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Sample records for gall wasp quadrastichus

  1. Evaluation of a commercially available ELISA kit for quantifying imidacloprid residues in Erthrina sandwicensis leaves for management of the Erythrina gall wasp, Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim.

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    Joseph Fischer; Brian Strom; Sheri Smith

    2009-01-01

    The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), Quadrastichus erythrinae Kim 2004, was first detected in Hawaii in 2005 and has been infesting and killing Erythrina trees throughout the island chain since. It is believed EGW originated from Africa (Messing et al. 2009). Its host range appears to be limited to Erythrina; its...

  2. Systemically applied insecticides for treatment of erythrina gall wasp, quadrastichus erythrinae kim hymenoptera: Eulophidae

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    Doccola, J.J.; Smith, S.L.; Strom, B.L.; Medeiros, A.C.; Von Allmen, E.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The erythrina gall wasp (EGW), believed native to Africa, is a recently described species and now serious invasive pest of Erythrina (coral trees) in tropical and subtropical locales. Erythrina are favored ornamental and landscape trees, as well as native members of threatened ecosystems. The EGW is a tiny, highly mobile, highly invasive wasp that deforms (galls) host trees causing severe defoliation and tree death. The first detection of EGW in the United States was in O'ahu, Hawai'i in April 2005. It quickly spread through the Hawai'ian island chain (U.S.) killing ornamental and native Erythrina in as little as two years. At risk are endemic populations of Erythrinaas well as ornamental landscape species in the same genus, the latter of which have already been killed and removed from O'ahu at a cost of more than USD $1 million. Because EGW are so small and spread so quickly, host injury is usually detected before adult wasps are observed, making prophylactic treatments less likely than therapeutic ones. This study evaluates two stem-injected insecticides, imidacloprid (IMA-jet??) and emamectin benzoate, delivered through Arborjet Tree I.V.?? equipment, for their ability to affect E. sandwicensis (wiliwili) canopy demise under severe EGW exposure. IMA-jet, applied at a rate of 0.16 g AI/cm basal diameter (0.4 g AI/in. dia.), was the only effective treatment for maintaining canopy condition of wiliwili trees. Emamectin benzoate, applied at a rate of -0.1 g AI/cm basal diameter (-0.25 g AI/in. dia.), was not effective in this application, although it was intermediate in effect between IMA-jet and untreated trees. The relatively high concentrations of imidacloprid in leaves, and its durability for at least 13 months in native wiliwili growing on a natural, dryland site, suggest that treatment applications against EGW can impact canopy recovery even under suboptimal site and tree conditions. ?? 2009 International Society of Arboriculture.

  3. Life inside a gall: closeness does not favour horizontal transmission of Rickettsia between a gall wasp and its parasitoid.

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    Gualtieri, Liberata; Nugnes, Francesco; Nappo, Anna G; Gebiola, Marco; Bernardo, Umberto

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of horizontal transmission as a route for spreading symbiont infections is still being debated, but a common view is that horizontal transfers require intimate between-species relationships. Here we study a system that meets ideal requirements for horizontal transmission: the gall wasp Leptocybe invasa and its parasitoid Quadrastichus mendeli (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). These wasps belong to the same subfamily, spend most of their lives inside the same minute gall and are both infected by Rickettsia, a maternally inherited endosymbiotic bacteria that infects several arthropods, sometimes manipulating their reproduction, like inducing thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Despite intimate contact, close phylogenetic relationship and the parasitoid's host specificity, we show that host and parasitoid do not share the same Rickettsia. We provide indirect evidence that Rickettsia infecting Q. mendeli may be inducing thelytokous parthenogenesis, as the symbiont is densely present in the reproductive apparatus and is vertically transmitted. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S and gltA placed this symbiont in the leech group. The confirmed and presumed parthenogenesis-inducing Rickettsia discovered so far only infect eulophid wasps, and belong to three different groups, suggesting multiple independent evolution of the parthenogenesis inducing phenotype. We also show some degree of cospeciation between Rickettsia and their eulophid hosts. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Phylogeny, evolution and classification of gall wasps: the plot thickens.

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    Fredrik Ronquist

    Full Text Available Gall wasps (Cynipidae represent the most spectacular radiation of gall-inducing insects. In addition to true gall formers, gall wasps also include phytophagous inquilines, which live inside the galls induced by gall wasps or other insects. Here we present the first comprehensive molecular and total-evidence analyses of higher-level gall wasp relationships. We studied more than 100 taxa representing a rich selection of outgroups and the majority of described cynipid genera outside the diverse oak gall wasps (Cynipini, which were more sparsely sampled. About 5 kb of nucleotide data from one mitochondrial (COI and four nuclear (28S, LWRh, EF1alpha F1, and EF1alpha F2 markers were analyzed separately and in combination with morphological and life-history data. According to previous morphology-based studies, gall wasps evolved in the Northern Hemisphere and were initially herb gallers. Inquilines originated once from gall inducers that lost the ability to initiate galls. Our results, albeit not conclusive, suggest a different scenario. The first gall wasps were more likely associated with woody host plants, and there must have been multiple origins of gall inducers, inquilines or both. One possibility is that gall inducers arose independently from inquilines in several lineages. Except for these surprising results, our analyses are largely consistent with previous studies. They confirm that gall wasps are conservative in their host-plant preferences, and that herb-galling lineages have radiated repeatedly onto the same set of unrelated host plants. We propose a revised classification of the family into twelve tribes, which are strongly supported as monophyletic across independent datasets. Four are new: Aulacideini, Phanacidini, Diastrophini and Ceroptresini. We present a key to the tribes and discuss their morphological and biological diversity. Until the relationships among the tribes are resolved, the origin and early evolution of gall wasps will

  5. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this survey, oak gall wasp species were collected from the oak forests of Pardanan, Mirabad, Nalas, Sardasht, Hamran and Dar-ghabr in West-Azerbaijan province. The galls occurring on 50 cm sampled branches from four cardinal directions on each tree were counted multiple times throughout the season. Species ...

  6. A NEW SPECIES OF INVASIVE GALL WASP (HYMENOPTERA: EULOPHIDAE: TETRASTICHINAE) ON BLUE GUM (EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS) IN CALIFORNIA

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    The blue gum gall wasp, Selitrichodes globulus La Salle & Gates (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae), is described as an invasive gall inducer on blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus (Myrtaceae), in California....

  7. Photosynthesis and sink activity of wasp-induced galls in Acacia pycnantha.

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    Dorchin, Netta; Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, John H

    2006-07-01

    Although insect galls are widely known to influence source-sink relationships in plants, the relationship between photosynthesis and gall activity has not been extensively studied. In this study we used 14CO2, photosynthesis, and respiration measurements to examine the capacity of bud galls induced by the wasp Trichilogaster signiventris (Pteromalidae) as carbon sinks in Acacia pycnantha. Galls of this species develop either in vegetative or reproductive buds, depending on the availability of tissues at different times of the year, and effectively eliminate seed production by the plant. Photosynthetic rates in phyllodes subtending clusters of galls were greater than rates in control phyllodes, a result we attributed to photosynthesis compensating for increased carbon demand by the galls. Contrary to previous studies, we found that photosynthesis within galls contributed substantially to the carbon budgets of the galls, particularly in large, mature galls, which exhibited lower specific respiration rates allowing for a net carbon gain in the light. To determine the sink capacity and competitive potential of galls, we measured the proportion of specific radioactivity in galls originating from either vegetative or reproductive buds and found no difference between them. The proportion of the total amount of phyllode-derived 14C accumulated in both clustered and solitary galls was less than that in fruits. Galls and fruits were predominantly reliant on subtending rather than on distant phyllodes for photosynthate. Solitary galls that developed in vegetative buds constituted considerably stronger sinks than galls in clusters on inflorescences where there was competition between galls or fruits for resources from the subtending phyllode. Wasps developing in solitary vegetative galls were correspondingly significantly larger than those from clustered galls. We conclude that, in the absence of inflorescence buds during summer and fall, the ability of the wasps to cause gall

  8. Sugary secretions of wasp galls: a want-to-be extrafloral nectar?

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    Aranda-Rickert, Adriana; Rothen, Carolina; Diez, Patricia; González, Ana María; Marazzi, Brigitte

    2017-11-10

    The most widespread form of protective mutualisms is represented by plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) that attract ants and other arthropods for indirect defence. Another, but less common, form of sugary secretion for indirect defence occurs in galls induced by cynipid wasps. Until now, such galls have been reported only for cynipid wasps that infest oak trees in the northern hemisphere. This study provides the first evidence of galls that exude sugary secretions in the southern hemisphere and asks whether they can be considered as analogues of plants' EFNs. The ecology and anatomy of galls and the chemical composition of the secretion were investigated in north-western Argentina, in natural populations of the host trees Prosopis chilensis and P. flexuosa . To examine whether ants protect the galls from natural enemies, ant exclusion experiments were conducted in the field. The galls produce large amounts of sucrose-rich, nectar-like secretions. No typical nectary and sub-nectary parenchymatic tissues or secretory trichomes can be observed; instead there is a dense vascularization with phloem elements reaching the gall periphery. At least six species of ants, but also vespid wasps, Diptera and Coleoptera, consumed the gall secretions. The ant exclusion experiment showed that when ants tended galls, no differences were found in the rate of successful emergence of gall wasps or in the rate of parasitism and inquiline infestation compared with ant-excluded galls. The gall sugary secretion is not analogous to extrafloral nectar because no nectar-producing structure is associated with it, but is functionally equivalent to arthropod honeydew because it provides indirect defence to the plant parasite. As in other facultative mutualisms mediated by sugary secretions, the gall secretion triggers a complex multispecies interaction, in which the outcome of individual pair-wise interactions depends on the ecological context in which they take place. © The Author

  9. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) stimulates different chemical and phytohormone responses in two Eucalyptus varieties that vary in susceptibility to galling.

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    Li, X Q; Liu, Y Z; Guo, W F; Solanki, M K; Yang, Z D; Xiang, Y; Ma, Z C; Wen, Y G

    2017-09-01

    Gall-inducing insects produce various types of galls on plants, but little is known about the gall-induction mechanism of these galling insects. The gall wasp Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) forms galls of different sizes on several Eucalyptus species. To clarify the physiological responses of Eucalyptus to L. invasa infestation, we measured the dynamics of nitrogen (N), carbon (C), total phenolics, total tannins and four types of phytohormones (zeatin [Z] + zeatin riboside [ZR], gibberellins [GA], indole-3-acetic acid [IAA] and abscisic acid [ABA]) in galled and ungalled leaf tissues of two Eucalyptus horticultural varieties (DH201-2 [Eucalyptus grandis × Eucalyptus camaldulensis] and EA [Eucalyptus exserta]) with different susceptibility to galling throughout the larval developmental stages. Nitrogen, total phenolics, tannins and four kinds of phytohormones strongly accumulated in tissues galled by L. invasa (especially during early larval feeding stages). While N, Z + ZR and GA levels were higher, tannins and ABA levels were lower in the galled tissues on the highly susceptible variety. Nitrogen, total phenolics, GA, Z + ZR and IAA levels in the galled tissues gradually decreased during gall development, but ABA and tannins conversely increased in the galled tissues of the less susceptible variety. Our results suggest that the effects of gall-inducing insects on plants depend not only on the susceptibility of the plant infested but also on the developmental stage of galled tissues. Gall formation process is thus synergistically influenced by both gall-inducing insect and plant genotypes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Distributional record of oak gall wasp (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    2011-11-16

    Nov 16, 2011 ... following formula: ... Sørensen similarity index is calculated from this formula as: ..... Bayesian phylogenetics and the evolution of gall ... theory. Ecology, 89(7): 1921-1930. Stone GN, Schonrogge K, Atkinson R, Bellido D, ...

  11. Practices to manage chestnut orchards infested by the Chinese gall wasp

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    Turchetti T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The rapid spread of the Chinese gall wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu in Italian chestnut growing areas is causing new criticisms. In this context, in addition to a clear plant suffering due to the wasp infestation, the dangerous recurrence of chestnut blight and the sudden spread of Gnomoniopsis sp., a coloniser of galls but also the etiological agent of nut brown rot, must be considered. Therefore, it is very important to increase the plants’ vigour and prevent their decline. Preliminary experiments were carried out in different Italian regions between 2010 and 2011. Organic plant fertilizers were applied to plants showing middle or high defoliation levels caused by the wasp attacks. The observations carried out during the growing season indicate a good vegetative restart in the treated plants compared to the untreated controls, in all the situations and independently of the fertilizers applied. Most of the treated plants (between the 75% and the 100% showed an evident improvement in the canopy vegetation, while the untreated controls were always classified in the worse classes of crown condition. These preliminary results highlight the efficacy of this kind of treatments for infested chestnut stands. This strategy, which is based on the preliminary evaluation of the plant vigour (following the proposed scale of attack severity and lack of foliage, consists in a manuring treatment at vegetative restart, which can be repeated in the following years in dependence on the results obtained. Moreover, pruning may be suggested only to manage the development of plants showing a definite recovery. The gall wasp pullulation requires new management strategies aimed at preserving the chestnut orchards, in order to avoid the chestnut cultivation to be marginalized or abandoned.

  12. Moving your sons to safety: galls containing male fig wasps expand into the centre of figs, away from enemies.

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    Hui Yu

    Full Text Available Figs are the inflorescences of fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae. They are shaped like a hollow ball, lined on their inner surface by numerous tiny female flowers. Pollination is carried out by host-specific fig wasps (Agaonidae. Female pollinators enter the figs through a narrow entrance gate and once inside can walk around on a platform generated by the stigmas of the flowers. They lay their eggs into the ovules, via the stigmas and styles, and also gall the flowers, causing the ovules to expand and their pedicels to elongate. A single pollinator larva develops in each galled ovule. Numerous species of non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFW, belonging to other families of Chalcidoidea also make use of galled ovules in the figs. Some initiate galls, others make use of pollinator-generated galls, killing pollinator larvae. Most NPFW oviposit from the outside of figs, making peripherally-located pollinator larvae more prone to attack. Style length variation is high among monoecious Ficus spp. and pollinators mainly oviposit into more centrally-located ovules, with shorter styles. Style length variation is lower in male (wasp-producing figs of dioecious Ficus spp., making ovules equally vulnerable to attack by NPFW at the time that pollinators oviposit. We recorded the spatial distributions of galled ovules in mature male figs of the dioecious Ficus hirta in Southern China. The galls contained pollinators and three NPFW that kill them. Pollinators were concentrated in galls located towards the centre of the figs, NPFW towards the periphery. Due to greater pedicel elongation by male galls, male pollinators became located in more central galls than their females, and so were less likely to be attacked. This helps ensure that sufficient males survive, despite strongly female-biased sex ratios, and may be a consequence of the pollinator females laying mostly male eggs at the start of oviposition sequences.

  13. Testing the Role of Habitat Isolation among Ecologically Divergent Gall Wasp Populations

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    Scott P. Egan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitat isolation occurs when habitat preferences lower the probability of mating between individuals associated with differing habitats. While a potential barrier to gene flow during ecological speciation, the effect of habitat isolation on reproductive isolation has rarely been directly tested. Herein, we first estimated habitat preference for each of six populations of the gall wasp Belonocnema treatae inhabiting either Quercus virginiana or Q. geminata. We then estimated the importance of habitat isolation in generating reproductive isolation between B. treatae populations that were host specific to either Q. virginiana or Q. geminata by measuring mate preference in the presence and absence of the respective host plants. All populations exhibited host preference for their native plant, and assortative mating increased significantly in the presence of the respective host plants. This host-plant-mediated assortative mating demonstrates that habitat isolation likely plays an important role in promoting reproductive isolation among populations of this host-specific gall former.

  14. Population Dynamics of Native Parasitoids Associated with the Asian Chestnut Gall Wasp (Dryocosmus kuriphilus in Italy

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    Tiziana Panzavolta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Native parasitoids may play an important role in biological control. They may either support or hinder the effectiveness of introduced nonnative parasitoids released for pest control purposes. Results of a three-year survey (2011–2013 of the Asian chestnut gall wasp (ACGW Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae populations and on parasitism rates by native indigenous parasitoids (a complex of chalcidoid hymenopterans in Italian chestnut forests are given. Changes in D. kuriphilus gall size and phenology were observed through the three years of study. A total of 13 species of native parasitoids were recorded, accounting for fluctuating parasitism rates. This variability in parasitism rates over the three years was mainly due to the effect of Torymus flavipes (Walker (Hymenoptera: Torymidae, which in 2011 accounted for 75% of all parasitoid specimens yet decreased drastically in the following years. This strong fluctuation may be related to climatic conditions. Besides, our data verified that parasitoids do not choose host galls based on their size, though when they do parasitize smaller ones, they exploit them better. Consequently, ACGWs have higher chances of surviving parasitism if they are inside larger galls.

  15. Effects of environmental parameters on the chestnut gall wasp and its complex of indigenous parasitoids

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    Bonsignore, Carmelo Peter; Bernardo, Umberto

    2018-04-01

    The chestnut gall wasp (CGW), Dryocosmus kuriphilus, an invasive pest native to China, has caused severe yield and economic losses to chestnut production in Europe since its arrival in 2002. In Southern Italy, the complex of indigenous parasitoids colonizing CGW was monitored between 2013 and 2015, with the aim of estimating the composition of the indigenous parasitoid complex, its ability to control CGW populations, and the interactions of both factors with several measured environmental parameters. We compared results among three differently managed field types. Results showed an increase in the rate of parasitism both when the host population density was lower and in unmanaged chestnut stands with more natural conditions. The percentage of parasitism in galls was related to morphological traits of the galls and to higher seasonal temperatures, which reduced the parasitism intensity because CGW develops earlier under such conditions. The host-parasitoid mortality inside galls varied among sites and was associated mostly with rot fungi during wet spring and summer months. Parasitoid species richness was similar among the study sites, but the proportion of parasitoid species differed between orchards and unmanaged coppice stands. The timing of attack by parasitoids followed a species-specific successional sequence throughout the larva-to-adult life cycle of the CGW. These interactions should be considered in future research on trophic relationships and when modeling invasive scenarios for new pest species.

  16. Tournament ABC analysis of the western Palaearctic population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus.

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    Stone, Graham N; White, Sarah C; Csóka, György; Melika, George; Mutun, Serap; Pénzes, Zsolt; Sadeghi, S Ebrahim; Schönrogge, Karsten; Tavakoli, Majid; Nicholls, James A

    2017-12-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) is a powerful and widely used approach in inference of population history. However, the computational effort required to discriminate among alternative historical scenarios often limits the set that is compared to those considered more likely a priori. While often justifiable, this approach will fail to consider unexpected but well-supported population histories. We used a hierarchical tournament approach, in which subsets of scenarios are compared in a first round of ABC analyses and the winners are compared in a second analysis, to reconstruct the population history of an oak gall wasp, Synergus umbraculus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) across the Western Palaearctic. We used 4,233 bp of sequence data across seven loci to explore the relationships between four putative Pleistocene refuge populations in Iberia, Italy, the Balkans and Western Asia. We compared support for 148 alternative scenarios in eight pools, each pool comprising all possible rearrangements of four populations over a given topology of relationships, with or without founding of one population by admixture and with or without an unsampled "ghost" population. We found very little support for the directional "out of the east" scenario previously inferred for other gall wasp community members. Instead, the best-supported models identified Iberia as the first-regional population to diverge from the others in the late Pleistocene, followed by divergence between the Balkans and Western Asia, and founding of the Italian population through late Pleistocene admixture from Iberia and the Balkans. We compare these results with what is known for other members of the oak gall community, and consider the strengths and weaknesses of using a tournament approach to explore phylogeographic model space. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sweet Tetra-Trophic Interactions: Multiple Evolution of Nectar Secretion, a Defensive Extended Phenotype in Cynipid Gall Wasps.

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    Nicholls, James A; Melika, George; Stone, Graham N

    2017-01-01

    Many herbivores employ reward-based mutualisms with ants to gain protection from natural enemies. We examine the evolutionary dynamics of a tetra-trophic interaction in which gall wasp herbivores induce their host oaks to produce nectar-secreting galls, which attract ants that provide protection from parasitoids. We show that, consistent with other gall defensive traits, nectar secretion has evolved repeatedly across the oak gall wasp tribe and also within a single genus (Disholcaspis) that includes many nectar-inducing species. Once evolved, nectar secretion is never lost in Disholcaspis, consistent with high defensive value of this trait. We also show that evolution of nectar secretion is correlated with a transition from solitary to aggregated oviposition, resulting in clustered nectar-secreting galls, which produce a resource that ants can more easily monopolize. Such clustering is commonly seen in ant guard mutualisms. We suggest that correlated evolution between maternal oviposition and larval nectar induction traits has enhanced the effectiveness of this gall defense strategy.

  18. Ovarian egg morphology in chalcidoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea parasitizing gall wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae

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    Vårdal, H.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We provide morphological egg data of 26 species of 5 chalcidoid families associated with cynipid galls (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae from western Palaearctic, including the first egg data for the family Ormyridae. Adult chalcidoid species were reared from galls, and eggs obtained from dissected female ovaries were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The shape of the eggs varies from oval to elongate and tapered at both ends. Eggs of Eurytomidae as well as some Eulophidae, Eupelmidae and Pteromalidae are equipped with a peduncle at the anterior end. We found a positive correlation between long eggs and long ovipositors and confirmed the expectation that eggs of endoparasitoids are generally shorter and narrower than eggs of ectoparasitoids. We were able to locate the sperm entrance or micropyle at the anterior pole of eggs of several species. It is situated at the anterior end of the egg and at the end of the peduncle when present. In addition, the eggshells of the endoparasitoid Sycophila biguttata (Swederus, 1795 (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae and the ectoparasitoid Cecidostiba fungosa (Geoffroy, 1785 (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, are for the first time described.En el presente trabajo se aportan datos morfol.gicos del huevo de 26 especies del Paleártico occidental pertenecientes a 5 familias de Chalcidoidea asociadas con agallas de cinípidos (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae, incluyendo los primeros datos del huevo de especies de Ormyridae. Los ejemplares adultos de las especies estudiadas fueron obtenidos por emergencia de agallas en laboratorio, los ovarios de las hembras diseccionados para obtener los huevos, que fueron finalmente estudiados utilizando técnicas de microscopía electronica de barrido. La forma de los huevos estudiados varía de ovalada a alargada y ahusada en ambos extremos. Los huevos de Eurytomidae, así como algunos de Eulophidae, Eupelmidae y Pteromalidae están provistos de un pedúnculo en el extremo anterior. Se encontr

  19. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

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    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  20. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences.

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    Francesco Nugnes

    Full Text Available The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed.

  1. Genetic Diversity of the Invasive Gall Wasp Leptocybe invasa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and of its Rickettsia Endosymbiont, and Associated Sex-Ratio Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugnes, Francesco; Gebiola, Marco; Monti, Maurilia Maria; Gualtieri, Liberata; Giorgini, Massimo; Wang, Jianguo; Bernardo, Umberto

    2015-01-01

    The blue-gum chalcid Leptocybe invasa Fisher & LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a gall wasp pest of Eucalyptus species, likely native to Australia. Over the past 15 years it has invaded 39 countries on all continents where eucalypts are grown. The worldwide invasion of the blue gum chalcid was attributed to a single thelytokous morphospecies formally described in 2004. Subsequently, however, males have been recorded in several countries and the sex ratio of field populations has been found to be highly variable in different areas. In order to find an explanation for such sex ratio differences, populations of L. invasa from a broad geographical area were screened for the symbionts currently known as reproductive manipulators, and both wasps and symbionts were genetically characterized using multiple genes. Molecular analyses suggested that L. invasa is in fact a complex of two cryptic species involved in the rapid and efficient spread of the wasp, the first recovered from the Mediterranean region and South America, the latter from China. All screened specimens were infected by endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Rickettsia. Two closely related Rickettsia strains were found, each infecting one of the two putative cryptic species of L. invasa and associated with different average sex ratios. Rickettsia were found to be localized in the female reproductive tissues and transovarially transmitted, suggesting a possible role of Rickettsia as the causal agent of thelytokous parthenogenesis in L. invasa. Implications for the variation of sex ratio and for the management of L. invasa are discussed. PMID:25970681

  2. Two new herb gall wasps from Spain, including the description of a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, “Aylacini” inducing galls on Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieves-Aldrey, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of herb gall wasps are recorded from Spain, which induce galls on flower heads of Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 is recorded for the first time in Spain, while a new species of Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897, Aulacidea pilarae sp. n., is described. This new species is similar to Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984, which is found throughout Oriental Europe. However, those two congeneric species may be distinguished by the morphology of the adults.Se citan dos nuevas especies de avispas de las agallas en plantas herbáceas para España. Las dos especies inducen agallas en cabezuelas florales de Serratula nudicaulis L. DC (Asteraceae y se han encontrado en el valle del Lozoya (Madrid, España Central. Isocolus serratulae (Mayr, 1882 se cita por primera vez para la Península Ibérica y se describe una especie nueva de Aulacidea Ashmead, 1897: A. pilarae sp. n. La nueva especie es similar a Aulacidea serratulae Diakontschuk, 1984 citada de Europa oriental, diferenciándose por la morfología de los adultos.

  3. Risk assessment of the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus for the EU territory and identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2010-01-01

    in its assessment that a) Castanea plants for intended planting represent the main pathway for entry of D. kuriphilus to the EU; b) D. kuriphilus has a very high potential for establishment in the EU and the climate is suitable wherever Castanea sativa is grown in southern, central and western Europe; c......The Panel on Plant Health was requested by the European Commission to deliver a scientific opinion on the risk posed by the oriental chestnut gall wasp, Dryocosmus kuriphilus to the EU territory and to identify and evaluate risk management options. Additional analyses were conducted by the Panel...... to a) determine the distribution of the endangered area within the EU territory; b) investigate the pattern and rate of pest diffusion and c) consider the environmental risk of introduction of the biological control agent Torymus sinensis identified as a potential management option. The Panel concluded...

  4. First record of the oak gall wasp genus Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini from Central America with description of three new species from Panama and Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Medianero

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of Neuroterus Hartig, 1840 (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini are described from Panama and Costa Rica: Neuroterus elvisi sp. n., Neuroterus pulchrigalla sp. n., and Neuroterus glandiphilus sp. n. The new species are the first of the genus Neuroterus recorded from Central America and the Neotropical region. The new species induce galls on Quercus bumelioides Liebm. (Fagaceae, sect. Quercus, White Oaks. Additional evidence of the presence of other unidentified species of Neuroterus in the sampled area is presented. Diagnostic morphological characters, gall descriptions, distributions, host plant and other biological data of the new species are given and discussed. http://urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:48D0C1E1-1D0C-40D8-B890-FFC85AE7A213

  5. Interference competition and high temperatures reduce the virulence of fig wasps and stabilize a fig-wasp mutualism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Wu Wang

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fig trees are pollinated by fig wasps, which also oviposit in female flowers. The wasp larvae gall and eat developing seeds. Although fig trees benefit from allowing wasps to oviposit, because the wasp offspring disperse pollen, figs must prevent wasps from ovipositing in all flowers, or seed production would cease, and the mutualism would go extinct. In Ficus racemosa, we find that syconia ('figs' that have few foundresses (ovipositing wasps are underexploited in the summer (few seeds, few galls, many empty ovules and are overexploited in the winter (few seeds, many galls, few empty ovules. Conversely, syconia with many foundresses produce intermediate numbers of galls and seeds, regardless of season. We use experiments to explain these patterns, and thus, to explain how this mutualism is maintained. In the hot summer, wasps suffer short lifespans and therefore fail to oviposit in many flowers. In contrast, cooler temperatures in the winter permit longer wasp lifespans, which in turn allows most flowers to be exploited by the wasps. However, even in winter, only in syconia that happen to have few foundresses are most flowers turned into galls. In syconia with higher numbers of foundresses, interference competition reduces foundress lifespans, which reduces the proportion of flowers that are galled. We further show that syconia encourage the entry of multiple foundresses by delaying ostiole closure. Taken together, these factors allow fig trees to reduce galling in the wasp-benign winter and boost galling (and pollination in the wasp-stressing summer. Interference competition has been shown to reduce virulence in pathogenic bacteria. Our results show that interference also maintains cooperation in a classic, cooperative symbiosis, thus linking theories of virulence and mutualism. More generally, our results reveal how frequency-dependent population regulation can occur in the fig-wasp mutualism, and how a host species can 'set the rules of the

  6. Metatranscriptome Analysis of Fig Flowers Provides Insights into Potential Mechanisms for Mutualism Stability and Gall Induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen O Martinson

    Full Text Available A striking property of the mutualism between figs and their pollinating wasps is that wasps consistently oviposit in the inner flowers of the fig syconium, which develop into galls that house developing larvae. Wasps typically do not use the outer ring of flowers, which develop into seeds. To better understand differences between gall and seed flowers, we used a metatranscriptomic approach to analyze eukaryotic gene expression within fig flowers at the time of oviposition choice and early gall development. Consistent with the unbeatable seed hypothesis, we found significant differences in gene expression between gall- and seed flowers in receptive syconia prior to oviposition. In particular, transcripts assigned to flavonoids and carbohydrate metabolism were significantly up-regulated in gall flowers relative to seed flowers. In response to oviposition, gall flowers significantly up-regulated the expression of chalcone synthase, which previously has been connected to gall formation in other plants. We propose several genes encoding proteins with signal peptides or associations with venom of other Hymenoptera as candidate genes for gall initiation or growth. This study simultaneously evaluates the gene expression profile of both mutualistic partners in a plant-insect mutualism and provides insight into a possible stability mechanism in the ancient fig-fig wasp association.

  7. Complex interactions envolving a gall midge Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, phytophagous modifiers and parasitoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fortunato Faria Ferraz

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrciamyia maricaensis Maia, 1995 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae induces a gall in lateral and apical shoots in the plant Myrcia lundiana Kiaersk (Myrtaceae which is used and modified by two eulophid wasps species. In both cases the gall former species suffer high rate of attack exceeding the importance of parasitoid species as mortality factors. In this study these interactions are described and their effects as mortality of gall former. The intensity of occurrence of the two eulophid species as modifiers and of microhymenopteran parasitoids, and the relative importance of these species as mortality agents of the M. maricaensis larvae is compared. This comparison reveals that two modifiers species found in the gall tissue modification causing the death of the M. maricaensis larva and it is a more important factor of mortality than the cecidomyiid larva parasitism. The fluctuation of the number of each type of gall along the year was monitored in the research field and confirmed in numerical and in synchronic terms of occurrence of the galls; the importance of the species of the gall modifier eulophids, particularly one of these species, as factors of mortality of the M. maricaensis larvae and justified our comparing the relationship between these species and M. maricaensis as similar to the parasitoid-host relationship. The gall shape modification by one of the eulophids allows the occurrence of other inquiline insect species, what means that this gall modification becomes it more heterogeneous and allows the increase of the species richness to the system.

  8. The Goldenrod Ball Gall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents a generalized life history of the goldenrod ball gall, a ball-shaped swelling found almost exclusively on the Canada goldenrod, Solidago canadensis, and caused by a peacock fly know as Eurosta soldiaginis. (KM)

  9. Penicillium cecidicola, a new species on cynipid insect galls on Quercus pacifica in the western United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, K.A.; Hoekstra, E.H.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2004-01-01

    A synnematous species of Penicillium subgenus Biverticillium was found inside emergence tunnels from insect galls (Cynipidae, Hymenoptera, the so-called gall wasps) on scrub oaks (Quercus pacifica Nixon & C.H. Muller) collected in the western United States. The fungus produces synnemata with white...... isolates exposed to light after 10 days. The fungus produces the extrolite apiculide A and a series of unidentified extrolites also produced by P. panamense. The oak gall species is described here as Penicillium cecidicola and compared with similar species. An ITS phylogeny suggests that P. cecidicola...

  10. High-precision photometry by telescope defocussing - VI. WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, John; Hinse, T. C.; Burgdorf, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present time series photometric observations of 13 transits in the planetary systems WASP-24, WASP-25 and WASP-26. All three systems have orbital obliquity measurements, WASP-24 and WASP-26 have been observed with Spitzer, and WASP-25 was previously comparatively neglected. Our light curves we...

  11. Putting your sons in the right place: the spatial distribution of fig wasp offspring inside figs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavodna, M.; Compton, S.G.; Biere, A.; Gilmartin, P.M.; Van Damme, J.M.M.

    2005-01-01

    1. Pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Agaonidae) display sex ratio adjustment, producing less female-biased combined sex ratios as the number of ovipositing females (foundresses) inside a fig increases. Because males have low mobility, the oviposition sites (galled ovules) chosen by each foundress

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42, WASP-55 (Southworth+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southworth, J.; Tregloan-Reed, J.; Andersen, M. I.; Calchi Novati, S.; Ciceri, S.; Colque, J. P.; D'Ago, G.; Dominik, M.; Evans, D. F.; Gu, S.-H.; Herrera-Cordova, A.; Hinse, T. C.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Juncher, D.; Kuffmeier, M.; Mancini, L.; Peixinho, N.; Popovas, A.; Rabus, M.; Skottfelt, J.; Tronsgaard, R.; Unda-Sanzana, E.; Wang, X.-B.; Wertz, O.; Alsubai, K. A.; Andersen, J. M.; Bozza, V.; Bramich, D. M.; Burgdorf, M.; Damerdji, Y.; Diehl, C.; Elyiv, A.; Figuera Jaimes, R.; Haugbolle, T.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Korhonen, H.; Liebig, C.; Mathiasen, M.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Scarpetta, G.; Schmidt, R. W.; Snodgrass, C.; Starkey, D.; Surdej, J.; Vilela, C.; von Essen, C.; Wang, Y.

    2018-05-01

    17 light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary systems WASP-22, WASP-41, WASP-42 and WASP-55 are presented. 13 of the light curves were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla, Chile, in the Bessell R or Bessell I passbands. The other 4 light curves were obtained using the 84cm telescope at Observatorio Cerro Armazones, Chile, using either an R filter or no filter. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (4 data files).

  13. Safety with Wasps and Bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Erla

    This guide is designed to provide elementary school teachers with safe learning activities concerning bees and wasps. The following topics are included: (1) the importance of a positive teacher attitude towards bees and wasps; (2) special problems posed by paper wasps; (3) what to do when a child is bothered by a wasp; (4) what to do if a wasp…

  14. Regional differences in constituents of gall stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, M; Nageshwar Reddy, D; Jayanthi, V; Kalkura, S N; Vijayan, V; Gokulakrishnan, S; Nair, K G M

    2005-01-01

    The pathogenesis of pigment and mixed gall stone formation remains elusive. The elemental constituents of gall stones from southern states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Karnataka have been characterized. Our aim was to determine the elemental concentration of representative samples of pigment, mixed and cholesterol gall stones from Andhra Pradesh using proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) using a 3 MV horizontal pelletron accelerator. Pigment gall stones had significantly high concentrations of copper, iron and lead; chromium was absent. Except for iron all these elements were significantly low in cholesterol gall stones and intermediate levels were seen in mixed gall stones. Highest concentrations of chromium was seen in cholesterol and titanium in mixed gall stones respectively; latter similar to other southern states. Arsenic was distinctly absent in cholesterol and mixed gall stones. The study has identified differences in elemental components of the gall stones from Andhra Pradesh.

  15. Cecidonius pampeanus, gen. et sp. n.: an overlooked and rare, new gall-inducing micromoth associated with Schinus in southern Brazil (Lepidoptera, Cecidosidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Gilson R P; Eltz, Rodrigo P; Pase, Ramoim B; Silva, Gabriela T; Bordignon, Sérgio A L; Mey, Wolfram; Gonçalves, Gislene L

    2017-01-01

    Galls induced by the larval stage of cecidosids (Lepidoptera: Cecidosidae) are complex, multi-trophic systems, still poorly studied. They may be associated with other insect feeding guilds, including inquilines, kleptoparasites, cecidophages, parasitoids, and predators. By causing death of the gall inducer early in life and altering the gall phenotype, inquilines may lead to misidentification of the true gall inducers. Here, we describe through light and scanning electron microscopy Cecidonius pampeanus , a new genus and species of cecidosid moth, from the Pampa biome, south Brazil. It induces unnoticed, small galls under swollen stems of Schinus weinmannifolius Mart. ex Engl. (Anacardiaceae). Such galls are severely attacked early in ontogeny either by unidentified parasitoids belonging to Lyrcus Walker (Pteromalidae) that feed upon the inducer, or by inquiline wasps of the genus Allorhogas Gahan (Braconidae). The inquilines modify the galls into large ones that last longer and promptly call attention. Free-living galls are rare and dehiscent, pupation of C. pampeanus occurring on the ground. Due to these reasons the true inducer has been overlooked in this case for more than a century. Additionally we inferred a phylogeny for Cecidosidae using sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci, and characterized genetic variation and gene flow across ten populations. Despite its natural history similarities with the African genus Scyrotis , Cecidonius is a much younger lineage, more closely related to the Neotropical cecidosids. C. pampeanus populations, which are now confined to a few mountain areas within its distribution range due to habitat destruction, are also genetically isolated, requiring conservation measures.

  16. Larvae and Nests of Aculeate Hymenoptera (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) Nesting in Reed Galls Induced by Lipara spp. (Diptera: Chloropidae) with a Review of Species Recorded. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astapenková, Alena; Heneberg, Petr; Bogusch, Petr

    2017-01-01

    The ability of aculeate Hymenoptera to utilize wetlands is poorly understood, and descriptions of their nests and developmental stages are largely absent. Here we present results based on our survey of hymenopterans using galls induced by Lipara spp. flies on common reed Phragmites australis in the years 2015-2016. We studied 20,704 galls, of which 9,446 were longitudinally cut and the brood from them reared in the laboratory, while the remaining 11,258 galls reared in rearing bags also in laboratory conditions. We recorded eight species that were previously not known to nest in reed galls: cuckoo wasps Chrysis rutilans and Trichrysis pumilionis, solitary wasps Stenodynerus chevrieranus and Stenodynerus clypeopictus, and bees Pseudoanthidium tenellum, Stelis punctulatissima, Hylaeus communis and Hylaeus confusus. Forty five species of Hymenoptera: Aculeata are known to be associated with reed galls, of which 36 make their nests there, and the other are six parasitoids of the family Chrysididae and three cuckoo bees of the genus Stelis. Of these species, Pemphredon fabricii and in southern Europe also Heriades rubicola are very common in reed galls, followed by Hylaeus pectoralis and two species of the genus Trypoxylon. We also found new host-parasite associations: Chrysis angustula in nests of Pemphredon fabricii, Chrysis rutilans in nests of Stenodynerus clypeopictus, Trichrysis pumilionis in nests of Trypoxylon deceptorium, and Stelis breviuscula in nests of Heriades rubicola. We provide new descriptions of the nests of seven species nesting in reed galls and morphology of mature larvae of eight species nesting in reed galls and two parasitoids and one nest cleptoparasite. The larvae are usually very similar to those of related species but possess characteristics that make them easy to distinguish from related species. Our results show that common reeds are not only expansive and harmful, but very important for many insect species associated with habitats

  17. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  18. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  19. Coleopterous galls from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on Neotropical coleopterous galls were compiled from the literature, which showed that 82 galls have so far been recorded among 77 plant species. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae plant families display the greatest richness in galls. Most galls are induced on stems or buds, while leaves constitute the second most attacked plant organ. Only 16 coleopteran gallers have been identified at the species level; most records are presented at the order level. The identified species belong to four families: Apionidae, Buprestidae, Curculionidae and Erirhinidae. The galls are found in Argentina, Brazil, Belize, Chile, Colombia (probably, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. Eighteen species of Coleoptera are inquilines of galls and are associated with 18 plant species, most frequently with Asteraceae, Melastomataceae and Fabaceae. The inquilines were recorded mainly in leaf galls induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The identity of these weevils is poorly known. General data indicate a lack of taxonomic studies in the Neotropical region.

  20. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour' in an Indian Braconid 'Parasitoid' Wasp (Hymenoptera: Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A P Ranjith

    Full Text Available The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially, has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps.

  1. Entomophytophagy ('Sequential Predatory, then Phytophagous Behaviour') in an Indian Braconid 'Parasitoid' Wasp (Hymenoptera): Specialized Larval Morphology, Biology and Description of a New Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjith, A P; Quicke, Donald L J; Saleem, U K A; Butcher, Buntika A; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Nasser, M

    2016-01-01

    The vast majority of braconid wasps are parasitoids of other insects. Although a few cases of pure phytophagy (primary gall production and seed predation) are known, no previous entomophytophagous species (i.e. ones that display entomophagy and phytophagy sequentially), has been discovered among braconids. We describe the detailed biology and specialized larval morphology for the first confirmed entomophytophagous braconid species. Leaf galls on Garuga pinnata Roxb. (Burseraceae) in India, induced by the psyllid, Phacopteron lentiginosum Buckton (Hemiptera: Psylloidea, Phacopteronidae) were sampled throughout a period of several months and found to suffer a high level of attack by a new species Bracon garugaphagae Ranjith & Quicke which is here described and illustrated. The wasps oviposit singly into the galls without paralysing the psyllids. The larvae first attack psyllid nymphs which they seek out within the gall, kill them with a single bite and consume them. Unique dorsal abdominal tubercles, with eversible tips present on the abdominal segments of the larvae that are used to help maintain larval position while feeding, are illustrated. After consuming all available prey, the larvae continue feeding on gall tissue until mature enough to spin cocoons and pupate. The new species illustrates, for the first time, a possible intermediate stage in the evolution of pure phytophagy within the Braconidae. Interestingly, the two unrelated seed predator Bracon species are also associated with Burseraceae, perhaps indicating that this plant family is particularly suited as a food for braconine wasps.

