 keV. This paper presents the experimental device and analyzes the results which show that CdZnTe commercially available detectors enabled us to perform a semi-quantitative determination of the burn-up after a short cooling time. In addition, it is discussed how a burn-up evolution code (CESAR)...

  2. Application and evaluation of the mass spectrometric isotope dilution technique in the determination of rare earths in geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, N.M.P. de.

    1988-01-01

    Establishment of the experimental procedures employed in the rare earth element determination of geological samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis is discussed in the present work. The procedures involve preparation and calibration of the isotope tracers isotope dilution, dissolution in a teflon pressure vessel, chemical separation and isotope analysis using a fully automated Micromass VG ISOTOPES model 354 thermal ionization mass spectrometer. For the initial chemical separation of total rare earths the cationic resin was employed and HC1 and HNO 3 acids as eluents. In the second step rare earths elements were separated into individual (La, Ce and Nd) and subgroups (Sm-Eu-Gd, Yb-Er-Dy) fractions using the same cationic resin and α-HIBA as eluent. Nine elements La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Er and Yb are determined by this method in the ''United States Geological Survey'' (USGS) standard samples GSP-1, AGV-1 and G-2, with an overall precision of +- 1 to 2% and an accuracy of 5%. The concentration of rare earth element determined in the standard sample PCC-1 showed that the total analytical blanks are in submicrogram levels. The concentration of rare earth elements in the same USGS standard samples were also determined by Instrumental neutron activation analysis, neutron activation analysis with chemical separation before irradiation and inductively coupled argon plasma spectroscopy. The chemical procedures employed for these methods are the same as that used for mass spectrometric isotope dilution. Based on the results obtained, each method was evaluated pointing out their merits and defects. The study clearly showed that the chemical procedure employed for all these techniques was satisfactory. (author) [pt

  3. Multi-element determination in environmental samples by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilpert, K.; Waidmann, E.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical procedure for the multi-element analysis of the elements Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Rb, Sr, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb in pine needles by mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis using thermal ionization has been reported in Part I of this paper. This procedure is now transferred to the non-vegetable material 'Oyster Tissue' (Standard Reference Material 1566, National Bureau of Standards, USA). By a modification of the analytical procedure, it was possible to determine Cr in this material in addition to the aforementioned elements. No concentrations are certified for the elements Ga, Ba and Tl analyzed in this work. The concentrations of the remaining elements obtained by the multi-element analysis agree well with those certified. (orig.)

  4. Calculation of critical level value for radioactivity detection in gamma spectrometric analysis on the base of semiconductor detectors under the Chernobyl' conditions in 1986-1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazunov, V.O.; Rusyaev, R.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of determination of radioactivity critical level in a sample by means of gamma spectrometer with semiconductor detector is studied theoretically. The formula for critical level, which shows that it is necessary to know the background pulse counting rate in order to determine the minimum gamma photon pulse counting rates, is derived. Calculations of critical level for the Chernobyl' conditions in time period from October 1986 till July 1987 are made. 8 refs.; 7 figs.; 17 tabs

  5. Determination of gamma production from (n, gamma) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostal, M.

    2007-06-01

    Calculation of gamma production by interaction of neutrons with materials requires a reasonable accuracy of the nuclear libraries, i. e. effective cross sections, nuclear levels and probabilities of transitions between them. Accurate data enable accurate calculations to be performed, e.g. for PGNAA. First, gamma production in a thick 56 Fe target was examined. Appreciable discrepancies were found among the nuclear libraries available. Additional calculations were performed and compared with the observed data. The fluence of photons observed behind a thick iron target was investigated, the target being irradiated with neutrons from the front side. The results were evaluated for the various nuclear libraries. It is concluded that the libraries ENDF/B VI.2., i.e. data embedded in the MCNPX code, are sufficient for a number of applications. However, their accuracy is insufficient for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis. This is also true of data from the libraries JEFF 3.1. a JENDL 3.3, so that other libraries will have to be used for PGNAA. Specifically for 56 Fe, the data from the libraries ENDF/B VII.0 seem to be usable. (P.A.)

  6. Stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. Application to the construction of a stabilizer; Stabilisation des spectres fournis par un spectrometre a rayons gamma. Application a la realisation d'un stabilisateur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Detourne, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-06-15

    This research is concerned with the stabilization of spectra provided by a gamma-ray spectrometer. It is required to hold the calibration straight line of the spectrometer in a position which is fixed initially to better than 5x10{sup -5} channel. A prototype numerical stabilizer has been constructed : the SPECTROSTAB; it is made up of two independent control loops; one of these makes the spectrometer gain depend on the derivatives of a reference peak at high energies; the other makes the origin of the energy scale depend on the derivatives of a second reference peak at low energies A theoretical study of the behaviour of a control loop shows that a direct action stabilizer gives the most accurate stabilization; the loss in resolving power on the theoretical peaks of the spectra attains about 1 % with a scintillation detector, and 10 % with a semi-conductor detector. Various tests show that the expected results are obtained and that the displacement of the spectral peaks produced by the derivatives are hidden by errors in the calculation of the peak abscissae. (author) [French] Cette etude a pour objet la stabilisation des spectres fournis par un spectrometre a rayons gamma. On veut maintenir la droite d'etalonnage du spectrometre dans une position fixee initialement a mieux de 6.10{sup -5} canal pres. On realise un prototype de stabilisateur numerique, le SPECTROSTAB; il comprend deux boucles d'asservissement independantes; l'une d'elles asservit le gain du spectrometre aux derives d'un pic de reference aux hautes energies; l'autre asservit l'origine de l'echelle des energies aux derives d'un second pic de reference aux basses energies. Une etude theorique du comportement d'une boucle d'asservissement montre qu'un stabilisateur a action directe permet la stabilisation la plus precise; la perte en resolution sur les pics theoriques des spectres atteint environ 1 % avec un detecteur a scintillateur et 10 % avec un detecteur a semi-conducteur. Divers essais montrent

  7. Simultaneous determination of RA-226, natural uranium and natural thorioum by gamma-ray spectrometry INa(Tl) in solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, S.; Navarro, T.; Alvarez, A.

    1990-01-01

    A method has been described to determine activities of Ra-226, natural uranium, and natural thorium, by gamma-ray spectrometry. The system was calibrated for efficiency by using synthetic calibrated standards. It is necessary, in the samples, to assume secular equilibrium between Ra-226 and Th-232 and its daughters nuclides, and U-238 and its immediate daughter Th-234, because the photopeaks measured are from these dsaugthers. Our results indicate that a non destructive gamma spectrometric method can ofter replace the radiochemical techniques used in measuring radiactivities in this type of samples. (Author). 9 refs

  8. Direct continuous multichannel gamma spectrometric measurements -one of the main methods for control and study of radioactive environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khitrov, L.M.; Roumyantsev, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Six reasons are given for suggesting that radioactivity in the environment should be monitored continuously using multichannel gamma spectrometry. These are the probability of an accident at a nuclear power plant (estimated at one every 4 years for the number of power stations now in operation), the possibility of damage to a reactor from natural disaster, the increased use of nuclear powered ships, missiles etc, the radioactivity released during the course of normal operation of nuclear facilities, the increased use of radioisotope sources and as a basis for modelling radionuclide migration and redistribution over time. The use of stationary monitoring points as well as on vehicles, boats and aircraft is recommended. Some problems are discussed. The experience of continuous gamma monitoring following the Chernobyl accident is discussed and results given. (U.K.)

  9. Cosmic gamma ray detection and discovery potential with the AMS-2 spectrometer; Detection de rayons {gamma} cosmiques et potentiel de decouvertes avec le spectrometre AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, L

    2004-12-15

    Yet designed to measure charged component of the cosmic rays, the foreseen Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS-02) could also release {gamma}-ray studies, in the energy range from GeV to TeV, using the tracker system, for {gamma}-rays converted in e{sup +}e{sup -} pair, and the electromagnetic calorimeter. In the first part of the thesis are described the calibrations and the performances of the engineering model of the calorimeter, obtained from the analysis of data taken during a test-beam performed at CERN in July 2002. In the second part of the thesis, the AMS-02 discovery potential for {gamma}-astrophysics is presented. While exposure maps of the {gamma}--sky are computed for one year of data taking with the {gamma}--detectors, the acceptance of the calorimeter is obtained from Monte-Carlo simulations. The AMS-02 potential is then estimated for signals from the Vela pulsar and for some supersymmetric signals from the Galactic Center. (author)

  10. Atomic-absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in geological materials with matrix masking and chelation-extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzolone, R.F.; Chao, T.T.; Crenshaw, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    An atomic-absorption spectrometric method is reported for the determination of cobalt, nickel, and copper in a variety of geological materials including iron- and manganese-rich, and calcareous samples. The sample is decomposed with HP-HNO3 and the residue is dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Ammonium fluoride is added to mask iron and 'aluminum. After adjustment to pH 6, cobalt, nickel, and copper are chelated with sodium diethyl-dithiocarbamate and extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone. The sample is set aside for 24 h before analysis to remove interferences from manganese. For a 0.200-g sample, the limits of determination are 5-1000 ppm for Co, Ni, and Cu. As much as 50% Fe, 25% Mn or Ca, 20% Al and 10% Na, K, or Mg in the sample either individually or in various combinations do not interfere. Results obtained on five U.S. Geological Survey rock standards are in general agreement with values reported in the literature. ?? 1979.

  11. Mass spectrometric determination of magnesium isotopic ratios and its corrections for electron multiplier discrimination and mass fractionation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Zhongguo

    1989-01-01

    The mass spectrometric determination of magnesium isotopic ratios by the use of uranyl nitrate added to magnesium samples to act as a binding agent is reported. Prebaking empty filaments and preheating filaments with deposited magnesium samples on its surface in a vacuum are employed to reduce the Na signal from the thenium-ribbon. Methods for correcting magnesium isotopic ratios for electron multiplier discrimination and mass fractionation are described in detail. The results of the determination of natural magnesium isotopic ratios are 25 Mg/ 24 Mg = 0.12660 (1±0.01%) and 26 Mg/ 24 Mg = 0.13938 (1±0.10%). The magnesium isotopic ratios of rich - 26 Mg-2 sample and rich- 25 Mg-1 sample are 24 Mg/ 26 Mg = 0.003463 (1±0.2%), 25 Mg/ 26 Mg = 0.001656 (±0.2%) and 24 Mg/ 25 Mg = 0.006716 (1±0.2%), 26 Mg/ 25 Mg = 0.007264 (1±0.2%) respectively

  12. Automatized facility for express gamma-spectrometric studies of full-size core and muds of oil-gas wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, S.Yu.; Ermilov, A.P.; Ermilov, S.A.; Komarov, N.A.; Krokhin, I.I.

    2005-01-01

    In the automatized facility 'Sputnik-Geo' for automated core feeding of the conveyor belt with 5 m length is using. Activity measurement has being conducted by four scintillation gamma radiation detectors. Symmetrical location of the detectors relatively the core allows to exclude of the geometrical uncertainty of component. The spectrum processing and the control by conveyor engine are carried out by computer, which preserves the results of measurements in the database. For density measurement the scintillation detector with collimated source on the 137 Cs radionuclide base is applied. The facility is provided with the light-diode coefficient stabilization of detector amplification, that permits to operation time increase without spectrometers requalification by energy up to 1 working day

  13. Determination of itopride in human plasma by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hyung; Choi, Seung-Ki; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2007-01-30

    A simple method using a one-step liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with butyl acetate followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination of itopride in human plasma, using sulpiride as an internal standard (IS). Acquisition was performed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, by monitoring the transitions: m/z 359.5>166.1 for itopride and m/z 342.3>111.6 for IS, respectively. Analytes were chromatographed on an YMC C18 reverse-phase chromatographic column by isocratic elution with 1 mM ammonium acetate buffer-methanol (20: 80, v/v; pH 4.0 adjusted with acetic acid). Results were linear (r2=0.9999) over the studied range (0.5-1000 ng mL(-1)) with a total analysis time per run of 2 min for LC-MS/MS. The developed method was validated and successfully applied to bioequivalence studies of itopride hydrochloride in healthy male volunteers.

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of traces of ether-type icing inhibitors in free-floating fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, H.S. [Dept. of Environmental Education, Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea); Abuse Drug Research Center, Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea); Ahn, H.S. [Dept. of Environmental Science, Kongju National Univ., Kongju (Korea)

    2004-08-01

    A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) assay method has been developed for simultaneous determination of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and diethylene glycol monomethly ether (DEGME) in spilled aviation fuels. Ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE) and ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGEE) were used as internal standard and surrogate, respectively. Sample preparation consisted of back-extraction with 7 mL dichloromethane after extraction of 50 mL of fuel with 2 mL of water. The extract was concentrated to dryness, dissolved in 100 {mu}L methanol, and analyzed by GC-MS with selected-ion monitoring (SIM). The peaks had good chromatographic properties on a semi-polar column. EGME and DEGME were extracted from fuel with high recovery of 75 and 85%, with small variations, respectively. Method detection limits were 1.3 and 1.0 ng mL{sup -1} for EGME and DEGME, respectively, in spilled fuel. DEGME was detected at concentrations of 22.6 and 19.7 ng mL{sup -1} in two samples from among five free-floating samples collected in a tunnel of a subway station located in the vicinity of an army base in Korea. The method might be useful for differentiation between the fuel-types kerosene and JP-8, which might originate from a storage tank. (orig.)

  15. Determination of nuclear fuel burn-up using mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, B.; Bagyalakshmi, R.; Periaswami, G.; Kavimandan, V.D.; Chitambar, S.A.; Jain, H.C.; Mathews, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    Determination of burn-up using a stable fission product monitor such as 148 Nd and heavy elements, determined by isotope dilution mass spectrometry gives the most accurate data. This report describes the work carried out to standardise the conditions for burn-up determination. Some typical results are given. (author)

  16. Radioactive and geological analysis of airborne gamma spectrometric data for locating favorable traps for uranium prospecting in the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analysis has been applied to the airborne spectrometric data for the Syrian desert (Area-1), Syria in order to characterize and isolate the anomalous uranium radioactive zones. Equivalent uranium eU values vary between a minimum of 0.01 and a maximum of 32.74 ppm. Uranium prospecting methodology recently proposed is successfully applied in order to explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies related to Area-1. The dominant geological conditions effectively contributing to the uranium radioactive anomalies in the study area have been determined through the analysis of five radioactive-geological profiles. Different favorable traps have been identified and localized for uranium prospecting. Those uranium traps merit further detailed exploration for determining their uranium potential with depth. - Highlights: ► Determine the radioactive characteristics of Area-1. ► Apply a uranium prospecting methodology for guiding uranium exploration activities in Area-1. ► Explain the origin of the radioactive anomalies in Area-1. ► Relate the structural and geological conditions with the anomalous radioactive occurrences.

  17. Emission spectrometric isotope analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauersberger, K.; Meier, G.; Nitschke, W.; Rose, W.; Schmidt, G.; Rahm, N.; Andrae, G.; Krieg, D.; Kuefner, W.; Tamme, G.; Wichlacz, D.

    1982-01-01

    An emission spectrometric isotope analyzer has been designed for determining relative abundances of stable isotopes in gaseous samples in discharge tubes, in liquid samples, and in flowing gaseous samples. It consists of a high-frequency generator, a device for defined positioning of discharge tubes, a grating monochromator with oscillating slit and signal converter, signal generator, window discriminator, AND connection, read-out display, oscillograph, gas dosing device and chemical conversion system with carrier gas source and vacuum pump

  18. X-ray spectrometric determination of glass content of melts incorporating radioactive waste: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.V.

    1978-09-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was evaluated for the determination of glass content and homogeneity of glass incorporating high-level radioactive waste. Accuracy and precision were determined for analyses of Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 , CaO, TiO 2 , MnO, Fe 2 O 3 , and NiO in specimens of known composition. These specimens were prepared by fusing powdered glass with nonradioactive synthetic waste. Matrix effects of sodium on these analyses were specifically evaluated. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry was shown to be applicable to the proposed determinations by comparing the known glass contents of 14 glass waste compositions with those calculated from experimentally determined concentrations of SiO or TiO 2

  19. 'Age' determination of irradiated materials utilizing inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, J.; Cummings, D.; Giglio, J.; Carney, K.

    2009-01-01

    A gas pressurized extraction chromatography (GPEC) system has been developed to perform elemental separations on radioactive samples to determine total and isotopic compositions of Cs and Ba from an irradiated salt sample, fuel sample and two sealed radiation sources. The GPEC system employs compressed nitrogen to move liquid through the system, compared to gravity or pumped liquids that are typically used for separations. A commercially available Sr-Resin TM was used to perform the separation for the above mentioned analytes. A 1% acetic acid solution was determined to be the best extractant for Ba. A flow rate of 0.1 mL/min was determined to be optimal for the separation of Ba. Complete recovery of the Cs and Ba was achieved, within the systematic uncertainties of the experiments. (author)

  20. Determination of rhenium in molybdenite by X-ray fluorescence: A combined chemical-spectrometric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, M W; Wahlberg, J S; Myers, A T

    1969-01-01

    Rhenium in molybdenite is separated from molybdenum by distillation of rhenium heptoxide from a perchloric-sulphuric acid mixture. It is concentrated by precipitation of the sulphide and then determined by X-ray fluorescence. From 3 to 1000 microg of rhenium can be measured with a precision generally within 2%. The procedure tolerates larger amounts of molybdenum than the usual colorimetric methods.

  1. Determination of rhenium in molybdenite by X-ray fluorescence. A combined chemical-spectrometric technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solt, M.W.; Wahlberg, J.S.; Myers, A.T.

    1969-01-01

    Rhenium in molybdenite is separated from molybdenum by distillation of rhenium heptoxide from a perchloric-sulphuric acid mixture. It is concentrated by precipitation of the sulphide and then determined by X-ray fluorescence. From 3 to 1000 ??g of rhenium can be measured with a precision generally within 2%. The procedure tolerates larger amounts of molybdenum than the usual colorimetric methods. ?? 1969.

  2. A photon spectrometric dose-rate constant determination for the Advantage Pd-103 brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder [Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant ({Lambda}) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and Monte Carlo techniques. Methods: Three Model IAPD-103A Advantage Pd-103 sources were used in this study. The relative photon energy spectrum emitted by each source along the transverse axis was measured using a high-resolution germanium spectrometer designed for low-energy photons. For each source, the dose-rate constant was determined from its emitted energy spectrum. The PST-determined dose-rate constant ({sub PST}{Lambda}) was then compared to those determined by TLD ({sub TLD}{Lambda}) and Monte Carlo ({sub MC}{Lambda}) techniques. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated as the arithmetic mean of the average {Lambda} values determined by each of three different techniques. Results: The average {sub PST}{Lambda} value for the three Advantage sources was found to be (0.676{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}. Intersource variation in {sub PST}{Lambda} was less than 0.01%. The {sub PST}{Lambda} was within 2% of the reported {sub MC}{Lambda} values determined by PTRAN, EGSnrc, and MCNP5 codes. It was 3.4% lower than the reported {sub TLD}{Lambda}. A likely consensus {Lambda} value was estimated to be (0.688{+-}0.026) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, similar to the AAPM consensus values recommended currently for the Theragenics (Buford, GA) Model 200 (0.686{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, the NASI (Chatsworth, CA) Model MED3633 (0.688{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1}, and the Best Medical (Springfield, VA) Model 2335 (0.685{+-}0.033) cGyh{sup -1} U{sup -1} {sup 103}Pd

  3. A photon spectrometric dose-rate constant determination for the Advantage Pd-103 brachytherapy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant (Λ) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and Monte Carlo techniques. Methods: Three Model IAPD-103A Advantage Pd-103 sources were used in this study. The relative photon energy spectrum emitted by each source along the transverse axis was measured using a high-resolution germanium spectrometer designed for low-energy photons. For each source, the dose-rate constant was determined from its emitted energy spectrum. The PST-determined dose-rate constant ( PST Λ) was then compared to those determined by TLD ( TLD Λ) and Monte Carlo ( MC Λ) techniques. A likely consensus Λ value was estimated as the arithmetic mean of the average Λ values determined by each of three different techniques. Results: The average PST Λ value for the three Advantage sources was found to be (0.676±0.026) cGyh -1 U -1 . Intersource variation in PST Λ was less than 0.01%. The PST Λ was within 2% of the reported MC Λ values determined by PTRAN, EGSnrc, and MCNP5 codes. It was 3.4% lower than the reported TLD Λ. A likely consensus Λ value was estimated to be (0.688±0.026) cGyh -1 U -1 , similar to the AAPM consensus values recommended currently for the Theragenics (Buford, GA) Model 200 (0.686±0.033) cGyh -1 U -1 , the NASI (Chatsworth, CA) Model MED3633 (0.688±0.033) cGyh -1 U -1 , and the Best Medical (Springfield, VA) Model 2335 (0.685±0.033) cGyh -1 U -1 103 Pd sources. Conclusions: An independent Λ determination has been performed for the Advantage Pd-103 source. The PST Λ obtained in this work provides additional information

  4. 'Age' Determination of Irradiated Materials Utilizing Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometric (ICP-MS) Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, James; Giglio, Jeffrey J.; Cummings, Daniel; Carney, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    A gas pressurized extraction chromatography (GPEC) system has been developed to perform elemental separations on radioactive samples to determine total and isotopic compositions of Cs and Ba from an irradiated salt sample, fuel sample and two sealed radiation sources. The separation is necessary to remove isobaric interferences in the determination of 137Cs, 135Cs, 137Ba, 135Ba, which are used to determine the age of a sample from radioactive decay or purification. The micro-column extraction chromatography system employs compressed nitrogen to move liquid through the system, compared to gravity or pumped liquids that are typically used for separations. The use of compressed gas allows for accurate and precise recovery of all liquids put into the chromatography system, enabling very accurate dilutions. The use of a small analytical column permits the use of very small amounts of liquids to be used. As a benefit, the amount of radiological waste that is generated in the separation process is minimized. For this work, a commercially available Sr-Resin(trademark) was used to perform the separation for the above mentioned analytes. The column consists of a 7 inch piece of 1/16 in. O.D. x 0.030 in I.D. Teflon(trademark) tubing having an internal volume of 81 (micro)L. To this column, 49 mg of resin was added. The columns are re-usable after regeneration with 3 M HNO3. All samples were separated using batch collection, although real time analysis is possible with the current experimental design. A 1 % acetic acid solution was determined to be the best extractant for Ba. A flow rate of 0.1 mL/min was determined to be optimal for the separation of Ba. Complete recovery of the Cs and Ba was achieved, within the systematic error of the experiments.

  5. Mass spectrometric determination of gases in individual coated HTR fuel particles. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strigl, A.; Bildstein, H.

    1977-01-01

    A method is described which allows the simultaneous determination of fission and reaction gases in individual coated particles at temperatures up to 2 000 0 C. The particles are heated under high-vacuum in a micro resistance-furnace up to the desired temperature. After preselected times the particles are crushed by action of a pneumatic cylinder. The gases liberated are fed into a quadrupole analyzer where they are analyzed in a dynamic mode. A peak selector allows the simultaneous measurement of up to four gases. The method is used routinely for the determination of fission gases (Kr and Xe) and of carbon monoxide which is formed as a reaction gas from oxide fuel. Precision and accuracy are in the order of a few percent. Detection limits for routine measurements are about 10 -7 cm 3 (STP) for Kr and Xe and 2x10 -5 cm 3 (STP) for CO but can be lowered by special techniques. (Auth.)

  6. Raman spectrometric determination of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) in nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantner, E.; Freudenberger, M.; Steinert, D.; Ache, H.J.

    1987-03-01

    The determination of Pu(VI) in nitric acid solutions by spontaneous Laser Raman Spectrometry (LRS) was investigated and a calibration curve was established using U(VI) as internal standard. In addition, the concentrations of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) as a function of time were measured by this method in Pu(VI) solutions of different acidity containing H 2 O 2 as the reducing agent. In solutions which are intensely coloured by the presence of Ru(NO) complexes Pu(VI) can also be determined by LRS using a Kr + laser as excitation source. In future experiments, the study of the Pu(IV)-interaction with Ru using LRS and spectrophotometry as analytical techniques is therefore intended. (orig.) [de

  7. On-line Incorporation of Cloud Point Extraction in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Determination of Silver

    OpenAIRE

    DALALI, Nasser; JAVADI, Nasrin; AGRAWAL, Yadvendra KUMAR

    2008-01-01

    A cloud point extraction method was incorporated into a flow injection system, coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry, for determination of trace amounts of silver. The analyte in the aqueous solution was acidified with 0.2 mol L-1 sulfuric acid and complexed with dithizone. The cloud point extraction was performed using the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114. After obtaining the cloud point, the surfactant-rich phase containing the dithizonate complex was collected in a m...

  8. A photon spectrometric dose-rate constant determination for the Advantage™ Pd-103 brachytherapy source

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhe Jay; Bongiorni, Paul; Nath, Ravinder

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Although several dosimetric characterizations using Monte Carlo simulation and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) have been reported for the new Advantage™ Pd-103 source (IsoAid, LLC, Port Richey, FL), no AAPM consensus value has been established for the dosimetric parameters of the source. The aim of this work was to perform an additional dose-rate constant (Λ) determination using a recently established photon spectrometry technique (PST) that is independent of the published TLD and ...

  9. A mass spectrometric method to determine activities of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Shunsuke; Iwasaki, Kaori; Samejima, Keijiro; Takao, Koichi; Kohda, Kohfuku; Hiramatsu, Kyoko; Kawakita, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Compounds in polyamine catabolic pathway were determined by a column-free ESI-TOF MS. ► N 1 - and N 8 -acetylspermidine were determined by a column-free ESI-MS/MS. ► The method was applied to determine activities of APAO, SMO, and SSAT in the pathway. ► The assay method contained stable isotope-labeled natural substrates. ► It is applicable to biological samples containing natural substrate and product. - Abstract: An analytical method for the determination of three polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) and five acetylpolyamines [N 1 -acetylspermidine (N 1 AcSpd), N 8 -acetylspermidine (N 8 AcSpd), N 1 -acetylspermine, N 1 ,N 8 -diacetylspermidine, and N 1 ,N 12 -diacetylspermine] involved in the polyamine catabolic pathway has been developed using a hybrid tandem mass spectrometer. Heptafluorobutyryl (HFB) derivatives of these compounds and respective internal standards labeled with stable isotopes were analyzed simultaneously by TOF MS, based on peak areas appearing at appropriate m/z values. The isomers, N 1 AcSpd and N 8 AcSpd were determined from their fragment ions, the acetylamidopropyl and acetylamidobutyl groups, respectively, using MS/MS with 13 C 2 -N 1 AcSpd and 13 C 2 -N 8 AcSpd which have the 13 C 2 -acetyl group as an internal standard. The TOF MS method was successfully applied to measure the activity of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolic pathways, namely N 1 -acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), spermine oxidase (SMO), and spermidine/spermine N 1 -acetyltransferase (SSAT). The following natural substrates and products labeled with stable isotopes considering the application to biological samples were identified; for APAO, [4,9,12- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermine and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]spermidine ( 15 N 3 -Spd), respectively; for SMO, [1,4,8,12- 15 N 4 ]spermine and 15 N 3 -Spd, respectively; and for SSAT, 15 N 3 -Spd and [1,4,8- 15 N 3 ]-N 1 -acetylspermidine, respectively.

  10. Determination of suvorexant in human plasma using 96-well liquid-liquid extraction and HPLC with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidinger, S A; Simpson, R C; Mangin, E; Woolf, E J

    2015-10-01

    A method, using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection (LC-MS/MS), was developed for the determination of suvorexant (MK-4305, Belsomra(®)), a selective dual orexin receptor antagonist for the treatment insomnia, in human plasma over the concentration range of 1-1000ng/mL. Stable isotope labeled (13)C(2)H3-suvorexant was used as an internal standard. The sample preparation procedure utilized liquid-liquid extraction, in the 96-well format, of a 100μL plasma sample with methyl t-butyl ether. The compounds were chromatographed under isocratic conditions on a Waters dC18 (50×2.1mm, 3μm) column with a mobile phase consisting of 30/70 (v/v %) 10mM ammonium formate, pH3/acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.3mL/min. Multiple reaction monitoring of the precursor-to-product ion pairs for suvorexant (m/z 451→186) and (13)C(2)H3-suvorexant (m/z 455→190) on an Applied Biosystems API 4000 tandem mass spectrometer was used for quantitation. Intraday assay precision, assessed in six different lots of control plasma, was within 10% CV at all concentrations, while assay accuracy ranged from 95.6 to 105.0% of nominal. Quality control (QC) samples in plasma were stored at -20°C. Initial within day analysis of QCs after one freeze-thaw cycle showed accuracy within 9.5% of nominal with precision (CV) of 6.7% or less. The plasma QC samples were demonstrated to be stable for up to 25 months at -20°C. The method described has been used to support clinical studies during Phase I through III of clinical development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High performance liquid chromatography--atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of arsenic species in beer samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo Coelho, N.M.; Parrilla, Carmen; Cervera, M.L.; Pastor, A.; Guardia, M. de la

    2003-01-01

    A method has been developed for the direct determination of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and As(V) in beers by hydride generation--atomic fluorescence spectrometry after separation of arsenic species by high performance liquid chromatography. Compounds were separated by anion-exchange chromatography with isocratic elution using KH 2 PO 4 /K 2 HPO 4 as mobile phase with elution times of 1.67, 2.08, 6.52 and 10.72 min for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. Parameters affecting the hydride generation of all arsenic species were studied and the best conditions were established as a reaction coil of 150 cm, for a sample injected volume of 100 μl, a 4.0% (m/v) solution of sodium tetrahydroborate and 2.0 mol l -1 hydrochloric acid with flow rates of 2.7 and 1.7 ml min -1 , respectively and a flow rate of 500 ml min -1 for the argon carrier gas. Under the best experimental conditions, the detection limit was found to be 0.12, 0.20, 0.27 and 0.39 μg l -1 for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. The relative standard deviation for eight independent determinations varied from 3.9 till 8.9% for species considered at a concentration level of 10.0 μg l -1 . Recovery and comparative studies evidenced that the method is suitable for the accurate determination of arsenic species in water and beer samples

  12. High performance liquid chromatography--atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of arsenic species in beer samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo Coelho, N.M.; Parrilla, Carmen; Cervera, M.L.; Pastor, A.; Guardia, M. de la

    2003-04-10

    A method has been developed for the direct determination of As(III), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and As(V) in beers by hydride generation--atomic fluorescence spectrometry after separation of arsenic species by high performance liquid chromatography. Compounds were separated by anion-exchange chromatography with isocratic elution using KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}/K{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} as mobile phase with elution times of 1.67, 2.08, 6.52 and 10.72 min for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. Parameters affecting the hydride generation of all arsenic species were studied and the best conditions were established as a reaction coil of 150 cm, for a sample injected volume of 100 {mu}l, a 4.0% (m/v) solution of sodium tetrahydroborate and 2.0 mol l{sup -1} hydrochloric acid with flow rates of 2.7 and 1.7 ml min{sup -1}, respectively and a flow rate of 500 ml min{sup -1} for the argon carrier gas. Under the best experimental conditions, the detection limit was found to be 0.12, 0.20, 0.27 and 0.39 {mu}g l{sup -1} for As(III), DMA, MMA and As(V), respectively. The relative standard deviation for eight independent determinations varied from 3.9 till 8.9% for species considered at a concentration level of 10.0 {mu}g l{sup -1}. Recovery and comparative studies evidenced that the method is suitable for the accurate determination of arsenic species in water and beer samples.

  13. A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric method for the determination of oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossi, Rossana; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Bernard, Guillaume

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a validated liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for quantitative analysis of the potential oak moss allergens atranol and chloroatranol in perfumes and similar products. The method employs LC-MS-MS with electrospray ionization (ESI) in negative mode...

  14. Automated atomic absorption spectrometric determination of total arsenic in water and streambed materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, M.

    1977-01-01

    An automated method to determine both inorganic and organic forms of arsenic In water, water-suspended mixtures, and streambed materials Is described. Organic arsenic-containing compounds are decomposed by either ultraviolet radiation or by suHurlc acid-potassium persulfate digestion. The arsenic liberated, with Inorganic arsenic originally present, is reduced to arsine with sodium borohydrlde. The arable Is stripped from the solution with the aid of nitrogen and Is then decomposed In a tube furnace heated to 800 ??C which Is placed in the optical path of an atomic absorption spectrometer. Thirty samples per hour can be analyzed to levels of 1 ??g arsenic per liter.

  15. Mass spectrometric determination of the thermodynamic excess properties of ternary Fe-Co-Cr melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Harald; Tomiska, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Computer-aided Knudsen cell mass spectrometry is used for the thermodynamic investigations on ternary Fe-Co-Cr melts over the entire range of composition. The thermodynamic mixing behavior has been determined by means of the 'digital intensity-ratio' (DIR) method. The ternary thermodynamically adapted power (TAP) series concept is used for the algebraic representation of the molar excess properties. The corresponding TAP parameters, and the values of the molar excess quantities Z E (T, x) (Z is the Gibbs energy G, heat of mixing H, entropy S) as well as the thermodynamic activities of all three constituents at 1950 K are presented

  16. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the determination of cannabinoid precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H.H.; Hansen, S.H.; Bøjrnsdottir, I.

    1999-01-01

    electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The procedure provides complete positioning of all acyl and alkenyl groups contained in each NAPE species. The calibration curve for standard NAPE was linear over the range 100 fmol-50 pmol (0.1-50 ng) per injection. The lower limit of detection (signal......-to-noise ratio of 3) was 100 fmol, implying that this method is superior to previous methods for the determination of NAPE. These results suggest that this ESI-MS method can be used to identify and quantify NAPE species in mammalian tissues and provide information on the corresponding NAEs to be released from...

  17. Total lead (Pb) concentration in oil shale ash samples based on correlation to isotope Pb-210 gamma-spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaasma, T.; Kiisk, M.; Tkaczyk, A.H. [University of Tartu (Estonia); Bitjukova, L. [Tallinn University of Technology (Estonia)

    2014-07-01

    Estonian oil shale consists of organic matter and mineral material and contains various amounts of heavy metals as well as natural radionuclides (from the U-238 and Th-232 series and K-40). Previous research has shown that burning oil shale in the large power plants causes these radionuclides to become enriched in different ash fractions and be partially emitted to the atmosphere via fly ash and flue gases. The activity concentrations (Bq/kg) of these nuclides in different oil shale ash fractions vary significantly. This is influenced by the boiler parameters and combustion conditions - prevailing temperatures, pressure, ash circulating mechanisms, fly ash particle size, chemical composition of ash and coexistence of macro and micro components. As with radionuclides, various heavy metals remain concentrated in the ash fractions and are released to the atmosphere (over 20 tons of Pb per year from Estonian oil shale power plants). Lead is a heavy metal with toxic influence on the nervous system, reproductive system and different organs in human body. Depending on the exposure pathways, lead could pose a long term health hazard. Ash samples are highly heterogeneous and exhibit great variability in composition and particle size. Determining the lead concentration in ash samples by modern methods like inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) and other techniques often requires time consuming, multistage and complex chemical sample preparation. The list of possible methods to use is lengthy, but it is a challenge to choose a suitable one to meet measurement needs and practical considerations. The detection limits, capital costs and maintenance expenses vary between the instruments. This work presents the development of an alternative measurement technique for our oil shale ash samples. Oil shale ash was collected from different boilers using pulverized fuel

  18. Minicolumn field preconcentration and flow-injection flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra-Biurrun, M.C.; Moreno-Cid, A.; Puig, L.

    2004-01-01

    A simple method for the continuous field preconcentration of trace dissolved cadmium in seawater samples has been developed based on the minicolumn field sampling technique. For this purpose, minicolumns containing Chelite P (aminomethylphosphonic groups) were connected to a field flow preconcentration system (FFPS). Once in the laboratory, these minicolumns are sequentially inserted into a flow-injection system for on-line cadmium elution and detection by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Factorial designs have been used to optimise the FFPS and the flow-injection elution process. Six experimental variables were optimised: sample pH, sample flow-rate, eluent concentration, eluent volume, eluent flow-rate and minicolumn diameter. The detection limit (3F) of the procedure was 2.7 ng l -1 for a sample volume of 300 ml. The precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) for 11 independent determinations was 0.5-9.4% for cadmium solutions of 10-300 ng l -1 . Analysis of certified reference materials (SLEW-3 and NASS-5) showed good agreement with the certified values. This procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in seawater samples from Galicia (Spain)

  19. An indirect atomic absorption spectrometric determination of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium in pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHMOUD MOHAMED ISSA

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A highly sensitive indirect atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS method has been developed for the determination of very low concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium. The method is based on the oxidation of these drugs with iron(III. The excess of iron(III was extracted into diethyl ether and then the iron(II in the aqueous layer was aspirated into an air–acetylene flame and determined by AAS. The linear concentration ranges were 25–400, 50–500 and 60–600 ng ml-1 for ciprofloxacin, amoxycillin and diclofenac sodium, respectively. The results were statistically compared with the official method using t- and f-test at p < 0.05. There were insignificant interferences from most of the excipients present. The intra- and inter-day assay coefficients of variation were less than 6.1 % and the recoveries ranged from 95 to 103 %. The method was applied for the analysis of these drug substances in their commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

  20. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of tin in canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, H; Suekane, S; Nakatani, A; Tatsuka, K

    1993-01-01

    Various canned foods were digested sequentially with HNO3 and HCl, diluted to 100 mL, and filtered, and then tin was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Samples of canned Satsuma mandarin, peach, apricot, pineapple, apple juice, mushroom, asparagus, evaporated milk, short-necked clam, spinach, whole tomato, meat, and salmon were evaluated. Sample preparations did not require time-consuming dilutions, because ICP/AES has wide dynamic range. The standard addition method was used to determine tin concentration. Accuracy of the method was tested by analyzing analytical standards containing tin at 2 levels (50 and 250 micrograms/g). The amounts of tin found for the 50 and 250 micrograms/g levels were 50.5 and 256 micrograms/g, respectively, and the repeatability coefficients of variation were 4.0 and 3.8%, respectively. Recovery of tin from 13 canned foods spiked at 2 levels (50 and 250 micrograms/g) ranged from 93.9 to 109.4%, with a mean of 99.2%. The quantitation limit for tin standard solution was about 0.5 microgram/g.

  1. Microbial determination of Cumin by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedi, F.; Abhari, M.; Fathollahi, H.; Arbabi, K.

    2002-01-01

    Cumin is one of the valuable export items of Iran, and like most of the agricultural products it is contaminated by microorganisms. Due to importance of this product, the gamma irradiation method, which has applications in microbial decontamination, has been used for the improving its quality and increasing the shelf life-time. For this purpose pak ages of 10 gr of cumin were irradiated by 2,4,6 and 8 KGy from 60 Co source. With each dose, four samples were irradiated and results were compared with controlled not irradiated samples. According to the standard limitation of bacteria and molds the total optimum doses are 7.5 and 5 KGy respectively

  2. Determination of rare earth elements by liquid chromatographic separation using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate the rare earth elements (REEs) prior to detection by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The use of HPLC-ICP-MS in series combines the separation power and speed of HPLC with the sensitivity, isotopic selectivity and speed of ICP-MS. The detection limits for the REEs are in the sub-ng ml -1 range and the response is linear over four orders of magnitude. A preliminary comparison of isotope dilution and external standard results for the determination of REEs in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material (SRM 1633a) Fly Ash is presented. (author)

  3. Spectrometric determination of clinically relevant fatty acids in the blood serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinin, A. V.; Krasheninnikov, V. N.; Sviridov, A. P.; Titov, V. N.

    2017-01-01

    The content of fatty acid (FA) triglycerides in food and biological media is predicting traditionally using gas and liquid chromatographic methods. Named techniques aren't available for clinical labs due to their complexity. So, our objective was to develop the method and apparatus for rapid assay of a few clinically important FA as the saturated palmitic, mono unsaturated oleic and others in serum using near infrared spectrometer. As a result, the applicability of the FT spectrometer in the wavelength range of 0.9 -1.8 μ to analyze these FA in serum without sample preparation was confirmed. Besides, measurement specifications were determined and a correlations of the absorption spectra and contents of total triglycerides and cholesterol, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic FA in serum were established

  4. Simultaneous kinetic spectrometric determination of three flavonoid antioxidants in fruit with the aid of chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ruiling; Wang, Yong; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2014-03-01

    A simple, inexpensive and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of three anti-carcinogenic flavonoids: catechin, quercetin and naringenin, in fruit samples. A yellow chelate product was produced in the presence neocuproine and Cu(I) - a reduction product of the reaction between the flavonoids with Cu(II), and this enabled the quantitative measurements with UV-vis spectrophotometry. The overlapping spectra obtained, were resolved with chemometrics calibration models, and the best performing method was the fast independent component analysis (fast-ICA/PCR (Principal component regression)); the limits of detection were 0.075, 0.057 and 0.063 mg L-1 for catechin, quercetin and naringenin, respectively. The novel method was found to outperform significantly the common HPLC procedure.

  5. Technique for mass-spectrometric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurillovich, A.N.; Pimonov, Yu.I.; Biryukov, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    A technique for mass-spectroimetric determination of moisture content in fuel elements and fuek claddings in the 2x10 -4 -1.5x10 -2 g range is developed. The relative standard deviation is 0.13. A character of moisture extraction from oxide uranium fuels in the 20-700 deg C temperature range is studied. Approximately 80% of moisture is extracted from the fuels at 300 deg C. The moisture content in fuel elements with granular uranium oxide fuels is measured. Dependence of fuel element moisture content on conditions of hot vacuum drying is shown. The technique permits to optimize the fuel element fabrication process to decrease the moisture content in them. 4 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  6. Determination of long-lived radionuclides at ultratrace level using advanced mass spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoriy, M.

    2005-11-01

    Determination of long-lived radionuclides at sub-fg concentration level is a challenging task in analytical chemistry. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with its ability to provide the sensitive and fast multielemental analysis is one of the most suitable method for the measurements of long lived radionuclides in the trace and ultra trace concentration range. In present the Ph.D. study a variety of procedures have been developed permitting the sub fg ml-1 determination of long-lived radionuclides (e.g. U, Th, Pu) as well as 226 Ra (T 1/2 = 1600 y) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 = 28.1 y) in different samples. In order to avoid isobaric interferences, to increase the sensitivity, precision and accuracy of the methods the application of different techniques: pre-concentration of the sample, off-line separation on the crown resin, measurements under cold plasma conditions, using microconcentric nebulizers (e.g DIHEN, DS-5) or the application of LA-ICP-MS for sample introduction have been studied. The limits of detection for different radionuclides was significantly improved in comparison to the ones reported in the literature, and, depending on the method applied, was varied from 10 -15 to 10 -18 g ml -1 concentration range. In addition to the analysis of long lived radionuclides, some other elements, that can present potential interest to the analyzed sample, were measured within the framework of the present study. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LAICP- MS) was used to produce images of element distribution in 20μm m thin sections of human brain tissue. The sample surface was scanned (raster area ∝80 mm 2 ) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 213 nm, diameter of laser crater 50μm, and laser power density 3x10 9 W cm -2 ) in a cooled laser ablation chamber developed for these measurements. Cross sections of human brain samples - hippocampus as well as brain tissues infected and non-infected with Glioblastoma Multiforme (tumor

  7. Mass spectrometric determination of burnup of thorium-uranium dioxide fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, L.W.; Knight, C.H.; Longhurst, T.H.; Cassidy, R.M

    1984-07-01

    The isotopes {sup 148}Nd and {sup 145+146}Nd were investigated for use as fission monitors. A two-column anion-exchange procedure was used to separate these and U and Th from the fuel matrix, and the purified fractions were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviations of Nd, U, and Th determinations by isotope dilution were {approx}0.7%. A computer-generated simulation of the irradiation was used to estimate the effective fission yields for {sup 148}Nd and {sup 145+146}Nd. Burnup results with {sup 145+146}Nd as the fission monitor showed excellent agreement with results obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method that used {sup 139}La as the fission monitor; the average difference between the two methods was 0.02%. The {sup 148}Nd results were biased high by up to 4%; this was attributed to a {sup 147}Nd neutron capture effect. Results obtained with the initial heavy element content estimated from the weight and initial composition of the fuel, instead of from analyses for the actinides, showed excellent agreement (average difference = 0.2 %) with the conventional method. (author)

  8. Mass spectrometric determination of burnup of thorium-uranium dioxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.W.; Knight, C.H.; Longhurst, T.H.; Cassidy, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The isotopes 148 Nd and 145+146 Nd were investigated for use as fission monitors. A two-column anion-exchange procedure was used to separate these and U and Th from the fuel matrix, and the purified fractions were analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Relative standard deviations of Nd, U, and Th determinations by isotope dilution were ∼0.7%. A computer-generated simulation of the irradiation was used to estimate the effective fission yields for 148 Nd and 145+146 Nd. Burnup results with 145+146 Nd as the fission monitor showed excellent agreement with results obtained by a high-performance liquid chromatographic method that used 139 La as the fission monitor; the average difference between the two methods was 0.02%. The 148 Nd results were biased high by up to 4%; this was attributed to a 147 Nd neutron capture effect. Results obtained with the initial heavy element content estimated from the weight and initial composition of the fuel, instead of from analyses for the actinides, showed excellent agreement (average difference = 0.2 %) with the conventional method. (author)

  9. Multipumping flow system for improving hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Ruiz-Alcaraz, Irene; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The advantages of using membrane micropumps rather than peristaltic pumps to introduce both sample and reagent solutions for hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry are discussed. Arsenic was used as a test analyte to check the performance of the proposed manifold. Sample and reagent consumption was reduced 8-9 fold compared with continuous mode measurements made with peristaltic pumps, with no deterioration in sensitivity. The calibration graph was linear in the 0.05 to 2.5 μg l -1 As range using peak area as the analytical signal and maximum gain in the detector setting. A limit of detection (3σ) of 0.02 μg l -1 and relative standard deviation values close to 2% for 10 independent measurements of a 1 μg l -1 As solution were obtained. The sampling frequency increased from 45 to 102 h -1 with the subsequent saving in carrier gas used and reduction in wastes generated. The instrumental modification, which could be used for other elements currently determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry, will permit hydride generators of more reduced dimensions to be constructed

  10. Honeybee venom proteome profile of queens and winter bees as determined by a mass spectrometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Debyser, Griet; Devreese, Bart; de Graaf, Dirk C

    2015-10-30

    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS). Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings.

  11. Honeybee Venom Proteome Profile of Queens and Winter Bees as Determined by a Mass Spectrometric Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Ellen L.; Van Vaerenbergh, Matthias; Debyser, Griet; Devreese, Bart; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2015-01-01

    Venoms of invertebrates contain an enormous diversity of proteins, peptides, and other classes of substances. Insect venoms are characterized by a large interspecific variation resulting in extended lists of venom compounds. The venom composition of several hymenopterans also shows different intraspecific variation. For instance, venom from different honeybee castes, more specifically queens and workers, shows quantitative and qualitative variation, while the environment, like seasonal changes, also proves to be an important factor. The present study aimed at an in-depth analysis of the intraspecific variation in the honeybee venom proteome. In summer workers, the recent list of venom proteins resulted from merging combinatorial peptide ligand library sample pretreatment and targeted tandem mass spectrometry realized with a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR MS/MS). Now, the same technique was used to determine the venom proteome of queens and winter bees, enabling us to compare it with that of summer bees. In total, 34 putative venom toxins were found, of which two were never described in honeybee venoms before. Venom from winter workers did not contain toxins that were not present in queens or summer workers, while winter worker venom lacked the allergen Api m 12, also known as vitellogenin. Venom from queen bees, on the other hand, was lacking six of the 34 venom toxins compared to worker bees, while it contained two new venom toxins, in particularly serine proteinase stubble and antithrombin-III. Although people are hardly stung by honeybees during winter or by queen bees, these newly identified toxins should be taken into account in the characterization of a putative allergic response against Apis mellifera stings. PMID:26529016

  12. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometric Assay for Determination of Stavudine in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengdan Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A LC-MS/MS method for determination of stavudine in human plasma was established and validated, and it was applied to the pharmaceutical formulations bioequivalence study. 0.5 mL plasma sample was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction. Stavudine was detected by a LC-MS/MS system. The pharmacokinetic parameters of stavudine in different formulations were calculated by noncompartment model statistics. The method was linear over the concentration ranges 5.00–1000 ng/mL in plasma. The intra- and interassay relative standard deviation (RSD was <10%. The average accuracies for the assay at three concentrations (5.00, 80.0, and 900 ng/mL were from 100.2% to 102.5%. Pharmacokinetic parameters of stavudine reference formulation were obtained as follows: Tmax was 0.6±0.2 h, Cmax was 480.7±150.9 g/L, t1/2 was 1.7±0.4 h, and AUC0-t was 872.8±227.8 g·h/L, and pharmacokinetic parameters of stavudine test formulation were obtained as follows: Tmax was 0.5±0.2 h, Cmax was 537.5±178.5 g/L, t1/2 was 1.7±0.3 h, and AUC0-t was (914.1±284.5 g·h/L. Calculated with AUC0-t, the bioavailability of two formulations was 105.0%.