  2. MRI of perforated gall bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, B.; Jain, M.; Khandelwal, N.; Singh, P.; Suri, S.

    2002-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a dreaded complication of acute cholecystitis that, if not diagnosed early in the course, might have a poor prognosis. Both CT and ultrasonography have been used until now extensively for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, but diagnosis of perforation is always difficult. Magnetic resonance, by its superior soft tissue resolution and multiplanar capability, is a better modality and should fare better than ultrasonography and CT, as demonstrated in our case. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates the wall of the gall bladder and defects to a much better advantage and more convincingly. In addition, MR colangiopancreatography images demonstrate the biliary tree better than other modalities. We suggest that in the case of acute cholecystitis, if perforation is suspected and CT and ultrasonography are not conclusive, MR should be the modality of choice. It can be used as a first line of investigation; however, it might not be cost-effective. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  3. Duplex gall bladder: bystander or culprit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jogender; Yadav, Arushi

    2017-08-30

    Gall bladder (GB) duplication is a rare anatomical malformation, which can be detected by preoperative imaging study. We present a case of duplex gall bladder in a 14-year-old boy who presented with abdominal pain. On ultrasound, he had right nephrolithiasis and duplex gall bladder. Duplex gall bladder was confirmed on MR cholangiopancreatography. There was a dilemma for surgical management of duplex gall bladder; however, he became asymptomatic after conservative treatment. Prophylactic surgery is not recommended for asymptomatic incidentally detected duplex gall bladder. Radiologists and paediatric surgeons should be sensitised about the exact anatomy of this entity. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Arthropods associated with fungal galls: do large galls support more abundant and diverse inhabitants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funamoto, Daichi; Sugiura, Shinji

    2017-02-01

    Fungus-induced galls can attract spore-feeding arthropods as well as gall-feeding ones, resulting in diverse communities. Do large fungal galls support more abundant and diverse arthropod communities than small fungal galls? To address this question, we investigated the structure of the arthropod community associated with bud galls induced by the fungus Melanopsichium onumae on the tree species Cinnamomum yabunikkei (Lauraceae) in central Japan. Thirteen species of arthropods were associated with M. onumae galls. Dominant arthropod species were represented by the larvae of a salpingid beetle (a spore feeder), a nitidulid beetle (a spore feeder), a cosmopterigid moth (a spore feeder), an unidentified moth (a gall tissue feeder), and a drosophilid species (a gall tissue feeder). Arthropod abundance and species richness were positively correlated with gall diameter. The majority of the most abundant species were more frequently found in large galls than in small ones, indicating that large fungal galls, which have more food and/or space for arthropods, could support a more abundant and diverse arthropod community.

  5. The biology of gall-inducing arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuri Csoka; William J. Mattson; Graham N. Stone; Peter W. Price

    1998-01-01

    This proceedings explores many facets of the ever intriguing and enigmatic relationships between plants and their gall-forming herbivores. The research reported herein ranges from studies on classical biology and systematics of galling to molecular phylogeny, population genetics, and ecological and evolutionary theory. Human kind has much to learn and gain from...

  6. Roughness characterization of the galling of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, C.; Marteau, J.; Deltombe, R.; Chen, Y. M.; Bigerelle, M.

    2014-09-01

    Several kinds of tests exist to characterize the galling of metals, such as that specified in ASTM Standard G98. While the testing procedure is accurate and robust, the analysis of the specimen's surfaces (area=1.2 cm) for the determination of the critical pressure of galling remains subject to operator judgment. Based on the surface's topography analyses, we propose a methodology to express the probability of galling according to the macroscopic pressure load. After performing galling tests on 304L stainless steel, a two-step segmentation of the S q parameter (root mean square of surface amplitude) computed from local roughness maps (100 μ m× 100 μ m) enables us to distinguish two tribological processes. The first step represents the abrasive wear (erosion) and the second one the adhesive wear (galling). The total areas of both regions are highly relevant to quantify galling and erosion processes. Then, a one-parameter phenomenological model is proposed to objectively determine the evolution of non-galled relative area A e versus the pressure load P, with high accuracy ({{A}e}=100/(1+a{{P}2}) with a={{0.54}+/- 0.07}× {{10}-3} M P{{a}-2} and with {{R}2}=0.98). From this model, the critical pressure of galling is found to be equal to 43MPa. The {{S}5 V} roughness parameter (the five deepest valleys in the galled region's surface) is the most relevant roughness parameter for the quantification of damages in the ‘galling region’. The significant valleys’ depths increase from 10 μm-250 μm when the pressure increases from 11-350 MPa, according to a power law ({{S}5 V}=4.2{{P}0.75}, with {{R}2}=0.93).

  7. 77 FR 73654 - Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ... Renewable Energy Company, Eau Galle Hydro, LLC; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. By letter filed October 12, 2012, Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company informed the Commission that its exemption from... transferred to Eau Galle Renewable Energy Company by letter.\\2\\ The project is located on the Eau Galle River...

  8. Bee or Wasp Sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Kam Lun; Leung, Alexander K C

    2017-09-01

    While jogging in a local park in Hong Kong, a 55-year-old, previously healthy man was stung on the ventral aspect of his right wrist. The tiny stinger was gently removed with nail cutters and examined under a microscope at 80x magni cation; plucking the stinger is ill- advised as this may inject more venom into the wounded site. Two days after stinging, the microscopic appearance of the stinger con rmed the diagnosis to be from a bee instead of a wasp or other insect. A simple method of con rming the nature of insect stings and an overview of Hymenoptera stings and their management are provided herein.

  9. Unusual presentation of metastatic gall bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To report the first case of rare isolated breast metastasis from carcinoma gall bladder. Single patient case report. A 35-year-old pre-menopausal female presented with 2 FNx01 2 cm right upper outer quadrant breast lump. Post-mastectomy, histology confirmed it to be metastatic adenocarcinoma positive for both Cytokeratin (CK 7 and CK20. Past history as told by the patient revealed that 2 years back, cholecystectomy was performed for gall stones, of which no histology reports were present; she had a port site scar recurrence which showed it to be adenocarcinoma. Adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy was advised which the patient did not complete. This is probably the first case reported of isolated breast metastasis from gall bladder carcinoma, diagnosed retrospectively. It also highlights the importance of adjuvant treatment in gall bladder malignancy.

  10. WAsP engineering DK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Astrup, Poul; Kristensen, Leif

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 1.0 DK - Vindforhold for vindmølledesign. WAsP Engineering is a series of experimental and theoretical activities concerning properties of the winds in moderately complexterrain with relevance for loads on wind turbines...... and other large structures. These properties include extreme winds, wind shear and turbulence. Most of the models have been integrated in a windows program prototype, also called WAsP Engineering. Thebasic mean flow model LINCOM has been changed in several respects to accommodate the demands from load...

  11. Gall bladder function test with Ceruletid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.

    1981-01-01

    Compared with the stimulating food given orally in the gall bladder function test the administration of the decapeptide Ceruletid which is related with Cholecystokinin has the advantage of avoiding resorption disturbances in the upper gastrointestinal tract. To 100 patients with positive peroral cholecystography, Ceruletid was injected i.m. in a dose of 0.4 μg/kg body weight. The contrasting of the main bile duct was thus increased from 10% to 86%. The oral stimulating food brings an increase to appr. 20%. A special importance is assigned to the frequent diagnosis of adenomyomatoses which, with 6%, lies significantly above the 0.8% achieved by means of the oral stimulating food. More contractile segments of the gall bladder wall can cause pain symptoms which are typical for the biliary tract. Adenomyomatoses in the region of the infundibulum of the gall bladder cause colicky pains and are, as generally accepted, an absolute indication for a surgical intervention. The finding of small gall bladder conrements is often connected with a strong diminution of the gall bladder in order to prevent the small concrements from being overlapped by the non-contrasting bladder bile. Therefore, the application of Ceruletid should be considered also within the frame of the intravenous cholegraphy, thinking of the large number of normal gall bladder findings which were obtained with the oral stimulating food as the only diagnostical help. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Predation on rose galls: parasitoids and predators determine gall size through directional selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltán László

    Full Text Available Both predators and parasitoids can have significant effects on species' life history traits, such as longevity or clutch size. In the case of gall inducers, sporadically there is evidence to suggest that both vertebrate predation and insect parasitoid attack may shape the optimal gall size. While the effects of parasitoids have been studied in detail, the influence of vertebrate predation is less well-investigated. To better understand this aspect of gall size evolution, we studied vertebrate predation on galls of Diplolepis rosae on rose (Rosa canina shrubs. We measured predation frequency, predation incidence, and predation rate in a large-scale observational field study, as well as an experimental field study. Our combined results suggest that, similarly to parasitoids, vertebrate predation makes a considerable contribution to mortality of gall inducer larvae. On the other hand, its influence on gall size is in direct contrast to the effect of parasitoids, as frequency of vertebrate predation increases with gall size. This suggests that the balance between predation and parasitoid attack shapes the optimal size of D. rosae galls.

  13. WAsP engineering 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, J.; Ott, Søren; Jørgensen, B.H.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulencein complex terrain. At the web page http......://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complexterrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison...... with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, ispointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological "reanalysis" data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate...

  14. SPIN–ORBIT ALIGNMENT FOR THREE TRANSITING HOT JUPITERS: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J. [Exoplanetary Science Group, School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Bayliss, D., E-mail: baddison2005@gmail.com [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2016-05-20

    We have measured the sky-projected spin–orbit alignments for three transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky-projected spin–orbit angles of λ = 3° ± 33°, λ = −8° ± 11°, and λ = −4° ± 22° for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star’s spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star’s Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ( T {sub eff} = 6450 ± 120 K and T {sub eff} = 6600 ± 150 K, respectively) mid-F stars, making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high-obliquity orbits. Moderate spin–orbit misalignments for WASP-103b and WASP-66b are consistent with our data, but polar and retrograde orbits are not favored for these systems.

  15. SPIN–ORBIT ALIGNMENT FOR THREE TRANSITING HOT JUPITERS: WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, B. C.; Tinney, C. G.; Wright, D. J.; Bayliss, D.

    2016-01-01

    We have measured the sky-projected spin–orbit alignments for three transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, using spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect, with the CYCLOPS2 optical fiber bundle system feeding the UCLES spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. The resulting sky-projected spin–orbit angles of λ = 3° ± 33°, λ = −8° ± 11°, and λ = −4° ± 22° for WASP-103b, WASP-87b, and WASP-66b, respectively, suggest that these three planets are likely on nearly aligned orbits with respect to their host star’s spin axis. WASP-103 is a particularly interesting system as its orbital distance is only 20% larger than its host star’s Roche radius and the planet likely experiences strong tidal effects. WASP-87 and WASP-66 are hot ( T eff = 6450 ± 120 K and T eff = 6600 ± 150 K, respectively) mid-F stars, making them similar to the majority of stars hosting planets on high-obliquity orbits. Moderate spin–orbit misalignments for WASP-103b and WASP-66b are consistent with our data, but polar and retrograde orbits are not favored for these systems.

  16. Phylogeny and evolution of life-history strategies in the Sycophaginae non-pollinating fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farache Fernando HA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-pollinating Sycophaginae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea form small communities within Urostigma and Sycomorus fig trees. The species show differences in galling habits and exhibit apterous, winged or dimorphic males. The large gall inducers oviposit early in syconium development and lay few eggs; the small gall inducers lay more eggs soon after pollination; the ostiolar gall-inducers enter the syconium to oviposit and the cleptoparasites oviposit in galls induced by other fig wasps. The systematics of the group remains unclear and only one phylogeny based on limited sampling has been published to date. Here we present an expanded phylogeny for sycophagine fig wasps including about 1.5 times the number of described species. We sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear markers (4.2 kb on 73 species and 145 individuals and conducted maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We then used this phylogeny to reconstruct the evolution of Sycophaginae life-history strategies and test if the presence of winged males and small brood size may be correlated. Results The resulting trees are well resolved and strongly supported. With the exception of Apocrytophagus, which is paraphyletic with respect to Sycophaga, all genera are monophyletic. The Sycophaginae are divided into three clades: (i Eukoebelea; (ii Pseudidarnes, Anidarnes and Conidarnes and (iii Apocryptophagus, Sycophaga and Idarnes. The ancestral states for galling habits and male morphology remain ambiguous and our reconstructions show that the two traits are evolutionary labile. Conclusions The three main clades could be considered as tribes and we list some morphological characters that define them. The same biologies re-evolved several times independently, which make Sycophaginae an interesting model to test predictions on what factors will canalize the evolution of a particular biology. The ostiolar gall-inducers are the only monophyletic group. In 15 Myr, they

  17. Queen signaling in social wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Social Hymenoptera are characterized by a reproductive division of labor, whereby queens perform most of the reproduction and workers help to raise her offspring. A long-lasting debate is whether queens maintain this reproductive dominance by manipulating their daughter workers into remaining...... sterile (queen control), or if instead queens honestly signal their fertility and workers reproduce according to their own evolutionary incentives (queen signaling). Here, we test these competing hypotheses using data from Vespine wasps. We show that in natural colonies of the Saxon wasp, Dolichovespula...

  18. The molecular genetics of crown gall tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooykaas, P.J.J.; Schilperoort, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The phytopathogenic bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes are the causative agents of the widespread plant diseases ''crown gall'' and ''hairy root'' respectively. It is now well established that virulent strains of these bacterial species transfer a piece of bacterial DNA into plant cells, thereby transforming these into tumor cells. In research much attention has been paid to the agrobacteria for several reasons. First is the desire to develop a system for the genetic engineering of plant cells based on the natural system for gene transfer between Agrobacterium species and plant cells. Second, there is a striking resemblance between the etiology of animal cancers and the plant cancer crown gall that was recognized as early as in 1927. This led to basic studies on the process of plant tumor induction and on the recovery of plant cells from the tumorous state. A third important interest lies in crown gall as a disease that is the cause of economically important losses in agriculture an horticulture in Europe, North America, and Austrailia. Research has been aimed at finding means to prevent crown gall and to cure plants of this disease

  19. Primary Lymphoma of the Gall Bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... phomas thus constitute about 10% of all primary sarcomas of the gall ... Department of Pathology, University of Cape Town. J B. C. BOTHA, M.B. CH.B. L. B. KAHN ... mon hepatic duct at its junction with the cystic duct. The.

  20. Primary Lymphoma of the Gall Bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... textbooks of pathology.'" We have been able to find only. 11 cases documented in the world literature; and only 4 of these in the English literature..·• They have appeared as isolated case reports or are mentioned in reviews deal- ing with primary sarcomas of the gall bladder. To the best of our knowledge ...

  1. Sexually dimorphic gall structures correspond to differential phytohormone contents in male and female wasp larvae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dorchin, N.; Hoffmann, J. H.; Stirk, W. A.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; van Staden, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 4 (2009), s. 359-369 ISSN 0307-6962 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Acacia longifolia * auxin * cytokinin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2009

  2. WAsP engineering 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, J.; Ott, S.; Hoffmann Joergensen, B.; Frank, H.P.

    2002-08-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the EFP project WAsP Engineering Version 2000. The main product of this project is the computer program WAsP Engineering which is used for the estimation of extreme wind speeds, wind shears, profiles, and turbulence in complex terrain. At the web page http://www.waspengineering.dk more information of the program can be obtained and a copy of the manual can be downloaded. The reports contains a complete description of the turbulence modelling in moderately complex terrain, implemented in WAsP Engineering. Also experimental validation of the model together with comparison with spectra from engineering codes is done. Some shortcomings of the linear flow model LINCOM, which is at the core of WAsP Engineering, is pointed out and modifications to eliminate the problem are presented. The global database of meteorological 'reanalysis' data from NCAP/NCEP are used to estimate the extreme wind climate around Denmark. Among various alternative physical parameters in the database, such as surface winds, wind at various pressure levels or geostrophic winds at various heights, the surface geostrophic wind seems to give the most realistic results. Because of spatial filtering and intermittent temporal sampling the 50 year winds are underestimated by approximately 12%. Whether the method applies to larger areas of the world remains to be seen. The 50 year winds in Denmark is estimated from data using the flow model inWAsP Engineering and the values are approximately 1 m/s larger than previous analysis (Kristensen et al. 2000). A tool is developed to estimate crudely an extreme wind climate from a WAsP lib file. (au)

  3. Mango leaf gall formation: varietal susceptibility and within tree distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, H.A.; Akram, W.; Khan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to screen most commonly cultivated mango, Mangifera indica L., cultivars for their susceptibility to gall formation. Sarooli cultivar proved to be the most resistant one by having a minimum number of galls per 100 leaves. The abundance of galls in four quadrants of the tree i.e., east, west, north and south, was also studied which revealed that east quadrant had maximum number of galls while the abundance of galls in the remaining quadrants was variable. Gall formation on mango leaves seemed to increase gradually with increasing height from the ground level, reached a maximum at the height 12 ft to 16 ft and then declined. Leaf area measurements and nutrient analysis of the leaves were also done to see their impact on gall formation. Correlation analysis revealed that gall formation was positively linked with leaf area and the amount of Zn (ppm), P (%), K (%) while N (%) had negative correlation (P<0.05) with gall formation. In conclusion, the findings of the present study could be helpful in the management of mango leaf gall formation. (author)

  4. Carcinoma Gall Bladder: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma gall bladder is a very aggressive disease with poor outcomes. Despite achievements in the field of advanced imaging techniques, there is a very high mortality rate of the disease Cancer is the second most common disease in India responsible for maximum mortality with about 0.3 million deaths per year. The magnitude of cancer problem in the Indian Sub-continent (sheer numbers is increasing due to poor to moderate living standards and inadequate medical facilities. Women are more commonly affected than men. The peak incidence occurs in people in their 60s, but the disease age range is from 29 to 90 years of age and there is great geographic and ethnic variation. Carcinoma gall bladder, a disease of old age, is now found in the younger age group and presents with greater ferocity.

  5. Computerized tomography of gall bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todua, F.I.; Karmazanovskij, G.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors have summed up the experience in the use of computerized tomography (CT) in diagnosis of gall bladder cancer. The investigation of 17 patients with cancer of this site showed a high informative value of the method. A retrospective comparative study of the results of CT and surgical interventions was carried out. It has been concluded that CT makes it possible not only to diagnose malignant lesions of the bile ducts but also to assess a possible scope of a forthcoming operation

  6. Galling of unlubricated close-fitting metal parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.G.

    1979-09-01

    Galling susceptibility tests employing threaded and disc-shaped specimens of 42 different combinations of corrosion-resistant alloys are described. Data to assist designers in selecting combinations of corrosion-resistant materials on the basis of galling susceptibility are presented. A test technique using small disc-shaped specimens is described. This provides a sensitive measure of susceptibility of metal pairs to galling. (author)

  7. Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and manmade pollution for various pollution management decisions.

  8. WASP in Nuclear Power Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chi; Vuong Minh Quang; Nguyen Tri Ho

    1993-03-01

    The main modules of WASP are presented in details in the introduction paragraph. The authors have emphasized on the probabilistic simulation used in WASP for evaluating different costs of the objective function and the Bellman principle for finding the optimal trajectory in dynamic programming. In the second paragraph the principal results obtained by the Nuclear Power Dept. of VINATOM are enumerated: a/the most cost-effective solution for Vietnam is to introduce a nuclear power capacity of 800-1200 MW by around the year 2010; b/ different types of reactors for the first NPP are ranked according to their economic criteria; c/ the sensitivity analysis is also carried out with respect to discount rates, LOLP (loss of load probability), ENS (energy non served), construction cost. (author). 4 figs, 7 tabs

  9. ANALYSIS OF SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT IN THE WASP-32, WASP-38, AND HAT-P-27/WASP-40 SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D. J. A.; Collier Cameron, A.; Enoch, B.; Miller, G. R. M. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Diaz, R. F. [LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille), Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Doyle, A. P.; Smalley, B.; Anderson, D. R.; Hellier, C.; Maxted, P. F. L. [Astrophysics Group, School of Physical and Geographical Sciences, Lennard-Jones Building, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Gillon, M. [Institut d' Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17 (Bat. B5C) Sart Tilman, B-4000 Liege (Belgium); Lendl, M.; Triaud, A. H. M. J.; Queloz, D. [Observatoire Astronomique de l' Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Boisse, I. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Hebrard, G., E-mail: djab@st-andrews.ac.uk [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2012-12-01

    We present measurements of the spin-orbit alignment angle, {lambda}, for the hot Jupiter systems WASP-32, WASP-38, and HAT-P-27/WASP-40, based on data obtained using the HARPS spectrograph. We analyze the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for all three systems and also carry out Doppler tomography for WASP-32 and WASP-38. We find that WASP-32 (T {sub eff} = 6140{sup +90} {sub -100} K) is aligned, with an alignment angle of {lambda} = 10.{sup 0}5{sup +6.4} {sub -6.5} obtained through tomography, and that WASP-38 (T {sub eff} = 6180{sup +40} {sub -60} K) is also aligned, with tomographic analysis yielding {lambda} = 7.{sup 0}5{sup +4.7} {sub -6.1}. The latter result provides an order-of-magnitude improvement in the uncertainty in {lambda} compared to the previous analysis of Simpson et al. We are only able to loosely constrain the angle for HAT-P-27/WASP-40 (T{sub eff} = 5190{sup +160} {sub -170} K) to {lambda} = 24.{sup 0}2{sup +76.0}{sub -44.5}, owing to the poor signal-to-noise ratio of our data. We consider this result a non-detection under a slightly updated version of the alignment test of Brown et al. We place our results in the context of the full sample of spin-orbit alignment measurements, finding that they provide further support for previously established trends.

  10. Exoplanet Transit Spectroscopy Using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandell, Avram Max; Haynes, Korey N.; Sinukoff, Evan; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake

    2013-01-01

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 nano meter most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  11. Presumptive migrating gall bladder mucocoele in two dogs with gall bladder rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, R K; Thornton, L; Lim, C K; Murakami, M; Nakamura, Y; Gal, A

    2017-12-13

    A 10-year-old neutered female soft-coated wheaten terrier and a 10-year-old, entire female Pomeranian were presented for vomiting and anorexia. Using ultrasound, an oval structure with a stellate, kiwifruit-like appearance typical of a gall bladder mucocoele was observed in the caudal abdomen of the soft-coated wheaten terrier and adjacent to the liver in the Pomeranian. There was also a moderate volume of abdominal effusion in both dogs. Cytology of the peritoneal fluid indicated a sterile exudative process but varied between the two dogs, with an absence of bile pigment in the soft-coated wheaten terrier and marked bile peritonitis in the Pomeranian. An entire free-floating ectopic mucocoele was confirmed via exploratory laparotomy with concomitant gall bladder rupture and common bile duct obstruction. Both dogs recovered completely after surgery. This is the first report of cases of gall bladder rupture with entire free-floating gall bladder mucocoeles in dogs. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  12. New exoplanets from the SuperWASP-North survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan F.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the WASP search for transiting exoplanets, focusing on recent planet discoveries from SuperWASP-North and the joint equatorial region (-20≤Dec≤+20 observed by both WASP telescopes. We report the results of monitoring of WASP planets, and discuss how these contribute to our understanding of planet properties and their diversity.

  13. Exoplanet transit spectroscopy using WFC3: WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, Avi M.; Haynes, Korey [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sinukoff, Evan [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Deming, Drake, E-mail: Avi.Mandell@nasa.gov [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2013-12-20

    We report an analysis of transit spectroscopy of the extrasolar planets WASP-12 b, WASP-17 b, and WASP-19 b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). We analyze the data for a single transit for each planet using a strategy similar, in certain aspects, to the techniques used by Berta et al., but we extend their methodology to allow us to correct for channel- or wavelength-dependent instrumental effects by utilizing the band-integrated time series and measurements of the drift of the spectrum on the detector over time. We achieve almost photon-limited results for individual spectral bins, but the uncertainties in the transit depth for the band-integrated data are exacerbated by the uneven sampling of the light curve imposed by the orbital phasing of HST's observations. Our final transit spectra for all three objects are consistent with the presence of a broad absorption feature at 1.4 μm most likely due to water. However, the amplitude of the absorption is less than that expected based on previous observations with Spitzer, possibly due to hazes absorbing in the NIR or non-solar compositions. The degeneracy of models with different compositions and temperature structures combined with the low amplitude of any features in the data preclude our ability to place unambiguous constraints on the atmospheric composition without additional observations with WFC3 to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and/or a comprehensive multi-wavelength analysis.

  14. Diversity of gall-inducing insects in the high altitude wetland forests in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC Santos

    Full Text Available We report on the richness of galling insects in the altitudinal wetland forests of Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. We found 80 distinct types of insect galls on 49 species of host plants belonging to 28 families and 35 genera. Most of the galled plant species belong to Nyctaginaceae, Fabaceae, Meliaceae, Sapindaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common gall were spheroid and globoid; most galls were glabrous, predominantly green and with one chamber, and on the leaves. Most galls were induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The results of this study contribute to existing knowledge richness of galling insects and host-plant diversity in the altitudinal wetland forests of Northeastern Brazil.

  15. Insect galls of Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Silva, L O

    2016-04-19

    Thirty-one morphotypes of insect galls and two flower damages were found on 16 families, 22 genera and 24 plant species in Restinga de Marambaia (Barra de Guaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). Fabaceae and Myrtaceae were the plant families with the greatest richness of insect galls (4 and 6 morphotypes, respectively), and the greatest number of galled plants (four and three species, respectively). Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (77% and 10%, respectively). The galling insects are represented by Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Hemiptera. The majority of the galls (81%) were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera).

  16. CLINICO-PATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF CARCINOMA GALL BLADDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Gall bladder cancer is 5th most common cancer of GIT. It is associated with cholelithiasis in significant number of patients. Cholelithiasis is cause or effect of gall bladder cancer is still uncertain. There are many risk factors which are common to both gall stones and cancer. Preoperative diagnosis of gall bladder cancer is increased with better and new investigation facilities. AIM The study was aimed to assess clinicopathological behaviour, sociodemography, diagnostic modalities and treatment of cancer gall bladder. MATERIAL AND METHODS It was a type of prospective study which included 75 patients with clinical features suggestive of biliary disease. Various diagnostic modalities and treatment options were assessed along with sociodemography and clinical picture. RESULT Common clinical features were pain abdomen, obstructive jaundice and lump. Nearly one third of the patients were having anaemia and abnormal liver function tests. Majority had gall bladder fossa mass with liver extension and gall stones. The most common histopathological variety of carcinoma Gallbladder was Adenocarcinoma. CONCLUSION Carcinoma Gallbladder was found to affect predominantly the older female patients after the age of 40 years. Cholelithiasis was found in 69.3% patients of carcinoma Gallbladder. The most common clinical presentation was pain abdomen (90.7%. The most common histopathological variety of carcinoma Gallbladder was Adenocarcinoma. Majority of patients were treated with palliative measures.

  17. Left-sided gall bladder: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrungoo R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Left-sided gall bladder without situs inversus viscerum is a rare albeit recognized clinical entity. We report our experience of two cases of left-sided gall bladder in two women aged 36 and 48 who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis. Left-sided gall bladder may provide an unusual surprise to the surgeons during laparoscopy as routine pre-operative studies may not always detect the anomaly. Awareness of the unpredictable confluence of the cystic duct into the common bile duct (CBD and selective use of intraoperative cholangiography aid in the safe laparoscopic management of this unusual entity.

  18. Contrast media in gall bladder diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, G.; Frommhold, W.

    1982-01-01

    The justification of conventional X-ray diagnostic of bile ducts is repeatedly questioned by newer examination techniques like sonography and ERC. The indication for oral cholesgraphy is derived from its high-specifity of its statements for gall bladder diagnostic, that is as high as with sonography and does not depend on the experience of the investigator. The importance of the the void exposure is undoubted with correspondence of medicamentary litholysis for calcite identification. Furthermore, Choleocystic kineticals like Ceruletid let recognize better hyper plastic choleocysts like adenomyomatoses. The intravenous choleocyst-cholangiography posesses a clearly limited indication scheme even after introduction of sonography and ERC. The infusion method yields a better compatibility of the contrast medium with a simultaneous increased representation quality of the bile duct, that can be increased by a consequent application of the layer exposure technique. (orig.) [de

  19. Fungal endophytes which invade insect galls: insect pathogens, benign saprophytes, or fungal inquilines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dennis

    1995-08-01

    Fungi are frequently found within insect galls. However, the origin of these fungi, whether they are acting as pathogens, saprophytes invading already dead galls, or fungal inquilines which invade the gall but kill the gall maker by indirect means, is rarely investigated. A pathogenic role for these fungi is usually inferred but never tested. I chose the following leaf-galling-insect/host-plant pairs (1) a cynipid which forms two-chambered galls on the veins of Oregon white oak, (2) a cynipid which forms single-chambered galls on California coast live oak, and (3) an aphid which forms galls on narrowleaf cottonwood leaves. All pairs were reported to have fungi associated with dead insects inside the gall. These fungi were cultured and identified. For the two cynipids, all fungi found inside the galls were also present in the leaves as fungal endophytes. The cottonwood leaves examined did not harbor fungal endophytes. For the cynipid on Oregon white oak, the fungal endophyte grows from the leaf into the gall and infects all gall tissue but does not directly kill the gall maker. The insect dies as a result of the gall tissue dying from fungal infection. Therefore, the fungus acts as an inquiline. Approximately 12.5% of these galls die as a result of invasion by the fungal endophyte.

  20. Cognitive plasticity in foraging Vespula germanica wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2011-01-01

    Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is a highly invasive social wasp that exhibits a rich behavioral repertoire in which learning and memory play a fundamental role in foraging. The learning abilities of these wasps were analyzed while relocating a food source and whether V. germanica foragers are capable of discriminating between different orientation patterns and generalizing their choice to a new pattern. Foraging wasps were trained to associate two different stripe orientation patterns with their respective food locations. Their response to a novel configuration that maintained the orientation of one of the learned patterns but differed in other aspects (e.g. width of stripes) was then evaluated. The results support the hypothesis that V. germanica wasps are able to associate a particular oriented pattern with the location of a feeder and to generalize their choice to a new pattern, which differed in quality, but presented the same orientation.

  1. Description of the 'Variable System' in WASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.T.

    1975-01-01

    The VARSYS modul of the WASP code prepares a disc data file describing the plant types to be considered as candidates for possible addition to installed capacity in order to be able to meet forecast loads. (RW) [de

  2. Wasp sting: An unusual fatal outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, P.; Mathew, P.; Pawar, B.; Calton, N.

    2008-01-01

    Wasp stings are not uncommon especially in populations living in theproximity of forested area-s all over the world. Local manifestationsfollowing stings are common and unusually life threatening anaphylaxis mayoccur, requiring prompt treatment. Multi organ failure and acute renalfailure following wasp stings are rare and histological evaluation suggestacute tubular necrosis secondary to hemolysis, rhabdomyolysis and directvenom toxicity. A rare complication of a patient following multiple waspstings with disseminated intravascular coagulation, acute renal failure andthrombotic microangiopathy is presented. (author)

  3. System interconnection studies using WASP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayrak, Y [Turkish Electricity Generation and Transmission Corp., Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of WASP as a modelling tool for determining the development of two electric systems with interconnections. A case study has been carried out to determine the possibilities of transfer of baseload energy between Turkey and a neighboring country. The objective of this case study is to determine the amount of energy that can be transferred, variations of Loss Probability (LOLP) and unserved energy, and the cost of additional generation with interconnection. The break-even cost will be determined to obtain the minimum charge rate at which TEAS (Turkish Electricity Generation-Transmission Corp.) needs to sell the energy in order to recover the costs. The minimum charge rate for both capacity and energy will be estimated without considering extra capacity additions, except for the ones needed by the Turkish system alone. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs.

  4. Genetic background of resistance to gall mite in Ribes species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrida Mazeikiene

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to gall mite is an important genetic trait of Ribes. P and Ce genes, responsible for gall mite resistance, were established in Ribes species and interspecific hybrids using molecular markers. Resistance in R. americanum is determined by P gene and in R. sanguineum by Ce gene. Both molecular markers were absent in R. dikuscha genome. Molecular markers related to P and Ce genes were identified in the genome of R. aureum. Resistance to gall mite in the field conditions in R. nigrum x R. americanum, R. nigrum x R. aureum and R. nigrum x R. sanguineum F3 hybrids fitted an expected Mendelian segregation ratio of 1:1, 3:1 and 1:1, respectively. 75.0% of hybrids with a pyramidal resistance to gall mite carrying markers related to Ce and P genes were obtained in the cross combination R. nigrum x R. aureum and will be included in the future breeding programs.

  5. Sonographic Analysis of the Collapsed Gall Bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Suk; Choi, Jae Young; Choi, Seok Jin; Eun, Chung Ki; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jeong Mi

    1996-01-01

    their underlying pathologies were as follows : gall stone(10), hepatitis(5),ascites(3), and cholecystitis(2). According to our results, we can conclude that US is very accurate to diagnose gall stone in cases showing stony echo or acoustic shadow even in the collapsed gallbladder but it is nearly impossible to differentiate underlying pathologies in cases without such findings and the possibility of re-expansion of GB must be considered before the final decision of surgical treatment for any collapsed gallbladder

  6. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budnar, Milos [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: milos.budnar@ijs.si; Ursic, Mitja [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Simcic, Jure [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, p.p. 3000, SI-1001 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kolar, Jana [National University Library, Turjaska 1, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Selih, Vid Simon [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Strlic, Matija [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Askerceva 5, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-02-15

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents.

  7. Analysis of iron gall inks by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnar, Milos; Ursic, Mitja; Simcic, Jure; Pelicon, Primoz; Kolar, Jana; Selih, Vid Simon; Strlic, Matija

    2006-01-01

    Micro- or non-destructive analytical approach is an imperative when analysing historical artefacts. Due to its practically non-destructive character, proton induced X-ray spectrometry (PIXE) has become a method of choice for the study of historical documents. In the present paper, use of in-air PIXE method for analysis of iron gall inks applied at handwriting of documents is evaluated. The errors arising from the non-uniform ink deposit, proton penetration depth and size of the proton beam versus width of ink lines, effects of surface roughness, as well as the importance of the PIXE set-up geometry on the accuracy of the results are discussed. It follows that the main problems can be attributed to the fact that PIXE is a surface technique and that the analysis is limited to a small amount of material, while ink deposit on the paper is usually non-uniform in depth as well as on the paper surface. Despite possible systematic uncertainties when applying the PIXE method, good correlation between determinations obtained by PIXE and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) on model samples clearly demonstrate that the errors are well within a reasonable limit of a few percents

  8. Antioxidant activity of insect gall extracts of Pistacia integerrima.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshwarappa, Ravi Shankara Birur; Lakshmikantha, Ramachandra Yarappa; Subaramaihha, Sundara Rajan; Subbaiah, Sujan Ganapathy Pasura; Surendranath, Austin Richard; Dhananjaya, Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2015-01-01

    Pistacia integerrima (P. integerrina) insect galls are widely used in ayurveda and siddha system of medicine as karkatasringi. The use of leaf galls as a rejuvenator may be attributed to antioxidant property, however there is less scientific evidence. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and the antioxidant potential of leaf gall extracts (aqueous and ethanol) of P. integerrina, which is extensively used in the preparation of traditional medications. The antioxidant activities of aqueous and ethanolic leaf gall extracts were examined using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging and ferric reducing power (FRAP) methods. The presences of phenolics, tannins, phytosterols, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids and reducing sugars were identified in both the extracts. In comparison to the aqueous extract, the ethanolic extract had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid content at 234 ±2.4 mg of GAE/g d.w. and 95.5 ±3.2 mg of QUE/g d.w., respectively. This higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids found in the ethanolic extract was directly associated with higher antioxidant activity. This study demonstrates the poetnet antioxidant activities of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts. Further, there was a strong association between the higher antioxidant activities with that of higher total phenolic and flavonoid content in the ethanolic leaf gall extracts of P. integerrima. The results encourage the use of P. integerrima leaf gall extracts for medicinal health, functional food and nutraceuticals applications, due to their antioxidant properties. Future work will be interesting to learn the chemical composition and better understand the mechanism of action of the antioxidants present in the extract for development as a drug for therapeutic application.

  9. REVISED STREAM CODE AND WASP5 BENCHMARK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K

    2005-01-01

    STREAM is an emergency response code that predicts downstream pollutant concentrations for releases from the SRS area to the Savannah River. The STREAM code uses an algebraic equation to approximate the solution of the one dimensional advective transport differential equation. This approach generates spurious oscillations in the concentration profile when modeling long duration releases. To improve the capability of the STREAM code to model long-term releases, its calculation module was replaced by the WASP5 code. WASP5 is a US EPA water quality analysis program that simulates one-dimensional pollutant transport through surface water. Test cases were performed to compare the revised version of STREAM with the existing version. For continuous releases, results predicted by the revised STREAM code agree with physical expectations. The WASP5 code was benchmarked with the US EPA 1990 and 1991 dye tracer studies, in which the transport of the dye was measured from its release at the New Savannah Bluff Lock and Dam downstream to Savannah. The peak concentrations predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±20.0%. The transport times of the dye concentration peak predicted by the WASP5 agreed with the measurements within ±3.6%. These benchmarking results demonstrate that STREAM should be capable of accurately modeling releases from SRS outfalls

  10. TRANSIT OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-10 SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dittmann, J. A.; Close, L. M.; Scuderi, L. J.; Morris, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    We present here observations of the transit of WASP-10b on 2009 October 14 UT taken from the University of Arizona's 1.55 m Kuiper telescope on Mount Bigelow. Conditions were photometric and accuracies of 2.0 mmag rms were obtained throughout the transit. We have found that the ratio of the planet to host star radii is in agreement with the measurements of Christian et al. instead of the refinements of Johnson et al., suggesting that WASP-10b is indeed inflated beyond what is expected from theoretical modeling. We find no evidence for large (>20 s) transit timing variations in WASP-10b's orbit from the ephemeris of Christian et al. and Johnson et al.

  11. Pulsating stars in SuperWASP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holdsworth Daniel L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SuperWASP is one of the largest ground-based surveys for transiting exoplanets. To date, it has observed over 31 million stars. Such an extensive database of time resolved photometry holds the potential for extensive searches of stellar variability, and provide solid candidates for the upcoming TESS mission. Previous work by e.g. [15], [5], [12] has shown that the WASP archive provides a wealth of pulsationally variable stars. In this talk I will provide an overview of the SuperWASP project, present some of the published results from the survey, and some of the on-going work to identify key targets for the TESS mission.

  12. Ecology and evolution of gall-forming insects. Forest Service general technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, P.W.; Mattson, W.J.; Baranchikov, Y.N.

    1994-09-21

    ;Partial Contents: Ecology and Population Dynamics; Effects of the Physical Environment on the Ecology of Gall Insects; Biodiversity and Distribution; Genetic Variation in Host Plant Resistance; Evolutionary Perspectives on Gall Insects.

  13. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia,Valéria C; Nava,Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum.

  14. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  15. Standard test method for galling resistance of material couples

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a laboratory test that ranks the galling resistance of material couples using a quantitative measure. Bare metals, alloys, nonmetallic materials, coatings, and surface modified materials may be evaluated by this test method. 1.2 This test method is not designed for evaluating the galling resistance of material couples sliding under lubricated conditions, because galling usually will not occur under lubricated sliding conditions using this test method. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Taxonomic identity of a galling adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) from three spruce species in central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masakazu Sano; Nathan P. Havill; Kenichi. Ozaki

    2011-01-01

    Gall-forming insects are commonly highly host-specific, and galling species once thought to be oligo- or polyphagous are often found to represent a complex of host-specific races or cryptic species. A recent DNA barcoding study documented that an unidentified species of the genus Adelges is a gall-former associated with four spruce species (...

  17. Variations in the spatial distribution of gall bladder cancer: a call for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The incidence of gall bladder cancers in this part of the world is high and the spatial variation in occurrence of gall bladder cancers can be identified by using geographical information system. Materials and Methods: Data set containing the address information of gall bladder cancer patients from the District of ...

  18. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...... was elicited from the mucosal side and was not accounted for by compensatory Li+ absorption; water and Na+ absorption rates decreased nearly in parallel. The effects of 0.4 mM amiloride and of substitution with 20 mM Li+ were only partly additive. It is concluded that Li+ absorption in the rabbit gall...

  19. What should I do about my patient's gall stones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, A R; Azoulay, D; Oakley, N; Baer, H; Paraskevopoulos, J A; Maddern, G J

    1995-12-01

    The problem of benign biliary disease is one that causes significant morbidity and social economic strain in the western world. The classical treatment, cholecystectomy, has been challenged by various medical and surgical techniques in a seemingly random nature. The development of the treatment of gall stone disease is reviewed by analysis of published studies over the last 20 years. The advantages and disadvantages are discussed as an overview and summary of the current management of gall stone disease in the light of our knowledge of its malignant potential.