  13. Confirmation of the correct application of the gamma spectrometric method carried out in the Cuban Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Gomez, Isis M.; Carrazana Gonzalez, Jorge A.; Capote Ferrera, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    One of the technical requirements of the standard ISO/IEC 17025:2006 is that the laboratories that use standard methods shall confirm that they can properly operate these before introducing the tests or calibrations. Among the testing activities that execute the Environmental Radiological Surveillance Laboratory of the Cuban Center for Radiation Protection and Hygiene, is the determination of gamma radionuclides by gamma spectrometry with HPGe detectors. This test has been accredited by the Cuban Accreditation Body, according to the standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005. Fulfilling the requirements of this standard, regarding the selection of methods, the laboratory uses internationally standard method for its gamma spectrometry determinations. For this reason it was necessary to confirm the correct application of the selected method before incorporating it as scientific-technical service that the institution offers. With this purpose the method confirmation using certified reference materials of different matrixes and for the different geometries used in the laboratory were carried out. The obtained results of this study were processed statistically to check the precision and trueness of the same ones. In this sense, the laboratory participates periodically in interlaboratory comparison programs that include the radionuclides analysis by gamma spectrometry, as another form of accuracy confirmation of the results that the laboratory reports. In this paper the design of the realized intralaboratory study, as well as the results of it are presented. From the obtained results in the realized study, as well as from the interlaboratory comparison programs, it is possible to conclude that the method used in the laboratory is executed appropriately and it is under control. (author)

  14. 134Cs emission probabilities determination by gamma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, M. C. M.; Poledna, R.; Delgado, J. U.; Silva, R. L.; Araujo, M. T. F.; da Silva, C. J.

    2018-03-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) of Rio de Janeiro performed primary and secondary standardization of different radionuclides reaching satisfactory uncertainties. A solution of 134Cs radionuclide was purchased from commercial supplier to emission probabilities determination of some of its energies. 134Cs is a beta gamma emitter with 754 days of half-life. This radionuclide is used as standard in environmental, water and food control. It is also important to germanium detector calibration. The gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) were determined mainly for some energies of the 134Cs by efficiency curve method and the Pγ absolute uncertainties obtained were below 1% (k=1).

  15. Isotopic Determination of Nuclear Materials Using Nuclear Fission Track Registration Technique and Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Young Sin; Pyo, Hyeong Yeol; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok; Kim, Won Ho; Jee, Kwang Yong

    2007-05-01

    It is very important to develope the technology for the determination of isotopic ratios of hot particles( 234 U, 235 U, 236 U etc.) detected from swipe samples of various nuclear facilities. This technology is highly competitive internationally and has to be established independently as long as our government maintains atomic energy and treats nuclear materials. In this text, sample pretreatment procedure, gamma-ray counting, alpha or fission track techniques, isotopic analysis of U and Pu, background problems and detection limits for mass determination, and their application to the real swipe sample were described with detailed procedure. This technology would contribute to the Korean economy's high growth rate as well as to superiority of government's leading research and development programs if successfully established

  16. Determination of 21 trace impurities in UO2 with tributyl phosphate chromatographic separation-USN-inductively coupled/atomic emission spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Lieqi; Wang Shuan; Li Jie

    1996-03-01

    A method of tributyl phosphate chromatographic separation-USN-inductively coupled/atomic emission spectrometric was selected. And the parameters, interference of acid concentrations, interference of coexisting elements, selecting of flow for carrier gas, solution temperature were studied. When the sampling amount is 250 mg, the determination range for Al, Ag, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, V, Y and Zn are 0.2∼100 ng· -1 , recovery are 94%∼110%. The RSD (n 8) are 0.8%∼6.2%. (3 refs., 4 tabs.)

  17. Gamma spectrometric validation of measurements test of radionuclides in food matrices; Validacao do ensaio de medidas por espectrometria gama de radionuclideos em matrizes de alimentos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, Mychelle M.L.; Custodio, Luis G.; Bonifacio, Rodrigo L.; Taddei, Maria Helena T., E-mail: mychelle@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: Igcustodio@hotmail.com, E-mail: rodrigo@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: mhtaddei@cnen.gov [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN-MG), de Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas

    2013-10-01

    In a testing laboratory the quality system encompasses a set of activities planned and systematic, which ensure the traceability process of an analysis, which is based on the standards NBR ISO/TEC 17025. With the need for analysis of radionuclides in food products to meet the requirements of import and export, accreditation of testing on this standard becomes increasingly necessary. The Gamma Spectrometry is a technique used for direct determination of radionuclides in different matrices, among them the food, being possible the simultaneous determination of different radionuclides in the same sample without the need for a chemical separation. In the process of Accreditation the methodology validation is an important step that includes testing accuracy, traceability, linearity and recovery. This paper describes the procedures used to validate the assay for determining radionuclides using gamma spectrometry in food. These procedures were performed through analysis of a certificated reference material by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA Soil 327), analysis of samples of milk powder prepared from the doping with certified liquid standards also by the results obtained in the participation of tests of proficiency in analysis of environmental samples. (author)

  18. Determination of gaussian peaks in gamma spectra by iterative regression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The parameters of the peaks in gamma-ray spectra are determined by a simple iterative regression method. For each peak, the parameters are associated with a gaussian curve (3 parameters) located above a linear continuum (2 parameters). This method may produces the complete result of the calculation of statistical uncertainties and an accuracy higher than others methods. (author) [pt

  19. Determination of uranium-235 by differential gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suner, A.A.; La Gamma de Batistoni, A.M.G.; Botbol, J.

    1974-12-01

    A method for the determination of U-235 contained in solutions of uranium, by gamma spectrometry with Ge(Li) detector is described. Ra-226 is coprecipitated in BaSO 4 . The activity at 186 keV is measured, substracted by the corresponding of a standard. The detection limit is 1% of increment of U-235 over the standard. (author)

  20. Dose Rate Determination from Airborne Gamma-ray Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargholz, Kim

    1996-01-01

    The standard method for determination of ground level dose rates from airborne gamma-ray is the integral count rate which for a constant flying altitude is assumed proportional to the dose rate. The method gives reasonably results for natural radioactivity which almost always has the same energy...

  1. Determination of beta and gamma radioactivity on the coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhardi; Mulyono; Sutanto WW; Rosidi

    2013-01-01

    Radioactivity in coal, botton ash and fly ash. This determination was carried out to know each the radioactivity of β gross, γ gross on the coal, botton ash and fly ash, which accommodation of environment data the present in PLTU Paiton Probolinggo. Samples taken preparation and analysis based on the procedures of environmental radioactivity analysis. The radioactivity on the PLTU Paiton Probolinggo detected by beta gross Spectrometer with Geiger Muller (GM) and gamma Spectrometer with Ge(Li) detector. The result indicates that radioactivity concentration of beta and gamma gross are (95,57-308,26) Bq/kg and (1,374 - 31,677) Bq/kg respectively. (author)

  2. Use of a multi-channel {gamma} spectrometer for quantitative measurements in radio-protection; Utilisation d'un spectrometre {gamma} multicanaux en vue de mesures quantitatives appliquees a la radio protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cluchet, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The author stresses the advantages, in radio-protection, of using {gamma} spectrometry for analysis of radioelements. He describes a simple and rapid method for dosing several radioelements in one sample. With a view to measuring the sources used for the calibration of detectors, the author shows how it is possible to determine the photon flux at one given point and to deduce from it the intensity of the irradiation due to each {gamma} line. The sensitivity and the accuracy of the measurements are discussed. (author) [French] L'autour rappelle l'interet que presente, en radioprotection, la spectrometrie {gamma} pour l'analyse des radioelements. Il expose une methode simple et rapide permettant de doser plusieurs radioelements dans un meme echantillon. Envisageant la dosimetrie des sources utilisees pour l'etalonnage des detecteurs, l'auteur montre comment l'on peut determiner le flux de photons en un point considere et en deduire l'intensite d'irradiation associee a chaque raie {gamma}. La sensibilite et la precision des mesures sont discutees. (auteur)

  3. Development and method of use of a mass spectrometric isotope dilution analysis within the use of negative thermoionisation for determination of boron traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeininger, H.

    1984-01-01

    A mass spectrometric trace boron determination using negative thermionisation was developed. It is based on the determination of the ratio of BO 2 - isotopes ( 10 B and 11 B). A high stability and a constant intensity at a given temperature of the BO 2 - ion currents allow for a computer controlled measurement with a programmed heating. The reproducibility lies at around 0,004-0,08%. The boron determination using Mels potentiometry with a BF 4 - -ion selective electrode was used as an analytical comparison method. The MS-IDA was first used on metal samples, such as Al, Zr, and steel. Later on the boron in reagents, biological material (milk powder, spinach, water plants) and water were determined. For this material-dependent hydrolysation and separation procedures were worked out. The MS-IDA in comparison to all other analytical methods used by other collaborators offers the greatest accuracy. (RB) [de

  4. Comparison of the precision and accuracy of digital versus analogue gamma-ray spectrometric systems used in INAA for evaluation of homogeneity and certification of reference materials of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarewicz, M.; Burns, K.

    2000-01-01

    Performance of three commercial gamma-ray spectrometric systems was evaluated for precision and accuracy prior to use in characterization of reference materials. Two of the systems were based on fast processing of the analogue signal from the amplifier (EGG Ortec model 672) using a loss free counting module (Canberra model LFC 599) interfaced to one of two analog-to-digital converters (Canberra models 8713 or 8715). The third system was based on a digital signal processor (Canberra model DSP 9660). Performance of the systems was tested over a range of count rates up to a maximum of 70,000 counts per second (dead time up to 90%) using 60 Co and 137 Cs sources. Best resolution was achieved with an analogue system with ADC 8713. The analytical results obtained with the digital system show the lowest and well-quantified uncertainty. (author)

  5. Simultaneous Determination of 30 Trace Elements in Cancerous and Noncancerous Human Tissue Samples with Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsahl, K; Brune, D; Wester, P O

    1963-10-15

    The following trace elements were quantitatively determined by gamma-ray spectrometry in T samples of non-cancerous and 5 samples of cancerous human tissue: P, Ca, Cr, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sb, Cs, La, Au, and Hg. In some of the samples the following elements were qualitatively determined: Ti+Sc, Ga, Sr, In, Ba, Ce, Hf, Os, Pt, and U. Most of the trace elements were found to be present in much higher concentrations in the non-cancerous than in the corresponding cancerous liver samples. In a typical run one sample each of cancerous and non-cancerous tissue was irradiated together with standards of the elements to be determined in a thermal flux of 2.10{sup 13} n/cm{sup 2}/sec. for 24 hours. The radioactive trace elements were separated into 16, and in some cases 18, groups by means of a chemical group separation method. Subsequently, the gamma spectrometric measurements were performed. Two persons can manage the chemical separations and measure the different activities from a run in 1,5 days. A new method of comparing unknown samples with standards was developed.

  6. Separation/preconcentration of silver(I) and lead(II) in environmental samples on cellulose nitrate membrane filter prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soylak, Mustafa; Cay, Rukiye Sungur

    2007-01-01

    An enrichment method for trace amounts of Ag(I) and Pb(II) has been established prior to their flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations. The preconcentration/separation procedure is based on chelate formation of Ag(I) and Pb(II) with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) and on retention of the chelates on cellulose nitrate membrane filter. The influences of some analytical parameters including pH and amounts of reagent, etc. on the recoveries of analytes were investigated. The effects of interferic ions on the quantitative recoveries of analytes were also examined. The detection limits (k = 3, N = 11) were 4.6 μg L -1 for silver(I) and 15.3 μg L -1 for lead(II). The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of the determinations for analyte ions were below 3%. The method was applied to environmental samples for the determination of analyte ions with satisfactory results (recoveries >95%)

  7. Applying a low energy HPGe detector gamma ray spectrometric technique for the evaluation of Pu/Am ratio in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, I S; Mishra, Lokpati; Yadav, J R; Nadar, M Y; Rao, D D; Pradeepkumar, K S

    2015-10-01

    The estimation of Pu/(241)Am ratio in the biological samples is an important input for the assessment of internal dose received by the workers. The radiochemical separation of Pu isotopes and (241)Am in a sample followed by alpha spectrometry is a widely used technique for the determination of Pu/(241)Am ratio. However, this method is time consuming and many times quick estimation is required. In this work, Pu/(241)Am ratio in the biological sample was estimated with HPGe detector based measurements using gamma/X-rays emitted by these radionuclides. These results were compared with those obtained from alpha spectroscopy of sample after radiochemical analysis and found to be in good agreement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hydraulic conductivity of indeformed soil columns determination by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson Camargo; Moraes Cavalcante, Fabio Henrique de; Rocha, Marcos Correa da; Filho, Otavio Portezan; Quinones, Fernando Rodolfo Espinosa; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2000-01-01

    The spatial variation of the soil structure influences the water movement through its porous geometry, which could cause problems in the development of agricultural cultures and also accelerate processes of soil erosion. The gamma ray transmission method has established efficiency for the non-destructive measurement of moisture temporal and space evolution, and consequently in the determination of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil, K(θ). Columns of undisturbed soil (approximately 0.11 x 0.06 x 0.60 m) were removed from a trench in the Campus of Londrina State University. The used soil was classified like distrophic dark red soil (LRd). The indeformed soil columns were wrapped up with paraffin and gauze and were fixed on the table of measurement. The water vertical infiltration in the soil was accomplished by maintaining a water layer of approximately 0.01 m over an area of soil of 75 x 10 -4 m 2 . Layers of filter papers and foam controlled the flow of water in the soil surface. After the conclusion of the infiltration, began the process of redistribution of the water in the soil column, with the objective to determine the function K(θ) in relation to the depth in the column. The moisture profiles θ(z,t) are obtained using a radioactive source of 241 Am (3.7 x 10 9 Bq; 0.0596 MeV), spectrometric electronic chain, a 2x2'' NaI(Tl) detector and a measurements table , which allows the sample to move vertically. The hydraulic conductivity function was determined, applying the Sisson model , at 10 levels in the soil column and the results exhibit an increase of K(θ) with depth. (author)

  9. {sup 134}Cs emission probabilities determination by gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, M.C.M. de, E-mail: candida@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DINOR/CNEN), Riode Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Poledna, R.; Delgado, J.U.; Silva, R.L.; Araujo, M.T.; Silva, C.J. da [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The National Laboratory for Ionizing Radiation Metrology (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN) of Rio de Janeiro performed primary and secondary standardization of different radionuclides reaching satisfactory uncertainties. A solution of {sup 134}Cs radionuclide was purchased from commercial supplier to emission probabilities determination of some of its energies. {sup 134}Cs is a beta gamma emitter with 754 days of half-life. This radionuclide is used as standard in environmental, water and food control. It is also important to germanium detector calibration.The gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) were determined mainly for some energies of the {sup 134}Cs by efficiency curve method and the Pγ absolute uncertainties obtained were below 1% (k=1). (author)

  10. A gamma-spectrometer determining equilibrium factor in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Weiheng

    1992-01-01

    The author expounds main function, scientific value and practical significance of Model SY500 gamma-spectrometer, which can determine radioactive factor equilibrium (k p ) in-situ. Accuracy, steadiness and differential of the technology has been proved on the models of Radiometric Measurement Station of China Nuclear Industry Corporation. The author enumerates several examples such as k p survey at gold-bearing glebe, at uranium-bearing glebe, at the ground above ground water and 21 stations of Beijing subway

  11. In-situ gamma spectrometry method for determination of environmental gamma dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, Claudio de Carvalho

    1995-07-01

    This work tries to establish a methodology for germanium detectors calibration, normally used for in situ gamma ray spectrometry, for determining the environmental exposure rate in function of the energy of the incident photons. For this purpose a computer code has been developed, based on the stripping method, for the computational spectra analysis to calculate the contribution of the partial absorption of the gamma rays (Compton effect) in the active and nonactive parts of the detector. The resulting total absorption spectrum is then converted to fluence distribution in function of the energy for the photons reaching the detector, which is then used to calculate the exposure rate or kerma in air. The unfolding and fluency convention parameters are determined by detector calibration using point gamma sources. The method is validated by comparison of the results against the calculated exposure rate at a point of interest for the standards. This method is used for the direct measurement of the exposure rate distribution in function of the energy at the site, in situ measurement technic, leading to rapid results during an emergency situation and also used for indoor measurements. (author)

  12. The design and construction of a scintillation pair spectrometer for the detection of {gamma}-rays in the energy range 2-20 MeV; Realisation d'un spectrometre a scintillations et a paires pour la detection des rayonnements {gamma} d'energie comprise entre 2 et 20 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longequeue, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-15

    The scintillation pair spectrometer is designed to allow the measurement of the energy of {gamma} rays in the range 2 to 20 MeV. Such an instrument is chosen because of its main features: high energy resolution and ease of working. Against this, however, the efficiency is low. It was possible to tolerate this low efficiency because of the facts that the {gamma}-rays studied emanated from (p, {gamma}) reactions and that the two electrostatic acceleration available could provide beams of 500 {mu}A having energy maxima at 300 and 600 keV. We used the {gamma} rays produced by the reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O and {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be as well as the {gamma} rays emitted by sources of RTh and of {sup 24}Na. Under these conditions the spectrometer attained a resolving power of 6,5 {+-} 0,5 per cent at 6,1 MeV and it was able to separate the 14,8 and 17,6 MeV lines produced by the reaction {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be. As well as this, the efficiency which varied from 2.10{sup -4} to 1,7.10{sup -3} between 2 and 20 MeV was well above the efficiencies already obtained with this type of instrument. (author) [French] Le spectrometre a scintillations et a paires presente dans cette these a pour but de mesurer l'energie des rayonnements {gamma} dans la bande de 2 a 20 MeV. Le choix d'un tel appareil est du a ses caracteristiques essentielles: bonne resolution en energie et maniabilite. Par contre, son efficacite est faible. Nous avons pu tolerer cette faible efficacite car les rayonnements {gamma} que nous avons etudies provenaient de reactions (p, {gamma}) et les deux accelerateurs electrostatiques dont nous disposions pouvaient fournir des faisceaux de 500 {mu}A avec des energies maximum de 300 et 600 keV. Nous avons utilise les rayonnements {gamma} produits par les reactions {sup 23}Na (p, {gamma}) {sup 24}Mg, {sup 19}F (p, {alpha} {gamma}) {sup 16}O et {sup 7}Li (p, {gamma}) {sup 8}Be ainsi que les

  13. The determination and use of radionuclide background in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Background is the major component of gross photon peak area. Therefore, net area, nuclide activity, counting uncertainty, and limits of detection calculations are no better than the calculation of background. In this study, background in gamma spectrometry is explored in several of its aspects. Means are presented to reduce background. Standard practices are presented to be used in the acquisition of valid, relevant background data. Unified standard calculations with examples are presented in the use of background data to determine net count and counting uncertainty. L. A. Currie's latest calculations of Lower Limits of Detection (1) (LLD) as they apply to gamma spectrometry are reviewed. Finally, Maximum Undetected Activity (MUA), LLD, and Critical Level (CL) concepts and calculations are compared in sample spectra

  14. Absolute exposure determination of cobalt-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.S.; Ali, A.; Orfi, S.D.

    1986-02-01

    The report describes the procedure for the determination of absolute exposure for Cobalt-60 gamma radiation. A graphite cavity chamber, nominal volume of 1 cm 3 , manufactured by Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf has been used. The exposure rate at reference distance determined with the graphite chamber was compared with mean exposure rate measured with NPL-Therapy level X-ray exposure meter normalized to same date. An agreement of 0.39% was found between the two measuring systems, which seems to be very encouraging and quite satisfactory. (authors)

  15. Determination of trace elements in Egyptian cane sugar (Deshna Factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadallah, R.M.; Sherif, M.K.; Mohamed, A.E.; Grass, F.

    1986-01-01

    Multielement instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses were utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth, respectively. (author)

  16. Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic compounds in environmental water by solid-phase extraction with activated carbon fiber felt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, K; Ibaraki, T; Tanabe, A; Yagoh, H; Shinoda, A; Suzuki, H; Yasuhara, A

    2001-03-09

    Simple gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of hydrophilic organic compounds in environmental water was developed. A cartridge containing activated carbon fiber felt was made by way of trial and was evaluated for solid-phase extraction of the compounds in water. The hydrophilic compounds investigated were acrylamide, N,N-dimethylacetamide, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, N-nitrosodiethylamine and N-nitrosodimethylamine. Overall recoveries were good (80-100%) from groundwater and river water. The relative standard deviations ranged from 4.5 to 16% for the target compounds. The minimum detectable concentrations were 0.02 to 0.03 microg/l. This method was successfully applied to several river water samples.

  17. Vis-NIR spectrometric determination of Brix and sucrose in sugar production samples using kernel partial least squares with interval selection based on the successive projections algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Valber Elias; de Araújo Gomes, Adriano; de Sousa Fernandes, David Douglas; Goicoechea, Héctor Casimiro; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; Araújo, Mario Cesar Ugulino

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes a new variable selection method for nonlinear multivariate calibration, combining the Successive Projections Algorithm for interval selection (iSPA) with the Kernel Partial Least Squares (Kernel-PLS) modelling technique. The proposed iSPA-Kernel-PLS algorithm is employed in a case study involving a Vis-NIR spectrometric dataset with complex nonlinear features. The analytical problem consists of determining Brix and sucrose content in samples from a sugar production system, on the basis of transflectance spectra. As compared to full-spectrum Kernel-PLS, the iSPA-Kernel-PLS models involve a smaller number of variables and display statistically significant superiority in terms of accuracy and/or bias in the predictions. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Determination of lithium and potassium in uranium oxide powders and pellets by Flame Atomic Emission Spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, J.R.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Prasada Rao, G.; Prahlad, B.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a method developed at Control Laboratory, NFC which includes prior separation of lithium and potassium from uranium matrix before their measurements. Solvent extraction, using Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate (TBP) in CCI 4 followed by Tri-n-Octyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) in CCI 4 , is employed for prior separation of Li and K. The resultant aqueous solution was analyzed by Flame-Atomic Emission Spectrometric (AES) method. Solvent extraction conditions are optimized for measurement of Li and K in the same aliquot. Experimental conditions such as instrument calibration, flame condition, fuel flow, sample flow rate through nebulizer, burner height etc. are also optimized. Under the optimal condition the detection limits achieved for lithium is 0.02 ppm and 0.2 ppm for potassium. A RSD of ± 3 % for Li at 0.05 ppm and ± 4% for K at 1 ppm level has been achieved in this method. The results of lithium in the sample are compared with the values obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Similarly, values of potassium are compared with Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) technique. The comparisons are in good agreement. The above method is simple, sensitive, reproducible and can be used for measurement of lithium and potassium in UO 2 powder and pellets on regular basis

  19. A new method for the determination of radionuclide distribution in the soil by in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, P.; Andrasi, A.; Nemeth, I.

    1995-01-01

    In case of major nuclear accidents when larger amount of radioactive material is released into the atmosphere vast areas can become contaminated by the nuclear fallout. The deposited radioactivity penetrates the soil in a complex manner: dry and wet deposition lead to different initial distribution patterns which are further modified by the later transport processes in the upper layers of the soil. The distribution is influenced by various factors (physico-chemical characteristics of the radioisotopes, soil type, weather conditions, environment etc.), the resulting soil profile is hardly predictable. An important lesson we learned from the Chernobyl reactor accident is the great variability of the contamination both in the extent of the deposition and in the penetration features. In recent years - following the reactor accident in Chernobyl - an increased interest for rapid methods of monitoring environmental radioactivity was expressed. The International Atomic Energy Agency initiated a research project to co-ordinate the activities carried out in various laboratories aiming at the development of rapid monitoring procedures. The Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) G6 10 01 under the title Rapid Instrumental and Separation Methods for Monitoring Radionuclides in Food and the Environment has given a frame for 11 research programs. The Health Physics Department of the KFKI Institute for Atomic Energy Research (the former Central Research Institute for Physics) has taken a part in this CRP with a project titled: Rapid In Situ Gamma Spectrometric Determination of Fallout Radioactivity in the Environment. The main objective of our study was to find a method to estimate the penetration characteristics of the fallout radioactivity by using only spectral information obtained by the in situ spectrometric measurement thus avoiding the need for a long and tiresome sampling and sample analysis procedure

  20. Decision Threshold and Detection Limit in Spectrometric Measurements. Part 1: Application to Gamma Spectrometry; Umbral de Decision y Limite de Deteccion en Medidas Espectrometricas. Parte 1: Aplicacion a la Espectrometria Gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, C.; Gasco, C.; Lopez, M.A.

    2010-03-03

    This report summarised the author's lecture of the advanced gamma spectrometry course organised by CIEMAT. The characteristic limits determination in gamma spectrometry generally is obtained through the programming that the trade marks offers to the client with the objective of the automatic calculation of the activity concentrations existing in a sample. In this report, the examples shown in the ISO 11929 standard are compared to the programming realised by Genie 2k for determining characteristic limits. The main difference of both is located in the uncertainty calculations due to the efficiency calibration that is considered by ISO and not by Genie 2K. Through implementation in the software developed by trade marks will be possible to introduce this uncertainty and to assimilate to the calculation done by ISO 11929. In the second part of this report will be analyzed the more complicated samples of this application as counting in a whole body counter (following ISO-28218 about Performance Criteria for radio bioassay), multiplet, overlapping, addition of several peaks for obtaining the activity concentration, etc. (Author) 19 refs.

  1. Polyclonal antibody to ovomucoid determination in gamma irradiated laying eggs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Lopes, Tatiana G.G.; Duarte, Keila M.R.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Savino, Vicente J.M.; Coelho, Antonio A.D.

    2009-01-01

    To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovomucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in female rabbits immunized with bioconjugated ovomucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA-ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of Co 60 , type Multipurpose, under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8 Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10 KGy; 20 KGy and 30 KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA.s test we can find the egg allergen ovomucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovomucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  2. Polyclonal antibody to ovomucoid determination in gamma irradiated laying eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harder, Marcia N.C.; Arthur, Valter; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Lopes, Tatiana G.G. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP, Piracicaba, SP. Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente) (Brazil)], e-mail: mnharder@cena.usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br, e-mail: tgglopes@cena.usp.br; Duarte, Keila M.R. [Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ . Nova Odessa), Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: keila@iz.sp.gov.br; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G.; Savino, Vicente J.M.; Coelho, Antonio A.D. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: vjmsavin@esalq.usp.br, e-mail: aadcoelh@esalq.usp.br

    2009-07-01

    To determine allergenic food proteins, one of the most used tests is the immunoassays such as ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), where the antibody recognizes the antigen and this connection is showed by an enzymatic system, in other words, optical density. The aim of this study was to determine the polyclonal antibody efficiency, produced in laboratory, to identify the presence the ovomucoid antigen in treated eggs by gamma irradiation for its inactivation. To evaluate the treatments, polyclonal antibody was produced in female rabbits immunized with bioconjugated ovomucoid. Was used Freund Complete Adjuvant at first immunization and PBS Buffer at four subsequently immunizations every fifteen days, plus a booster 48 hours before the blood retreated. The blood serum was tittered by PTA-ELISA (Plate trapped antigen). All procedures were according to European Norms for ethical and animal welfare. It was used, in nature, commercial laying eggs. So the samples were submitted to the gamma radiation coming from a source of Co{sup 60}, type Multipurpose, under a dose rate of 19.4 and 31.8 Gy/hour, in the doses: 0 (control); 10 KGy; 20 KGy and 30 KGy, in all rates. By the ELISA.s test we can find the egg allergen ovomucoid and the radiation treatment do not showed considerable changes. So we can concluded that the antibody produced is capable of identify the ovomucoid allergenic protein and the gamma irradiation in such rates does not shows changes in that protein, therefore showed some changes in the color and visual viscosity of the egg samples. (author)

  3. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. II: the Joaquim Murtinho Granite in the Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex, Parana, SE Brazil; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. II: O exemplo do Granito Joaquim Murtinho, Complexo Granitico Cunhaporanga, Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Martin, Victor Miguel Oliveira; Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: vicmartin6@ig.com.br, e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br

    2009-07-01

    Detailed mapping at the NW corner of the large Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), Parana state, SE Brazil, redefined the Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG), a late intrusion in CGC with an exposed area of about 10 km{sup 2}, made up mainly by evolved 'alaskites' (alkali-feldspar leuco granites). This unit is in tectonic contact with the Neoproterozoic-Eocambrian volcano-sedimentary Castro Group, to the W, and is intrusive into other less evolved granitic units of the CGC to the E. Petrographically, JMG shows mainly mesoperthite and quartz, with subordinate amounts of altered micas and some accessory phases, mainly zircon. The equi to inequigranular granites are usually deformed with cataclastic textures, are often brecciated, and may have miarolitic structures. Formation of late albite, sericite, carbonate and hematite was caused by deuteric and hydrothermal alteration. A gamma-ray spectrometric survey at 231 stations which measured total counts (TC), Ueq K%, eU ppm and eTh ppm was used to construct several direct and derived maps. Compared to neighboring units the JMG has significant anomalies, especially in the TC, %K, eTh and eU maps, although the differences are less obvious in some derived maps. These evolved granites are enriched in these three elements. Geochemical behavior of K, Th and U is used to analyse the results observed in maps. Enhanced weathering under a subtropical climate with moderate to high average temperatures and heavy rainfall affects mainly feldspars and biotite, and may also destabilize most U and Th-bearing accessory phases. Th is most likely retained in restite minerals in soils, being relatively immobile, while part of U may migrate as uranyl ion in oxidizing media. K is especially affected by feldspar alteration to K-free clays (mainly kaolinite), and may be completely leached. Gamma-ray spectrometric methods are valid tools to study facies in granitic rocks, especially in those that are enriched in K, Th and U

  4. Spectrometric techniques 4

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume IV discusses three widely diversified areas of spectrometric techniques. The book focuses on three spectrometric methods. Chapter 1 discusses the phenomenology and applications of Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS), the most commonly used optical technique that exploit the Raman effect. The second chapter is concerned with diffraction gratings and mountings for the Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectral Region. Chapter 3 accounts the uses of mass spectrometry, detectors, types of spectrometers, and ion sources. Physicists and chemists will find the book a go

  5. Gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of fission rate ratios between fresh and burnt fuel following irradiation in a zero-power reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kröhnert, H., E-mail: hanna.kroehnert@ensi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Perret, G.; Murphy, M.F. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-01-11

    The gamma-ray activity from short-lived fission products has been measured in fresh and burnt UO{sub 2} fuel samples after irradiation in a zero-power reactor. For the first time, short-lived gamma-ray activity from fresh and burnt fuel has been compared and fresh-to-burnt fuel fission rate ratios have been derived. For the measurements, well characterized fresh and burnt fuel samples, with burn-ups up to 46 GWd/t, were irradiated in the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. Fission rate ratios were derived based on the counting of high-energy gamma-rays above 2200 keV, in order to discriminate against the high intrinsic activity of the burnt fuel. This paper presents the measured fresh-to-burnt fuel fission rate ratios based on the {sup 142}La (2542 keV), {sup 89}Rb (2570 keV), {sup 138}Cs (2640 keV) and {sup 95}Y (3576 keV) high-energy gamma-ray lines. Comparisons are made with the results of Monte Carlo modeling of the experimental configuration, carried out using the MCNPX code. The measured fission rate ratios have 1σ uncertainties of 1.7–3.4%. The comparisons with calculated predictions show an agreement within 1–3σ, although there appears to be a slight bias (∼3%).

  6. Synergetic enhancement effect of ionic liquid and diethyldithiocarbamate on the chemical vapor generation of nickel for its atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chuan; Li Yan; Wu Peng; Yan Xiuping

    2009-01-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquid in combination with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) was used to synergetically improve the chemical vapor generation (CVG) of nickel. Volatile species of nickel were effectively generated through reduction of acidified analyte solution with KBH 4 in the presence of 0.02% DDTC and 25 mmol L -1 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C 4 mim]Br) at room temperature. Thus, a new flow injection (FI)-CVG-atomic fluorescence spectrometric (FI-CVG-AFS) method was developed for determination of nickel with a detection limit of 0.65 μg L -1 (3 s) and a sampling frequency of 180 h -1 . With consumption of 0.5 mL sample solution, an enhancement factor of 2400 was obtained. The precision (RSD) for eleven replicate determinations of 20 μg L -1 Ni was 3.4%. The developed FI-CVG-AFS method was successfully applied to determination of trace Ni in several certified biological reference materials.

  7. NASVD and MNF techniques and your application noise reduction in gamma-ray spectrometric data; As tecnicas NASVD e MNF e sua aplicacao na reducao de ruidos em dados gamaespectrometricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallaro, Francisco de Assis, E-mail: assisfc@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: assis@agp-la.org [Departamento de Geologia Sedimentar e Ambiental, DGSA, Instituto de Geociencias, IG, Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); AGPLA, AeroGeoPhysica Latinoamerica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Portugal, Rodrigo S.; Bizuti, Ariathemis M., E-mail: portugal@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: ambizuti@ige.unicamp.br [Departamento de Geologia e Recursos Naturais, DGRN, Instituto de Geociencias, IG, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil); Silva, Adalene M., E-mail: adalene@unb.br [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geoquimica e Recursos Minerais (GRM)

    2009-04-15

    The radioactive decay is a random process, and the measurement precision is ruled by statistical laws. The counting ratios of the profiles are always noisy when analyzed for short periods, such as one second per measurement. Corrections made at the end of conventional processing in the airborne gamma-ray spectrometric method data are not enough to remove and minimize, or even reduce considerably, the spectrum's originated noise. Two statistic methods that act locally in collected data, in the spectrum domain, have been suggested by literature to remove such remaining noises, the Noise-Adjusted Singular Value Decomposition - NASVD and Maximum Noise Fraction - MNF. These methods produce a significantly noise reduction. In this work both methods were applied in an area comprehended by two blocks, I and II, of the airborne survey that covers the west area of Mineral Province of Tapajos between Para and Amazon states. The filtered and non-filtered data with the NASVD and MNF techniques were processed with the Lasa's parameters. The comparison of results between maps and profiles shows that both methods are valuable, since there was resolution gain in these products. (author)

  8. Spectrometric assembly for portable installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, A.; Popescu, C.

    1997-01-01

    The components of the portable spectrometric assembly are: - the detecting probe with Na I(Tl) crystal and air-tight case of industrial type; - a microcomputer; - a unit of analogical processing of the signal from the detecting probe; - a single-channel analyzer with adjustable threshold; - commands and display module; - a source of high voltage; - an electrical supply battery. The device uses the method of gamma photons detection in energetic windows. Through theoretical and experimental studies carried out during the prototype development phase, the superiority of this method has been proved as compared with the installations which make use of the classical principle of photon integral detection. The achieved prototype has a basic program enabling the setting of all working parameters (measuring time, discriminating thresholds, discriminators operating conditions, etc.). Through the included interface RS232 it is possible to transmit the data to a more powerful computer in order to continually process the results. The spectrometric assembly, realized on the basis of micro-computers, can be used in a wide range of applications: measurement of thickness and erosion of walls and tubes, measurement of level in closed containers, of soil density, etc. The adjustment for specific application is performed only through a program modification. (authors)

  9. Evaluation of mass spectrometric data using principal component analysis for determination of the effects of organic lakes on protein binder identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdlickova Kuckova, Stepanka; Rambouskova, Gabriela; Hynek, Radovan; Cejnar, Pavel; Oltrogge, Doris; Fuchs, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is commonly used for the identification of proteinaceous binders and their mixtures in artworks. The determination of protein binders is based on a comparison between the m/z values of tryptic peptides in the unknown sample and a reference one (egg, casein, animal glues etc.), but this method has greater potential to study changes due to ageing and the influence of organic/inorganic components on protein identification. However, it is necessary to then carry out statistical evaluation on the obtained data. Before now, it has been complicated to routinely convert the mass spectrometric data into a statistical programme, to extract and match the appropriate peaks. Only several 'homemade' computer programmes without user-friendly interfaces are available for these purposes. In this paper, we would like to present our completely new, publically available, non-commercial software, ms-alone and multiMS-toolbox, for principal component analyses of MALDI-TOF MS data for R software, and their application to the study of the influence of heterogeneous matrices (organic lakes) for protein identification. Using this new software, we determined the main factors that influence the protein analyses of artificially aged model mixtures of organic lakes and fish glue, prepared according to historical recipes that were used for book illumination, using MALDI-TOF peptide mass mapping. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin; Pan, Shaoming; Roos, Per

    2014-02-01

    This paper reports an analytical method for the determination of plutonium isotopes ((238)Pu, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, (241)Pu) in environmental samples using anion exchange chromatography in combination with extraction chromatography for chemical separation of Pu. Both radiometric methods (liquid scintillation counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5 × 10(5) for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference values, revealing that the developed method for plutonium determination in environmental samples is reliable. The measurement results of (239+240)Pu by alpha spectrometry agreed very well with the sum of (239)Pu and (240)Pu measured by ICP-MS. ICP-MS can not only measure (239)Pu and (240)Pu separately but also (241)Pu. However, it is impossible to measure (238)Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 10(6) for uranium was obtained by chemical separation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical study on determining formation porosity using a boron capture gamma ray technique and MCNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juntao; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Xinguang; Han, Fei; Yuan, Zhelong

    2014-12-01

    Formation porosity can be determined using the boron capture gamma ray counting ratio with a near to far detector in a pulsed neutron-gamma element logging tool. The thermal neutron distribution, boron capture gamma spectroscopy and porosity response for formations with different water salinity and wellbore diameter characteristics were simulated using the Monte Carlo method. We found that a boron lining improves the signal-to-noise ratio and that the boron capture gamma ray counting ratio has a higher sensitivity for determining porosity than total capture gamma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Ni and Pb in diesel and gasoline samples stabilized as microemulsion using conventional and permanent modifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos Reyes, Mariela N.; Campos, Reinaldo C.

    2005-01-01

    A procedure for the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Ni and Pb in diesel and gasoline samples was developed. Sample stabilization was necessary because of evident analyte losses that occurred immediately after sampling. Excellent long-term sample stabilization was observed by mixing different organic solvents with propan-1-ol and 50% vol/vol HNO 3 at a 3.3:6.5:1 volume ratio. For Pb, efficient thermal stabilization was obtained using aqueous Pd-Mg modifier as well as for Ir as permanent modifier. The drying temperature and ramp rate influenced the sensitivity obtained for Ni, and had to be carefully optimized. Taking this into account, the same sensitivity was attained in all investigated organic media stabilized as microemulsion. Thus, calibration with microemulsions prepared with a single organic solvent was possible, using aqueous or organic stock solutions. Commercial gasoline and diesel samples were directly analyzed after stabilization as microemulsion and by comparative UOP procedures. n-Hexane microemulsions were used for calibration, and good agreement was obtained between the results using the proposed and comparative procedures. Typical coefficients of variation (n = 6) ranged from 1% to 4%, and from 1% to 3% for Ni and Pb, respectively. Detection limits (k = 3) in the original gasoline or diesel samples, derived from 10 blank measurements, were 4.5 and 3.6 μg l -1 for Ni and Pb, respectively, comfortably below the values found in the analyzed samples

  13. Rapid, Sensitive and Validated Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Method for the Determination of Fenofibric Acid and its Application to Human Pharmacokinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Dubey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The first, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometric method for the determination of fenofibric acid, the active metabolite of fenofibrate, a lipid regulating agent, in human EDTA plasma has been developed and validated using fenofibric d6 acid as internal standard and Waters LC-MS/MS. Negative ions of fenofibric acid and fenofibric d6 acid were detected in multiple reaction-monitoring (MRM mode. The method was validated over a concentration range of 0.176 μg/mL to 19.837 μg/mL (r ≥ 0.99. It took only 1.5 minute to analyse a sample. Intra- and inter-run precision of fenofibric acid assay at four concentrations ranged from 0.5% to 4.3% with accuracy varied from 93.1 to 108.1% indicating good precision and accuracy. Analytical recoveries of fenofibric acid and internal standard in plasma were less than 90%. This method was successfully applied for evaluation of pharmacokinetics of fenofibric acid after a single oral dose of 145 mg fenofibrate to 10 Indian healthy volunteers

  14. Determination of Triazine Herbicides in Drinking Water by Dispersive Micro Solid Phase Extraction with Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometric Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dawei; Zhang, Yiping; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Wu, Yongning

    2015-11-11

    A novel dispersive micro solid phase extraction (DMSPE) method based on a polymer cation exchange material (PCX) was applied to the simultaneous determination of the 30 triazine herbicides in drinking water with ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometric detection. Drinking water samples were acidified with formic acid, and then triazines were adsorbed by the PCX sorbent. Subsequently, the analytes were eluted with ammonium hydroxide/acetonitrile. The chromatographic separation was performed on an HSS T3 column using water (4 mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid) and acetonitrile (0.1% formic acid) as the mobile phase. The method achieved LODs of 0.2-30.0 ng/L for the 30 triazines, with recoveries in the range of 70.5-112.1%, and the precision of the method was better than 12.7%. These results indicated that the proposed method had the advantages of convenience and high efficiency when applied to the analysis of the 30 triazines in drinking water.

  15. Direct injection liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric horse urine analysis for the quantification and confirmation of threshold substances for doping control. II. Determination of theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaparti, A; Lyris, E; Panderi, I; Koupparis, M; Georgakopoulos, C

    2009-04-01

    In equine sport, theobromine is prohibited with a threshold level of 2 microg mL(-1) in urine, hence doping control laboratories have to establish quantitative and qualitative methods for its determination. Two simple liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) methods for the identification and quantification of theobromine were developed and validated using the same sample preparation procedure but different mass spectrometric systems: ion trap mass spectrometry (ITMS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). Particle-free diluted urine samples were directly injected into the LC/MS systems, avoiding the time-consuming extraction step. 3-Propylxanthine was used as the internal standard. The tested linear range was 0.75-15 microg mL(-1). Matrix effects were evaluated analyzing calibration curves in water and different fortified horse urine samples. A great variation in the signal of theobromine and the internal standard was observed in different matrices. To overcome matrix effects, a standard additions calibration method was applied. The relative standard deviations of intra- and inter-day analysis were lower than 8.6 and 7.2%, respectively, for the LC/ITMS method and lower than 5.7 and 5.8%, respectively, for the LC/TOFMS method. The bias was less than 8.7% for both methods. The methods were applied to two case samples, demonstrating simplicity, accuracy and selectivity. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Performance test of Spectran-F and Spectran-III computer programs for resolving the 137Cs-110Ag double peak in gamma-ray spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, H.; Malinowski, J.; Blick, H.

    1981-09-01

    The performance of the computer programs (Spectran F and Spectran-III) in resolving the 137 Cs-sup(110m)Ag double peak at 661.6-657.7 keV in the gamma-ray spectrum was investigated. In the experiments, the intensity ratios of both lines in the double peak were varied from 0.1 to 60. The results obtained show, that both programs have almost the same performance in resolving the double peak investigated, with slight superiority of Spectran-F. If accuracy better than 5% is desired, the peak intensity ratio in the dublet must be kept below 10. (orig.)

  17. Influence of particle size of wear metal on the spectrometric oil analysis programme (SOAP), demonstrated by the determination of iron by AAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaegler, S.H.; Jantzen, E.

    1982-02-01

    The possibility that there might be a relation between particle size of wear metal and spectrometric determination, (e.g. of the iron content in used lubricating oils) has been examined. In this connection it had to be clarified from which particle size of the iron wear the Fe content determined by direct AAS (solution of the oil sample) is in agreement with the true value in the used oil. The determination of the absolute iron content was performed by a colorimetric method preceded by an incineration of the used oil. Contrary to other publications, in which work is based on spherical iron particles as a simulated wear, the test described here relates to true wear particles. To obtain the total iron wear from a gear oil it was filtered off from the used oil and afterwards separated into defined particle size ranges by a procedure specially developed for this purpose. The different groups of scaly particles, which were collected in this way, were then mixed homogeneously into fresh luboil samples according to their sizes. The determination of the iron content from these newly mixed luboil samples was carried out 1. by direct AAS, 2. by AAS after incineration of the oil samples and 3. by a colorimetric method (to obtain the absolute value of the iron content). The results showed a recovery of the iron of only 50% if the wear particles were bigger than about 2 ..mu..m. That means that the true value of the iron content in a used lubricating oil is found by direct AAS only if the particle size is <=1 ..mu..m.

  18. Identification of boiler tube leak in PHWR by measuring short lived radioisotope Iodine-134 in boiler water using gamma spectrometric techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, P.K.; Bohra, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The boiler tube made up of Monel-400 of RAPS-2 has failed on few occasions. Due to the failure of boiler tube, the active heavy water enters into boiler and feed water leading to contamination of radioactivity in secondary water circuit. The identification of boiler tube failure was done by measuring gamma ray activity of Iodine-134 in the boiler water with sample using gamma spectrometry with high purity germanium detector. In order to increase the sensitivity of the method 5 liters of Boiler water sample was passed through a plastic column containing 40 ml of anion resin and 10 ml of activated charcoal to capture the isotopes of Iodine in the anionic form and molecular form. Samples were collected from all 8 Boilers of RAPS-2. The activity of 134 I was shown only by Boiler - 5. No other boilers showed any activity of 134 I. This indicated that Boiler - 5 had leaky tubes. The leaky hairpin of boiler - 5 was identified by measuring Tritium and IP in the riser and down comer of all 10 HXs. On the basis of Tritium and IP result, HX-7 was identified as leaky hairpin. (author)

  19. Non-destructive γ-spectrometric determination of mercury and gold in sea water after preconcentration by lead sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for determination of mercury and gold in sea-water, based on preconcentration of these elements by retention on a column of lead sulphide at pH1 (nitric and sulphuric acids), and γ-spectrometry. Mercury (0.8 +-0.2 μg/l) and gold (6 +- 3 ng/l) have been determined in a sample from the Black Sea, taken near Varna. (author)

  20. Gamma-ray spectral determinations with a portable analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldridge, J.S.; Oakes, T.W.

    1978-01-01

    A portable sodium iodide spectrometer was used in a variety of field applications. The spectrometer is a battery-operated system complete with a 5 x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector, 1024 channel memory divisible into four quadrants, special summation and calibration circuits, and a telemeter output for data transmittals. The portable spectrometer has been used to make in situ measurements around a radioactive waste burial ground. Typical spectra of 137 Cs and 60 Co were easily discernible at one such site. Uptake in vegetation near a sealed trench could be observed by placing the NaI(Tl) probe in the foliage. The extent of the spread of low-level contamination of 60 Co was determined in an area that had previously been decontaminated. The unique response of the two 60 Co gamma-rays could be obtained by subtracting the local background response within the computing spectrometer. The ability to perform qualitative identification and to assess hazards in emergency situations has been demonstrated

  1. Spectrometric techniques 3

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume III presents the applications of spectrometric techniques to atmospheric and space studies. This book reviews the spectral data processing and analysis techniques that are of broad applicability.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the instrumentation used for obtaining field data. This text then reviews the contribution that space-borne spectroscopy in the thermal IR has made to the understanding of the planets. Other chapters consider the instruments that have recorded the planetary emission spectra. This book discusses as well

  2. Determination of ruthenium in photographic emulsions - Development and comparison of different sample treatments and mass spectrometric methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Heumann, Klaus G.

    1999-01-01

    Different sample treatment procedures were combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and negative thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (NTI-MS) for the determination of ruthenium traces in photographic emulsions. Dissolution of the samples in concentrated ammonia solution

  3. Gas chromatographic determination of acid herbicides in surface water samples with electron-capture detection and mass spectrometric confirmation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, M.; Poll, J.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    The development of a multi-residue method for the determination of eight polar acidic herbicides (MCPA, MCPB, mecoprop, 2,4-D, dichlorprop, bentazone, dicamba and dikegulac) in surface water is described. The method involves an off-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure prior to instrumental

  4. Screening Natural Content of Water-Soluble B Vitamins in Fish: Enzymatic Extraction, HILIC Separation, and Tandem Mass Spectrometric Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Niladri Sekhar; Kumar, K Ashok; Ajeeshkumar, K K; Kumari, K R Remya; Vishnu, K V; Anandan, Rangasamy; Mathew, Suseela; Ravishankar, C N

    2017-05-01

    Despite the potential of LC with tandem MS (MS/MS) in improving sensitivity and selectivity, analytical methods are scarce for the determination of protein-bound and phosphorylated forms of B vitamins in food. This prompted us to develop a method for LC-MS/MS determination of naturally occurring nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, biotin, folic acid, and cyanocobalamin in fish. Baseline separation of the vitamins was achieved in a hydrophilic interaction LC condition. An ultrasonication-assisted enzymatic extraction protocol for sample preparation was optimized and validated. The time required for extraction was significantly reduced (to 4 h), while maintaining good extraction efficiency. Acetonitrile content (80%, v/v) in the prepared sample was found to be optimum for excellent peak shape and sensitivity. The dynamic linear range of the vitamins ranged from 2.5 to 500 ng/g, and the regression coefficient values were greater than 0.99. LOQ values ranged from 0.4 to 50 ng/g for the different vitamins. The spike recovery values at 50 and 100 ng/g ranged from 87.5 to 97.5%. The intra- and interday precision values were satisfactory. Accuracy of the developed method was determined by analysis of a Certified Reference Material. The method could also be used for unambiguous determination of the natural content of the target vitamins in fish.

  5. Improved analytical procedure for the determination of 210Pb and 210Po using alpha-spectrometric isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urnezis, P.W.; Holtzman, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    An isotope dilution method has been incorporated into the 210 Pb- 210 Po analysis. A known amount of 209 Po is added to the sample before analysis. Then both 209 Po and 210 Po are deposited on a silver planchet which is assayed in an alpha spectrometer to determine the activities of each isotope. The recoveries generally range from 70% to 90%

  6. Determination of gamma ray shielding parameters of rocks and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Shamsan S.; Gaikwad, Dhammajyot K.; Pawar, Pravina P.

    2018-03-01

    Gamma shielding parameters such as mass attenuation coefficient (μ/ρ), effective atomic number (Zeff) and electron density (Neff) have been measured and calculated for rocks and concrete in the energy range 122-1330 keV. The measurements have been carried out at 122, 356, 511, 662, 1170, 1275, 1330 keV gamma ray energies using a gamma spectrometer includes a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector and MCA card. The atomic and electronic cross sections have also been investigated. Experimental and calculated (WinXCom) values were compared, and good agreement has been observed within the experimental error. The obtained results showed that feldspathic basalt, compact basalt, volcanic rock, dolerite and pink granite are more efficient than the sandstone and concrete for gamma ray shielding applications.

  7. Determining the water content in concrete by gamma scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priyada, P.; Ramar, R.; Shivaramu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Gamma scattering technique for estimation of water content in concrete is given. • The scattered intensity increases with the volumetric water content. • Attenuation correction is provided to the scattered intensities. • Volumetric water content of 137 Cs radioactive source and a high resolution HPGe detector based energy dispersive gamma ray spectrometer. Concrete samples of uniform density ≈2.4 g/cm 3 are chosen for the study and the scattered intensities found to vary with the amount of water present in the specimen. The scattered intensities are corrected for attenuation effects and the results obtained with reference to a dry sample are compared with those obtained by gravimetrical and gamma transmission methods. A good agreement is seen between gamma scattering results and those obtained by gravimetric and transmission methods within accuracy of 6% and <2% change in water content can be detected

  8. Membrane filtration of nickel(II) on cellulose acetate filters for its preconcentration, separation, and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylak, Mustafa [Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science Arts, University of Erciyes, Kayseri (Turkey); Unsal, Yunus Emre; Aydin, Ayse [Fen Bilimleri Enstitusu, University of Erciyes, Kayseri (Turkey); Kizil, Nebiye [Saglik Bilimleri Enstitusu, University of Erciyes, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    An enrichment method for trace amounts of Ni(II), as 8-hydroxyquinoline chelates, has been established on a cellulose acetate membrane filter. Ni(II)-8-hydroxyquinoline chelates adsorbed on a membrane filter were eluted using 5 mL of 1 M HNO{sub 3}. The eluent nickel concentration was determined by a flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The influence of some analytical parameters, including pH, amount of reagent, sample volume, etc., on recovery was investigated. The interference of co-existent ions was studied. The nickel detection limit was 4.87 {mu}g/L. The method was applied to real samples for the determination of nickel(II) ions. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometric determination of phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc, and strontium in human bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Akishige; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Itoman, Moritoshi

    1981-01-01

    Phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium in a human bone extracted by surgery were determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. The bone was decomposed with nitric acid, then diluted with water. A specific quantity of the solution was naturally dried on polyethylene film, and subjected to X-ray analysis. For determining the calibration curves in a mixture of phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium, for the analysis of phosphorus and calcium, germanium was used as the secondary target and aluminum as the filter; and for the analysis of iron, zinc and strontium, molybdenum and molybdenum-aluminum were used, respectively. Consequently, the calibration curves were able to be obtained with high precision in the ranges from 5 to 500 μg of phosphorus, from 1 to 50 μg of calcium and from 0.1 to 1.0 μg of iron, zinc and strontium. In this way, in 1 mg of the human bone by wet weight, phosphorus, calcium, iron, zinc and strontium were able to be determined. (J.P.N.)

  10. Determination of trace elements in various kinds of bean by X-ray spectrometric techniques (1995-96)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U Tin Maung Kyi; U Wai Zin Oo

    2001-01-01

    Various kinds of bean such as Peanut, Gram Whole, Black Eye Bean, Small Red Bean, Lab Lab Bean, Green Mung Bean, Filed Pea, Seasame Seed, Sultani, Maize, Butter Bean, Dolichos Lab Lab, Toor Whole, Small Yellow Bean, Cow Pea have been collected and analysed by EDXRF analysis for trace elements. The measurement system consists of a Cd-109 annual excitation source, a Si (Li) detector, H V power supply, a spectrometry amplifier, a multichannel analyser and a personal computer. The samples were prepared as pressed pellets and measured by Emission Transmission Technique. The accuracy was determined by analysing standard reference material, SOIL-7 form IAEA. (author)

  11. NMR spectrometric assay for determining enzymatic hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics with bacteria in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'hara, K.; Shiomi, Y.; Kono, M.

    1984-01-01

    An application of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer for the measurement of β-lactamase activity in clinical material containing bacteria is presented. By means of proton ( 1 H)-NMR, it was easy to measure quantitatively β-lactamase activity in human bacteriuria, without performing any such pretreatment as isolation of bacteria or extraction of crude enzymes and without preparing special reagents for the detection. This is the first report on the application of 1 H-NMR analysis of structural changes for determining hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics with β-lactamase-producing bacteria in aqueous solution. (Auth.)

  12. Standard test method for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of lead and cadmium extracted from ceramic foodware

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) to quantitatively determine lead and cadmium extracted by acetic acid at room temperature from the food-contact surface of foodware. The method is applicable to food-contact surfaces composed of silicate-based materials (earthenware, glazed ceramicware, decorated ceramicware, decorated glass, and lead crystal glass) and is capable of determining lead concentrations greater than 0.005 to 0.020 g/mL and cadmium concentrations greater than 0.0005 to 0.002 g/mL, depending on instrument design. 1.2 This test method also describes quality control procedures to check for contamination and matrix interference during GFAAS analyses and a specific sequence of analytical measurements that demonstrates proper instrument operation during the time period in which sample solutions are analyzed. 1.3 Cleaning and other contamination control procedures are described in this test method. Users may modify contamination cont...

  13. A novel, donor-active solvent-assisted liquid-phase microextraction procedure for spectrometric determination of zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocurova, Livia; Fatlova, Martina; Bazel, Yaroslav; Serbin, Rastislav; Andruch, Vasil, E-mail: liviamonika.kocurova@gmail.com [Department of Analytical Chemistry, University of P. J. Safarik, Kosice (Slovakia); Balogh, Ioseph S. [Department of Chemistry, College of Nyiregyhaza (Hungary); Simon, Andras [Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budapest (Hungary); Badida, Miroslav; Rusnak, Radoslav [Department of Environmentalistics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Kosice (Slovakia)

    2014-02-15

    Based on the reaction of Zn(II), thiocyanate and 2-[2-(5-dimethylamino-thiophen-2-yl)-vinyl]- 1,3,3-trimethyl-3H-indolium bromide (DTVTI), a donor-active solvent-assisted liquid-phase microextraction procedure followed by spectrophotometric determination of zinc at 570 nm was developed. The optimum experimental conditions were investigated and found to be as follows: concentration of NH{sub 4}SCN 0.02 mol L{sup -1} concentration of DTVTI 4 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1}. Various extraction solvents were studied alone as well as in mixtures with different improvers, and a mixture of toluene as the extraction solvent and tributylphosphate as the donor-active solvent in a 4:1 v/v ratio was selected. The calibration plot was linear up to 2.62 mg L{sup 1} of zinc with limit of detection 0.09 mg L{sup -1}. The developed procedure was applied for zinc determination in dietary supplements. (author)

  14. Determination of nifedipine in dog plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xigui; Zhou, Shunchang; Fu, Qinqin; Hu, Xianming; Wu, Jianhong

    2014-07-01

    Nifedipine is a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker used widely in the management of hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders. In this work, a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated to determine nifedipine in dog plasma using nimodipine as the internal standard. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a C₈ column. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of acetonitrile, water and formic acid (60:40:0.2, v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in selected reaction monitoring mode via an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization source. The method has a lower limit of quantification of 0.20 ng/mL with consumption of plasma as low as 0.05 mL. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 0.20-50.0 ng/mL (r = 0.9948). The recoveries of the liquid extraction method were 74.5-84.1%. Intra-day and inter-day precisions were 4.1-8.8 and 6.7-7.4%, respectively. The quantification was not interfered with by other plasma components and the method was applied to determine nifedipine in plasma after a single oral administration of two controlled-release nifedipine tablets to beagle dogs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Determination of ion track and shapes with damage simulations on the base of ellipsometric and backscattering spectrometric measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polgar, O.; Fried, M.; Khanh, N.; Petrik, P.; Barsony, I. [Research Institute for Technical Phisycs and Materials Science, Budapest (Hungary)

    2008-05-15

    On the base of geometrical and statistical considerations a damage simulator was created in order to determine the ion track-radius and -shape of ion-implantation caused damage in single-crystalline Si. Damage vs. dose curves calculated by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and Rutherford backscattering/channeling spectrometry (RBS/C) measurements, using different doses of 100 keV Xe implantation, gave information about the damage profile in depth. Both methods are required, because of dose-dependent discrepancies of SE compared with RBS/C [Fried et al., Thin Solid Films 455/456, 404 (2004)]. Different kinds of damage models were investigated to calculate the ion track-radius and to describe the damages in depth and the shape of ion track. Comparing directly the simulated and the measured damage vs. dose curves, the damage function and the other simulation parameters were optimized and hence the ion track size and even the shape can be determined. The dose dependent mean size of the unchanged crystalline regions, obtained from the simulation was correlated with the complex dielectric functions, obtained from the SE analysis. The results clearly show the effect of decreasing size of the unchanged crystalline regions. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cobalt, copper, lead and nickel traces in aragonite following flotation and extraction separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendelovska, D; Pavlovska, G; Cundeva, K; Stafilov, T

    2001-03-30

    A method of determination of Co, Cu, Pb and Ni in nanogram quantities from aragonite is presented. Flotation and extraction of Co, Cu, Pb and Ni is suggested as methods for elimination matrix interferences of calcium. The method of flotation is performed by iron(III) hexamethylenedithiocarbamate, Fe(HMDTC)(3), as a colloid precipitate collector. The liquid-liquid extraction of Co, Cu, Pb and Ni is carried out by sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, NaDDTC, as complexing reagent into methylisobutyl ketone, MIBK. The electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) is used for determination of analytes. The detection limits of ETAAS followed by flotation are: 7.8 ng.g(-1) for Co, 17.1 ng.g(-1) for Cu, 7.2 ng.g(-1) for Pb and 9.0 mug.g(-1) for Ni. The detection limits of ETAAS followed by extraction are found to be: 12.0 ng.g(-1) for Co, 51.0 ng.g(-1) for Cu, 24.0 ng.g(-1) for Pb and 21.0 ng.g(-1) for Ni.

  17. Mobile spectrometric laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isajenko, K.A.; Lipinski, P.

    2002-01-01

    The article presents the Mobile Spectrometric Laboratory used by Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection since year 2000. The equipment installed in the Mobile Laboratory and its uses is described. The results of international exercises and intercalibrations, in which the Laboratory participated are presented. (author)

  18. Separation and enrichment of gold(III) from environmental samples prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senturk, Hasan Basri; Gundogdu, Ali; Bulut, Volkan Numan; Duran, Celal; Soylak, Mustafa; Elci, Latif; Tufekci, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    A simple and accurate method was developed for separation and enrichment of trace levels of gold in environmental samples. The method is based on the adsorption of Au(III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complex on Amberlite XAD-2000 resin prior to the analysis of gold by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after elution with 1 mol L -1 HNO 3 in acetone. Some parameters including nitric acid concentration, eluent type, matrix ions, sample volume, sample flow rate and adsorption capacity were investigated on the recovery of gold(III). The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit of gold were greater than 95% and 16.6 μg L -1 , respectively. The preconcentration factor was 200. The relative standard deviation of the method was -1 . The validation of the presented procedure was checked by the analysis of CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil certified reference material. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of gold in some environmental samples

  19. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium and nickel in drinking and wastewater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeemullah; Kazi, Tasneem G; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan I; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Soomro, Abdul Sattar

    2013-01-01

    A simple method for the preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) in drinking and wastewater samples was developed. Cloud point extraction has been used for the preconcentration of both metals, after formation of complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) and extraction with the surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). Dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with acidified ethanol was performed after phase separation, and the Cd and Ni contents were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The experimental variables, such as pH, amounts of reagents (8-HQ and Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume, were optimized. After optimization of the complexation and extraction conditions, enhancement factors of 80 and 61, with LOD values of 0.22 and 0.52 microg/L, were obtained for Cd and Ni, respectively. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily for the determination of both elements in drinking and wastewater samples.

  20. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loge, G.

    1994-09-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U3O8. Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF6. This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid.

  1. Biosorption of aluminum on Pseudomonas aeruginosa loaded on Chromosorb 106 prior to its graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    A biosorption procedure for separation-enrichment of aluminum in environmental samples has been presented in this work. Pseudomonas aeruginosa loaded on Chromosorb 106 has been used as biosorbent for that purpose. P. aeruginosa is a gram-negative, aerobic rod. The influences of pH of the aqueous solution, eluent type, eluent volume, sample volume, etc. were examined on the quantitative recovery of aluminum in P. aeruginosa loaded on Chromosorb 106. The effects of concomitant ions on the recoveries of aluminum were also investigated. The detection limit based on 3 sigma for aluminum is 30 ng L -1 . Three certified reference materials (LGC 6010 Hard Drinking Water, NIST-SRM 1568a Rice Flour and NRCC-DORM-2 Dogfish Muscle) were analyzed for the validation of the presented procedure. The proposed procedure was applied to the determination of aluminum in environmental samples including natural water and food samples. The concentration of aluminum in real samples was found at ppb level

  2. Adaptation of atomic spectrometric methods for the determination of trace elements in whole blood and blood fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prohaska, C.

    2002-05-01

    Analytical methods were developed and optimized for the determination of the elements Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Se, V and Zn in whole blood and in the blood fractions plasma, erythrocytes and lymphocytes of a group of people suffering from diabetes and of a control group of healthy individuals. Cr, Mn, Se and V were analyzed by ETAAS. Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn were analyzed by ICP-OES. The status of trace elements in lymphocytes of people suffering from diabetes is changed. Physiologically interesting correlations were observed between the clinical parameters cholesterol, HDL, LDL, blood glucose, HbA1c, age and BMI and the trace element concentrations, e.g. a correlation of blood glucose and HbA1c with selenium in whole blood. An ETAAS - method for the determination of Co and Mo was developed and optimized. The samples were digested applying a mixture of HNO3 and HF, different types of graphite furnaces were tested and a multiple injection technique was applied, thereby enabling a contribution to the normal values of these elements in human whole blood. An on-line coupling of a LC, controlled by FIA, with an ICP-OES was developed to investigate the concentrations of the iron species Fe(II) and Fe(III) and the copper species Cu(I) and Cu(II) in human blood plasma. The ICP-OES instrument was adapted, batch experiments were carried out, oxidizing and reducing agents were added and the acidity of the eluens, the flow rate and the integration time were optimized. Choosing alanine for complexation of the species of interest enables their separation under physiological conditions. In the real plasma samples measured most of the copper and iron was found in their oxidized forms. (author)

  3. Gamma-spectrometric surveys in differentiated granites. I: a review of the method and of the geochemical behavior of K, Th and U; Levantamentos gamaespectrometricos em granitos diferenciados. I: revisao da metodologia e do comportamento geoquimico dos elementos K, Th e U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulbrich, Horstpeter Herberto Gustavo Jose; Ulbrich, Mabel Norma Costas [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Mineralogia e Geotectonica], e-mail: hulbrich@usp.br, e-mail: mulbrich@usp.br; Ferreira, Francisco Jose Fonseca [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia. Lab. de Pesquisas em Geofisica Aplicada; Alves, Luizemara Soares [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: luizemara@petrobras.com.br; Guimaraes, Gilson Burigo [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa (UEPG), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias], e-mail: gburigo@ig.com.br; Fruchting, Allan [Votorantim Metais, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: allan.fruchting@vmetais.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This contribution is part of a research project on the Neo proterozoic Cunhaporanga Granitic Complex (CGC), cropping out in the Ponta Grossa Arch (Parana state, SE Brazil). An initial study used the gamma-spectrometric data of the Serra do Mar Sul Aero geophysical Project, performed during the 70's for CPRM. Later, terrestrial gamma-spectrometric surveys focused on the study of the differentiated Joaquim Murtinho Granite (JMG) in the NW corner of CGC, and the Serra do Carambei Granite, to the SW. In this paper, the results obtained for JMG are presented in two parts. The first deals with methodology and the presentation of several gamma-spectrometric 'color-scale' maps, indicating that results obtained in granites depend strongly on a climatic factor, given the mobility of K during weathering in subtropical climates with strong rainfalls, also favoring a greater mobility of U. Minerals that are U and Th hosts, documented in granites, are reviewed, together with the weathering processes that control the mobility of K, U and Th in soils. Strong K signals in granitic areas submitted to these climates document the presence of fresh rock and/or effects of hydrothermal alteration, while weak or nil signals are evidence of strong leaching of K during weathering. U and Th will be retained in the residual soils, in part leading to their selective enrichment, also coupled with soil migration to lower topographic levels by colluvial transport. The larger solubility of U (as uranyl ion) allows its liberation under oxidizing conditions, and its migration, limited by the possibility of absorption in newly formed mineral and organic soil phases. Th should be retained almost totally in resistant phases and, when liberated in solution, will mostly be fixed in organic and inorganic soil substances. (author)

  4. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper in nickel-base alloys with various chemical modifiers*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Suh-Jen Jane; Shiue, Chia-Chann; Chang, Shiow-Ing

    1997-07-01

    The analytical characteristics of copper in nickel-base alloys have been investigated with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Deuterium background correction was employed. The effects of various chemical modifiers on the analysis of copper were investigated. Organic modifiers which included 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(diethylamino-phenol) (Br-PADAP), ammonium citrate, 1-(2-pyridylazo)-naphthol, 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and Triton X-100 were studied. Inorganic modifiers palladium nitrate, magnesium nitrate, aluminum chloride, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, hydrogen peroxide and potassium nitrate were also applied in this work. In addition, zirconium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide precipitation methods have also been studied. Interference effects were effectively reduced with Br-PADAP modifier. Aqueous standards were used to construct the calibration curves. The detection limit was 1.9 pg. Standard reference materials of nickel-base alloys were used to evaluate the accuracy of the proposed method. The copper contents determined with the proposed method agreed closely with the certified values of the reference materials. The recoveries were within the range 90-100% with relative standard deviation of less than 10%. Good precision was obtained.

  5. Gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of aniline in foods oils associated with the Spanish toxic oil syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.H. Jr.; Todd, G.D.; Kilbourne, E.M.; Cline, R.E.; McCraw, J.; Orti, D.L.; Bailey, S.L.; Needham, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    In 1981, a new disease, known today as the toxic oil syndrome (TOS), descended upon the people of Spin. A strong association between TOS and contaminated food oil was established early. Subsequent investigations implicated food oils containing rapeseed oil denatured with aniline. However, little aniline was found in the oils; some other etiologic agent in the oil had apparently produced the illness. Many researchers have investigated these oils, but the specific etiologic agent has not been identified. Significant progress in this research has been hampered by the difficulty in identifying the specific oil samples that produced illness in specific TOS cases. In 1984, the Spanish Government invited the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to participate in its research efforts to study the TOS problem. One of the authors was detailed to Spain to assist in the study of the illness. Part of their work in this area has been an attempt in their laboratories to classify a group of blind-coded case and control oils according to selected chemical measurements. They report here a newly developed method for determining aniline in these oils and the results of these analyses

  6. Biosorption of platinum and palladium for their separation/preconcentration prior to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godlewska-Zylkiewicz, Beata E-mail: bgodlew@uwb.edu.pl

    2003-08-15

    Inexpensive baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and green algae Chlorella vulgaris, either free or immobilized on silica gel have been shown to selectively accumulate platinum and palladium from water samples in acidic medium (pH 1.6-1.8). Optimization of conditions of metals biosorption (sample pH, algae and yeast masses, adsorption time, temperature) was performed in batch mode. The procedure of matrix separation based on biosorption of platinum and palladium on algae C. vulgaris covalently immobilized on silica gel in flow mode was developed. The use of algae in flow procedure offers several advantages compared with its use in the batch mode. The procedure shows better reproducibility (<2%), improved efficiency of platinum retention on the column (93.3{+-}1.6%), is less laborious and less time consuming. The best recovery of biosorbed metals from column (87.7{+-}3.3% for platinum and 96.8{+-}1.1 for palladium) was obtained with solution of 0.3 mol l{sup -1} thiourea in 1 mol l{sup -1} hydrochloric acid. The influence of thiourea on analytical signals of examined metals during GFAAS determination is discussed. The procedure has been applied for separation of noble metals from tap and waste water samples spiked with platinum and palladium.

  7. Mass spectrometric determination of enthalpies of dissociation of gaseous complex fluorides into neutral and charged particles. Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidorov, L.N.; Skokan, E.V.; Nikitin, M.I.; Sorokin, I.D.

    1980-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used to study ion-molecule equilibria in the saturated vapours of the two-component systems MF-UF 4 (where M is Na or K), containing the negative ions F - , UF - 5 and UF - 6 . The electron affinities of UF 5 and UF 6 are determined as 3.3 +- 0.16 eV and 4.89 +- 0.25 eV and the heats of the following reactions are: F - + UF 4 → UF - 5 ΔH 0 1100 = -98,0 +- 0.3 kcal mol -1 (-410.0 +- 1.3 kJ mol -1 ), AlF 3 + UF - 5 → AlF - 4 + UF 4 ΔH 0 1100 = -22.3 +- 0.3 kcal mol -1 (-93.3 +- 1.3 kJ mol -1 ), UF 5 + UF - 5 → UF 4 + UF - 6 ΔH 0 1087 = -3.4 +- 0.2 kcal mol -1 (-14.2 +- 0.8 kJ mol -1 ). These data and literature values are used to calculate the heat of formation of the UF - 5 ion and the heats of dissociation of the alkali metal fluorouranates into neutral and charged particles. (orig.)

  8. Separation and enrichment of gold(III) from environmental samples prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senturk, Hasan Basri; Gundogdu, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Bulut, Volkan Numan [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 28049 Giresun (Turkey); Duran, Celal [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr; Elci, Latif [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Pamukkale University, 20020 Denizli (Turkey); Tufekci, Mehmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2007-10-22

    A simple and accurate method was developed for separation and enrichment of trace levels of gold in environmental samples. The method is based on the adsorption of Au(III)-diethyldithiocarbamate complex on Amberlite XAD-2000 resin prior to the analysis of gold by flame atomic absorption spectrometry after elution with 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} in acetone. Some parameters including nitric acid concentration, eluent type, matrix ions, sample volume, sample flow rate and adsorption capacity were investigated on the recovery of gold(III). The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit of gold were greater than 95% and 16.6 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 200. The relative standard deviation of the method was <6%. The adsorption capacity of the resin was 12.3 mg g{sup -1}. The validation of the presented procedure was checked by the analysis of CRM-SA-C Sandy Soil certified reference material. The presented procedure was applied to the determination of gold in some environmental samples.

  9. Methodology for determination of activity of radionuclides by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fragoso, Maria da Conceicao de Farias; Oliveira, Victor Rogerio S. de; Oliveira, Mercia L.; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2014-01-01

    Due to the growth in the number of procedures that make use of the positron emission tomography (PET), there is a need for standard solutions for the calibration of the systems used for the measurement of the PET radiopharmaceutical (activimeter) in radiopharmacies and in nuclear medicine services. Among the existing alternatives for the standardization of radioactive sources, the method known as gamma spectrometry is widely used for short-lived radionuclides. The purpose of this study was to implement the methodology for standardization of the 18 F solutions by gamma spectrometry at the Regional Center for Nuclear Sciences of the Northeast (CRCN-NE/CNEN-NE), Brazil. (author)

  10. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... Purpose: To develop and validate a simple, efficient and reliable Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative determination of two dermatological drugs, ... By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  11. Correction for sample self-absorption in activity determination by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Gamma ray spectrometry is a convenient method of determining the activity of the radioactive components in environmental samples. Commonly samples vary in gamma absorption or differ in absorption from the calibration standards available, so that accurate correction for self-absorption in the sample is essential. A versatile correction procedure is described. (orig.)

  12. Determination of protein content in grains by radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma rays analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma rays technique can be used to determinate the nitrogen content in grains without chemical destruction, with good precision and relative rapidity. This determination is based on the detection of prompt gamma rays emitted by the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction product. The samples has been irradiated the tanGencial tube of the IEA-R1 research reator and a pair spectrometer has been used for the detection of the prompt gamma rays. The nitrogen content is determinated in several samples of soybean, commonbean, peas and rice, and the results is compared with typical nitrogen content for each grain. (Autor) [pt

  13. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigbosuria, E. F.

    2011-01-01

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm -1 , 0.165cm -1 , 0.163cm -1 , 0.156cm -1 , 0.149cm -1 , 0.143cm -1 , 0.133cm -1 , 0.132cm -1 , 0.127cm -1 , 0.124cm -1 , 0.085cm -1 , 0.123cm -1 , 0.122cm -1 , 0.113cm -1 , 0.101cm -1 , 0.088cm -1 , 0.087cm -1 , 0.086cm -1 , 0.082cm -1 respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value layer shows the thickness at various energy regions.

  14. Determination of gamma radiation shielding characteristics of some tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigbosuria, E F [Department of Computer Electronics/Physics, Lead City University, Ibadan (Nigeria)

    2011-10-24

    This study compares the shielding characteristics of twenty-two tropical woods by using gamma scintillation detection method. Woods sourced are Anogeisus Leiocarpus(Ayin), Nesogordonia Papverifera(Oro), Entandrophragma Microphyllum(Anunje), Brachystagia Eurycoma(Ako), Cassia Alata(Asunrun), Afzelia Africana(Apa-Igbo), Khaya Grandifoliala(Gedu), Piptadenistrum Africana(Agbonyin), Nanclea Diderrehii(Opepe), Khaya Ivorensis(Oganwo), Chlorophora Excelsa(Iroko), Masonia altissima(Odogi), Entandrophragma Angolense(Ijebo), Altium Sativum(Ayo), Albizia Zygia(Ayunre), Terminalia Superba(Afara), Cordia Millenii(Omo), Melania(Melania), Pycnanthus Angolensis(Akomu), Triplochitons Scleroxylon(Arere), Pine(Pine), Ceiba Pentradra(Araba). The intensities of the emergent radiation were measured, when each of these woods were placed between a scintillation detector and a standard radioactive source. Analysis of result obtained shows an appreciable evidence of radiation attenuation due to the changes in the chemical composition of the woods and the dependence of the attenuation coefficient on energy and densities of these woods. The descending order of attenuation coefficient determined are; Ayin, Oro, Anuje, Ako, Asunrun, Apa-igbo Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe Oganwo, Iroko Odogi , Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine, Araba. For a constant energy of 0.101MeV, the attenuation coefficient are 0.190cm{sup -1}, 0.165cm{sup -1}, 0.163cm{sup -1}, 0.156cm{sup -1}, 0.149cm{sup -1}, 0.143cm{sup -1}, 0.133cm{sup -1}, 0.132cm{sup -1}, 0.127cm{sup -1}, 0.124cm{sup -1}, 0.085cm{sup -1}, 0.123cm{sup -1}, 0.122cm{sup -1}, 0.113cm{sup -1}, 0.101cm{sup -1}, 0.088cm{sup -1}, 0.087cm{sup -1}, 0.086cm{sup -1}, 0.082cm{sup -1} respectively. The wood in descending order of dependence of attenuation coefficient on density are: Ayin,Oro, Anunje,Ako,Asunrun,Apa-Igbo, Gedu, Agbonyin, Opepe, Oganwo, Iroko, Odogi, Ijebo, Ayo, Ayunre, Afara, Omo, Melania, Akomu, Arere, Pine and Araba. The half value

  15. Aerial gamma spectrometric survey as a tool for evaluating the uranium remobilization degree: Case study from Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfahani, J.; Al-Hent, R.; Aissa, M.

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between equivalent uranium (eU), eTh, K% and their ratios in the 11 lithological units determined by previous research in the Al-Awabed area, Northern Palmyrides, Syria have been analyzed in order to define their trend variations and evaluate the degree of uranium remobilization. Uranium favorability index U I and alteration-F indicators have been used in this research to characterize the different lithological units by following their radioactive element re-distribution and to determine their favorability as regards uranium potentiality. It was shown that uranium remobilization took place in all the lithological units, but to different degrees. This remobilization is qualified as weak, indicating that limited uranium redistribution is expected in the studied region. A plausible geological model is proposed for the uranium distribution, where the Abou Qila location is found to be favorable for uranium accumulation and merits further uranium exploration. (Authors)

  16. Realisation of a {beta} spectrometer solenoidal and a double {beta} spectrometer at coincidence; Realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} solenoidal et d'un double spectrometre {beta} a coincidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-06-15

    The two spectrometers have been achieved to tackle numerous problems of nuclear spectrometry. They possess different fields of application that complete themselves. The solenoidal spectrometer permits the determination of the energy limits of {beta} spectra and of their shape; it also permits the determination of the coefficients of internal conversion and reports {alpha}{sub K} / {alpha}{sub L} and it is especially efficient for the accurate energy levels of the {gamma} rays by photoelectric effect. The double coincidence spectrometer has been conceived to get a good efficiency in coincidence: indeed, the sum of the solid angles used for the {beta} and {gamma} emission is rather little lower to 4{pi} steradians. To get this efficiency, one should have sacrificed a little the resolution that is lower to the one obtained with the solenoidal spectrometer for a same brightness. Each of the elements of the double spectrometer can also be adapted to the study of angular correlations {beta}{gamma} and e{sup -}{gamma}. In this use, it is superior to the thin magnetic lens used up to here. The double spectrometer also permits the survey of the coincidences e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta} of a equivalent way to a double lens; it can also be consider some adaptation for the survey of the angular correlations e{sup -}e{sup -}, e{sup -}{beta}. Finally, we applied the methods by simple spectrometry and by coincidence spectrometry, to the study of the radiances of the following radioelements: {sup 76}As (26 h), {sup 122}Sb (2,8 j), {sup 124}Sb (60 j), {sup 125}Sb (2,7 years). (M.B.) [French] Les deux spectrometres qui ont ete realises permettent d'aborder un grand nombre de problemes de spectrometrie nucleaire. Ils possedent des champs d'application tres differents qui se completent. Le spectrometre solenoidal permet la determination des energies limites des spectres {beta} et de leur forme; il permet aussi la determination des coefficients de conversion interne et des rapports

  17. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Abd, A

    2014-12-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Demonstration of a collimated in situ method for determining depth distributions using gamma-ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Benke, R R

    2002-01-01

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry uses a portable detector to quantify radionuclides in materials. The main shortcoming of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry has been its inability to determine radionuclide depth distributions. Novel collimator designs were paired with a commercial in situ gamma-ray spectrometry system to overcome this limitation for large area sources. Positioned with their axes normal to the material surface, the cylindrically symmetric collimators limited the detection of un attenuated gamma-rays from a selected range of polar angles (measured off the detector axis). Although this approach does not alleviate the need for some knowledge of the gamma-ray attenuation characteristics of the materials being measured, the collimation method presented in this paper represents an absolute method that determines the depth distribution as a histogram, while other in situ methods require a priori knowledge of the depth distribution shape. Other advantages over previous in situ methods are that this method d...

  19. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis and Insecticidal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... apelta aerial parts was analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometric (GC/MS) to determine its composition. ... into a natural fumigant/insecticide for the control of stored product insects.

  20. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramebaeck, H.; Straelberg, E.; Klemola, S.; Nielsen, Sven P.; Palsson, S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  1. An improved in situ method for determining depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benke, R.R.; Kearfott, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    In situ gamma-ray spectrometry determines the quantities of radionuclides in some medium with a portable detector. The main limitation of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry lies in determining the depth distribution of radionuclides. This limitation is addressed by developing an improved in situ method for determining the depth distributions of gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in large area sources. This paper implements a unique collimator design with conventional radiation detection equipment. Cylindrically symmetric collimators were fabricated to allow only those gamma-rays emitted from a selected range of polar angles (measured off the detector axis) to be detected. Positioned with its axis normal to surface of the media, each collimator enables the detection of gamma-rays emitted from a different range of polar angles and preferential depths. Previous in situ methods require a priori knowledge of the depth distribution shape. However, the absolute method presented in this paper determines the depth distribution as a histogram and does not rely on such assumptions. Other advantages over previous in situ methods are that this method only requires a single gamma-ray emission, provides more detailed depth information, and offers a superior ability for characterizing complex depth distributions. Collimated spectrometer measurements of buried area sources demonstrated the ability of the method to yield accurate depth information. Based on the results of actual measurements, this method increases the potential of in situ gamma-ray spectrometry as an independent characterization tool in situations with unknown radionuclide depth distributions

  2. Study on direct determination of uranium and efficient equilibrium factor by gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunkui

    1990-01-01

    The test principle, test set and surveying methods for conducting gamma-ray spectrometry on conveyer are presented. The conversion coefficient of the spectrometer has been found by using duallinear regression analysis of uranium and radon and their higher and lower bands of gamma-ray spectra. The efficient equilibrium factor can be quickly determined, and the direct determination of uranium in the non-equilibrium condition of uranium and radium can be made

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of determining porosity by using dual gamma detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Liu Juntao; Yu Huawei; Yuan Chao; Jia Yan

    2013-01-01

    Current formation elements spectroscopy logging technology utilize 241 Am-Be neutron source and single BGO detector to determine elements contents. It plays an important role in mineral analysis and lithology identification of unconventional oil and gas exploration, but information measured is relatively ld. Measured system based on 241 Am-Be neutron and dual detectors can be developed to realize the measurement of elements content as well as determine neutron gamma porosity by using ratio of gamma count between near and far detectors. Calculation model is built by Monte Carlo method to study neutron gamma porosity logging response with different spacing and shields. And it is concluded that measuring neutron gamma have high counts and good statistical property contrasted with measuring thermal neutron, but the sensitivity of porosity decrease. Sensitivity of porosity will increase as the spacing of dual detector increases. Spacing of far and near detectors should be around 62 cm and 35 cm respectively. Gamma counts decrease and neutron gamma porosity sensitivity increase when shield is fixed between neutron and detector. The length of main shield should be greater than 10 cm and associated shielding is about 5 cm. By Monte Carlo Simulation study, the result provides technical support for determining porosity in formation elements spectroscopy logging using 241 Am-Be neutron and gamma detectors. (authors)

  4. In-situ gamma spectroscopic measurement of natural waters in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manushev, B.; Mandzhukov, I.; Tsankov, L.; Boshkova, T.; Gurev, V.; Mandzhukova, B.; Kozhukharov, I.; Grozev, G.

    1983-01-01

    In-situ gamma spectrometric measurements are carried out to record differences higher than the errors of measurement in the gamma-field spectra in various basins in Bulgaria - two high mountain lakes, dam and the Black sea. A standard scintillation gamma spectrometer, consisting of a scintillation detector ND-424 type, a channel analyzer NP-424 and a 128 channel Al-128 type analyzer, has been used. The sensitivity of the procedure used is sufficient to detect the transfer of nuclides by dissolution from rocks, forming the bottom and the water-collecting region of the water basin. The advancement of the experimental techniques defines the future use of the procedure. In-situ gamma spectrometric determination may be used in cases of continuous and automated control of the radiation purity of the cooling water in atomic power plants or the water basins located close to such plants and of radioactive contamination of the sea and ocean water

  5. Processing of data issued from {gamma} spectrometer. Application to the study of decay schemes; Traitement des informations issues d'un spectrometre {gamma}. Application a l'etude de schemas de desintegration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulanger, J P; Legrand, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The main purpose of the following report is the study of a generation method of {gamma} spectra corresponding to any energy, from a library of some basic spectra. Then we point out how to establish the decay scheme of a radio-nuclide, in using an accurate analysis of full-energy peaks which appear in its complex spectrum, followed by a generation of plain spectra corresponding to the energies of the different transitions, and ending with a least-squares fitting procedure of the complex spectrum. The accuracy of the process is examined comparing the calculated spectra to the ones issued from two kinds of spectrometers (Na I(Tl) and Ge(Li)). The method is then applied to the study of {sup 134}Cs and {sup 95}Zr - {sup 95}Nb. (authors) [French] Le present rapport a pour principal objet l'etude d'une methode de generation de spectres {gamma} correspondant a n'importe quelle energie, a partir d'une bibliotheque de quelques spectres de reference. On montre ensuite comment on peut etablir le schema de desintegration d'un radionucleide, a l'aide d'une analyse precise des pics d'absorption totale apparaissant dans son spectre complexe, suivie d'une generation des spectres simples correspondant aux energies des diverses transitions, et en terminant par une decomposition du spectre complexe par la methode des moindres carres. On examine la validite du procede en comparant les spectres calcules a ceux obtenus avec deux types de detecteurs (scintillateurs et semi-conducteurs). On applique alors la methode a l'etude du {sup 134}Cs et du {sup 95}Zr - {sup 95}Nb. (auteurs)

  6. Burnup determination of power reactor fuel elements by gamma spectrometry; Determination par spectrometrie {gamma} du taux d'irradiation des elements combustibles des reacteurs de puissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robin, M; Jastrzeb, M; Boisliveau, S; Boyer, R; Vidal, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This report describes a method for determining by {gamma} spectrometry the burn up and the specific power of fuel elements irradiated in power reactors. The energy spectrum of {gamma} rays emitted by fission products is measured by means of a simple equipment using a sodium iodide detector and a multichannel analyzer. In order to extract from the spectrum a quantity proportional to the burn up, it is necessary to: - isolate an activity specific of one emitter,- give the same importance to fissions in uranium and plutonium - take into account the radioactive decay during and after irradiation. One hundred fuel elements were studied and burn up values obtained by {gamma} spectrometry are compared to results given by chemical analyses. Preliminary measurements show that the accuracy of the results is greatly increased by the use of a germanium detector, due to its good resolution. (authors) [French] Ce rapport expose une methode de determination par spectrometrie {gamma} du taux d'irradiation et de la puissance specifique des elements combustibles irradies dans les reacteurs de puissance. Une installation simple utilisant un detecteur d'iodure de sodium et un selecteur multicanaux mesure le spectre en energie du rayonnement {gamma} emis par les produits de fission. Afin d'extraire du spectre une quantite proportionnelle au taux de combustion, il faut: - isoler une activite specifique a un emetteur, - donner la meme importance aux fissions survenues dans l'uranium et le plutonium, - prendre en compte la decroissance radioactive pendant et apres l'irradiation. Les mesures ont porte sur une centaine d'elements combustibles et les taux de combustion obtenus par spectrometrie {gamma} sont compares aux resultats des analyses chimiques. Des mesures preliminaires montrent que l'utilisation d'un detecteur de germanium augmente considerablement la precision des resultats, en raison de son excellente resolution. (auteurs)

  7. Determination of radionuclides and elemental composition of clay soils by gamma and X-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isinkaye, O. M.; Shitta, O. M. B.; Oderinde, O. M.

    2011-01-01

    Radiochemical and elemental analysis of clay soils collected from different locations within Ekiti State have been performed in this study using gamma and XRF spectrometric measurements. The results of this study show that the mean concentration of 238 U ranged from 2.2±1.0ppm to 3.2±1.1ppm, 232 Th ranged from 4.0±0.5ppm to 5.7±1.7ppm, while 40 K presented in percent by weight ranged from 0.4±0.2 to 1.3±0.3. The XRF analysis revealed 4 major elements and 11 minor or trace elements present in the clay samples. The distribution of the various major and trace elements in all the sampling sites do not follow any systematic trend but vary from point to point. To assess the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the clay soils, the enrichment factor (EF) and the geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were estimated for some potential hazardous elements. The results indicate that Cu, Zn, Ni and Mn have EF<2 indicating minimal or no enrichment while Pb is moderately enriched in all the locations.

  8. Drill-Core Scanning for Radioelements by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Wollenberg, H.; Rose-Hansen, J.

    1972-01-01

    A system has been developed for the continuous and stepwise scanning of rock drill cores for gamma-ray spectrometric determinations of uranium, thorium, and potassium. The apparatus accomodates 3- to 4-cm-diameter core as it passes two opposing 2-inch diameter by 3-inch- thick NaI(Tl) detectors, ......, disclosing detailed variations of U and Th. Contents of U and Th determined by scanning of drill core were consistent with the gross gamma-ray counting rates measured in the boreholes. ©1972 Society of Exploration Geophysicists......A system has been developed for the continuous and stepwise scanning of rock drill cores for gamma-ray spectrometric determinations of uranium, thorium, and potassium. The apparatus accomodates 3- to 4-cm-diameter core as it passes two opposing 2-inch diameter by 3-inch- thick NaI(Tl) detectors...

  9. Results from an interlaboratory exercise on the determination of plutonium isotopic ratios by gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottmar, H.

    1981-07-01

    Results form interlaboratory comparison measurements on the determination of plutonium isotopic ratios by gamma spectrometry, organized by the ESARDA Working Group on Techniques and Standards for Nondestructive Analysis, are presented and discussed. Nine laboratories from nine countries or international organizations participated in the intercomparison exercise, which included both laboratories' own measurements on the plutonium isotopic reference materials NBS-SRM 946, 947, 948 and comparison analyses of gamma spectra from these materials distributed to the participating laboratories. Results from the intercomparison analyses have been used to reevaluate some gamma branching intensity ratios required for plutonium isotopic ratio measurements. (orig.) [de

  10. Spectrometric techniques 2

    CERN Document Server

    Vanasse, George A

    2013-01-01

    Spectrometric Techniques, Volume II provides information pertinent to vacuum ultraviolet techniques to complete the demonstration of the diversity of methods available to the spectroscopist interested in the ultraviolet visible and infrared spectral regions. This book discusses the specific aspects of the technique of Fourier transform spectroscopy.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the large number of systematic effects in the recording of an interferogram. This text then examines the design approach for a Fourier transform spectrometer with focus on optics.

  11. Determination of Natural Radioactivity in Building Materials with Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turki, Faten

    2010-01-01

    In the setting of this work, the natural radioactivity of building materials used in Tunisia has been measured by gamma spectrometry. These products have been ground and dried at 100 degree for 12 h. Then, they have been homogenized, weighed and finally conditioned during 23 days in order to reach the radioactive equilibrium. The measures' results proved that all building materials studied except bauxite and the ESC clay, possess doses lower than the acceptable limit (1 mSv.an-1). However, the possibility of reinforcement of the natural radioactivity in some industry of building can exist. To insure that the cement, the most used in the world, don't present any radiological risk on the workers' health, a survey has been made in the factory - les Ciments de Bizerte - about its manufacture's process. The results of this survey showed that this product can be considered like a healthy product.

  12. In-situ gamma spectrometry method for determination of environmental gamma dose; Metodo de espectrometria gamma in situ para determinacao de dose gama ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, Claudio de Carvalho

    1995-07-15

    This work tries to establish a methodology for germanium detectors calibration, normally used for in situ gamma ray spectrometry, for determining the environmental exposure rate in function of the energy of the incident photons. For this purpose a computer code has been developed, based on the stripping method, for the computational spectra analysis to calculate the contribution of the partial absorption of the gamma rays (Compton effect) in the active and nonactive parts of the detector. The resulting total absorption spectrum is then converted to fluence distribution in function of the energy for the photons reaching the detector, which is then used to calculate the exposure rate or kerma in air. The unfolding and fluency convention parameters are determined by detector calibration using point gamma sources. The method is validated by comparison of the results against the calculated exposure rate at a point of interest for the standards. This method is used for the direct measurement of the exposure rate distribution in function of the energy at the site, in situ measurement technic, leading to rapid results during an emergency situation and also used for indoor measurements. (author)

  13. A method for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Abd, A.

    2014-01-01

    A method was proposed for determination mass absorption coefficient of gamma rays for compounds, alloys and mixtures. It is based on simulating interaction processes of gamma rays with target elements having atomic numbers from Z=1 to Z=92 using the MCSHAPE software. Intensities of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturation thicknesses and at a scattering angle of 90° were calculated for incident gamma rays of different energies. The obtained results showed that the intensity of Compton scattered gamma rays at saturations and mass absorption coefficients can be described by mathematical formulas. These were used to determine mass absorption coefficients for compound, alloys and mixtures with the knowledge of their Compton scattered intensities. The method was tested by calculating mass absorption coefficients for some compounds, alloys and mixtures. There is a good agreement between obtained results and calculated ones using WinXom software. The advantages and limitations of the method were discussed. - Highlights: • Compton scattering of γ−rays was used for determining mass absorption coefficient. • Scattered intensities were determined by the MCSHAPE software. • Mass absorption coefficients were determined for some compounds, mixtures and alloys. • Mass absorption coefficients were calculated by Winxcom software. • Good agreements were found between determined and calculated results

  14. Holmium-166m: multi-gamma standard to determine the activity of radionuclides in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, Estela Maria de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    The efficiency and calibration curves as function of gamma-ray energy for a germanium detector are usually established by using many standard gamma ray sources of radionuclides decaying with few gamma rays or radionuclides having complex decay scheme, as 152 Eu or 133 Ba. But these radionuclides cannot be used alone, because they have a few gamma lines with high intensity and these lines have a irregular distribution in the energy spectrum. 166m Ho is found to be a convenient single source for such calibration, because it decays by β - with subsequent emission of about 40 strong and well distributed gamma lines between 80 and 1500 keV. Moreover, its long half - life (1200 years) and X-rays characteristics between 40 and 50 keV makes it a good standard for calibration of germanium detectors. However, it is necessary to know with accuracy and precision the gamma ray intensities of their main lines, due to the fact that literature has showed discrepant values. Then, a methodology to determine the emission probability of its main lines is proposed by means of combined use of gamma spectrometry and coincidence 4πβ -γ techniques. The experimental results show consistence to the others authors, with lower or compatible uncertainties. (author)

  15. Determination of dose factors for external gamma radiation in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, M.F.; Hiromoto, G.