  20. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSES OF WASP-18b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymeyer, Sarah; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Campo, Christopher J.; Blecic, Jasmina; Bowman, William C.; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Cubillos, Patricio; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Hellier, Coel; Anderson, David R.; Gillon, Michael; Hebb, Leslie; Wheatley, Peter J.; Pollacco, Don

    2011-01-01

    The transiting exoplanet WASP-18b was discovered in 2008 by the Wide Angle Search for Planets project. The Spitzer Exoplanet Target of Opportunity Program observed secondary eclipses of WASP-18b using Spitzer's Infrared Array Camera in the 3.6 μm and 5.8 μm bands on 2008 December 20, and in the 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm bands on 2008 December 24. We report eclipse depths of 0.30% ± 0.02%, 0.39% ± 0.02%, 0.37% ± 0.03%, 0.41% ± 0.02%, and brightness temperatures of 3100 ± 90, 3310 ± 130, 3080 ± 140, and 3120 ± 110 K in order of increasing wavelength. WASP-18b is one of the hottest planets yet discovered—as hot as an M-class star. The planet's pressure-temperature profile most likely features a thermal inversion. The observations also require WASP-18b to have near-zero albedo and almost no redistribution of energy from the day side to the night side of the planet.

  1. Getting Started with WAsP 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Heathfield, D.N.; Myllerup, Lisbeth

    . The analysis part consists of a transformation of an observed wind climate (speed and direction distributions) to a wind atlas data set. The wind atlas data set can subsequently be applied for estimation of the wind climate and wind power potential, as well as for siting of specific wind turbines. The WAsP 9...

  2. Transiting planetary system WASP-17 (Southworth+, 2012)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Dominik, M.

    2013-01-01

    A light curve of four transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-17 is presented. The data were obtained using the Danish 1.5m telescope and DFOSC camera at ESO La Silla in 2012, with substantial telescope defocussing in order to improve the photometric precision of the observations...

  3. The sphecid wasps (Hym. Ampulicidae, Sphecidae & Crabronidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The list of Egyptian sphecid wasps includes the current names of those species recorded in the literature with indications where these have changed together with previously unrecorded genera and species. Three genera have not been recorded from Egypt hitherto (Spilomena, Crossocerus, Lestica). Twenty-four species ...

  4. Gall-inducing insects of deciduous and semideciduous forests in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula M. Goetz

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls are specific changes induced by insects on plant organs mainly through increases in plant cell number and/or size. Gall diversity is easy to recognize in the field because gallers are mostly species-specific, and thus each gall morphotype can be a proxy for a galling species. Insect galls are virtually unknown in Seasonal Deciduous and Semi-Deciduous forests of southern Brazil. Here, galls and host plants were surveyed between 2015 and 2017 in four forest fragments of Rio Grande do Sul State in these two vegetation types, in secondary-growth and areas under restoration. We recorded 89 gall morphotypes, with gallers belonging to Lepidoptera and Diptera, with the latter represented mainly by Cecidomyiidae. Galls were associated to 46 plant species in 27 families. Asteraceae, Piperaceae, Fabaceae, Myrtaceae and Lauraceae were the richest families in terms of galls, whilst Piper aduncum and Mikania glomerata were superhosts. Most galls occurred in leaves and shoots. The most common shapes were fusiform, globoid and lenticular. Forty-eight gall morphotype records are new for both Rio Grande do Sul and Brazil, an expressive number considering only two seasonal forest types sampled and few sampling points, showing how important surveys still are for these little know fauna both in taxonomic and ecological terms.

  5. Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications.

  6. Franz Joseph Gall and music: the faculty and the bump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Finger, Stanley; Whitaker, Harry

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can also be traced to other important observations, one being of a young girl with an exceptional talent for music. Rejecting contemporary notions of cognition, Gall concluded that behavior results from the interaction of a limited set of basic faculties, each with its own processes for perception and memory, each with its own territory in both cerebral or cerebellar cortices. Gall identified 27 faculties, one being the sense of tone relations or music. The description of the latter is identical in both his Anatomie et Physiologie and Sur les Fonctions du Cerveau et sur Celles de Chacune de ses Parties, where he provided positive and negative evidences and discussed findings from humans and lower animals, for the faculty. The localization of the cortical faculty for talented musicians, he explained, is demonstrated by a "bump" on each side of the skull just above the angle of the eye; hence, the lower forehead of musicians is broader or squarer than in other individuals. Additionally, differences between singing and nonsinging birds also correlate with cranial features. Gall even brought age, racial, and national differences into the picture. What he wrote about music reveals much about his science and creative thinking. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This report consists of Volume 2, which consists of the GALL literature review tables for the NUMARC Industry Reports reviewed for the report

  8. Testing Optimal Foraging Theory Using Bird Predation on Goldenrod Galls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahnke, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    All animals must make choices regarding what foods to eat, where to eat, and how much time to spend feeding. Optimal foraging theory explains these behaviors in terms of costs and benefits. This laboratory exercise focuses on optimal foraging theory by investigating the winter feeding behavior of birds on the goldenrod gall fly by comparing…

  9. Gall midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) new to the Danish fauna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Bruun, Hans Henrik; Harris, Keith M.

    2016-01-01

    First records of twenty-three gall midge species in Denmark are reported: Asphondylia ervi Rübsaamen, Contarinia acetosellae Rübsaamen, C. viburnorum Kieffer, Dasineura astragalorum (Kieffer), D. fructum (Rübsaamen), D. harrisoni (Bagnall), D. lotharingiae (Kieffer), D. papaveris (Winnertz), D...

  10. Franz Joseph Gall and music: The faculty and the bump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.; Finger, S.; Whitaker, H.A.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional story maintains that Franz Joseph Gall's (1758-1828) scientific program began with his observations of schoolmates with bulging eyes and good verbal memories. But his search to understand human nature, in particular individual differences in capacities, passions, and tendencies, can

  11. Lithium absorption by the rabbit gall-bladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    1991-01-01

    Lithium (Li+) absorption across the low-resistance epithelium of the rabbit gall-bladder was studied in order to elucidate possible routes and mechanisms of Li+ transfer. Li+ at a concentration of 0.4 mM in both mucosal and serosal media did not affect isosmotic mucosa-to-serosa fluid absorption...

  12. Insect galls from Serra de São José (Tiradentes, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. C. Maia

    Full Text Available One hundred thirty-seven morphotypes of insect galls were found on 73 plant species (47 genera and 30 families in Serra de São José, in Tiradentes, MG, Brazil. Fabaceae, Myrtaceae, Asteraceae, and Melastomataceae were the plant families that supported most of the galls (49.6% of the total. Galls were mostly found on leaves and stems (66.4% and 25.5%, respectively. Galls were induced by Diptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Sternorrhyncha, Hymenoptera, and Thysanoptera. The majority of them (73.7% were induced by gall midges (Cecidomyiidae: Diptera. Besides the gall inducers, other insects found associated with the galls were parasitoids (Hymenoptera, inquilines (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera, and predators (Diptera.

  13. Eucalyptus gall wasp, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle (Insecta: Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), an emerging pest of eucalyptus in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new emerging pest of eucalyptus, Leptocybe invasa Fisher & La Salle, was first found in Italy but mistakenly identified as Aprostocetus sp.. This was followed by another report of an infestation from Turkey in early 2000. It was first formally described in 2004 from Australia as Leptocybe invasa a...

  14. Gall blandder kinetics in diabetics. A hepatobiliary scintigraphy overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, S.; Indirani, M.; Gokhale, S.; Anirudhan, N.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is underutilized in the evaluation of Gall Bladder(GB) function in diabetics when compared to various other imaging modalities that are currently available.It establishes the function of GB in Diabetes mellitus noninvasively, with a quantified ejection fraction thereby helping to resolve the problem of diabetic cholecystopathy, in the evaluation of visceral neuropathy. Aim: To study Gall Bladder kinetics and emptying in diabetic patients. Materials and methods: One forty eight patients of both sexes in the age group of 30 to 70 were included in the study between 1997 to 1999 in our institution.A 90 minute dynamic post mebrofenin study was acquired. A fatty meal of 600 kcal was given to these patients once the Gall Bladder was visualized.Time activity curves were generated and the Gall Bladder contraction in these patients was evaluated.Patients were classified into 3 groups-Group 1 consists of established Diabetic patients. Group 2 consists of patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Group 3 consists of controls. Observation and result: In Group 1 (n=47) ,28 patients (60%) showed reduced ejection fraction and the mean EF% was 44.12 +/- 16.6. In Group 2 (n=48), 18 patients (38%) showed slightly reduced ejection fraction and the mean EF % was 51.56 +/- 15.67. In Group 3(n=53), 7 patients (13%) showed reduced ejection fraction and the meanEF % was 69.77 +/- 13.59. Test of significance was done using 'Z' test also called normal test in large samples. This study has shown that the average Ejection Fraction (in%) is maximum in normal group and least in diabetic group. Conclusion: Hepatobiliary scintigraphy is helpful in early identification of autonomic dysfunction of Gall Bladder in diabetic patients and in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. (authors)

  15. WAsP in the forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Landberg, Lars; Jensen, Niels Otto

    2005-01-01

    This article compares mean wind estimates from a WAsP analysis for three forest sites and one site near a forest with measurements taken at the sites. By standard WAsP settings for forest, the mean wind speed at the sites was overestimated. Agreement between the estimates and the measurements...... improved significantly if displacement height and roughness length as calculated from the forest mast data were used or if a simple model estimate of roughness length and displacement height based on stand density (frontal area index) was used. The two estimates of displacement height and roughness length...... (mast data and simple model) did not agree well with each other. One reason for this may be that all evaluated sites are windy and that both d and z0 depend on the wind speed. All analysed forest sites are dense, in which case the influence from the roughness sublayer is limited and the effect on mean...

  16. Social wasps are a Saccharomyces mating nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Dapporto, Leonardo; Berná, Luisa; Polsinelli, Mario; Turillazzi, Stefano; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-02-23

    The reproductive ecology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is still largely unknown. Recent evidence of interspecific hybridization, high levels of strain heterozygosity, and prion transmission suggest that outbreeding occurs frequently in yeasts. Nevertheless, the place where yeasts mate and recombine in the wild has not been identified. We found that the intestine of social wasps hosts highly outbred S. cerevisiae strains as well as a rare S. cerevisiae×S. paradoxus hybrid. We show that the intestine of Polistes dominula social wasps favors the mating of S. cerevisiae strains among themselves and with S. paradoxus cells by providing a succession of environmental conditions prompting cell sporulation and spores germination. In addition, we prove that heterospecific mating is the only option for European S. paradoxus strains to survive in the gut. Taken together, these findings unveil the best hidden secret of yeast ecology, introducing the insect gut as an environmental alcove in which crosses occur, maintaining and generating the diversity of the ascomycetes.

  17. The relevance of folkloric usage of plant galls as medicines: Finding the scientific rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Seema; Rauf, Abdur; Khan, Haroon

    2018-01-01

    Galls, the abnormal growths in plants, induced by virus, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, arthropods, or even other plants, are akin to cancers in fauna. The galls which occur in a myriad of forms are phytochemically-distinct from the normal plant tissues, for these are the sites of tug-of-war, just like the granuloma in animals. To counter the stressors, in the form of the effector proteins of the invaders, the host plants elaborate a large repertoire of metabolites, which they normally will not produce. Perturbation of the jasmonic acid pathway, and the overexpression of auxin, and cytokinin, promote the tissue proliferation and the resultant galls. Though the plant family characteristics and the attackers determine the gall biochemistry, most of the galls are rich in bioactive phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, purpurogallin, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, lipophilic components (tanshinone) etc. Throughout the long trajectory of evolution, humans have learned to use the galls as therapeutics, much like other plant parts. In diverse cultures, the evidence of folkloric usage of galls abound. Among others, galls from the plant genus like Rhus, Pistacia, Quercus, Terminalia etc. are popular as ethnomedicine. This review mines the literature on galling agents, and the medicinal relevance of galls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Fernandes, Sheila P; Ascendino, Sharlene; Maia, Valéria C; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-09-01

    Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas) of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  19. Diversity of insect galls associated with coastal shrub vegetation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEILA P. CARVALHO-FERNANDES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Surveys in the coastal sandy plains (restingas of Rio de Janeiro have shown a great richness of galls. We investigated the galling insects in two preserved restingas areas of Rio de Janeiro state: Parque Estadual da Costa do Sol and Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Fazenda Caruara. The collections were done each two months, from June 2011 to May 2012. We investigated 38 points during 45 minutes each per collection. The galls were taken to the laboratory for rearing the insects. A total number of 151 insect galls were found in 82 plant species distributed into 34 botanic families. Most of the galls occurred on leaves and the plant families with the highest richness of galls were Myrtaceae and Fabaceae. All the six insect orders with galling species were found in this survey, where Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the main galler group. Hymenoptera and Thysanoptera were found as parasitoids and inquilines in 29 galls. The richness of galls in the surveyed areas reveals the importance of restinga for the composition and diversity of gall-inducing insect fauna.

  20. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso-Guimarães, M V; Scareli-Santos, C

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera), Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera) and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera). This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae), Distictela (Bignoniaceae), Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae), Ouratea (Ochnaceae), and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae). The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  1. Galls and gall makers in plants from the Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve, Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Urso-Guimarães

    Full Text Available Thirty-six morphologically different types of galls were obtained in leaves, leaflets, veins, petioles, stems, tendrils and flower buds from twenty-five species of plants in the Pé-de-Gigante Reserve, municipality of Santa Rita do Passa Quatro, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The host plant species belong to the closely related families Anacardiaceae, Annonaceae, Asteraceae, Bignoniaceae, Caryocaraceae, Erythroxylaceae, Fabaceae, Malpighiaceae, Melastomataceae, Myrtaceae, Ochnaceae, Polygalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, and Smilacaceae. The most common gall makers included Cecidomyiidae (Diptera, Pteromalidae (Hymenoptera and Diaspididae (Sternorrhyncha-Hemiptera. This is the first report of galls found in the following plant genera: Gochnatia (Asteraceae, Distictela (Bignoniaceae, Banisteriopsis (Malpighiaceae, Ouratea (Ochnaceae, and Bredemeyera (Polygalaceae. The results of this work contribute to the body of knowledge about the relationship among host plants, gall makers, and the gall morphology of Pé-de-Gigante Cerrado Reserve.

  2. Effect of Temperature on Galling Behavior of SS 316, 316 L and 416 Under Self-Mated Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsha, A. P.; Limaye, P. K.; Tyagi, Rajnesh; Gupta, Ankit

    2016-11-01

    Galling behavior of three different stainless steels (SS 316, 316 L and 416) was evaluated at room temperature and 300 °C under a self-mated condition. An indigenously fabricated galling tester was used to evaluate the galling performance of mated materials as per ASTM G196-08 standard. The variation in frictional torque was recorded online during the test to assess the onset of galling. The galling50 (G50) stress value was used to compare the galling resistance of a combination of materials, and the results indicate a significant influence of temperature on the galling resistance of the materials tested. This has been attributed to the decrease in hardness and yield strength at elevated temperature which results in softening of the steel and limits its ability to resist severe deformation. Scanning electron micrographs of the galled surface reflected a severe plastic deformation in sliding direction, and a typical adhesive wear mechanism is prevalent during the galling process.

  3. Non-destructive study of iron gall inks in manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Jelena; Krstić, Dragica; Desnica, Vladan; Fazinić, Stjepko

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research is to establish an effective procedure of iron gall ink characterization using complementary non-destructive methods. By this, it is possible to better understand correlation of chemical composition of the inks and the state of preservation of iron gall ink manuscripts, as well as the effects of conservation treatment performed upon them. This study was undertaken on a bound 16th century manuscript comprised of different types of paper and ink from the National and University Library in Zagreb. Analytical methods used included Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). Paper fibers were identified by optical microscopy and the degradation state, as well as ink differentiation, transit metal migrations and detection of stains, with ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) photography. The techniques applied on original writing materials gave important information about paper and ink composition, its preservation state and efficiency of conservation treatment performed upon them.

  4. Plant responses to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and crown gall development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohlke, Jochen; Deeken, Rosalia

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall disease on various plant species by introducing its T-DNA into the genome. Therefore, Agrobacterium has been extensively studied both as a pathogen and an important biotechnological tool. The infection process involves the transfer of T-DNA and virulence proteins into the plant cell. At that time the gene expression patterns of host plants differ depending on the Agrobacterium strain, plant species and cell-type used. Later on, integration of the T-DNA into the plant host genome, expression of the encoded oncogenes, and increase in phytohormone levels induce a fundamental reprogramming of the transformed cells. This results in their proliferation and finally formation of plant tumors. The process of reprogramming is accompanied by altered gene expression, morphology and metabolism. In addition to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome, further genome-wide (“omic”) approaches have recently deepened our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic basis of crown gall tumor formation. This review summarizes the current knowledge about plant responses in the course of tumor development. Special emphasis is placed on the connection between epigenetic, transcriptomic, metabolomic, and morphological changes in the developing tumor. These changes not only result in abnormally proliferating host cells with a heterotrophic and transport-dependent metabolism, but also cause differentiation and serve as mechanisms to balance pathogen defense and adapt to abiotic stress conditions, thereby allowing the coexistence of the crown gall and host plant. PMID:24795740

  5. Looking for gall bladder disease in the patient's iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipschild, P

    1988-12-17

    In alternative health care iridology is used as a diagnostic aid. The diagnosis of gall bladder disease was used to study its validity and interperformer consistency. The presence of an inflamed gall bladder containing gall stones is said to be easily recognised by certain signs in the lower lateral part of the iris of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye. Stereo colour slides were made of the right eye of 39 patients with this disease and 39 control subjects of the same sex and age. The slides were presented in a random order to five leading iridologists without supplementary information. The prevalence of the disease was estimated at 56%. The median validity was 51% with 54% sensitivity and 52% specificity. These results were close to chance validity (iota = 0.03). None of the iridologists reached a high validity. The median interperformer consistency was 60%. This was only slightly higher than chance consistency (kappa = 0.18). This study showed that iridology is not a useful diagnostic aid.

  6. Palp-faction: an African milkweed dismembers its wasp pollinators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth, Adam; Johnson, Steven D

    2009-06-01

    Interactions between pollinators and nectar-producing flowers are usually assumed to be mutualistic, but the exploitative basis of these relationships can lead to antagonistic interactions. Flowers of the African milkweed, Pachycarpus appendiculatus E. Mey, produce concentrated nectar that is consumed primarily by the large spider-hunting wasp Hemipepsis dedjas Guerin (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae). Pollinaria of this milkweed become attached to the palps of these wasps during nectar feeding. Broken wasp palps were found between guide rails, attached to corpuscula that were trapped behind the guide rails, and attached to pollinia that were inserted into the stigmatic chambers of the flowers. Approximately 85% of wasps captured on flowers of P. appendiculatus were missing one or more palps, whereas only 9% of wasps captured on flowers of another asclepiad species were missing any palps. It thus seems that wasps face a high risk of losing their palps when foraging on these flowers. The interaction may thus be antagonistic for the wasps if the cost of losing their sensory palps (not yet established) is greater than the benefits of the nectar reward. The plants, however, gain clear benefit from the interaction, as verified by the removal and insertion of pollinia in flowers exposed solely to visits by pompilid wasps.

  7. Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago H. Auko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Five new associations of parasitoids in potter wasps (Vespidae, Eumeninae. New associations of host and parasitoids involving potter wasps: Toxophora leucon and Pleurochrysis sp. were found parasitizing Cyphomenes anisitsii, Chrysis sp. (gr. intricans was found parasitizing Minixi suffusum, Plega beardi was found parasitizing Montezumia pelagica sepulchralis and Macrosiagon sp. was found parasitizing Pachodynerus nasidens.

  8. Questioning the environmental stress hypothesis for gall diversity of restinga vegetation on dunes

    OpenAIRE

    Arriola, Ígor A.; F. MeloJr., JoãoCarlos; S. Isaias, RosyMary

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe Atlantic Coast Restinga is a mosaic of plant communities with a distinct floristic and phytophysiognomy, exposed to luminous, thermal, and saline stresses. Plants of the restinga must have special features commonly associated to xeric environments, and are expected to host a high diversity of galling herbivores. We studied gall morphotypes, and recorded the diversity of galls on plants growing in sand dunes in a remnant area of restinga (Acaraí State Park) in São Francisco do Sul,...

  9. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    OpenAIRE

    Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis; Enrique Medianero, Alicia Ibáñez

    2008-01-01

    Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long) more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, represent...

  10. DNA methylation mediated control of gene expression is critical for development of crown gall tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Gohlke

    Full Text Available Crown gall tumors develop after integration of the T-DNA of virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains into the plant genome. Expression of the T-DNA-encoded oncogenes triggers proliferation and differentiation of transformed plant cells. Crown gall development is known to be accompanied by global changes in transcription, metabolite levels, and physiological processes. High levels of abscisic acid (ABA in crown galls regulate expression of drought stress responsive genes and mediate drought stress acclimation, which is essential for wild-type-like tumor growth. An impact of epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation on crown gall development has been suggested; however, it has not yet been investigated comprehensively. In this study, the methylation pattern of Arabidopsis thaliana crown galls was analyzed on a genome-wide scale as well as at the single gene level. Bisulfite sequencing analysis revealed that the oncogenes Ipt, IaaH, and IaaM were unmethylated in crown galls. Nevertheless, the oncogenes were susceptible to siRNA-mediated methylation, which inhibited their expression and subsequently crown gall growth. Genome arrays, hybridized with methylated DNA obtained by immunoprecipitation, revealed a globally hypermethylated crown gall genome, while promoters were rather hypomethylated. Mutants with reduced non-CG methylation developed larger tumors than the wild-type controls, indicating that hypermethylation inhibits plant tumor growth. The differential methylation pattern of crown galls and the stem tissue from which they originate correlated with transcriptional changes. Genes known to be transcriptionally inhibited by ABA and methylated in crown galls became promoter methylated upon treatment of A. thaliana with ABA. This suggests that the high ABA levels in crown galls may mediate DNA methylation and regulate expression of genes involved in drought stress protection. In summary, our studies provide evidence that epigenetic processes

  11. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program: WAsP 11 Help Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    of specific wind turbines and wind farms. The WAsP Help Facility includes a Quick Start Tutorial, a User's Guide and a Technical Reference. It further includes descriptions of the Observed Wind Climate Wizard, the WAsP Climate Analyst, the WAsP Map Editor tool, the WAsP Turbine Editor tool, the Air Density...

  12. Wasp venom proteins: phospholipase A1 and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, T P; Kochoumian, L; Joslyn, A

    1984-04-01

    Three major venom proteins from different species of wasps have been isolated and characterized. They are hyaluronidase, phospholipase, and antigen 5 of as yet unknown biochemical function. These three proteins are allergens in wasp venom-sensitive persons. The species of wasps studied, of the genus Polistes, were annularis, carolina, exclamans, fuscatus, and instabilis. Antigen 5 and phospholipase from wasp venoms were shown to be antigenically distinct from homologous proteins of yellowjacket venoms. The venom phospholipase from wasp, as well as that from yellowjacket (Vespula germanica), appears to have dual enzymatic specificities of the A1 and B types. That is, hydrolysis takes place at the 1-acyl residue of phosphatidylcholine and at the 1- or 2-acyl residue of lysophosphatidylcholine.

  13. A cadaveric study involving variations in external morphology of gall bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjankar Vaibhav Prakash, Panshewdikar Pradnyesh N, Joshi DS, Anjankar Ashish Prakash

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Variations in the pattern of the extra hepatic biliary tract are usual and are commonly encountered during some radiological investigations or in operation theaters. Such Variations of the morphology of Gall bladder have been well documented in the literature for many years but a detail morphological study of variations of the gall bladder and its incidence is very rare. In this era of quick results, increasing use of diagnostic and interventional procedures makes it important to study variations of gall bladder morphology. Most of the interventional procedures in this modern era are done laparoscopically and there is tremendous increase in the number of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. So, sound knowledge of possible variations in morphology of gall bladder is important. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken on 90 cadaveric liver and gall bladder specimens in terms of length, maximum transverse diameter, shape, external variations of gall bladder, Interior and length of gall bladder below the inferior border of the liver. Results: GB had length ranging between 7 and 10 cm, transverse diameter between 2 and 5 cm. The commonest shape observed in this study was pear shaped in 82.22% of cases. The length of gall bladder below the inferior border of liver varied between 0.4 and 2.5 cm. Conclusion: The growing importance of such variations, lie not only from the point of biliary disease but also with respect to the various invasive techniques in the diagnosis and treatment of gall bladder and extrahepatic bile duct disease.

  14. OCCURRENCE AND CHARACTERIZATION OF INSECT GALLS IN THE FLORESTA NACIONAL DE SILVÂNIA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BÁRBARA ARAÚJO RIBEIRO BERGAMINI

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present paper we investigated the insect gall distribution along savanna and forest sites in the Floresta Nacional de Silvânia, Goiás, Brazil. The insect gall fauna was surveyed bi-monthly between December 2009 and June 2010. In total we found 186 insect gall morphotypes, distributed on 35 botanical families and 61 plant species. Ninety-nine insect gall morphotypes were recorded in the forest and 87 in the savanna. Gall-inducing insects belonged to Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera and Thysanoptera, with highlight to Cecidomyiidae (Diptera that induced 34.1% of the gall morphotypes. Parasitoids and/or inquilines were recorded in 38 morphotypes, mainly from the families Eulophidae, Eurytomidae and Torymidae (Hymenoptera. Fabaceae was the botanical family with the greatest richness of galls, followed by Asteraceae and Sapindaceae, being Protium (Burseraceae, Siparuna (Siparunaceae and Serjania (Sapindaceae the main host genera. This is the first systematic survey of insect galls realized in the Flona-Silvânia, which result in six plant species are recorded for the first time in Brazil as host of insect galls.

  15. Morphological alterations of the gall-bladder following extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, K.A.; Zoeller, A.; Swobodnik, W.; Janowitz, P.

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports on 51 patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, who accordingly underwent extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). In all cases, computed tomography (CT) was performed prior to and after the therapeutic procedure to delineate changes in gall-bladder morphology. Slight edematous thickening of the gall-bladder wall was found in 15 patients. One patient presented a rupture of the gall-bladder with formation of a bilioma in the adjacent liver tissue. In case of calcific concrements, CT revealed a characteristic pattern of fragment distribution following shock-wave treatment, and fragments of various sizes exhibited distinct adhesion to the gall-bladder wall. (orig.) [de

  16. Pollinator attraction of the wasp-flower Scrophularia umbrosa (Scrophulariaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, J; Emer, D; Ayasse, M

    2012-05-01

    Certain species of Scrophularia (Scrophulariaceae), such as S. nodosa and S. umbrosa, are mainly pollinated by social wasps and are consequently described as wasp-flowers. Because plants attract their pollinators with the help of various floral cues, such as floral odour and/or optical cues, we have investigated the role of olfactory and visual floral signals responsible for wasp attraction in S. umbrosa. Using a combination of chemical (GC, GC-MS) and electrophysiological analyses (GC-EAD), we identified ten compounds in the complex floral odour bouquet that are detectable by the wasps' antennae. As in the wasp-flower Epipactis helleborine, we found so-called 'green leaf volatiles' (GLVs) in the floral odour; these GLVs are highly attractive to the wasps. GLVs, mostly six-carbon aldehydes, alcohols and acetates, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are emitted by many plants infested with herbivores, e.g. caterpillars. In contrast to other investigated wasp-flowers, behavioural experiments have demonstrated that, in addition to the floral odour of S. umbrosa, visual cues are involved in pollinator attraction. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. Cytological and histochemical gradients on two Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Fabaceae)--Cecidomyiidae gall systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Denis Coelho; Carneiro, Renê Gonçalves da Silva; Magalhães, Thiago Alves; Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos

    2011-10-01

    Previous ultrastructural and histochemical analysis proposed patterns in the accumulation of substances in galls of Diptera: Cecidomyiidae in some plant species of the temperate region. Similar analyses were done to verify the conservativeness of these patterns in the Neotropical region, where a great number of species of Cecidomyiidae is responsible for a wide diversity of morphotypes. Two gall morphotypes induced by Cecidomyiidae in a unique host plant, Copaifera langsdorffii, were studied. The gradients of carbohydrates and the activity of invertases and acid phosphatases were similar, but the cytological gradients and distribution of proteins evidenced that the sites of the induction as well as the amount of neoformed tissues may be peculiar to each gall system. The production of lipids just in the secretory cavities either in the non-galled or galled tissues indicated a potentiality of the host plant which could not be manipulated by the galling insects. Further, the absence of nucleus in the nutritive tissue, an exclusive feature of the horn-shaped galls, indicates cell death attributed to the feeding habit of the galling herbivore.

  18. Numerical relationships of the Solidago altissima stem gall insect-parasitoid guild food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Armbruster, Paulette O; Maddox, G David

    1983-06-01

    The field site conditions (soil pH, soil moisture, soil nutrient availability, etc.) and abundances of Solidago altissima (often included in S. canadensis sensu lato), three S. altissima specific stem gall formers, and the parasitepredator guilds for two of the three gall insects were investigated. It was found that S. altissima is tolerant of a wide range of site conditions. Herbivore (stem gall insects) occurrences were positively correlated with plant occurrence, in a linear fashion. However, there was no disproportionate increase in stem gall insect densities with plant density as might be predicted by the resource concentration hypothesis. Parasitoid guilds were exploiting stem gall insect populations over a wide range of occurrence, but were under-utilizing fields of higher herbivore occurrences. Path analysis showed a high degree of predictability in the causal models, with all but 14% of the ball gall parasitoid guild and all but 43% of the elliptical gall parasitoid guild occurrences explained by the direct influences of stem gall insect occurrence and the indirect influences of goldenrod occurrence and site conditions. The numerical relations of this three trophic level system suggest a well-integrated and well-controlled food chain.

  19. Detection of the onset of galling in strip reduction testing using acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    Galling is an important issue in metal forming of tribologically severe materials such as high strength steel, stainless steel, Al- or Ti-alloys, since it leads to poor surface quality of the formed components, production stops and possibly deterioration of tools. The onset of galling is difficult...

  20. Influence of surface texture on the galling characteristics of lean duplex and austenitic stainless steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadman, Boel; Eriksen, J.; Olsson, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two simulative test methods were used to study galling in sheet forming of two types of stainless steel sheet: austenitic (EN 1.4301) and lean duplex LDX 2101 (EN 1.4162) in different surface conditions. The pin-on-disc test was used to analyse the galling resistance of different combinations of ...

  1. Biliary peritonitis due to gall bladder perforation after percutaneous nephrolithotomy

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    Nikhil Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old male patient underwent right percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL for right renal 1.5 × 1.5 cm lower pole stone. The procedure was completed uneventfully with complete stone clearance. The patient developed peritonitis and shock 48 h after the procedure. Exploratory laparotomy revealed a large amount of bile in the abdomen along with three small perforations in the gall bladder (GB and one perforation in the caudate lobe of the liver. Retrograde cholecystectomy was performed but the patient did not recover and expired post-operatively. This case exemplifies the high mortality of GB perforation after PNL and the lack of early clinical signs.

  2. The demonstration of gall stones by sonography and radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladisch, R.; Deininger, H.K.; Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-seven unselected gall stones were examined radiologically and by ultrasound in vitro. No relationship of diagnostic value could be established between the amount of calcification and stone demonstration, the sonogram being influenced by the size of the stone, its surface contour and its position in the ultrasound beam. Sonography is therefore not suitable for selecting those patients on whom litholysis could be carried out. Sonography appears to be useful only in a negative way by establishing the exact size of the concretion. (orig.) [de

  3. Can sonography define the chemical composition of gall stones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentzel-Beyme, B.; Faehndrich, R.; Arnan-Thiele, B.

    1983-01-01

    Eight sonographic patterns caused by gall stones are described. In an attempt to explain these different appearances, 62 stones were analysed chemically and physically. The chemical composition of the stones did not correlate with their sonographic pattern. Cholesterol stones cannot be recognised as such by sonography. The formation of an acoustic shadow depends largely on the position of the stone within the acoustic beam. It therefore follows that the examination must be done by keeping the focal plane of the transducer in proper relationship to the stone. (orig.) [de

  4. Host manipulation by the orange leafhopper Cicadulina bipunctata: gall induction on distant leaves by dose-dependent stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukura, Keiichiro; Matsumura, Masaya; Tokuda, Makoto

    2009-09-01

    The evolution of the gall-inducing ability in insects and the adaptive significance of the galling habit have been addressed by many studies. Cicadulina bipunctata, the maize orange leafhopper, is an ideal study organism for evaluating these topics because it can be mass-reared and it feeds on model plants such as rice ( Oryza sativa) and maize ( Zea mays). To reveal differences between gall inductions by C. bipunctata and other gall inducers, we conducted four experiments concerning (a) the relationship between the feeding site and gall-induction sites of C. bipunctata on maize, (b) the effects of leafhopper sex and density, (c) the effects of length of infestation on gall induction, and (d) the effects of continuous infestation. C. bipunctata did not induce galls on the leaves where it fed but induced galls on other leaves situated at more distal positions. The degree of gall induction was significantly correlated with infestation density and length. These results indicate that C. bipunctata induces galls in a dose-dependent manner on leaves distant from feeding sites, probably by injecting chemical(s) to the plant during feeding. We suggest that insect galls are induced by a chemical stimulus injected by gall inducers during feeding into the hosts.

  5. Galling insects are bioindicators of environmental quality in a Conservation Unit

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    André Portugal Santana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Galls are well distributed across the World and among plant families. Their diversity can support the status of conservation of an area as an urban park, once inventories are presented. These inventories also help to understand the morphological patterns of the galls, based on their most common shape, color, host botanical families, inducers and galled organs. This study is about an inventory of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde, Brazil. This conservation unit is an urban park strongly anthropized in a transition area of Cerrado and Mata Atlântica. Galls from four different trails were observed, and collected monthly during one year. The terminology morphospecies was used to distinguish the galls because the identification of the inducers were not always possible. Seventy five morphospecies of galls belonging to 43 host plant species of 24 botanical families were observed. Mostly of the galls was induced by Diptera:Cecidomyiidae, in Fabaceae and Myrtaceae. The most common traits were the globoid shape and green color. The leaves were the most frequent galled organ and followed by the stems. All these tendencies had been already observed in other inventories. Comparing current results with other studies at similar areas, we can assume that the Parque Estadual Serra Verde is very important for conservation. Urban green areas are subject to high disturbance and degradation but also increase the quality of life for the population inhabiting the areas nearby. The diversity of galls at Parque Estadual Serra Verde reflects an area with high levels of stress but with moderate botanical diversity. These features make this protected area an important site for the continuous conservation and regeneration, and highlight the environmental value of Parque Estadual Serra Verde.

  6. WASP7 BENTHIC ALGAE - MODEL THEORY AND USER'S GUIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The standard WASP7 eutrophication module includes nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, dissolved oxygen-organic matter interactions, and phytoplankton kinetics. In many shallow streams and rivers, however, the attached algae (benthic algae, or periphyton, attached to submerged substr...

  7. Synchronism between Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae resources allocation and the establishment of the gall inducer Pseudophacopteron sp. Hemiptera: Psylloidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane C Castro¹

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The joint interpretation of phenology and nutritional metabolism provides important data on plant tissues reactivity and the period of gall induction. A population of Aspidosperma macrocarpon Apocynaceae with leaf galls induced by a Pseudophacopteron sp. Psylloidea was studied in Goiás state, Brazil. Assuming the morphological similarity between host leaves and intralaminar galls, a gradient from non-galled leaves towards galls should be generated, establishing a morpho-physiological continuum. The phenology, infestation of galls, and the carbohydrate and nitrogen contents were monthly evaluated in 10-20 individuals, from September 2009 to September 2010. Our objective was to analyze the nutritional status and the establishment of a physiological continuum between the galls and the non-galled leaves of A. macrocarpon. The period of leaf flushing coincided with the highest levels of nitrogen allocated to the new leaves, and to the lowest levels of carbohydrates. The nutrients were previously consumed by the growing leaves, by the time of gall induction. The levels of carbohydrates were higher in galls than in non-galled leaves in time-based analyses, which indicateed their potential sink functionality. The leaves were infested in October, galls developed along the year, and gall senescence took place from March to September, together with host leaves. This first senescent leaves caused insect mortality. The higher availability of nutrients at the moment of gall induction was demonstrated and seems to be important not only for the establishment of the galling insect but also for the responsiveness of the host plant tissues.

  8. Pharmacognostic studies of insect gall of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Fagaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Savitri Shrestha; Vasuki Srinivas Kaushik; Ravi Shankara Birur Eshwarappa; Sundara Rajan Subaramaihha; Latha Muuaiah Ramanna; Dhananjaya Bhadrapura Lakkappa

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the detailed pharmacognostic profile of galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier (Q. infectoria olivier) (Fagaceae), an important medicinal plant used in the Indian system of medicine. Methods: Samples of galls of Q. infectoria were studied by macroscopical, microscopical, physiochemical, phytochemical, fluorescence analysis and othjer methods for standardization as recommended by WHO. Results:Macroscopically, the crude drug is globose with horny appearances on external surface (1.4-2.3 cm in length and 1-1.5 cm in diameter), with greyish-brown to brownish-black in colour externally and dark brown buff colored. Surface is smooth with numerous horny protuberances giving rough touch, and with unpleasant odour. Microscopically, a wide zone of radially elongated parenchyma cells between upper and lower epidermis were found. The vascular strands were present at all places and radially elongated sclerides touched the lower epidermis. In physico-chemical studies, the moisture, total ash, acid insoluble ash, alcohol soluble, water soluble, petroleum ether, chloroform extractive value and tannin content were found to be 2.790, 5.020, 0.110, 38.780, 41.210, 0.402, 1.590 and 49.200 percentage respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, steroids, triterpenes, tannins, saponins and alkaloids. Conclusions:The results of the present study serve as a valuable source of information and provide suitable standards for identification of this medicinally important plant drug material for future investigations and applications.

  9. A checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae in Indochina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Phong Huy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basis for intensive study of the taxonomy and biogeography of Ropalidiini wasps in Indochina (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae, a checklist of Ropalidiini wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae is presented. A total of 57 Ropalidiini species and subspecies belonging to three genera from Indochina are listed, together with information of the type material deposited in the Natural History Collection, Ibaraki University, Japan (IUNH and the Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources (IEBR. References of their distribution in Indochina are also provided.

  10. Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alene Ramos Rodrigues

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect galls of restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. This study carried out an insect gall inventory in restinga areas of Ilha da Marambaia, in the municipality of Mangaratiba, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sampling was carried out monthly from April 2010 to March 2011 along the full extension of seven beaches. A total number of 147 gall morphotypes associated with 70 plant species were found, distributed in 33 plant families, and at least 54 genera. Myrtaceae was the botanical family with the highest richness of gall morphotypes and host species, followed by Bignoniaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Sapindaceae, and Malpighiaceae. Most of the gall morphotypes occurred in leaves (78 morphotypes, 38 in stems, 14 in flowers, eight in buds and fruits, and one in adventitious roots. The galling insects belong to the five orders: Diptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Cecidomyiidae (Diptera was the most common galling taxon (78 morphotypes, represented by 87 species, being 78 gallers, seven inquilines and two predators. In addition to the gallers, parasitoids, inquilines, and predators were also found.

  11. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  12. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julião, Genimar R; Venticinque, Eduardo M; Fernandes, G Wilson; Price, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio) was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR), together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.

  13. Unexpected high diversity of galling insects in the Amazonian upper canopy: the savanna out there.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genimar R Julião

    Full Text Available A relatively large number of studies reassert the strong relationship between galling insect diversity and extreme hydric and thermal status in some habitats, and an overall pattern of a greater number of galling species in the understory of scleromorphic vegetation. We compared galling insect diversity in the forest canopy and its relationship with tree richness among upland terra firme, várzea, and igapó floodplains in Amazonia, Brazil. The soils of these forest types have highly different hydric and nutritional status. Overall, we examined the upper layer of 1,091 tree crowns. Galling species richness and abundance were higher in terra firme forests compared to várzea and igapó forests. GLM-ANCOVA models revealed that the number of tree species sampled in each forest type was determinant in the gall-forming insect diversity. The ratio between galling insect richness and number of tree species sampled (GIR/TSS ratio was higher in the terra firme forest and in seasonally flooded igapó, while the várzea presented the lowest GIR/TSS ratio. In this study, we recorded unprecedented values of galling species diversity and abundance per sampling point. The GIR/TSS ratio from várzea was approximately 2.5 times higher than the highest value of this ratio ever reported in the literature. Based on this fact, we ascertained that várzea and igapó floodplain forests (with lower GIA and GIR, together with the speciose terra firme galling community emerge as the gall diversity apex landscape among all biogeographic regions already investigated. Contrary to expectation, our results also support the "harsh environment hypothesis", and unveil the Amazonian upper canopy as similar to Mediterranean vegetation habitats, hygrothermically stressed environments with leaf temperature at lethal limits and high levels of leaf sclerophylly.

  14. Absorbing Gas around the WASP-12 Planetary System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Ayres, T. R.; Haswell, C. A.; Bohlender, D.; Kochukhov, O.; Flöer, L.

    2013-04-01

    Near-UV observations of the planet host star WASP-12 uncovered the apparent absence of the normally conspicuous core emission of the Mg II h and k resonance lines. This anomaly could be due either to (1) a lack of stellar activity, which would be unprecedented for a solar-like star of the imputed age of WASP-12 or (2) extrinsic absorption, from the intervening interstellar medium (ISM) or from material within the WASP-12 system itself, presumably ablated from the extreme hot Jupiter WASP-12 b. HIRES archival spectra of the Ca II H and K lines of WASP-12 show broad depressions in the line cores, deeper than those of other inactive and similarly distant stars and similar to WASP-12's Mg II h and k line profiles. We took high-resolution ESPaDOnS and FIES spectra of three early-type stars within 20' of WASP-12 and at similar distances, which show the ISM column is insufficient to produce the broad Ca II depression observed in WASP-12. The EBHIS H I column density map supports and strengthens this conclusion. Extrinsic absorption by material local to the WASP-12 system is therefore the most likely cause of the line core anomalies. Gas escaping from the heavily irradiated planet could form a stable and thick circumstellar disk/cloud. The anomalously low stellar activity index (log R^{{\\prime }}_{HK}) of WASP-12 is evidently a direct consequence of the extra core absorption, so similar HK index deficiencies might signal the presence of translucent circumstellar gas around other stars hosting evaporating planets. Based on observations obtained at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Rechereche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del

  15. Production of anticandidal cotton textiles treated with oak gall extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Tayel

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, one of the most dreadful fungal pathogens threatening humans, could not be easily prevented. The anticandidal activity of oak gall extract, Quercus infectoria (QIE, was investigated as a potential natural alternative to synthetic and chemical fungicides. QIE anticandidal potentiality was confirmed using both qualitative and quantitative assays. Cotton textiles were treated with QIE and then evaluated as anticandidal fabrics. QIE-treated textiles had a potent anticandidal activity, which could completely inhibit the inoculated C. albicans cells. The durability of anticandidal activity in QIE-treated textiles almost completely disappeared after the fourth laundering cycle. QIE could be recommended, however, as a potent anticandidal agent for preparing antiseptic solutions and emulsions and as a finishing agent for manufacturing anticandidal disposable diapers and hygienic clothes.

  16. Galling Insects of the Brazilian Páramos: Species Richness and Composition Along High-Altitude Grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcel S; Carneiro, Marco Antônio Alves; Branco, Cristina A; Borges, Rafael Augusto Xavier; Fernandes, G Wilson

    2017-12-08

    In this work, we investigated the factors that determine the distribution of galling insects in high-altitude grasslands, locally called 'campos de altitude' of Mantiqueira Range and tested whether 1) richness of galling insects decreases with altitude, 2) galling insect richness increases with plant richness, 3) variation in galling insect diversity is predominantly a consequence of its β component, and 4) turnover is the main mechanism driving the beta diversity of both galling insects and plants. Galling insect richness did not exhibit a negative relationship with altitude, but it did increase with plant richness. The additive partition of regional richness (γ) into its local and beta components showed that local diversity (α) of galling insects and plants was relatively low in relation to regional diversity; the β component incorporated most of the regional diversity. This pattern was also found in the multiscale analysis of the additive partition for galling insects and plants. The beta diversity of galling insects and plants was driven predominantly by the process of turnover and minimally by nesting. The results reported here point out that the spatial distribution of galling insects is best explained by historical factors, such as the distribution of genera and species of key host plants, as well as their relation to habitat, than ecological effects such as hygrothermal stress - here represented by altitude. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Developmental pathway from leaves to galls induced by a sap-feeding insect on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Graciela G; Ferreira, Bruno G; Moreira, Gilson R P; Isaias, Rosy M S

    2013-03-01

    Galling sap-feeding insects are presumed to cause only minor changes in host plant tissues, because they usually do not require development of nutritive tissues for their own use. This premise was examined through comparison of the histometry, cytometry and anatomical development of non-galled leaves and galls of Calophya duvauae (Scott) (Hemiptera: Calophyidae) on Schinus polygamus (Cav.) Cabrera (Anacardiaceae). Cell fates changed from non-galled leaves to galls during the course of tissue differentiation. C. duvauae caused changes in dermal, ground, and vascular systems of the leaves of S. polygamus. Its feeding activity induced the homogenization of the parenchyma, and the neoformation of vascular bundles and trichomes. The histometric and cytometric data revealed compensatory effects of hyperplasia and cell hypertrophy in the epidermis, with hyperplasia predominating in the adaxial epidermis. There was a balance between these processes in the other tissues. Thus, we found major differences between the developmental pathways of non-galled leaves and galls. These changes were associated with phenotypic alterations related to shelter and appropriate microenvironmental conditions for the gall inducer. The nondifferentiation of a typical nutritive tissue in this case was compared to other non-phylogenetically related arthropod gall systems, and is suggested to result from convergence associated with the piercing feeding apparatus of the corresponding gall-inducer.

  18. Carcinoma of Gall bladder with distant metastasis to breast parenchyma. Report of a case and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, D.; Anamalai, M.; Velu, U.; Julka, P.K.; Nambirajan, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in India. Gall bladder cancer with metastasis to the breast is very rare. Herein we intend to report a case of carcinoma gall bladder with breast metastasis and a short review of the literature. Methods: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of gall bladder carcinoma presenting with breast metastasis. Case report: A 38-year lady presented with complaints of right abdominal pain. Bilateral breast examination showed 2 2 cm palpable lump in the upper outer quadrant of the left breast. Contrast-enhanced CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed circumferential thickening of gall bladder with the loss of fat plane with the adjacent liver parenchyma. Biopsy from the breast lump was reported as metastatic adenocarcinoma compatible with primary in the gall bladder. Whole body PET-CT showed gall bladder mass with abdominal and pelvic nodes with metastasis to liver, left breast, C7 vertebral body and left supra-clavicular node. She was diagnosed to have disseminated carcinoma gall bladder with liver, breast and supraclavicular nodal metastasis. She received palliative chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin and radiotherapy to C7 vertebra. After receiving 3 cycles of chemotherapy, chemotherapy was changed to the second line with single agent capecitabine. In spite of two lines of chemotherapy, she succumbed to disease progression and expired. Conclusion: There are limited examples of gall bladder adenocarcinoma with simultaneous metastasis to breast in the English literature. Our case showed an unusual dissemination of gall bladder cancer

  19. Richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods at Coiba National Park, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Nieves-Aldrey

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Interest in studying galls and their arthropods inducers has been growing rapidly in the last two decades. However, the Neotropical region is probably the least studied region for gall-inducing arthropods. A study of the richness and composition of gall-inducing arthropods was carried out at Coiba National Park in the Republic of Panama. Field data come from samples obtained between August 1997 and September 1999, with three (two-week long more intensive samplings. Seventeen sites, representing the main land habitats of Coiba National Park were surveyed. 4942 galls of 50 insect and 9 mite species inducing galls on 50 vascular plants from 30 botanical families were colleted. 62.7% of the galls were induced by gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, 15.3% by mites, Eriophyidae, 8.5% by Homoptera, Psyllidae, 6.8% by Coccidae and 5.1% by Phlaeothripidae (Tysanoptera. The host plant families with the most galls were Myrtaceae with seven, Bignoniaceae with five and Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae and Melastomataceae with four. Leaf galls accounted for about 93% of collected galls. Most leaf galls were pit/blister galls followed by covering and pouch galls. Gall richness per collecting site was between 1 and 19 species. Coiba’s gall diversity is discussed in relation to data available from other tropical sites from continental Panama and the Neotropical region. Our results support the idea that it may be premature to conclude that species richness of gall inducers declines near the equator. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (3: 1269-1286. Epub 2008 September 30.El interés por el estudio de las agallas y los artrópodos que las inducen ha crecido en todo el mundo en los últimos veinte años. Sin embargo, los artrópodos que inducen agallas en la región Neotropical son probablemente los menos estudiados. Un estudio de la riqueza y composición de artrópodos que inducen agallas fue desarrollado en el Parque Nacional Coiba en la Republica de Panamá. Los datos provienen de

  20. Patterns of gall infestation in Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. in a forest-savannah ecotone

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    Marcela de Castro Nunes Santos Terra

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Galls are the result of a specific interaction between an inducer and a host plant. The species Heteropterys byrsonimifolia A. Juss. occurs in abundance in semideciduous seasonal forest ecotones and adjacent open formations. In the ecological reserve Quedas do Rio Bonito, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, this species is affected by a single gall morphotype. The present study aimed to evaluate whether the structural complexity of the host (test of the structural complexity hypothesis and the distance between hosts (test of the resource concentration hypothesis affect gall density in H. byrsonimifolia and to characterize the spatial distribution of the infestation. The results corroborate the two hypotheses tested, suggesting a metapopulation pattern of gall infestation in H. byrsonimifolia. Gallers were more successful in abrupt forest-savannah transition environments, which may be associated with greater stress-induced host vulnerability that plants usually experience in ecotones.

  1. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ En español Send us your comments Most ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  2. Variations in the Spatial Distribution of Gall Bladder Cancer: A Call ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adjusted incidence rates (AAR) of certain cancers in specific geographical regions within ... which is second to the highest (Chile) in the world and AAR of carcinoma gall bladder .... Conflict of Interest: None declared. 4. Asmarian NS, Ruzitalab ...

  3. Susceptibility of Some Stone and Pome Fruit Rootstocks to Crown Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of different fruit rootstocks to crown gall disease was investigated in greenhouse and field experiments with numerous strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens over three years. Plants were inoculated in the roots and shoots for pot experiments. Field experiments were performed in a naturally contaminated nursery plot. The genotypes Prunus dulcis and P. persica showed a high level of susceptibility to A. tumefaciens. Among the stone rootstocks, bitter almond was highly susceptible in all experiments. Apricot and Cadaman rootstocks displayed low susceptibility but larger galls, showing that there was no relation between rootstock susceptibility and gall size. Among pome rootstocks, quince BA29 was resistant to the disease, while MM106 was susceptible in potted trials; however, in the field essays, pome rootstocks did not become galled, possibly because the strains had selected for and adapted to stone rootstocks.

  4. The investigation of preparations diluent cholestrol stones of gall-bladder and bile-ducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadirov, A.Kh.; Khaydarov, K.Kh.; Giyosov, A.Sh.

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter of book authors made conclusion that developed synthesis methods can be used at receiving new bile acids derivatives and they can find use as medical products in particular as preparations diluent gall-cholesteric stones

  5. Morphogenesis of galls induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arduin

    Full Text Available The commonest insect gall on Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae leaves is induced by Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera, Psyllidae. The gall-inducing insect attacks young leaves in both the unfolded and the fully expanded stages. Four developmental phases were observed in this type of gall: 1 A folding phase, during which the leaf lamina folded upward alongside the midrib and the edges of the upper portion of the leaf approached each other, forming a longitudinal slit. A single chamber was formed on the adaxial surface of the leaf; 2 A swelling phase, in which the folded leaf tissues thickened and the edges of the leaf drew closer together, narrowing the slit. In this phase the gall matured, turning succulent, fusiform and pale green. The single nymphal chamber was lined with white wax and was able to house from one to several nymphs; 3 A dehiscence phase, characterized by the opening of the slit to release inducers; and 4 A senescence phase, when the gall turned dark and dry. The dermal system of the mature gall was composed of a single-layered epidermis. The mesophyll was swollen, and the swelling was due mainly to hyperplasia of the parenchyma. The vascular tissues along the midrib vein were conspicuous and the perivascular fibers resembled parenchymal cells. The hypertrophied secretory cavities contained low lipophylic content. This gall does not form nutritive tissue, but salivary sheaths left by the inducers were observed near the parenchyma, vascular bundles and secretory cavities. This study complements our current knowledge of gall biology and sheds further light on the plasticity of plant tissues stimulated by biotic factors.

  6. New gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Eugenia uniflora and Psidium cattleianum (Myrtaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Valéria C; Nava, Dori E

    2011-01-01

    Two new species and a new genus of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) are described and illustrated. Both species induce leaf galls on Myrtaceae, the former on Eugenia uniflora and the latter on Psidium cattleianum. Duas novas espécies e um novo gênero de insetos galhadores (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) são descritos e ilustrados. Ambas espécies induzem galhas foliares em Myrtaceae, a primeira em Eugenia uniflora e a segunda em Psidium cattleianum.

  7. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  8. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Rodrigues de Souza

    Full Text Available Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects.

  9. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae): edge effect and use as bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújol, Walter Santos; Julião, Genimar Rebouças; Ribeiro, Bárbara Araújo; Silva, Isadora Portes Abraham; dos Santos, Benedito Baptista

    2011-12-01

    Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae) host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior) were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i) because of their host-specificity, (ii) they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii) present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions.

  10. Comparison of three liquid lures for trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Gerald S; Jordan, Kyle K

    2005-06-01

    Two citrus-based sodas and a known wasp attractant were compared in a field trial to assess their attractiveness to local nuisance wasp species. The wasps captured included Vespula germanica (F.), Vespula maculifrons (Buysson), Vespula vulgaris (L.), Vespula flavopilosa Jacobson, Vespula squamosa (Drury), Dolichovespula maculata (L.), Polistes fuscatus (L.), Polistes metricus Say, and Polistes dominulus (Christ). Wasps in the genus Vespula were present in significantly higher numbers in traps than Dolichovespula and Polistes. Both citrus soda products were superior to the isobutanol-acetic acid mixture as attractants for almost all of the wasp species.

  11. PLN's experience with the WASP-III model in generation expansion planning for the Java system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudja, N.; Afiff, A.; Simarmata, B.

    1988-01-01

    The State Electric Power Corporation of Indonesia (PLN) was one of the first recipients of the WASP computer model, and since 1976 has been using the model (first the version WASP-II, and later the WASP-III version) for carrying out generation expansion planning studies for the country, and particularly, for the Java power system. This paper discusses PLN's experience with WASP-III and comments on some problems and constraints encountered, particularly: the time-fixed forced outage rate (FOR) assumed for generating units, simulation of the hydro system and computation time. The paper concludes with some suggestions about future enhancements to WASP-III. (author). 3 figs, 11 tabs

  12. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Michael; Oh, Dong-Chan; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15...... and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding...... phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest....

  13. Worker policing in the German wasp Vespula germanica

    OpenAIRE

    Wim Bonckaert; Kristel Vuerinckx; Johan Billen; Rob L. Hammond; Laurent Keller; Tom Wenseleers

    2008-01-01

    In some ants, bees, and wasps, workers kill or "police" male eggs laid by other workers in order to maintain the reproductive primacy of the queen. Kin selection theory predicts that multiple mating by the queen is one factor that can selectively favor worker policing. This is because when the queen is mated to multiple males, workers are more closely related to the queen's sons than to the sons of other workers. Earlier work has suggested that reproductive patterns in the German wasp Vespula...

  14. Differential Properties of Venom Peptides and Proteins in Solitary vs. Social Hunting Wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Si Hyeock; Baek, Ji Hyeong; Yoon, Kyungjae Andrew

    2016-01-01

    The primary functions of venoms from solitary and social wasps are different. Whereas most solitary wasps sting their prey to paralyze and preserve it, without killing, as the provisions for their progeny, social wasps usually sting to defend their colonies from vertebrate predators. Such distinctive venom properties of solitary and social wasps suggest that the main venom components are likely to be different depending on the wasps’ sociality. The present paper reviews venom components and properties of the Aculeata hunting wasps, with a particular emphasis on the comparative aspects of venom compositions and properties between solitary and social wasps. Common components in both solitary and social wasp venoms include hyaluronidase, phospholipase A2, metalloendopeptidase, etc. Although it has been expected that more diverse bioactive components with the functions of prey inactivation and physiology manipulation are present in solitary wasps, available studies on venom compositions of solitary wasps are simply too scarce to generalize this notion. Nevertheless, some neurotoxic peptides (e.g., pompilidotoxin and dendrotoxin-like peptide) and proteins (e.g., insulin-like peptide binding protein) appear to be specific to solitary wasp venom. In contrast, several proteins, such as venom allergen 5 protein, venom acid phosphatase, and various phospholipases, appear to be relatively more specific to social wasp venom. Finally, putative functions of main venom components and their application are also discussed. PMID:26805885

  15. Renaissance der KMU in einer globalisierten Wirtschaft : Beiträge zu den Rencontres de St-Gall 1998

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Rückblick auf 50 Jahre Rencontres de St-Gall / Review of 50 years Rencontres de St-Gall Karl-Heinz Schmidt Leistungsdifferenzierung als Gegenstand internationaler Forschungskooperation - 50 Jahre Rencontres de St-Gall 17 Thema A: Deregulierung und Branchenentwicklung in der Dienstleistungsgesellschaft / Topic A: Deregulation and the prospects of sectors in the service society Leo W. Chini Die betriebswirtschaftlichen Effekte der von der EU induzierten »Deregulier...

  16. Evidence for a stress hypothesis: hemiparasitism effect on the colonization of Alchornea castaneaefolia A. Juss.uphorbiaceae) by Galling Insects

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Gustavo; HANAZAKI, Natalia; SILVA, Marivana B.; IZZO, Thiago J.; BEJAR, María E. P.; MESQUITA, Mariana R.; FERNANDES, G. Wilson

    2003-01-01

    Stressed plants are generally more attacked by galling insects. In this study we investigated the relationship between population abundance and species richness of galling insects on the tree Alchornea castaneaefolia A. JUSS. (Euphorbiaceae), submited to stress induced by the hemiparasite Psittacanthus sp. (Loranthaceae) in the Amazon, Brazil. Branches of A. castaneaefolia attacked by the hemiparasite were more heavily infested by galling insects than non-attacked branches. The field observat...

  17. Persistent bacteraemia caused by Staphylococcus aureus in the gall bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Alexander Tin Han; Cun, Tony; Benamu, Esther; Renault, Cybele

    2017-11-08

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) remains a complex disease with a high associated morbidity and mortality, especially when it is able to establish an occult nidus safe from antimicrobial eradication. Without rapid identification and intervention, the nidus can cause persistent relapse of disease, morbidity and mortality. Having a high clinical suspicion for the foci of occult S. aureus is important, and awareness of potential sites of infection is critical and can be life-saving.We present a unique case of a 65-year-old man with end-stage renal disease receiving haemodialysis who developed septic shock from SAB. Despite 18 days of appropriate antibiotics, the patient had persistent high-grade bacteraemia until his gall bladder was ultimately percutaneously drained. The day after drainage, he cleared his blood cultures, although he ultimately passed away as he decided to transition his care to focus on comfort measures. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. A mechanical signal biases caste development in a social wasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainath Suryanarayanan; John C. Hermanson; Robert L. Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the proximate mechanisms of caste development in eusocial taxa can reveal how social species evolved from solitary ancestors. In Polistes wasps, the current paradigm holds that differential amounts of nutrition during the larval stage cause the divergence of worker and gyne (potential queen) castes. But nutrition level alone cannot explain how the first...

  19. Venom gland components of the ectoparasitoid wasp, Anisopteromalus calandrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wasp Anisopteromalus calandrae is a small ectoparasitoid that attacks stored product pest beetle larvae that develop inside grain kernels, and is thus a potential insect control tool. The components of the venom have not been studied, but venom peptides from other organisms have been identified ...

  20. History and management of sirex wood wasp in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus J. Carnegie

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and management of Sirex noctilio in Australia, including information from previous reviews as well as more recent data. The sirex wood wasp, Sirex noctilio, is one of the most important insect pests of Pinus radiata in Australia. Native to Europe, North Africa and Turkey, S...

  1. Provisional host catalogue of Fig wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    INTRODUCTION In this catalogue — entitled "provisional" because our knowledge of the subject is still so evidently incomplete — all species of Ficus mentioned as hosts of fig wasps, are listed with the Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea reared from their receptacles. The names used for the Agaonidae are in

  2. Kin discrimination and sex ratios in a parasitoid wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reece, S.E.; Shuker, D.M.; Pen, I.R.; Duncan, A.B.; Choudhary, A.; Batchelor, C.M.; West, S.A.

    Sex ratio theory provides a clear and simple way to test if nonsocial haplodiploid wasps can discriminate between kin and nonkin. Specifically, if females can discriminate siblings from nonrelatives, then they are expected to produce a higher proportion of daughters if they mate with a sibling. This

  3. Social wasps promote social behavior in Saccharomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This commentary provides background and an evaluation of a paper to be published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in which social wasps were found to harbor significant populations of two species of the yeast genus Saccharomyces. Apparently, the yeasts were acquired during feed...

  4. WASP as a planning tool of electrical generation systems expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isidoro, G.

    1984-01-01

    The ''Wien Automatic System Package'' (WASP), consists of six modules or computer programmes which assist in decision taking process in expanding an electrical generation network. A general description of this model is made and some conclusions are drawn from the data processed to this date

  5. Inheritance of gynandromorphism in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamping, Albert; Katju, Vaishali; Beukeboom, Leo W.; Werren, Jobn H.; Werren, John H.; Kaufman, T.C.

    The parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis has haplo-diploid sex determination. Males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, whereas females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid. Females and males can be easily distinguished by their morphology. A strain that produces individuals with

  6. The WASP-South search for transiting exoplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Queloz D.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2006 WASP-South has been scanning the Southern sky for transiting exoplanets. Combined with Geneva Observatory radial velocities we have so far found over 30 transiting exoplanets around relatively bright stars of magnitude 9–13. We present a status report for this ongoing survey.

  7. Assemblage of filamentous fungi associated with aculeate hymenopteran brood in reed galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneberg, Petr; Bizos, Jiří; Čmoková, Adéla; Kolařík, Miroslav; Astapenková, Alena; Bogusch, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Monotypic stands of common reed and the reed-gall-associated insect assemblages are distributed worldwide. However, fungi associated with these assemblages have not been characterized in detail. Here we examined 5200 individuals (12 species) of immature aculeate hymenopterans or their parasitoids collected at 34 sampling sites in Central Europe. We noticed fungal outgrowth on exoskeletons of 83 (1.60%) larvae and pupae. The most common host was eudominant Pemphredon fabricii. However, the less abundant aculeate hymenopteran reed gall inquilines were infected at higher prevalence, these included Trypoxylon deceptorium, Trypoxylon minus, Hoplitis leucomelana and Hylaeus moricei (all considered new host records). We identified three fungal species, Penicillium buchwaldii (72% of cases), Aspergillus pseudoglaucus (22%) and Penicillium quebecense (6%). When multibrooded nests were affected, only a part of individuals was infected in 62% of cases. The sampling site-specific infection rate reached up to 13%, thus fungal infections should be considered an important variable driving the abundance of gall inquilines. Infections of generalist host species were more frequent than those of reed gall specialists, suggesting that suboptimal conditions decreased the immunocompetence of non-specialized species, which only occasionally nest in reed galls and feed in reed beds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eight species of Cecidomyiinae (Cecidomyiidae were found in association with 53 species of plant distributed among 42 genera and 32 families at restingas of Barra de Maricá, Itaipuaçu and Carapebus. Ninety four gall midge species were cecidogenous, four predaceous, five inquilinous of galls and five were free living. Galling species were associated with 47 plant species belonging to 36 genera and 28 families. The majority of the galls occurred on the leaves (N = 63; 13 on buds; nine on inflorescence, closed flower or flower peduncle; three on fruits and one on tendril. Myrtaceae were the richest plant family in number of galls followed by Burseraceae, Nyctaginaceae, Sapotaceae, Erythroxylaceae, Malpighiaceae and Solanaceae. New records of host plants and localities were recorded. Seventy nine Cecidomyiinae species were found at Restinga of Barra de Maricá, 64 at Carapebus and 41 at Itaipuaçu. Sorensen's index revealed that the restingas of Barra de Maricá and Itaipuaçu ate more similar in Cecidomyiinae fauna, confirming a positive relation between geographical proximity and fauna similarity.

  9. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  10. Parasitic wasp responses to symbiont-based defense in aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kerry M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that several insect lineages receive protection against particular natural enemies through infection with heritable symbionts, but little is yet known about whether enemies are able to discriminate and respond to symbiont-based defense. The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, receives protection against the parasitic wasp, Aphidius ervi, when infected with the bacterial symbiont Hamiltonella defensa and its associated bacteriophage APSE (Acyrthosiphon pisum secondary endosymbiont. Internally developing parasitoid wasps, such as A. ervi, use maternal and embryonic factors to create an environment suitable for developing wasps. If more than one parasitoid egg is deposited into a single aphid host (superparasitism, then additional complements of these factors may contribute to the successful development of the single parasitoid that emerges. Results We performed experiments to determine if superparasitism is a tactic allowing wasps to overcome symbiont-mediated defense. We found that the deposition of two eggs into symbiont-protected aphids significantly increased rates of successful parasitism relative to singly parasitized aphids. We then conducted behavioral assays to determine whether A. ervi selectively superparasitizes H. defensa-infected aphids. In choice tests, we found that A. ervi tends to deposit a single egg in uninfected aphids, but two or more eggs in H. defensa-infected aphids, indicating that oviposition choices may be largely determined by infection status. Finally, we identified differences in the quantity of the trans-β-farnesene, the major component of aphid alarm pheromone, between H. defensa-infected and uninfected aphids, which may form the basis for discrimination. Conclusions Here we show that the parasitic wasp A. ervi discriminates among symbiont-infected and uninfected aphids, and changes its oviposition behavior in a way that increases the likelihood of overcoming symbiont

  11. Ocellar optics in nocturnal and diurnal bees and wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J; Kelber, Almut; Wallén, Rita; Wcislo, William T

    2006-12-01

    Nocturnal bees, wasps and ants have considerably larger ocelli than their diurnal relatives, suggesting an active role in vision at night. In a first step to understanding what this role might be, the morphology and physiological optics of ocelli were investigated in three tropical rainforest species - the nocturnal sweat bee Megalopta genalis, the nocturnal paper wasp Apoica pallens and the diurnal paper wasp Polistes occidentalis - using hanging-drop techniques and standard histological methods. Ocellar image quality, in addition to lens focal length and back focal distance, was determined in all three species. During flight, the ocellar receptive fields of both nocturnal species are centred very dorsally, possibly in order to maximise sensitivity to the narrow dorsal field of light that enters through gaps in the rainforest canopy. Since all ocelli investigated had a slightly oval shape, images were found to be astigmatic: images formed by the major axis of the ocellus were located further from the proximal surface of the lens than images formed by the minor axis. Despite being astigmatic, images formed at either focal plane were reasonably sharp in all ocelli investigated. When compared to the position of the retina below the lens, measurements of back focal distance reveal that the ocelli of Megalopta are highly underfocused and unable to resolve spatial detail. This together with their very large and tightly packed rhabdoms suggests a role in making sensitive measurements of ambient light intensity. In contrast, the ocelli of the two wasps form images near the proximal boundary of the retina, suggesting the potential for modest resolving power. In light of these results, possible roles for ocelli in nocturnal bees and wasps are discussed, including the hypothesis that they might be involved in nocturnal homing and navigation, using two main cues: the spatial pattern of bright patches of daylight visible through the rainforest canopy, and compass information

  12. Floral volatiles, pollinator sharing and diversification in the fig–wasp mutualism: insights from Ficus natalensis, and its two wasp pollinators (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, A.; Underhill, J. G.; Cruaud, A.; Hossaert-McKey, M.; Johnson, S. D.; Tolley, K. A.; Kjellberg, F.; van Noort, S.; Proffit, M.

    2012-01-01

    Combining biogeographic, ecological, morphological, molecular and chemical data, we document departure from strict specialization in the fig-pollinating wasp mutualism. We show that the pollinating wasps Elisabethiella stuckenbergi and Elisabethiella socotrensis form a species complex of five lineages in East and Southern Africa. Up to two morphologically distinct lineages were found to co-occur locally in the southern African region. Wasps belonging to a single lineage were frequently the main regional pollinators of several Ficus species. In South Africa, two sister lineages, E. stuckenbergi and E. socotrensis, pollinate Ficus natalensis but only E. stuckenbergi also regularly pollinates Ficus burkei. The two wasp species co-occur in individual trees of F. natalensis throughout KwaZulu-Natal. Floral volatile blends emitted by F. natalensis in KwaZulu-Natal were similar to those emitted by F. burkei and different from those produced by other African Ficus species. The fig odour similarity suggests evolutionary convergence to attract particular wasp species. The observed pattern may result from selection for pollinator sharing among Ficus species. Such a process, with one wasp species regionally pollinating several hosts, but several wasp species pollinating a given Ficus species across its geographical range could play an important role in the evolutionary dynamics of the Ficus-pollinating wasp association. PMID:22130605

  13. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes, Myrtaceae (23 and Fabaceae (22. In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1599- 1607. Epub 2011 December 01.

  14. Pancreatic heterotopia in the gall bladder: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sansom Henrique Bromberg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic heterotopia in the gall bladder is a rare entity, with approximately 31 cases reported in English language literature until 2006; there are no Brazilian studies on the topic. As it is usually asymptomatic, the definitive diagnosis is made by the anatomopathological material excised due to common diseases of the organ, such as lithiasis, inflammatory processes, polyps and tumors. A case is reported of a 40-year-old female patient submitted to surgery with a diagnosis of lithiasic cholecystopathy. Ectopy was evidenced by the histological study, due to the presence of acinar and ductal components of the pancreas and gall bladder corpus. The authors used their own pathological classification for this ectopy, and recommended that this entity be included more frequently in the differential diagnosis of alithiasic cholecystopathy and intramural and exophytic lesions of the gall bladder.

  15. Review of the generic aging lessons learned (GALL) report for U.S. NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yi; Dou Yikang

    2014-01-01

    Generic aging lessons learned (GALL) report is a technical basis document issued by U.S. nuclear regulatory commission (NRC) for guiding the review of license renewal application (LRA) of its domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs). By form of tabulations, GALL report addresses the correlation among materials, environments, aging effects/mechanisms, and aging management programs (AMPs) from the level of specific structures and/or components. Based on literature investigation and analysis, the essential information of GALL report in the aspects of background, development history, content framework, and application was reviewed in this paper, which should be the first time in China and would have reference value for establishment of both the AMPs and the nuclear safety regulations of extending the lifetime of its NPPs. (authors)

  16. Phylogeny of Rhus gall aphids (Hemiptera:Pemphigidae) based on combined molecular analysis of nuclear EF1α and mitochondrial COII genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi-xiang Yang; Xiao-ming Chen; Nathan P. Havill; Ying Feng; Hang. Chen

    2010-01-01

    Rhus gall aphids (Fordinae : Melaphidini) have a disjunct distribution in East Asia and North America and have specific host plant relationships. Some of them are of economic importance and all species form sealed galls which show great variation in shape, size, structure, and galling-site. We present a phylogeny incorporating ten species and four...

  17. Quantification of Galling in Sheet Metal Forming by surface topography characterisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Bay, Niels; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    1998-01-01

    One of the major problems in forming of stainless steel sheet is galling due to lubricant film breakdown leading to scoring and bad surface quality. In a Danish research programme new lubricants substituting the normally applied chlorinated paraffin oils are being developed and tested...... for this purpose. In order to determine the limits of lubrication of these new lubricants, as well as commercial ones already available on the market, two sheet forming tests have been developed. Quantification of the degree of galling is done by roughness measurements on the workpiece surface. In a strip...

  18. Species turnover drives β-diversity patterns across multiple spatial scales of plant-galling interactions in mountaintop grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Marcel Serra; Carneiro, Marco Antônio Alves; Branco, Cristina Alves; Borges, Rafael Augusto Xavier; Fernandes, Geraldo Wilson

    2018-01-01

    This study describes differences in species richness and composition of the assemblages of galling insects and their host plants at different spatial scales. Sampling was conducted along altitudinal gradients composed of campos rupestres and campos de altitude of two mountain complexes in southeastern Brazil: Espinhaço Range and Mantiqueira Range. The following hypotheses were tested: i) local and regional richness of host plants and galling insects are positively correlated; ii) beta diversity is the most important component of regional diversity of host plants and galling insects; and iii) Turnover is the main mechanism driving beta diversity of both host plants and galling insects. Local richness of galling insects and host plants increased with increasing regional richness of species, suggesting a pattern of unsaturated communities. The additive partition of regional richness (γ) into local and beta components shows that local richnesses (α) of species of galling insects and host plants are low relative to regional richness; the beta (β) component incorporates most of the regional richness. The multi-scale analysis of additive partitioning showed similar patterns for galling insects and host plants with the local component (α) incorporated a small part of regional richness. Beta diversity of galling insects and host plants were mainly the result of turnover, with little contribution from nesting. Although the species composition of galling insects and host plant species varied among sample sites, mountains and even mountain ranges, local richness remained relatively low. In this way, the addition of local habitats with different landscapes substantially affects regional richness. Each mountain contributes fundamentally to the composition of regional diversity of galling insects and host plants, and so the design of future conservation strategies should incorporate multiple scales.

  19. Strike fast, strike hard: the red-throated caracara exploits absconding behavior of social wasps during nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Sean; Moeri, Onour; Jones, Tanya; Scott, Catherine; Khaskin, Grigori; Gries, Regine; O'Donnell, Sean; Gries, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Red-throated Caracaras Ibycter americanus (Falconidae) are specialist predators of social wasps in the Neotropics. It had been proposed that these caracaras possess chemical repellents that allow them to take the brood of wasp nests without being attacked by worker wasps. To determine how caracaras exploit nests of social wasps and whether chemical repellents facilitate predation, we: (1) video recorded the birds attacking wasp nests; (2) analyzed surface extracts of the birds' faces, feet, and feathers for potential chemical repellents; and (3) inflicted mechanical damage on wasp nests to determine the defensive behavior of wasps in response to varying levels of disturbance. During caracara predation events, two species of large-bodied wasps mounted stinging attacks on caracaras, whereas three smaller-bodied wasp species did not. The "hit-and-run" predation tactic of caracaras when they attacked nests of large and aggressive wasps reduced the risk of getting stung. Our data reveal that the predation strategy of caracaras is based on mechanical disturbance of, and damage to, target wasp nests. Caracara attacks and severe experimental disturbance of nests invariably caused wasps to abscond (abandon their nests). Two compounds in caracara foot extracts [sulcatone and iridodial] elicited electrophysiological responses from wasp antennae, and were also present in defensive secretions of sympatric arboreal-nesting Azteca ants. These compounds appear not to be wasp repellents but to be acquired coincidentally by caracaras when they perch on trees inhabited with Azteca ants. We conclude that caracara predation success does not depend on wasp repellents but relies on the absconding response that is typical of swarm-founding polistine wasps. Our study highlights the potential importance of vertebrate predators in the ecology and evolution of social wasps.

  20. Chemical Strategies of the Beetle Metoecus Paradoxus, Social Parasite of the Wasp Vespula Vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; van Zweden, Jelle S; Huyghe, Hilde; Drijfhout, Falko; Bonckaert, Wim; Wenseleers, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The parasitoid beetle Metoecus paradoxus frequently parasitizes colonies of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris. It penetrates a host colony as a larva that attaches itself onto a foraging wasp's body and, once inside the nest, it feeds on a wasp larva inside a brood cell and then pupates. Avoiding detection by the wasp host is crucial when the beetle emerges. Here, we tested whether adult M. paradoxus beetles avoid detection by mimicking the cuticular hydrocarbon profile of their host. The beetles appear to be chemically adapted to their main host species, the common wasp, because they share more hydrocarbon compounds with it than they do with the related German wasp, V. germanica. In addition, aggression tests showed that adult beetles were attacked less by common wasp workers than by German wasp workers. Our results further indicated that the host-specific compounds were, at least partially, produced through recycling of the prey's hydrocarbons, and were not acquired through contact with the adult host. Moreover, the chemical profile of the beetles shows overproduction of the wasp queen pheromone, nonacosane (n-C29), suggesting that beetles might mimic the queen's pheromonal bouquet.

  1. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) package. Version 1.0. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solov'ev, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. (WASP is designed for data analysis of the STAR and ALICE experiments). It uses a wavelet analysis for this purpose and the vanishing momentum or gaussian wavelets are chosen for transformations. WASP provides an user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI) which makes it quite simple to use. WASP design, a brief description of the used wavelet transformation algorithm and GUI are presented in this user's guide

  2. Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban remanent

    OpenAIRE

    Loyola, Rafael D.; Martins, Rogério P.

    2006-01-01

    Temporal variation of solitary wasps and bees, nesting frequency, mortality, and parasitism were recorded from a remanent forest in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Wasps and bees were collected in trap-nests placed in areas with 25, 100, and 400 m², from February to November 2004. The 137 trap-nests collected contained 11 species of wasps and bees. Wasps occupied most nests (75%). Occupation peaks occurred in March (25%) and September (26%); in June, the lowest occupation (2%) was observed. Excep...

  3. Detection of sodium in the atmosphere of WASP-69b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasayas-Barris, N.; Palle, E.; Nowak, G.; Yan, F.; Nortmann, L.; Murgas, F.

    2017-12-01

    Context. Transit spectroscopy is one of the most commonly used methods to characterize exoplanets' atmospheres. From the ground, these observations are very challenging due to the terrestrial atmosphere and its intrinsic variations, but high-spectral-resolution observations overcome this difficulty by resolving the spectral lines and taking advantage of the different Doppler velocities of the Earth, the host star, and the exoplanet. Aims: We analyze the transmission spectrum around the Na I doublet at 589 nm of the extrasolar planet WASP-69b, a hot Jupiter orbiting a K-type star with a period of 3.868 days, and compare the analysis to that of the well-known hot Jupiter HD 189733b. We also present the analysis of the Rossiter-McLaughlin (RM) effect for WASP-69b. Methods: We observed two transits of WASP-69b with the High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS-North) spectrograph (R = 115 000) at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). We perform a telluric contamination subtraction based on the comparison between the observed spectra and a telluric water model. Then, the common steps of the differential spectroscopy are followed to extract the transmission spectrum. The method is tested with archival transit data of the extensively studied exoplanet HD 189733b, obtained with the HARPS-South spectrograph at ESO 3.6 m telescope, and then applied to WASP-69b data. Results: For HD 189733b, we spectrally resolve the Na I doublet and measure line contrasts of 0.72 ± 0.05% (D2) and 0.51 ± 0.05% (D1), and full width half maximum (FWHM) values of 0.64 ± 0.04 Å (D2) and 0.60 ± 0.06 Å (D1), in agreement with previously published results. For WASP-69b only the contrast of the D2 line can be measured (5.8 ± 0.3%). This corresponds to a detection at the 5σ-level of excess absorption of 0.5 ± 0.1% in a passband of 1.5 Å. A net blueshift of 0.04 Å is measured for HD 189733b and no shift is obtained for WASP-69b. By measuring the RM effect, we get an angular

  4. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  5. Spitzer Secondary Eclipse Depths with Multiple Intrapixel Sensitivity Correction Methods Observations of WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Deming, Drake; Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E.; Tucker, Gregory S.

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μm thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  6. Health effects of predatory beneficial mites and wasps in greenhouses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert

    A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....

  7. Male killing Spiroplasma protects Drosophila melanogaster against two parasitoid wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J; Butler, S; Sanchez, G; Mateos, M

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transmitted associations between endosymbiotic bacteria and insects are diverse and widespread in nature. Owing to imperfect vertical transmission, many heritable microbes have evolved compensational mechanisms to enhance their persistence in host lineages, such as manipulating host reproduction and conferring fitness benefits to host. Symbiont-mediated defense against natural enemies of hosts is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism by which endosymbionts enhance host fitness. Members of the genus Spiroplasma associated with distantly related Drosophila hosts are known to engage in either reproductive parasitism (i.e., male killing) or defense against natural enemies (the parasitic wasp Leptopilina heterotoma and a nematode). A male-killing strain of Spiroplasma (strain Melanogaster Sex Ratio Organism (MSRO)) co-occurs with Wolbachia (strain wMel) in certain wild populations of the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the effects of Spiroplasma MSRO and Wolbachia wMel on Drosophila survival against parasitism by two common wasps, Leptopilina heterotoma and Leptopilina boulardi, that differ in their host ranges and host evasion strategies. The results indicate that Spiroplasma MSRO prevents successful development of both wasps, and confers a small, albeit significant, increase in larva-to-adult survival of flies subjected to wasp attacks. We modeled the conditions under which defense can contribute to Spiroplasma persistence. Wolbachia also confers a weak, but significant, survival advantage to flies attacked by L. heterotoma. The host protective effects exhibited by Spiroplasma and Wolbachia are additive and may provide the conditions for such cotransmitted symbionts to become mutualists. Occurrence of Spiroplasma-mediated protection against distinct parasitoids in divergent Drosophila hosts suggests a general protection mechanism. PMID:24281548

  8. SPITZER SECONDARY ECLIPSE DEPTHS WITH MULTIPLE INTRAPIXEL SENSITIVITY CORRECTION METHODS OBSERVATIONS OF WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, AND HAT-P-22b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpatrick, Brian M.; Tucker, Gregory S. [Department of Physics, Box 1843, Brown University, Providence, RI 02904 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Kataria, Tiffany [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ingalls, James G.; Krick, Jessica E., E-mail: brian_kilpatrick@brown.edu, E-mail: nlewis@stsci.org, E-mail: tiffany.kataria@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: ddeming@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: krick@ipac.caltech.edu [Spitzer Science Center, Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We measure the 4.5 μ m thermal emission of five transiting hot Jupiters, WASP-13b, WASP-15b, WASP-16b, WASP-62b, and HAT-P-22b using channel 2 of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on the Spitzer Space Telescope . Significant intrapixel sensitivity variations in Spitzer IRAC data require careful correction in order to achieve precision on the order of several hundred parts per million (ppm) for the measurement of exoplanet secondary eclipses. We determine eclipse depths by first correcting the raw data using three independent data reduction methods. The Pixel Gain Map (PMAP), Nearest Neighbors (NNBR), and Pixel Level Decorrelation (PLD) each correct for the intrapixel sensitivity effect in Spitzer photometric time-series observations. The results from each methodology are compared against each other to establish if they reach a statistically equivalent result in every case and to evaluate their ability to minimize uncertainty in the measurement. We find that all three methods produce reliable results. For every planet examined here NNBR and PLD produce results that are in statistical agreement. However, the PMAP method appears to produce results in slight disagreement in cases where the stellar centroid is not kept consistently on the most well characterized area of the detector. We evaluate the ability of each method to reduce the scatter in the residuals as well as in the correlated noise in the corrected data. The NNBR and PLD methods consistently minimize both white and red noise levels and should be considered reliable and consistent. The planets in this study span equilibrium temperatures from 1100 to 2000 K and have brightness temperatures that require either high albedo or efficient recirculation. However, it is possible that other processes such as clouds or disequilibrium chemistry may also be responsible for producing these brightness temperatures.