    2000-01-01

    A significant contribution to the global population exposure to ionizing radiation arises from natural sources, especially from radionuclides present in terrestrial crust. Human activities can eventually increase that exposure to significant levels, from the point of view of radiological protection. The presence of natural radionuclides in building materials may lead to an increment of both external and internal radiation exposure of the population. External exposure in dwellings arises from gamma-emitter radionuclides existing in the walls, floor and ceiling of their rooms. Mathematical models can be used to predict external dose rates inside the room, known the radionuclide concentration activities in dwelling constituents. This paper presents a methodology for theoretical evaluation of external gamma doses due to radionuclides present in the walls of an hypothetical standard room. The room is modeled as three pairs of rectangular sheets with finite thickness. Assessment of doses was performed through the application of photon transport model, taking in account self-absorption and radiation buildup. As the external dose due to a particular radionuclide is proportional to its activity concentration, results are presented as dose factors, defined as a ratio of absorbed dose (nGy.h -1 ) to the activity concentration (Bq.kg -1 ), for each radionuclide. The radionuclides were assumed to be uniformly distributed in the building materials. Calculations were performed for concrete walls and results are presented for 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, taking in account, for dose calculations, all gamma emitters from 226 Ra and 232 Th decay chains. Sensitivity of the model was estimated by varying four of its input parameters within a reasonable range of applicability, while leaving all other parameters at fixed selected values. The parameters studied and respective ranges of variation were: for thickness, 5 to 60 cm; for density, 0.5 to 4 g.cm -3 ; for the room length, 1.5 to 10 m

  16. Determining a pre-mining radiological baseline from historic airborne gamma surveys: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollhöfer, Andreas; Beraldo, Annamarie; Pfitzner, Kirrilly; Esparon, Andrew; Doering, Che

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the baseline level of radioactivity in areas naturally enriched in radionuclides is important in the uranium mining context to assess radiation doses to humans and the environment both during and after mining. This information is particularly useful in rehabilitation planning and developing closure criteria for uranium mines as only radiation doses additional to the natural background are usually considered ‘controllable’ for radiation protection purposes. In this case study we have tested whether the method of contemporary groundtruthing of a historic airborne gamma survey could be used to determine the pre-mining radiological conditions at the Ranger mine in northern Australia. The airborne gamma survey was flown in 1976 before mining started and groundtruthed using ground gamma dose rate measurements made between 2007 and 2009 at an undisturbed area naturally enriched in uranium (Anomaly 2) located nearby the Ranger mine. Measurements of 226 Ra soil activity concentration and 222 Rn exhalation flux density at Anomaly 2 were made concurrent with the ground gamma dose rate measurements. Algorithms were developed to upscale the ground gamma data to the same spatial resolution as the historic airborne gamma survey data using a geographic information system, allowing comparison of the datasets. Linear correlation models were developed to estimate the pre-mining gamma dose rates, 226 Ra soil activity concentrations, and 222 Rn exhalation flux densities at selected areas in the greater Ranger region. The modelled levels agreed with measurements made at the Ranger Orebodies 1 and 3 before mining started, and at environmental sites in the region. The conclusion is that our approach can be used to determine baseline radiation levels, and provide a benchmark for rehabilitation of uranium mines or industrial sites where historical airborne gamma survey data are available and an undisturbed radiological analogue exists to groundtruth the data. - Highlights:

  17. Determination of 210Pb in marine sediment core- A comparison between alpha and gamma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Yii Mei Wo; Zaharudin Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The most commonly used techniques of alpha and gamma spectrometry were performed to measure 210 Pb activity in marine sediment core as a comparison. Alpha analytical technique measured the activity of 210 Pb from its in-grow grand-daughter 210 Po after a chemical separation, assuming radioactive equilibrium between the two radionuclides. Meanwhile, gamma analysis technique allows direct measurement, non-destructive and no preliminary chemical separation. Through the comparison, it is found that both alpha and gamma analysis techniques were slightly difference. Overall, the results from alpha analytical technique were basically higher than those from the gamma analytical techniques. Some logical argument had been discussed to explain this situation. In routine analysis, the analytical technique used should be chosen carefully based on advantages and disadvantages of the each technique and analysis requirements. Therefore, it is recommended to determine exactly the needs and purpose of analysis and to know the sample history before decide the appropriate analytical technique. (author)

  18. Primary radioactivity standardization and gamma intensities determination of {sup 124}Sb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, A. [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.br; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.; Silva, C.J. da; Almeida, M.C.M. de; Silva, R.L. da [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes (LNMRI)/Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD)/Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no, Recreio, CEP 22780-160, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2009-04-21

    A solution containing {sup 124}Sb was primarily standardized by the 4{pi}{beta}-{gamma} coincidence and anticoincidence extrapolation methods in the frame of the EUROMET 907 international comparison organized by Laboratoire National Henri Bequerel (LNHB)/France, in 2007. The main purposes of this exercise are the improvement in the uncertainties on the gamma-ray emission intensities and they clarify the discrepancies verified among the intensity values for many weak gamma rays reported in the literature. In this work the results of the activity obtained were used to determine the absolute and relative gamma-ray intensities using a planar and coaxial HPGe detectors calibrated by {sup 152}Eu and {sup 116m}Ho multi-gamma standard sources covering the energy range from 20 to 1408 keV. Additionally the half-life of {sup 124}Sb was determined following the decay of a solution of {sup 124}Sb contained in a glass ampoule over a period of three half-lives using two 4{pi}{gamma} ionization chambers.

  19. Preconcentration of natural protactinium from thorium concentrate with subsequent determination using Gamma (γ) spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Naine; Swain, Kallola; Kayasth, S.R.; Pathassarathy, R.; Mathur, P.K.; Anil Kumar, S.

    1999-01-01

    A simple and efficient method has been developed to preconcentrate natural protactinium ( 231 Pa) from large size of thorium concentrate (5.0-100.0g) on Dowex 1 X 8 in acid medium. Gamma spectrometry, a powerful determination technique, has been used for quantitative determination of protactinium

  20. Determination of spins and radioactive widths of tellurium nuclear levels with capturre gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, F.G.

    1973-01-01

    Spins and levels widths of the tellurium, mainly 128 Te and 130 Te, were determinated by gamma spectroscopy. Measurements of inelastic and elastic scattering, angular distribution and scattering temperature dependence, were still made. Energy levels of this isotopes, were also determinated [pt

  1. Determination of protein content in seeds by prompt gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonari, A.W.; Pecequilo, B.R.S.

    1984-01-01

    The protein level in seeds can be directly calculated through the determination of the nitrogen content in grains. The authors show here that the radioactive thermal neutron capture prompt gamma-rays technique can be used to determine the nitrogen content in grains without chemical destruction, with good precision and relative rapidity, by detecting the prompt gamma rays emitted by the 14 N(n,γ) 15 N reaction product. The samples were irradiated in the tangential tube of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in Sao Paulo, and a pair spectrometer was used for the detection of the prompt gamma-rays. The nitrogen content was determined in several samples of soybean, common bean, peas and rice and the results compared with typical nitrogen content values for each grain. 33 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  2. Remarks on the gamma-ray spectrometry for the determination of natural radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, S.; Niewodniczanski, J.

    1987-01-01

    Semiconductor low-energy gamma ray spectrometry is compared with the routinely used scintillation method (within higher energy range). Measurements of low-energy natural gamma radiation using a semiconductor detector permit the determination of radioactive equilibrium of the uranium series. In this method 238 U ( 234 Th) content is determined by 63 keV, 226 Ra by 186 keV and 214 Pb by 295 keV gamma rays. Using the same results one can calculate a radioactive equilibrium coefficient R, defined as concentration ratio 226 Ra/ 238 U and a 222 Rn emanation ratio E, defined as 1 - 214 Pb/ 226 Ra (concentrations in uranium equivalent units). The relative standard errors for the method are: 10 - 15% in case of radioisotope content and about 18% for R and E determination. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs. (author)

  3. Borehole Logging for Uranium by Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvborg, Leif; Nyegaard, P.; Christiansen, E. M.

    1980-01-01

    The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium-iodide, and the photo......The resources in a large syngenetic deposit of low-grade uranium (U) ore with thorium at Kvanefjeld, South Greenland, were evaluated by spectrometric gamma-ray logging of 23 boreholes, 46 mm in diameter and 200 m deep. The borehole probe's detector contained 22 cm3 of sodium...... of the spectrometer system were determined by calculating the average number of U and thorium (Th) counts per meter of borehole and comparing these with the U-Th concentrations in 1-m sections of analyzed drill core. The sensitivity and the background count rate in the uranium window varied appreciably from one hole...

  4. A universal gamma-gamma method for simultaneous determination of rock and ore properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbucinski, J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of heavy element content, density, borehole diameter and grain size is described, which is based on investigation of the changes in spectrum shape. By analysing these changes in a quantitative manner, information regarding the physical parameters of the medium can be obtained. The results of laboratory tests of the method are presented. (author)

  5. Possibility of applying the gamma-gamma method to the in situ determination of uranium-ore densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.; Guitton, J.

    1965-01-01

    The principles of the gamma-gamma method are reviewed. It is shown in particular that, under certain conditions, the method makes it possible to obtain a representative measurement of the electronic density. Chemical analyses have been carried out on samples obtained from uranium deposits. The results show that an exact correlation exists between the massive and electronic densities. It is possible to consider the possibility of measuring the density of uranium-containing rocks by the gamma-gamma method. (authors) [fr

  6. Determination of Ra-226 by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Lobo, A.

    1988-01-01

    This work deals with the method of determination of 226 Ra by low energy photon spectrometry. For this purpose, the interference due to 235 U, that emits a photon with a close energy, has to be considered. The contribution of 235 U to the 186 KeV photopeak is studied through the 63 KeV 234 Th and the 144 KeV 235 U emissions. From the minimum detectable activity of 226 Ra it is discussed the applicability of this method to several kind of samples. (Author)

  7. Density determination of railroad ballast by means of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundt, M.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from the requirements of a measuring method for determining the degrees of densification and of soiling of railroad beds, conclusions are drawn for the use of a radiometric technique, considering measuring geometry, radiation energy, and instrumentation. Results obtained from laboratory experiments with a ballast pressure unit are presented. It is pointed out that the application of radiometric density measurements has to be linked with investigations of the behaviour of the rock species used, in order to obtain a valid interpretation of the measured density with regard to the properties and the composition of the railroad bed. (author)

  8. Determination of crossed gamma doses for garlic improvement (Allium Sativum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Talavera, S.; Labrada, A.; Savin, V.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of four Cuban varieties of garlic was made so as to optimized the use of ionizing radiations in Cuba to breed vegetatively propagated crops such as garlic. The dose-effect regresion equation characterizing the radioinhibition zone of each crop was presented. We used a criteria to select the irradiation dose to be used in mutation breeding techniques based on obtaining height variability in the productive indicators, a survival and a number of garlic cloves high enough to allow and adequate reproduction of M1 plants. It was verified that this small inhibitor doses of radiations produced a higher percentage of good variability than the medium and high doses. With the use of small inhibitor doses (GR10-GR20) on the Guadalupe-15 garlic variety, 65 variety plants were obtained., 93.7% out of this number is higher than the control in the indicators considered

  9. Plutonium isotopic determination from gamma-ray spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skourikhine, A.N.; Strittmatter, R.B.; Zardecki, A.

    1998-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-resolution room-temperature detectors for the nondestructive assay of nuclear materials has widespread applications to the safeguarding of nuclear materials. The challenge to using these detectors is the inherent difficulty of the spectral analysis to determine the amount of specific nuclear materials in the measured samples. This is especially true for extracting plutonium isotopic content from low- and medium-resolution spectral lines that are not well resolved. In this paper, neural networks trained by stochastic and singular value decomposition algorithms are applied to retrieve the plutonium isotopic content from a simulated NaI spectra. The simulated sample consists of isotopes 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Pu, 242 Pu, and 241 Am. It is demonstrated that the neutral network optimized by singular value decomposition (SVD) and stochastic training algorithms is capable of estimating plutonium content consistently resulting in an average error much smaller than the error previously reported

  10. Development of software for the determination of gamma ray detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Antonio C.O. da; Genezini, Frederico A.; Zahn, Guilherme S.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry is frequently used as a tool in analytical chemistry or environmental analyses. The efficiency of the detection setup is one of most important steps of the analyses, but users don't always calculate their own efficiency curve because this procedure is not trivial, and therefore they adapt their measurement geometry to work in a setup that has been previously calibrated, which will often cause limitations. In order to solve this problem, a software was developed that helps a non-experienced user to compute the detection efficiency curve and to determine the detection efficiency at a given gamma-ray energy. (author)

  11. Nomogram for Determining Shield Thickness for Point and Line Sources of Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joenemalm, C.; Malen, K

    1966-10-01

    A set of nomograms is given for the determination of the required shield thickness against gamma radiation. The sources handled are point and infinite line sources with shields of Pb, Fe, magnetite concrete (p = 3.6), ordinary concrete (p = 2.3) or water. The gamma energy range covered is 0.5 - 10 MeV. The nomograms are directly applicable for source and dose points on the surfaces of the shield. They can easily be extended to source and dose points in other positions by applying a geometrical correction. Also included are data for calculation of the source strength for the most common materials and for fission product sources

  12. Determination of uranium and thorium using gamma spectrometry: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, D.M.M.; Koch, E.S.; Manso Guevara, M.V.; Garcia Velasco, F., E-mail: diango.mo87@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz (UNESC), Ilhéus, BA (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot experiment aimed at standardizing procedures for the CPqCTR/UESC Gamma Spectrometry Laboratory (LEG) for the quantification of natural radioactive elements in solid environmental samples. The concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K in two sediment matrix belonging to the Caetité region were determined, by using the absolute method with uncertainties about 5%. The results were obtained using gamma spectrometry with a high-resolution p-type HPGe detector. As a closure, the absorbed dose, radium equivalent activity and the annual effective dose were calculated. (author)

  13. Nomogram for Determining Shield Thickness for Point and Line Sources of Gamma Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joenemalm, C; Malen, K

    1966-10-15

    A set of nomograms is given for the determination of the required shield thickness against gamma radiation. The sources handled are point and infinite line sources with shields of Pb, Fe, magnetite concrete (p = 3.6), ordinary concrete (p = 2.3) or water. The gamma energy range covered is 0.5 - 10 MeV. The nomograms are directly applicable for source and dose points on the surfaces of the shield. They can easily be extended to source and dose points in other positions by applying a geometrical correction. Also included are data for calculation of the source strength for the most common materials and for fission product sources.

  14. Determination of plutonium isotopic ratios and total concentration by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despres, Michele.

    1980-11-01

    A non-destructive method of analysis is being investigated for the control in situ of plutonium isotopic composition and total concentration in different matrix without preliminary calibration. The plutonium isotopic composition is determined by gamma-ray spectrometry using germanium detector systems. The same apparatus is used for direct measuring of the total plutonium concentration in solutions or solids by a differential attenuation technique based on two transmitted gamma rays with energies on both sides of the k shell absorption edge of plutonium [fr

  15. Determination of uranium and thorium using gamma spectrometry: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, D. M. M.; Koch, E. S.; Guevara, M. V. M.; Velasco, F. G.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a pilot experiment aimed at standardizing procedures for the CPqCTR/UESC Gamma Spectrometry Laboratory (LEG) for the quantification of natural radioactive elements in solid environmental samples. The concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 40K in two sediment matrix belonging to the Caetité region were determined, by using the absolute method with uncertainties about 5%. The results were obtained using gamma spectrometry with a high-resolution p-type HPGe detector. As a closure, the absorbed dose, radium equivalent activity and the annual effective dose were calculated.

  16. Gamma-ray attenuation technique for determining density and water content of wood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraz, E.S.B.; Aguiar, O.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical aspects of application of the Beer-Lambert law are discussed, with emphasis on the maximum theoretical error expected. A serie of measurements of moisture content within the range of 8g/cm 3 to 30g/cm 3 are made on samples of Pinus oocarpa by gamma-ray ( 241 Am) attenuation methods and by the conventional gravimetric method. The relative deviations (experimental errors) found in the determinations made by these two methods are compared with the theoretical errors calculated, showing the viability of the gamma-ray method. (M.A.C.) [pt

  17. Determination of the rock clayiness from statistically standardized gamma-logging diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholodilov, V.V.

    1975-01-01

    Statistical standardization (using mathematical expectancy and dispersion) was done on gamma-logging diagrams made from 43 boreholes in producing strata of mid Jurassic and lower Cretaceous deposits in the Dagestan Plain. The material of the deposits is chiefly sands and aleurites containing 5 to 45% clay. The dependence of the standard deviation of the gamma-log curves on the clayiness of the rocks was determined at intervals of 400 and 300 meters. The intervals were selected by considering the borehole depth. The coefficients of correlation were 0.87 and 0.86, respectively

  18. Quantitative determination of plant phenolics in Urtica dioica extracts by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orčić, Dejan; Francišković, Marina; Bekvalac, Kristina; Svirčev, Emilija; Beara, Ivana; Lesjak, Marija; Mimica-Dukić, Neda

    2014-01-15

    A method for quantification of 45 plant phenolics (including benzoic acids, cinnamic acids, flavonoid aglycones, C- and O-glycosides, coumarins, and lignans) in plant extracts was developed, based on reversed phase HPLC separation of extract components, followed by tandem mass spectrometric detection. The phenolic profile of 80% MeOH extracts of the stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) herb, root, stem, leaf and inflorescence was obtained by using this method. Twenty-one of the investigated compounds were present at levels above the reliable quantification limit, with 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, rutin and isoquercitrin as the most abundant. The inflorescence extracts were by far the richest in phenolics, with the investigated compounds amounting 2.5-5.1% by weight. As opposed to this, the root extracts were poor in phenolics, with only several acids and derivatives being present in significant amounts. The results obtained by the developed method represent the most detailed U. dioica chemical profile so far. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  20. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, M.; Al-Adawi, M.; Sharabi, N.

    2002-11-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays. (author)

  1. Determination of radionuclides for river sediment CRM with HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Jinbo; Hao Runlong; Tang Zhenxin

    1994-01-01

    The authors described the method and results for determination of seven radionuclides: 238 U, 235 U, 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K, 60 Co and 137 Cs in the river sediment Certified Reference Material (CRM) using a HPGe gamma-ray spectrometer. The accuracy and reliability of measurement results were improved through varieties of techniques, which include: precise calibration of the gamma-ray spectrometer, coincidence summing correction and interference peak correction, two kinds of peak analysis methods (TPA and function fit), and utilization of as many as possible characteristic gamma-rays. Present measurement results for the seven radionuclides were in agreement with the verification results of the CRM with 1 σ or 2σ uncertainty, and its relative deviation were in the range of +1.0%--6.5%

  2. Determination of planetary surfaces elemental composition by gamma and neutron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, B.

    2009-06-01

    Measuring the neutron and gamma ray fluxes produced by the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with planetary surfaces allow constraining the chemical composition of the upper tens of centimeters of material. Two different angles are proposed to study neutron and gamma spectroscopy: data processing and data interpretation. The present work is in line with two experiments, the Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer (MONS) and the Selene Gamma Ray Spectrometer. A review of the processing operations applied to the MONS dataset is proposed. The resulting dataset is used to determine the depth of the hydrogen deposits below the Martian surface. In water depleted regions, neutron data allow constraining the concentration in elements likely to interact with neutrons. The confrontation of these results to those issued from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer onboard Mars Odyssey provides interesting insight on the geologic context of the Central Elysium Planitia region. These martian questions are followed by the study of the Selene gamma ray data. Although only preliminary processing has been done to date, qualitative lunar maps of major elements (Fe, Ca, Si, Ti, Mg, K, Th, U) have already been realized. (author)

  3. The determination of accurate dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Julia E.; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Almloef, Jan

    1989-01-01

    The static dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases helium through xenon were determined using large flexible one-particle basis sets in conjunction with high-level treatments of electron correlation. The electron correlation methods include single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory (CCSD), an extension of CCSD that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), and second order perturbation theory (MP2). The computed alpha and gamma values are estimated to be accurate to within a few percent. Agreement with experimental data for the static hyperpolarizability gamma is good for neon and xenon, but for argon and krypton the differences are larger than the combined theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Based on our calculations, we suggest that the experimental value of gamma for argon is too low; adjusting this value would bring the experimental value of gamma for krypton into better agreement with our computed result. The MP2 values for the polarizabilities of neon, argon, krypton and zenon are in reasonabe agreement with the CCSD and CCSD(T) values, suggesting that this less expensive method may be useful in studies of polarizabilities for larger systems.

  4. Determining the solar-flare photospheric scale height from SMM gamma-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, Richard E.

    1991-01-01

    A connected series of Monte Carlo programs was developed to make systematic calculations of the energy, temporal and angular dependences of the gamma-ray line and neutron emission resulting from such accelerated ion interactions. Comparing the results of these calculations with the Solar Maximum Mission/Gamma Ray Spectrometer (SMM/GRS) measurements of gamma-ray line and neutron fluxes, the total number and energy spectrum of the flare-accelerated ions trapped on magnetic loops at the Sun were determined and the angular distribution, pitch angle scattering, and mirroring of the ions on loop fields were constrained. Comparing the calculations with measurements of the time dependence of the neutron capture line emission, a determination of the He-3/H ratio in the photosphere was also made. The diagnostic capabilities of the SMM/GRS measurements were extended by developing a new technique to directly determine the effective photospheric scale height in solar flares from the neutron capture gamma-ray line measurements, and critically test current atmospheric models in the flare region.

  5. Design and construction of prompt-gamma spectroscopy facility applied to the boron determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poblete, Victor; Henriquez, Carlos; Klein, Juan; Navarro, Gustavo

    1996-01-01

    A prompt-gamma spectroscopy facility was developed using the south tangential neutron beam of the RECH-1 research reactor for boron determination. The implementation of a thermal neutron beam was performed considering different aspects such as biological protection of working area and the beam collimation for a Ge detector, design and sample holder selection, standards and sample preparation. One ppm of Boron in different samples with counting-rate of 20 minutes and a good accuracy were determined. (author)

  6. Determination of organic-matter content of Appalachian Devonian shales from gamma-ray logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmoker, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The organic-matter content of the Devonian shale of the Appalachian basin is important for assessing the natural-gas resources of these rocks, and patterns of organic-matter distribution convey information on sedimentary processes and depositional environment. In most of the western part of the Appalachian basin the organic-matter content of the Devonian shale can be estimated from gamma-ray wire-line logs using the equation: phi 0 = (γ/sub B/ - γ)/1.378A, where phi 0 is the organic-matter content of the shale (fractional volume), γ the gamma-ray intensity (API units), γ/sub B/ the gamma-ray intensity if no organic matter is present (API units), and A the slope of the crossplot of gamma-ray intensity and formation density (API units/(g/cm 3 )). Organic-matter contents estimated using this equation are compared with organic-matter contents determined from direct laboratory analyses of organic carbon for 74 intervals of varying thickness from 12 widely separated wells. The organic-matter content of these intervals ranges from near zero to about 20% by volume. The gamma-ray intensity of the Cleveland Member of the Ohio Shale and the lower part of the Olentangy Shale is anomalously low compared to other Devonian shales of similar richness, so that organic-matter content computed for each of these units from gamma-ray logs is likely to be too low. Wire-line methods for estimating organic-matter content have the advantages of economy, readily available sources of data, and continuous sampling of the vertically heterogenous shale section. The gamma-ray log, in particular, is commonly run in the Devonian shale, its response characteristics are well known, and the cumulative pool of gamma-ray logs forms a large and geographically broad data base. The quantitative computation of organic-matter content from gamma-ray logs should be of practical value in studies of the Appalachian Devonian shale. 16 figures

  7. A model independent determination of the B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} decay rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernlochner, Florian U. [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Lacker, Heiko [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany); Ligeti, Zoltan [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Stewart, Iain W. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Theoretical Physics; Tackmann, Frank J.; Tackmann, Kerstin [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The goal of the SIMBA collaboration is to provide a global fit to the available measurements of inclusive B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} and B{yields}X{sub u}l{nu} decays. By performing a global fit one is able to simultaneously determine the relevant normalizations, i.e. the total B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} rate and the CKM-matrix element vertical stroke Vub vertical stroke, together with the required hadronic parameters, most importantly the b-quark mass and the b-quark distribution function in the B-meson, called the shape function. In this talk, the current status on the model-independent determination of the shape function and vertical stroke C{sub 7}{sup incl}V{sub tb}V{sub ts}{sup *} vertical stroke, which parametrizes the total B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} rate, from a global fit to the available B{yields}X{sub s}{gamma} measurements from Babar and Belle is presented. In particular, the theoretical uncertainties originating from variations of the different factorization scales are evaluated.

  8. Matrix effects in the determination of phosphorus and sodium by proton-induced prompt gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, C.; Morland, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    By measuring the yield of prompt gamma rays, induced by accelerated charged particles, the ratio of the ranges in sample and standard can be used in the average cross-section method to determine elemental or isotopic compositions. By spiking the sample with a known amount of a compound containing a non-analyte element (absent in the sample), the appropriate range in the sample can be determined by measuring the prompt gamma rays induced in the non-analyte spike. With lithium compounds as the non-analyte spike, sodium and phosphorus were determined in ivory. The method was tested by analysing the standard reference materials SRM 91, SRM 120c, and SRM 694. 2 figs., 5 tabs., 10 refs

  9. Standard test method for quantitative determination of americium 241 in plutonium by Gamma-Ray spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1994-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of americium 241 by gamma-ray spectrometry in plutonium nitrate solution samples that do not contain significant amounts of radioactive fission products or other high specific activity gamma-ray emitters. 1.2 This test method can be used to determine the americium 241 in samples of plutonium metal, oxide and other solid forms, when the solid is appropriately sampled and dissolved. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Advanced gamma spectrum processing technique applied to the analysis of scattering spectra for determining material thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Duc Tam; VNUHCM-University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Huynh Dinh Chuong; Tran Thien Thanh; Vo Hoang Nguyen; Hoang Thi Kieu Trang; Chau Van Tao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an advanced gamma spectrum processing technique is applied to analyze experimental scattering spectra for determining the thickness of C45 heat-resistant steel plates. The single scattering peak of scattering spectra is taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of single scattering photons. Based on these results, the thickness of steel plates is determined with a maximum deviation of real thickness and measured thickness of about 4 %. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP5 code is also performed to cross check the results, which yields a maximum deviation of 2 %. These results strongly confirm the capability of this technique in analyzing gamma scattering spectra, which is a simple, effective and convenient method for determining material thickness. (author)

  11. Application of full spectrum analysis technique for NaI(TI) based gamma ray spectral monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Amar D.; Verma, Amit K.; Narayani, K.; Anilkumar, S.; Singh, Rajvir

    2016-01-01

    NaI(Tl) is commonly used for the gamma spectrometry analysis in laboratories. It continues to be the first choice for gamma spectrometry in many applications even today. Many gamma spectrometric methods are developed to experimentally determine activity of radionuclides in samples. Detectors used worldwide for gamma radiation monitoring are either GM based or scintillator based detector based on count rate. For radiation early warning systems radionuclide specific radiation monitoring methodology is required i.e. gamma ray spectrometry based environmental monitoring system. A computer program has been developed for gamma spectral monitoring by the use of full spectrum analysis (FSA). In this measured spectra are fitted using individual spectral components by least square fitting (LSF). The method is found very useful in situations, where radionuclide specific environmental radiation monitoring is required. The paper describes the details of the FSA procedure for the on line acquisition and analysis of gamma ray spectra from Nal(Tl) detectors

  12. Gamma spectrum measurement in a swimming-pool-type reactor; Mesure du spectre {gamma} d'une pile piscine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pla, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    After recalling the various modes of interaction of gamma rays with matter, the authors describe the design of a spectrometer for gamma energies of between 0.3 and 10 MeV. This spectrometer makes use of the Compton and pair-production effects without eliminating them. The collimator, the crystals and the electronics have been studied in detail and are described in their final form. The problem of calibrating the apparatus is then considered ; numerous graphs are given. The sensitivity of the spectrometer for different energies is determined mainly for the 'Compton effect' group. Finally, in the last part of the report, are given results of an experimental measurement of the gamma spectrum of a swimming-pool type reactor with new elements. (author) [French] Apres un rappel des differents modes d'interaction des rayons gamma avec la matiere, nous decrivons la conception d'un spectrometre pour les energies gamma s'etendant de 0,3 a 10 MeV. Ce spectrometre utilise les effets Compton et creation de paires sans les eliminer. Le collimateur, les cristaux et l'electronique sont entierement etudies et decrits dans leur realisation definitive. Ensuite, le probleme de l'etalonnage de l'appareil est envisage; de nombreuses courbes sont donnees. La sensibilite du spectrometre pour les differentes energies est determinee principalement pour le groupe ''effet Compton''. Enfin, les resultats d'une experience de mesure du spectre gamma d'une pile piscine avec elements neufs sont donnes dans la derniere partie. (auteur)

  13. A new method for the determination of radionuclide distribution in the soil by in situ gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zombori, P.; Andrasi, A.; Nemeth, I.

    1992-06-01

    A method was searched for to estimate the penetration characteristics of fallout radioactivity, using only spectral information obtained by in situ spectrometric measurements, and avoiding the need for long and tiresome sampling and sample analysis procedures. To speed up the analysis for depth distribution determination of fallout radioactivity in soil, an instrumental method based on the shape of spectra was developed. The ratio of peak to valley (the region between the photopeak and Compton edge) depends on the penetration of radionuclides in soil, providing an estimation of depth profile. These ratios were calculated and the method was tested by actual measurements. (R.P.) 7 refs.; 14 figs.; 2 tabs

  14. A novel reversed-phase HPLC method for the determination of urinary creatinine by pre-column derivatization with ethyl chloroformate: comparative studies with the standard Jaffé and isotope-dilution mass spectrometric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Elvis M K; Chan, Wan

    2014-02-01

    Creatinine is an important biomarker for renal function diagnosis and normalizing variations in urinary drug/metabolites concentration. Quantification of creatinine in biological fluids such as urine and plasma is important for clinical diagnosis as well as in biomonitoring programs and urinary metabolomics/metabonomics research. Current methods for creatinine determination either are nonselective or involve the use of expensive mass spectrometers. In this paper, a novel reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of creatinine of high hydrophilicity by pre-column derivatization with ethyl chloroformate is presented. N-Ethyloxycarbonylation of creatinine significantly enhanced the hydrophobicity of creatinine, facilitating its chromatographic retention as well as quantification by HPLC. Factors governing the derivatization reaction were studied and optimized. The developed method was validated and applied for the determination of creatinine in rat urine samples. Comparative studies with isotope-dilution mass spectrometric method revealed that the two methods do not yield systematic differences in creatinine concentrations, indicating the HPLC method is suitable for the determination of creatinine in urine samples.

  15. Using gamma distribution to determine half-life of rotenone, applied in freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, Maheswaran, E-mail: mrohan@aut.ac.nz [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Fairweather, Alastair; Grainger, Natasha [Science and Capability, Department of Conservation, Hamilton (New Zealand)

    2015-09-15

    Following the use of rotenone to eradicate invasive pest fish, a dynamic first-order kinetic model is usually used to determine the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipated from the treated waterbody. In this study, we investigate the use of a stochastic gamma model for determining the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipates from waterbodies. The first-order kinetic and gamma models produced similar values for the half-life (4.45 days and 5.33 days respectively) and days to complete dissipation (51.2 days and 52.48 days respectively). However, the gamma model fitted the data better and was more flexible than the first-order kinetic model, allowing us to use covariates and to predict a possible range for the half-life of rotenone. These benefits are particularly important when examining the influence that different environmental factors have on rotenone dissipation and when trying to predict the rate at which rotenone will dissipate during future operations. We therefore recommend that in future the gamma distribution model is used when calculating the half-life of rotenone in preference to the dynamic first-order kinetics model. - Highlights: • We investigated the use of the gamma model to calculate the half-life of rotenone. • Physical and environmental variables can be incorporated into the model. • A method for calculating the range around a mean half-life is presented. • The model is more flexible than the traditionally used first-order kinetic model.

  16. Determination of burnup for IEAR-1 fuel elements by non destructive method of gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi Filho, T.; Holland, L.

    1982-01-01

    Burnup determination, by non-destructive gamma spectrometry of spent fuel with high and low activity of IEAR-1 reactor, using Cs-137 as burnup monitor, were done. To measure the Cs-137 distribution in these elements a Ge(Li) detector, with volume equal to 73,7 cm 3 , in two measurement systems with defined geometry and good colimation, was used. The IEA-14 taken from the core about 20 years ago, presents a gamma spectra due to Cs-137. The IEA-80, with cooling time approximately to 5 years, shows a more complex gamma spectrum due to other fission products still found in significant quantities. The IEA-14 measures were done in a measurement system used outside the reactor pool (S.I.), being the global efficiency of this system obtained by using a plane, calibrated and extense Ag-110 m source. Detailed measures of gamma transmission, using Cs-137 as a calibrated and punctiforme source, showed the high homogenity of the fuel plates. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Determination of moisture content and natural radioactivity in soils using gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Hady, E E [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Qater University (Qatar); El-Sayed, A M.A.; Alaa, H B [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, El-Minia University, Minia (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    The gamma-ray transmission method has been used to study the soil-water properties in the laboratory as well as in the field. The present measurements were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy system based on a 5 x 5 cm Nal (T 1) scintillation detector and combined sources ({sup 137} Cs and {sup 241} Am). The two sources are placed in a suitable lead collimator to obtain a pin beam of 1 mm diameter. Suitable samples of clay and sandy soils obtained from the local field were prepared to determine the water content and the soil bulk densities by the combined method for different moisture stages. From the results obtained, it is clear that the soil density at both stages (saturated and after drainage) remains the same. this is because the soil particles do not rearrange during the wetting and drying process. The full results will be presented in the text. Natural radioactivity of the investigated samples was also studied using gamma-ray spectrometer having HPGe detector. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of natural gamma radiations revealed the presence of {sup 40} K, {sup 214} Bi, {sup 208} TI and {sup 228} Ac in meaningful concentrations. 3 figs.

  18. Metrological aspects of radiochemical methods for determining activity of gamma-emitting nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakov, B.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The author considers the problem of metrological compatibility of the two stages in the radiochemical method of determining the activity of a gamma-emitting nuclide: chemical isolation of the nuclide and radiometric measurement of its activity. The authors show that preparation of the specimen in liquid form provides for important advantages compared with the traditional application of the solid residue onto a flat substate. The work here is of interest for analytical chemists who are involved with determination of the activity of gamma emitting nuclides such as Ru 103, Rh 106, Sn 113, Cs 134, Cs 137, La 140, Ce 141, Ce 144, Hg 203, Na 24, Mn 54, Fe 59, Co 60, Zn 65, Zr 95, and Nb 95, for example, in waste water or in emissions to the atmosphere, with the goal of protecting the environment

  19. True coincidence summing correction determination for 214Bi principal gamma lines in NORM samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Kh.

    2014-01-01

    The gamma lines 609.3 and 1,120.3 keV are two of the most intensive γ emissions of 214 Bi, but they have serious true coincidence summing (TCS) effects due to the complex decay schemes with multi-cascading transitions. TCS effects cause inaccurate count rate and hence erroneous results. A simple and easy experimental method for determination of TCS correction of 214 Bi gamma lines was developed in this work using naturally occurring radioactive material samples. Height efficiency and self attenuation corrections were determined as well. The developed method has been formulated theoretically and validated experimentally. The corrections problems were solved simply with neither additional standard source nor simulation skills. (author)

  20. Gamma spectrometry at OSIRIS. Determination of the power and combustion rate of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.; Musso, J.F.; Cerles, J.M.

    1975-12-01

    An original gamma spectrometer is available at Saclay near the core of the Osiris reactor. With such a device, it is possible to investigate nuclear fuel elements irradiated at Osiris or originating from power reactors. It is quite possible to build devices based on this principle in nuclear power reactors, more particularly in water reactors. With such a device, it is possible to follow the evolution in space and with time of a large number of fission products, and from there to draw precious conclusions relative to reactor safety (e.g. failed element detection) and to fuel economy (i.e. determination of combustion rate). The general characteristics of the device are given as well as its applications: determination of the mass combustion and of the linear power of an irradiated element. A non-destructive, versatile and fast means of investigation is therefore given by the installation of gamma spectroscopy inside a reactor [fr

  1. Hydraulic conductivity determination of a dark red latosol by gamma attenuation and tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Julio Cesar Martins de; Reichardt, Klaus; Costa, Antonio Carlos Saraiva da

    1995-01-01

    Results for the hydraulic conductivity of a dark red latosol (Oxisol) under laboratory and field conditions are presented. The laboratory experiments simulated field conditions through the measurement of the soil water content profiles as a function of time in soil columns. The data were obtained by the 241 Am gamma-ray transmission method, using standard gamma ray spectrometry equipment. Tensiometers at the depths of 10 and 25 cm were used to obtain the soil water content profiles as a function of time in the field experiments. The hydraulic conductivity functions were determined through internal soil drainage. The results showed higher values of the hydraulic conductivity measured in the field, compared with the laboratory values. The hydraulic conductivity determination methods presented distinct values for the field experiments as well as for the laboratory ones. (author)

  2. Determination of natural radioactivity in building materials used in Tunisian dwellings by gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hizem, N.; Fredj, A. B.; Ghedira, L.

    2005-01-01

    The radioisotopic content of 17 samples of natural and manufactured building materials collected in Tunisia have been analysed by using gamma spectrometry. From the measured gamma ray spectra, activity concentrations are determined for 232 Th, 226 Ra, 235 U and 40 K. The total effective dose and the activity concentration index are calculated applying the dose criteria recommended by the European Union for building materials. The results of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K found in Tunisian building materials indicate that radium and thorium concentrations do not exceed 40 Bq kg -1 , but potassium concentration varies between 50 and 1215 Bq kg -1 . The total effective dose rates per person indoors are determined to be between 0.07 and 0.86 mSv y -1 . Only two materials exceed the reference level of 0.3 mSv y -1 . The activity concentration index is <1. (authors)

  3. Determination of moisture content gradient in wood by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O.; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de

    1981-01-01

    A new methodology for determining water content gradients in wood was developed. It was based on the low energy gamma ray attenuation. Two equations were proposed for determining wood water content, below and above the fiber saturation point. A series of measurents of moisture content gradients in wood samples of Pinus oocarpa was made, during drying in an environment with controlled relative humidity and temperature. The water cntent gradients determination was quick, non-destructive and presented sensitivity and accuracy in moisture content range from 9% to 150%. Aspects of the application of this methodology in water diffusion and flow studies in wood are discussed. (Author) [pt

  4. STUDY CONCERNING THE POSSIBILITY OF GAMMA-SPECTROSCOPY METHOD TO DETERMINE THE TOTAL POTASSIUM IN SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Leah

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It was proved the possibility of determination the total potassium in soils by gamma-spectroscopic method with subsequent calculation of total potassium content in according to value of 40K isotope (expressed in Becquerel, Bq, using the formula: К2О, % = С . А, where: C – conversion coefficient, A – activity of isotope 40K in soil, Bq/kg. Conversion coefficient for chernozems of Moldova – C=0,00337.

  5. Mass determination of U-233 and Pu-239 by gamma spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, M.A.P.V. de; Pugliesi, R.

    1988-09-01

    The gamma spectrometry technique has been used for masses determinations of uranium-233 and plutonium-239, granted by AERE-HARWELL. A high purity Ge semicondutor detector was used and the total efficiency curve was obtained for the counting system in the energy range 13 KeV to 135 KeV. The calculated values for the masses compared with that obtained by means of gravimetry technique. (author) [pt

  6. Study and construction of a {beta}-spectrometer of uniform axial magnetic field fitted with a {beta}-{gamma} coincidence selector. Study of the {beta} spectra of {sup 32}P, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 198}Au. Measurement of the conversion coefficients of {sup 203}Ti and of {sup 198}Hg; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre-{beta} a champ magnetique axial uniforme, muni d'un selecteur de coincidence {beta}-{gamma}. Etude des spectres {beta} du {sup 32}p, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 198}Au. Mesure des coefficients de conversion du {sup 203}Ti et du {sup 198}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsignault, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    various elements of the matrix. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie est rappele le principe du spectrometre beta a champ axial uniforme en employant systematiquement la notion de caustique. L'appareil est decrit et ses proprietes comparees a celles deduites du calcul des trajectoires. Les detecteurs des rayons beta et des rayons gamma et le dispositif de selection des co cidences avec une resolution 2 {tau} de 5 nanosecondes sont egalement presentes. Dans une seconde partie, le spectrometre est employe a l'etude de corps de reference et on confirme les resultats obtenus avec la meilleure precision. Le spectre beta du {sup 60}Co a la forme statistique avec une precision de 1 pour cent, l'energie maximale E{sub 0} est de 316,5 {+-} 1,5 keV. Celui de la transition 7/2 + {yields} 11/2 du {sup 137}Cs possede la forme unique, une fois interdite. E{sub 0} = 522 {+-} 3 keV. Coefficients de conversion {alpha}{sub k} = 96 {+-} 1 X 10{sup -3} {alpha}L + M + N 20,9 {+-} 0,5 X 10{sup -3}. Les deux spectres beta du {sup 59}Fe, separes par coincidence avec le gamma ont la forme statistique E{sub 0} = 462 {+-} 2 keV (55,1 + 0,3 pour cent) et E{sub 1} = 275 {+-} 4 keV (44,9 {+-} 0,3 pour cent). On se propose ensuite d'examiner si la regle de selection l se manifeste dans la forme du spectre beta du phosphore 32. On constate, en effet, qu'elle s'ecarte de la forme statistique et on determine son coefficient de forme. L'interpretation theorique exige l'emploi de meilleures approximations que celles habituellement employees et elle n'est pas unique. Cette etude permet egalement de mettre en evidence la legere proportion de {sup 33}P que contient la source. L'etude du spectre beta de {sup 203}Hg suivi du gamma de 279 keV a pour but de determiner les coefficients de conversion. Le spectre interieur de l'or 198 n'a pas non plus la forme statistique. Le coefficient de forme est determine ainsi que les coefficients de conversion qui presentent un leger desaccord avec ceux calcules par Rose

  7. Study and construction of a {beta}-spectrometer of uniform axial magnetic field fitted with a {beta}-{gamma} coincidence selector. Study of the {beta} spectra of {sup 32}P, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 198}Au. Measurement of the conversion coefficients of {sup 203}Ti and of {sup 198}Hg; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre-{beta} a champ magnetique axial uniforme, muni d'un selecteur de coincidence {beta}-{gamma}. Etude des spectres {beta} du {sup 32}p, {sup 203}Hg, {sup 198}Au. Mesure des coefficients de conversion du {sup 203}Ti et du {sup 198}Hg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsignault, D. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-06-01

    various elements of the matrix. (author) [French] Dans une premiere partie est rappele le principe du spectrometre beta a champ axial uniforme en employant systematiquement la notion de caustique. L'appareil est decrit et ses proprietes comparees a celles deduites du calcul des trajectoires. Les detecteurs des rayons beta et des rayons gamma et le dispositif de selection des co cidences avec une resolution 2 {tau} de 5 nanosecondes sont egalement presentes. Dans une seconde partie, le spectrometre est employe a l'etude de corps de reference et on confirme les resultats obtenus avec la meilleure precision. Le spectre beta du {sup 60}Co a la forme statistique avec une precision de 1 pour cent, l'energie maximale E{sub 0} est de 316,5 {+-} 1,5 keV. Celui de la transition 7/2 + {yields} 11/2 du {sup 137}Cs possede la forme unique, une fois interdite. E{sub 0} = 522 {+-} 3 keV. Coefficients de conversion {alpha}{sub k} = 96 {+-} 1 X 10{sup -3} {alpha}L + M + N 20,9 {+-} 0,5 X 10{sup -3}. Les deux spectres beta du {sup 59}Fe, separes par coincidence avec le gamma ont la forme statistique E{sub 0} = 462 {+-} 2 keV (55,1 + 0,3 pour cent) et E{sub 1} = 275 {+-} 4 keV (44,9 {+-} 0,3 pour cent). On se propose ensuite d'examiner si la regle de selection l se manifeste dans la forme du spectre beta du phosphore 32. On constate, en effet, qu'elle s'ecarte de la forme statistique et on determine son coefficient de forme. L'interpretation theorique exige l'emploi de meilleures approximations que celles habituellement employees et elle n'est pas unique. Cette etude permet egalement de mettre en evidence la legere proportion de {sup 33}P que contient la source. L'etude du spectre beta de {sup 203}Hg suivi du gamma de 279 keV a pour but de determiner les coefficients de conversion. Le spectre interieur de l'or 198 n'a pas non plus la forme statistique. Le coefficient de forme est determine ainsi que les coefficients de conversion

  8. Porosity determination of alumina and boron carbide ceramic samples by gamma ray transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Anderson Camargo; Appoloni, Carlos Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply the Gamma Ray Transmission (GRT), a non destructive technique, for structural characterization of ceramic samples. With this technique, the porosity of Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and Boron Carbide (B 4 C) ceramic samples, in tablet format, was determined. The equipment employed is constituted by a 241 Am gamma ray source (59.6 keV and 100mCi), a 2''x2'' diameter NaI (Tl) scintillation detector coupled to a standard gamma ray transmission electronic and a micrometric and automated table for sample movement. The porosity profile of the samples shows a homogeneous porosity distribution, within the spatial resolution of the employed transmission system. The mean porosity determined for Al 2 O 3 and B 4 C were 17.8±1.3% and 3.87±0.43%, respectively. A statistical treatment of these results was performed and showed that the mean porosity values determinate by the GRT are the same as those supplied by the manufacturer. (author)

  9. NZG 201 portable spectrometric unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursa, P.; Novakova, O.; Slezak, V.

    The NZG 201 spectrometric unit is a portable single-channel processing unit supplied from the mains or a battery which allows the qualitative and quantitative measurement of different types of ionizing radiation when connected to a suitable detection unit. The circuit layout and the choice of control elements makes the spectrometric unit suitable for use with scintillation detector units. The spectrometric unit consists of a pulse amplifier, an amplitude pulse analyzer, a pulse counter, a pulse rate counter with an output for a recorder, a high voltage source and a low voltage source. The block diagram is given. All circuits are modular and are mounted on PCB's. The apparatus is built in a steel cabinet with a raised edge which protects the control elements. The linear pulse amplifier has a maximum gain of 1024, the pulse counter has a maximum capacity of 10 6 -1 imp and time resolution better than 0.5 μs. The temperature interval at which the apparatus is operational is 0 to 45 degC, its weight is 12.5 kg and dimensions 36x280x310 mm, energy range O.025 to 2.5 MeV, for 137 Cs the energy resolution is 8 to 10%. The spectrometric unit NZG 2O1 may, with regard to its parameters, number and range of control elements, be used as a universal measuring unit. (J.P.)

  10. Application of a field flow preconcentration system with a minicolumn packed with amberlite XAD-4/1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphtol and a flow injection-flame atomic adsorption spectrometric system for lead determination in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmen Yebra, M. del; Rodriguez, L.; Puig, L.; Moreno-Cid, A.

    2002-01-01

    A field flow preconcentration technique involving a minicolumn containing Amberlite XAD-4 impregnated with the complexing agent 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol was used to preconcentrate lead from seawater. Elution of retained lead on the minicolumns was performed by a flow-injection-flame atomic absorption spectrometric system. Factorial designs have been used to optimize the field flow preconcentration system and the flow injection elution process. Factors such as sample pH, sample flow-rate, eluent concentration and volume (hydrochloric acid), elution flow-rate and minicolumn diameter were considered. The results suggest that the sample flow-rate and the eluent volume are statistically significant factors. The detection limit (3σ) of the procedure was 5 ng/L for a sample volume of 1000 ml. The precision (expressed as relative standard deviation) for eleven independent determinations reached values of 4.0-3.1 % in lead solutions of 50-200 ng/L. This procedure has been successfully applied to the determination of lead in seawater from Galicia (Spain). (author)

  11. Characterization of a microwave microstrip helium plasma with gas-phase sample introduction for the optical emission spectrometric determination of bromine, chlorine, sulfur and carbon using a miniaturized optical fiber spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Pawel; Zapata, Israel Jimenez; Amberger, Martin A.; Bings, Nicolas H.; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous flow generation of Br 2 , Cl 2 and H 2 S coupled to a low-power 2.45 GHz microwave microstrip He plasma exiting from a capillary gas channel in a micro-fabricated sapphire wafer with microstrip lines has been used for the optical emission spectrometric determination of Br, Cl and S using a miniaturized optical fiber CCD spectrometer. Under optimized conditions, detection limits (3σ) of 330, 190 and 220 μg l -1 for Br, Cl and S, respectively, under the use of the Br II 478.5 nm, Cl I 439.0 nm and S I 469.0 nm lines were obtained and the calibration curves were found to be linear over 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, when introducing CO 2 and using the rotational line of the CN molecular band at 385.7 nm the detection limit for C was 4.6 μg l -1 . The procedure developed was found to be free from interferences from a number of metal cations and non-metal anions. Only the presence of CO 3 2- and CN - was found to cause severe spectral interferences as strong CN and C 2 molecular bands occurred as a result of an introduction of co-generated CO 2 and HCN into the plasma. With the procedure described Br, Cl and S could be determined at a concentration level of 10-30 mg l -1 with accuracy and precision better than 2%

  12. Determination of 226Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Determination of radioactivity levels of 226 Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, daughters of 222 Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the 226 Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand 226 Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was 222 Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  13. Determination of gold in lump by the gamma-activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yantsen, V.A.; Ermakov, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In the report the installation is described used in the Central gamma-activation analysis laboratory (CGAAL) for express quantitative determination of gold concentration in large powdered samples. The method of gold contents determination for non-crushed samples (pieces up to 100 mm). The given gamma-activation analysis method is widely used in mining industry, and at researches related with selection of optimal technological circuits designed for sorting the pieces of ore and rock materials. By developing this method it is now possible to create the technological collection of separated pieces by size, large by the amount of samples, imitating various sorts (by gold concentration in them) and types (by elemental composition) ores, and, based on these collection, to compare the efficiencies of various enrichment methods by knowing in advance the concentrations of gold in these lumps being the final sorting products. The Gamma-activation analysis method of large pieces is mainly used as foundation for the x-ray radiometric (XRR) method of pieces separation of gold-bearing ores from the deposits mined by the Navoi mining combine. It allows significant increase in the rate of research and development works on selection of the most reliable separation characteristics. Based on these one can develop optimal technological circuits for ore enrichment with portion sorting methods. (author)

  14. Determination of the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet relative output factor using a variety of detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-S.; Rivard, Mark J.; Engler, Mark J.; Mignano, John E.; Wazer, David E.; Shucart, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Though the 4 mm Gamma Knife helmet is used routinely, there is disagreement in the Gamma Knife users community on the value of the 4 mm helmet relative output factor. A range of relative output factors is used, and this variation may impair observations of dose response and optimization of prescribed dose. To study this variation, measurements were performed using the following radiation detectors: silicon diode, diamond detector, radiographic film, radiochromic film, and TLD cubes. To facilitate positioning of the silicon diode and diamond detector, a three-dimensional translation micrometer was used to iteratively determine the position of maximum detector response. Positioning of the films and TLDs was accomplished by manufacturing custom holders for each technique. Results from all five measurement techniques indicate that the 4 mm helmet relative output factor is 0.868±0.014. Within the experimental uncertainties, this value is in good agreement with results obtained by other investigators using diverse techniques

  15. Determination of Th and U by neutron activation for gamma spectrometry calibration in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava M, F.; Rios M, C.; Mireles G, F.; Saucedo A, S.; Davila R, I.; Pinedo, J. L.; Landsberger, S.

    2012-10-01

    Using the analysis by neutron activation to determine the profile of the thorium and uranium concentration calibration factors were obtained for their use in the gamma spectrometry in situ. Three sites were selected (San Ramon, Villa de Cos y la Zacatecana) and the analysis by activation was development in the Laboratory of Nuclear Engineering Teaching of the Texas University in Austin with the nuclear reactor Ut-TRIGA. Starting from the gamma spectra in situ, the areas of normalized photo-pick of the radioisotopes were: 208 Tl and 228 Ac for the thorium series and 214 Pb and 214 Bi for the uranium series. The averages of the factors found in units of (cpm/Bq/Kg) are of 105.63±8.32 and 75.87±4.61 for the thorium and uranium, respectively. (Author)

  16. Determination of nuclear fuel burnup by non-destructive gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of nuclear fuel burnup by the non-destructive gamma spectroscopy method is studied. A MTR (Materials Testing Reactor) -type fuel element is used in the measurement. The fuel element was removed from the reactor core in 1958 and, because of the long decay time, show only one peak in is gamma spectrum at 661.6 Kev. Corresponding to 137 Cs. Measurements are made at 330 points of the element using a Nal detector and the final result revealed that the quantity of 235 U consumed was 3.3 +- 0,8 milligram in the entire element. The effect of the migration of 137 Cs in the element is neglected in view of the fact that it occurs only when the temperature is above 1000 0 C, which is not the case in IEAR-1. (Author)

  17. Determination of fatty acid composition of {gamma}-irradiated hazelnuts, walnuts, almonds, and pistachios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecgel, Umit [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey); Gumus, Tuncay; Tasan, Murat; Daglioglu, Orhan; Arici, Muhammet [Namik Kemal University, Agricultural Faculty, Department of Food Engineering, 59030 Tekirdag (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Hazelnut, walnut, almonds, and pistachio nuts were treated with 1, 3, 5, and 7 kGy of gamma irradiation, respectively. Oil content, free fatty acid, peroxide value, and fatty acid composition of the nuts were investigated immediately after irradiation. The data obtained from the experiments indicated that gamma irradiation did not cause any significant change in the oil content of nuts. In contrast, free fatty acid and peroxide value of the nuts increased proportionally to the dose (p<0.05). Among the fatty acids determined, the concentration of total saturated fatty acids increased while total monounsaturated and total polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased with the irradiation dose (p<0.05 and <0.01).

  18. Determination of the self-attenuation correction factor for environmental samples analysis in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Talita O.; Rocha, Zildete; Knupp, Eliana A.N.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Oliveira, Arno H. de; Oliveira, Arno H. de

    2015-01-01

    Gamma spectrometry technique has been used in order to obtain the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides in environmental samples of different origins, compositions and densities. These samples characteristics may influence the calibration condition by the self-attenuation effect. The sample density has been considered the most important factor. For reliable results, it is necessary to determine self-attenuation correction factor which has been subject of great interest due to its effect on activity concentration. In this context, the aim of this work is to show the calibration process considering the correction by self-attenuation in the evaluation of the concentration of each radionuclide to a gamma HPGEe detector spectrometry system. (author)

  19. Determination of gross gamma and gross beta activities in liquid effluent samples. Phase I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, K.E.; Sood, S.P.

    1985-08-01

    Several inadequacies in the presently used procedures for gross gamma and gross beta measurements in aqueous wastes have been identified. Both the presence of suspended particulate activity and the use of cesium-137 as a calibration standard can cause gross gamma measurements to overestimate the actual activity in the sample. At the same time, sample preparation for the determination of gross beta activities causes large losses of radioiodine before the measurement step and the presence of solid material can cause a serious decrease in the beta counting efficiency. A combination of these errors could result in large discrepancies between the results obtained by the two measurement methods. Improved procedures are required to overcome these problems

  20. Time sequence determination of parent–daughter radionuclides using gamma-spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J. L.; Britton, R. E.; Abrecht, D. G.; Davies, A. V.

    2017-05-06

    The acquisition of time-stamped list (TLIST) data provides additional information useful to gamma-spectrometry analysis. A novel technique is described that uses non-linear least-squares fitting and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to simultaneously determine parent-daughter atoms from time sequence measurements of only the daughter radionuclide. This has been demonstrated for the radioactive decay of short-lived radon progeny (214Pb/214Bi, 212Pb/212Bi) described using the Bateman first-order differential equation. The calculated atoms are in excellent agreement with measured atoms, with a difference of 1.3 – 4.8% for parent atoms and 2.4% - 10.4% for daughter atoms. Measurements are also reported with reduced uncertainty. The technique has potential to redefine gamma-spectrometry analysis.

  1. Determination of the neutron activation profile of core drill samples by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, D; Boden, S; Sima, O; Stanga, D

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides guidance for determining the neutron activation profile of core drill samples taken from the biological shield of nuclear reactors using gamma spectrometry measurements. Thus, it provides guidance for selecting a model of the right form to fit data and using least squares methods for model fitting. The activity profiles of two core samples taken from the biological shield of a nuclear reactor were determined. The effective activation depth and the total activity of core samples along with their uncertainties were computed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fluorine determination in human and animal bones by particle-induced gamma-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sastri, Chaturvedula S.; Hoffmann, Peter; Ortner, Hugo M.; Iyengar, Venkatesh; Blondiaux, Gilbert; Tessier, Yves; Petri, Hermann; Aras, Namik K.; Zaichick, Vladimir

    2002-01-01

    Fluorine was determined in the iliac crest bones of patients and in ribs collected from postmortem investigations by particle-induced gamma-ray emission based on the 19 F(p,pγ) 19 F reaction, using 20/2.5 MeV protons. The results indicate that for 68% of the human samples the F concentration is in the range 500-1999 μg g -1 . For comparison purposes fluorine was also determined in some animal bones; in some animal tissues lateral profiles of fluorine were measured. (abstract)

  3. Reimiep 87. An interlaboratory U-235 enrichment determination by gamma measurement on solid UF6 sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparo, M.; Cresti, P.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma spectroscopy technique, based on the measurement of U 235 186 KeV flux, is now currently used for the determination of Uranium enrichment in different material of nuclear fuel cycle, namely: Uranium metallic, UO 2 pellets, UF 6 liquid or solid. The present paper describes the use of such a technique and the obtained results in determining the U 235 /U atomic isotopic abundance on a certified UF 6 solid sample. The measurements have been carried out in the frame work of the partecipation to the ''UF 6 Interlaboratory Measurements Evaluation Programme'' organized by CBNM/Geel with the support of the ESARDA (European Safeguards Research and Development Association)

  4. Synthesis and atomic structure determination of Al8V5 gamma-brass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, Uichiro

    2006-01-01

    Many structurally complex compounds like quasicrystals and their approximants are known to be stabilized at a particular electron per atom ratio e/a, regardless of constituent elements involved. This has been often referred to as the Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule. We consider the understanding of the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism to be best deepened by performing both ab initio LMTO-ASA and FLAPW band calculations for the complex compound whose atomic structure is experimentally determined. Admittedly, however, a computing time increases rapidly beyond practical level with increasing the number of atoms in a unit cell. Among various candidates, we chose a series of gamma-brasses containing 52 atoms in a unit cell by taking a full advantage of the facts that it exists in as many as 24 binary alloy systems and that its unit cell is just in size to be handled even in more time-consuming FLAPW method. We have so far studied the stability mechanism of Cu 5 Zn 8 and Cu 9 Al 4 , both being regarded as its prototype, and TM 2 Zn 11 gamma-brasses containing late transition elements TM=Fe, Co, Ni and Pd. In the present work, we chose the gamma-brass consisting of early transition metal element V and trivalent element Al. An almost single phase Al 8 V 5 gamma-brass was ultimately synthesized by overcoming metallurgical difficulties encountered. Its atomic structure was determined by using the Brandon model as a starting structure in the Rietveld structure analysis for powdered diffraction spectra taken at the beam line BL02B2 of 8 GeV synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, Japan. The atomic structure suitable for band calculations was then proposed by eliminating quenched-in chemical disorder, i.e., partial mixing of Al and V atoms at given sites with minimum sacrifice. (author)

  5. Spectrometric control of radionuclides production parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, I.; Potarenko, A.; Yarochevich, O.; Hluboky, N.; Kerko, P.; Bogdanov, V.; Dyatel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A radioactive preparations and sources are widely used all over the world for scientific, industrial and medical purposes. These preparations in Belarus are planned to produce by the Joint Belarussian-Russian Closed Joint Stock Company 'Isotope technologies' (CJSC IT). The company was created in 1998 by two leading scientific centers-SSI 'Joint Institute of Power and Nuclear Research-Sosny' the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus and the State Center of Science of the Russian Federation 'Scientific research institute of nuclear reactors'. One of the mainstream directions in CJSC IT activities is production of radioactive preparations for the industrial and scientific application (such as 133 Ba, 109 Cd, 63 Ni, 60 Co) and for the medical purposes (such as 19 '2Ir, 60 Co). All radioactive preparations have a good export potential and adequate to modern technical and consumer requirements. X-γ spectrometric analysis of considered radioactive sources is one of the basic methods for quality control of radioactive sources. At present, we are developing x-γ spectrometric support of purification process from contaminating radionuclides of 109 Cd -γ preparation and 63 Ni - β preparation. Work on x-γ spectrometric quality control of 133 Ba preparation is carried out. The description of the used equipment is given. Techniques of contaminating radionuclides determination (contents ∼10 - '6 from activity of the basic radionuclide) are presented. Problems of the choice of geometry of measurements of sources with activity about 10 7 -10 9 Bq and possible sources of errors are discussed. (author)

  6. Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic boron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarielashvili, V.O.; Ordzhonikidze, K.G.; Parulava, L.P.; Vakhaniya, G.V.

    1992-01-01

    Mass spectrometric investigation of vinyl-substituted organic compounds was conducted. Ionization was performed by electron shock. Possibility of determining boron isotope content is all analyzed organic boron vinyl-substituted compounds by direct method is shown. This simplifies sufficiently and lowers the price of analysis, improves its accuracy and rapidity

  7. Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Nuclear Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulyga, S.

    2013-01-01

    The release of man-made radionuclides into the environment results in contamination that carries specific isotopic signatures according to the release scenarios and the previous usage of materials and facilities. In order to trace the origin of such contamination and/or to assess the potential impact on the public and environmental health, it is necessary to determine the isotopic composition and activity concentrations of radionuclides in environmental samples in an accurate and timely fashion. Mass spectrometric techniques, such as thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) belong to the most powerful methods for analysis of nuclear and related samples in nuclear safeguards, forensics, and environmental monitoring. This presentation will address the potential of mass spectrometric analysis of actinides at ultra-trace concentration levels, isotopic analysis of micro-samples, age determination of nuclear materials as well as identification and quantification of elemental and isotopic signatures of nuclear samples in general. (author)

  8. Analytical procedure for the radiometric determination of uranium in ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone, S.J.; Porritt, R.E.J.

    1976-06-01

    Two methods are described for the non-destructive determination of uranium in ores: a beta-gamma measuring method and a gamma-spectrometrical one. The first has the advantage that the analysis is not influenced by a radioactive unbalance in the sample (say by loss of radium as a result of chemical decomposition of the ores) and that it can be carried out with comparitively simple apparative expenditure. It is, however, relatively inaccurate (+-25%) and should only be used as a surveying method. The gamma-spectrometrical analysis (accuracy about +-10%) gives information about an unbalance present between U 238 and Ra 226 and thus enables an appropriate correction to be made. A thorium contribution with its decay products can also be corrected. (RB) [de

  9. Mass spectrometric determination of stability of gaseous BaMoO2, Ba2MoO4, Ba2MoO5, Ba2Mo2O8 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudin, L.S.; Balduchchi, Dzh.; Dzhil'i, G.; Gvido, M.

    1982-01-01

    During the mass spectrometric investigation of BaCrO 4 evaporation Cr + , Ba + , BaO + main ions are recorded as well as BaMoO 4 + , BaMoO 3 + , BaMoO 2 + , BaMoO + , BaMoO 4 + , Ba 2 MoO 5 + , BaMo 2 O 8 + ions - the products of ionization of three-component (Ba, Mo, M) molecules, forming as a result of substance chemical interaction with the material of an effusion cell (Mo). Heats of formation of BaMoO 2 , Ba 2 MoO 4 , Ba 2 MoO 5 and Ba 2 Mo 2 O 8 molecules which constituted - 577+-70, -1343+-115, -1464+-70, -2393+-90 k J/mol respectively are determined on the base of the analysis of curves of ionisation efficiency and of reaction heats Ba 2 MoO 5 =BaO+BaMoO 4 , ΔH 0 0 =322+-60 kJ/mol Ba 2 Mo 2 O 8 =2BaMoO 4 , ΔH 0 0 =351+-80 kJ/mol calculated with the use of third low of thermodynamics [ru

  10. Extraction and preconcentration of trace Al and Cr from vegetable samples by vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction prior to atomic absorption spectrometric determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunay, Nail; Yıldırım, Emre; Gürkan, Ramazan

    2018-04-15

    In the study, a simple, and efficient microextraction approach, which is termed as vortex-assisted ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (VA-IL-DLLME), was developed for flame atomic absorption spectrometric analysis of aluminum (Al) and chromium (Cr) in vegetables. The method is based on the formation of anionic chelate complexes of Al(III) and Cr(VI) with o-hydroxy azo dye, at pH 6.5, and then extraction of the hydrophobic ternary complexes formed in presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) into a 125 μL volume of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide [C 4 mim][Tf 2 N]) as extraction solvent. Under optimum conditions, the detection limits were 0.02 µg L -1 in linear working range of 0.07-100 µg L -1 for Al(III), and 0.05 µg L -1 in linear working range of 0.2-80 µg L -1 for Cr(VI). After the validation by analysis of a certified reference material (CRM), the method was successfully applied to the determination of Al and Cr in vegetables using standard addition method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Determination of the disintegration rate and gamma emission probabilities per decay of 182 Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Eliezer Antonio da

    2008-01-01

    In this work the procedure developed for the standardization of 182 Ta sources produced by irradiation at the IPEN IEA-R1 research reactor is presented. The 182 Ta decays with a half-life of 114 days by β - emission, populating the excited levels of 182 W. It emits gamma rays with several energies mainly between 31 keV and 264 keV and between 1001 keV and 1453 keV. The measurements were performed in a 4πβ-γ coincidence system by using the extrapolation technique. The coincidence system is composed of a 4 π proportional counter coupled to a NaI(Tl) cristal. The measurements were undertaken selecting two windows in the γ-channel, in order to check the consistency of the results. A Monte Carlo calculation was performed in order to predict the behavior of the observed activity as a function of 4πβ the detector efficiency and the results were compared to experimental values. The most intense gamma-ray emission probabilities of 182 Ta were determined by means of an HPGe gamma spectrometer, the germanium efficiency curve was obtained by using sources 152 Eu, 241 Am, 60 Co, 133 Ba and 166m Ho standardized in a primary system. The uncertainties involved in the measurements were treated by the covariance methodology. The results obtained are in good agreement with the experimental uncertainty compared with literature values. (author)

  12. Determination of dose components in mixed gamma neutron fields by use of high pressure ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, N.; Pliszczynski, T.; Wysocka, A.; Zielczynski, M.

    1985-01-01

    The two ionization chamber method for determination of dose components in mixed γ-neutron field has been improved by increasing gas pressure in the chambers up to some milions pascals. Advantages of high pressure gas filling are the followings: 1) significant reduction of the ratio of neutron-to gamma sensitivity for the hydrogen-free chamber, 2) possibility of sensitivity correction for both chambers by application of appropriate voltage, 3) high sensitivity for small detectors. High-pressure, pen-like ionization chambers have been examined in fields of different neutron sources: a TE-chamber, filled with 0.2 MPa of quasi-TE-gas and a conductive PTFE chamber, filled with 3.1 MPa of CO 2 . The ratio of neutron-to-gamma sensitivity for the PTFE chamber, operated at electrical field strength below 100 V/cm, has not exceeded 0.01 for neutrons with energy below 8 MeV. Formula is presented for calculation of this ratio for any high-pressure, CO 2 -filled ionization chamber. Contribution of gamma component to total tissue dose in the field of typical neutron sources has been found to be 3 to 70%

  13. Determining {gamma} with B decays into a scalar/tensor meson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei

    2011-10-15

    We propose a new way for determining the CP violation angle {gamma}. The suggested method is to use the two triangles formed by the decay amplitudes of B{sup {+-}}{yields}(D{sup 0}, anti D{sup 0},D{sup 0}{sub CP})K{sup *{+-}}{sub 0(2)}(1430). The advantages are that large CP asymmetries are expected in these processes and only singly Cabibbo-suppressed D decay modes are involved. Measurements of the branching fractions of the neutral B{sub d} decays into DK{sup *}{sub 0(2)}(1430) and the time-dependent CP asymmetries in B{sub s}{yields}(D{sup 0}, anti D{sup 0})M (M=f{sub 0}(980),f{sub 0}(1370),f{sub 2}{sup '}(1525),f{sub 1}(1285),f{sub 1}(1420),h{sub 1}(1180)) provide an alternative way to extract the angle {gamma}, which will increase the statistical significance. No knowledge of the resonance structure in this method is required and therefore the angle {gamma} can be extracted without any hadronic uncertainty. (orig.)

  14. Establishment of an authenticated physical standard for gamma spectrometric determination of the U-235 content of MTR fuel and evaluation of measurement procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, C.M.

    1979-12-01

    Measurements of U-235 content in a standard MTR fuel element were carried out, using scintillation and semi-conductor spectrometers. Three different types of measurement were carried out: a) Comparison of different primary standards among one another and with single fuel plates. b) Calibration of the MTR fuel element as an authenticated physical standard. c) Evaluation of over all errors in assay measurements on MTR fuel elements. The error of the whole assay measurement will be approximately 0.9%. The Uranium distribution in the single fuel plates is the original source of error. In the case of equal Uranium contents in all fuel plates of one fuel assembly, the error of assay measurements would be about 0.3% relative to the primary standards

  15. Determining lethal dose of gamma radiation on different stages of Tribolium Cosmonauts H b s t

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolfagharieh, H.R.; Majd, F.; Torshyzie, M.; Babaie, M.

    1992-10-01

    Pest infestation causes great losses to stored grain through out the world. This is specially true in developing countries where the technology is less advanced, and climatic conditions are extremely favourable for the development of pests. Irradiation is on approved method of direct control for stored-product insect in wheat and wheat flour in many countries, and in dictation are that it will soon be approved for all grain, grain products and other dry food commodities. Radiation doses required to kill or sterilized the most important storage pests in all stages are known. However irradiation is very effective in preventing insect development and in producing sterility. A detailed analysis of the radiosensitivity of stored-product insects shows the different groups of pests have very different sensitivities and quarantine doses can be tailored to kill or sterilize the species of quarantine concern. The effect of irradiation on insects are many, and varied, depending primarily on the species, stage, age and physical factors. The aim is to survey the effect of gamma radiation on stored pest, which can categorized under following classes: 1-The effect of gamma radiation on different stages grow of tribolium castaneum (H B S T); 2-Determination of lethal doses.; 3-The study of gamma radiation on products. In summary these information indicated that fairly low dosages of gamma radiation could be used on commodities such as bulk grain in which some infestation by insect stages of irradiation would be required on products such package foods where hundred percent mortality must be obtain. (author)

  16. Determination of natural radioactive elements in Abo Zaabal, Egypt by means of gamma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, Zeinab; Abd El-Wahab, Magda; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We examined the radioactivity of different type samples from Abo Zaabaal Lake. ► We evaluated the natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their annual dose rates. ► We evaluated the concentrations of 226 Ra and its hazard indices. ► We assessed the absorbed dose in human. ► All results are within normal ranges. - Abstract: The natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and 226 Ra, are determined for 10 different natural samples (soil–plant–water) from Abo Zaabaal Lake. This lake is located very close to the Egyptian reactors. The gamma spectra analysis indicates that the photo-gamma lines represent ten radioactive nuclides 234 Th, 239 Pu, 228 Ac, 226 Ra, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 212 Bi, 214 Bi and 40 K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series 238 U and 232 Th with 40 K. The mean activity concentration of 238 U was found to be 6.57, 10.16 and 5.44 Bq kg −1 for (soil–plant–water); 8.46, 8.33 and 6.04 Bq kg −1 of 232 Th, and 136.3, 216.8 and 119.2 Bq kg −1 of 40 K respectively. The mean activity concentrations of 226 Ra were obtained which help to evaluate the radiation hazard indices as radium equivalent, internal and external hazard indices. In addition, to assess the radiation risk to a biosystem, the annual effective dose rate, the absorbed dose in human and the absorbed dose outdoor are also evaluated.

  17. Spectrometric properties and radiation damage of BGO crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gen C.; Gasanov, Eldar M.

    1997-07-01

    Spectrometric properties, such as light output, energy resolution BGO crystals before and after (superscript 60)Co gamma-ray (dose 10(superscript 4) - 10(superscript 6) R) and neutron irradiation (fluence 10(superscript 14) cm(superscript -2)) are investigated. Condition for degradation of spectrometric properties and their recovering after irradiation are studied. The energy spectrum of the photons emitted from BGO crystals irradiated with neutron fluence contains the long living background peak which is caused by self-irradiation with radioactive isotopes produced in the crystals. The defect production was studied in crystals under the high dose gamma-irradiation with (superscript 60)Co isotope. It was found that after doses above 10(superscript 8) R the color center at 365 nm and doses higher than 10(superscript 9) R a wide absorption band in the region of 300 - 350 nm occur. Comparison of these results with those of reactor irradiation has shown that under the high dose gamma-irradiation the structure defect production takes place.

  18. Set of programs for determining exposure and dose rates from selected sources of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hep, J.; Kralovcova, E.; Smutny, V.; Valenta, V.

    1982-01-01

    The programs are described for the determination of exposure and dose rate of gamma radiation from point, surface, linear and volume sources with and without shielding. The computation is conducted using the classical method taking into consideration the buildup factor. For the computation of the buildup factor in heterogeneous shielding the Broder and Kitazuma formulas are used. Kitazuma's alpha coefficients were calculated recurrently using a new semi-empirical method. Taylor's approximation was used for the calculation of the buildup factor in a single layer

  19. In situ quantitative determination of transuranic elements in areas of high-level gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for passive neutron monitoring of transuranic elements. The method provides quantitative determinations of transuranic element concentrations in a variety of field situations where no other measurement method is possible. The technique can measure concentrations of transuranic oxides as low as 8 nCi/cmsup 3 and is capable of operating in gamma radiation fields up to megarads per hour. Information on chemical and isotopic composition can also be obtained from the data. Several successful applications of the technique are discussed. 1 ref

  20. In situ quantitative determination of transuranic elements in areas of high-level gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodzinski, R.L.; Wogman, N.A.

    1978-01-01

    A technique is described for passive neutron monitoring of transuranic elements. The method provides quantitative determinations of transuranic element concentrations in a variety of field situations where no other measurement method is possible. The technique can measure concentrations of transuranic oxides as low as 8 nCi/cm 3 and is capable of operating in gamma radiation fields up to megarads per hour. Information on chemical and isotopic composition can also be obtained from the data. Several successful applications of the technique are discussed

  1. Direct determination of Cd, Hg in liver and kidney by prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu tan; Tran Tuan Anh; Nguyen Canh Hai; Le Van Lieu

    2000-01-01

    The development of a method for in-vivo measurement of some elemental concentration in organs making use of prompt gamma activation analysis with the filtered neutron beam at the Dalat reactor is being carried out. In this paper we present primary results in research and development of an IVPGNAA facility at the Dalat reactor. Beside the description of experimental set-up, it consists of determination of thermal neutron flux distribution in phantom, and the evaluation of the detection limit and analytical sensitivity for Cd and Hg in the kidney and the liver. Discussions are given to improve the IVPGNAA facility in the future. (author)

  2. Determination of trace elements of some Egyptian crops by instrumental neutron activation, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric and flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadallah, R.M.; Sherif, M.K.; Amrallah, A.H.; Grass, F.

    1986-01-01

    INAA was used for the determination of Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ti, Th, V and Zn, ICP-AES for the determination of Al, Ag, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Sc, Sr, Ti, V and Zn, and flameless AAS for the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in egg plant, potatoes, green pepper (Leguminosae), vegetable marrow (Cucurbitaceae), pears, apple (Rosaceae), castor oil plant (Euphorbiaceae), lettuce (compositae), dill, parsley, coriander (Umbelliferae), and in some soil samples collected from Aswan province. (author)

  3. Determination of pKa values of benzoxa-, benzothia- and benzoselena-zolinone derivatives by capillary electrophoresis. Comparison with potentiometric titration and spectrometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulon, C; Duhal, N; Lacroix-Callens, B; Vaccher, C; Bonte, J P; Goossens, J F

    2007-07-01

    Acidity constants of benzoxa-, benzothia- and benzoselena-zolinone derivatives were determined by capillary electrophoresis, potentiometry and spectrophotometry experiments. These three analytical techniques gave pK(a) results that were in good agreement. A convenient, accurate and precise method for the determination of pK(a) was developed to measure changes in acidity constants induced by heteroatom or 6-benzoyl substituted derivatives. pK(a) values were determined simultaneously for two compounds characterized by different electrophoretic mobility (micro(e)) and pK(a) value and in the presence of an analogous neutral marker.

  4. Molecular sizes of lichen ice nucleation sites determined by gamma radiation inactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieft, T.L.; Ruscetti, T.

    1992-01-01

    It has previously been shown that some species of lichen fungi contain proteinaceous ice nuclei which are active at temperatures as warm as −2 °C. This experiment was undertaken to determine the molecular sizes of ice nuclei in the lichen fungus Rhizoplaca chrysoleuca and to compare them to bacterial ice nuclei from Pseudomonas syringae. Gamma radiation inactivation analysis was used to determine molecular weights. Radiation inactivation analysis is based on target theory, which states that the likelihood of a molecule being inactivated by gamma rays increases as its size increases. Three different sources of ice nuclei from the lichen R. chrysoleuca were tested: field-collected lichens, extract of lichen fungus, and a pure culture of the fungus R. chrysoleuca. P. syringae strain Cit7 was used as a source of bacterial ice nuclei. Samples were lyophilized, irradiated with gamma doses ranging from 0 to 10.4 Mrads, and then tested for ice nucleation activity using a droplet-freezing assay. Data for all four types of samples were in rough agreement; sizes of nucleation sites increased logarithmically with increasing temperatures of ice nucleation activity. Molecular weights of nucleation sites active between −3 and −4 °C from the bacteria and from the field-collected lichens were approximately 1.0 × 10 6 Da. Nuclei from the lichen fungus and in the lichen extract appeared to be slightly smaller but followed the same log-normal pattern with temperature of ice nucleation activity. The data for both the bacterial and lichen ice nuclei are in agreement with ice nucleation theory which states that the size of ice nucleation sites increases logarithmically as the temperature of nucleation increases linearly. This suggests that although some differences exist between bacterial and lichen ice nucleation sites, their molecular sizes are quite similar

  5. Determination of the distal dose edge in a human phantom by measuring the prompt gamma distribution: a Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Chul Hee; Lee, Han Rim; Yeom, Yeon Su; Cho, Sung Koo; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    The close relationship between the proton dose distribution and the distribution of prompt gammas generated by proton-induced nuclear interactions along the path of protons in a water phantom was demonstrated by means of both Monte Carlo simulations and limited experiments. In order to test the clinical applicability of the method for determining the distal dose edge in a human body, a human voxel model, constructed based on a body-composition-approximated physical phantom, was used, after which the MCNPX code was used to analyze the energy spectra and the prompt gamma yields from the major elements composing the human voxel model; finally, the prompt gamma distribution, generated from the voxel model and measured by using an array-type prompt gamma detection system, was calculated and compared with the proton dose distribution. According to the results, effective prompt gammas were produced mainly by oxygen, and the specific energy of the prompt gammas, allowing for selective measurement, was found to be 4.44 MeV. The results also show that the distal dose edge in the human phantom, despite the heterogeneous composition and the complicated shape, can be determined by measuring the prompt gamma distribution with an array-type detection system.

  6. Precise position of the Basal Choteč event and evolution of sedimentary environments near the Lower–Middle Devonian boundary: The magnetic susceptibility, gamma-ray spectrometric, lithological, and geochemical record of the Prague Synform (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koptíková, Leona

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 304, 1/2 (2011), s. 96-112 ISSN 0031-0182 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB307020602; GA AV ČR IAAX00130702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : magnetic susceptibility * Gamma-ray spectrometry * Prague Synform * Lower–Middle Devonian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2011

  7. GammaWorkshops Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramebaeck, H. (ed.) (Swedish Defence Research Agency (Sweden)); Straalberg, E. (Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller (Norway)); Klemola, S. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK (Finland)); Nielsen, Sven P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority (Iceland))

    2012-01-15

    Due to a sparse interaction during the last years between practioners in gamma ray spectrometry in the Nordic countries, a NKS activity was started in 2009. This GammaSem was focused on seminars relevant to gamma spectrometry. A follow up seminar was held in 2010. As an outcome of these activities it was suggested that the 2011 meeting should be focused on practical issues, e.g. different corrections needed in gamma spectrometric measurements. This three day's meeting, GammaWorkshops, was held in September at Risoe-DTU. Experts on different topics relevant for gamma spectrometric measurements were invited to the GammaWorkshops. The topics included efficiency transfer, true coincidence summing corrections, self-attenuation corrections, measurement of natural radionuclides (natural decay series), combined measurement uncertainty calculations, and detection limits. These topics covered both lectures and practical sessions. The practical sessions included demonstrations of tools for e.g. corrections and calculations of the above meantioned topics. (Author)

  8. Validation of a liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric method for the determination of 5-nitro-5'-hydroxy-indirubin-3'-oxime (AGM-130) in human plasma and its application to microdose clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Ho; Lee, Yun Young; Cho, Kyung Hee; La, Sookie; Lee, Hee Joo; Yim, Dong-Seok; Ban, Sooho; Park, Moon-Young; Kim, Yong-Chul; Kim, Yoon-Gyoon; Shin, Young G

    2016-03-01

    A liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of 5-nitro-5'-hydroxy-indirubin-3'-oxime (AGM-130) in human plasma to support a microdose clinical trial. The method consisted of a liquid-liquid extraction for sample preparation and LC-MS/MS analysis in the positive ion mode using TurboIonSpray(TM) for analysis. d3 -AGM-130 was used as the internal standard. A linear regression (weighted 1/concentration) was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range of 10-2000 pg/mL for AGM-130. There were no endogenous interference components in the blank human plasma tested. The accuracy at the lower limit of quantitation was 96.6% with a precision (coefficient of variation, CV) of 4.4%. For quality control samples at 30, 160 and 1600 pg/mL, the between run CV was ≤5.0 %. Between-run accuracy ranged from 98.1 to 101.0%. AGM-130 was stable in 50% acetonitrile for 168 h at 4°C and 6 h at room temperature. AGM-130 was also stable in human plasma at room temperature for 6 h and through three freeze-thaw cycles. The variability of selected samples for the incurred sample reanalysis was ≤12.7% when compared with the original sample concentrations. This validated LC-MS/MS method for determination of AGM-130 was used to support a phase 0 microdose clinical trial. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Characterization of a microwave microstrip helium plasma with gas-phase sample introduction for the optical emission spectrometric determination of bromine, chlorine, sulfur and carbon using a miniaturized optical fiber spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Pawel; Zapata, Israel Jimenez; Amberger, Martin A.; Bings, Nicolas H. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2008-03-15

    Continuous flow generation of Br{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S coupled to a low-power 2.45 GHz microwave microstrip He plasma exiting from a capillary gas channel in a micro-fabricated sapphire wafer with microstrip lines has been used for the optical emission spectrometric determination of Br, Cl and S using a miniaturized optical fiber CCD spectrometer. Under optimized conditions, detection limits (3{sigma}) of 330, 190 and 220 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Br, Cl and S, respectively, under the use of the Br II 478.5 nm, Cl I 439.0 nm and S I 469.0 nm lines were obtained and the calibration curves were found to be linear over 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, when introducing CO{sub 2} and using the rotational line of the CN molecular band at 385.7 nm the detection limit for C was 4.6 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The procedure developed was found to be free from interferences from a number of metal cations and non-metal anions. Only the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and CN{sup -} was found to cause severe spectral interferences as strong CN and C{sub 2} molecular bands occurred as a result of an introduction of co-generated CO{sub 2} and HCN into the plasma. With the procedure described Br, Cl and S could be determined at a concentration level of 10-30 mg l{sup -1} with accuracy and precision better than 2%.

  10. Determination of 7BE in soil sample by gamma spectrometry for erosion researchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esquivel, Alexander D.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Amaral, Angela M.; Monteiro, Roberto Pellacani G.; Moreira, Rubens M.

    2015-01-01

    Cosmogenic 7 Be is a natural radiotracer produced in the stratosphere and troposphere and reached to the Earth surface via wet and dry fallout and hence its measurement for research of erosion in soils is very significant. The 7 Be radio analyse based on gamma spectrometry technique has been a routine methodology for decades and although is the reference procedure is not free of analytical interference. 7 Be is a β-γ emitting radionuclide (Eγ = 477.59 keV, T½ = 53.12d) and depending on the chemical profile of the soil its determination is susceptible to 228 Ac (E γ = 478.40 keV, T½ = 6.15h) interference. The aim of this work was to establish an analytical protocol for the 7 Be determination in soil samples from Juatuba-Mg region in different sampling periods of dry and rainy seasons for erosion studies and to establish some methodologies for evaluating and correcting the interference level of 228 Ac in the 7 Be activity measurements by gamma spectrometry. (author)

  11. Precise determination of total absorption coefficients for low-energy gamma-quanta with Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonchev, T.; Statev, S.; Nejkov, Kh.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of determining the total absorption coefficient applying the Moessbauer effect is proposed. This method enables the accuracy of the measurement increase. The coefficient is measured with practically no background on using the recoilless part of gamma radiation obtained from the Moessbauer source with and without the sample between the source of the gamma-quanta and the detector. Moessbauer sources and absorbers with a single line and without an isomeric shift are used. The recoilless part of the radiation is obtained by the ''two point'' method as a difference between the numbers of photons corresponding to the stationary source and to the vibrating one with a big mean square velocity, respectively. In the concrete measurements the sources 57 Co and 119 Sn are used. The total absorption coefficient for different samples beginning with water up to plumbum is determined. The mean square error for the mean result in all measurements is less than the mean statistical error for the coefficient. The obtained experimental data give a much smaller deviation from the theoretical data of the last issue of the Stom-Israel Tables than the one expected by their authors

  12. Preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium, cobalt, copper, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc in water samples using 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khuhawar, M.Y.; Das, P.; Dewani, V.K.

    2005-01-01

    The reagent 6-methyl-2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde-4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (MPAPT) has been examined for the pre-concentration of metal ions and determination using air acetylene flame atomic absorption spectrometer. The method is based on the complexation and extraction of cadmium (II), cobalt(III), copper(II), lead(II), nickel(II), iron(II), iron(II), manganese(II) and zinc(II) in chloroform. The metal iron are back extracted in nitric acid (1:1) or after evaporation of solvent the residue is digested in nitric acid. After necessary adjustment of volume the metal ions were determined in aqueous solution. Pre-concentration is obtained 10-25 times. Metal ions recovery was 95.4-100.8% with coefficient of variation 0.2-7.5%. The method used for the determination of metals in canal and sewerage waters, within 2-6433 mu g/L with C. V 0.-5.2%. (author)

  13. Development of accurate mass spectrometric routine and reference methods for the determination of trace amounts of iridium and rhodium in photographic emulsionsf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krystek, Petra; Heumann, Klaus G.

    1999-01-01

    For the determination of trace amounts of iridium and rhodium in photographic emulsions different sample treatment procedures were coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and, for iridium, also with negative thermal ionisation isotope dilution mass spectrometry (NTI-IDMS)

  14. Methodologies for hydrogen determination in metal oxides by prompt gamma activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, E.; Biegalski, S.R.; Landsberger, S.

    2007-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA), available at University of Texas at Austin (UT), has been employed for the direct determination of hydrogen content in a series of metal oxide materials typically used as cathodes in lithium ion battery systems. Special attention was given to the experimental setup including potential sources of error and system calibration for the detection of hydrogen. Spectral interference with hydrogen arising from cobalt was identified and corrected for. Limits of detection as a function of cobalt mass present in a given sample are also discussed. PGAA has proven to be a novel and precise technique for the determination of hydrogen in metal oxides. This type of investigation could provide valuable insight regarding the factors that limit the practical capacities of lithium ion oxide cathodes

  15. Single-acquisition method for simultaneous determination of extrinsic gamma-camera sensitivity and spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J.A.M. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)], E-mail: a.miranda@portugalmail.pt; Sarmento, S. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Alves, P.; Torres, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Bastos, A.L. [Servico de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal); Ponte, F. [Servico de Fisica Medica, Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil do Porto, E.P.E., Rua Dr. Antonio Bernardino de Almeida, 4200-072 Porto (Portugal)

    2008-01-15

    A new method for measuring simultaneously both the extrinsic sensitivity and spatial resolution of a gamma-camera in a single planar acquisition was implemented. A dual-purpose phantom (SR phantom; sensitivity/resolution) was developed, tested and the results compared with other conventional methods used for separate determination of these two important image quality parameters. The SR phantom yielded reproducible and accurate results, allowing an immediate visual inspection of the spatial resolution as well as the quantitative determination of the contrast for six different spatial frequencies. It also proved to be useful in the estimation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the image formation collimator/detector system at six different frequencies and can be used to estimate the spatial resolution as function of the direction relative to the digital matrix of the detector.

  16. Single-acquisition method for simultaneous determination of extrinsic gamma-camera sensitivity and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J.A.M.; Sarmento, S.; Alves, P.; Torres, M.C.; Bastos, A.L.; Ponte, F.

    2008-01-01

    A new method for measuring simultaneously both the extrinsic sensitivity and spatial resolution of a gamma-camera in a single planar acquisition was implemented. A dual-purpose phantom (SR phantom; sensitivity/resolution) was developed, tested and the results compared with other conventional methods used for separate determination of these two important image quality parameters. The SR phantom yielded reproducible and accurate results, allowing an immediate visual inspection of the spatial resolution as well as the quantitative determination of the contrast for six different spatial frequencies. It also proved to be useful in the estimation of the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the image formation collimator/detector system at six different frequencies and can be used to estimate the spatial resolution as function of the direction relative to the digital matrix of the detector

  17. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasviki, K. [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis 15310 (Greece); Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece); Stamatelatos, I.E. [Institute of Nuclear Technology and Radiation Protection, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis 15310 (Greece)], E-mail: ion@ipta.demokritos.gr; Yannakopoulou, E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, NCSR ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, Attikis 15310 (Greece); Papadopoulou, P. [Institute of Technology of Agricultural Products, NAGREF, Lycovrissi, Attikis 14123 (Greece); Kalef-Ezra, J. [Medical Physics Laboratory, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 45110 (Greece)

    2007-10-15

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv.

  18. Determination of serum DNA concentration by enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) in gamma irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabor, J; Misurova, E

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific ELISA method was used to determine changes in the serum DNA concentration in rats at hours 6 and 9 and on the days 1, 3, 7, 10, 15 and 30 after acute whole-body gamma irradiation with a dose of 8 Gy. Changes in the DNA serum concentration were determined also on day 10 after irradiation with doses of 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 Gy. The present results indicate that the pattern of changes in the serum DNA concentration is characterized by an initial decrease, typical also of the leukocyte count, followed by a statistically significant increase in the DNA concentration on day 10 and in later periods of time. These data confirmed, in principle, the authors' previous findings on changes in the DNA concentration in the rat blood plasma after acute X-ray irradiation assessed by the fluorimetric method with ethidium bromide. (author). 4 figs., 14 refs.

  19. Determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water: application of a quantitative biosensing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolterbeek, H Th; Van der Meer, A. J. G. M. [Delft University of Technology, Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    A quantitative biosensing method has been developed for the determination of {gamma}-rays emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the related stable isotope (element) in the biosensor and the determination of the element in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters on accumulation levels: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Using water plants, the method is shown to be three to five orders of magnitude more sensitive than the direct analysis of water. (author)

  20. Determination of the LEP centre-of-mass energy from Z$\\gamma$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R.; Ghez, Philippe; Goy, C.; Jezequel, S.; Lees, J.P.; Martin, F.; Merle, E.; Minard, M.N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Przysiezniak, H.; Alemany, R.; Casado, M.P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J.M.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, L.; Grauges, E.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Merino, G.; Miquel, R.; Mir, L.M.; Morawitz, P.; Pacheco, A.; Park, I.C.; Riu, I.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Palma, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Tricomi, A.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Abbaneo, D.; Becker, U.; Boix, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cerutti, F.; Ciulli, V.; Dissertori, G.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R.W.; Frank, M.; Gianotti, F.; Greening, T.C.; Halley, A.W.; Hansen, J.B.; Harvey, John; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Lehraus, I.; Leroy, O.; Loomis, C.; Maley, P.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Moutoussi, A.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, Gigi; Schlatter, D.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Spagnolo, P.; Tejessy, W.; Teubert, F.; Tomalin, I.R.; Tournefier, E.; Wright, A.E.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Chazelle, G.; Deschamps, O.; Dessagne, S.; Falvard, A.; Ferdi, C.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, P.H.; Nilsson, B.S.; Rensch, B.; Waananen, A.; Daskalakis, G.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Blondel, A.; Brient, J.C.; Machefert, F.; Rouge, A.; Swynghedauw, M.; Tanaka, R.; Valassi, A.; Videau, H.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Zachariadou, K.; Cavanaugh, R.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G.P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Chalmers, M.; Curtis, L.; Lynch, J.G.; Negus, P.; O'Shea, V.; Raeven, B.; Raine, C.; Smith, D.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A.S.; Ward, J.J.; Buchmuller, O.; Dhamotharan, S.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E.E.; Putzer, A.; Sommer, J.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D.M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P.J.; Girone, M.; Goodsir, S.; Marinelli, N.; Martin, E.B.; Nash, J.; Nowell, J.; Sciaba, A.; Sedgbeer, J.K.; Thomson, Evelyn J.; Williams, M.D.; Ghete, V.M.; Girtler, P.; Kneringer, E.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C.K.; Buck, P.G.; Ellis, G.; Finch, A.J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Robertson, N.A.; Smizanska, M.; Williams, M.I.; Giehl, I.; Holldorfer, F.; Jakobs, K.; Kleinknecht, K.; Krocker, M.; Muller, A.S.; Nurnberger, H.A.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.G.; Schmeling, S.; Wachsmuth, H.; Zeitnitz, C.; Ziegler, T.; Aubert, J.J.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Ealet, A.; Fouchez, D.; Motsch, F.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Thulasidas, M.; Tilquin, A.; Aleppo, M.; Antonelli, M.; Gilardoni, Simone S.; Ragusa, F.; Buescher, Volker; Dietl, H.; Ganis, G.; Huttmann, K.; Lutjens, G.; Mannert, C.; Manner, W.; Moser, H.G.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stenzel, H.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Azzurri, P.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, S.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.F.; Heusse, P.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kado, M.; Lefrancois, J.; Serin, L.; Veillet, J.J.; Videau, I.; de Viviede Regie, J.B.; Zerwas, D.; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bettarini, S.; Boccali, T.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Giassi, A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tenchini, R.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P.G.; Blair, G.A.; Coles, J.; Cowan, G.; Green, M.G.; Hutchcroft, D.E.; Jones, L.T.; Medcalf, T.; Strong, J.A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J.H.; Botterill, D.R.; Clifft, R.W.; Edgecock, T.R.; Norton, P.R.; Thompson, J.C.; Bloch-Devaux, Brigitte; Colas, P.; Fabbro, B.; Faif, G.; Lancon, E.; Lemaire, M.C.; Locci, E.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.F.; Rosowsky, A.; Trabelsi, A.; Tuchming, B.; Vallage, B.; Black, S.N.; Dann, J.H.; Kim, H.Y.; Konstantinidis, N.; Litke, A.M.; McNeil, M.A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C.N.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Hodgson, P.N.; Kelly, M.S.; Lehto, M.; Thompson, L.F.; Affholderbach, K.; Boehrer, Armin; Brandt, S.; Grupen, C.; Hess, J.; Misiejuk, A.; Prange, G.; Sieler, U.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Putz, J.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Williams, R.W.; Armstrong, S.R.; Elmer, P.; Ferguson, D.P.S.; Gao, Y.; Gonzalez, S.; Hayes, O.J.; Hu, H.; Jin, S.; McNamara, P.A., III; Nielsen, J.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y.B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I.J.; Walsh, J.; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, X.; Zobernig, G.