  9. Temporal polyethism and worker specialization in the wasp, Vespula germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Christine R; Jeanne, Robert L; Nordheim, Erik V

    2007-01-01

    Temporal polyethism is a common mechanism of worker specialization observed in social insect species with large colony sizes, Vespula wasp colonies consist of thousands of monomorphic workers, yet studies based on small cohorts of workers report that temporal polyethism is either weak or completely absent in different Vespula species. Concerned that the small sample size of these studies precluded detection of temporal polyethism, several hundred, known-age Vespula germanica (F.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) workers were studied. High variability was found in the sequence and diversity of tasks workers perform, suggesting that V. germanica colonies exhibit weak temporal polyethism. The most common order in which tasks were taken up was 1) nest work, 2) pulp foraging, 3) carbohydrate foraging, and 4) protein foraging. However, only 61% of the wasps performed more than two of the tasks during their lives. Thorax size had a significant negative effect on the age at first foraging, but the magnitude of the effect was small. The daily ratio of task generalists to specialists was relatively constant despite the high turnover of workers, growth of the colony, and the colony's transition from rearing worker larvae to rearing reproductives. Over the course of their lives, 43% of the workers averaged more than one kind of task performed per day. Life history traits are identified that may explain why vespines with large colonies use a generalist strategy of labor division rather than the specialist strategy observed in honey bees (Apis mellifera) and large colonies of wasps (Polybia occidentalis).

  10. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Delrez, Laetitia; Barker, Adrian J.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas; Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel

    2017-02-01

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b (M p = 10.3M J , a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q‧, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q‧ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q‧ ≥ 1 × 106, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  11. Write a scientific paper (WASP) - a career-critical skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor; Cuschieri, Sarah

    2018-02-01

    The ability to write a scientific paper (WASP) is becoming progressively more critical because the "publish or perish" mantra is increasingly valid in today's world where success is judged by number of publications and quality of publications based on journals which publish the researcher's work. These metrics are used to gauge applicants in often cut-throat competitions for jobs and/or career advancement. However, the science and art of paper-writing comprise a vast panoply of different skills, from writing a proposal, to ethics and data protection applications, to data collection and analysis, to writing and dealing with editors and authors, and so on. Over the next few issues, Early Human Development will embark on a series of Best Practice Guidelines that will outline and explain the various requisite WASP skills while providing practical guidelines for paper writing. The purpose is to impart the authors' collective experience to trainees in this crucial aspect of career progress. This first set of WASP papers will mainly focus on statistical analysis using Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of a Parasitic Wasp as a Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Olson

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Screening cargo for illicit substances is in need of rapid high-throughput inspection systems that accurately identify suspicious cargo. Here we investigate the ability of a parasitic wasp, Microplitis croceipes to detect and respond to methyl benzoate, the volatile component of cocaine, by examining their response to training concentrations, their sensitivity at low concentrations, and their ability to detect methyl benzoate when two concealment substances (green tea and ground coffee are added to the testing arena. Utilizing classical associative learning techniques with sucrose as reward, we found that M. croceipes learns individual concentrations of methyl benzoate, and they can generalize this learning to concentrations 100× lower than the training concentration. Their sensitivity to methyl benzoate is very low at an estimated 3 ppb. They are also able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by green tea, but were not able to detect methyl benzoate when covered completely by coffee grounds. Habituation to the tea and coffee odors prior to testing improves their responses, resulting in effective detection of methyl benzoate covered by the coffee grounds. With the aid of the portable device called ‘the wasp hound’, the wasps appear to have potential to be effective on-site biosensors for the detection of cocaine.

  13. Searching for Rapid Orbital Decay of WASP-18b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Hamilton, Douglas [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Delrez, Laetitia [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Barker, Adrian J. [Department of Applied Mathematics, School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Gillon, Michael; Jehin, Emmanuel, E-mail: awilkins@astro.umd.edu [Space Sciences, Technologies and Astrophysics Research (STAR) Institute, Université de Liège, allée du 6 Août 19C, B-4000 Lige (Belgium)

    2017-02-20

    The WASP-18 system, with its massive and extremely close-in planet, WASP-18b ( M{sub p} = 10.3 M{sub J}, a = 0.02 au, P = 22.6 hr), is one of the best-known exoplanet laboratories to directly measure Q ′, the modified tidal quality factor and proxy for efficiency of tidal dissipation, of the host star. Previous analysis predicted a rapid orbital decay of the planet toward its host star that should be measurable on the timescale of a few years, if the star is as dissipative as is inferred from the circularization of close-in solar-type binary stars. We have compiled published transit and secondary eclipse timing (as observed by WASP, TRAPPIST, and Spitzer ) with more recent unpublished light curves (as observed by TRAPPIST and Hubble Space Telescope ) with coverage spanning nine years. We find no signature of a rapid decay. We conclude that the absence of rapid orbital decay most likely derives from Q ′ being larger than was inferred from solar-type stars and find that Q ′ ≥ 1 × 10{sup 6}, at 95% confidence; this supports previous work suggesting that F stars, with their convective cores and thin convective envelopes, are significantly less tidally dissipative than solar-type stars, with radiative cores and large convective envelopes.

  14. The cause, incidence and severity of a new gall damage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies against the new Eucalyptus pest. Key words: Alien insects, Galls. Leptocybe invasa, pest management, tree plantation. Introduction. Tree growing is important to many ... refugee settlements in Uganda to protect the environment while ensuring sustainable supply of tree ...

  15. BAY K 8644-induced oscillations in rabbit gall-bladder transepithelial potential difference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Frederiksen, O

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the Ca2+-channel activator BAY K 8644 (a novel dihydropyridine) on transepithelial potential difference (Pd), electrical resistance (Rt), and unidirectional Na+-fluxes were studied in the rabbit gall-bladder. It was observed that BAY K 8644 at concentrations between 10(-7) and 10...

  16. Celticecis, a Genus of Gall Midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), Newly Reported for the Western Palearctic Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond J. Gagné; John C. Moser

    1997-01-01

    Many Holarctic genera of trees and shrubs are host over much of their ranges to particular genera of Cecidomyiidae. As examples, willows host gall midges of Rabdophaga and Iteomyia, oaks host Macrodiplosis and Polystepha, and birches host Semudobia in both the Nearctic and...

  17. ultrasound mis-diagnosis of biliary sludge as a gall bladder

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    SUMMARY. Background: Cholecystosonography is the Ultrasound examination of the gall bladder and ducts. It has the advantage of not using ionising radiation, but may be operator dependent. Thus misinterpretation of the images may sometimes occur especially in the untrained hands. Case Report: A 24 year old male.

  18. The authority and types for the hackberry gall psyllid genus Pachypsylla (Riley) (Hemiptera-Homoptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nomenclatural problems with the hackberry gall psyllid species names are rectified. The genus Pachypsylla Riley, 1883, type species, Psylla venusta Osten-Sacken, includes 14 nominal species. These are: Pachypsylla venusta (Osten-Sacken, 1861); P. celtidismamma Riley, 1875; P. celtidisgemma Ri...

  19. ERGO Jazz Session võõrustab Chris Gall Triot. Vennad Urbid ajakohaste lauludega

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    14. septembril alustab Jazzkaar koostöös ERGO Kindlustusega uut sarja ERGO Jazz Session, mille avaesinejaks on Chris Gall Trio (kontserdid 14. sept.Kumu auditooriumis ja 15. sept. Tartus Athena keskuses). Vendade Urbide kontserdist "Aeg" 13. sept. Vanemuise kontserdimajas

  20. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U. [and others

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volume s 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables.

  1. surgery of the gall-bladder and the commo bile-duct* 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The surgical treatment of diseases of the gall-bladder consists largely of the treatment of stones and their complications. There is a voluminous literature on gallstones, but its analysis would serve little purpose in this paper. It is of greater value to analyse one's own experience, to discuss how we can diagnose lesions of.

  2. Resistance to Root Galling Caused by the Powdery Scab Pathogen Spongospora subterranea in Potato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato selections (clones and commercial cultivars) were examined for resistance to root galling, caused by the powdery scab pathogen Spongospora subterranea in 7 field trials conducted between 2003 and 2007 in the states of Washington (WA) and Idaho (ID). In 2003, Shepody demonstrated the highest l...

  3. Gall mite inspection on dormant black currant buds using machine vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. R.; Stigaard Laursen, Morten; Jonassen, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel machine vision-based approach detecting and mapping gall mite infection in dormant buds on black currant bushes. A vehicle was fitted with four cameras and RTK-GPS. Results compared automatic detection to human decisions based on the images, and by mapping the results...

  4. Nuclear power plant Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL). Main report and appendix A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasza, K.E.; Diercks, D.R.; Holland, J.W.; Choi, S.U.

    1996-12-01

    The purpose of this generic aging lessons learned (GALL) review is to provide a systematic review of plant aging information in order to assess materials and component aging issues related to continued operation and license renewal of operating reactors. Literature on mechanical, structural, and thermal-hydraulic components and systems reviewed consisted of 97 Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) reports, 23 NRC Generic Letters, 154 Information Notices, 29 Licensee Event Reports (LERs), 4 Bulletins, and 9 Nuclear Management and Resources Council Industry Reports (NUMARC IRs) and literature on electrical components and systems reviewed consisted of 66 NPAR reports, 8 NRC Generic Letters, 111 Information Notices, 53 LERs, 1 Bulletin, and 1 NUMARC IR. More than 550 documents were reviewed. The results of these reviews were systematized using a standardized GALL tabular format and standardized definitions of aging-related degradation mechanisms and effects. The tables are included in volumes 1 and 2 of this report. A computerized data base has also been developed for all review tables and can be used to expedite the search for desired information on structures, components, and relevant aging effects. A survey of the GALL tables reveals that all ongoing significant component aging issues are currently being addressed by the regulatory process. However, the aging of what are termed passive components has been highlighted for continued scrutiny. This document is Volume 1, consisting of the executive summary, summary and observations, and an appendix listing the GALL literature review tables

  5. Distribution of gall crabs inhabiting mushroom corals on Semporna reefs, Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Sancia E. T.; Hoeksema, Bert W.

    Coral reef cryptofauna forms an important component of tropical marine biodiversity, consisting primarily of invertebrates dwelling in and on corals. During a survey carried out around the Semporna peninsula (Sabah, NE Borneo), the occurrence of gall crabs inhabiting mushroom corals was examined on

  6. Vicarious visualization of gall bladder on 99mTc ethylene dicysteine renal dynamic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, Geetanjali; Damle, Nishikant A.; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Though the hepatobiliary excretion of Technetium-99m ethylene dicysteine ( 99m Tc-EC) is very low and usually does not effect image interpretation on routine posterior imaging, the possibility of visualization of the gall bladder should be kept in mind while reporting the 99m Tc-EC scan especially, when anterior imaging is performed as in renal transplant patients. (author)

  7. Moessbauer spectrometry applied to the study of laboratory samples made of iron gall ink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgaud, C.; Rouchon, V.; Refait, P.; Wattiaux, A.

    2008-01-01

    Iron gall inks consist of a mixture of vitriol, gall nut extracts and gum arabic. The association of the iron(II) sulphate present in vitriols, and the carboxyphenolic acids present in gall nut extracts leads to the formation of dark coloured iron-based precipitates. In order to evaluate the percentage of iron used in the formation of these precipitates, transmission Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) measurements were performed on laboratory made inks at room temperature. These were completed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectroscopy measurements. The samples consisted of several solutions of iron(II) sulphate, gallic acid and gum arabic. After evaporation, the residues were analysed. Up to eight different Moessbauer signatures were detected, most of them correlated to iron sulphates. The Moessbauer signature of the iron gall precipitate was also isolated. It is not distinctly defined and may overlap with the signatures of iron(III) hydroxy-sulphates, such as jarosite or copiapite. Raman spectrometry then proved to be a useful complementary technique for the identification of the precipitate. (orig.)

  8. Wien Automatic System Package (WASP). A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    With several Member States, the IAEA has completed a new version of the WASP program, which has been called WASP-Ill Plus since it follows quite closely the methodology of the WASP-Ill model. The major enhancements in WASP-Ill Plus with respect to the WASP-Ill version are: increase in the number of thermal fuel types (from 5 to 10); verification of which configurations generated by CONGEN have already been simulated in previous iterations with MERSIM; direct calculation of combined Loading Order of FIXSYS and VARSYS plants; simulation of system operation includes consideration of physical constraints imposed on some fuel types (i.e., fuel availability for electricity generation); extended output of the resimulation of the optimal solution; generation of a file that can be used for graphical representation of the results of the resimulation of the optimal solution and cash flows of the investment costs; calculation of cash flows allows to include the capital costs of plants firmly committed or in construction (FIXSYS plants); user control of the distribution of capital cost expenditures during the construction period (if required to be different from the general 'S' curve distribution used as default). This second volume of the document to support use of the WASP-Ill Plus computer code consists of 5 appendices giving some additional information about the WASP-Ill Plus program. Appendix A is mainly addressed to the WASP-Ill Plus system analyst and supplies some information which could help in the implementation of the program on the user computer facilities. This appendix also includes some aspects about WASP-Ill Plus that could not be treated in detail in Chapters 1 to 11. Appendix B identifies all error and warning messages that may appear in the WASP printouts and advises the user how to overcome the problem. Appendix C presents the flow charts of the programs along with a brief description of the objectives and structure of each module. Appendix D describes the

  9. Effects of Isometric Brain-Body Size Scaling on the Complexity of Monoaminergic Neurons in a Minute Parasitic Wasp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woude, van der Emma; Smid, Hans M.

    2017-01-01

    Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps show large phenotypic plasticity in brain and body size, resulting in a 5-fold difference in brain volume among genetically identical sister wasps. Brain volume scales linearly with body volume in these wasps. This isometric brain scaling forms an exception to

  10. WASP (Wavelet Analysis of Secondary Particles Angular Distributions) Package. Version 1.2. Long Write Up and User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Altaisky, M V; Soloviev, A G; Stadnik, A V; Shitov, A B

    2001-01-01

    WASP package is a C++ program aimed to analyze angular distributions of secondary particles generated in nuclear interactions. WASP package is based on wavelet transform algorithms. This work includes the user's guide, description of algorithms and mathematical methods, graphical user interface. We have also analyzed what problems of nuclear physics can be tackled with WASP.

  11. Data from: Compatible and incompatible pathogen-plant interactions differentially affect plant volatile emissions and the attraction of parasitoid wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponzio, C.A.M.; Weldegergis, B.T.; Dicke, M.; Gols, R.

    2016-01-01

    The three data sheets show the data for the three types of comparisons that were made: (1) wasp choice when offered acaterpillar infested plant and a caterpillar + pathogen infected plant (2) wasp choice when offered a healthy plant against a singleattacker infected/infected plant and (3) wasp

  12. WASP-12b and Its Possible Fiery Demise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Jupiter-like planets on orbits close to their hosts are predicted to spiral ever closer to their hosts until they meet their eventual demise and yet weve never observed orbital decay. Could WASP-12b provide the first evidence?Undetected PredictionsSince the discovery of the first hot Jupiter more than 20 years ago, weve studied a number of these peculiar exoplanets. Despite our many observations, two phenomena predicted of hot Jupiters have not yet been detected, due to the long timescales needed to identify them:Tidal orbital decayTidal forces should cause a hot Jupiters orbit to shrink over time, causing the planet to eventually spiral into its host star. This phenomenon would explain a number of statistical properties of observed star-planet systems (for instance, the scarcity of gas giants with periods less than a day).An illustration of apsidal precession. [Mpfiz]Apsidal precessionThe orbits of hot Jupiters should be apsidally precessing on timescales of decades, as long as they are at least slightly eccentric. Since the precession rate depends on the planets tidally deformed mass distribution, measuring this would allow us to probe the interior of the planet.A team of scientists led by Kishore Patra (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) think that the hot Jupiter WASP-12b may be our first chance to study one of these two phenomena. The question is, which one?WASP-12bWASP-12b has orbital period of 1.09 days one of the shortest periods observed for a giant planet and weve monitored it for a decade, making it a great target to test for both of these long-term effects.Timing residuals for WASP-12b. Squares show the new data points, circles show previous data from the past decade. The data are better fit by the decay model than the precession model, but both are still consistent. [Patra et al. 2017]Patra and collaborators made transit observations with the 1.2-m telescope at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona and occultation observations with the

  13. Fourth Energy Symposium of the University of St. Gall - Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    These comprehensive proceedings contain the presentations made at the fourth energy symposium held in Baden, Switzerland by the University of St. Gall, Switzerland. The theme of the conference was Swiss legislation on electricity market liberalisation and its influence on the future general conditions placed on the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. The first presentation, made by Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, presented an overview of the new legislation and the developments to be noted in the international area. In a review of future developments, Steinmann explained the legal framework and basics of the new legislation and their influence on decisions to be made in various areas including power generation and distribution as well as those concerning international power deals. The regulatory organs being set up were discussed, as well as the question of whether smaller utilities should co-operate or merge with others. The second contribution, presented by Michael Merker, took a look at the legal aspects of the remuneration for renewable energy that is fed into the public mains. Merker discussed and compared the legal frameworks for renewable energy in the European Union and in Switzerland, including production goals, quotas and certificate models. For Switzerland, the proposed remuneration system was discussed. The third contribution, presented by Werner Graber, focussed on the use of the electricity grid and power distribution systems. Their value, their costs and the price for their use formed the framework of the presentation. Reference was made to the various articles in the new Swiss legislation that pertain to such aspects. Many of these points are discussed in detail. The next contribution, presented by Wolfgang Urbantschitsch, described the role played by the state power regulator E-Control in Austria and the relationships between the various players to be found in the Austrian power market. Also, a power

  14. Philippine Fig wasps 1. Records and descriptions of Otitesellini (Hymenoptera Chalcidoidea, Torymidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebes, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In 1964, by awarding to me that year's proceeds of the "Pieter Langerhuizen Fonds", the Hollandsche Maatschappij der Wetenschappen enabled me to study figs and fig wasps in the Philippines. While several Philippine fig wasps are already known from the papers by Ashmead (1904, 1905), Brown (1906),

  15. Bee-hawking by the wasp, Vespa velutina, on the honeybees Apis cerana and A. mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, K; Radloff, S E; Li, J J; Hepburn, H R; Yang, M X; Zhang, L J; Neumann, P

    2007-06-01

    The vespine wasps, Vespa velutina, specialise in hawking honeybee foragers returning to their nests. We studied their behaviour in China using native Apis cerana and introduced A. mellifera colonies. When the wasps are hawking, A. cerana recruits threefold more guard bees to stave off predation than A. mellifera. The former also utilises wing shimmering as a visual pattern disruption mechanism, which is not shown by A. mellifera. A. cerana foragers halve the time of normal flight needed to dart into the nest entrance, while A. mellifera actually slows down in sashaying flight manoeuvres. V. velutina preferentially hawks A. mellifera foragers when both A. mellifera and A. cerana occur in the same apiary. The pace of wasp-hawking was highest in mid-summer but the frequency of hawking wasps was three times higher at A. mellifera colonies than at the A. cerana colonies. The wasps were taking A. mellifera foragers at a frequency eightfold greater than A. cerana foragers. The final hawking success rates of the wasps were about three times higher for A. mellifera foragers than for A. cerana. The relative success of native A. cerana over European A. mellifera in thwarting predation by the wasp V. velutina is interpreted as the result of co-evolution between the Asian wasp and honeybee, respectively.

  16. Relevance of wing morphology in distinguishing and classifying genera and species of Stenogastrinae wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baracchi, D.; Dapporto, L.; Turillazzi, S.

    2011-01-01

    The phylogeny of the Stenogastrinae wasps is still under discussion and their systematic incomplete. In the present work we used geometric morphometrics, a technique based on a rigorous statistical assessment of shape, to compare the forewings of fifteen species of Stenogastrinae wasps belonging to

  17. Natural variation in long-term memory formation among Nasonia parasitic wasp species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedjes, K.M.; Smid, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Closely related species of parasitic wasps can differ substantially in memory dynamics. In this study we demonstrate differences in the number of conditioning trials required to form long-term memory between the closely related parasitic wasp species Nasonia vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti

  18. WAsP E-learning - Developing and running an interactive online course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Prag, Sidsel-Marie Winther; Jowitt, William Richard

    This report describes the development and testing of an E-learning course in WAsP – the Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program. WAsP is the industry standard tool for wind energy resource assessment. The software is developed and distributed by the Department of Wind Energy at the Technical...

  19. Unusual fatal multiple-organ dysfunction and pancreatitis induced by a single wasp sting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Azad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS is a well-known complication following multiple wasp stings. However, MODS after a single wasp sting has been rarely reported in children and acute pancreatitis have probably never been observed before. Herein we describe the case of a 12-year-old boy who had urticaria and abdominal pain after a single wasp sting. The child gradually developed MODS while his abdominal complaints were worsening. Despite aggressive supportive management, the child did not survive. Afterward, the cause of the acute abdomen was finally diagnosed as acute pancreatitis. Both MODS and pancreatitis following a single wasp sting are very unusual. Thus, although pancreatitis is rarely manifested, it should be suspected after a wasp sting if there are predominant abdominal symptoms.

  20. Non-detection of a Helium Exosphere for the Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidberg, Laura; Oklopčić, Antonija

    2018-06-01

    An exosphere was recently detected around the exoplanet WASP-107b, a low-density, warm Neptune, based on an absorption feature from metastable helium (which has a vacuum wavelength of 10833 \\AA). Inspired by the WASP-107b detection, we reanalyzed archival HST observations of another evaporating exoplanet, WASP-12b, to search for signs of helium in its exosphere. We find no significant increase in transit depth at 10833 \\AA. We compare this result to theoretical predictions from a 1D model, and find that the expected helium feature amplitude is small, in agreement with the observed non-detection. We discuss possible explanations for why the helium feature is weaker for WASP-12b than WASP-107b, and conclude that the amplitude of the signal is highly sensitive to the stellar spectrum and the geometry of the evaporating gas cloud. These considerations should be taken into account in the design of future searches for helium exospheres.

  1. Trap-nest occupation by solitary wasps and bees (Hymenoptera: Aculeata) in a forest urban remanent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Rafael D; Martins, Rogério P

    2006-01-01

    Temporal variation of solitary wasps and bees, nesting frequency, mortality, and parasitism were recorded from a remanent forest in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Wasps and bees were collected in trap-nests placed in areas with 25, 100, and 400 m2, from February to November 2004. The 137 trap-nests collected contained 11 species of wasps and bees. Wasps occupied most nests (75%). Occupation peaks occurred in March (25%) and September (26%); in June, the lowest occupation (2%) was observed. Except for Trypoxylon (Trypargilum) lactitarse Saussure, no significant correlation was found between number of occupied nests, and temperature and rainfall means. In the nests, 48% of the immature specimens died; 13% of the nests were parasitized. Total death and parasitism rates of wasps and bees differed significantly.

  2. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  3. Expression of N-WASP is regulated by HiF1α through the hypoxia response element in the N-WASP promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Salvi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cell migration and invasion involves temporal and spatial regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, which is regulated by the WASP family of proteins such as N-WASP (Neural- Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein. We have previously shown that expression of N-WASP was increased under hypoxic conditions. In order to characterize the regulation of N-WASP expression, we constructed an N-WASP promoter driven GFP reporter construct, N-WASPpro-GFP. Transfection of N-WASPpro-GFP construct and plasmid expressing HiF1α (Hypoxia Inducible factor 1α enhanced the expression of GFP suggesting that increased expression of N-WASP under hypoxic conditions is mediated by HiF1α. Sequence analysis of the N-WASP promoter revealed the presence of two hypoxia response elements (HREs characterized by the consensus sequence 5′-GCGTG-3′ at -132 bp(HRE1 and at -662 bp(HRE2 relative to transcription start site (TSS. Site-directed mutagenesis of HRE1(-132 but not HRE2(-662 abolished the HiF1α induced activation of N-WASP promoter. Similarly ChIP assay demonstrated that HiF1α bound to HRE1(-132 but not HRE2(-662 under hypoxic condition. MDA-MB-231 cells but not MDA-MB-231KD cells treated with hypoxia mimicking agent, DMOG showed enhanced gelatin degradation. Similarly MDA-MB-231KD(N-WASPpro-N-WASPR cells expressing N-WASPR under the transcriptional regulation of WT N-WASPpro but not MDA-MB-231KD(N-WASPproHRE1-N-WASPR cells expressing N-WASPR under the transcriptional regulation of N-WASPproHRE1 showed enhanced gelatin degradation when treated with DMOG. Thus indicating the importance of N-WASP in hypoxia induced invadopodia formation. Thus, our data demonstrates that hypoxia-induced activation of N-WASP expression is mediated by interaction of HiF1α with the HRE1(-132 and explains the role of N-WASP in hypoxia induced invadopodia formation.

  4. Volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus are semiochemicals for eusocial wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Thomas Seth; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Landolt, Peter J

    2012-11-01

    Microbes are ubiquitous on plant surfaces. However, interactions between epiphytic microbes and arthropods are rarely considered as a factor that affects arthropod behaviors. Here, volatile emissions from an epiphytic fungus were investigated as semiochemical attractants for two eusocial wasps. The fungus Aureobasidium pullulans was isolated from apples, and the volatile compounds emitted by fungal colonies were quantified. The attractiveness of fungal colonies and fungal volatiles to social wasps (Vespula spp.) were experimentally tested in the field. Three important findings emerged: (1) traps baited with A. pullulans caught 2750 % more wasps on average than unbaited control traps; (2) the major headspace volatiles emitted by A. pullulans were 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-phenylethyl alcohol; and (3) a synthetic blend of fungal volatiles attracted 4,933 % more wasps on average than unbaited controls. Wasps were most attracted to 2-methyl-1-butanol. The primary wasp species attracted to fungal volatiles were the western yellowjacket (Vespula pensylvanica) and the German yellowjacket (V. germanica), and both species externally vectored A. pullulans. This is the first study to link microbial volatile emissions with eusocial wasp behaviors, and these experiments indicate that volatile compounds emitted by an epiphytic fungus can be responsible for wasp attraction. This work implicates epiphytic microbes as important components in the community ecology of some eusocial hymenopterans, and fungal emissions may signal suitable nutrient sources to foraging wasps. Our experiments are suggestive of a potential symbiosis, but additional studies are needed to determine if eusocial wasp-fungal associations are widespread, and whether these associations are incidental, facultative, or obligate.

  5. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. de S.,Jr. MENDONÇA

    Full Text Available The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae. The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC.

  6. Life history of the gall-maker Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, M de S; Romanowski, H P

    2002-05-01

    The development of the galls of the midge Eugeniamyia dispar Maia, Mendonça-Jr. & Romanowski, 1996 (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was monitored weekly on its host plant, Eugenia uniflora (Myrtaceae). The work was carried out in the urban area of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, from October 1993 to September 1995. Galls were collected from the field and raised in the laboratory to obtain adults. The females oviposit on young leaves of the host plant, with the first instar larvae inducing the gall, which is unilocular. The last instar larvae drop to the soil to pupate and later emerge as adults. The galls occur from late August to early June, when young leaves of the host can be found, with populations peaking during the summer. So far this species is only known from the two southernmost states of Brazil (RS and SC).

  7. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Benavides, William; Monge-Nájera, Julián; Chavarría, Juan B

    2009-09-01

    The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC). It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host). We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F citrifolia), in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females' sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games.

  8. Spitzer observations of the thermal emission from WASP-43b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blecic, Jasmina; Harrington, Joseph; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio E.; Hardin, Matthew; Bowman, Oliver; Nymeyer, Sarah [Planetary Sciences Group, Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Smith, Alexis M. S. [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Cameron, Andrew Collier, E-mail: jasmina@physics.ucf.edu [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-01

    WASP-43b is one of the closest-orbiting hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis of a = 0.01526 ± 0.00018 AU and a period of only 0.81 days. However, it orbits one of the coolest stars with a hot Jupiter (T {sub *} = 4520 ± 120 K), giving the planet a modest equilibrium temperature of T {sub eq} = 1440 ± 40 K, assuming zero Bond albedo and uniform planetary energy redistribution. The eclipse depths and brightness temperatures from our jointly fit model are 0.347% ± 0.013% and 1670 ± 23 K at 3.6 μm and 0.382% ± 0.015% and 1514 ± 25 K at 4.5 μm. The eclipse timings improved the estimate of the orbital period, P, by a factor of three (P = 0.81347436 ± 1.4 × 10{sup –7} days) and put an upper limit on the eccentricity (e=0.010{sub −0.007}{sup +0.010}). We use our Spitzer eclipse depths along with four previously reported ground-based photometric observations in the near-infrared to constrain the atmospheric properties of WASP-43b. The data rule out a strong thermal inversion in the dayside atmosphere of WASP-43b. Model atmospheres with no thermal inversions and fiducial oxygen-rich compositions are able to explain all the available data. However, a wide range of metallicities and C/O ratios can explain the data. The data suggest low day-night energy redistribution in the planet, consistent with previous studies, with a nominal upper limit of about 35% for the fraction of energy incident on the dayside that is redistributed to the nightside.

  9. Why wasp foundresses change nests: relatedness, dominance, and nest quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perttu Seppä

    Full Text Available The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters.

  10. Why Wasp Foundresses Change Nests: Relatedness, Dominance, and Nest Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, Perttu; Queller, David C.; Strassmann, Joan E.

    2012-01-01

    The costs and benefits of different social options are best understood when individuals can be followed as they make different choices, something that can be difficult in social insects. In this detailed study, we follow overwintered females of the social wasp Polistes carolina through different nesting strategies in a stratified habitat where nest site quality varies with proximity to a foraging area, and genetic relatedness among females is known. Females may initiate nests, join nests temporarily or permanently, or abandon nests. Females can become helpers or egglayers, effectively workers or queens. What they actually do can be predicted by a combination of ecological and relatedness factors. Advantages through increased lifetime success of individuals and nests drives foundresses of the social wasp Polistes from solitary to social nest founding. We studied reproductive options of spring foundresses of P. carolina by monitoring individually-marked wasps and assessing reproductive success of each foundress by using DNA microsatellites. We examined what behavioral decisions foundresses make after relaxing a strong ecological constraint, shortage of nesting sites. We also look at the reproductive consequences of different behaviors. As in other Polistes, the most successful strategy for a foundress was to initiate a nest as early as possible and then accept others as subordinates. A common feature for many P. carolina foundresses was, however, that they reassessed their reproductive options by actively monitoring other nests at the field site and sometimes moving permanently to new nests should that offer better (inclusive) fitness prospects compared to their original nests. A clear motivation for moving to new nests was high genetic relatedness; by the end of the foundress period all females were on nests with full sisters. PMID:23049791

  11. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 3: Plotting data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    The plotting of data into graphs should be a mandatory step in all data analysis as part of a descriptive statistics exercise, since it gives the researcher an overview of the shape and nature of the data. Moreover, outlier values may be identified, which may be incorrect data, or true outliers, from which important findings (and publications) may arise. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics, when possible, and this paper in the Early Human Development WASP series provides some pointers for doing so in Microsoft Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model Li......DAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  13. Anatomical and phenological implications of the relationship between Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) and the galling insect Calophya rubra (Blanchard).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, L M; Aguilera, N; Ferreira, B G; Becerra, J; Hernández, V; Isaias, R M S

    2018-05-01

    The success of galling insects could be determined by synchronisation with host plant phenology and climate conditions, ensuring suitable oviposition sites for gall induction and food resources for their survival. The anatomical, histochemical and phenological synchronisation strategies between Calophya rubra (Blanchard) (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) and its host, the evergreen plant Schinus polygama (Cav.) (Cabrera) (Anacardiaceae), in the Mediterranean climate of southern Chile was evaluated and compared to that of the congeneric C. cf. duvauae (Scott) from Brazil and closely related host plant S. engleri in a subtropical climate. Anatomical, histometric, histochemical and vegetative phenology studies of the stem and galls were conducted from June 2015 to December 2016. Based on the anatomical, histometric and histochemical analysis, the conical stem gall traits imply gains over the non-galled stem toward the galling insect survival, but the maintenance of phellem, secretory ducts and pith indicate conservative developmental traits that cannot be manipulated by C. rubra. Our results indicate that the conditions of the Mediterranean climate zone limit C. rubra immature activity during unfavourable periods, probably determining a diapause period and a univoltine life cycle, which are peculiarities of the S. polygama- C. rubra system. The synchronisation between development and seasonality confers peculiarities to the S. polygama- C. rubra system in the Mediterranean climate zone. © 2018 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. Efficacy of the Non-Pathogenic Agrobacterium Strains K84 and K1026 against Crown Gall in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rhouma

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The non-pathogenic Agrobacterium radiobacter strain K84 and its genetically modified (GEM strain K1026 were tested for their effectiveness against local Tunisian strains and two reference strains (C58 and B6 of the crown gall bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Tests in planta were carried out on herbaceous plants (tomato and tagetes and on some sensitive rootstocks (bitter almond, peach almond hybrid GF677 and quince BA29. In vitro tests showed that both K84 and K1026 were effective and that the difference between these strains was not statistically significant. On tomato and tagetes, strain K84 was effective against all crown gall isolates with the exception of the A. tumefaciens reference strain B6. GEM strain K1026 was very effective against all isolates from Tunisia and against the reference strains. Both antagonistic strains significantly reduced the percentage of galled plants as well as the number of galls per plant. Under field conditions, both antagonists controlled crown gall effectively. Best results were obtained on the bitter almond-tree rootstock. Antagonist effectiveness was less evident on quince BA29 and peach almond GF677 rootstocks. The genetically modified strain K1026 is of interest in controlling crown gall disease in Tunisia.

  15. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Chisato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Sato, Mitsuru, E-mail: mitsuru.sato@affrc.go.jp [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Oshima, Takuma [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Takenouchi, Takato [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan); Chiba, Joe [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Graduate School of Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda, Chiba, 278-8510 (Japan); Kitani, Hiroshi [Animal Immune and Cell Biology Research Unit, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, 1-2 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8634 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies.

  16. Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibit inflammatory responses induced by Toll-like receptors 3, 7, and 9, in macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Chisato; Sato, Mitsuru; Oshima, Takuma; Takenouchi, Takato; Chiba, Joe; Kitani, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) is an adaptor molecule in immune cells. Recently, we showed that the WASP N-terminal domain interacted with the SH3 domain of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk), and that the complex formed by WASP and Btk was important for TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in macrophages. Several other studies have shown that Btk played important roles in modulating innate immune responses through TLRs in immune cells. Here, we evaluated the significance of the interaction between WASP and Btk in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. We established bone marrow–derived macrophage cell lines from transgenic (Tg) mice that expressed intracellular antibodies (intrabodies) that specifically targeted the WASP N-terminal domain. One intrabody comprised the single-chain variable fragment and the other comprised the light-chain variable region single domain of an anti-WASP N-terminal monoclonal antibody. Both intrabodies inhibited the specific interaction between WASP and Btk, which impaired the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation. Furthermore, the intrabodies inhibited the phosphorylation of both nuclear factor (NF)-κB and WASP in response to TLR3, TLR7, or TLR9 stimulation, in the Tg bone marrow-derived macrophages. These results suggested that WASP plays important roles in TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling by associating with Btk in macrophages. - Highlights: • The interaction between WASP and Btk is critical for TLR3, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling. • Anti-WASP intrabodies inhibited several TLR pathways that led to cytokine expression. • Phosphorylation of NF-κB via TLR signaling was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies. • WASP phosphorylation via several TLR ligands was inhibited by anti-WASP intrabodies

  17. Electronic nose as an innovative tool for the diagnosis of grapevine crown gall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasioli, S., E-mail: sonia.blasioli@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Biondi, E., E-mail: erbiondi@tin.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Braschi, I., E-mail: ilaria.braschi@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Mazzucchi, U., E-mail: umberto.mazzucchi@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Bazzi, C., E-mail: carlo.bazzi@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Gessa, C.E., E-mail: carloemanuele.gessa@unibo.it [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agroambientali, Universita di Bologna, V.le Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-05

    For the first time, a portable electronic nose was used to discriminate between healthy and galled grapevines, experimentally inoculated with two tumourigenic strains of Agrobacterium vitis. The volatile profile of target cutting samples was analysed by headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Spectra from tumoured samples revealed the presence of styrene which is compatible with decarboxylation of cinnamic acid involved in secondary metabolism of plants. Principal Component Analysis confirmed the difference in volatile profiles of infected vines and their healthy controls. Linear Discriminant Analysis allowed the correct discrimination between healthy and galled grapevines (83.3%, cross-validation). Although a larger number of samples should be analysed to create a more robust model, our results give novel interesting clues to go further with research on the diagnostic potential of this innovative system associated with multi-dimensional chemometric techniques.

  18. Solitary brain metastasis as an initial manifestation of gall bladder carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Kumar Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Gallbladder cancer is a common malignancy in Northern India, and it accounts for 2-4% of all malignant gastrointestinal tumors. It is an aggressive tumor with early dissemination to liver and lymph nodes and associated with poor prognosis. Systemic metastases from gall bladder carcinoma (Ca frequently occur; however, metastatic involvement of the central nervous system is rare and late manifestation and remains an ominous sign. Initial presentation of gall bladder Ca with brain metastasis is rare. We report a case of 65-year-old women who initially presented with a solitary brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, which was diagnosed incidentally when the patient presented with headache, vomiting, and right temporal region swelling. Palliative chemotherapy and cranial radiotherapy were prescribed. She is symptom-free from 3 months after the completion of the treatment.

  19. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct: A Rare Presentation of Gall Stones Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duminda Subasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic biliary system is a rare presentation of gall stones. Very few cases of bile duct perforation have been reported in adults. It is rarely suspected or correctly diagnosed preoperatively. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old female presented at the surgical emergency with 3 days’ history of severe upper abdominal pain with distension and repeated episodes of vomiting, as she had evidence of generalized peritonitis and underwent an exploratory laparotomy. A single 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm free perforation was present on the anterolateral surface of the common bile duct at the junction of cystic duct. A cholecystectomy and the CBD exploration were performed. Conclusion. Spontaneous perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct is a rare but important presentation of gall stones in adults. Therefore, awareness of the clinical presentation, expert ultrasound examination, and surgery are important aspects in the management.

  20. Gall bladder carcinoma with ampullary carcinoma: A rare case of double malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveer Rai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous double cancers in the biliary system are rare. Most are associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM. However, it can occur in patients without PBM. Differentiation between these events is important since these two mechanistic origins imply different stages of disease, as well as different subsequent treatments and prognoses. Herein, we report a case of ampullary carcinoma associated with gall bladder carcinoma diagnosed nonoperatively and palliated with biliary metal stenting.

  1. Orchids mimic green-leaf volatiles to attract prey-hunting wasps for pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodmann, Jennifer; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Hölzler, Gerald; Zhang, Qing-He; Ayasse, Manfred

    2008-05-20

    An outstanding feature of orchids is the diversity of their pollination systems [1]. Most remarkable are those species that employ chemical deceit for the attraction of pollinators [2]. The orchid Epipactis helleborine is a typical wasp flower, exhibiting physiological and morphological adaptations for the attraction of pollinating social wasps [3]. As noted by Darwin [1], this species is almost entirely overlooked by other potential pollinators, despite a large nectar reward. Therefore, the mechanism for the attraction of pollinating social wasps was something of a mystery. By using a combination of behavioral experiments, electrophysiological investigations, and chemical analyses, we demonstrate for the first time that the flowers of E. helleborine and E. purpurata emit green-leaf volatiles (GLVs), which are attractive to foragers of the social wasps Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris. GLVs, emitted by damaged plant tissues, are known to guide parasitic wasps to their hosts [4]. Several E. helleborine GLVs that induced response in the antennae of wasps were also emitted by cabbage leaves infested with caterpillars (Pieris brassicae), which are common prey items for wasps [5]. This is the first example in which GLVs have been implicated in chemical mimicry for the attraction of pollinating insects.