    1999-01-01

    Radiative returns to the Z resonance (Z\\gamma events) are used to determine the LEP2 centre-of-mass energy from the data collected with the ALEPH detector in 1997. The average centre-of-mass energy is measured to be: E_CM = 182.50 +- 0.19 (stat.) +- 0.08 (syst.) GeV in good agreement with the precise determination by the LEP energy working group of 182.652 +- 0.050 GeV. If applied to the measurement of the W mass, its precision translates into a systematic error on M_W which is smaller than the statistical error achieved from the corresponding dataset.

  1. On the accuracy of protein determination in large biological samples by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasviki, K.; Stamatelatos, I.E.; Yannakopoulou, E.; Papadopoulou, P.; Kalef-Ezra, J.

    2007-01-01

    A prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) facility has been developed for the determination of nitrogen and thus total protein in large volume biological samples or the whole body of small animals. In the present work, the accuracy of nitrogen determination by PGNAA in phantoms of known composition as well as in four raw ground meat samples of about 1 kg mass was examined. Dumas combustion and Kjeldahl techniques were also used for the assessment of nitrogen concentration in the meat samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the concentrations assessed by the three techniques. The results of this work demonstrate the applicability of PGNAA for the assessment of total protein in biological samples of 0.25-1.5 kg mass, such as a meat sample or the body of small animal even in vivo with an equivalent radiation dose of about 40 mSv

  2. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace quantities of cadmium in water samples after cloud point extraction in Triton X-114 without added chelating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afkhami, Abbas; Madrakian, Tayyebeh; Siampour, Hajar

    2006-01-01

    A new micell-mediated phase separation method for preconcentration of ultra-trace quantities of cadmium as a prior step to its determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry has been developed. The method is based on the cloud point extraction (CPE) of cadmium in iodide media with Triton X-114 in the absence of any chelating agent. The optimal extraction and reaction conditions (e.g., acid concentration, iodide concentration, effect of time) were studied, and the analytical characteristics of the method (e.g., limit of detection, linear range, preconcentration, and improvement factors) were obtained. Linearity was obeyed in the range of 3-300 ng mL -1 of cadmium. The detection limit of the method is 1.0 ng mL -1 of cadmium. The interference effect of some anions and cations was also tested. The method was applied to the determination of cadmium in tap water, waste water, and sea water samples

  3. Ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction/gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Herrador, Eva; Lucena, Rafael; Cárdenas, Soledad; Valcárcel, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    The direct coupling between ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry is proposed for the rapid and simple determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes isomers (BTEX) in water samples. The extraction procedure exploits not only the high affinity of the selected ionic liquid (1-methyl-3-octyl-imidazolium hexaflourophosphate) to these aromatic compounds but also its special properties like viscosity, low vapour pressure and immiscibility with water. All the variables involved in the extraction process have been studied in depth. The developed method allows the determination of these single-ring compounds in water under the reference concentration level fixed by the international legislation. In this case, limits of detection were in the range 20 ng L(-1) (obtained for benzene) and 91 ng L(-1) (for o-xylene). The repeatability of the proposed method, expressed as RSD (n=5), varied between 3.0% (o-xylene) and 5.2% (toluene).

  4. The determination of the thermal neutron and gamma fluxes at the Maryland University Training Reactor using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karceski, Jeffrey David; Ebert, David D.; Munno, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Determination of the dose received by a material in a mixed gamma and neutron field is of paramount concern to any research reactor owner. This dose can be separated into three distinguishable parts using standard thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) responses: 1) thermal neutron dose, 2) fission gamma dose, and 3) fission product gamma dose. For the Maryland University Training Reactor (MUTR), these respective fluences were determined for each of the associated experimental facilities. Quantifying the magnitude of the gamma and thermal neutron exposures at various reactor power levels was accomplished using Li-6F and Li-7F TLDs, respectively. These two types of dosimetry were chosen given the following considerations: 1) there is no existing standard established for fluence determination in a mixed field, 2) the LiF TLDs have a wide range of sensitivity to radiation, from 0.01 mR to 10,000 R, and 3) LiF TLDs are easy to read given the proper equipment. Standardization of the gamma/neutron doses was accomplished using the 500,000 Rad/hr Co-60 gamma source also located at the University of Maryland. (author)

  5. Measuring element for the detection and determination of radiation doses of gamma radiation and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, W.; Piesch, E.

    1975-01-01

    A measuring element detects and proves both gamma and neutron radiation. The element includes a photoluminescent material which stores gamma radiation and particles of arsenic and phosphorus embedded in the photoluminescent material for detecting neutron radiation. (U.S.)

  6. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of trace amounts of heavy metal ions after solid phase extraction using modified sodium dodecyl sulfate coated on alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir; Niknam, Khodabakhsh [Chemistry Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Niknam, Ebrahim; Rajabi, Hamid Reza [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soylak, Mustafa [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-06-30

    A sensitive and selective solid phase extraction procedure for the determination of traces of Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) has been developed. An alumina-sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) coated on with meso-phenyl bis(indolyl) methane (MPBIM) was used for preconcentration and determination of Cu(II), Zn(II), Pb(II) and Fe(III) ions by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The analyte ions were adsorbed quantitatively on adsorbent due to their complexation with MPBIM. Adsorbed metals were quantitatively eluted using 6 mL of 4 mol L{sup -1} nitric acid. The effects of parameters such as pH, amount of alumina, amount of MBITP, flow rate, type and concentration of eluting agent were examined. The effects of interfering ions on the separation-preconcentration of analytes were also investigated. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be less than 3.0%. The presented procedure was successfully applied for determination of analytes in real samples.

  7. APPLICATION OF THE SPECTROMETRIC METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE DOSE RATE FOR CREATING CALIBRATION HIGHLY SENSITIVE INSTRUMENTS BASED ON SCINTILLATION DETECTION UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Lukashevich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Devices based on scintillation detector are highly sensitive to photon radiation and are widely used to measure the environment dose rate. Modernization of the measuring path to minimize the error in measuring the response of the detector to gamma radiation has already reached its technological ceiling and does not give the proper effect. More promising for this purpose are new methods of processing the obtained spectrometric information. The purpose of this work is the development of highly sensitive instruments based on scintillation detection units using a spectrometric method for calculating dose rate.In this paper we consider the spectrometric method of dosimetry of gamma radiation based on the transformation of the measured instrumental spectrum. Using predetermined or measured functions of the detector response to the action of gamma radiation of a given energy and flux density, a certain function of the energy G(E is determined. Using this function as the core of the integral transformation from the field to dose characteristic, it is possible to obtain the dose value directly from the current instrumentation spectrum. Applying the function G(E to the energy distribution of the fluence of photon radiation in the environment, the total dose rate can be determined without information on the distribution of radioisotopes in the environment.To determine G(E by Monte-Carlo method instrumental response function of the scintillator detector to monoenergetic photon radiation sources as well as other characteristics are calculated. Then the whole full-scale energy range is divided into energy ranges for which the function G(E is calculated using a linear interpolation.Spectrometric method for dose calculation using the function G(E, which allows the use of scintillation detection units for a wide range of dosimetry applications is considered in the article. As well as describes the method of calculating this function by using Monte-Carlo methods

  8. Comparison of three gamma ray isotopic determination codes: FRAM, MGA, and TRIFID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, T.L.; Malcom, J.E.; Bonner, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    The determination of the isotopic distribution of plutonium and the americium concentration is required for the assay of nuclear material by calorimetry or neutron coincidence counting. The isotopic information is used in calorimetric assay to compute the effective specific power from the measured isotopic fractions and the known specific power of each isotope. The effective specific power is combined with the heat measurement to obtain the mass of plutonium in the assayed nuclear material. The response of neutron coincidence counters is determined by the 240 Pu isotopic fraction with contributions from the other even plutonium isotopes. The effect of the 240 Pu isotopic fraction and the other neutron contributing isotopes are combined as 240 Pu effective. This is used to calculate the mass of nuclear material from the neutron counting data in a manner analogous to the effective specific power in calorimeter. Comparisons of the precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay and neutron coincidence counting often focus only on the precision and accuracy of the heat measurement (calorimetry) compared to the precision and accuracy of the neutron coincidence counting statistics. The major source of uncertainty for both calorimetric assay and neutron coincidence counting often lies in the determination of the plutonium isotopic distribution ad determined by gamma ray spectroscopy. Thus, the selection of the appropriate isotopic distribution code is of paramount importance to good calorimetric assay and neutron coincidence counting. Three gamma ray isotopic distribution codes, FRAM, MGA, and TRIFID have been compared at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility under carefully controlled conditions of similar count rates, count times, and 240 Pu isotopic fraction

  9. Flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of heavy metals in aqueous solution and surface water preceded by co-precipitation procedure with copper(II) 8-hydroxyquinoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipeaiyeda, Ayodele Rotimi; Ayoade, Abisayo Ruth

    2017-12-01

    Co-precipitation procedure has widely been employed for preconcentration and separation of metal ions from the matrices of environmental samples. This is simply due to its simplicity, low consumption of separating solvent and short duration for analysis. Various organic ligands have been used for this purpose. However, there is dearth of information on the application of 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) as ligand and Cu(II) as carrier element. The use of Cu(II) is desirable because there is no contamination and background adsorption interference. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use 8-HQ in the presence of Cu(II) for coprecipitation of Cd(II), Co(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Pb(II) from standard solutions and surface water prior to their determinations by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The effects of pH, sample volume, amount of 8-HQ and Cu(II) and interfering ions on the recoveries of metal ions from standard solutions were monitored using FAAS. The water samples were treated with 8-HQ under the optimum experimental conditions and metal concentrations were determined by FAAS. The metal concentrations in water samples not treated with 8-HQ were also determined. The optimum recovery values for metal ions were higher than 85.0%. The concentrations (mg/L) of Co(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) in water samples treated with 8-HQ were 0.014 ± 0.002, 0.03 ± 0.01, 0.04 ± 0.02 and 0.05 ± 0.02, respectively. These concentrations and those obtained without coprecipitation technique were significantly different. Coprecipitation procedure using 8-HQ as ligand and Cu(II) as carrier element enhanced the preconcentration and separation of metal ions from the matrix of water sample.

  10. Novel analytical reagent for the application of cloud-point preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of nickel in natural water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvardhan, K.; Rekha, D.; Kumar, K. Suresh; Prasad, P. Reddy; Kumar, J. Dilip; Jayaraj, B.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud-point extraction was applied as a preconcentration of nickel after formation of complex with newly synthesized N-quino[8,7-b]azin-5-yl-2,3,5,6,8,9,11,12octahydrobenzo[b][1,4,7,10,13] pentaoxacyclopentadecin-15-yl-methanimine, and later determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) using octyl phenoxy polyethoxy ethanol (Triton X-114) as surfactant. Nickel was complexed with N-quino[8,7-b]azin-5-yl-2,3,5,6,8,9,11,12 octahydrobenzo[b][1,4,7,10,13]pentaoxacyclopentadecin-15-yl-methanimine in an aqueous phase and was kept for 15 min in a thermo-stated bath at 40 deg. C. Separation of the two phases was accomplished by centrifugation for 15 min at 4000 rpm. The chemical variables affecting the cloud-point extraction were evaluated, optimized and successfully applied to the nickel determination in various water samples. Under the optimized conditions, the preconcentration system of 100 ml sample permitted an enhancement factor of 50-fold. The detailed study of various interferences made the method more selective. The detection limits obtained under optimal condition was 0.042 ng ml -1 . The extraction efficiency was investigated at different nickel concentrations (20-80 ng ml -1 ) and good recoveries (99.05-99.93%) were obtained using present method. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the determination of nickel in various water samples and compared with reported method in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio f-test which indicate the significance of present method over reported and spectrophotometric methods at 95% confidence level

  11. Application of neutron-gamma analysis for determination of C/N ratio in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutron-gamma analysis is based on the acquisition of gamma rays from neutron irradiated study objects. The intensity and energy of the registered gamma rays gives information on the types and amounts of elements in the studied object. The use of this method for measurements of soil carbon demonstra...

  12. Determination of gamma ray attenuation coefficient of archaeological ceramics from Parana State, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Richard M.C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.; Parreira, Paulo S.; Coimbra, Melayne M.; Aragao, Pedro H.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work demonstrates an alternative methodology for the linear attenuation coefficient determination (μρ) of irregular form samples. This methodology aims the study of indigenous archaeological ceramics from the region of Londrina, North of Parana State, Brazil. These ceramics are from Padre Carlos Weiss Historic Museum, Londrina University and belong to the Kaingaing tradition. Firstly, μρ determination by two mean method was performed by the gamma ray beam attenuation of the immersed ceramics, by using two different means with well-known linear attenuation coefficient. Beyond, the deduction of the equation for the μρ determination by the two-means methods, was also realized. By the other side, μρ theoretical value was determined with the XCOM computer program. This program uses the ceramics chemistry composition and provides an energy versus mass attenuation coefficient table. To verify the two-means method efficiency, five ceramics sample of thickness 1.15 cm and 1.87 cm were prepared with homogeneous clay. Theses ceramics, we used for the μρ determination using the attenuation method, and two-means method. The results and the μρ obtained deviation were compared for these samples, for the two methods. With the obtained results, it was concluded that the two-means method is applicable for the mass attenuation coefficient determination for the archaeometry studies. (author). 6 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. Coupling continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction, preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometric detection for the determination of cadmium and lead in mussel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yebra-Biurrun, M.C.; Cancela-Perez, S.; Moreno-Cid-Barinaga, A.

    2005-01-01

    Continuous ultrasound-assisted extraction has been coupled with preconcentration and flame atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of cadmium and lead in mussel samples. Experimental designs were used for the optimisation of the leaching and preconcentration steps. The use of diluted nitric acid as extractant in the continuous mode at a flow rate of 3.5 ml min -1 and room temperature was sufficient for quantitative extraction of these trace metals. A minicolumn containing a chelating resin (Chelite P, with aminomethylphosphoric acid groups) was proved as an excellent material for the quantitative preconcentration of cadmium and lead prior to their flame atomic absorption detection. A flow injection manifold was used as interface for coupling the three analytical steps, which allowed the automation of the whole analytical process. A good precision of the whole procedure (2.0 and 2.3%), high enrichment factors (20.5 and 11.8) and a detection limit of 0.011 and 0.25 μg g -1 for cadmium and lead, respectively, were obtained for 80 mg of sample. The sample throughputs were ca. 16 and 14 samples h -1 for cadmium and lead, respectively. The accuracy of the analytical procedures was verified by using a standard reference material (BCR 278-R, mussel tissue) and the results were in good agreement with the certified values. The method was successfully applied to the determination of trace amounts of cadmium and lead in mussel samples from the coast of Galicia (NW, Spain)

  14. A biosorption system for metal ions on Penicillium italicum - loaded on Sepabeads SP 70 prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendil, Durali; Tuzen, Mustafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration system, coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS), was developed for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II), manganese(II), iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions at the μg L -1 levels on Penicillium italicum - loaded on Sepabeads SP 70. The analytes were adsorbed on biosorbent at the pH range of 8.5-9.5. The adsorbed metals were eluted with 1 mol L -1 HCl. The influences of the various analytical parameters including pH of the aqueous solutions, sample volume, flow rates were investigated for the retentions of the analyte ions. The recovery values are ranged from 95-102%. The influences of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metal ions were also discussed. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (3 s, n = 21) for analytes were in the range of 0.41 μg L -1 (cadmium) and 1.60 μg L -1 (iron). The standard reference materials (IAEA 336 Lichen, NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were analyzed to verify the proposed method. The method was successfully applied for the determinations of analytes in natural water, cultivated mushroom, lichen (Bryum capilare Hedw), moss (Homalothecium sericeum) and refined table salt samples

  15. Multiresidue analysis of pesticides in olive oil by gel permeation chromatography followed by gas chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Andres Garcia; Martos, Natividad Ramos; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2006-01-01

    A method for the multiresidue analysis of olive oil samples for 26 pesticides is proposed. Residual pesticides are extracted from oil using an n-hexane/acetonitrile mixture, extracts being cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) for analysis by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Electron ionization and chemical ionization are employed in a single analysis for the determination of pesticides. Pesticide recoveries from virgin and refined olive oil spiked with 10, 100 and 250 μg/kg concentrations of the pesticides ranged from 83.8 to 110.3%. The proposed method features good sensitivity: its limits of quantification are low enough to allow pesticide residues to be determined at concentrations below the maximum residue levels legally accepted. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, ranges from 4.93 to 8.11%. Applicability was tested on 40 olive oil samples. Several pesticides were detected in most of the virgin olive oil samples. By contrast, refined olive samples contained few pesticides, and only endosulfan sulphate was detected in all

  16. [An ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of common artificial synthetic pigments in cooked meat products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaoping; Zhao, Yonggang; Pan, Shengdong; Jin, Micong

    2015-07-01

    A method based on ultrafast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS/MS) has been developed for the simultaneous determination of seven synthetic pigments in cooked meat product. After the cooked meat products were extracted by mixed extraction agent, purified by WAX column, the UFLC separation was performed on a Shim-pack XR-ODS II column (75 mm x 2.0 mm, 2.2 µm) with a linear gradient elution program of acetonitrile and ammonium acetate (AmAc, 5 mmol/L) as the mobile phase. Electrospray ionization was applied and operated in the negative ion mode. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) for the seven synthetic pigments were in the range of 0.7-5.0 µg/kg. The calibration curves showed good linearities for the seven analytes in their detection ranges, and the correlative coefficients (r) were more than 0.999. The recoveries were between 88.2%-106.5% with the RSDs in the range of 1.2%-5.0%. The method is sensitive, reproducible, quick and adapts to the simultaneous determination of the seven synthetic pigments in cooked meat product.

  17. Determination of calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by using a microsampling flame atomic absorption spectrometric method after closed-vessel microwave digestion: method validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekri, Rachida; Noël, Laurent; Vastel, Christelle; Millour, Sandrine; Kadar, Ali; Guérin, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a validation process in compliance with the NFIEN ISO/IEC 17025 standard for the determination of the macrominerals calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium in foodstuffs by microsampling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry after closed-vessel microwave digestion. The French Standards Commission (Agence Francaise de Normalisation) standards NF V03-110, NF EN V03-115, and XP T-90-210 were used to evaluate this method. The method was validated in the context of an analysis of the 1322 food samples of the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Several performance criteria (linearity, LOQ, specificity, trueness, precision under repeatability conditions, and intermediate precision reproducibility) were evaluated. Furthermore, the method was monitored by several internal quality controls. The LOQ values obtained (25, 5, 8.3, and 8.3 mg/kg for Ca, Mg, Na, and K, respectively) were in compliance with the needs of the TDS. The method provided accurate results as demonstrated by a repeatability CV (CVr) of < 7% and a reproducibility CV (CVR) of < 12% for all the elements. Therefore, the results indicated that this method could be used in the laboratory for the routine determination of these four elements in foodstuffs with acceptable analytical performance.

  18. A biosorption system for metal ions on Penicillium italicum - loaded on Sepabeads SP 70 prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometric determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendil, Durali; Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: msoylak@gmail.com

    2008-04-15

    A solid phase extraction (SPE) preconcentration system, coupled to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS), was developed for the determination of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II), manganese(II), iron(III), nickel(II) and cobalt(II) ions at the {mu}g L{sup -1} levels on Penicillium italicum - loaded on Sepabeads SP 70. The analytes were adsorbed on biosorbent at the pH range of 8.5-9.5. The adsorbed metals were eluted with 1 mol L{sup -1} HCl. The influences of the various analytical parameters including pH of the aqueous solutions, sample volume, flow rates were investigated for the retentions of the analyte ions. The recovery values are ranged from 95-102%. The influences of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metal ions were also discussed. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (3 s, n = 21) for analytes were in the range of 0.41 {mu}g L{sup -1} (cadmium) and 1.60 {mu}g L{sup -1} (iron). The standard reference materials (IAEA 336 Lichen, NIST SRM 1573a Tomato leaves) were analyzed to verify the proposed method. The method was successfully applied for the determinations of analytes in natural water, cultivated mushroom, lichen (Bryum capilare Hedw), moss (Homalothecium sericeum) and refined table salt samples.

  19. Determination of Pu isotopic composition and 241Am by high resolution gamma spectrometry on solid samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Arnab; Paul, Sumana; Aggarwal, Suresh K.; Tomar, Bhupendra S.

    2011-08-01

    The present report gives a detailed account of the development of non-destructive assay technique using high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry (HRGS) for determination of plutonium (Pu) isotopic composition and the 241 Am content in solid Pu samples. Energy range 120-420 keV was used in this study. The methodology involves in situ relative efficiency calibration during the measurement process itself, to reduce the errors and increase the reliability of the method. Twenty solid Pu samples of power reactor and research reactor grade were analyzed by this method and the results were compared with those obtained by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The accuracy of the final results depends strongly upon the accuracy of the available nuclear data (decay constant, gamma abundance etc.). MATLAB based programme was written to perform the analysis. A counting time of 4 hour was chosen for achieving good statistics on the results for samples having 100-200 mg of Pu. The attainable accuracy is found to be 0.5-1% for the fissile isotopes ( 239 Pu + 241 Pu) and 5-10% for 241 Am content. (author)

  20. Radioimmunological determination of alphafetoprotein and gamma camera scintigraphy in patients with tumours of the testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkov, V.; Sultanov, S.

    1989-01-01

    By means of radioimmunological method the blood serum concentrations of alphafetoprotein (AFP) were investigated in 35 patients with histologically confirmed tumours of the testes prior to surgical intervention. Parallely in all patients gamma camera scintigraphy of the testes was performed. Seven of all investigated 15 patients with seminoma of the testes had increased concentrations of AFP in the blood serum. In 7 of the examinated 10 patients with diagnosis teratoma of the testes increased blood serum concentrations of AFP were established, while 6 of the examined patients with embryonic tumour of the testis had increased blood serum concentrations of AFP. In comparison with the results established in the control group of 30 healthy males, this increase of AFP was statistically reliable. All examined patients showed positive scintigraphic findings, which confirmed the diagnosis of tumour of the testes. It is concluded that the parallel determination of blood serum AFP and gamma camera investigation of the testes could be successfully apllied in the diagnosis of these malignant diseases

  1. Determination of Beryllium-7 in Water Hyacinth Using Gamma-Ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yimchalam, Nopporn; Chankow, Nares; Yangchauy, Udon

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Beryllium-7 (7 B e) is a cosmogenic radionuclide produced in the upper atmosphere and enters the lower atmosphere by atmospheric circulation processes. About 90% of 7 B e decays directly through electron capture to 7 L i at ground state and about 10% to 7 L i at 1 s t excited state followed by 477.6 keV gamma-ray emission with a half-life of 53.3 days. The aim of this research was to measure 7 B e activity in environmental samples including water and aquatic plants. From the preliminary investigation by measurement of the 477.6 keV gamma-ray peak, 7 B e could be found in fresh Water Hyacinth samples. Thus, Water Hyacinth samples were then collected at different times of the year 2007 - 2008 in an area of Bang Khaen campus of Kasetsart University for determination of 7 B e activity using a HPGe detector. It was found that 7 B e specific activity was about 4-7 Bq/kg in the samples collected in rainy season during August-October 2007 and in June 2008 but could not detect in dry seasons i.e. summer and winter. The specific activity of 7 B e in Water Hyacinth sample depended on rainfalls as expected

  2. Determination quercetin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of genotype mutant Samosir shallots irradiated by gamma rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinuraya, M.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Romulo, A.; Barus, A.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to study the variation in antioxidant and antimicrobial activity as well as the total quercetin content of the fifth generation genotypes mutant Samosir shallot irradiated by gamma rays. The studies conducted included the assessment of quercetin content, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in shallot bulbs after long-term storage (6 months in the room temperature). Quercetin content of 20 selected genotype mutants of irradiated shallot bulbs along with untreated populations were calculated using quercetin (QU) as a standard. Antioxidant activities of 8 genotype mutant were determined using DPPH. Antimicrobial activity of bulb extracts were tested against six bacteria including Staphylococcus aurous, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae and oneyeastCandida albicans. The results showed that population of genotype mutants irradiated with dosage 2Gy, 4 Gy, 5 Gy and 6 Gy have higher quercetin content than control samples. None of the genotype mutants exhibited antibacterial inhibitory against all microorganism tested except for the sample number 2 and 6 (bulbs generated from the plants irradiated by gamma rays with dosage at 2 Gy and 6 Gy). There was also none of the genotypes observed exhibited significant antioxidant efficacy.

  3. Novel solid phase extraction procedure for gold(III) on Dowex M 4195 prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Saygi, Kadriye O.; Soylak, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    A method for solid phase extraction (SPE) of gold(III) using Dowex M 4195 chelating resin has been developed. The optimum experimental conditions for the quantitative sorption of gold(III), pH, effect of flow rates, eluent types, sorption capacity and the effect of diverse ions on the sorption of gold(III) have been investigated. The chelating resin can be reused for more than 100 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption of gold(III) ions. The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit (LOD) of gold were greater than 95% and 1.61 μg L -1 , respectively. The preconcentration factor was 31. The relative standard deviation of the method was -1 . The proposed method has been applied for the determination of gold(III) in some real samples including water, soil and sediment samples

  4. Determination of bromine in selected polymer materials by a wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method - Critical thickness problem and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorewoda, Tadeusz; Mzyk, Zofia; Anyszkiewicz, Jacek; Charasińska, Jadwiga

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an accurate method for the determination of bromine in polymer materials using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry when the thickness of the sample is less than the bromine critical thickness (tc) value. This is particularly important for analyzing compliance with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive. Mathematically and experimentally estimated tc values in polyethylene and cellulose matrixes were up to several millimeters. Four methods were developed to obtain an accurate result. These methods include the addition of an element with a high mass absorption coefficient, the measurement of the total bromine contained in a defined volume of the sample, the exploitation of tube-Rayleigh line intensities and using the Br-Lβ line.

  5. Development of a portable mass spectrometric system for determination of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples using fluorine volatilization. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loge, G.

    1994-01-01

    Using hardware and materials supplied by LANL, a prototype quadrupole mass spectrometer system designed for portable field analysis of isotopic composition of solid uranium samples was assembled and tested. The system contained the capability for fluorine volatilization of solid uranium samples with gas introduction, which was successfully tested and demonstrated using 100 mg samples of U 3 O 8 . Determination of precision and accuracy for measuring isotopic composition was performed using isotopic standards. Use with soil samples containing uranium were also attempted. Silicates in the soil forming SiF 4 were found to be a kinetic bottleneck to the formation of UF 6 . This could be avoided by performing some sort of chemical separation as a pre-treatment step, which was demonstrated using nitric acid

  6. Diaion HP-2MG modified with 2-(2,6-dichlorobenzylideneamino) benzenethiol as new adsorbent for solid phase extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedi, M; Montazerozohori, M; Haghdoust, S; Zaare, F; Soylak, M

    2013-04-01

    A solid phase extraction method for enrichment-separation and the determination of cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)), nickel (Ni(2+)), zinc (Zn(2+)) and lead (Pb(2+)) ions in real samples has been proposed. The influences of some analytical parameters like pH, flow rate, eluent type and interference of matrix ions on recoveries of analytes were optimized. The limits of detection were found in the range of 1.6-3.9 µg L(-1), while preconcentration factor for all understudy metal ions were found to be 166 with loading half time (t 1/2) less than 10 min. The procedure was applied for the enrichment-separation of analyte ions in environmental samples with recoveries higher than 94.8% and relative SD <4.9% (N = 5).

  7. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter using multivariate optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscoso-Perez, Carmen; Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Fernandez-Fernandez, Esther; Prada-Rodriguez, Dario

    2004-01-01

    A highly sensitive and simple method, based on hydride generation and atomic fluorescence detection, has been developed for the determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter samples. Atmospheric particulates matter was collected on glass fiber filters using a medium volume sampler (PM1 particulate matter). Two-level factorial designs have been used to optimise the hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) procedure. The effects of several parameters affecting the hydride generation efficiency (hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations and flow rates) have been evaluated using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. In addition, parameters affecting the hydride measurement (delay, analysis and memory times) have been also investigated. The significant parameters obtained (sodium tetrahydroborate concentration, sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate and analysis time for As; hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Se(IV); and sodium tetrahydroborate concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Te(IV)) have been optimized by using 2 n + star central composite design. Hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate were the significant parameters obtained for Sb and Bi determination, respectively. Using a univariate approach these parameters were optimized. The accuracy of methods have been verified by using several certified reference materials: SRM 1648 (urban particulate matter) and SRM 1649a (urban dust). Detection limits in the range of 6 x 10 -3 to 0.2 ng m -3 have been achieved. The developed methods were applied to several atmospheric particulate matter samples corresponding to A Coruna city (NW Spain)

  8. [Chromatographic mass spectrometric determination of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds of microbial origin in the serum from patients with sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloborodova, N V; Arkhipova, A S; Beloborodov, D M; Boĭko, N B; Mel'ko, A I; Olenin, A Iu

    2006-02-01

    The investigation quantitatively determined the content of low-molecular-weight aromatic compounds of microbial origin in the sera of 34 individuals by chromatographic mass spectrometry. An "Agilent Technogies 6890N" gas chromatograph with a 5973 mass selective detector was applied; chromatographic separation of components was effected on an Hp-5MS quartz capillary column. Aromatic small molecules originating from microbes (SMOM) were determined in the sera of 7 patients with sepsis. The diagnosis of sepsis was documented by the presence of the systemic inflammation syndrome and by that of bacteriemia and/or artificial ventilation-associated pneumonia along with the level of procalcitonin of higher than 10 ng/ml. The levels of aromatic SMOM were compared in 10 healthy donors, 8 preoperative cardiosurgical patients, and 9 patients with different abnormalities without sepsis treated in an intensive care unit (ICU). Serum phenylacetic and 3-phenylpropionic acids were found to be prevalent in the healthy donors and postoperative cardiosurgical patients. In ICU patients with different complications without sepsis, more than half the compounds under study were undetectable, the others were found in very low concentrations, which may be accounted for by antibiotic therapy. At the same time, almost the whole spectrum of the test compounds (other than 3-phenylpropionic acid) with the highest concentrations of 3-phenyllactic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, 3-(p-hydroxyphenyl)lactic and 2-hydroxybutanic acids, was detectable in septic patients receiving a more intensive therapy. The differences were statistically significant (by the Mann-Whitney U-test; p < 0.05). By taking into account the potentially high biological activity of the test compounds, studies are to be continued in this area.

  9. Liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for the simultaneous determination of alkylphenols polyethoxylates, alkylphenoxy carboxylates and alkylphenols in wastewater and surface-water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi, L; Ancillotti, C; Chiuminatto, U; Fibbi, D; Checchini, L; Orlandini, S; Del Bubba, M

    2014-10-03

    Four different pellicular stationary phases (i.e. octadecylsilane, octasilane, Phenyl-Hexyl and pentafluorophenyl) were investigated for the chromatographic resolution of alkylphenols (APs), alkylphenols polyethoxylates (APnEOs) and alkylphenoxy carboxylates (APECs) using mixtures of water and organic solvents (i.e. methanol, acetonitrile and tetrahydrofuran) as eluents, in order to obtain their determination by a single LC-MS/MS run. In fact, alkylphenols and alkylphenoxy carboxylates must be analysed in negative ion mode, whereas alkylphenols polyethoxylates undergo ionisation only in positive ion mode, and therefore, two distinct LC-MS/MS analysis are commonly adopted. The best resolution among the aforementioned target analytes was achieved on the pentafluorophenyl column, eluting with an acidified water-acetonitrile-tetrahydrofuran mixture and using the post column addition of an ammonia solution in methanol for the detection of positively ionisable compounds. Under these optimized chromatographic conditions the investigated compounds were determined via a single chromatographic run, with only one polarity switch, in 15min, achieving the following instrumental detection limits: 600pg for AP1EOs, 0.8-14pg for AP2EOs, 10.4-150pg for APs and 4.4-4.8pg for APECs. The chromatographic method was coupled with solid-phase extraction and clean-up procedures and successfully applied to the analysis of wastewater and surface water samples, highlighting mean concentration ranging from 6ng/L for 4-t-OP1EC to 1434ng/L for 4-NP1121EC, depending on the sample analysed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical emission spectrometric determination of arsenic and antimony by continuous flow chemical hydride generation and a miniaturized microwave microstrip argon plasma operated inside a capillary channel in a sapphire wafer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Pawel; Zapata, Israel Jimenez; Bings, Nicolas H.; Voges, Edgar; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Continuous flow chemical hydride generation coupled directly to a 40 W, atmospheric pressure, 2.45 GHz microwave microstrip Ar plasma operated inside a capillary channel in a sapphire wafer has been optimized for the emission spectrometric determination of As and Sb. The effect of the NaBH 4 concentration, the concentration of HCl, HNO 3 and H 2 SO 4 used for sample acidification, the Ar flow rate, the reagent flow rates, the liquid volume in the separator as well as the presence of interfering metals such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, Mn, Pb and Cr, was investigated in detail. A considerable influence of Fe(III) (enhancement of up to 50 %) for As(V) and of Fe(III), Cu(II) and Cr(III) (suppression of up to 75%) as well as of Cd(II) and Mn(II) (suppression by up to 25%) for Sb(III) was found to occur, which did not change by more than a factor of 2 in the concentration range of 2-20 μg ml -1 . The microstrip plasma tolerated the introduction of 4.2 ml min -1 of H 2 in the Ar working gas, which corresponded to an H 2 /Ar ratio of 28%. Under these conditions, the excitation temperature as measured with Ar atom lines and the electron number density as determined from the Stark broadening of the H β line was of the order of 5500 K and 1.50 . 10 14 cm -3 , respectively. Detection limits (3σ) of 18 ng ml -1 for As and 31 ng ml -1 for Sb were found and the calibration curves were linear over 2 orders of magnitude. With the procedure developed As and Sb could be determined at the 45 and 6.4 μg ml -1 level in a galvanic bath solution containing 2.5% of NiSO 4 . Additionally, As was determined in a coal fly ash reference material (NIST SRM 1633a) with a certified concentration of As of 145 ± 15 μg g -1 and a value of 144 ± 4 μg g -1 was found

  11. Simultaneous determination of ethyl carbamate and urea in Korean rice wine by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeong-Hweon; Bang, Dae-Young; Lim, Jung-Hoon; Yoon, Seok-Min; Yea, Myeong-Jai; Chi, Young-Min

    2017-10-15

    In this study, a rapid method for simultaneous detection of ethyl carbamate (EC) and urea in Korean rice wine was developed. To achieve quantitative analysis of EC and urea, the conditions for Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) separation and atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS) detection were first optimized. Under the established conditions, the detection limit, relative standard deviation and linear range were 2.83μg/L, 3.75-5.96%, and 0.01-10.0mg/L, respectively, for urea; the corresponding values were 0.17μg/L, 1.06-4.01%, and 1.0-50.0μg/L, respectively, for EC. The correlation between the contents of EC and its precursor urea was determined under specific pH (3.5 and 4.5) and temperature (4, 25, and 50°C) conditions using the developed method. As a result, EC content was increased with greater temperature and lower pH. In Korean rice wine, urea was detected 0.19-1.37mg/L and EC was detected 2.0-7.7μg/L. The method developed in this study, which has the advantages of simplified sample preparation, low detection limits, and good selectivity, was successfully applied for the rapid analysis of EC and urea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Novel solid phase extraction procedure for gold(III) on Dowex M 4195 prior to its flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuzen, Mustafa [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey)], E-mail: mtuzen@gop.edu.tr; Saygi, Kadriye O. [Gaziosmanpasa University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 60250 Tokat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-08-15

    A method for solid phase extraction (SPE) of gold(III) using Dowex M 4195 chelating resin has been developed. The optimum experimental conditions for the quantitative sorption of gold(III), pH, effect of flow rates, eluent types, sorption capacity and the effect of diverse ions on the sorption of gold(III) have been investigated. The chelating resin can be reused for more than 100 cycles of sorption-desorption without any significant change in sorption of gold(III) ions. The recovery values for gold(III) and detection limit (LOD) of gold were greater than 95% and 1.61 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The preconcentration factor was 31. The relative standard deviation of the method was <5%. The adsorption capacity of the resin was 8.1 mg g{sup -1}. The proposed method has been applied for the determination of gold(III) in some real samples including water, soil and sediment samples.

  13. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I) in environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang, E-mail: m_ghaedi@mail.yu.ac.ir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shokrollahi, Ardeshir [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, Khodabakhsh [Chemistry Department, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, Ebrahim; Najibi, Asma [Chemistry Department, Yasouj University, Yasouj 75914-353 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soylak, Mustafa [Chemistry Department, University of Erciyes, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-09-15

    The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I). The analytical procedure involved the formation of understudy metals complex with bis((1H-benzo [d] imidazol-2yl)ethyl) sulfane (BIES), and quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) after centrifugation. Methanol acidified with 1 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of BIES, pH and amount of surfactant (Triton X-114) was optimized. At optimum conditions, the detection limits of (3 sdb/m) of 1.4, 2.8, 1.6 and 1.4 ng mL{sup -1} for Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} along with preconcentration factors of 30 and enrichment factors of 48, 39, 32 and 42 for Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Pd{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +}, respectively, were obtained. The proposed cloud point extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of metal ions in real samples with complicated matrix such as radiology waste, vegetable, blood and urine samples.

  14. Cloud point extraction and flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I) in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Niknam, Khodabakhsh; Niknam, Ebrahim; Najibi, Asma; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of cadmium(II), lead(II), palladium(II) and silver(I). The analytical procedure involved the formation of understudy metals complex with bis((1H-benzo [d] imidazol-2yl)ethyl) sulfane (BIES), and quantitatively extracted to the phase rich in octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114) after centrifugation. Methanol acidified with 1 mol L -1 HNO 3 was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The concentration of BIES, pH and amount of surfactant (Triton X-114) was optimized. At optimum conditions, the detection limits of (3 sdb/m) of 1.4, 2.8, 1.6 and 1.4 ng mL -1 for Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + along with preconcentration factors of 30 and enrichment factors of 48, 39, 32 and 42 for Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Pd 2+ and Ag + , respectively, were obtained. The proposed cloud point extraction has been successfully applied for the determination of metal ions in real samples with complicated matrix such as radiology waste, vegetable, blood and urine samples.

  15. Solid Phase Extraction of Trace Copper in Aqueous Samples Using C18 Membrane Disks Modified by Benzildithiosemicarbazone Prior to Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (FAAS Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadhosseini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A highly convenient, selective and sensitive procedure for pre-concentration, separation and determination of sub-ppm levels of Cu2+ in aqueous samples based on modification of octadecyl silica bonded phase membrane (OSBPM disks is described using benzildithiosemicarbazone  (BDSC as a powerful modifier. It was revealed that each loaded OSBPM disk with 6.0 mg of BDSC serves as excellent bead for trapping, enrichment and isolation of trace copper. The analyte was trapped during introduction the aqueous solutions through the surface of each modified membrane, quantitatively, while other interfering ions passed through the disk to drain. The adsorbed Cu2+ ions were then stripped by appropriate eluting agents followed by monitoring of the eluates by FAAS. The effects of sample pH, amount of the modifier, stripping agent types and sample flow-rates were also investigated. The described method permitted a pre-concentration factor of about 200. The detection limit of the procedure was predicted to be about 0.013 ng L-1. The method was successfully employed for recovery and quantification of trace copper in different water samples. 

  16. Validation of a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method to determine six polyether ionophores in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mararlene Ulberg; Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Jacob, Silvana do Couto; Monteiro, Mychelle Alves; Ferreira, Rosana Gomes; Carlos, Betânia de Souza; da Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to validate a method developed for the determination of six antibiotics from the polyether ionophore class (lasalocid, maduramicin, monensin, narasin, salinomycin and semduramicin) at residue levels in raw, UHT, pasteurized and powdered milk using QuEChERS extraction and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The validation was conducted under an in-house laboratory protocol that is primarily based on 2002/657/EC Decision, but takes in account the variability of matrix sources. Overall recoveries between 93% and 113% with relative standard deviations up to 16% were obtained under intermediate precision conditions. CCα calculated values did not exceed 20% the Maximum Residue Limit for monensin and 25% the Maximum Levels for all other substances. The method showed to be simple, fast and suitable for verifying the compliance of raw and processed milk samples regarding the limits recommended by Codex Alimentarius and those adopted in European Community for polyether ionophores. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection: application to a bioequivalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ziyan; Zou, Qiaogen; Tian, Jixin; Sun, Lili; Zhang, Zunjian

    2011-12-15

    A rapid and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for the simultaneous determination of codeine, ephedrine, guaiphenesin and chlorpheniramine in beagle dog plasma has been developed and validated. Following liquid-liquid extraction, the analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C(18) column (150 mm × 2.0 mm, 3 μm) using formic acid:10 mM ammonium acetate:methanol (0.2:62:38, v/v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min and analyzed by a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was linear for all analytes over the following concentration (ng/mL) ranges: codeine 0.08-16; ephedrine 0.8-160; guaiphenesin 80-16,000; chlorpheniramine 0.2-40. Acceptable precision and accuracy were obtained for concentrations over the standard curve range. It is the first time that the validated HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Theoretical-and experimental analysis of the errors involved in the wood moisture determination by gamma-ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, O.

    1983-01-01

    The sources of errors in wood moisture determination by gamma-ray attenuation were sought. Equations were proposed for determining errors and for ideal sample thickness. A series of measurements of moisture content in wood samples of Pinus oocarpa was made and the experimental errors were compared with the theoretical errors. (Author) [pt

  19. Experimental determination of nuclear reaction rates (n,γ) by the gamma-rays capture spectrometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucatero, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The technique of the gamma-rays capture spectrometry was used in the experimental determination of nuclear reaction rates of the type (n,γ). This technique consists in the incidence of a thermal neutrons collimated beam upon a sample, detecting the capture spectrum of gamma rays emitted at a solid fixed angle. In the determination of the efficiency curve intrinsic to the detection electronic system the reactions 199 Hg(n,γ) 200 Hg, 56 Fe(n,γ) 57 Fe and 63 Cu(n,γ) 64 Cu were used with the energy of the gamma rays capture of 5.976, 7.635 and 7.915 Mev respectively, through the irradiation of standard samples of Hg(175.3g), Fe(110.4g) and Cu(108.5g) of cylindrical geometry the two former and parallelepiped the latter. The problem concerning the corrections due to the thermal neutrons flux depression, the gammas auto-attenuation, and the geometric factor due to the cylindrical and parallelepiped geometry are involved in the data process. The experimental determination of the reaction 35 Cl(n,γ) 36 Cl rate was made through the observation of the gamma caputre of 6.111 Mev when a sample of CaCl 2 of cylindrical geometry was irradiated. This rate can be favorably compared with the reaction rate determined theoretically. (author)

  20. Determination of {sup 126}Sn half-life from ICP-MS and gamma spectrometry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienvenu, P.; Arnal, N.; Comte, J. [CEA Cadarache DEN/DEC/SA3C/LARC, Paul Lez Durance (France); Ferreux, L.; Lepy, M.C.; Be, M.M. [CEA Saclay LIST LNE/LNHB, Gif sur Yvette (France); Andreoletti, G. [AREVA Cogema SL/UP2-800, Beaumont Hague (France)

    2009-07-01

    A new value of {sup 126}Sn half-life was determined by combination of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gamma spectrometry measurements on purified sample solutions collected from nuclear fuel reprocessing. {sup 126}Sn was isolated through dissolution of fission product precipitates and liquid-liquid extraction with N-benzoyl-N-phenyl-hydroxylamine (BPHA). The abundance of {sup 126}Sn atoms together with the absence of interfering species in the analysed solutions made it possible to measure both mass concentration and nuclide activity with high precision and accuracy. This led to a {sup 126}Sn half-life value of 1.980 (57) x 10{sup 5} a. (orig.)

  1. Determination of material and its thickness for Cs-137 gamma source shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiman

    2008-01-01

    Its has been determined the shielding material and its thickness necessarily conducted due to every material will have different half-thickness characteristics, and by the selection a suitable material and its thickness will be obtained. Half-thickness of any material is the ability of the material at a certain thickness to absorb any radiation intensity so that the intensity becomes half of its source. Sample materials to be used are concrete, wood, and lead with their thickness varied. From experiment data and theoretical computation can be concluded that lead is the suitable material for shielding with the value of HVT for gamma radiation 0,732 cm. For wood and concrete will give half-thickness of 11,0 cm and 3,164 cm respectively. (author)

  2. Improvement of passive shielding to reduce background components to determinate radioactivity at low energy gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Tran Thien [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics; Ton Duc Thang Univ., Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Div. of Nuclear Physics; Loan, T.T.H.; Nhon, M.V.; Tao, C.V. [VNUHCM-Univ. of Science, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Physics

    2014-06-15

    This paper describes a new system that has the ability to reduce background components to apply for environmental studies. This system uses gamma spectrometry with semi-empirical self-absorption correction and practical method for routine measurements of the mass activity radionuclides at low energy such as {sup 210}Pb (46.5 keV), {sup 234}Th (63.3 keV) and {sup 226}Ra (186.2 keV). The reliability and precision of proficiency test must pass for final scores all the analytical determinations of received ''acceptable'' for all radionuclides. Our work shows an experiment developed for the calculation of self-absorption correction in that case that the sample's chemical composition is unknown.

  3. Quantitative estimations of the efficiency of stabilization and lowering of background in gamma-spectrometry of environment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, O.M.; Stets, M.V.; Maslyuk, V.T.