  2. HST PanCET Program: A Cloudy Atmosphere for the Promising JWST Target WASP-101b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, H. R.; Mandell, A. [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Stevenson, K. B.; Lewis, N. K. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sing, D. K.; Evans, T. [Astrophysics Group, Physics Building, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); López-Morales, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Marley, M. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-5, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Kataria, T. [NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Ballester, G. E. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, 1541 E Univ. Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Barstow, J. [Physics and Astronomy, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Ben-Jaffel, L. [Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 and Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Bourrier, V.; Ehrenreich, D. [Observatoire de l’Université de Genève, 51 chemin des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Buchhave, L. A. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); García Muñoz, A., E-mail: hannah.wakeford@nasa.gov [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); and others

    2017-01-20

    We present results from the first observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Panchromatic Comparative Exoplanet Treasury program for WASP-101b, a highly inflated hot Jupiter and one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST ) Early Release Science (ERS) program. From a single HST Wide Field Camera 3 observation, we find that the near-infrared transmission spectrum of WASP-101b contains no significant H{sub 2}O absorption features and we rule out a clear atmosphere at 13 σ . Therefore, WASP-101b is not an optimum target for a JWST ERS program aimed at observing strong molecular transmission features. We compare WASP-101b to the well-studied and nearly identical hot Jupiter WASP-31b. These twin planets show similar temperature–pressure profiles and atmospheric features in the near-infrared. We suggest exoplanets in the same parameter space as WASP-101b and WASP-31b will also exhibit cloudy transmission spectral features. For future HST exoplanet studies, our analysis also suggests that a lower count limit needs to be exceeded per pixel on the detector in order to avoid unwanted instrumental systematics.

  3. Codivergence and multiple host species use by fig wasp populations of the Ficus pollination mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLeish Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interaction between insects and plants takes myriad forms in the generation of spectacular diversity. In this association a species host range is fundamental and often measured using an estimate of phylogenetic concordance between species. Pollinating fig wasps display extreme host species specificity, but the intraspecific variation in empirical accounts of host affiliation has previously been underestimated. In this investigation, lineage delimitation and codiversification tests are used to generate and discuss hypotheses elucidating on pollinating fig wasp associations with Ficus. Results Statistical parsimony and AMOVA revealed deep divergences at the COI locus within several pollinating fig wasp species that persist on the same host Ficus species. Changes in branching patterns estimated using the generalized mixed Yule coalescent test indicated lineage duplication on the same Ficus species. Conversely, Elisabethiella and Alfonsiella fig wasp species are able to reproduce on multiple, but closely related host fig species. Tree reconciliation tests indicate significant codiversification as well as significant incongruence between fig wasp and Ficus phylogenies. Conclusions The findings demonstrate more relaxed pollinating fig wasp host specificity than previously appreciated. Evolutionarily conservative host associations have been tempered by horizontal transfer and lineage duplication among closely related Ficus species. Independent and asynchronistic diversification of pollinating fig wasps is best explained by a combination of both sympatric and allopatric models of speciation. Pollinator host preference constraints permit reproduction on closely related Ficus species, but uncertainty of the frequency and duration of these associations requires better resolution.

  4. Accidental genetic engineers: horizontal sequence transfer from parasitoid wasps to their Lepidopteran hosts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean E Schneider

    Full Text Available We show here that 105 regions in two Lepidoptera genomes appear to derive from horizontally transferred wasp DNA. We experimentally verified the presence of two of these sequences in a diverse set of silkworm (Bombyx mori genomes. We hypothesize that these horizontal transfers are made possible by the unusual strategy many parasitoid wasps employ of injecting hosts with endosymbiotic polydnaviruses to minimize the host's defense response. Because these virus-like particles deliver wasp DNA to the cells of the host, there has been much interest in whether genetic information can be permanently transferred from the wasp to the host. Two transferred sequences code for a BEN domain, known to be associated with polydnaviruses and transcriptional regulation. These findings represent the first documented cases of horizontal transfer of genes between two organisms by a polydnavirus. This presents an interesting evolutionary paradigm in which host species can acquire new sequences from parasitoid wasps that attack them. Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera diverged ∼300 MYA, making this type of event a source of novel sequences for recipient species. Unlike many other cases of horizontal transfer between two eukaryote species, these sequence transfers can be explained without the need to invoke the sequences 'hitchhiking' on a third organism (e.g. retrovirus capable of independent reproduction. The cellular machinery necessary for the transfer is contained entirely in the wasp genome. The work presented here is the first such discovery of what is likely to be a broader phenomenon among species affected by these wasps.

  5. Giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) mob wasps away from the nest by directed visual patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastberger, Gerald; Weihmann, Frank; Zierler, Martina; Hötzl, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    The open nesting behaviour of giant honeybees ( Apis dorsata) accounts for the evolution of a series of defence strategies to protect the colonies from predation. In particular, the concerted action of shimmering behaviour is known to effectively confuse and repel predators. In shimmering, bees on the nest surface flip their abdomens in a highly coordinated manner to generate Mexican wave-like patterns. The paper documents a further-going capacity of this kind of collective defence: the visual patterns of shimmering waves align regarding their directional characteristics with the projected flight manoeuvres of the wasps when preying in front of the bees' nest. The honeybees take here advantage of a threefold asymmetry intrinsic to the prey-predator interaction: (a) the visual patterns of shimmering turn faster than the wasps on their flight path, (b) they "follow" the wasps more persistently (up to 100 ms) than the wasps "follow" the shimmering patterns (up to 40 ms) and (c) the shimmering patterns align with the wasps' flight in all directions at the same strength, whereas the wasps have some preference for horizontal correspondence. The findings give evidence that shimmering honeybees utilize directional alignment to enforce their repelling power against preying wasps. This phenomenon can be identified as predator driving which is generally associated with mobbing behaviour (particularly known in selfish herds of vertebrate species), which is, until now, not reported in insects.

  6. Physiological selectivity and activity reduction of insecticides by rainfall to predatory wasps of Tuta absoluta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Emerson C; Bacci, Leandro; Picanco, Marcelo C; Martins, Júlio C; Rosado, Jander F; Silva, Gerson A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we carried out three bioassays with nine used insecticides in tomato crops to identify their efficiency against tomato leaf miner Tuta absoluta, the physiological selectivity and the activity reduction of insecticides by three rain regimes to predatory wasps Protonectarina sylveirae and Polybia scutellaris. We assessed the mortality caused by the recommended doses of abamectin, beta-cyfluthrin, cartap, chlorfenapyr, etofenprox, methamidophos, permethrin, phenthoate and spinosad to T. absoluta and wasps at the moment of application. In addition, we evaluated the wasp mortality due to the insecticides for 30 days on plants that did not receive rain and on plants that received 4 or 125 mm of rain. Spinosad, cartap, chlorfenapyr, phenthoate, abamectin and methamidophos caused mortality higher than 90% to T. absoluta, whereas the pyrethroids beta-cyfluthrin, etofenprox and permethrin caused mortality between 8.5% and 46.25%. At the moment of application, all the insecticides were highly toxic to the wasps, causing mortality higher than 80%. In the absence of rain, all the insecticides continued to cause high mortality to the wasps for 30 days after the application. The toxicity of spinosad and methamidophos on both wasp species; beta-cyfluthrin on P. sylveirae and chlorfenapyr and abamectin on P. scutellaris, decreased when the plants received 4 mm of rain. In contrast, the other insecticides only showed reduced toxicity on the wasps when the plants received 125 mm of rain.

  7. Silencing Agrobacterium oncogenes in transgenic grapevine results in strain-specific crown gall resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galambos, A; Zok, A; Kuczmog, A; Oláh, R; Putnoky, P; Ream, W; Szegedi, E

    2013-11-01

    Grapevine rootstock transformed with an Agrobacterium oncogene-silencing transgene was resistant to certain Agrobacterium strains but sensitive to others. Thus, genetic diversity of Agrobacterium oncogenes may limit engineering crown gall resistance. Crown gall disease of grapevine induced by Agrobacterium vitis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes serious economic losses in viticulture. To establish crown gall-resistant lines, somatic proembryos of Vitis berlandieri × V. rupestris cv. 'Richter 110' rootstock were transformed with an oncogene-silencing transgene based on iaaM and ipt oncogene sequences from octopine-type, tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid pTiA6. Twenty-one transgenic lines were selected, and their transgenic nature was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). These lines were inoculated with two A. tumefaciens and three A. vitis strains. Eight lines showed resistance to octopine-type A. tumefaciens A348. Resistance correlated with the expression of the silencing genes. However, oncogene silencing was mostly sequence specific because these lines did not abolish tumorigenesis by A. vitis strains or nopaline-type A. tumefaciens C58.

  8. Characterization of the bile and gall bladder microbiota of healthy pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Esther; Sánchez, Borja; Farina, Annarita; Margolles, Abelardo; Rodríguez, Juan M

    2014-12-01

    Bile is a biological fluid synthesized in the liver, stored and concentrated in the gall bladder (interdigestive), and released into the duodenum after food intake. The microbial populations of different parts of mammal's gastrointestinal tract (stomach, small and large intestine) have been extensively studied; however, the characterization of bile microbiota had not been tackled until now. We have studied, by culture-dependent techniques and a 16S rRNA gene-based analysis, the microbiota present in the bile, gall bladder mucus, and biopsies of healthy sows. Also, we have identified the most abundant bacterial proteins in the bile samples. Our data show that the gall bladder ecosystem is mainly populated by members of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Furthermore, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) allowed us to visualize the presence of individual bacteria of different morphological types, in close association with either the epithelium or the erythrocytes, or inside the epithelial cells. Our work has generated new knowledge of bile microbial profiles and functions and might provide the basis for future studies on the relationship between bile microbiota, gut microbiota, and health. © 2014 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; D' Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication), foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded), or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted). Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  10. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lozada

    Full Text Available Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (full communication, foragers were removed on arrival (communication impeded, or only one forager was allowed to return to the nest (local enhancement restricted. Results demonstrated the existence of recruitment in V. germanica, given that very different patterns of wasp arrivals and a higher frequency of wasp visits to the resource were observed when communication flow between experienced and naive foragers was allowed. Our findings showed that recruitment takes place at a distance from the food source, in addition to local enhancement. When both local enhancement and distant recruitment were occurring simultaneously, the pattern of wasp arrival was exponential. When recruitment occurred only distant from the feeder, the arrival pattern was linear, but the number of wasps arriving was twice as many as when neither communication nor local enhancement was allowed. Moreover, when return to the nest was impeded, wasp arrival at the bait was regular and constant, indicating that naive wasps forage individually and are not spatially aggregated. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate recruitment in V. germanica at a distance from the food source by modelling wasps' arrival to a protein-based resource. In addition, the existence of correlations when communication was allowed and reflected in tandem arrivals indicates that we were not in the presence of random processes.

  11. N-wasp is essential for the negative regulation of B cell receptor signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaohong Liu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Negative regulation of receptor signaling is essential for controlling cell activation and differentiation. In B-lymphocytes, the down-regulation of B-cell antigen receptor (BCR signaling is critical for suppressing the activation of self-reactive B cells; however, the mechanism underlying the negative regulation of signaling remains elusive. Using genetically manipulated mouse models and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that neuronal Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP, which is coexpressed with WASP in all immune cells, is a critical negative regulator of B-cell signaling. B-cell-specific N-WASP gene deletion causes enhanced and prolonged BCR signaling and elevated levels of autoantibodies in the mouse serum. The increased signaling in N-WASP knockout B cells is concurrent with increased accumulation of F-actin at the B-cell surface, enhanced B-cell spreading on the antigen-presenting membrane, delayed B-cell contraction, inhibition in the merger of signaling active BCR microclusters into signaling inactive central clusters, and a blockage of BCR internalization. Upon BCR activation, WASP is activated first, followed by N-WASP in mouse and human primary B cells. The activation of N-WASP is suppressed by Bruton's tyrosine kinase-induced WASP activation, and is restored by the activation of SH2 domain-containing inositol 5-phosphatase that inhibits WASP activation. Our results reveal a new mechanism for the negative regulation of BCR signaling and broadly suggest an actin-mediated mechanism for signaling down-regulation.

  12. Efficacy of fipronil for control of yellowjacket wasps in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, David; Hanna, Cause; King, Cynthia; Spurr, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The western yellowjacket wasp (Vespula pensylvanica) invaded Hawai`i’s national parks and refuges following its spread throughout the islands in the late 1970s. The endemic arthropod fauna of Hawai`i is thought to be especially vulnerable to these predacious social Hymenoptera, and methods of wasp control have been a priority for conservation biology in Hawai`i. The efficacy of the insecticide fipronil mixed with minced canned chicken meat for suppression of yellowjacket populations was evaluated in five experimental field trials in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park between 1999 and 2005. Populations of Vespula were monitored in replicate twoto four- hectare study areas in mesic montane and seasonal submontane forests, before and after application of chicken bait, with and without 0.1% fipronil, and in treatment and nontreatment areas. The bait was applied in hanging bait stations for two to three days. The response of yellowjacket wasp populations was measured using at least three different metrics of abundance including instantaneous counts of wasps at bait stations, wasp traffic rates at Vespula nests, as well as heptyl butyrate trap and/or malaise trap catches in the study areas. All indices of wasp abundance exhibited significant reductions in sites treated with fipronil compared with non-treatment sites with the exception of malaise trapping, where only a limited number of traps were available to be deployed. Wasp traffic ceased at all Vespula nests in sites treated with fipronil within a month after baiting in four of the five trials. The only trial where fipronil failed to terminate yellowjacket nest activity occurred late in the fall when wasps switch from feeding on protein to carbohydrate foods. Based on these data, 0.1% fipronil in chicken bait appears to be an effective tool for suppressing local Vespula yellowjacket populations in the park and other natural areas during the period of peak wasp activity in the summer and early fall months.

  13. Description and Flight Performance Results of the WASP Sounding Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, J. F.; Steffens, L. E.; Yuska, J. A.

    1968-01-01

    A general description of the design and construction of the WASP sounding rocket and of the performance of its first flight are presented. The purpose of the flight test was to place the 862-pound (391-kg) spacecraft above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) on free-fall trajectory for at least 6 minutes in order to study the effect of "weightlessness" on a slosh dynamics experiment. The WASP sounding rocket fulfilled its intended mission requirements. The sounding rocket approximately followed a nominal trajectory. The payload was in free fall above 250 000 feet (76.25 km) for 6.5 minutes and reached an apogee altitude of 134 nautical miles (248 km). Flight data including velocity, altitude, acceleration, roll rate, and angle of attack are discussed and compared to nominal performance calculations. The effect of residual burning of the second stage motor is analyzed. The flight vibration environment is presented and analyzed, including root mean square (RMS) and power spectral density analysis.

  14. Sting microsculpture in the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Matushkina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The sting microsculpture of the digger wasp Bembix rostrata (Fabricius, 1781 (Hymenoptera, Crabronidae is studied with the scanning electron microscope (SEM for the first time. As in many other hymenopterans, the second valvifer of B. rostrata possesses two fields of styloconic sensilla (hair plates of proprioceptive function. The presence of two paired fields of campaniform sensilla on the second valvula and second valvifer is first shown in an apoid wasp. The first and the second valvulae bear scattered sensilla-like structures on the external surface, more numerous apically. The first valvula has two subapical barbs externally and a pair of valvilli on its inner surface, whereas the outer surface of the second valvula is smooth. The third valvula is sclerotized externally, consisting of proximal and distal parts, and bearing four sensilla morphotypes of mechanoreceptive and probably chemoreceptive functions. The inner surface of the valvulae and the membranous cuticle that is touching the sting have microstructures of different shapes directed distally. Functional aspects of characters studied are discussed.

  15. The Apparently Decaying Orbit of WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Kishore C.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Yu, Liang; Deming, Drake; Dai, Fei

    2017-07-01

    We present new transit and occultation times for the hot Jupiter WASP-12b. The data are compatible with a constant period derivative: \\dot{P}=-29+/- 3 ms yr-1 and P/\\dot{P}=3.2 {Myr}. However, it is difficult to tell whether we have observed orbital decay or a portion of a 14-year apsidal precession cycle. If interpreted as decay, the star’s tidal quality parameter {Q}\\star is about 2× {10}5. If interpreted as precession, the planet’s Love number is 0.44 ± 0.10. Orbital decay appears to be the more parsimonious model: it is favored by {{Δ }}{χ }2=5.5 despite having two fewer free parameters than the precession model. The decay model implies that WASP-12 was discovered within the final ˜0.2% of its existence, which is an unlikely coincidence but harmonizes with independent evidence that the planet is nearing disruption. Precession does not invoke any temporal coincidence, but it does require some mechanism to maintain an eccentricity of ≈ 0.002 in the face of rapid tidal circularization. To distinguish unequivocally between decay and precession will probably require a few more years of monitoring. Particularly helpful will be occultation timing in 2019 and thereafter.

  16. Life History of the Emerald Jewel Wasp Ampulex compressa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Arvidson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emerald Jewel Wasp Ampulex compressa (Fabricius is an endoparasitoid of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana (Linnaeus. Its host subjugation strategy is unusual in that envenomation is directed into the host central nervous system, eliciting a long-term behavior modification termed hypokinesia, turning stung cockroaches into a lethargic and compliant, but not paralyzed, living food supply for wasp offspring. A. compressa manipulates hypokinesic cockroaches into a burrow, where it oviposits a single egg onto a mesothoracic leg, hatching three days later. Herein we describe the life history and developmental timing of A. compressa. Using head capsule measurements and observations of mandibular morphology, we found that the larvae develop through three instars, the first two ectoparasitoid, and the third exclusively endoparasitoid. The first two instars have mandibles sufficient for piercing and cutting the cuticle respectively, while the third instar has a larger and blunter mandibular structure. During ecdysis to the third instar, the larva enters the body cavity of the cockroach, consuming internal tissues selectively, including fat body and skeletal muscle, but sparing the gut and Malpighian tubules. The developmental timing to pupation is similar between males and females, but cocoon volume and mass, and pupation duration are sexually dimorphic. Further, we show that the difference in cocoon mass and volume can be used to predict sex before eclosion, which is valuable for studies in venom pharmacology, as only females produce venom.

  17. Complementary sex determination in the parasitic wasp Diachasmimorpha longicaudata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonela Carabajal Paladino

    Full Text Available We studied the sex determination in Diachasmimorpha longicaudata, a parasitoid braconid wasp widely used as biological control agent of fruit pest tephritid flies. We tested the complementary sex determination hypothesis (CSD known in at least 60 species of Hymenoptera. According to CSD, male or female development depends on the allelic composition of one sex locus (single-locus CSD or multiple sex loci (multiple-locus CSD. Hemizygote individuals are normal haploid males, and heterozygotes for at least one sex locus are normal diploid females, but homozygotes for all the sex loci are diploid males. In order to force the occurrence of diploid males in D. longicaudata, we established highly inbred lines and examined their offspring using chromosome counting, flow cytometry, and sex ratio analysis. We found that when mother-son crosses were studied, this wasp produced about 20% of diploid males out of the total male progeny. Our results suggest that this parasitoid may represent the second genus with multiple-locus CSD in Hymenoptera. Knowledge about the sex determination system in D. longicaudata is relevant for the improvement of mass rearing protocols of this species. This information also provides the necessary background for further investigations on the underlying molecular mechanisms of sex determination in this species, and a better insight into the evolution of this pathway in Hymenoptera in particular and insects in general.

  18. Polydnaviruses of Parasitic Wasps: Domestication of Viruses To Act as Gene Delivery Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Strand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Symbiosis is a common phenomenon in which associated organisms can cooperate in ways that increase their ability to survive, reproduce, or utilize hostile environments. Here, we discuss polydnavirus symbionts of parasitic wasps. These viruses are novel in two ways: (1 they have become non-autonomous domesticated entities that cannot replicate outside of wasps; and (2 they function as a delivery vector of genes that ensure successful parasitism of host insects that wasps parasitize. In this review we discuss how these novelties may have arisen, which genes are potentially involved, and what the consequences have been for genome evolution.

  19. Chaves para classificação de galhas de Cecidomyiidae (Diptera em Myrtaceae na Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro Keys to separation of Cecidomyiidae (Diptera galls on Myrtaceae at Restinga da Barra de Maricá, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Keys to Cecidomyiidae galls occuring on Myrtaceae by genus of the host plant, in alphabetical order, are presented. Data on gall makers, predators and inquilinous species are given, as well as illustrations of the galls.

  20. Comunidades de insetos galhadores (Insecta em diferentes fisionomias do cerrado em Minas Gerais, Brasil Galling insect (Insecta communities in different "cerrado" physiognomies in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmary J. Gonçalves-Alvim

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the communities of galling insects and their host plants were performed in three "cerrado" physiognomies that occur in Minas Gerais: "campo sujo", "cerrado" sensu strictu, and "cerradão". Galls and host plants were collected along transects in a total of 3,000 herbs, 300 shrubs and 135 trees in each physiognomy. Ninety two species of galling insects (morphotypes on 62 host plant species of 28 families were found. The highest galling insect richness was observed in the "cerrado". Approximately 75.0% of galling insects belonged to the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera. The highest gall frequency was found on leaves (58.70% of the host plants, and was glabrous (83.70%. Most gall shape were elliptic (30.43%. A low similarity in galling insect species was observed among the three sampled physiognomies - the highest similarity index was observed between "cerrado" and "campo sujo" (SΦrensen index = 0.20, indicating that the presence of rare species of galling insects might be common in these environments.

  1. Impacts of Mechanical Macrophyte Removal Devices on Sediment Scouring in Littoral Habitats: II. Experimental Operation in the Littoral Zone of Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    James, William F; Wright, David I; Barko, John W; Eakin, Harry L

    2006-01-01

    ... in Eau Galle Reservoir, Wisconsin. Mechanical macrophyte removal devices are an attractive, low-cost means of removing macrophytes in specific areas without herbicides or repeated mechanical harvesting...

  2. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-III Plus. User's manual. Volume 1: Chapters 1-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    As a continuation of its effort to provide comprehensive and impartial guidance to Member States facing the need for introducing nuclear power, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package for carrying out power generation expansion planning studies. WASP was originally developed in 1972 in the USA to meet the IAEA's needs to analyze the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. The model was first used by the IAEA to conduct global studies (Market Survey for Nuclear Power Plants in Developing Countries, 1972-1973) and to carry out Nuclear Power Planning Studies for several Member States. The WASP system developed into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. Following these developments, the so-called WASP-Ill version was produced in 1979. This version introduced important improvements to the system, namely in the treatment of hydroelectric power plants. The WASP-III version has been continually updated and maintained in order to incorporate needed enhancements. In 1981, the Model for Analysis of Energy Demand (MAED) was developed in order to allow the determination of electricity demand, consistent with the overall requirements for final energy, and thus, to provide a more adequate forecast of electricity needs to be considered in the WASP study. MAED and WASP have been used by the Agency for the conduct of Energy and Nuclear Power Planning Studies for interested Member States. More recently, the VALORAGUA model was completed in 1992 as a means for helping in the preparation of the hydro plant characteristics to be input in the WASP study and to verify that the WASP overall optimized expansion plan takes also into account an optimization of the use of water for electricity generation. The combined application of VALORAGUA and WASP permits the

  3. Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package. A computer code for power generating system expansion planning. Version WASP-IV. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    As a continuation of its efforts to provide methodologies and tools to Member States to carry out comparative assessment and analyse priority environmental issues related to the development of the electric power sector, the IAEA has completed a new version of the Wien Automatic System Planning (WASP) Package WASP-IV for carrying out power generation expansion planning taking into consideration fuel availability and environmental constraints. This manual constitutes a part of this work and aims to provide users with a guide to use effectively the new version of the model WASP-IV. WASP was originally developed in 1972 by the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the USA to meet the IAEA needs to analyse the economic competitiveness of nuclear power in comparison to other generation expansion alternatives for supplying the future electricity requirements of a country or region. Previous versions of the model were used by Member States in many national and regional studies to analyse the electric power system expansion planning and the role of nuclear energy in particular. Experience gained from its application allowed development of WASP into a very comprehensive planning tool for electric power system expansion analysis. New, improved versions were developed, which took into consideration the needs expressed by the users of the programme in order to address important emerging issues being faced by the electric system planners. In 1979, WASP-IV was released and soon after became an indispensable tool in many Member States for generation expansion planning. The WASP-IV version was continually upgraded and the development of version WASP-III Plus commenced in 1992. By 1995, WASP-III Plus was completed, which followed closely the methodology of the WASP-III but incorporated new features. In order to meet the needs of electricity planners and following the recommendations of the Helsinki symposium, development of a new version of WASP was

  4. Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael D. Loyola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Small-scale area effect on species richness and nesting occupancy of cavity-nesting bees and wasps. The research was conducted in an urban forest remnant in southeast Brazil. We tested the predictions of the following hypotheses: (1 larger areas present higher species richness of bees and wasps, (2 solitary bees and wasps occupy more nests in larger areas, (3 rare species occupy more nests in smaller areas. We sampled Aculeate bees and wasps using trap nests from February to November 2004. We placed trap nests in sampling units (SU with different size (25, 100 and 400 m² located in 6 ha of secondary mesophytic forest. One hundred and thirty-seven trap nests were occupied by seven species of bees and four species of wasps. We found an increase in wasp, but not bee species richness following increase in SU size. Hymenoptera richness (i.e. bees plus wasps was also greater in larger SU. Both the number and density of occupied nests increased with SU size. The wasp Trypoxylon lactitarse responded significantly to area size, larger SU having more occupied nests. The same pattern was exhibited by the wasp Auplopus militaris, the Megachile bee species, and the bee Anthodioctes megachiloides. Only Trypoxylon sp. was not affected by SU size. Our results show that cavity-nesting bee and wasps respond differently to the area effects. Such findings must be complemented by information on the frequency and dynamics of area colonization and nest occupancy by species of solitary Hymenoptera.

  5. The wasp larva's last supper: 100 million years of evolutionary stasis in the larval development of rhopalosomatid wasps (Hymenoptera: Rhopalosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lohrmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Rhopalosomatidae are an unusual family of wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata comprising less than 100 species found in the tropics and subtropics of all continents except Europe and Antarctica. Whereas some species resemble nocturnal Ichneumonidae, others might be mistaken for spider wasps or different groups of brachypterous Hymenoptera. Despite their varied morphology, all members of the family supposedly develop as larval ectoparasitoids of crickets (Orthoptera: Grylloidea. Here, we report on the first record of a fossil rhopalosomatid larva which was discovered in mid-Cretaceous amber from northern Myanmar (Burma. The larva is attached to the lateral side of a cricket between the metafemur and the abdomen, impacting the natural position of the hind leg, exactly as documented for modern species. Additionally, the larval gestalt is strikingly similar to those of extant forms. These observations imply that this behavioral specialization, e.g., host association and positioning on host, likely evolved in the stem of the family at least 100 million years ago.

  6. Ovarian development in a primitively eusocial wasp: social interactions affect behaviorally dominant and subordinate wasps in opposite directions relative to solitary females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shantanu; Pareek, Vidhi; Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2014-07-01

    In many primitively eusocial wasp species new nests are founded either by a single female or by a small group of females. In the single foundress nests, the lone female develops her ovaries, lays eggs as well as tends her brood. In multiple foundress nests social interactions, especially dominance-subordinate interactions, result in only one 'dominant' female developing her ovaries and laying eggs. Ovaries of the remaining 'subordinate' cofoundresses remain suppressed and these individuals function as workers and tend the dominant's brood. Using the tropical, primitively eusocial polistine wasp Ropalidia marginata and by comparing wasps held in isolation and those kept as pairs in the laboratory, we demonstrate that social interactions affect ovarian development of dominant and subordinate wasps among the pairs in opposite directions, suppressing the ovaries of the subordinate member of the pair below that of solitary wasps and boosting the ovaries of dominant member of the pair above that of solitary females. In addition to being of physiological interest, such mirror image effects of aggression on the ovaries of the aggressors and their victims, suggest yet another mechanism by which subordinates can enhance their indirect fitness and facilitate the evolution of worker behavior by kin selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wasps are the cause of an increasing mastitis problem in dairy cattle in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruham, I; Braverman, Y; Schwimmer, A

    1998-07-01

    The German wasp Vespula germanica (Fabr.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) has been observed to injure dairy cows teats, causing lesions which can lead to mastitis. The number of dairy herds in Israel reported to be affected in this way has increased from five prior to 1989 to 32 from 1989 to 1993. Likewise, the geographical distribution of the colonies of these wasps has expanded from the Galilee to the northern Negev. Most cases of mastitis appeared during August and September when the wasps were most active; the predominant organism isolated was Streptococcus dysgalactiae. Apparently the wasps served as a vector in spreading S. dysgalactiae infection in the herds. More adult cows than first-calving cows were affected. The teats of the front quarters were more affected than those of the hind quarters.

  8. Sensitivity to European wasps in a group of allergic patients in Marseille: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzani, R; Blanca, M; Sánchez, F; Juarez, C

    1994-01-01

    The wasp Polistes dominulus (PD), the yellow jacket Vespula germanica (VG) and the hornet Vespa crabro (VC) are allergenically important social wasps found in Europe. Serum samples obtained from allergic subjects in Marseille were studied in order to determine the positivity by RAST to these venoms. All the sera studied had IgE antibodies to at least one of the wasp venoms tested and 50% had IgE antibodies that reacted with more than one venom. The presence in some sera of IgE antibodies to the venoms of all three wasps and RAST inhibition studies suggested that the three venoms were relevant in the area studied and that most sera were positive to the three venoms due to allergenic cross-reactivity. However, inhibition studies revealed that 2 patients may have had antibodies that did not cross-react and that were specific for the venom of only one species.

  9. Mouthpart dimorphism in male and female wasps of Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica (Vespidae, Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Baranek

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Social wasps perform a variety of tasks with their mouthparts. Female workers use them to feed on carbohydrate-rich fluids, to build nests by collecting wood fibers and forming paper, to hunt and manipulate insect prey for feeding larvae as well as for brood care. Since male wasps neither feed on insects nor participate in nest building, sex-specific differences in mouthpart morphology are expected. Despite these different applications, general mouthpart morphology of male and female wasps from the genus Vespula was similar. However, males possessed significantly shorter mandibles with fewer teeth than females. Furthermore, the adductor muscles of the mandibles were distinctly smaller in males than in females. Male wasps showed a higher number of sensilla on the mandibles and the labial palpi. Mouthpart dimorphism and functional morphology of fluid uptake are discussed.

  10. Pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruiz Oropeza, Athamaica; Mikkelsen, Søren; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bee and wasp stings are among the most common triggers of anaphylaxis in adults representing around 20% of fatal anaphylaxis from any cause. Data of pre-hospital treatment of bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of bee...... only for Odense and 2009-2014 for the whole region). Discharge summaries with diagnosis related to anaphylaxis according to the International Classification of Diseases 10 (ICD-10) were reviewed to identify bee and wasp induced anaphylactic reactions. The severity of the anaphylactic reaction...... was assessed according to Sampson's severity score and Mueller's severity score. Treatment was evaluated in relation to administration of adrenaline, glucocorticoids and antihistamine. RESULTS: We identified 273 cases (Odense 2008 n = 14 and Region of Southern Denmark 2009-2014 n = 259) of bee and wasp induced...

  11. A role for sexual conflict in the evolution of reproductive traits in Nasonia wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuverink, Elzemiek; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Pannebakker, Bart A.; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual conflict theory predicts that female and male reproductive traits coevolve resulting in disruption of reproductive behaviour upon mating of individuals from diverged populations. We used interfertile species of haplodiploid Nasonia wasps to compare re-mating frequency, longevity, oviposition

  12. A unique nest-protection strategy in a new species of spider wasp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Staab

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera show a great variation in reproductive potential and nesting behavior, from thousands of eggs in sawflies to just a dozen in nest-provisioning wasps. Reduction in reproductive potential in evolutionary derived Hymenoptera is often facilitated by advanced behavioral mechanisms and nesting strategies. Here we describe a surprising nesting behavior that was previously unknown in the entire animal kingdom: the use of a vestibular cell filled with dead ants in a new spider wasp (Hymenoptera: Pompilidae species collected with trap nests in South-East China. We scientifically describe the 'Bone-house Wasp' as Deuteragenia ossarium sp. nov., named after graveyard bone-houses or ossuaries. We show that D. ossarium nests are less vulnerable to natural enemies than nests of other sympatric trap-nesting wasps, suggesting an effective nest protection strategy, most likely by utilizing chemical cues emanating from the dead ants.

  13. Social Learning in Vespula Germanica Wasps: Do They Use Collective Foraging Strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Lozada, Mariana; D? Adamo, Paola; Buteler, Micaela; Kuperman, Marcelo N.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp that has become established outside its native range in many regions of the world, becoming a major pest in the invaded areas. In the present work we analyze social communication processes used by V. germanica when exploiting un-depleted food sources. For this purpose, we investigated the arrival pattern of wasps at a protein bait and evaluated whether a forager recruited conspecifics in three different situations: foragers were able to return to the nest (f...

  14. The Role of Lipid Competition for Endosymbiont-Mediated Protection against Parasitoid Wasps in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Paredes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects commonly harbor facultative bacterial endosymbionts, such as Wolbachia and Spiroplasma species, that are vertically transmitted from mothers to their offspring. These endosymbiontic bacteria increase their propagation by manipulating host reproduction or by protecting their hosts against natural enemies. While an increasing number of studies have reported endosymbiont-mediated protection, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this protection. Here, we analyze the mechanisms underlying protection from parasitoid wasps in Drosophila melanogaster mediated by its facultative endosymbiont Spiroplasma poulsonii. Our results indicate that S. poulsonii exerts protection against two distantly related wasp species, Leptopilina boulardi and Asobara tabida. S. poulsonii-mediated protection against parasitoid wasps takes place at the pupal stage and is not associated with an increased cellular immune response. In this work, we provide three important observations that support the notion that S. poulsonii bacteria and wasp larvae compete for host lipids and that this competition underlies symbiont-mediated protection. First, lipid quantification shows that both S. poulsonii and parasitoid wasps deplete D. melanogaster hemolymph lipids. Second, the depletion of hemolymphatic lipids using the Lpp RNA interference (Lpp RNAi construct reduces wasp success in larvae that are not infected with S. poulsonii and blocks S. poulsonii growth. Third, we show that the growth of S. poulsonii bacteria is not affected by the presence of the wasps, indicating that when S. poulsonii is present, larval wasps will develop in a lipid-depleted environment. We propose that competition for host lipids may be relevant to endosymbiont-mediated protection in other systems and could explain the broad spectrum of protection provided.

  15. Male gender and sonographic gall bladder wall thickness: important predictable factors for empyema and gangrene in acute cholecystitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.L.U.; Jawed, M.; Shaikh, U.; Abbassi, M.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To underline the status of male gender and gall bladder wall thickness as significant risk factors for acute cholecystitis complications. Methods: The retrospective study, with purposive sampling of the patients of acute cholecystits in age above 18 years, who were operated within 10 days of onset of symptoms, was conducted at the Department of Surgery, Dow University Hospital, Karachi, by reviewing the patients' medical record from March 2010 to August 2012. Correlation of incidence of acute cholecystitis complications (empyema and gangrene) to male gender and to the sonographic gall bladder wall thickness more than 4.5mm was analysed using SPSS 16. Result: Out of 62 patients, 8 (13%) patients had gangrene while 10 (16.12%) had empyema. Overall, there were 21 (33.87%) males in the study. Ten (47.6%) of the male patients developed empyema or gangrene of the gall bladder as a complication of acute cholecystitis. Of the 41 (66.12%) female patients, only 8 (19.5%) developed these complications. There were 22 (35.48%) cases of gall bladders with sonographic wall thickness more than 4.5mm who were operated for acute cholecystitis. Of them, 16 (72.7%) had empyema or gangrene. Conclusion: Male gender and sonographic gall bladder wall thickness more than 4.5mm were statistically significant risk factors for suspicion of complicated acute cholecystitis (empyema/gangrene) and by using these risk factors, we can prioritise patients for surgery in the emergency room. (author)

  16. Migration Monitoring of Blackcurrant Gall Mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis Westw. from Buds to Leaves on Several Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotrowski Wojciech

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The blackcurrant gall mite (Cecidophyopsis ribis is the most important pest of blackcurrant crops. Over recent years withdrawal from plant protection programmes of chemical products (endosulfan and amitraz used for the control of this pest in Poland, has led to an observed increase in population numbers. In 2013, fenpiroxymate (Ortus 05 SC became registered for control of this pest. It is deemed best that chemical protection should be used during the migration period; when big gall mites emerge from buds in search of new buds. The studies were carried out in a plantation of blackcurrants during 2011-2013. The assessment of migration of the blackcurrant gall mite was carried out on the cultivars ‘Ben Hope’, ‘Ben Alde’r, ‘Ojeby’n and ‘Ruben’. Every year, from selected cultivars buds were collected. They were then placed on blackcurrant leaves within Petri dishes. After one, three and five days of placing buds on the leaves, the estimated number of eriophyid mites on the leaves was calculated. The data has shown a very useful method for monitoring blackcurrant gall mite, which can be used in calculating the treatment dates for this pest. Also, the data has shown that differences in the periods of migration of the mite are dependent on the cultivar and time of flowering. Among the cultivars observed the least susceptible to colonization by the blackcurrant gall mite was a Polish cultivar ‘Ruben’, while the most susceptible cultivar was ‘Ben Hope’.

  17. WASP (Write a Scientific Paper) using Excel - 2: Pivot tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2018-02-01

    Data analysis at the descriptive stage and the eventual presentation of results requires the tabulation and summarisation of data. This exercise should always precede inferential statistics. Pivot tables and pivot charts are one of Excel's most powerful and underutilised features, with tabulation functions that immensely facilitate descriptive statistics. Pivot tables permit users to dynamically summarise and cross-tabulate data, create tables in several dimensions, offer a range of summary statistics and can be modified interactively with instant outputs. Large and detailed datasets are thereby easily manipulated making pivot tables arguably the best way to explore, summarise and present data from many different angles. This second paper in the WASP series in Early Human Development provides pointers for pivot table manipulation in Excel™. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ancient conservation of trinucleotide microsatellite loci in polistine wasps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ezenwa, V O; Peters, J M; Zhu, Y

    1998-01-01

    Microsatellites have proven to be very useful genetic markers for studies of kinship, parentage, and gene mapping. If microsatellites are conserved among species, then those developed for one species can be used on related species, which would save the time and effort of developing new loci. We...... evaluated conservation of 27 trinucleotide loci that were derived from 2 species of Polistes wasps in cross-species applications on 27 species chosen from the major lineages of the Vespidae, which diverged as much as 144 million years ago. We further investigated cross-species polymorphism levels for 18...... of the loci. There was a clear relationship between cladistic distance and both conservation of the priming sites and heterozygosity. However the loci derived from P. bellicosus were much more widely conserved and polymorphic than were those derived from P. annularis. The disparity in cross-species utility...

  19. ON THE ORBIT OF EXOPLANET WASP-12b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campo, Christopher J.; Harrington, Joseph; Hardy, Ryan A.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Nymeyer, Sarah; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Britt, Christopher B. T.; Bowman, William C.; Ragozzine, Darin; Anderson, David R.; Hellier, Coel; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Collier-Cameron, Andrew; Wheatley, Peter J.; Loredo, Thomas J.; Deming, Drake; Hebb, Leslie; Pollaco, Don; West, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    We observed two secondary eclipses of the exoplanet WASP-12b using the Infrared Array Camera on the Spitzer Space Telescope. The close proximity of WASP-12b to its G-type star results in extreme tidal forces capable of inducing apsidal precession with a period as short as a few decades. This precession would be measurable if the orbit had a significant eccentricity, leading to an estimate of the tidal Love number and an assessment of the degree of central concentration in the planetary interior. An initial ground-based secondary-eclipse phase reported by Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 ± 0.002) implied eccentricity at the 4.5σ level. The spectroscopic orbit of Hebb et al. has eccentricity 0.049 ± 0.015, a 3σ result, implying an eclipse phase of 0.509 ± 0.007. However, there is a well-documented tendency of spectroscopic data to overestimate small eccentricities. Our eclipse phases are 0.5010 ± 0.0006 (3.6 and 5.8 μm) and 0.5006 ± 0.0007 (4.5 and 8.0 μm). An unlikely orbital precession scenario invoking an alignment of the orbit during the Spitzer observations could have explained this apparent discrepancy, but the final eclipse phase of Lopez-Morales et al. (0.510 ± +0.007 -0.006 ) is consistent with a circular orbit at better than 2σ. An orbit fit to all the available transit, eclipse, and radial-velocity data indicates precession at <1σ; a non-precessing solution fits better. We also comment on analysis and reporting for Spitzer exoplanet data in light of recent re-analyses.

  20. WASP-ASSOCIATED FACTORS ACT IN INTERSPECIES COMPETITION DURING MULTIPARASITISM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdaraog, Peter M; Tanaka, Toshiharu; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2016-06-01

    Coexistence or displacement of parasitoids in hosts during intrinsic competitive interactions between different parasitoid species (multiparasitism) may depend on their life history traits and behavior. Intense competition for possession of hosts may lead to the elimination of the inferior competitor through physical attack and/or physiological suppression. However, the mechanisms of physiological suppression during multiparasitism remain unclear. Previous work has shown that first instar larvae of the solitary endoparasitoid Meteorus pulchricornis possess well-developed mandibles that are used to kill competitors. Two gregarious endoparasitoids, Cotesia kariyai and C. rufricus, share host resources especially when the time gap of oviposition is short. Here, we investigated the physiological influence of wasp-regulatory factors of the three endoparasitoids, M. pulchricornis, C. kariyai, and C. ruficrus, in their common host Mythimna separata. We found that MpVLP alone (or with venom) deleteriously affected the development of the two gregarious species. Similarly, CkPDV plus venom had toxic effect on M. pulchricornis eggs and immature larvae, although they were not harmful to immature stages of C. ruficrus. Cotesia kariyai and C. ruficrus were able to coexist mainly through the expression of regulatory factors and both could successfully emerge from a multiparasitized host. The injection of CkPDV plus venom after oviposition in L5 host larvae facilitated C. ruficrus development and increased the rate of successful parasitism from 9% to 62%. This suggests that the two gregarious parasitoid wasps exhibit strong phylogenetic affinity, favoring their coexistence and success in multiparasitized hosts. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. OBSERVATIONS OF THE WASP-2 SYSTEM BY THE APOSTLE PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Andrew C.; Kundurthy, Praveen; Agol, Eric; Barnes, Rory; Williams, Benjamin F.; Rose, Amy E. [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2013-02-10

    We present transit observations of the WASP-2 exoplanet system by the Apache Point Survey of Transit Lightcurves of Exoplanets (APOSTLE) program. Model fitting to these data allows us to improve measurements of the hot-Jupiter exoplanet WASP-2b and its orbital parameters by a factor of {approx}2 over prior studies; we do not find evidence for transit depth variations. We do find reduced {chi}{sup 2} values greater than 1.0 in the observed minus computed transit times. A sinusoidal fit to the residuals yields a timing semi-amplitude of 32 s and a period of 389 days. However, random rearrangements of the data provide similar quality fits, and we cannot with certainty ascribe the timing variations to mutual exoplanet interactions. This inconclusive result is consistent with the lack of incontrovertible transit timing variations (TTVs) observed in other hot-Jupiter systems. This outcome emphasizes that unique recognition of TTVs requires dense sampling of the libration cycle (e.g., continuous observations from space-based platforms). However, even in systems observed with the Kepler spacecraft, there is a noted lack of transiting companions and TTVs in hot-Jupiter systems. This result is more meaningful, and indicates that hot-Jupiter systems, while they are easily observable from the ground, do not appear to be currently configured in a manner favorable to the detection of TTVs. The future of ground-based TTV studies may reside in resolving secular trends, and/or implementation at extreme quality observing sites to minimize atmospheric red noise.

  2. Sex ratio in two species of Pegoscapus wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae that develop in figs: can wasps do mathematics, or play sex ratio games?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Ramírez-Benavides

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The fig pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae have obligate arrhenotoky and a breeding structure that fits local mate competition (LMC. It has been traditionally assumed that LMC organisms adjust the sex ratio by laying a greater proportion of male eggs when there is superparasitism (several foundresses in a host. We tested the assumption with two wasp species, Pegoscapus silvestrii, pollinator of Ficus pertusa and Pegoscapus tonduzi, pollinator of Ficus eximia (= F. citrifolia, in the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Total number of wasps and seeds were recorded in individual isolated naturally colonized syconia. There was a constant additive effect between the number of foundresses and the number of males produced in the brood of a syconium, while the number of females decreased. Both wasp species seem to have precise sex ratios and probably lay the male eggs first in the sequence, independently of superparasitism and clutch size: consequently, they have a non-random sex allocation. Each syconium of Ficus pertusa and of F. eximia colonized by one foundress had similar mean numbers of females, males, and seeds. The two species of wasps studied do not seem to adjust the sex ratio when there is superparasitism. Pollinating fig wasp behavior is better explained by those models not assuming that females do mathematical calculations according to other females’ sex ratios, size, number of foundresses, genetic constitution, clutch size or environmental conditions inside the syconium. Our results are in agreement with the constant male number hypothesis, not with sex ratio games. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (3: 605-621. Epub 2009 September 30.

  3. Diversity of galling insects in Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae: edge effect and use as bioindicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Santos de Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Impacts of forest fragmentation and edge effect on plant-herbivores interactions are relatively unknown, and the relationships between galling insects and their host plants are very susceptible to environmental variations. The goal of our study was to test the edge effect hypothesis for galling insects associated with Styrax pohlii (Styracaceae host plant. Samplings were conducted at a fragment of semi-deciduous forest in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. Thirty host plant individuals (15 at fragment edge and 15 in its interior were sampled in July of 2007; in each plant, 10 apical branches were collected at the top, middle and bottom crown levels. Our results supported the prediction of greater richness of gall morphotypes in the edge habitat compared with remnant interior. In a similar way, gall abundance and frequency of attacked leaves were also greater in the fragment edge. These findings consequently suggest a positive response of galling insect diversity to edge effect; in the Saint-Hilaire forest, this effect probably operates through the changes in microclimatic conditions of edge habitats, which results in an increased hygrothermal stress, a determinant factor to distribution patterns of galling insects. We also concluded that these organisms could be employed as biological indicators (i because of their host-specificity, (ii they are sensitive to changes in plant quality, and (iii present dissimilar and specific responses to local variation in habitat conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1589-1597. Epub 2011 December 01.Los impactos de la fragmentación de los bosques y el efecto de borde sobre las interacciones planta-herbívoros son relativamente desconocidos, y las relaciones entre los insectos inductores de agallas y sus plantas hospederas son muy susceptibles a las variaciones ambientales. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue probar la hipótesis de efecto de borde en los insectos inductores de agallas asociados con la planta hospedera

  4. Induction of leafy galls in Acacia mearnsii De Wild seedlings infected by Rhodococcus fascians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Quoirin

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Plantlets of blackwattle (Acacia mearnsii De Wild were inoculated with the bacterium Rhodococcus fascians and cultured in vitro. Leafy galls appeared at the cotyledonary nodes in 75% of the infected plants. The galls were separated from the plants and cultured on a medium containing three-quarters-strength MS salts (Murashige and Skoog, 1962, MS vitamins, 2% sucrose and an antibiotic (cephalothin, supplemented with or without 0.2% activated charcoal. Histological studies conducted from the sixth to the twenty-second day after plant infection revealed the presence of newly formed meristematic centers, first in the axillary region, then on the petioles and lamina of the leaflets around the apical meristem. Approximately 37% of the galls developed one shoot with both concentrations of cephalothin.Plantas recém germinadas de acácia negra (Acacia mearnsii De Wild. foram inoculadas com a bactéria Rhodococcus fascians e cultivadas in vitro. Galhas cobertas por folhas apareceram na altura do nó cotiledonar em 75% das plantas infectadas. As galhas foram separadas das plantas e cultivadas num meio de cultura contendo os sais do meio MS (Murashige e Skoog, 1962 reduzidos a 3/4, as vitaminas do mesmo meio, 2% de sacarose e um antibiótico (cefalotina, adicionado ou não de 0,2% de carvão ativo. Estudos histológicos realizados entre o sexto e o vigésimo segundo dia depois da inoculação, revelaram a presença de centros meristemáticos novos, primeiro nas regiões axilares, em seguida nos pecíolos e limbos dos folíolos ao redor do meristema apical. Aproximadamente 37% das galhas desenvolveram um broto na presença de cefalotina.

  5. Quantification of Circulating Free DNA as a Diagnostic Marker in Gall Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Swati; Tewari, Shikha; Husain, Nuzhat; Agarwal, Akash; Pandey, Anshuman; Singhal, Ashish; Lohani, Mohtashim

    2017-01-01

    Gall bladder Carcinoma (GBC) is the fifth most common cancer of the digestive tract and frequently diagnosed in late stage of disease. Estimation of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) in serum has been applied as a "liquid biopsy" in several deep seated malignancies. Its value in diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma has not been studied. The present study was designed to assess the role of cfDNA in the diagnosis of GBC and correlate levels with the TNM stage. Serum was collected from 34 patients with GBC and 39 age and sex matched controls including 22 cholecystitis and 17 healthy individuals. Serum cfDNA levels were measured through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) by amplification of β-globin gene. Performance of the assay was calculated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The cfDNA level was significantly lower in healthy controls and cholecystitis (89.32 ± 59.76 ng/ml, 174.21 ± 99.93 ng/ml) compared to GBC (1245.91 ± 892.46 ng/ml, p = <0.001). The cfDNA level was significantly associated with TNM stage, lymph node involvement and jaundice (0.002, 0.027, and 0.041, respectively). Area under curve of ROC analysis for cancer group versus healthy and cholecystitis group was 1.00 and 0.983 with sensitivity of 100 %, 88.24 % and specificity of 100 % respectively. Quantitative analysis of cfDNA may distinguish cholecystitis and gall bladder carcinoma and may serve as new diagnostic, noninvasive marker adjunct to imaging for the diagnosis of GBC.

  6. Galling arthropod diversity in adjacent swamp forests and restinga vegetation in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, Milton De S; Piccardi, Hosana M F; Jahnke, Simone M; Dalbem, Ricardo V

    2010-01-01

    Galling arthropods create plant structures inside which they find shelter. Factors acting on galler diversity are still being discussed, with this fauna considered more diverse in xeric than mesic environments (higrothermic stress hypothesis, HSH), and also in more plant diverse sites. Here we compare galler abundance (N), equitability (E), species richness (S) and composition between adjacent restinga (xeric) and swamp forests (mesic) in Parque Estadual de Itapeva (29°21' S, 49°45' W), Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. Five trails, two in swamp forest and three in restingas, were sampled four times each (January/December 2005). After an effort of 60h/person, 621 galled plant individuals belonging to 104 gall morphotypes were recorded. This suggests a high galler diversity for the Park, comparable to the richest places known. No differences were found for N, E or S between restingas and swamp forests. However, faunal composition differs significantly between the vegetation types. The dominant (most abundant) species are different in either vegetation type, and are rare or absent on the other vegetation type. Such species composition analysis is still largely ignored for gallers, and stresses the fact that the HSH cannot explain this pattern, since the latter is based on preferences by the ovipositing galler for xeric sites instead of mesic ones. The two habitats differ in microclimate, but species richness, as would be predicted by the HSH, does not differ. This small scale pattern can perhaps be attributed to biogeographic processes on larger scales, as suggested by the resource synchronisation hypothesis.

  7. Flee or fight: ontogenetic changes in the behavior of cobweb spiders in encounters with spider-hunting wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uma, Divya B; Weiss, Martha R

    2012-12-01

    An animal's body size plays a predominant role in shaping its interspecific interactions, and, in encounters between two predators, often determines which shall be predator and which shall be prey. Spiders are top predators of insects, yet can fall prey to mud-dauber wasps that provision their larval nests with paralyzed spiders. Here we examined predator-prey interactions between Chalybion californicum (Saussure) (Sphecidae), a mud-dauber wasp, and Parasteatoda tepidariorum C. L. Koch (Theridiidae), a cobweb spider. We examined whether a spider's size influences its response to an attacking wasp, and report a size-dependent change in spider behavior: small-sized spiders fled, whereas medium- and large-sized spiders fought in response to wasp attacks. From the wasps' perspective, we examined whether spider size influences a wasp's hunting behavior and capture success. We found that wasps commonly approached small spiders, but were much less likely to approach medium and large spiders. However, wasp capture success did not vary with spider size. We also report a strategy used by Chalybion wasps toward cobweb spiders that is consistent with an interpretation of aggressive mimicry.

  8. 77 FR 21813 - Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, “Buried and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2012-0055] Changes to the Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) Report Revision 2 AMP XI.M41, ``Buried and Underground Piping and Tanks'' AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Guidance (LR-ISG), LR-ISG-2011-03, ``Changes to GALL Report Revision 2 Aging Management Program (AMP) XI...

  9. Correlation between Copper, Zinc and some lipids in serum, bile and stones of patients with gall stone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Farsakh, F.

    1997-01-01

    Measurements of Cu, Zn and some lipid concentrations were carried out in serum, bile and gall stone samples collected from 76 patients undergoing surgery for removal of gall stones. The results showed that Cu and Zn were present in micromolar concentration in bile (average Cu concentration = 13.4 ± 0.92, average Zn concentration = 13.4 ± 1.05) and gall stones (average Cu concentration = 2.8 ± 0.16, average Zn concentration = 1.8 ± 0.16 mmol/ g stone). Cross-tabulation of the results showed significant positive linear correlations (p< 0.01) between stone Zn vs. bile cholesterol (r = 0.253), stone Zn vs. bile bilirubin (r = 0.396) (in mixed stones only). This suggested that the more hydrophobic the bile sample, the more Zn co-precipitate with cholesterol or bilirubin. (author). 17 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Morphological abnormalities in gall-forming aphids in a radiation-contaminated area near Fukushima Daiichi: selective impact of fallout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Shin-ichi

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident on organisms, this study compared the morphology and viability of gall-forming aphids between the Fukushima population and control populations from noncontaminated areas. This study, in particular, focused on the morphology of first-instar gall formers derived from the first sexual reproduction after the accident. Of 164 first instars from Tetraneura sorini galls collected 32 km from Fukushima Daiichi in spring 2012, 13.2% exhibited morphological abnormalities, including four conspicuously malformed individuals (2.4%). In contrast, in seven control areas, first instars with abnormal morphology accounted for 0.0–5.1% (on average, 3.8%). The proportions of abnormalities and mortality were significantly higher in Fukushima than in the control areas. Similarly, of 134 first instars from T. nigriabdominalis galls, 5.9% exhibited morphological abnormalities, with one highly malformed individual. However, of 543 second-generation larvae produced in T. sorini galls, only 0.37% had abnormalities, suggesting that abnormalities found in the first generation were not inherited by the next generation. Although investigation is limited to one study site, this result suggests that radioactive contamination had deleterious effects on embryogenesis in eggs deposited on the bark surface, but a negligible influence on the second generation produced in closed galls. Furthermore, analysis of both species samples collected in spring 2013 indicated that the viability and healthiness of the aphids were significantly improved compared to those in the 2012 samples. Thus, the results of this study suggest the possibility that a reduced level of radiation and/or selection for radiation tolerance may have led to the improved viability and healthiness of the Fukushima population. PMID:24634721

  11. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina-S Kelch

    Full Text Available Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg., we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58% identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46% on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  12. Prevalence of gall bladder stones among type 2 diabetic patients in Benghazi Libya: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behieh A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus and gall bladder stones are both common and costly diseases.Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitusis all associated with an increased risk of gallstones. Several studies from around the world reportedan increased prevalence of gall bladder stones in patients with diabetes mellitus. Aims andobjectives: The aim of this study was to define the frequency of gall bladder stones among Libyandiabetics and to evaluate the possible associated risk factors in these patients. Patients andmethods: A case-control study was performed during 2007 at Benghazi Diabetes and endocrinologyCenter. The study involved 161 randomly selected type-2 diabetic patients under regular follow up atthe center, and 166 age and sex matched non-diabetic outpatients at the 7th of October teachinghospital. Real-time abdominal ultrasound was performed by two radiologists to examine the abdomenafter an overnight fast. Results: About 40% of the diabetic cohort had gall bladder stones ascompared to 17.5% of non-diabetic patients. Females were significantly more affected than males.Patients with gall bladder stones were significantly older and had a significantly higher body massindex than those without stones. Conclusion: The prevalence of gallstones in Libyan diabeticpatients is higher than the rates reported in other parts of the world. Libyan diabetic patients withgallstones tend to be older and more obese than those without gallstones. Duration of diabetesmellitus and type of treatment does not seem to influence the frequency of gall bladder stones amongLibyan diabetics.

  13. New genera and species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae from three restingas of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cid Maia

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Five new genera and fourteen new species of gall midges from restingas of Rio de Janeiro State are described. The larva, pupa, male, female and gall are described for each species. The new genera are: Arrabidaeamyia, Epihormomyia, Manilkaramyia, Mayteniella and Parazalepidota. The new species are: Arrabidaeamyia serrata, Asphondylia peploniae, Clinodiplosis diodiae, Clinodiplosis profusa, Clusiamyia granulosa, Dasineura couepiae, Epihormomyia miconiae, Lopesia grandis, Lopesia marginalis, Lopesia singularis, Manilkaramyia notabilis, Mayteniella distincta, Parazalepidota clusiae and Paulliniamyia ampla. Also, the larva of a previously described species, Clusiamyia nitida Maia, 1996 is described and Asphondylia byrsonimae Maia & Couri is transferred to Bruggmaniella.

  14. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borodina

    Full Text Available Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A. All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST. Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy.

  15. Isothermal Amplification and Lateral-Flow Assay for Detecting Crown-Gall-Causing Agrobacterium spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Skylar L; Savory, Elizabeth A; Weisberg, Alexandra J; Buser, Jessica Z; Gordon, Michael I; Putnam, Melodie L; Chang, Jeff H

    2017-09-01

    Agrobacterium is a genus of soilborne gram-negative bacteria. Members carrying oncogenic plasmids can cause crown gall disease, which has significant economic costs, especially for the orchard and nursery industries. Early and rapid detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp. is key to the management of crown gall disease. To this end, we designed oligonucleotide primers and probes to target virD2 for use in a molecular diagnostic tool that relies on isothermal amplification and lateral-flow-based detection. The oligonucleotide tools were tested in the assay and evaluated for detection limit and specificity in detecting alleles of virD2. One set of primers that successfully amplified virD2 when used with an isothermal recombinase was selected. Both tested probes had detection limits in picogram amounts of DNA. Probe 1 could detect all tested pathogenic isolates that represented most of the diversity of virD2. Finally, the coupling of lateral-flow detection to the use of these oligonucleotide primers in isothermal amplification helped to reduce the onerousness of the process, and alleviated reliance on specialized tools necessary for molecular diagnostics. The assay is an advancement for the rapid molecular detection of pathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

  16. Ellagitannins, gallotannins, and gallo-ellagitannins from the galls of Tamarix aphylla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orabi, Mohamed A A; Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Hatano, Tsutomu

    2015-07-01

    Chromatographic separation of an aqueous acetone extract of the galls from Tamarix aphylla using gels resulted in isolation of an ellagitannin, phyllagallin M1 (13), a gallo-ellagitannin, phyllagallin D1 (14), and four gallotannins, phyllagallin M2 (15) and phyllagallins D2-D4 (16-18), in addition to four known ellagitannins and three phenolics of lower molecular weight structurally related to hydrolyzable tannins. The structures of the six new tannins were elucidated based on spectroscopic and chemical data. Among the phenolics, flavogallonic acid dilactone (8), which is presumed to be biogenetically produced by C-C oxidative coupling of an ellagic acid unit with a galloyl residue, shows an exceptional oxidative pattern of gallic acid residues in plants of the family Tamaricaceae. Although the ellagitannin tamarixellagic acid (4) was reported to be a constituent of the galls of T. aphylla, such compounds with anomalous location of the DHDG moiety at O-3 on the glucopyranose core have not been observed among the tannins of tamaricaceous plants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Financial cost to institutions on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Ahmed; Qasmi, Shahzad Ahmed; Kiani, Faran; Raza, Ahmed; Khan, Khizar Ishtiaque; Manzoor, Shazia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the financial costs to institution on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery and suggest measures to reduce them. This multi-centre prospective descriptive survey was performed on all patients who underwent an elective cholecystectomy by three consultants at secondary care hospitals in Pakistan between Jan 2010 to Jan 2012. Data was collected on demographics, the duration of mean waiting time, specific indications and nature of disease for including the patients in the waiting list, details of emergency re-admissions while awaiting surgery, investigations done, treatment given and expenditures incurred on them during these episodes. A total of 185 patients underwent elective open cholecystectomy. The indications for listing the patients for surgery were biliary colic in 128 patients (69%), acute cholecystitis in 43 patients (23%), obstructive jaundice in 8 patients (4.5%) and acute pancreatitis in 6 patients (3.2%). 146 (78.9%) and 39 (21.1%) of patients were listed as outdoor electives and indoor emergencies respectively. Of the 185 patients, 54 patients (29.2%) were re-admitted. Financial costs in Pakistani rupees per episode of readmission were 23050 per episode in total and total money spent on all readmissions was Rs. 17,05,700/-. Financial costs on health care institutions due to readmissions in patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery are high. Identifying patients at risk for these readmissions and offering them early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is very important.

  18. Expression of putative expansin genes in phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) induced root galls of Vitis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawo, N C; Griesser, M; Forneck, A

    Grape phylloxera ( Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch) is a serious global pest in viticulture. The insects are sedentary feeders and require a gall to feed and reproduce. The insects induce their feeding site within the meristematic zone of the root tip, where they stay attached, feeding both intra- and intercellularly, and causing damage by reducing plant vigour. Several changes in cell structure and composition, including increased cell division and tissue swelling close to the feeding site, cause an organoid gall called a nodosity to develop. Because alpha expansin genes are involved in cell enlargement and cell wall loosening in many plant tissues it may be anticipated that they are also involved in nodosity formation. To identify expansin genes in Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot noir , we mined for orthologues genes in a comparative analysis. Eleven putative expansin genes were identified and shown to be present in the rootstock Teleki 5C ( V. berlandieri Planch. x V. riparia Michx.) using specific PCR followed by DNA sequencing. Expression analysis of young and mature nodosities and uninfested root tips were conducted via quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). Up-regulation was measured for three putative expansin genes (VvEXPA15, -A17 and partly -A20) or down-regulation for three other putative genes (VvEXPA7, -A12, -A20) in nodosities. The present study clearly shows the involvement of putative expansin genes in the phylloxera-root interaction.

  19. Flower-Visiting Social Wasps and Plants Interaction: Network Pattern and Environmental Complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Aparecido Clemente

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Network analysis as a tool for ecological interactions studies has been widely used since last decade. However, there are few studies on the factors that shape network patterns in communities. In this sense, we compared the topological properties of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants in two distinct phytophysiognomies in a Brazilian savanna (Riparian Forest and Rocky Grassland. Results showed that the landscapes differed in species richness and composition, and also the interaction networks between wasps and plants had different patterns. The network was more complex in the Riparian Forest, with a larger number of species and individuals and a greater amount of connections between them. The network specialization degree was more generalist in the Riparian Forest than in the Rocky Grassland. This result was corroborated by means of the nestedness index. In both networks was found asymmetry, with a large number of wasps per plant species. In general aspects, most wasps had low niche amplitude, visiting from one to three plant species. Our results suggest that differences in structural complexity of the environment directly influence the structure of the interaction network between flower-visiting social wasps and plants.

  20. Nested Houses: Domestication dynamics of human-wasp relations in contemporary rural Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Charlotte L R; Evans, Joshua D

    2017-02-08

    Domestication is an important and contested concept. Insects are used as food worldwide, and while some have been described as domesticated and even 'semi-domesticated', the assumptions and implications of this designation are not clear. The purpose of this paper is to explore these aspects of insect domestication, and broader debates in domestication studies, through the case of edible wasps in central rural Japan. Both authors conducted ethnographic fieldwork with communities in central rural Japan. Fieldwork comprised participant observation, semi-structured interviews, quantitative surveys and a review of resources including the personal and public records of wasp collectors. The practice of keeping wasps in hive boxes has historical roots and has changed significantly within living memory. Current attempts to further develop the practice involve collectors' great efforts to keep new queens during their hibernation. Collectors have also tried, still without success, to keep wasps living within a human-made enclosure for their entire life cycle. These and other practices are costly in both time and money for collectors, who emphasise enjoyment as their primary motivation. At the same time, they also engage in practices such as pesticide use that they recognise as damaging to wasp ecology. These practices can be understood to some extent in domesticatory terms, and in terms of care. We develop a framework for understanding domesticatory practices of insect care, discuss how this case contributes to ongoing debates within domestication studies, and recommend further research to be pursued.

  1. Acanthopria and Mimopriella parasitoid wasps (Diapriidae) attack Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants (Formicidae, Attini)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K.; Wcislo, William T.

    2006-01-01

    New World diapriine wasps are abundant and diverse, but the biology of most species is unknown. We provide the first description of the biology of diapriine wasps, Acanthopria spp. and Mimopriella sp., which attack the larvae of Cyphomyrmex fungus-growing ants. In Puerto Rico, the koinobiont parasitoids Acanthopria attack Cyphomyrmex minutus, while in Panama at least four morphospecies of Acanthopria and one of Mimopriella attack Cyphomyrmex rimosus. Of the total larvae per colony, 0 100% were parasitized, and 27 70% of the colonies per population were parasitized. Parasitism rate and colony size were negatively correlated for C. rimosus but not for C. minutus. Worker ants grasped at, bit, and in some cases, killed adult wasps that emerged in artificial nests or tried to enter natural nests. Parasitoid secondary sex ratios were female-biased for eclosing wasps, while field collections showed a male-biased sex ratio. Based on their abundance and success in attacking host ants, these minute wasps present excellent opportunities to explore how natural enemies impact ant colony demography and population biology.

  2. Chemical analyses of wasp-associated streptomyces bacteria reveal a prolific potential for natural products discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Poulsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Identifying new sources for small molecule discovery is necessary to help mitigate the continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistance in pathogenic microbes. Recent studies indicate that one potentially rich source of novel natural products is Actinobacterial symbionts associated with social and solitary Hymenoptera. Here we test this possibility by examining two species of solitary mud dauber wasps, Sceliphron caementarium and Chalybion californicum. We performed enrichment isolations from 33 wasps and obtained more than 200 isolates of Streptomyces Actinobacteria. Chemical analyses of 15 of these isolates identified 11 distinct and structurally diverse secondary metabolites, including a novel polyunsaturated and polyoxygenated macrocyclic lactam, which we name sceliphrolactam. By pairing the 15 Streptomyces strains against a collection of fungi and bacteria, we document their antifungal and antibacterial activity. The prevalence and anti-microbial properties of Actinobacteria associated with these two solitary wasp species suggest the potential role of these Streptomyces as antibiotic-producing symbionts, potentially helping defend their wasp hosts from pathogenic microbes. Finding phylogenetically diverse and chemically prolific Actinobacteria from solitary wasps suggests that insect-associated Actinobacteria can provide a valuable source of novel natural products of pharmaceutical interest.

  3. Revisiting the Phase Curves of WASP-43b: Confronting Re-analyzed Spitzer Data with Cloudy Atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendonça, João M.; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    red noise due to intra-pixel sensitivity, which leads to greater fluxes emanating from the nightside of WASP-43b, thus reducing the tension between theory and data. On the theoretical front, we construct cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres of WASP-43b using our Global Circulation Model (GCM), THOR...

  4. Water Quality Assessment Simulation Program (WASP8): Upgrades to the Advanced Toxicant Module for Simulating Dissolved Chemicals, Nanomaterials, and Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) is a dynamic, spatially-resolved, differential mass balance fate and transport modeling framework. WASP is used to develop models to simulate concentrations of environmental contaminants in surface waters and sediments. As a mo...

  5. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joshua W; Smithers, Cherice; Irvin, Allyn; Kimmel, Chase B; Stanley-Stahr, Cory; Daniels, Jaret C; Ellis, James D

    2017-10-10

    Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds ( Bambusa sp.) were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots) to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots) did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis , Euodynerus megaera , Parancistrocerus pedestris , and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile . The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs). The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  6. Three-dimensional organization of the glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the parasitoid wasps Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, H.M.; Bleeker, M.A.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2003-01-01

    Two closely related parasitoid wasp species, Cotesia glomerata and C. rubecula, differ in their use of associative learning. To investigate the neural basis underlying these differences, it is necessary to describe the olfactory pathway of both wasp species. This paper focuses on the organization of

  7. Trap Nesting Wasps and Bees in Agriculture: A Comparison of Sown Wildflower and Fallow Plots in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua W. Campbell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wildflower strip plantings in intensive agricultural systems have become a widespread tool for promoting pollination services and biological conservation because of their use by wasps and bees. Many of the trap-nesting wasps are important predators of common crop pests, and cavity-nesting bees that utilize trap-nests are important pollinators for native plants and many crops. The impact of wildflower strips on the nesting frequency of trap-nesting wasps or bees within localized areas has not been thoroughly investigated. Trap-nests made of bamboo reeds (Bambusa sp. were placed adjacent to eight 0.1 ha wildflower plots and paired fallow areas (control plots to determine if wildflower strips encourage the nesting of wasps and bees. From August 2014 to November 2015, occupied reeds were gathered and adults were collected as they emerged from the trap-nests. Treatment (wildflower or fallow plots did not impact the number of occupied reeds or species richness of trap-nesting wasps using the occupied reeds. The wasps Pachodynerus erynnis, Euodynerus megaera, Parancistrocerus pedestris, and Isodontia spp. were the most common trap-nesting species collected. Less than 2% of the occupied reeds contained bees, and all were from the genus Megachile. The nesting wasp and bee species demonstrated preferences for reeds with certain inside diameters (IDs. The narrow range of ID preferences exhibited by each bee/wasp may provide opportunities to take advantage of their natural histories for biological control and/or pollination purposes.

  8. An observational study on the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome with gall stone disease requiring cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Ahmed

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion: We found association of metabolic syndrome with gallstones and NAFLD. Non alcoholic fatty liver was highly prevalent in our study subjects. Huge percentage of first degree relatives of gall stone patients had gallstones and this relation was more pronounced patients who had associated NAFLD.

  9. Occurrence and gall characterization in a fragment of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Oliveira Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Galls surveys in Paraná are scarce and most sampling efforts in Brazil have still been concentrated on Cerrado regions. In this context, the present study investigated an area of semideciduous forest of Fazenda Monte Alegre in Telêmaco Borba, in order to contribute to the knowledge of galls in the state. Samples were collected on a 300m long track and 5m width, through active search up to two meters high. Fourty-one morphotypes were found, thirteen of which were identified to the host plant species level, ten according to level of genus, ten to family level and eight morphotypes were not identified. Among the identified families, Solanaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Bignoniaceae, Melastomataceae and Leguminosae-Fabaceae represented the greatest quantity of morphotypes. Most of them occurred on the leaf (39%, 98.6% are entomogenous. 70.7% are glabrous, and as for the shape, most of them were classified as globular (43.9%. As for the way galls grouping on host plants, 46.3% showed up in isolation, and 53.7% in groupings. This study has contributed to enrich the knowledge on galls in the state of Paraná and for the Atlantic Forest Biome.

  10. Wheat Mds-1 encodes a heat-shock protein and governs susceptibility towards the Hessian fly gall midge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pests including insects must manipulate plants in order to utilize the nutrition and environment of the host. Here, we show that the heat-shock protein gene Mayetiola destructor susceptibility gene-1 (Mds-1) is a major susceptibility gene in wheat that allows the gall midge M. destructor, com...

  11. Yeast transformation mediated by Agrobacterium strains harboring an Ri plasmid: comparative study between GALLS of an Ri plasmid and virE of a Ti plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyokawa, Kazuya; Yamamoto, Shinji; Sato, Yukari; Momota, Naoto; Tanaka, Katsuyuki; Moriguchi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Katsunori

    2012-07-01

    Agrobacterium strains containing a Ti plasmid can transfer T-DNA not only to plants but also to fungi, including the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, no Agrobacterium strain harboring an Ri plasmid has been evaluated in fungal transformation. Some Ri plasmids have GALLS , instead of virE1 and virE2. GALLS protein can functionally substitute in plant transformation for a structurally different protein VirE2. In this study, we compared the yeast transformation ability among Agrobacterium donors: a strain containing a Ti plasmid, strains harboring either an agropine-type or a mikimopine-type Ri plasmid, and a strain having a modified Ri plasmid supplemented with a Ti plasmid type virE operon. Agrobacterium strains possessing GALLS transformed yeast cells far less efficiently than the strain containing virE operon. Production of GALLS in recipient yeast cells improved the yeast transformation mediated by an Agrobacterium strain lacking neither GALLS nor virE operon. A reporter assay to detect mobilization of the proteins fused with Cre recombinase revealed that VirE2 protein is much more abundant in yeast cells than GALLS. Based on these results, we concluded that the low yeast transformability mediated by Agrobacterium strains having the Ri plasmid is because of low amount of mobilized GALLS in yeast cells. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. The mono - and sesquiterpene content of aphid-induced galls on Pistacia palaestina is not a simple reflection of their composition in intact leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Karin; Bar, Einat; Ben-Ari, Matan; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Inbar, Moshe

    2014-06-01

    Pistacia palaestina Boiss. (Anacardiaceae), a sibling species of P. terebinthus also known as turpentine tree or terebinth tree, is common in the Levant region. The aphid Baizongia pistaciae L. manipulates the leaves of the plant to form large galls, which provide both food and protection for its developing offspring. We analyzed the levels and composition of mono-and sesquiterpenes in both leaves and galls of ten naturally growing trees. Our results show that monoterpene hydrocarbons are the main constituents of P. palaestina leaves and galls, but terpene levels and composition vary among trees. Despite this inter-tree variation, terpene levels and compositions in galls from different trees resemble each other more than the patterns displayed by leaves from the same trees. Generally, galls contain 10 to 60 fold higher total terpene amounts than leaves, especially of the monoterpenes α-pinene and limonene. Conversely, the leaves generally accumulate more sesquiterpenes, in particular E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene, in comparison to galls. Our results clearly show that the terpene pattern in the galls is not a simple reflection of that of the leaves and suggest that aphids have a strong impact on the metabolism of their host plant, possibly for their own defense.

  13. Reward value determines memory consolidation in parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruidhof, H Marjolein; Pashalidou, Foteini G; Fatouros, Nina E; Figueroa, Ilich A; Vet, Louise E M; Smid, Hans M; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Animals can store learned information in their brains through a series of distinct memory forms. Short-lasting memory forms can be followed by longer-lasting, consolidated memory forms. However, the factors determining variation in memory consolidation encountered in nature have thus far not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that two parasitic wasp species belonging to different families, Cotesia glomerata (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Trichogramma evanescens (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae), similarly adjust the memory form they consolidate to a fitness-determining reward: egg-laying into a host-insect that serves as food for their offspring. Protein synthesis-dependent long-term memory (LTM) was consolidated after single-trial conditioning with a high-value host. However, single-trial conditioning with a low-value host induced consolidation of a shorter-lasting memory form. For Cotesia glomerata, we subsequently identified this shorter-lasting memory form as anesthesia-resistant memory (ARM) because it was not sensitive to protein synthesis inhibitors or anesthesia. Associative conditioning using a single reward of different value thus induced a physiologically different mechanism of memory formation in this species. We conclude that the memory form that is consolidated does not only change in response to relatively large differences in conditioning, such as the number and type of conditioning trials, but is also sensitive to more subtle differences, such as reward value. Reward-dependent consolidation of exclusive ARM or LTM provides excellent opportunities for within-species comparison of mechanisms underlying memory consolidation.

  14. New and revised maimetshid wasps from Cretaceous ambers (Hymenoptera, Maimetshidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Perrichot

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available New material of the wasp family Maimetshidae (Apocrita is presented from four Cretaceous amber deposits – the Neocomian of Lebanon, the Early Albian of Spain, the latest Albian/earliest Cenomanian of France, and the Campanian of Canada. The new record from Canadian Cretaceous amber extends the temporal and paleogeographical range of the family. New material from France is assignable to Guyotemaimetsha enigmatica Perrichot et al. including the first females for the species, while a series of males and females from Spain are described and figured as Iberomaimetsha Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel gen. n., with the two new species Iberomaimetsha rasnitsyni Ortega-Blanco, Perrichot, and Engel sp. n. and I. nihtmara Ortega-Blanco, Delclòs, and Engel sp. n.; a single female from Lebanon is described and figured as Ahiromaimetsha najlae Perrichot, Azar, Nel, and Engel gen. et sp. n., and a single male from Canada is described and figured as Ahstemiam cellula McKellar and Engel gen. et sp. n. The taxa are compared with other maimetshids, a key to genera and species is given, and brief comments made on the family.

  15. Role and structural mechanism of WASP-triggered conformational changes in branched actin filament nucleation by Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodnick-Smith, Max; Luan, Qing; Liu, Su-Ling; Nolen, Brad J

    2016-07-05

    The Arp2/3 (Actin-related proteins 2/3) complex is activated by WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) family proteins to nucleate branched actin filaments that are important for cellular motility. WASP recruits actin monomers to the complex and stimulates movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into a "short-pitch" conformation that mimics the arrangement of actin subunits within filaments. The relative contribution of these functions in Arp2/3 complex activation and the mechanism by which WASP stimulates the conformational change have been unknown. We purified budding yeast Arp2/3 complex held in or near the short-pitch conformation by an engineered covalent cross-link to determine if the WASP-induced conformational change is sufficient for activity. Remarkably, cross-linked Arp2/3 complex bypasses the need for WASP in activation and is more active than WASP-activated Arp2/3 complex. These data indicate that stimulation of the short-pitch conformation is the critical activating function of WASP and that monomer delivery is not a fundamental requirement for nucleation but is a specific requirement for WASP-mediated activation. During activation, WASP limits nucleation rates by releasing slowly from nascent branches. The cross-linked complex is inhibited by WASP's CA region, even though CA potently stimulates cross-linking, suggesting that slow WASP detachment masks the activating potential of the short-pitch conformational switch. We use structure-based mutations and WASP-Arp fusion chimeras to determine how WASP stimulates movement toward the short-pitch conformation. Our data indicate that WASP displaces the autoinhibitory Arp3 C-terminal tail from a hydrophobic groove at Arp3's barbed end to destabilize the inactive state, providing a mechanism by which WASP stimulates the short-pitch conformation and activates Arp2/3 complex.

  16. Long-term spatial memory in Vespula germanica social wasps: the influence of past experience on foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreyra, Sabrina; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2017-10-01

    Social insects exhibit complex learning and memory mechanisms while foraging. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) is an invasive social wasp that frequently forages on undepleted food sources, making several flights between the resource and the nest. Previous studies have shown that during this relocating behavior, wasps learn to associate food with a certain site, and can recall this association 1 h later. In this work, we evaluated whether this wasp species is capable of retrieving an established association after 24 h. For this purpose, we trained free flying individuals to collect proteinaceous food from an experimental plate (feeder) located in an experimental array. A total of 150 individuals were allowed 2, 4, or 8 visits. After the training phase, the array was removed and set up again 24 h later, but this time a second baited plate was placed opposite to the first. After 24 h we recorded the rate of wasps that returned to the experimental area and those which collected food from the previously learned feeding station or the nonlearned one. During the testing phase, we observed that a low rate of wasps trained with 2 collecting visits returned to the experimental area (22%), whereas the rate of returning wasps trained with 4 or 8 collecting visits was higher (51% and 41%, respectively). Moreover, wasps trained with 8 feeding visits collected food from the previously learned feeding station at a higher rate than those that did from the nonlearned one. In contrast, wasps trained 2 or 4 times chose both feeding stations at a similar rate. Thus, significantly more wasps returned to the previously learned feeding station after 8 repeated foraging flights but not after only 2 or 4 visits. This is the first report that demonstrates the existence of long-term spatial memory in V. germanica wasps. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Molecular phylogenies of figs and fig-pollinating wasps in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) islands, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Harrison, Rhett D; Nakamura, Keiko; Su, Zhi-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between figs (Ficus, Moraceae) and fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae) is one of the most specific mutualisms, and thus is a model system for studying coevolution and cospeciation. In this study we focused on figs and their associated fig-wasps found in the Ryukyu and Bonin (Ogasawara) Islands, Japan, because it has been suggested that breakdown in the specificity may occur in islands or at edge of a species' distribution. We collected 136 samples of 15 native fig species and 95 samples of 13 associated fig-wasps from all major islands in the Ryukyu Islands, including two fig species and one fig-wasp species endemic to the Bonin Islands. We performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using plastid DNA and nuclear ITS sequences for the figs and nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial COI genes for the fig-wasps to investigate the interspecific phylogenies and intraspecific variation within the mutualism. Our phylogenetic analyses using multiple samples per species show the single clade of each fig (except the Bonin endemic species) and fig-pollinating wasp species. Fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed well-supported clades in both plastid and ITS trees, except for the subgenus Urostigma. Likewise, fig wasps emerging from host fig species belonging to the same subgenera formed mostly well supported clades in both 28S and COI trees. Host specificity between the figs and fig-wasps functions strictly in these islands. There was very little sequence variation within species, and that no major geographic structure was found. The two Bonin endemic species (F. boninsimae and F. nishimurae) or their common ancestor and the associated fig-wasps (Blastophaga sp.) are apparently derived from F. erecta and its associated fig-wasps (B. nipponica), respectively, and probably migrated from the Ryukyu Islands.

  18. New Types of Behavioral Manipulation of Host Spiders by a Parasitoid Wasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Eberhard

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The larva of the parasitic wasp Zatypota sp. nr. solanoi induces its host spiders Anelosimus spp. to modify its web in ways not seen in normal webs of this species or in any other species, providing apparent protection and support for the wasp's cocoon by covering the entire web with a protective sheet and adding a central platform and opening a space below in the enclosed tangle, where the larva suspends its cocoon. These modifications differ qualitatively from those induced by a congeneric wasp. Parasitized spiders appeared to adjust modified web construction behavior to local conditions, implying that larval manipulations may occur at higher rather than lower levels of behavioral control (e.g., eliciting overall design decisions, rather than particular motor patterns.

  19. Nest Architectural Patterns by Three Wasp Species ( and with Reference to Their Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Perveen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the nest architectural patterns, elemental analysis and their behavior were carried out in three wasp species: Vespa velutina (Lepeletier, Polistes flavus (Cresson and Sceliphron formosum (Smith from the different localities of the Mansehra, Pakistan. The V. velutina nest was completely closed except for one opening for entry or exit with 1–10 layers of hexagonal cells inside the nest. The nests of P. flavus were found among bunches of leaves of trees with 1–5 layers and hexagonal cells same as in V. velutina. Nests of the S. formosum were pitcher-shaped, found in muddy places, and consisted of 1–10 cells. Social behavior of wasps showed strong foraging, defensive behaviors, pseudo-attack, subsequent erratic flight, wing buzzing, mandibular pecking, abdominal pumping and abdominal twisting with highly developed parental care. It was concluded that the behaviors of these 3 wasp species was highly developed as compared with other insects.