    2015-01-01

    We consider a gamma-spectrometric complex of IEP of the NAS of Ukraine, where a passive multilayer external defense is used (complex has been made in 1989). We have developed and investigated a system of stability and lowering of background in the gamma-spectrometric complex. As metrological coefficients, the efficiency factor of defense are considered, the calculation and analysis of which show that their values are different for different energies of gamma-quanta and gamma-active nuclides

  4. Theoretical study and construction of a multichannel {beta} spectrometer with uniform magnetic field; Etude et realisation d'un spectrometre {beta} multivoies a champ magnetique uniforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schussler, F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-09-01

    After a brief survey of the interest of a multichannel beta spectrometer for studying decay schemes of short lived nuclides (30 seconds minimum, the theoretically well known characteristics of uniform magnetic field analyser (image of a large source, transmission and resolution) are briefly remembered. In the second part, the apparatus built as a result of these calculations is described. This apparatus allows the determination of beta spectra by simultaneous determination of the beta spectra in coincidence with four gamma rays predetermined in the gamma spectrum of the studied nuclide. Finally, in the last part, the experimental characteristics of the spectrometer (calibration in energy and transmission) and the first measurement of beta spectra ({sup 155}Sm) and of coincidences ({sup 24}Na), are given. (author) [French] Apres avoir brievement souligne l'interet pratique que presente un spectrometre multivoies pour l'etude des schemas de desintegration des corps radioactifs de courtes periodes (30 secondes au maximum), l'auteur effectue un rappel des caracteristiques theoriques bien connues d'un analyseur magnetique a champ uniforme (image d'une source etendue) calcul de la transmission et du pouvoir de resolution. Une deuxieme partie est consacree a la description de l'appareil realise d'apres ces calculs. Cet appareil permet le releve des spectres beta par detection, simultanee de dix groupes d'electrons d'energies differentes; il permet egalement le releve simultane des spectres beta en coincidence avec quatre rayonnements gammas preselectionnes a l'avance dans le spectre gamma du corps etudie. Dans une derniere partie enfin, sont donnees les caracteristiques experimentales du spectrometre (etalonnage en energie et en transmission) ainsi que les premiers resultats des etudes de spectre beta ({sup 155}Sm) et de coincidence ({sup 24}Na). (auteur)

  5. Theoretical study, and construction, of a spherical electrostatic beta spectrometer; Etude theorique et realisation d'un spectrometre beta electrostatique spherique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moret, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-03-15

    After a literature survey showing the importance of an electrostatic spectrometer with spherical electrodes for studying disintegration processes, the theoretical characteristics of such an apparatus are derived (determination of the trajectory equations calculation of the transmission and of the resolving power the case of a point source and of an extended source). The apparatus built as a result of these calculations is described. The electrostatic field distribution outside the electrodes is derived. As well as giving electron spectra ({beta} disintegration and conversion electrons) the apparatus make s it possible to study e-{gamma}, e-{beta}, e-e-{gamma} and e-e-{beta} coincidences. In the last part are given experimental characteristics and the results of the first measurements made on conversion electron spectra ({sup 161}Tb, {sup 151}Pm, {sup 155}Eu) and on coincidences ({sup 170}Tm) using this spectrometer. (author) [French] Apres une etude bibliographique montrant l'interet que presente un spectrometre electrostatique a electrodes spheriques pour l'etude des schemas de desintegration, l'auteur etablit les caracteristiques theoriques d'un tel appareil (determination de l'equation des trajectoires calcul de la transmission et du pouvoir de resolution cas d'une source ponctuelle et d'une source etendue). On decrit l'appareil realise d'apres ces calculs. On etablit la repartition du champ electrostatique a l'exterieur des electrodes. Outre le trace des spectres d'electrons (desintegration {beta} et electrons de conversion), l'appareil permet l'etude de coincidences e-{gamma}, e-{beta}, e-e-{gamma} and e-e-{beta}. Dans la derniere partie, sont donnees les caracteristiques experimentales et les premieres etudes de spectres d'electrons de conversion ({sup 161}Tb, {sup 151}Pm, {sup 155}Eu) et de coincidences ({sup 170}Tm) faites a l'aide de ce spectrometre. (auteur)

  6. Characterization of TL dosimeters for determination of the gamma component in a mixed n+γ radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranogajec-Komor, M.; Miljanic, S.; Ferek, S.; Dvornik, I.; Osvay, M.

    1996-01-01

    In the International Intercomparison of the Criticality Accident Dosimetry Systems organized by the Commission of European Communities at SILENE Reactor in Valduc, France, 1993, the Ruder Boskovic Institute (RBI) measured the total neutron and gamma tissue absorbed dose (D n+γ ) at the body surface irrespective of neutron and gamma energy spectra variations using the chemical dosimeters DL-M4. For deriving the neutron dose i.e recoil dose, D n , from the differences D n = D n+γ - D t , the total gamma dose (D tγ ) has to be measured with highest accuracy. The determination of the gamma dose in a mixed field is complicated because TL dosimeters are sensitive both to neutrons and gammas. Besides, the radiation doses and energy spectra vary because of scattering and absorption in the body or phantom. Therefore dosimeters with different sensitivities, energy dependences and encapsulations have to be used. In this paper only the study of some characteristics of various TL detectors, such as sensitivity, linearity, supralinearity and fading, for measurement of the gamma component are described. These investigations were carried out in RBI before and after the Valduc intercomparison experiments. The encapsulations, TL response corrections for thermal and fast neutron effects as well as the discussion of Valduc results will be published later

  7. Calibration of a Gamma Spectrometry System Used for the Determination of Cs-137 in Spanish Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreraa, M.; Romero, M. L.; Valino, F.

    2008-01-01

    The document describes the methodology used at CIEMAT in order to determine, by gamma spectrometry, the background levels of the radionuclide Cs-137 in soils of the Spanish peninsular territory. the work is a part of an extensive research project developed jointly by the University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU) and the CIEMAT, endellite Content and migration of radiocaesium and radiostrontium in Spanish soils, which is funded by the Plan I+D of the Spanish Nuclear Security Council (CSN). The objective of the project is to establish the reference levels of man-made radionuclides in Spanish soils, with respect to which the evaluation of a possible posterior accidental release of radioactive material could be appraised. The activity concentration of the fission products Cs-137 has been determined in 34 soil cores extracted from representative Spanish soils type zones. This publication describes the experimental system employed, its calibration, the particular conditions applied to perform the measurements, as well as the experimental validation of the methodology. The activity profiles and inventories of the radioactive element so obtained are also presented. The estimation of the background Cs-137 reference levels, will provide a basis for later applications as the study of the spatial distribution in the region, the determination of the correlation between the deposited activity and the meteorological conditions, or the calculation of the specific migration parameters of the radioactive elements in Mediterranean conditions. (Author) 15 refs

  8. Highly accurate determination of relative gamma-ray detection efficiency for Ge detector and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, H.; Mori, C.; Fleming, R.F.; Dewaraja, Y.K.

    1997-01-01

    When quantitative measurements of γ-rays using High-Purity Ge (HPGe) detectors are made for a variety of applications, accurate knowledge of oy-ray detection efficiency is required. The emission rates of γ-rays from sources can be determined quickly in the case that the absolute peak efficiency is calibrated. On the other hand, the relative peak efficiencies can be used for determination of intensity ratios for plural samples and for comparison to the standard source. Thus, both absolute and relative detection efficiencies are important in use of γ-ray detector. The objective of this work is to determine the relative gamma-ray peak detection efficiency for an HPGe detector with the uncertainty approaching 0.1% . We used some nuclides which emit at least two gamma-rays with energies from 700 to 2400 keV for which the relative emission probabilities are known with uncertainties much smaller than 0.1%. The relative peak detection efficiencies were calculated from the measurements of the nuclides, 46 Sc, 48 Sc, 60 Co and 94 Nb, emitting two γ- rays with the emission probabilities of almost unity. It is important that various corrections for the emission probabilities, the cascade summing effect, and the self-absorption are small. A third order polynomial function on both logarithmic scales of energy and efficiency was fitted to the data, and the peak efficiency predicted at certain energy from covariance matrix showed the uncertainty less than 0.5% except for near 700 keV. As an application, the emission probabilities of the 1037.5 and 1212.9 keV γ-rays for 48 Sc were determined using the function of the highly precise relative peak efficiency. Those were 0.9777+0,.00079 and 0.02345+0.00017 for the 1037.5 and 1212.9 keV γ-rays, respectively. The sum of these probabilities is close to unity within the uncertainty which means that the certainties of the results are high and the accuracy has been improved considerably

  9. Bulk moisture determination in building materials by fast neutron/gamma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padron Diaz, I.; Felipe Desdin, L.; Martin Hernandez, G.; Shtejer, K.; Perez Tamayo, N.; Ceballos, C.; Lemus, O.

    1998-01-01

    Fast Neutron/Gamma Transmission technique has been improved to allow to measure moisture content in building materials. In order to improve fast neutron/gamma discrimination in the transmission system employing the NE-213 scintillation detector a pulse shape discrimination system was constructed at the CEADEN. A separate neutron/gamma detection approach was used with neutron transmission measurement using an Am-Be neutron source and a BF 3 detector and gamma transmission measurement using a collimated 137 Cs source and a NaI scintillator

  10. Determination of burnup, cooling time and initial enrichment of PWR spent fuel by use of gamma-ray activity ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, D.K.; Park, H.J.; Park, K.J.; Ro, S.G.; Park, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Institute has been developing the algorithms for sequential determination of cooling time, initial enrichment and burnup of the PWR spent fuel assembly by use of gamma ratio measurements, i.e. 134 Cs/ 137 Cs, 154 Eu/ 137 Cs and 106 Ru 137 Cs/( 134 Cs) 2 . Calculations were performed by applying the ORIGEN-S code. This method has advantages over combination techniques of neutron and gamma measurement, because of its simplicity and insensitivity to the measurement geometry. For verifying the algorithms an experiment for determining the cooling time, initial enrichment and burnup of the two PWR spent fuel rods was conducted by use of high-resolution gamma detector (HPGe) system only. This paper describes the method used and interim results of the experiment. This method can be applied for spent fuel characterization, burnup credit and safeguards of the spent fuel management facility

  11. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Highly Reactive Glycosyl Halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly reactive glycosyl chlorides and bromides have been analysed by a routine mass spectrometric method using electrospray ionization and lithium salt adduct-forming agents in anhydrous acetonitrile solution, providing salient lithiated molecular ions [M+Li]+, [2M+Li]+ etc. The role of other adduct-forming salts has also been evaluated. The lithium salt method is useful for accurate mass determination of these highly sensitive compounds.

  12. Determination of Magnesium in Needle Biopsy Samples of Muscle Tissue by Means of Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D; Sjoeberg, H E

    1964-07-15

    Magnesium has been determined by means of neutron-activation analysis in needle biopsy samples of the order of magnitude 1 mg dry weight. The procedure applied was to extract the Mg-27 activity from irradiated muscle tissue with concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by a fast hydroxide precipitation and gamma-spectrometric measurements. The Mg activity was recovered in the muscle tissue samples to (97 {+-} 2) per cent. The sensitivity for the magnesium determination is estimated as 0.3 {mu}g.

  13. Minimum distance determination between consecutive carriers in the gamma irradiator IR-200 K trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2014-01-01

    A design to determine the minimum distance between the consecutive carriers at the trajectory of gamma irradiators IR-200K is implemented. Equilibrium between centrifugal force of a moving carrier in circular trajectory and its gravity force as well as carrier dimensions are used as parameters in determining such a minimum distance. The minimum distance between the consecutive carriers in the design is defined 1.2 meters. The distance is 11.5% greater than the minimum distance theoretically calculated, namely 1,076 meters. Errors tolerance in construction/installation of the trajectory and other unexpected things during irradiator's operation are part of the consideration to enlarge the minimum distance from its theoretical value. The distance between the consecutive carriers will not affect throughput and efficiency of using radiation due to the straight trajectory segments do not need to follow such the minimum distance between the carriers, as the trajectory segments around the i radiation sources are straight. (author)

  14. Spent fuel scanning using the gamma spectrometry bench at Osiris. Power and burnup determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerles, J.-M.; Simonet, Genevieve.

    1976-01-01

    The Saclay Nuclear Research Center is provided with an original gamma spectrometry facility located inside the pool of the Osiris reactor. It is intended for the gamma scanning of fuel elements irradiated in Osiris or elements of any other origin. The principal characteristics of this facility are given. Special emphasis is put on its [fr

  15. Determination of correction factors for borehole natural gamma-ray measurements by Monte Carlo simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M.; Hendriks, Peter; Limburg, J.; de Meijer, R. J.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of natural gamma-ray spectra measured in boreholes has to take into account borehole parameters such as the presence of casings and borehole diameter. For large, high-efficiency gamma-ray detectors, such as BGO-based systems, which employ full-spectrum data analysis, corresponding

  16. CERPI and CEREL, two computer codes for the automatic identification and determination of gamma emitters in thermal neutron activated samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannini, M.; Oliva, P.R.; Ramorino, C.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of a computer code which automatically analyses gamma-ray spectra obtained with Ge(Li) detectors. The program contains features as automatic peak location and fitting, determination of peak energies and intensities, nuclide identification and calculation of masses and errors. Finally the results obtained with our computer code for a lunar sample are reported and briefly discussed

  17. Application of the gamma rays backscattering for determining the quantity of steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huapaya P, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    This work tries to purpose a methodology based on the nuclear technology available in the country, for measuring the position and diameter of the reinforcing rods placed in reinforced concrete structures. The technique of gamma backscattering that utilizes the changes of density was used for determining the presence of steel (average density of concrete 2,5 g/cm 3 and steel 7,8 g/cm 3 ). The concrete test tubes of different resistances were prepared with diverse concentrations into the aggregates as crushed rock and coarse sand, and also with three steel rods of 0,5 inch separated by 4 inches among themselves. The source Cs-137 of 20 mCi in activity was a monoenergetic radioisotope of the element Cs from 662 KeV. The source was placed in a lead shield with a hole which generates a collimator beam of 2 mm. The detector was one type of scintillation (INa-Tl) 2 x 2 inch; it was sealed with lead and had a hole of 10 mm which worked as collimator. The shield was placed in an angle of 15 degrees over concrete surface in order to pick up the backscattering gamma rays by the concrete. The test tube was displaced over a little car affixed to a endless screw which permitted to reproduce displacements of 0,25 inch. The data recording was realized through a multichannel of 1024 channels where was accounted the number of counts viewed under the backscattering spectrum by the concrete. It is possible to determine the position and diameter of the steel rod into concrete, changing the parameters of detector collimator source, distance source-detector and type of concrete. Furthermore, it was shown that this same equipment can measure the density of the concrete. The applications of this equipment are used in the inspection works where it is necessary to make a non-destructive control of quality about the structure of building. (author). 7 refs., 46 tabs., 24 figs

  18. In situ analysis of coal by scintillation gamma-ray spectrometry in deep boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrusciel, E.; Kopec, M.; Niewodniczanski, J.; Palka, K.W.; Kaczmarski, S.M.; Wojda, F.

    1987-01-01

    Neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma spectrometric loggings have been used for evaluation of coal seams. Interpretation of the logging curves was based on the method of spectrometric parameters i.e. the ratios of gamma-ray intensities recorded within two energy intervals, which depended strongly on a given parameter of coal, while the influence of other parameters is reduced. The boundaries of energy intervals were chosen by multiple correlation analysis of the results of point measurements and results of coal samples assessments. These energy intervals are later used in continuous borehole logging. Some of the coal parameters can be determined by both logging methods, other by one method only. The logging tools are described and examples of the determination of carbon, sulphur, iron, calcium, ash content, calorific value, density and moisture of coal are given. The agreement with the results of laboratory analyses seems quite satisfactory, especially when the calibration procedure was made for the same part of a coal basin. 13 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  19. A MATHEMATICAL APPROACH TO ECONOMY OF EXPERIMENT IN DETERMINATIONS OF THE DIFFERENTIAL DOSE ALBEDO OF GAMMA RAYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoemaker, N. F.; Huddleston, C. M.

    1962-12-10

    Treatments of the differential dose albedo of gamma rays on concrete have supposed that the albedo value is a function of: the energy of the incident gamma radiation, the polar angle of incidence, the polar angle of reflection (or scatter), and the azimuthal angle of reflection. It is demonstrated that, if certain reasonable assumptions are made regarding the mechanism of reflection, it is not necessary to investigate variations in albedo with azimuthal angle of refiection. Once differential dose albedo has been determined for a complete set of incident and reflected polar angles with zero azimuth, albedo at any azimuth can be derived by a suitable transformation. (auth)

  20. Gamma ray spectrometry logs as a hydrocarbon indicator for clastic reservoir rocks in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alfy, I.M.; Nabih, M.A.; Eysa, E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Petroleum oil is an important source for the energy in the world. The Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley are important regions for studying hydrocarbon potential in Egypt. A thorium normalization technique was applied on the sandstone reservoirs in the three regions to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities zones using the three spectrometric radioactive gamma ray-logs (eU, eTh and K% logs). The conventional well logs (gamma-ray, deep resistivity, shallow resistivity, neutron, density and sonic logs) are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in these wells. Indices derived from thorium normalized spectral logs indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. The results of this technique in the three regions (Gulf of Suez, Nile Delta and South Valley) are in agreement with the results of the conventional well log analyses by ratios of 82%, 78% and 71% respectively. - Highlights: ► The positive DRAD values indicate the hydrocarbon zones in petroleum reservoirs. ► Thorium normalization was applied to determine the hydrocarbon potentialities. ► The conventional well logs are analyzed to determine the net pay zones in wells. ► Determining hydrocarbon potentialities zones using spectrometric gamma-ray logs

  1. Array-type sensor to determine corrosive conditions in high temperature water under gamma rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, T.; Tsukada, T.; Uchida, S.; Katoh, C.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems to determine electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) in high temperature water under irradiation is to apply long-lived and reliable reference electrodes. In order to avoid troubles due to the reference electrode, a new concept to determine ECP without the reference electrode has been proposed. Several metal plates are applied as working electrodes and at the same time as the reference electrodes. Potential of the metal plates with stable oxide films on their surfaces show stable values in high temperature water. As a result of the combination of their potential values, ECP of each metal can be determined without any specific reference electrode. Array-type sensors consisting of several metal plates, e.g., Fe, Ni, Cr, Zr, Pt, Pd, Re, Ir, with well developed oxide films on their surface were prepared for ECP measurement in high temperature water under neutron/gamma ray irradiations. In order to confirm the feasibility of this concept, responses of the redox potentials of the pure metals to changes in the simulated BWR reactor water conditions were measured and the ECP was determined by the differences in potentials between a couple of metal plates. Major conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) The redox potentials of the Fe, Pt, Zr, Ir, Pd, and Re electrodes showed the different dependences on the changes in O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations. The redox potentials of the electrodes increased as the oxidant concentrations increased except for Zr electrode. The potential of the Zr electrode was kept the very low potential at the wide range of O 2 and H 2 O 2 concentrations differed form the other electrodes. 2) It was estimated that the redox potential of highly soluble metal may be increased, while that of low soluble metal may be decreased by an oxide film. The stable oxide film would cause the stable potential response of the electrode with oxide film. 3) The relationship between the oxidant concentrations and the redox potentials of the

  2. Determination of correction and conversion factor of exposure rate generated Gamma spectrometer GR-320 to Victoreen data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo-AS; Mappa, Djody-Rachim; Nasrun-Syamsul; Syamsul-Hadi

    2000-01-01

    Exposure rate data of Muria Peninsula were generated from Victoreen-491 measurement and calculation of radioelement content in soil which were measured by Exploranium GR-320, using IAEA formula. However those data are not be comparable so the exposure rate calculated from Gamma Spectrometer data necessarily to be corrected. The correction factor was determinate by measuring the exposure rate of at the NMDC's back yard selected location using Victoreen-491 and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 . Correction factor was created by comparing mean exposure rate data that calculated from 30 data measured by Gamma Spectrometer instrument and to those Victoreen's exposure rate. Conversion factor was gained from comparing of total count data of Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 to Victoreen's exposure rate data. The correction factor of Exploranium GR-320's exposure rate is 0.34 μR/hours, and the conversion factor of total count is 0.0092 μR/hours per c/m. Deviation Victoreen 491 = 4.7 % and Gamma Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 8.6 %

  3. Development and validation of a highly sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric screening method for the simultaneous determination of nanogram levels of fentanyl, sufentanil and alfentanil in air and surface contamination wipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nimmen, Nadine F J; Veulemans, Hendrik A F

    2004-05-07

    A highly sensitive gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analytical method for the determination of the opioid narcotics fentanyl, alfentanil, and sufentanil in industrial hygiene personal air samples and surface contamination wipes was developed and comprehensively validated. Sample preparation involved a single step extraction of the samples with methanol, fortified with a fixed amount of the penta-deuterated analogues of the opioid narcotics as internal standard. The GC-MS analytical procedure using selected ion monitoring (SIM) was shown to be highly selective. Linearity was shown for levels of extracted wipe and air samples corresponding to at least 0.1-2 times their surface contamination limit (SCL) and accordingly to 0.1-2 times their time weighted average occupational exposure limit (OEL-TWA) based on a full shift 9601 air sample. Extraction recoveries were determined for spiked air samples and surface wipes and were found to be quantitative for both sampling media in the entire range studied. The air sampling method's limit of detection (LOD) was determined to be 0.4 ng per sample for fentanyl and sufentanil and 1.6 ng per sample for alfentanil, corresponding to less than 1% of their individual OEL for a full shift air sample (9601). The limit of quantification (LOQ) was found to be 1.4, 1.2, and 5.0 ng per filter for fentanyl, sufentanil, and alfentanil, respectively. The wipe sampling method had LODs of 4 ng per wipe for fentanyl and sufentanil and 16 ng per wipe for alfentanil and LOQs of respectively, 14, 12, and 50 ng per wipe. The analytical intra-assay precision of the air sampling and wipe sampling method, defined as the coefficient of variation on the analytical result of six replicate spiked media was below 10 and 5%, respectively, for all opioids at all spike levels. Accuracy expressed as relative error was determined to be below 10%, except for alfentanil at the lowest spike level (-13.1%). The stability of the opioids during simulated

  4. Determination of Absorbed Dose to Water for Leksell Gamma Knife Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrsak, H.

    2013-01-01

    Because of geometry of photon beams in Leksell Gamma Knife Unit (LGK), there are several technical problems in applying standard protocols for determination of absorbed dose to water (Dw). Currently, Dw in LGK unit, measured at the center of spherical plastic phantom, is used for dose calculation in LGK radiosurgery. Treatment planning software (LGP TPS) accepts this value as a measurement in water and since plastic phantom has higher electron density than water, this leads to systematic errors in dose calculation. To reduce these errors, a photon attenuation correction (PAC) method was applied. For that purpose, measurements of absorbed dose in a center of three different plastic phantoms with 16 cm diameter (ABS - acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, PMMA - polymethyl metacrylate, PMMA + teflon - polytetrafluoroethylene 5 mm shell) were made with ionization chamber (Semiflex, PTW Freiburg). For measured dose values, PAC to water was applied based on electron density (ED) and equivalent water depths (EWD) of the plastic phantoms. The relation between CT number and ED was determined by measuring CT number of standard CT to ED phantom (CIRS Model 062 Phantom). Absorbed dose in plastic phantoms was 2.5 % lower than calculated dose in water for ABS phantom and more than 5.5 % lower for PMMA and PMMA+teflon phantom. Calculated dose in water showed more consistent values for all three phantoms (max. difference 2.6 %). EWD for human cranial bones and brain has value close to the EWD of ABS phantom, which makes this phantom most suitable for dose measurements in clinical application. In LGK radiosurgery determination of errors related to the difference of phantom materials should not be neglected and measured dose should be corrected before usage for patient treatment dose calculation.(author)

  5. Assessment of background gamma radiation and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Eslami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Background gamma radiation levels vary in different locations and depended on many factors such as radiation properties of soil, building materials as well as construction types which human lives on it. People are always exposed to ionizing radiation, which could badly influence their health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the background gamma-ray dose rate and the estimated annual effective dose equivalent and determination of excess lifetime cancer risk in Sabzevar City, Iran. Methods: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the dose rate of background gamma radiation in outdoor an indoor areas, 26 stations were selected using the map of the Sabzevar City. The amount of gamma radiation was measured at 4 months (September to January in 2014 year. The dosimeter used in this study was a survey meter, that is designed for monitoring radiation of x, gamma and beta rays. Results: The obtained results show that there are significant differences between the indoor and outdoor exposures (P> 0.05. We did not observe significant differences between the time of sampling and sampling locations, (P<0.05. The minimum and maximum values of dose rate were found 66±20 nSvh-1 and 198±28 nSvh-1. The annual effective dose for Sabzevar residents was estimated to be 0.85 mSv and also the amount of excess lifetime cancer risk was estimated 3.39×10-3. Conclusion: According to the results, the excess lifetime cancer risk and the annual effective dose for the Sabzavar City residents due to the background gamma radiation was higher than the global average (0.5 mSv. The epidemiological studies have been proposed to evaluate the risk of chronic diseases associated with natural radiation exposure among residents.

  6. Determination of correction factor of radioelement content data generated from Exploranium GR-320 Gamma spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrun, S; Syamsul-Hadi, M; Sumardi

    2000-01-01

    Gamma-ray Spectrometer Exploranium GR-320 is the instrument radiometric survey which is able to measure radioelement content directly in field based on partial gamma-ray energy of elements. Because of the instrument is new and it was granted from the lAEA, so it is necessarily to create a correction factor for the instrument due to be gaining the better data. Correction factor was generated from comparing gamma spectrometer's radioelement content to those of chemical analysed data of calibration pad. The correction factor for Potassium (K) is 1.31, uranium is 1.46, and thorium is 0.39

  7. Determination of self shielding factors and gamma attenuation effects for tree ring samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagistan Sahin; Kenan Uenlue

    2012-01-01

    Determination of tree ring chemistry using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is part of an ongoing research between Penn State University (PSU) and Cornell University, The Malcolm and Carolyn Wiener Laboratory for Aegean and Near Eastern Dendrochronology. Tree-ring chemistry yields valuable data for environmental event signatures. These signatures are a complex function of elemental concentration. To be certain about concentration of signature elements, it is necessary to perform the measurements and corrections with the lowest error and maximum accuracy possible. Accurate and precise values of energy dependent neutron flux at dry irradiation tubes and detector efficiency for tree ring sample are calculated for Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). For the calculation of energy dependent and self shielding corrected neutron flux, detailed model of the TRIGA Mark III reactor at PSU with updated fuel compositions was prepared using the MCNP utility for reactor evolution (MURE) libraries. Dry irradiation tube, sample holder and sample were also included in the model. The thermal flux self-shielding correction factors due to the sample holder and sample for were calculated and verified with previously published values. The Geant-4 model of the gamma spectroscopy system, developed at Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC), was improved and absolute detector efficiency for tree-ring samples was calculated. (author)

  8. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Anderson D.B.; Mansur Neto, Elias

    1997-01-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab

  9. Determination optimum dose gamma ray for make mutation in Banana explant (Musa spp. Var cavendish)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goorchini, H.; Nematzadeh, Gh. A.; Majd, F.; Rahimi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Banana belongs to Musaceae family and Musa genus, categorized as a plant growing in tropical and subtropical regions. In recent years, many attempts have been made for extending the cultivation of this plant in Iran. The cultivars, which are cultivating commonly in Iran are mostly Cavendish and Grand Nain, having rather long heights (2-4 meters). This research has been carried out aiming at determining the optimum dose rate to induce mutation in the banana plant shoot-tips. For this purpose the plant shoot-tips were exposed to various doses of gamma radiation with eight treatments of 0, 10, 15, 20, 25, 35, 45 and 60 Gray. The project was directed in a completely randomized design. After the treatment, various traits such as: number of alive plants, number of leafs, plant height and wet weight have been measured. For the data analysis, SAS and MSTAT softwares have been used in order to evaluate the average values and variances of the output results for the further analysis and comparisons. The results indicate that the dose rates of 25 to 40 Gray are the optimum rate values for induction of the mutation in this plant. Also, the propit analysis shows that the dose rate of 39.8 Gray is at the point of LD50 (50% of the dead level)

  10. Determination of gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) and resveratrol cytotoxicity level in tumor cells line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magalhaes, Vanessa D.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose R.; Cruz, Aurea S.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer is a disease with high incidence and it is considered a worldwide public health problem. Resveratrol is a polyphenol occurring naturally in a wide variety of plants according to response of ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposition or according to mechanical stress resulting of pathogens or chemical and physical agents. This polyphenol possesses a pharmacological activity of carcinogenesis inhibition in multiple levels. It also protects cells by scavenging the free radicals which are considered toxic products. These free radicals are formed of natural process of cell aging and also by incidence of ionizing radiation in the organism. Thus, resveratrol is considered as a cell radioprotector. On the other hand, in some elevated concentrations resveratrol may be considered as a radiosensitizing. The aim of this work was the determination of radiation lethal dose (LD 50 ) and also verifies the cytotoxicity level of resveratrol in tumor cells line: muco epidermoid pulmonary carcinoma cells (NCI-H292) and rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD). The cytotoxicity test was performed by neutral red uptake assay. The results of resveratrol IC 50% in NCI-H292 cells was 192μM and in RD cells was 128μM; and RD cells gamma radiation LD 50 was 435Gy. (author)

  11. High performance liquid chromatography determination of theobromine and caffeine in cocoa beans gamma irradiated

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Anderson D.B. [Faculdade de Engenharia de Varginha, MG (Brazil); Mansur Neto, Elias [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1997-12-01

    Irradiation is a processing technology that has been shown to be a wholesome process by many scientific studies conducted worldwide during the past 40 years, which has been approved by 37 countries. Irradiated foods have been studied so extensively, that the effects on foods are better understood than any other preservation process, including food freezing and dehydration. Cocoa beans has been commercially irradiated in countries such as Ivory Coast and Argentina. The alkaloids theobromine and caffeine are responsible for the mildly stimulating properties and bitter taste of cocoa and chocolate products. Previously fermented dried and nonfumigated cocoa beans were irradiated at doses of 0, 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 kGy using Co-60 gamma rays. The samples were analysed for determining theobromine and caffeine contents in the cocoa beans by TIMBIE et al. (1978) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Boiling water extracts were cooled, centrifuged and injected into the chromatograph. Theobromine and caffeine were quantitated at 273 nm and showed the tendency of decreasing as the dose of radiation increases. Theobromine and caffeine ranged from 42.3 to 37.1 mg/g and from 7.60 to 6.13 mg/g. respectively from 0 to 20.0 kGy. These results were discussed in relation to the possible acceptance of radiosterization of cocoa beans commercially up to the dose of 20.0 kGy. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Determination of dose ranges of gamma rays to induce specific changes in three ornamental species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.

    2011-11-01

    In order to confirming the possibility of to settle a dose range that takes place directly and not at random, a specific effect independently of the species that is were produced several similar organisms to three ornamental species took place via meristems cultivation: Petunia hybrid, Impatiens walleriana and Sprekelia formosissima, same that were irradiated in an irradiator Gamma cell 220, to different dose: 0, 3.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 Gy. Later on, of the plants treated via in vitro the subsequent generations were obtained until the M 4 . To determine the DL 50 and the possible good doses, the survival parameters, development, morphogenesis and height were evaluated during 8 weeks, interpreting based on them, the possible physiologic and genetic alterations induced by the radiation. The established DL 50 were: 7.5 Gy (Petunia), 19.0 Gy (Impatiens) and 12.0 Gy (Sprekelia). Based on the DL 50 of each species, a range of coincident dose settled down that produces a similar effect in the three species: a range of DL 23 to the DL 50 induces and alteration in the cytokinins production affecting directly in the leaves number, buds and plants taken place by meristem, also a range of DL 32 - DL 50 impacts in the auxins production altering to the radicule system. However, when being superimposed the dose is considered that the investigation should continue. (Author)

  13. Determination of Cosmological Parameters from GRB Correlation between E_iso (gamma) and Afterglow Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Zitouni; Guessoum, Nidhal; Azzam, Walid

    2016-07-01

    Context: We use the correlation relations between the energy emitted by the GRBs in their prompt phases and the X-ray afterglow fluxes, in an effort to constrain cosmological parameters and construct a Hubble diagram at high redshifts, i.e. beyond those found in Type Ia supernovae. Methods: We use a sample of 128 Swift GRBs, which we have selected among more than 800 ones observed until July 2015. The selection is based on a few observational constraints: GRB flux higher than 0.4 photons/cm^2/s in the band 15-150 keV; spectrum fitted with simple power law; redshift accurately known and given; and X-ray afterglow observed and flux measured. The statistical method of maximum likelihood is then used to determine the best cosmological parameters (Ω_M, Ω_L) that give the best correlation between the isotropic gamma energies E_{iso} and the afterglow fluxes at the break time t_{b}. The χ^2 statistical test is also used as a way to compare results from two methods. Results & Conclusions: Although the number of GRBs with high redshifts is rather small, and despite the notable dispersion found in the data, the results we have obtained are quite encouraging and promising. The values of the cosmological parameters obtained here are close to those currently used.

  14. Determination of natural radionuclides content in some building materials in Nigeria by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademola, J A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study undertaken to determine the natural radioactivity present in some building materials in Nigeria using a gamma-ray spectrometer with a hyper pure germanium detector. A total of 118 samples of commonly used building materials were collected from manufacturers and suppliers of these materials. The mean radioactivity concentrations measured in the different building materials varied from 9.4 to 62.9, 1.3 to 88.4, and 21.5 to 762.4 Bq kg(-1), respectively, for 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K. The average contents of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K for all the samples were 36.3, 46.5, and 320.9 Bq kg(-1), respectively, lower than the world average for building materials (50, 50, and 500 Bq kg(-1)). The calculated mean radium equivalent activity and external and internal hazard indices for the entire sample were lower than United Nation Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation recommended limits and comparable with results of similar studies undertaken in other countries. The mean annual gonadal equivalent doses of some of the samples were higher than the world average value for soil.

  15. Geochemical interpretation of gamma-ray spectrometry images from the Achala granite (Cordoba, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Luis E.

    1998-01-01

    Data of an old spectrometry gamma-ray survey carried out in the Sierras Pampeanas Range by the National Atomic Energy Commission (Argentina) were reprocessed to obtain a corrected digital archive. The geochemical interpretation of the 250 x 250 meters spectrometric grids from the Achala batholith area was based on the behaviour of the radioelements in a peraluminous magma. Spectrometric maps of potassium, uranium, thorium and their ratios were used. In particular, the Th grid was very useful to define the primary magmatic evolution of the granitoids. K and U correlate roughly with Th distribution. The observed positive correlation between Th and U is thought to be the result of surficial leaching of U from uraninite. Finally, U/Th ratio allows to determine both, the magmatic evolution of the rocks and the mineral phase responsible for U content. (author)

  16. Radiochemical determination of 210Pb using crown ether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajda, N.; Bodizs, D.; Vodicska, M.

    1994-01-01

    Gamma spectrometric determination of 210 Pb following chemical separation has been performed very precisely and with high sensitivity, due to the low and constant self-absorption of the chemically pure sample. A simple and quick method for the chemical separation of lead using crown ether has been developed. Its four steps are described in detail. The new method was verified using phosphate ore and gypsum samples that were measured in an interlaboratory comparison and with a standard reference material. This method can also be used for self-absorption correction in direct gamma spectrometry of 210 Pb. (N.T.) 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  17. Gamma-ray measuring method for determining an interface between media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodde, K.H.

    1976-01-01

    The interface between two fluids such as oil and water in an underground cavern may be detected by placing a gelled substance containing a source of gamma radiation at the interface and detecting the emissions from the gelled substance

  18. Committed effective dose determination in cereal flours by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheibel, Viviane

    2006-01-01

    The health impact from radionuclides ingestion of foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in commercial samples of South-Brazilian cereal flours (soy, wheat, corn, manioc, rye, oat, barley and rice flour). The radioactivity traces of 228 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 40 K, 7 Be and 137 Cs were measured by gamma-ray spectrometry employing a 66% relative efficiency HPGe detector. The energy resolution for the 1332.46 keV line of 60 Co was 2.03 keV. The committed effective doses were calculated with the activities analyzed in the present flour samples, the foodstuff rates of consumption (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) and the ingestion dose coefficients (International Commission of Radiological Protection). The reliability median activities were verified with χ 2 tests, assuring the fittings quality. The highest concentration levels of 228 Th and 40 K were 3.5 ± 0.4 and 1469 ± 17 Bq.kg -1 for soy flour, respectively, with 95% of confidence level. The lower limit of detection for 137 Cs ranged from 0.04 to 0.4 Bq.kg -1 . The highest committed effective dose was 0.36 μSv.y -1 for 228 Ra in manioc flour (adults). All committed effective doses determined at the present work were lower than the UNSCEAR limits of 140 μSv.y -1 and much lower than the ICRP (1991) limits of 1 mSv.y -1 , for general public. There are few literature references for natural and artificial radionuclides in foodstuffs and mainly for committed effective doses. This work brings the barley flour data, which is not present at the literature and 7 Be data which is not encountered in foodstuffs at the literature, besides all the other flours data information about activities and committed effective doses. (author)

  19. Determination of the displacement cross-section in C-60 fullerene exposed to the gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Pinnera, I.; Leyva, D.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Using the threshold energy values reported in literature for spherical fullerene C-60 molecules and taking into account the McKinley-Feshbach approach, the effective atomic displacement cross-section in C-60 nanostructures exposed to the gamma rays was estimated. The Kinchin-Pease approximation for the damage function was also considered. These calculations were performed using MCCM code system developed by the authors for the study of gamma radiation damage in solid materials. (Author)

  20. Fieldable computer system for determining gamma-ray pulse-height distributions, flux spectra, and dose rates from Little Boy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Lucas, M.C.; Tisinger, E.W.; Hamm, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    Our system consists of a LeCroy 3500 data acquisition system with a built-in CAMAC crate and eight bismuth-germanate detectors 7.62 cm in diameter and 7.62 cm long. Gamma-ray pulse-height distributions are acquired simultaneously for up to eight positions. The system was very carefully calibrated and characterized from 0.1 to 8.3 MeV using gamma-ray spectra from a variety of radioactive sources. By fitting the pulse-height distributions from the sources with a function containing 17 parameters, we determined theoretical repsonse functions. We use these response functions to unfold the distributions to obtain flux spectra. A flux-to-dose-rate conversion curve based on the work of Dimbylow and Francis is then used to obtain dose rates. Direct use of measured spectra and flux-to-dose-rate curves to obtain dose rates avoids the errors that can arise from spectrum dependence in simple gamma-ray dosimeter instruments. We present some gamma-ray doses for the Little Boy assembly operated at low power. These results can be used to determine the exposures of the Hiroshima survivors and thus aid in the establishment of radation exposure limits for the nuclear industry

  1. Final results of the PIDIE intercomparison exercise for the plutonium isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.; Chauvenet, B.; Etcheverry, M.

    1991-01-01

    Final results from the PIDIE intercomparison exercise organised by the ESARDA Working Group on techniques and standards for non-destructive analysis are presented. The aim of this exercise carried out in 1988 was to test the gamma-ray spectroscopy methods used to determine the plutonium isotopic ratios in a large range of isotopic composition, in order to analyse the parameters and the error sources influencing the results. Sets of seven sealed samples of different plutonium isotopic composition were sent to nine participating laboratories. The final results with uncertainty indicators are reported; they are compared with complementary mass-spectrometry determinations. No important bias has been observed from this exercise. Significant improvements in plutonium isotopic determination by gamma-ray spectrometry come from both more elaborate spectrum analysis methods and better equipment

  2. Comparison of in-situ gamma ray spectrometry measurements with conventional methods in determination natural and artificial nuclides in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Doubal, A. W.

    2010-12-01

    Two nuclear analytical techniques (In-Situ Gamma ray spectrometry and laboratory gamma ray spectrometry) for determination of natural and artificial radionuclides in soil have been validated. The first technique depends on determination of radioactivity content of representative samples of the studied soil after laboratory preparation, while the second technique is based on direct determination of radioactivity content of soil using in-situ gamma-ray spectrometer. Analytical validation parameter such as detection limits, repeatability, reproducibility in addition to measurement uncertainties were estimated and compared for both techniques. Comparison results have shown that the determination of radioactivity in soil should apply the two techniques together where each of techniques is characterized by its low detection limit and uncertainty suitable for defined application of measurement. Radioactive isotopes in various locations were determined using the two methods by measuring 40 k, 238 U,and 137 Cs. The results showed that there are differences in attenuation factors due to soil moisture content differences; wet weight corrections should be applied when the two techniques are compared. (author)

  3. Application of LiF for determining the gamma-radiation characteristics of the shut-down reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimova, E M; Musaeva, M A; Ashrapov, U T; Kalanov, M U; Muminov, M I [Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text: The power of {sup 60}Co {approx}1.25 MeV gamma-radiation source at the INP AS RUz is limited by 8 Gy/s, which does not satisfy several tasks of material science now. Therefore, we were first to suggest the irradiation of materials with gamma-rays of 0.1-7 MeV, which are emitted by the uranium fission products ({sup 41}Ar, {sup 135}Xe, {sup 125}Xe, {sup 125}I,{sup 137}Cs, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 140}Ba, {sup 140}La, {sup 99}Mo, {sup 60}Co) and {sup l6}N, {sup 24}Na, {sup 28}Al radio-nuclides in water during prophylactic shut-downs of our nuclear reactor WWR-SM. The gamma-dose rate kinetics was monitored with the ion current in ionization chambers KNK-53M fixed outside the reactor core from the stop-moment. The current kinetics comprised 4 steps with a high reproducibility at 2 and 0.5 {mu}A, then 50 and 10 nA, each lasting for 1,10, 40 and up to 200 hours, according to the isotope life-times. LiF crystal is known as a thermal luminescence dosimeter of mixed radiations up to 100 Gy. Yet in this work the absorbed gamma-energy dose D{sub {gamma}} was determined by accumulation of the known stable structure defects in thin cleaved LiF crystals: by induced optical absorption and luminescence of F- and M-centers. The samples were irradiated in Al-containers filled with water to keep the temperature of {approx}40 deg. C in the time range from 30 minutes to 150 hours. Optical absorption spectra were registered at spectrometer Specord M-40. Then the induced color center concentration was calculated by the Smakula relation, which is proportional to the absorbed dose D{gamma}. For a better reliability the photoluminescence center content was also determined. Selecting comparable close intensities of the induced absorption and luminescence bands obtained after irradiations of LiF references in the certified {sup 60}Co gamma-sources of the known gamma fluxes 0.7 and 7.5 Gy/s, the gamma-radiation intensity of the shut-down reactor was estimated in

  4. Radiometric and spectrometric analysis of boron-containing rocks in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhtin, B.S.; Ivanov, V.S.; Semenov, V.I.

    1973-01-01

    Gamma-logging, neutron-gamma logging and neutron-resonance logging were carried out when exploring the boron-containing wells. Spectrometry of natural and capture gamma-radiation, of the induced radioactivity was performed in particular points of the wells. Continuous measurements were done with the PRKS-2 logging radiometer, spectrometric measurements - with a simulator of a well rig of 130 mm outer dia. (NaI crystal, 63x63 mm) and the AI-128 pulse analyzer. The time of getting gamma-logging spectra is 16 min, that of neutron-gamma logging is 8 min. When measuring the induced radioactivity, the time of activation is 35 min., the time-out - 1 min., the time of measurement measurement - 32 min.; the neutron gamma- logging probe is 35 cm long, the probe used in activation measurements is 2 cm long. It has been observed that porphyrites and garnetiferous rocks are distinguished by elevated readings on the gamma-logging and neutron-resonance logging curves, whereas boron-containing rocks - by lowered readings in neutron-gamma logging and neutron-resonance logging. In the gamma-logging spectra the lines of uranium-radium, potassium and thorium are observed, in neutron-gamma logging spectra - the lines of silicon, calcium and hydrogen, in the induced radioactivity spectra - Al 28 and Mn 56

  5. Gamma scanning of full scale HTR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, T.A.; Simpson, J.A.H.; Nabielek, H.

    1983-04-01

    Gamma scanning for the determination of burn-up and fission product inventory has been developed at the Dragon Project, suitable for measurements on fuel elements and segments from full-sized integral block elements. This involved the design and construction of a new lead flask with sophisticated collimator design. State-of-the art gamma spectrometric equipment was set up to cope with strong variations of count-rate and high data throughput. Software efforts concentrated on the calculation of the self absorption and absorption corrections in the complicated geometry of multi-hole graphite block segments with a corrugated circumference. The techniques described here are applicable to the non-destructive examination of a wide range of fuel element designs. (author)

  6. Application of TIMS in isotope correlations for determining the isotope ratios of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Aggarwal, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    Thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS) is a well-recognized technique for determining the isotopic composition of Pu in irradiated nuclear fuel samples. Other mass spectrometric methods such as ICPMS, SIMS can also be employed for the isotopic analysis of Pu. In the event of non-availability of a mass spectrometer, other techniques such as gamma spectrometry and alpha spectrometry can also be used. They have a limited applicability since data on all the Pu isotopes cannot be obtained

  7. Measurement of gamma attenuation coefficients in UO2 and zirconium for self-absorption corrections of burn-up determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podest, M.; Klima, J.; Stecher, P.; Stecherova, E.

    1978-01-01

    UO 2 pellets from ALUOX fuel elements were used in measuring the absorption coefficient of gamma radiation in UO 2 . The results of measurements of the energy dependence of the linear absorption coefficient (within 622 to 796 keV) and of the dependence on pellet density showed that in the given density interval the absorption coefficient was almost constant. The density interval was chosen to be typical for pellet fuel used in water cooled and water moderated power reactors. The results are also shown of the dependence of the mass absorption coefficient of gamma radiation in Zr on radiation energy and compared with the mass absorption coefficient of Mo; these also showed the independence of the absorption coefficient on density. The linear and mass absorption coefficients of UO 2 are considerably high and correspond approximately to the absorption coefficient of lead. For the measured energy range the variation of absorption coefficient is about 40%, which causes errors in burnup determination. The efficiency was also determined of Ge(Li) detectors for the energy range 0.5 to 1.2 MeV. The determination of the above coefficients was used for improving the gamma fuel scanning technique in determining the activity and burnup of spent fuel elements. (J.P.)

  8. Use of neutron capture gamma radiation for determining grade of iron ore in blast holes and exploration holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisler, P.L.; Huppert, P.; Mathew, P.J.; Wylie, A.W.; Youl, S.F.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron radiative capture and neutron-neutron logging have been applied to determining the grade of ore in dry blast holes and a dry exploration hole drilled into a layered iron deposit. Both thermal and epithermal neutron responses were measured as well as the gamma-ray responses due to neutron capture by iron and by hydrogen present in hydrated minerals. The results were fitted by a stepwise multiple linear regression technique to give expressions for mean grade of ore in the drill hole and 95% confidence intervals for estimation of this mean. For an overall range of ore grades of 20-68% Fe and a mean grade of 63% Fe, the confidence interval for prediction of mean grade for the neutron-gamma technique was 0.3% Fe for pooled data from all five blast holes and 0.8% Fe for a single hole. It was also shown that for this type of layered deposit a simpler neutron-neutron log incorporating simultaneous measurement of both thermal and epithermal neutron responses gave almost as good a grade prediction result for pooled results from five drill holes, namely 63+-0.4% Fe, as that obtained by the neutron-gamma technique. The results of both types of log are compared with those obtained by the spectral gamma-ray backscattering [Psub(z)] technique, or by logging of natural gamma radiations from the shale component of the ore. From this comparison conclusions are drawn regarding the most suitable technique to employ for determining grade of iron ore in various practical logging situations. (author)

  9. Determination of gamma ray doses suitable for mutation induction in garlic (Allium sativum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safadi, Bassam; Ayyoubi, Zouhair

    1993-04-01

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) cloves were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (Control, 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 rads). The cloves were planted in 4 replicates at Deer Alhajar station of the Dept. of Radiation Agriculture. Number of surviving plants was recorded at 2 months after planting and at harvest. Length of foliage was measured at harvest time and weight of cloves was taken two weeks after harvest. Visual readings in the field on plant shape and leaf color were also taken. The results indicated a negative effect of gamma radiation on plant survival especially at doses of 750 and 1000 rads where no plants survived until harvest. Plant length and clove weight were reduced even at 500 rad dose. Percentage of yellow and necrotic plants increased with increasing gamma ray dosage. No stimulation of plant growth was noticed as a result of irradiation with low doses of gamma rays. Treatment with 500 rads of gamma radiation was considered the best among tested doses for garlic mutagenesis (Using cloves) since it gave acceptable rate of survival and morphologic variation. (author). 14 refs., 4 figs

  10. Comparative and Absolute Measurements of 11 Inorganic Constituents of 38 Human Tooth Samples with Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samsahl, K.; Soeremark, R.

    1961-12-01

    The mean concentrations of the following elements have been simultaneously determined in normal human dentine, enamel and dental calculus with gamma-ray spectrometry; Na, P, Cl, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, W and Au. In a typical run one sample each of dentine, enamel and dental calculus were irradiated together with standards of the elements to be determined in a thermal neutron flux of 2 x 10 12 n/cm/sec for 20 hours. The chemical elements were separated into nine groups with ion exchange technique before the subsequent gamma spectrometric measurements. One man can manage the chemical separations and take the necessary gamma spectra from a run in one day. In a few samples of dentine, enamel and dental calculus which had been irradiated in a thermal neutron flux of 7 x 10 13 n/cm/sec for one week the additional long lived trace elements were qualitatively determined Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Ag, Sb, Cs and Ba

  11. Determination of radon concentration in soil gas by gamma-ray spectrometry of olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of radon concentration in soil gas have been carried out using a bubbling system in which the soil gas is drawn through an active pumping to bubble a liquid absorber (olive oil) for the deposition of the soil gas in it. After the bubbling process, the absorber is then taken for gamma-ray measurements. Gamma-ray photopeaks from the 214 Pb and the 214 Bi radon progeny are considered for the detection of the 222 Rn gas to study the concentration levels for radon soil gas. Results for some field measurements were obtained and compared with results obtained using AlphaGuard radon gas monitor. The technique provides a possible approach for the measurements of radon soil gas with gamma-ray spectrometry

  12. Radon fixation for determination of 224Ra, 226Ra and 228Ra via gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.; Abelairas, A.; Legarda, F.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work is the improvement of the procedure for the determination of radium isotopes activities in water, which is done through radiochemical separation and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, radon gas retention is studied using different activated carbon materials. The results of the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water' of December 2002 [IAEA, 2003. Analytical quality control services: determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water. Preliminary Report, Seibersdorf] are considered for this work

  13. Radon fixation for determination of {sup 224}Ra, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra via gamma-ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, M. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: inphesom@bi.ehu.es; Idoeta, R. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Abelairas, A. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Legarda, F. [Departamento Ingenieria Nuclear y Mecanica de Fluidos, E. S. Ingenieros de Bilbao - Universidad del Pais Vasco (UPV/EHU), Alda. Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    The aim of this work is the improvement of the procedure for the determination of radium isotopes activities in water, which is done through radiochemical separation and subsequent gamma-ray spectrometry. In addition, radon gas retention is studied using different activated carbon materials. The results of the IAEA Proficiency test: 'Determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water' of December 2002 [IAEA, 2003. Analytical quality control services: determination of radium and uranium radionuclides in water. Preliminary Report, Seibersdorf] are considered for this work.

  14. Hydrogen determination in chemically delithiated lithium ion battery cathodes by prompt gamma activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Emilio, II

    2007-12-01

    Lithium ion batteries, due to their relatively high energy density, are now widely used as the power source for portable electronics. Commercial lithium ion cells currently employ layered LiCoO2 as a cathode but only 50% of its theoretical capacity can be utilized. The factors that cause the limitation are not fully established in the literature. With this perspective, prompt gamma-ray activation analysis (PGAA) has been employed to determine the hydrogen content in various oxide cathodes that have undergone chemical extraction of lithium (delithiation). The PGAA data is complemented by data obtained from atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), redox titration, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and mass spectroscopy to better understand the capacity limitations and failure mechanisms of lithium ion battery cathodes. As part of this work, the PGAA facility has been redesigned and reconstructed. The neutron and gamma-ray backgrounds have been reduced by more than an order of magnitude. Detection limits for elements have also been improved. Special attention was given to the experimental setup including potential sources of error and system calibration for the detection of hydrogen. Spectral interference with hydrogen arising from cobalt was identified and corrected for. Limits of detection as a function of cobalt mass present in a given sample are also discussed. The data indicates that while delithiated layered Li1- xCoO2, Li1-xNi 1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2, and Li1- xNi0.5Mn0.5O2 take significant amounts of hydrogen into the lattice during deep extraction, orthorhombic Li 1-xMnO2, spinel Li1- xMn2O4, and olivine Li1- xFePO4 do not. Layered LiCoO2, LiNi 0.5Mn0.5O2, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co 1/3O2 have been further analyzed to assess their relative chemical instabilities while undergoing stepped chemical delithiation. Each system takes increasing amounts of protons at lower lithium contents. The differences are attributed to the relative chemical instabilities of the various cathodes

  15. Molecular determinants of desensitization and assembly of the chimeric GABA(A) receptor subunits (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) in combinations with beta2 and gamma2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elster, L; Kristiansen, U; Pickering, D S

    2001-01-01

    Two gamma-aminobutyric acid(A) (GABA(A)) receptor chimeras were designed in order to elucidate the structural requirements for GABA(A) receptor desensitization and assembly. The (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeric subunits representing the extracellular N-terminal domain of alpha1 or gamma......, as opposed to the staining of the (gamma2/alpha1)-containing receptors, which was only slightly higher than background. To explain this, the (alpha1/gamma2) and (gamma2/alpha1) chimeras may act like alpha1 and gamma2 subunits, respectively, indicating that the extracellular N-terminal segment is important...... for assembly. However, the (alpha1/gamma2) chimeric subunit had characteristics different from the alpha1 subunit, since the (alpha1/gamma2) chimera gave rise to no desensitization after GABA stimulation in whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, which was independent of whether the chimera was expressed...

  16. Quantitative determination of secoiridoid and gamma-pyrone compounds in Gentiana lutea cultured in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menković, N; Savikin-Fodulović, K; Momcilović, I; Grubisić, D

    2000-02-01

    The production of secondary metabolites was studied in shoots, roots, and hairy roots of Gentiana lutea obtained in vitro. In shoots, both secoiridoid and gamma-pyrone compounds were detected in amounts similar to those found in aerial parts of plants collected from nature. The most abundant secoiridoid was gentiopicrin while mangiferin was the main compound among the gamma-pyrones. The adventitious roots obtained in vitro showed a poor biosynthetic capacity. Upon infection with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, nine hairy root clones were established which differed in the amount of secondary metabolites.

  17. Determination of Carbamate and Organophosphorus Pesticides in Vegetable Samples and the Efficiency of Gamma-Radiation in Their Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Alamgir Zaman Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the residual pesticide levels were determined in eggplants (Solanum melongena (n=16, purchased from four different markets in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The carbamate and organophosphorus pesticide residual levels were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and the efficiency of gamma radiation on pesticide removal in three different types of vegetables was also studied. Many (50% of the samples contained pesticides, and three samples had residual levels above the maximum residue levels determined by the World Health Organisation. Three carbamates (carbaryl, carbofuran, and pirimicarb and six organophosphates (phenthoate, diazinon, parathion, dimethoate, phosphamidon, and pirimiphos-methyl were detected in eggplant samples; the highest carbofuran level detected was 1.86 mg/kg, while phenthoate was detected at 0.311 mg/kg. Gamma radiation decreased pesticide levels proportionately with increasing radiation doses. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and phosphamidon were reduced by 40–48%, 35–43%, and 30–45%, respectively, when a radiation strength of 0.5 kGy was utilized. However, when the radiation dose was increased to 1.0 kGy, the levels of the pesticides were reduced to 85–90%, 80–91%, and 90–95%, respectively. In summary, our study revealed that pesticide residues are present at high amounts in vegetable samples and that gamma radiation at 1.0 kGy can remove 80–95% of some pesticides.

  18. The metrological activity determination of 238 U and 230 Th by gamma spectrometry to industrial fuel-cycle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida M, M.C. de; Delgado, J.U.; Poledna, R.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the difficulty for determining the activity of 238 U and 230 Th using gamma spectrometry due to the low gamma-ray emission probabilities of 92 and 67 keV, and, mainly, the associated high uncertainties about 13 and 11%, respectively. 230 Th is a 238 U daughter and it is product from uranium mills and refineries. 230 Th decays to 226 Ra and this decay has to be measured because these radionuclides are not in secular equilibrium with their daughter products, besides the gamma-energies have high uncertainties in the emission probabilities. These radionuclides, mostly 238 U, are important in the nuclear fuel-cycle, since the mining of uranium ore, where the nominal isotopic content of natural uranium is 99.27% of 238 U, until the irradiated fuel reprocessing, where this isotope, a fertile material, is recovered to be used again. The uranium and thorium are considered safeguarded nuclear materials and the metrology tries to calibrate and standardize these materials to improve the activity determination techniques applied in different fuel-cycle scopes. The essential characteristics of the safeguarded materials are low gamma energies (less than 100 keV) and emission probabilities but with high uncertainties. In this way, the metrology can contribute to homeland security defense against illicit nuclear trafficking with the identification and quantification of the safeguarded radionuclides such as uranium and thorium, using specific gamma window energy and high resolution planar or coaxial germanium detector. The efficiency curve is obtained from the reference source spectrum considering the photopeak areas corresponding the standard activities. This curve depends on radiation energy, sample geometry, photon attenuation (sample absorption and material absorption between sample-detector), dead time and sample-detector position. The metrological activity determinations of 238 U solid sources, and of 230 Th, in solution (5 ml flask), were performed using

  19. Radiochemical separation of {sup 231}Pa from siliceous cake prior to its determination by gamma ray spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalvi, Aditi A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Analytical Chemistry Div.; Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai (India); Verma, Rakesh

    2017-07-01

    A simple and fast radiochemical method for the separation of protactinium ({sup 231}Pa) from siliceous cake for its determination by gamma ray spectrometry is described. The method involves (a) a novel approach, the fusion of the siliceous cake with sodium peroxide, (b) the dissolution of the fused mass in nitric acid and (c) the co-precipitation of {sup 231}Pa with manganese dioxide formed in-situ by the addition of solid manganous sulfate and potassium permanganate to the solution. The fusion, effected in a single step, is simpler and highly effective in comparison to methods reported hitherto in literature. The radiochemical yield of {sup 231}Pa, determined using 311.9 keV gamma ray of {sup 233}Pa radiotracer is quantitative (∝90%). The decontamination factors calculated using gamma ray spectrometry and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence measurements show that the separation from the interfering radionuclides is high whereas separation from major and minor elements is good. Separation by ion-exchange method in hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid and oxalic acid media have comparatively much lower yields. The concentration of {sup 231}Pa in the siliceous cake measured using interference-free 283.6 keV gamma ray was found to be (6.4 ± 0.33) μg kg{sup -1}. The measured concentration of {sup 231}Pa was well above the limit of quantitation whereas the coefficient of variation was ∝5%. The improvement in the limit of detection was due to the reduction in spectral background. Systematic evaluation of various uncertainty parameters showed that the major contributors to the combined uncertainty were efficiency of the high purity germanium detector and the counting statistics. The present sample decomposition and separation methods are robust, simple to perform and can be effectively used for the determination and hence source prospecting of protactinium.

  20. Application of LiF for determining the gamma-radiation characteristics of the shut-down reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimova, E.M.; Musaeva, M.A.; Ashrapov, U.T.; Kalanov, M.U.; Muminov, M.I.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The power of 60 Co ∼1.25 MeV gamma-radiation source at the INP AS RUz is limited by 8 Gy/s, which does not satisfy several tasks of material science now. Therefore, we were first to suggest the irradiation of materials with gamma-rays of 0.1-7 MeV, which are emitted by the uranium fission products ( 41 Ar, 135 Xe, 125 Xe, 125 I, 137 Cs, 134 Cs, 144 Ce, 95 Zr, 140 Ba, 140 La, 99 Mo, 60 Co) and l6 N, 24 Na, 28 Al radio-nuclides in water during prophylactic shut-downs of our nuclear reactor WWR-SM. The gamma-dose rate kinetics was monitored with the ion current in ionization chambers KNK-53M fixed outside the reactor core from the stop-moment. The current kinetics comprised 4 steps with a high reproducibility at 2 and 0.5 μA, then 50 and 10 nA, each lasting for 1,10, 40 and up to 200 hours, according to the isotope life-times. LiF crystal is known as a thermal luminescence dosimeter of mixed radiations up to 100 Gy. Yet in this work the absorbed gamma-energy dose D γ was determined by accumulation of the known stable structure defects in thin cleaved LiF crystals: by induced optical absorption and luminescence of F- and M-centers. The samples were irradiated in Al-containers filled with water to keep the temperature of ∼40 deg. C in the time range from 30 minutes to 150 hours. Optical absorption spectra were registered at spectrometer Specord M-40. Then the induced color center concentration was calculated by the Smakula relation, which is proportional to the absorbed dose Dγ. For a better reliability the photoluminescence center content was also determined. Selecting comparable close intensities of the induced absorption and luminescence bands obtained after irradiations of LiF references in the certified 60 Co gamma-sources of the known gamma fluxes 0.7 and 7.5 Gy/s, the gamma-radiation intensity of the shut-down reactor was estimated in correlation with the ion current as 10 nA = 15 Gy/s. At short times of irradiation the linear dose dependence

  1. Determination of the displacement cross section in single-walled carbon nanotubes under gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Leyva, D.

    2009-01-01

    Using the threshold energy value reported in literature for C atoms in single-walled carbon nanotube and taking into account the McKinley-Feshbach approach, the effective atomic displacement cross-section in nanotubes exposed to the gamma rays was estimated. In this calculation the Kinchin-Pease approximation for the damage function was considered. (Author)

  2. Critical analysis of soil hydraulic conductivity determination using monoenergetic gamma radiation attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portezan Filho, Otavio

    1997-01-01

    Three soil samples of different textures: LVA (red yellow latosol), LVE (dark red latosol) and LRd (dystrophic dark red latosol) were utilized for unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K(θ) measurements. Soil bulk densities and water contents during internal water drainage were measured by monoenergetic gamma radiation attenuation, using homogeneous soil columns assembled in the laboratory. The measurements were made with a collimated gamma beam of 0.003 m in diameter using a Nal(Tl) (3'' x 3 '') detector and a 137 Cs gamma source of 74 X 10 8 Bq and 661.6 KeV. Soil columns were scanned with the gamma beam from 0.01 to 0.20 m depth, in 0.01m steps, for several soil water redistribution times. The results show a great variability of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity relation K(θ), even though homogeneous soils were used. The variability among methods is significantly smaller in relation to variability in space. The assumption of unit hydraulic gradient during redistribution of soil water utilized in the methods of Hillel, Libardi and Sisson leads to hydraulic conductivity values that increase in depth. The exponential character of the K(θ) relationship, is responsible for the difficulty of estimating soil hydraulic conductivity, which is a consequence of small variations in the porous arrangement, even in samples supposed to be homogeneous. (author)

  3. Automation of low energy gamma spectrometric analysis of mineral samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, R.; Gonzalez, J.

    1996-01-01

    An interface device to perform the automatic operation of a multichannel analyser CANBERRA S30 from a COMODORE 64 microcomputer was developed. The interface also allows the manual control of the MCA and fulfills the requirements of low cost and simplicity

  4. Determination of Proton dose distal fall-off location by detecting right-angled prompt gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Kyu Seok

    2006-02-01

    The proton beam has a unique advantage over the electron and photon beams in that it can give very high radiation dose to the tumor volume while effectively sparing the neighboring healthy tissue and organs. The number of proton therapy facility is very rapidly increasing in the world. And now the 230 MeV cyclotron facility for proton therapy is constructing at National Cancer Center, this facility until 2006. The distal fall-off location of proton beam is simply calculated by analytical method, but this method has many uncertain when anatomical structure is very complicated. It is very important to know the exact position of the proton beam distal fall-off, or beam range, in the patient's body for both the safety of the patient and the effectiveness of the treatment itself. In 2003, Stichelbaut and Jongen reported the possibility of using the right-angled prompt gamma rays, which are emitted at 90 .deg. from the incident proton beam direction, to determine the position of the proton beam distal fall-off. They studied the interactions of the protons and other secondary particles in a water phantom and concluded that there is a correlation between the position of the distal fall-off and the distribution of the right-angled prompt gamma rays. We have recently designed a prompt gamma scanning system to measure the proton range in situ by using Monte Carlo technique employing MCNPX, FLUKA, and Sabrina TM . The prompt gamma scanning system was designed to measure only the right-angled prompt gamma rays passing through a narrow collimation hole in order to correlate the position with the dose distribution. The collimation part of the scanning system, which has been constructed to measure the gamma rays at 70 MeV of proton energy, is made of a set of paraffin, boron carbide, and lead layers to shield the high-energy neutrons and secondary photons. After the different proton energies and SOBP beam widths are irradiated at the water phantom. we detected prompt gamma at 5 cm

  5. Determination of plutonium isotopes (238Pu, 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu) in environmental samples using radiochemical separation combined with radiometric and mass spectrometric measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yihong; Qiao, Jixin; Hou, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    counting and alpha spectrometry) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were applied for the measurement of plutonium isotopes. The decontamination factors for uranium were significantly improved up to 7.5×105 for 20 g soil compared to the level reported in the literature......, this is critical for the measurement of plutonium isotopes using mass spectrometric technique. Although the chemical yield of Pu in the entire procedure is about 55%, the analytical results of IAEA soil 6 and IAEA-367 in this work are in a good agreement with the values reported in the literature or reference......Pu. However, it is impossible to measure 238Pu using ICP-MS in environmental samples even a decontamination factor as high as 106 for uranium was obtained by chemical separation....

  6. Using multi spherical spectrometry for determination of dosimetric characteristics of mixed neutron and gamma radiation fields of fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fyulep, M.; Nikodemova, D.; Grabovtsova, A.; Galan, P.; Trousil, J.

    1977-01-01

    Possibilities of the application of multispherical spectrometry in personnel dosimetry of neutrons (n) and gamma radiation (γ) are considered. Studies were made to elucidate a possibility of using albedo dosemeters to increase the sensitivity of personnel dosemeters. Determined were the dose due to the (n,γ) reaction in a human body, absorbed dose and dose equivalent. The effect of (n,γ) dose on the reading of personnel gamma dosemeter was considered. It is shown that the above effect on the dosemeter readings for frontal irradiation by a broad neutron beam in everyday personnel dosimetry near 252 Cf sources may be neglected. Only in the case of strongly slowed-down fission spectrum the effect of the (n,γ) reaction is considerable. The application of albedo dosemeter is expedient to take into account the corrections of personnel dosemeter readings [ru

  7. Determination of contaminants in nuclear materials by measuring the capture gamma rays of thermal neutrons in a reactor internal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for analysis of impurities in nuclear fuel material was developed. Prompt gamma rays following thermal neutron capture, from a sample placed inside the research reactor were analyzed with a solid state high resolution detector. A number of improvements were introduced to improve the background-to-signal ratio, and the sensitivity of the method: use of collimeters for gamma rays and 6 Li 2 CO 3 filters to eliminate thermal neutrons from the beam were supplemented with the application of a pair spectrometer. Using a 42.5 cm 3 true coaxial Ge(Li) detector, and two optically separated NaI (Tl) scintillation detector, the sensitivity of the method for quantitative determination of impurities reached 30 p.p.m. The reproducibility of the results was better than 2%

  8. Determination of soil parameters during the water horizontal infiltration and redistribution by gamma ray attenuation method and tensiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J.C.M. de.

    1991-04-01

    The present work studies the water diffusivity and hydraulic conductivity in a Latossolo Roxo distrofico soil, during the water infiltration and redistribution processes. Variation water flow equations were utilized for the calculations. The data of wetting front positions and of soil water content profiles were obtained through the gamma ray attenuation from a 241-Am source, with 100 mCi activity detected by a standard electronic equipment of gamma spectrometry, with NaI CTD scintillation detector. From the soil water content data in function of space and time and from analytic models, the properties of soil water diffusivity and soil hydraulic conductivity were determined in the laboratory for the 0-10 cm and 10-25 soil layers. (author)

  9. Determination of the permeability of α-, β- and γ-radiation in textile fabrics by Gamma-Scout device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintibidze, N.; Mardaleishvili, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present was the measurement of radiation permeability in textile fabrics by Gamma-Scout device and the comparison of the obtained results with the radiation background of the ambient air. The authors of this article have produced new fiber Fibron-3, which, according to theoretical calculations, reduces permeability of solar radiation. With this in mind, an experiment was performed. Three samples of the knitted cloth from Fibron-3 were taken, and the permeability of solar radiation in them was determined. The measurements were performed on Gamma-Scout device. The comparative analysis of the permeability of solar radiation in fabrics of different fibrous structure was performed. It was inferred that the degree of radiation permeability in fabrics depended on the thread thickness and the fiber structure. (author)

  10. Determination of the cork bark porosity through the gamma ray transmission technology and electronic scanning microscopy image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Antonio M.C.; Moreira, Anderson C.; Appoloni, Carlos R.

    2007-01-01

    This work applies the gamma transmission techniques (GTR) and imaging by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for determination of porosity in the sparkling wine bottle corks. The gamma transmission experimental apparatus consists of a micrometric table (ZX) of sample movement automated, a Am-241 source (59,53 keV, 100 mCi), lead collimators, sample-holder, Na I(Tl) detector and appropriated electronics. For the microscopic images an FEI (Quanta 200), electronic microscope with associated electronics was used, and the image analysis was performed with IMAGO software. The average porosity for 22 samples analysed by GTR was of φ=58 +- 4.6 percent. By the imaging technique the found average porosity was φ=60.0 +- 6.2 percent. (author)

  11. Determination of Cu-Zn Fraction of an Ancient Brass Pipe by Prompt Gamma-ray Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, G. M.; Lee, Y. N.; Moon, J. H.; Lee, K. H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) has an advantage over most other methods in the investigation of archeological and cultural objects which must be dealt with a non-destructive method. In this study, we study about how to determine the copper-zinc fraction in archeological objects such as a smoking pipe made from brass, where the proportions of copper and zinc can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties. In this study, a Japanese smoking pipe was analyzed to determine the copper-zinc fraction at the KAERI-SNU PGAA facility.

  12. Density determination in Pino Radiata (D.Don) samples using 59.5 keV gamma radiation attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinator, Maria I.; Morales, Jose R.; Aliaga, Nelson; Karsulovic, Jose T.; Sanchez, Jaime; Leon, Adolfo

    1996-01-01

    A non destructive method to determine wood samples density is presented. The photon mass attenuation coefficient in samples of Pino radiata (D.Don) was measured at 59.5 keV with a radioactive source of Am-241. The value of 0.192 ± 0.002 cm 2 /g was obtained with a gamma spectroscopy system and later used on the determination of the mass density in sixteen samples of the same species. Comparison of these results with those of gravimetric method through a linear regression showed a slope of 1.001 and a correlation factor of 0.94. (author)

  13. A method to determine density in wood samples using attenuation of 59.5 KeV gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinator, M.I.; Morales, J.R.; Aliaga, N.; Karsulovic, J.T.; Sanchez, J.; Leon, L.A.

    1996-01-01

    A nondestructive method to determine the density of wood samples is presented. The photon mass attenuation coefficient in samples of Pino Radiata was measured at 59.5 KeV with a radioactive source of Am-241. The value of 0.192 ± 0.002 cm 2 /g was obtained with a gamma spectroscopy system and later used on the determination of the mass density in sixteen samples of the same species. Comparison of these results with those of gravimetric method through a linear regression showed a slope of 1.001 and correlation factor of 0.94. (author)

  14. Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric analysis of geochemical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Johnson, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass-spectrometric-analysis techniques can be used to study a wide variety of problems involving decomposition processes and identification of released volatile components. A recording vacuum thermoanalyzer has been coupled with a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The rapid scan capabilities of the quadrupole mass spectrometer are used to identify the gaseous components released. The capability of the thermogravimetric-quadrupole mass spectrometer to provide analytical data for identification of the released volatile components, for determination of their sequence of release and for correlation of thermal-decomposition studies is illustrated by an analysis of the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite.

  15. Feasibility study of photodiodes utilization in the soil-moisture determination by gamma transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.A.P. dos.

    1992-08-01

    This study was done to verify the viability of photodiodes, as gamma radiation detector ( 241 Am - Energy=60 KeV), to measure soil water content. The photodiodes used had different mechanical and electrical characteristics, and were tested on soils of different textures. A good linear correlation between the logarithm of the attenuation factor and soil-moisture demonstrated such viability, and that the low photopeak efficiency of these devices is not a limitation to the measurement of soil water content. Furthermore, the stability, the portability, and low cost of such semiconductor devices, including its electronic system, represent relevant characteristics that may justify the development of a reliable gamma meter system for field studies. (author). 37 refs, 21 figs, 20 tabs

  16. Gamma-ray induced Doppler broadening and the determination of lifetimes of excited nuclear states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, H.G.; Jolie, J.; Robinson, S.J.; Kessler, E.G.; Dewey, S.M.; Greene, G.; Deslattes, R.; Ulbig, S.; Lieb, K.P.; Casten, R.F.; Krusche, B.; Cizewski, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes of excited states in nuclei yield crucial information for sensitive tests of nuclear models. Here a novel method will be discussed which involves the GRID (Gamma Ray Induced Doppler broadening) technique, in which Doppler broadening is observed in a transition from a nucleus recoiling from the emission of a previous gamma ray. As the recoil energy is extremely small, ultra-high energy resolving power has to be used. To date all such experiments have been carried out at ILL using the GAMS4 double flat crystal spectrometer which is operated in a NIST-ILL collaboration. The method can be used for all lifetimes below a few picoseconds. The wide range of applicability, together with the very exhaustive set of data often obtained, is an advantage with respect to many other methods. The characteristic features of GRID will be discussed using some selected examples. 21 refs., 8 figs

  17. Burn-Up Determination by High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry: Fission Product Migration Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, R S; Blackadder, W H; Ronqvist, N

    1967-04-15

    The migration of solid fission products, in particular caesium and ruthenium, in high temperature oxide fuel can create a severe problem during the application of non-destructive burn-up methods employing gamma spectrometry, since caesium-137 is otherwise the most convenient long-lived burn-up monitor and ruthenium-106 can be used to distinguish between fissions in U-235 and Pu-239. As part of an experimental programme to develop burn-up methods, gamma scanning experiments have been performed on slices of irradiated UO{sub 2} pellets using a lithium-drifted germanium detector. The usefulness of the technique for migration studies has been demonstrated by comparing the fission product distribution curves across the specimen diameters with the microstructure of the specimens after polishing and etching.

  18. Possibilities of determining the main peculiarities of {gamma}-decay cascades in heavy nuclei. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M A [Nuclear Physics Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt); Khitrov, V A; Sukhovoj, A M; Vojnov, A V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics, Dubna, (Russian Federation)

    1996-03-01

    The main results of an analysis of the average parameters for {gamma}-decay cascades of compound states in complex nuclei, after thermal neutron capture are presented. The experimental data of nuclear level densities, for certain J{pi}, at excitation energies above 2 MeV are compared with that predicted by two different theoretical models. Cascade intensities measured over the entire excitation energy range, from the ground state up to the neutron binding energy, are compared with different model predictions. Conclusions about the radiative partial width enhancements for transitions between the compound state and high-lying excited states are given. The problems of estimating the actual temperature of excited nuclei, and of the experimental possibilities to observe phase transitions and their influence on gamma-decay modes are discussed. 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Simulation of prompt gamma rays spectra: calibration for pollutants determination in voluminous samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Idiri, Z.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2006-01-01

    A PGNAA facility using Am-Be source has been developed with the aim of analyzing the major composition of various elements in aqueous samples. A program of simulation for gamma rays spectra was developed to estimate the detection limits of pollutants. The background line under photo peaks of interest was simulated using experimental data. The reliability of the program was checked under real conditions with solutions containing various salt concentrations. Experimental and simulated spectra were found to be in good agreement. (author)

  20. Uranium Enrichment Determination of the InSTEC Sub Critical Ensemble Fuel by Gamma Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrell Munnoz, Jose L.; LopezPino, Neivy; Diaz Rizo, Oscar; D'Alessandro Rodriguez, Katia; Padilla Cabal, Fatima; Arbelo Penna, Yunieski; Garcia Rios, Aczel R.; Quintas Munn, Ernesto L.; Casanova Diaz, Amaya O.

    2009-01-01

    Low background gamma spectrometry was applied to analyze the uranium enrichment of the nuclear fuel used in the InSTEC Sub Critical ensemble. The enrichment was calculated by two variants: an absolute method using the Monte Carlo method to simulated detector volumetric efficiency, and an iterative procedure without using standard sources. The results confirm that the nuclear fuel of the ensemble is natural uranium without any additional degree of enrichment. (author)

  1. A General Analysis of $\\gamma$ Determinations from $B \\to \\pi K$ Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Buras, Andrzej J.; Fleischer, Robert

    1999-01-01

    We present a general parametrization of $B^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm K, \\pi^0K^\\pm$ and $B_d\\to\\pi^0 K, \\pi^\\mp K^\\pm$ decays, taking into account both electroweak penguin and rescattering effects. This formalism allows -- among other things -- an improved implementation of the strategies that were recently proposed by Neubert and Rosner to probe the CKM angle $\\gamma$ with the help of $B^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm K, \\pi^0K^\\pm$ decays. In particular, it allows us to investigate the sensitivity of the extracted value of $\\gamma$ to the basic assumptions of their approach. We find that certain SU(3)-breaking effects may have an important impact and emphasize that additional hadronic uncertainties are due to rescattering processes. The latter can be controlled by using SU(3) flavour symmetry arguments and additional experimental information provided by $B^\\pm\\to K^\\pm K$ modes. We propose a new strategy to probe the angle $\\gamma$ with the help of the neutral decays $B_d\\to\\pi^0 K, \\pi^\\mp K^\\pm$, which is theoretically cleaner than t...

  2. Development of a technique for the on line determination of uranium in solution by gamma ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sarabjit; Ramaswami, A.; Gill, Jatinder Singh

    2005-02-01

    A technique based on gamma ray spectrometry has been developed for the continuous monitoring of uranium in the solution form. Simulated container and support system was designed and fabricated for the development of an efficiency calibration curve and to find the detection limit for the estimation of uranium using 185.7 keV ( 235 U) gamma ray. The system was calibrated for its counting efficiency using HPGe detector system, in a standard source mount to detector geometry. The sensitivity of the detection system and counting time for low-level estimation of uranium has also been established. The detection limit of the monitor is ∼10 mg of uranium per litre of the solution. In order to correct for the density variation of the solution experiment was carried to study the variation of count rate of 185.7 ke V gamma ray of 235 U as a function of the density of the solution. This report gives the details of the development of a continuous monitor for the determination of uranium in the solution streams. (author)

  3. Development of an open source software of quantitative analysis for radionuclide determination by gamma-ray spectrometry using semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduar, Marcelo Francis

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity quantification of gamma-ray emitter radionuclides in samples measured by HPGe gamma-ray spectrometry relies on the analysis of the photopeaks present in the spectra, especially on the accurate determination of their net areas. Such a task is usually performed with the aid of proprietary software tools. This work presents a methodology, algorithm descriptions and an open source application, called OpenGamma, for the peak search and analysis in order to obtain the relevant peaks parameters and radionuclides activities. The computational implementation is released entirely in open-source license for the main code and with the use of open software packages for interface design and mathematical libraries. The procedure for the peak search is performed on a three step approach. Firstly a preliminary search is done by using the second-difference method, consisting in the generation of a derived spectrum in order to find candidate peaks. In the second step, the experimental peaks widths are assessed and well formed and isolated ones are chosen to obtain a FWHM vs. channel relationship, by application of the Levenberg-Marquardt minimization method for non-linear fitting. Lastly, regions of the spectrum with grouped peaks are marked and a non-linear fit is again applied to each region to obtain baseline and photopeaks terms; from these terms, peaks net areas are then assessed. (author)

  4. Mercury determination in natural waters using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagnone, M.; Marques, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. An analytical method for quantitative determination of Mercury traces in river and sea water is proposed. The neutron activation method and radiochemical separation of Mercury by developing of C L 4 Hg -2 complex, and their chromatographic separation using anionic exchange resin Dowex 1 X 8 of 400 mesh is used. The quantitative determination is done by gamma spectrometric analysis. The selection limits reached with this method showed that this is an amenable procedure in routine mercury determination in the ppb level, specially useful in the environmental contamination analysis. (author). 3 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  5. Radio spectrometric survey of un-surveyed areas in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aissa, M.; Al-Hent, R; Jubeli, Y.

    2002-11-01

    The values and distribution of the radioelements e U, e Th, % K and Ur units in the surface geological formations of the west and south sectors of Syrian region, were estimated using carbone gamma ray spectrometric survey. The radiometric maps were prepared, as well as, many geological profiles, cross sections studied in different locations and geochemical samples were analyzed by laboratory gamma ray spectrometry and by x-ray diffractometry, the results of the all sets were compared. In general, the survey shows, low radioelement concentrations in the area, especially on basic rocks (Jabal Al-arab, Hawran) south Syria, and on ultra basic rocks (ophiolitic complex) north-west Syria, but there are some separate anomalous spots were connected with phosphate rocks, detected on cretaceous and Palaeogene age. Some times we noticed high radioelement concentrations haloes associated with fractured zones were already arise from secondary uranium mineralization, as a result of solutions movement through fissures in carbonatic and/or chalk like limestone rocks. finally, the obtained concentrations, represent a background values which has no significant importance for uranium exploration point of view. (author)

  6. Determination of data correction coefficients and the sensitivities of the KIER air-borne gamma-ray spectrometer survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, J.H.; Cho, D.H.; Park, Y.S.

    1982-01-01

    In air-borne gamma-ray spectrometer survey, the observed data must be corrected for the background, Compton scattering and flight altitude. And the corrected data are usually converted into the radiometric elements equivalents of the ground, using the sensitivities of the survey system. Accordingly, the correction coefficients and the sensitivities are determined as follows for the KIER air-borne survey system. The stripping or Compton scattering coefficients α, β and γ at the ground level were first determined on the basis of the gamma-ray count rates due to the 5 concrete calibration pads of the Soosaek Airbase, together with the radiometric elements concentrations of the core samples taken from the pads. As for the determination of the exponential altitude coefficients anti μ(K), anti μ(U), anti μ(Th) and anti μ(Tc), the count rates observed over the Hongseong Test Strip of about 3 km length were used after they had been corrected for the background and Compton scattering. The background count rates mainly caused by the air-craft as well as cosmic radiations were determined with the data taken over the West Sea near Anmyon Island, Chung-cheongnam-do. And the corrected count rates observed over the Strip, combined with the average radiometric elements concentrations of the Strip, yielded the sensitivities k(K), k(U) and k(Th) at the 400 feet flight altitude. (author)

  7. Application of the gamma rays backscattering for determining the quantity of steel; Aplicacion de la tecnica de retrodispersion de los rayos gamma para determinar la cuantia del acero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huapaya P, B F

    1996-11-01

    This work tries to purpose a methodology based on the nuclear technology available in the country, for measuring the position and diameter of the reinforcing rods placed in reinforced concrete structures. The technique of gamma backscattering that utilizes the changes of density was used for determining the presence of steel (average density of concrete 2,5 g/cm{sup 3} and steel 7,8 g/cm{sup 3}). The concrete test tubes of different resistances were prepared with diverse concentrations into the aggregates as crushed rock and coarse sand, and also with three steel rods of 0,5 inch separated by 4 inches among themselves. The source Cs-137 of 20 mCi in activity was a monoenergetic radioisotope of the element Cs from 662 KeV. The source was placed in a lead shield with a hole which generates a collimator beam of 2 mm. The detector was one type of scintillation (INa-Tl) 2 x 2 inch; it was sealed with lead and had a hole of 10 mm which worked as collimator. The shield was placed in an angle of 15 degrees over concrete surface in order to pick up the backscattering gamma rays by the concrete. The test tube was displaced over a little car affixed to a endless screw which permitted to reproduce displacements of 0,25 inch. The data recording was realized through a multichannel of 1024 channels where was accounted the number of counts viewed under the backscattering spectrum by the concrete. It is possible to determine the position and diameter of the steel rod into concrete, changing the parameters of detector collimator source, distance source-detector and type of concrete. Furthermore, it was shown that this same equipment can measure the density of the concrete. The applications of this equipment are used in the inspection works where it is necessary to make a non-destructive control of quality about the structure of building. (author). 7 refs., 46 tabs., 24 figs.

  8. The activity of {gamma}-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient {gamma} for some radio-elements (1961); Mesure de l'activite des emetteurs {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation. Determination du coefficient specifique d'emission {gamma} de quelques radioelements (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The object of this work is to study techniques of measurement using the gamma ionisation chamber, making it possible either to measure the activities of radioactive sources, or to determine the specific emission coefficient {gamma} (or the coefficient K) of a given radioelement. The ionisation chambers studied belong to two categories: graphites cavity-chambers, and 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers. For the cavity-chamber measurements, the different correction factors of which account must be taken have been calculated, in particular the geometric and hygrometric corrections. The absorption and auto-absorption corrections have led to the introduction of the notion of the 'effective energy {gamma}' of a radioelement. In the case of 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers, it has been shown that appropriately shaped electrodes make it possible to improve their performances. One of the chambers described permits the measurement of {beta} emitters using the associated Bremsstrahlung. In order to measure the K coefficient of some radioelements, it has been found useful a 4 {pi} {gamma} chamber with graphite walls, the measurement being carried out by comparison with a radium standard. The validity of the method was checked with radioelements for whom the K coefficient values are well-known ({sup 24}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, {sup 198}Au). For other radioelements, the following values were obtained (expressed in r cm{sup 3} mc{sup -1} h{sup -1}): {sup 51}Cr: 0,18; {sup 56}Mn: 8,8; {sup 65}Zn: 3,05; {sup 124}Sb: 9,9; {sup 134}Cs: 9,3; {sup 137}Cs: 3,35; {sup 141}Ce: 0,46; {sup 170}Tm: 0,023; {sup 192}Ir: 24,9; {sup 203}Hg: 1,18; These values have been corrected for the contribution to the dose of the fluorescent radiation which may be emitted by the source, except in the case of Tm{sup 170}. In the last part of this work, the performances of the different electro-metric devices used were compared. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les techniques de mesure par

  9. The activity of {gamma}-emitters as measured by ionisation chambers the determination of the specific emission coefficient {gamma} for some radio-elements (1961); Mesure de l'activite des emetteurs {gamma} par chambre d'ionisation. Determination du coefficient specifique d'emission {gamma} de quelques radioelements (1961)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelmann, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-06-15

    The object of this work is to study techniques of measurement using the gamma ionisation chamber, making it possible either to measure the activities of radioactive sources, or to determine the specific emission coefficient {gamma} (or the coefficient K) of a given radioelement. The ionisation chambers studied belong to two categories: graphites cavity-chambers, and 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers. For the cavity-chamber measurements, the different correction factors of which account must be taken have been calculated, in particular the geometric and hygrometric corrections. The absorption and auto-absorption corrections have led to the introduction of the notion of the 'effective energy {gamma}' of a radioelement. In the case of 4 {pi} {gamma} chambers, it has been shown that appropriately shaped electrodes make it possible to improve their performances. One of the chambers described permits the measurement of {beta} emitters using the associated Bremsstrahlung. In order to measure the K coefficient of some radioelements, it has been found useful a 4 {pi} {gamma} chamber with graphite walls, the measurement being carried out by comparison with a radium standard. The validity of the method was checked with radioelements for whom the K coefficient values are well-known ({sup 24}Na, {sup 60}Co, {sup 131}I, {sup 198}Au). For other radioelements, the following values were obtained (expressed in r cm{sup 3} mc{sup -1} h{sup -1}): {sup 51}Cr: 0,18; {sup 56}Mn: 8,8; {sup 65}Zn: 3,05; {sup 124}Sb: 9,9; {sup 134}Cs: 9,3; {sup 137}Cs: 3,35; {sup 141}Ce: 0,46; {sup 170}Tm: 0,023; {sup 192}Ir: 24,9; {sup 203}Hg: 1,18; These values have been corrected for the contribution to the dose of the fluorescent radiation which may be emitted by the source, except in the case of Tm{sup 170}. In the last part of this work, the performances of the different electro-metric devices used were compared. (author) [French] Le but de ce travail est d'etudier les techniques de mesure par chambre d

  10. Mass spectrometric researches in isotope cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalan, K.

    1979-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of solar system processes, past and present, based on mass spectrometric researches on meteorites and moon samples are reviewed. The topics include the following : (1) Duration of nebular condensation, (2) Terminal stages of nucleosynthesis, (3) Planetary formation and evolution, (4) Heterogeneities in the solar nebula and (5) Solar wind composition. (auth.)

  11. Simulation of Prompt gamma-rays spectra: Calibration for water tables pollutants determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifi, R.; Idiri, Z.; Amokrane, A.; Bode, P.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A PGNAA facility using Am-Be source has been developed with the aim of analyzing the major composition of various elements in aqueous sample. A program of simulation for gamma rays spectra was developed to estimate the detection limits of pollutants. The background line under photo-peaks of interest was simulated by using experimental data. The reliability of the program is checked on real condition with solutions contained various salt concentration. Comparison between experimental and simulated spectra was found in good agreement. (authors)

  12. Total gamma activity measurements for determining the radioactivity of residual materials from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auler, I.; Meyer, M.; Stickelmann, J.

    1995-01-01

    Large amounts of residual materials from retrofitting measures and from decommissioning of nuclear power stations shows such a weak level of radioactivity that they could be released after decision measurements. Expenses incurred with complex geometry cannot be taken with common methods. NIS developed a Release Measurement Facility (RMF) based on total gamma activity measurements especially for these kind of residual materials. The RMF has been applied for decision measurements in different nuclear power plants. Altogether about 2,000 Mg of various types of materials have been measured up to now. More than 90 % of these materials could be released 0 without any restriction after decision measurements

  13. Determination of contaminants in rare earth materials by prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, D.L.; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2005-01-01

    Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) has been used to detect and quantify impurities in the analyses of rare earth (RE) oxides. The analytical results are discussed with respect to the importance of having a thorough identification and contaminant elements in these compounds regarding the function of the materials in their various applications. Also, the importance of using PGAA to analyze materials in support of other physico-chemical studies of the materials is discussed, including the study of extremely low concentrations of ions - such as the rare earth ions themselves - in bulk material matrices. (author)

  14. Determination of vanadium in titanate-based ferroelectrics by INAA with discriminating gamma-ray spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kameník, Jan; Dragounová, K.; Kučera, Jan; Bryknar, Z.; Trepakov, Vladimír; Strunga, Vladimír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 311, č. 2 (2017), s. 1333-1338 ISSN 0236-5731. [1st International Conference on Radioanalytical and Nuclear chemistry (RANC). Budapest, 10.04.2016-15.04.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : Titanate-based ferroelectrics * Vanadium * INAA * discriminating gamma-ray spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.282, year: 2016

  15. Determination of 228Th, 226Ra and 40K in Soil Using In-Situ GammaSpectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunawas; Wahyudi; Syarbaini; Untara

    2000-01-01

    Determination of natural radionuclide in latosol soil at six locationsaround PPTN Serpong by using Inspector portable gamma spectrometer with highpurity Germanium detector (HPGe) which has 26% relative efficiency had beenobtained. Radionuclides data of 228 Th, 226 Ra and 40 K were obtained in4 hours, shorter than laboratories analysis which needed 3 weeks. Thedifferences between in-situ measurement and laboratory were 3.6% to 56.2% forsix conditions of soil measured. According to the specific activity dataanalysis using statistic hypothesis, the result shows that the activity of 228 Th and 226 Ra are independent on location, but 40 K is dependent onlocation. (author)

  16. Determination of the 121Te gamma emission probabilities associated with the production process of radiopharmaceutical NaI[123I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, M.T.F.; Lopes, R.T.; Poledna, R.; Delgado, J.U.; Almeida, M.C.M. de; Silva, R.L.

    2015-01-01

    The 123 I is widely used in radiodiagnostic procedures in nuclear medicine. According to Pharmacopoeia care should be taken during its production process, since radionuclidic impurities may be generated. The 121 Te is an impurity that arises during the 123 I production and determining their gamma emission probabilities (Pγ) is important in order to obtain more information about its decay. Activities were also obtained by absolute standardization using the sum-peak method and these values were compared to the efficiency curve method. (author)

  17. Updated studies of determining gamma at LHCb with the decays $B^{+-} \\to D(K\\pi,KK,\\pi\\pi)K^{+-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Patel, M

    2009-01-01

    The selection efficiencies and backgrounds for the decays B+- -> DK+-, where the D denotes a D0bar or D0 which decays into the two-body final states Kpi, KK, pipi, are determined from simulation studies. These are used to estimate the precision with which LHCb will be able to measure the CKM angle gamma. With a data set corresponding to an intergrated luminosity of 2fb-1, a precision of 9.9-11.3 degrees is expected, depending on the strong phase difference between D0 -> K+pi- and D0->K-pi+ decays.

  18. A sensitive and quantitative biosensing method for the determination of {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Meer, A.J.G.M. van der [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.

    1996-11-01

    A quantitative and sensitive biosensing method has been developed for the determination of {gamma}-ray emitting radionuclides in surface water. The method is based on the concept that at equilibrium the specific radioactivity in the biosensor is equal to the specific radioactivity in water. The method consists of the measurement of both the radionuclide and the element in the biosensor and the determination of the element level in water. This three-way analysis eliminates problems such as unpredictable biosensor behaviour, effects of water elemental composition or further abiotic parameters: what remains is the generally high enrichment (bioaccumulation factor BCF) of elements and radionuclides in the biosensor material. Measurements were performed with floating water plants (Azolla filiculoides Lamk., Spirodela polyrhiza/Lemna sp.) and the fully submerged water plant Ceratophyllum demersum L., which were sampled from ditch water. Concentrations of elements and radionuclides were determined in both water and biosensor plants, using Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), ICP-MS, and {gamma}-ray spectrometry, respectively. For the latter, both 1 litre samples (Marinelli-geometry) and 1 cm{sup 3} samples (well-type detectors) were applied in measurements. (author).

  19. Gamma radiolytic degradation of 4-chlorophenol determination of degraded products with HPLC and GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, S.B.; Masood, M.N.

    2007-01-01

    Contamination by chlorophenols of surface water and groundwater is an emerging issue in environmental science and engineering. After their usage as pesticide, herbicide and disinfectant, these organic compounds subsequently enter the aquatic environment through a number of routes. Some of the chlorophenols are slightly biodegradable, while others are more persistent and mobile in the aquatic environment especially chlorophenols. Gamma radiolytic degradation is one of advance oxidation process that has been thought to be one of the promising treatments to deal with this problem. This radiolytic study was carried out in methanolic 4-CP (4-chlorophenol) samples. Among several factors effecting radiolytic degradation of 4-CP, dose and concentration are important that were evaluated under atmospheric conditions. A degradation yield (G -value) for 4- CP of 0.38 and 1.35 was achieved in 20 and 100 mg/dm/sup 3/ solution. It was observed that degradation yield decreases with increasing 4-CP concentration. Gamma radiolysis produce free radicals in solvent which further react with 4-CP molecules to generate different products. The identification of degradation products was proposed using HPLC and GC-MS. (author)

  20. Burn up determination of IEAR-1 fuel elements by non destructive gamma ray spectrometry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    Measurement of nuclear fuel burn up by non destructive gamma ray spectrometry is discussed, and results of such measurements, made at the Instituto de Energia Atomica (IEA), are given. Specifically, the burn up of an MTR (Material Testing Reactor) fuel element removed from the IEAR-1 swimming pool reactor in 1958 is evaluated from the measured Cs-137 activity, which gives a single 661,6 keV gamma ray. Due to the long decay time of the test element, no other fission decay product activity could be detected. Analysis of measurements, made with a 3'' x 3'' NaI(Tl) detector at 330 distinct points of the element, showed the total burn up to 3.3 +- -+ 0.8 mg. This is in agreement with a calculated value. As the maximum temperature of IEAR-1 fuel elements is of the order of 40 0 C, migration effects of Cs-137 was not considered, this being significant only at fuel temperature in excess of 1000 0 C [pt