  20. Hierarchical genetic structure of the introduced wasp Vespula germanica in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodisman, M A; Matthews, R W; Crozier, R H

    2001-06-01

    The wasp Vespula germanica is a highly successful invasive pest. This study examined the population genetic structure of V. germanica in its introduced range in Australia. We sampled 1320 workers and 376 males from 141 nests obtained from three widely separated geographical areas on the Australian mainland and one on the island of Tasmania. The genotypes of all wasps were assayed at three polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers. Our analyses uncovered significant allelic differentiation among all four V. germanica populations. Pairwise estimates of genetic divergence between populations agreed with the results of a model-based clustering algorithm which indicated that the Tasmanian population was particularly distinct from the other populations. Within-population analyses revealed that genetic similarity declined with spatial distance, indicating that wasps from nests separated by more than approximately 25 km belonged to separate mating pools. We suggest that the observed genetic patterns resulted from frequent bottlenecks experienced by the V. germanica populations during their colonization of Australia.

  1. Climate warming and the potential extinction of fig wasps, the obligate pollinators of figs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevanandam, Nanthinee; Goh, Alexander G R; Corlett, Richard T

    2013-06-23

    Figs (Ficus) have a reciprocally obligate mutualism with tiny, short-lived (1-2 days) fig wasps (Agaonidae). The small size and short life of these pollinators is expected to make them more vulnerable to climate change than their larger and longer-lived hosts. We experimentally tested the thermal tolerances of four species of adult female fig wasp from equatorial Singapore. The results suggest that an increase of 3°C or more above the current temperatures experienced across much of the equatorial tropics would markedly decrease the active adult lifespan of all four species. Fig plants are the centre of an intricate web of specialist and generalist animals. Unless fig wasps can acclimate or adapt to warmer temperatures in time, these responses may disrupt the mutualism, potentially affecting multiple trophic levels.

  2. Expression of Enzymatically Inactive Wasp Venom Phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  3. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification. Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  4. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M; Wagner, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain...... and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form...... in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect...

  5. The gall mites Vasates quadripedes and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Acari: Eriophyidae) new to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Henrik; Soika, Grazyna

    2013-01-01

    We report the first records from Denmark of the gall mite species Vasates quadripedes Shimer, 1869 and Cecidophyopsis psilaspis (Nalepa, 1893). V quadripedes is native to North America and forms pouch galls on leaves of some American species of maple. In Europe, it has been found on planted silver...... maple, Acer saccharinum L., only. The species has spread across Europe in recent years. C. psilaspis forms bud galls of species of Taxus in Europe only the native Taxus baccata L. The species is native to Europe and has been introduced to North America....

  6. Are gall midge species (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae host-plant specialists? Espécies de moscas galhadoras (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae são especialistas em plantas hospedeiras?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio A. Carneiro

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the speciose fauna of gall-inducing insects in the Neotropical region, little is known about their taxonomy. On the other hand, gall morphotypes associated with host species have been extensively used as a surrogate of the inducer species worldwide. This study reviewed the described gall midges and their galls to test the generalization on the use of gall morphotypes as surrogates of gall midge species in the Brazilian fauna. We compiled taxonomic and biological data for 196 gall midge species recorded on 128 host plant species. Ninety two percent of those species were monophagous, inducing galls on a single host plant species, whereas only 5.6% species were oligophagous, inducing galls on more than one congeneric host plant species. Only four species induced galls on more than one host plant genus. We conclude that gall morphotypes associated with information on the host plant species and attacked organs are reliable surrogates of the gall-inducing species.Apesar do elevado número de espécies da fauna de insetos indutores de galhas na região Neotropical, muito pouco espécies foram descritas. Por outro lado, o morfotipo da galha associado com a espécie da planta hospedeira é em todo o mundo amplamente utilizado como um indicador da espécie de inseto indutor. Este estudo revê as espécies de cecidommídeos descritos e suas galhas para verificar a generalização do uso da morfologia da galha como indicador da espécie de cecidomíideo na fauna brasileira. Nós compilamos dados biológicos e taxonômicos de 196 espécies de cecidomiídeos em 128 espécies de plantas no Brasil. Noventa e dois porcento destas espécies foram monófagas, induzindo galhas em uma única espécie de planta hospedeira, enquanto somente 5,6% das espécies foram oligófagas, induzindo galhas em mais de uma espécie de planta do mesmo gênero. Somente quatro espécies induzem galhas em espécies de plantas de gêneros diferentes. Nós concluímos que o morfo

  7. Does size matter? - Thermoregulation of 'heavyweight' and 'lightweight' wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-09-15

    In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (T(a): ~0-40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights.Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on T(a) on their arrival (mean T(th) = 30-40°C) and departure (mean T(th) = 33-40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (T(th)-T(a)) above ambient air of about 5-18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the T(th) on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg.

  8. Ultraviolet anomalies of the WASP-12 and HD 189733 systems: Trojan satellites as a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kislyakova, Kristina; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Funk, Barbara; Lammer, Helmut; Fossati, Luca; Eggl, Siegfried; Schwarz, Richard; Boudyada, Mohammed; Erkaev, Nikolai

    2017-04-01

    We suggest an additional possible plasma source in the WASP-12 and HD189733b systems to explain part of the phenomena observed in ultraviolet (UV) light curves during planetary transits. In the proposed scenario, material originates from the molten surface of Trojan satellites on orbits near the Lagrange points L4 and L5. We show that the temperature at the orbital location of WASP-12b is high enough to melt the surface of rocky Trojans and to form shallow lava oceans on them. At the orbital distance of WASP-12b, this leads to the release of elements such as Mg and Ca, which are expected to surround the system. The predicted Mg and Ca outgassing rates from two Io-sized WASP-12b Trojans are ≈ 2.2 × 1027 s-1 and ≈ 2.2 × 1026 s-1, respectively. Trojan outgassing can lead to the observed lack of emission in MgII h&k and CaII H&K line cores of WASP-12. For HD 189733b, the mechanism is only marginally possible due to the lower temperature. The early ingress of HD 189733b observed in the far-UV (FUV) CII doublet couldn't be explained by this mechanism due to absence of carbon within elements outgassed by molten lava. We investigate the long-term stability region of WASP-12b and HD 189733b in case of planar and inclined motion of these satellites and show that unlike the classical exomoons orbiting the planet, Io-sized Trojans can be stable for the whole systems life time.

  9. Larger fig wasps are more careful about which figs to enter--with good reason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cong; Yang, Da-Rong; Compton, Stephen G; Peng, Yan-Qiong

    2013-01-01

    Floral longevity reflects a balance between gains in pollinator visitation and the costs of flower maintenance. Because rewards to pollinators change over time, older flowers may be less attractive, reducing the value of extended longevity. Un-pollinated figs, the inflorescences of Ficus species, can remain receptive for long periods, but figs that are older when entered by their host-specific fig wasp pollinators produce fewer seeds and fig wasp offspring. Our field experiments with Ficushispida, a dioecious fig tree, examined how the length of time that receptive figs have remained un-pollinated influences the behaviour and reproductive success of its short-lived fig wasp pollinator, Ceratosolensolmsi marchali. The results were consistent in three different seasons, and on male and female trees, although receptivity was greatly extended during colder months. Pollinators took longer to find the ostioles of older figs, and longer to penetrate them. They also became increasingly unwilling to enter figs as they aged, and increasing numbers of the wasps became trapped in the ostiolar bracts. Larger individuals were particularly unwilling to enter older figs, resulting in older figs being pollinated by smaller wasps. On female trees, where figs produce only seeds, seed production declined rapidly with fig age. On male trees, the numbers and size of fig wasp offspring declined, and a higher proportion were male. Older male figs are harder to enter, especially for larger individuals, and offer poorer quality oviposition opportunities. This study opens an interesting new perspective on the coevolution of figs and their pollinators, especially factors influencing pollinator body size and emphasises the subtleties of interactions between mutualists.

  10. Recombinant allergen-based IgE testing to distinguish bee and wasp allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittermann, Irene; Zidarn, Mihaela; Silar, Mira; Markovic-Housley, Zora; Aberer, Werner; Korosec, Peter; Kosnik, Mitja; Valenta, Rudolf

    2010-06-01

    The identification of the disease-causing insect in venom allergy is often difficult. To establish recombinant allergen-based IgE tests to diagnose bee and yellow jacket wasp allergy. Sera from patients with bee and/or wasp allergy (n = 43) and patients with pollen allergy with false-positive IgE serology to venom extracts were tested for IgE reactivity in allergen extract-based tests or with purified allergens, including nonglycosylated Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant (r) Api m 1, rApi m 2, rVes v 5, and insect cell-expressed, glycosylated rApi m 2 as well as 2 natural plant glycoproteins (Phl p 4, bromelain). The patients with venom allergy could be diagnosed with a combination of E coli-expressed rApi m 1, rApi m 2, and rVes v 5 whereas patients with pollen allergy remained negative. For a group of 29 patients for whom the sensitizing venom could not be identified with natural allergen extracts, testing with nonglycosylated allergens allowed identification of the sensitizing venom. Recombinant nonglycosylated allergens also allowed definition of the sensitizing venom for those 14 patients who had reacted either with bee or wasp venom extracts. By IgE inhibition studies, it is shown that glycosylated Api m 2 contains carbohydrate epitopes that cross-react with natural Api m 1, Ves v 2, natural Phl p 4, and bromelain, thus identifying cross-reactive structures responsible for serologic false-positive test results or double-positivity to bee and wasp extracts. Nonglycosylated recombinant bee and wasp venom allergens allow the identification of patients with bee and wasp allergy and should facilitate accurate prescription of venom immunotherapy. Copyright (c) 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaptive selection on bracovirus genomes drives the specialization of Cotesia parasitoid wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Jancek

    Full Text Available The geographic mosaic of coevolution predicts parasite virulence should be locally adapted to the host community. Cotesia parasitoid wasps adapt to local lepidopteran species possibly through their symbiotic bracovirus. The virus, essential for the parasitism success, is at the heart of the complex coevolutionary relationship linking the wasps and their hosts. The large segmented genome contained in the virus particles encodes virulence genes involved in host immune and developmental suppression. Coevolutionary arms race should result in the positive selection of particular beneficial alleles. To understand the global role of bracoviruses in the local adaptation or specialization of parasitoid wasps to their hosts, we studied the molecular evolution of four bracoviruses associated with wasps of the genus Cotesia, including C congregata, C vestalis and new data and annotation on two ecologically differentiated populations of C sesamie, Kitale and Mombasa. Paired orthologs analyses revealed more genes under positive selection when comparing the two C sesamiae bracoviruses belonging to the same species, and more genes under strong evolutionary constraint between species. Furthermore branch-site evolutionary models showed that 17 genes, out of the 54 currently available shared by the four bracoviruses, harboured sites under positive selection including: the histone H4-like, a C-type lectin, two ep1-like, ep2, a viral ankyrin, CrV1, a ben-domain, a Serine-rich, and eight unknown genes. Lastly the phylogenetic analyses of the histone, ep2 and CrV1 genes in different African C sesamiae populations showed that each gene described differently the individual relationships. In particular we found recombination had happened between the ep2 and CrV1 genes, which are localized 37.5 kb apart on the wasp chromosomes. Involved in multidirectional coevolutionary interactions, C sesamiae wasps rely on different bracovirus mediated molecular pathways to overcome

  12. HST HOT-JUPITER TRANSMISSION SPECTRAL SURVEY: CLEAR SKIES FOR COOL SATURN WASP-39b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Patrick D.; Knutson, Heather A. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sing, David K.; Kataria, Tiffany; Nikolov, Nikolay [Astrophysics Group, School of Physics, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter, EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Henry, Gregory W.; Williamson, Michael W. [Center of Excellence in Information Systems, Tennessee State University, Nashville, TN 37209 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Burrows, Adam S. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Showman, Adam P.; Ballester, Gilda E. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Aigrain, Suzanne [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Etangs, Alain Lecavelier des; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred [CNRS, Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2016-08-10

    We present the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) optical transmission spectroscopy of the cool Saturn-mass exoplanet WASP-39b from 0.29-1.025 μ m, along with complementary transit observations from Spitzer IRAC at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m. The low density and large atmospheric pressure scale height of WASP-39b make it particularly amenable to atmospheric characterization using this technique. We detect a Rayleigh scattering slope as well as sodium and potassium absorption features; this is the first exoplanet in which both alkali features are clearly detected with the extended wings predicted by cloud-free atmosphere models. The full transmission spectrum is well matched by a clear H{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere, or one containing a weak contribution from haze, in good agreement with the preliminary reduction of these data presented in Sing et al. WASP-39b is predicted to have a pressure-temperature profile comparable to that of HD 189733b and WASP-6b, making it one of the coolest transiting gas giants observed in our HST STIS survey. Despite this similarity, WASP-39b appears to be largely cloud-free, while the transmission spectra of HD 189733b and WASP-6b both indicate the presence of high altitude clouds or hazes. These observations further emphasize the surprising diversity of cloudy and cloud-free gas giant planets in short-period orbits and the corresponding challenges associated with developing predictive cloud models for these atmospheres.

  13. Experience with the Agency's WASP for nuclear power planning in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-02-01

    An Advisory Group Meeting to discuss recent experience with, and to suggest improvements to, Wien Automatic System Planning Program (WASP), was held in Vienna in September 1985. It was clear from the meeting that WASP is a very useful tool as an aid in planning electric power generation systems. It is widely used in both developed and developing countries and its use will continue particularly if some of the suggestions for its improvements are implemented. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 presentations of this meeting

  14. The implementation and application of the WASP-III at CNEN/Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, L.H.; Lima, J.O.V.; Silva, R.C.O. da.

    1983-09-01

    The main dificulties faced in the implementation of the WASP-III on the Honeywell Bull DPS 6/64 computer at CNEN, are discribed. After the implementation, tests making use of input data provided by International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA were performed and comparative results from accomplishment peiods of time are presented with the basic characteristics of the computer employed and the modifications carried out to adapt the programm. The WASP-III was applied to middle-sized electric system based upon the Brazilian North/Northeast System. (Author) [pt

  15. Gallé, une vie au tournant du siècle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Debilly

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available La collection Découvertes de Gallimard propose un nouveau volume dédié à Émile Gallé, le magicien du verre . Il s’agit là déjà, du 446 e numéro de cette collection destinée à l’origine aux adolescents. Ce principe a été en grande partie abandonné, même si l’on trouve encore les volumes de cette collection dans les rayons « jeunesse » de certaines librairies. Le grand public a depuis longtemps plébiscité ces ouvrages qui présentent une riche iconographie, ...

  16. Galling Resistance of An Anti-friction Coating on Oil-casing Couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Shilong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, oil tubing and casing connections made of carbon steel are connected using phosphate-treated coupling, but high-grade steel oil casing can only be connected using copperized couplings, which are expensive and result in environmental pollution. A new anti-friction coating was prepared by adding suitable amounts of nanoparticles into a highly pure and concentrated nano-copper suspension, with epoxy resin as a binder. Laboratory tests and full-scale make and break tests show that a heterogeneous copper layer is formed after curing when this coating was applied to the phosphate layer surface of couplings made of P110 and P110S casings. This can greatly reduce the make-up torque of casing thread, and can effectively improve or even eliminate galling of high-grade steel oil casing.

  17. Evaluating the Antimicrobial Activity of Methonolic Extract of Rhus Succedanea Leaf Gall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savitri Shrestha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The worldwide increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics and the undesirable side effects associated with constant use of synthetic drugs has prompted the search for novel antimicrobial agents, particularly those manufactured from plants. This study is designed to ascertain the antibacterial potential of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts on the growth of gram-positive and gram–negative bacteria. Methods: The methanolic and hexane extract of different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 μg/ml were prepared and their antibacterial efficacy was tested against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus using agar well diffusion method and the size of inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. Results: The methanol and hexane extracts differed significantly in their antimicrobial activity with methanol extract showing a potent inhibitory activity in the range of 16±2 to 23±1, which was almost equal to the values of ciprofloxacin (25±3, used as a standard. Further, the methanol extract was mostly potent and effective in inhibiting the growth of gram-negative bacteria, namely, E. coli, when compared to gram –positive bacteria stains, which are responsible for antimicrobial activities. The phytochemical screening showed positive results for the presence of steroids, triterpenes, alkaloids, and carbohydrates. Conclusion: The potent antibacterial activity of Rhus succedanea leaf gall extracts indicates its useful therapeutic application against bacterial infection. Furthermore, this study indicates that the extract might be exploited as natural drug for the treatment of infectious diseases and could be useful in understanding the relations between traditional cures and current medications.

  18. Antioxidant, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of an aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krifa, Mounira; Bouhlel, Ines; Skandrani, Ines; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall (G extract) was tested on Salmonella typhimurium to assess its mutagenic and antimutagenic effects. This extract showed no mutagenicity when tested with S. typhimurium strain TA104 either with or without exogenous metabolic activation mixture (S9), whereas our findings revealed that the aqueous gall extract induced a mutagenic effect in S. typhimurium TA1538 when tested in the presence, as well as in the absence, of S9 activation mixture at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Thus, the same concentration produced a mutagenic effect, when incubated with S. typhimurium TA100 in the presence of metabolic activation mixture. In contrast, our results showed a weak antimutagenic potential of the same extract against sodium azide in the presence of S. typhimurium TA100 and S. typhimurium TA1538 without metabolic activation (S9), whereas, in the presence of S. typhimurium TA104, we obtained a significant inhibition percentage (76.39%) toward 3.25 µg/plate of methylmethanesulfonate. Antimutagenicity against aflatoxin B1, 4-nitro-o-phenylene-diamine and 2-aminoanthracène was significant, with an inhibition percentage of, respectively, 70.63, 99.3 and 63.37% in the presence of, respectively, S. typhimurium TA100, S. typhimurium TA1538 and S. typhimurium TA104 strains at a concentration of 250 µg/plate after metabolic activation (S9). Antioxidant capacity of the tested extract was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) and the nonenzymatic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) system. G extract exhibited high antioxidant activity.

  19. A novel phytomyxean parasite associated with galls on the bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, Franz; Wiese, Jutta; Núñez, Alejandra; Labes, Antje; Imhoff, Johannes F; Neuhauser, Sigrid

    2012-01-01

    Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) is a large kelp of high ecological and economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere. In natural beds along the central coast of Chile (Pacific Ocean), abnormal growth characterized by evident gall development and discolorations of the fronds/thallus was observed. Analysing these galls by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of endophytic eukaryotes showing typical characteristics for phytomyxean parasites. The parasite developed within enlarged cells of the subcortical tissue of the host. Multinucleate plasmodia developed into many, single resting spores. The affiliation of this parasite to the Phytomyxea (Rhizaria) was supported by 18S rDNA data, placing it within the Phagomyxida. Similar microorganisms were already reported once 23 years ago, indicating that these parasites are persistent and widespread in D. antarctica beds for long times. The symptoms caused by this parasite are discussed along with the ecological and economic consequences. Phytomyxean parasites may play an important role in the marine ecosystem, but they remain understudied in this environment. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of resting spores in Phagomyxida, an order in which resting spores were thought to be absent making this the first record of a phagomyxean parasite with a complete life cycle so far, challenging the existing taxonomic concepts within the Phytomyxea. The importance of the here described resting spores for the survival and ecology of the phagomyxid parasite will be discussed together with the impact this parasite may have on 'the strongest seaweed of the world', which is an important habitat forming and economic resource from the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. A novel phytomyxean parasite associated with galls on the bull-kelp Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso Hariot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Goecke

    Full Text Available Durvillaea antarctica (Fucales, Phaeophyceae is a large kelp of high ecological and economic significance in the Southern Hemisphere. In natural beds along the central coast of Chile (Pacific Ocean, abnormal growth characterized by evident gall development and discolorations of the fronds/thallus was observed. Analysing these galls by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of endophytic eukaryotes showing typical characteristics for phytomyxean parasites. The parasite developed within enlarged cells of the subcortical tissue of the host. Multinucleate plasmodia developed into many, single resting spores. The affiliation of this parasite to the Phytomyxea (Rhizaria was supported by 18S rDNA data, placing it within the Phagomyxida. Similar microorganisms were already reported once 23 years ago, indicating that these parasites are persistent and widespread in D. antarctica beds for long times. The symptoms caused by this parasite are discussed along with the ecological and economic consequences. Phytomyxean parasites may play an important role in the marine ecosystem, but they remain understudied in this environment. Our results demonstrate for the first time the presence of resting spores in Phagomyxida, an order in which resting spores were thought to be absent making this the first record of a phagomyxean parasite with a complete life cycle so far, challenging the existing taxonomic concepts within the Phytomyxea. The importance of the here described resting spores for the survival and ecology of the phagomyxid parasite will be discussed together with the impact this parasite may have on 'the strongest seaweed of the world', which is an important habitat forming and economic resource from the Southern Hemisphere.

  1. The Efficient Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Oak Gall Using a Miniaturized Matrix Solid-Phase Dispersion Method before their HPLC Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Daneshfar

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The proposed technique is simple and fast. It substantially reduced the amounts of sample, sorbent and organic solvents required for the extraction. The maximum amounts of the phenolic compounds were found in Qalqaf and Bramazu galls.

  2. Attraction and antennal response of the common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), to selected synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf M; Manning, Lee-Anne; Unelius, C Rikard; Park, Kye Chung; Stringer, Lloyd D; White, Nicola; Bunn, Barry; Twidle, Andrew; Suckling, David M

    2009-09-01

    The common wasp, Vespula vulgaris (L.), and the German wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), are significant problems in New Zealand beech forests (Nothofagus spp.), adversely affecting native birds and invertebrate biodiversity. This work was undertaken to develop synthetic attractants for these species to enable more efficient monitoring and management. Seven known wasp attractants (acetic acid, butyl butyrate, isobutanol, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and 2,4-hexadienyl butyrate) were field tested, and only heptyl butyrate and octyl butyrate attracted significantly higher numbers of wasps than a non-baited trap. Accordingly, a series of straight-chain esters from methyl to decyl butyrate were prepared and field tested for attraction of social wasps. Peak biological activity occurred with hexyl butyrate, heptyl butyrate, octyl butyrate and nonyl butyrate. Polyethylene bags emitting approximately 18.4-22.6 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate were more attractive than polyethylene bags emitting approximately 14.7-16.8 mg day(-1) of heptyl butyrate in the field. Electroantennogram (EAG) studies indicated that queens and workers of V. vulgaris had olfactory receptor neurons responding to various aliphatic butyrates. These results are the first to be reported on the EAG response and the attraction of social wasps to synthetic chemicals in New Zealand beech forests and will enable monitoring of social wasp activity in beech forests. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Understory host plant and insect gall diversity changes across topographic habitats differing in nutrient and water stress in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest

    OpenAIRE

    JULIÃO, Genimar Rebouças; ALMADA, Emmanuel Duarte; COSTA, Flávia Regina Capellotto; CARNEIRO, Marco Antônio Alves; FERNANDES, G. Wilson

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Topographic gradients in terra firme forests are associated with pronounced changes in soil texture, soil nutrients and distance to the water-table, thereby creating different hydric and nutritional conditions for plants and their associated herbivore community. The aim of this study was to investigate galling species and host plant richness and gall species composition across topographic habitats differing in nutrient and water stress in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Nineteen 250...

  4. New Genus and Species of Gall Midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Porricondylinae, Holoneurini from the Late Eocene Amber of Olevsk (Zhitomir Region, Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedotova Z. A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gall midges are reported for the first time in Late Eocene Rovno amber from the Olevsk, Zhitomir Region. This is the second amber locality to yield gall midges in the Zhitomir Region, after Gulyanka. Rovnoholoneurus gen. n. and two new species, Rovnoholoneurus davidi sp. n. and R. miyae sp. n. are described. Bryocrypta laqueata Fedotova, 2005 is transferred to the genus Rovnoholoneurus, and Rovnoholoneurus laqueatus (Fedotova, 2005, comb. n. is established. A key to the species of Rovnoholoneurus is provided.

  5. Subordinate wasps are more aggressive in colonies with low reproductive skew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanelli, D.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan; Turillazzi, S.

    2008-01-01

    The small societies of primitively eusocial wasps have provided interesting testing grounds for reproductive skew theory because all individuals have similar reproductive potential, which is unusual in social insects but common in vertebrate societies. Aggression is a key parameter in testing the...

  6. Associative learning in two closely related parasitoid wasps: a neuroecological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleeker, M.A.K.

    2005-01-01

    Insects are useful model organisms to study learning and memory. Their brains are less complex than vertebrate brains, but the basic mechanisms of learning and memory are similar in both taxa. In this thesis I study learning and subsequent memory formation in two parasitoid wasp species that differ

  7. How does an invasive social wasp deal with changing contextual cues while foraging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, M; D'Adamo, P

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we explore how an invasive social wasp, Vespula germanica (F.), deals with contextual changes while searching for a food source that is no longer available. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of different degrees of context modification on wasp behavior. Learning sessions consisted of a variable number of feeding trials during which an individual wasp fed from a landmark array made up of a feeder surrounded by four cylinders of the same color. The food and cylinders were subsequently removed from the training site, and this learned landmark array was modified in such a way that information relating to color and/or location of the resulting feeding arrays varied from that previously learned. The results indicate that the color most recently associated with food is prioritized over a formerly learned color, and this pattern is also maintained when wasps have learned the alternative color during a higher number of feeding experiences. This highlights the high plasticity with which V. germanica responds to unpredictable contextual changes while foraging.

  8. The influence of past experience on wasp choice related to foraging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabrina, Moreyra; D'Adamo, Paola; Lozada, Mariana

    2014-12-01

    Memory has been little studied in social wasps. Vespula germanica (Fab.) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) frequently revisits nondepleted food sources, making several trips between the resource and the nest. In this study, we analyzed this relocating behavior in order to evaluate whether this species is capable of remembering an established association after 1 h. To this end, we trained wasps to feed from a certain array. Then it was removed, setting it up again 1 h later, but this time 2 baited feeders were put in place, one at the original feeding site and the other opposite the first. We recorded the proportion of returning foragers, and their choice of feeder, after either 1 or 4 feeding trials. After 1 h, 78% of wasps trained with 4 feeding trials and 65% trained with 1, returned to the experimental area. Furthermore, during the testing phase, wasps trained with 4 feeding trials collected food from the previously learned feeder significantly more frequently than from the nonlearned one (P germanica is capable of remembering an association 1 h after the last associative event, demonstrating that 1 h does not impair memory retention if 4 feeding experiences have occurred. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. New potent antimicrobial peptides from the venom of Polistinae wasps and their analogs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čeřovský, Václav; Slaninová, Jiřina; Fučík, Vladimír; Hulačová, Hana; Borovičková, Lenka; Ježek, Rudolf; Bednárová, Lucie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 6 (2008), s. 992-1003 ISSN 0196-9781 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : antimicrobial peptides * wasp venom * circular dichroism * hemolytic activity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.565, year: 2008

  10. Comparative AFLP reveals paternal sex ratio chromosome specific DNA sequences in the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van J.J.F.A.; Hulst, van der R.G.M.; Pruijssers, A.; Verbaarschot, P.G.H.; Stouthamer, R.; Jong, de H.

    2009-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Trichogramma kaykai with a haplo-diploid sex determination has a B chromosome called the paternal sex ratio (PSR) chromosome that confers paternal genome loss during early embryogenesis, resulting in male offspring. So far, it is not well known whether the PSR chromosome has

  11. Selfish element maintains sex in natural populations of a parasitoid wasp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stouthamer, R.; Tilborg, van M.; Jong, de J.H.; Nunney, L.; Luck, R.F.

    2001-01-01

    Genomic conflicts between heritable elements with different modes of inheritance are important in the maintenance of sex and in the evolution of sex ratio. Generally, we expect sexual populations to exhibit a 1:1 sex ratio. However, because of their biology, parasitoid wasps often exhibit a

  12. Asymmetric total synthesis of a putative sex pheromone component from the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerdink, Danny; Buter, Jeffrey; van Beek, Teris A.; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2014-01-01

    Virgin females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce minute amounts of a sex pheromone, the identity of which has not been fully established. The enantioselective synthesis of a putative component of this pheromone, (6S,8S,10S)-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2E,4E-dien-1-ol (2), is

  13. Differential arrestment of Trichogramma wasps to extreme sex pheromone types of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, J.; Huigens, M.E.; Orr, D.; Groot, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    1. Chemical espionage in nature may occur when predators or parasitoids home in on animal or plant communication signals. Parasitoid wasps are known to use pheromones emitted by adults hosts to locate host eggs, larvae or pupae. The response of Trichogramma egg parasitoids to a synthetic sex

  14. Community Targets for JWST's Early Release Science Program: Evaluation of Transiting Exoplanet WASP-63b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, Brian; Cubillos, Patricio; Bruno, Giovanni; Lewis, Nikole K.; Stevenson, Kevin B.; Wakeford, Hannah; Blecic, Jasmina; Burrows, Adam Seth; Deming, Drake; Heng, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Morley, Caroline; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Transiting Exoplanet Early Release Science Community

    2017-06-01

    We present observations of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ``A Preparatory Program to Identify the Single Best Transiting Exoplanet for JWST Early Release Science" for WASP-63b, one of the community targets proposed for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Early Release Science (ERS) program. A large collaboration of transiting exoplanet scientists identified a set of ``community targets" which meet a certain set of criteria for ecliptic latitude, period, host star brightness, well constrained orbital parameters, and strength of spectroscopic features. WASP-63b was one of the targets identified as a potential candidate for the ERS program. It is presented as an inflated planet with a large signal. It will be accessible to JWST approximately six months after the planned start of Cycle 1/ERS in April 2019 making it an ideal candidate should there be any delays in the JWST timetable. Here, we observe WASP-63b to evaluate its suitability as the best target to test the capabilities of JWST. Ideally, a clear atmosphere will be best suited for bench marking the instruments ability to detect spectroscopic features. We can use the strength of the water absorption feature at 1.4 μm as a way to determine the presence of obscuring clouds/hazes. The results of atmospheric retrieval are presented along with a discussion on the suitability of WASP-63b as the best target to be observed during the ERS Program.

  15. Quantitative trait locus analysis of mating behavior and male sex pheromones in Nasonia wasps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diao, Wenwen; Mousset, Mathilde; Horsburgh, Gavin J.; Vermeulen, Cornelis J.; Johannes, Frank; van de Zande, Louis; Ritchie, Michael G.; Schmitt, Thomas; Beukeboom, Leo W.

    A major focus in speciation genetics is to identify the chromosomal regions and genes that reduce hybridization and gene flow. We investigated the genetic architecture of mating behavior in the parasitoid wasp species pair Nasonia giraulti and Nasonia oneida that exhibit strong prezygotic isolation.

  16. Generation of a Circumstellar Gas Disk by Hot Jupiter WASP-12b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrecht, Alex; Carroll-Nellenback, Jonathan; Frank, Adam; Fossati, Luca; Blackman, Eric G.; Dobbs-Dixon, Ian

    2018-05-01

    Observations of transiting extra-solar planets provide rich sources of data for probing the in-system environment. In the WASP-12 system, a broad depression in the usually-bright MgII h&k lines has been observed, in addition to atmospheric escape from the extremely hot Jupiter WASP-12b. It has been hypothesized that a translucent circumstellar cloud is formed by the outflow from the planet, causing the observed signatures. We perform 3D hydrodynamic simulations of the full system environment of WASP-12, injecting a planetary wind and stellar wind from their respective surfaces. We find that a torus of density high enough to account for the lack of MgII h&k line core emission in WASP-12 can be formed in approximately 13 years. We also perform synthetic observations of the Lyman-alpha spectrum at different points in the planet's orbit, which demonstrate that significant absorption occurs at all points in the orbit, not just during transits, as suggested by the observations.

  17. Life-history strategies in parasitoid wasps: a comparative analysis of 'ovigeny'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jervis, M.A.; Heimpel, G.E.; Ferns, P.N.; Harvey, J.A.; Kidd, N.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    1. Ecologists concerned with life-history strategies of parasitoid wasps have recently focused on interspecific variation in the fraction of the maximum potential lifetime egg complement that is mature when the female emerges into the environment. Species that have all of this complement mature upon

  18. Are population differences in plant quality reflected in the preference and performance of two endoparasitoid wasps?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gols, R.; Dam, van N.M.; Raaijmakers, C.E.; Dicke, M.; Harvey, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, increasing attention has been paid in exploring the role of direct plant defence, through the production of allelochemicals, on the performance of parasitoid wasps and their hosts. However, few studies have determined if parasitoids can detect differences in plant quality and thus

  19. A ground-based optical transmission spectrum of WASP-6b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Rabus, Markus; Eyheramendy, Susana; Sing, David K.; Désert, Jean-Michel; Bakos, Gáspár Á.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; López-Morales, Mercedes; Szentgyorgyi, Andrew; Maxted, Pierre F. L.; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a ground-based optical transmission spectrum of the inflated sub-Jupiter-mass planet WASP-6b. The spectrum was measured in 20 spectral channels from 480 nm to 860 nm using a series of 91 spectra over a complete transit event. The observations were carried out using multi-object differential spectrophotometry with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph on the Baade Telescope at Las Campanas Observatory. We model systematic effects on the observed light curves using principal component analysis on the comparison stars and allow for the presence of short and long memory correlation structure in our Monte Carlo Markov Chain analysis of the transit light curves for WASP-6. The measured transmission spectrum presents a general trend of decreasing apparent planetary size with wavelength and lacks evidence for broad spectral features of Na and K predicted by clear atmosphere models. The spectrum is consistent with that expected for scattering that is more efficient in the blue, as could be caused by hazes or condensates in the atmosphere of WASP-6b. WASP-6b therefore appears to be yet another massive exoplanet with evidence for a mostly featureless transmission spectrum, underscoring the importance that hazes and condensates can have in determining the transmission spectra of exoplanets.

  20. Introduced and Native Parasitoid Wasps Associated With Larch Casebearer (Lepidoptera: Coleophoridae) in Western Larch

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Miller-Pierce; D. C. Shaw; A. Demarco; P. T. Oester

    2015-01-01

    The larch casebearer [Coleophora laricella (Hubner)], a non-native insect, continues to impact western larch (Larix occidentalis Nutt.) through defoliation events in the Pacific Northwest. Biological control programs starting in the 1960s released seven species of parasitoid wasps to control C. laricella...

  1. WICH, a member of WASP-interacting protein family, cross-links actin filaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Masayoshi; Takenawa, Tadaomi

    2005-01-01

    In yeast, Verprolin plays an important role in rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. There are three mammalian homologues of Verprolin, WIP, CR16, and WICH, and all of them bind actin and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) and/or neural-WASP. Here, we describe a novel function of WICH. In vitro co-sedimentation analysis revealed that WICH not only binds to actin filaments but also cross-links them. Fluorescence and electron microscopy detected that this cross-linking results in straight bundled actin filaments. Overexpression of WICH alone in cultured fibroblast caused the formation of thick actin fibers. This ability of WICH depended on its own actin cross-linking activity. Importantly, the actin cross-linking activity of WICH was modified through a direct association with N-WASP. Taken together, these data suggest that WICH induces a bundled form of actin filament with actin cross-linking activity and the association with N-WASP suppresses that activity. WICH thus appears to be a novel actin bundling protein

  2. Development of microsatellite markers and estimation of inbreeding frequency in the parasitoid wasp Melittobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, Jun; Pannebakker, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    The parasitoid wasp Melittobia is an important insect for basic and applied biology. Specifically, their extremely female-biased sex ratios, which contrast to the prediction of pre-existing theories, are needed to be explained from the aspect of evolutionary biology. In this study, using

  3. Colony stage and not facultative policing explains pattern of worker reproduction in the Saxon wasp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonckaert, W.; van Zweden, Jelle Stijn; D'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2011-01-01

    Inclusive fitness theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera headed by a multiple-mated queen, workers should benefit from policing eggs laid by other workers. Foster & Ratnieks provided evidence that in the vespine wasp Dolichovespula saxonica, workers police other workers’ eggs only...

  4. High-precision photometry by telescope defocusing - I. The transiting planetary system WASP-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Southworth, J.; Hinse, T. C.; Jørgensen, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    We present high-precision photometry of two transit events of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-5, obtained with the Danish 1.54-m telescope at European Southern Obseratory La Silla. In order to minimize both random and flat-fielding errors, we defocused the telescope so its point spread...

  5. WAsP for offshore sites in confined coastal waters - the influence of the sea fetch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, B [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Hoejstrup, J [NEG Micon, Randers (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The increasing interest in harvesting wind energy offshore requires reliable tools for the wind resource estimation at these sites. Most commonly used for wind resource predictions on land as well as offshore is the WAsP program. This program has been validated extensively for sites on land and at the coast. However, due to the lack of suitable measurements there is still a need for further validation for offshore sites. New data from ongoing measurements in the Danish Baltic Sea region are available now. The wind resources estimated from these measurements are compared to WAsP-predictions. They are found to agree well. The only deviation found is for two sites with comparable distance to the coast but with a different distribution of land. Here the measurements show slightly different wind resources which are not predicted by WAsP. Wind speed ratios of several pairs of stations are modelled with WAsP for 12 directional sectors and compared with the measurements. Deviations in the directional wind speed predictions were found to be dependent on the corresponding sea fetches: For smaller sea fetches WAsP seems to slightly overpredict the wind speed, while for long fetches of more than 30 km an underprediction is found. (au)

  6. Wind profile modelling using WAsP and "tall" wind measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Kelly, Mark C.; Troen, Ib

    2015-01-01

    extrapolations (the wind profile) this is done using the Weibull distribution and the geostrophic drag law. Wind lidar measurements obtained during the ’Tall wind’ campaign at three different sites are used to evaluate the assumptions and equations that are used in the WAsP vertical extrapolation strategy...

  7. Sexual dimorphism in the parasitoid wasps Aphidius balcanicus, Aphidius rosae, and Aphidius urticae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrović, A.; Tomanović, Ž.; Kavallieratos, N. G.; Mitrovski Bogdanović, A.; Starý, Petr; Ivanović, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 107, č. 5 (2014), s. 1027-1032 ISSN 0013-8746 Grant - others:The Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia(RS) 43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : geometric morphometric * parasitoid wasp * sexual size dimorphism Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.190, year: 2014

  8. Wind resource assessment using the WAsP software (DTU Wind Energy E-0135)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given each year at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  9. 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms: Wind resource assessment using the WAsP software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling

    These course notes are intended for the three-week course 46200 Planning and Development of Wind Farms given each year at the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the course notes is to give an introduction to wind resource assessment and siting issues using the WAsP suite of programs....

  10. Analysis of Genetic Variation across the Encapsidated Genome of Microplitis demolitor Bracovirus in Parasitoid Wasps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelen R Burke

    Full Text Available Insect parasitoids must complete part of their life cycle within or on another insect, ultimately resulting in the death of the host insect. One group of parasitoid wasps, the 'microgastroid complex' (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, engage in an association with beneficial symbiotic viruses that are essential for successful parasitism of hosts. These viruses, known as Bracoviruses, persist in an integrated form in the wasp genome, and activate to replicate in wasp ovaries during development to ultimately be delivered into host insects during parasitism. The lethal nature of host-parasitoid interactions, combined with the involvement of viruses in mediating these interactions, has led to the hypothesis that Bracoviruses are engaged in an arms race with hosts, resulting in recurrent adaptation in viral (and host genes. Deep sequencing was employed to characterize sequence variation across the encapsidated Bracovirus genome within laboratory and field populations of the parasitoid wasp species Microplitis demolitor. Contrary to expectations, there was a paucity of evidence for positive directional selection among virulence genes, which generally exhibited signatures of purifying selection. These data suggest that the dynamics of host-parasite interactions may not result in recurrent rounds of adaptation, and that adaptation may be more variable in time than previously expected.

  11. Optimal development path for the Slovenian electrical power system using the WASP and ELBIVIM models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregar, Z; Kosnjek, Z; Potecnik, F [Milan Vidmar Electric Power Research Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1997-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of the WASP study conducted for Slovenia. A thorough analysis shows that the model is applicable to the Slovenian power system. Parallel operation with the domestic ELBIVIM model is nevertheless recommended in order to extract the maximum benefits from both models. (author). 4 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs.

  12. Intrinsic competition among solitary and gregarious endoparasitoid wasps and phenomenon of resource sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magdaraog, P.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Tanaka, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Intrinsic competition was compared in three species of braconid wasps, the solitary Meteorus pulchricornis Wesmael, and the gregarious Cotesia kariyai (Watanabe) and Cotesia ruficrus Haliday in caterpillars of their common host, the armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. Competition was determined in

  13. Intrinsic competition among solitary and gregarious endoparasitoid wasps and the phenomenon of ‘resource sharing’

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magdaraog, P.M.; Harvey, J.A.; Tanaka, T.; Gols, R.

    2012-01-01

    1. Intrinsic competition was compared in three species of braconid wasps, the solitary Meteorus pulchricornis Wesmael, and the gregarious Cotesia kariyai (Watanabe) and Cotesia ruficrus Haliday in caterpillars of their common host, the armyworm Mythimna separata Walker. Competition was determined in

  14. Recognition of human face images by the free flying wasp Vespula vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Avarguès-Weber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to recognize perceptually similar complex visual stimuli such as human faces has classically been thought to require a large primate, and/or mammalian brain with neurobiological adaptations. However, recent work suggests that the relatively small brain of a paper wasp, Polistes fuscatus, possesses specialized face processing capabilities. In parallel, the honeybee, Apis mellifera, has been shown to be able to rely on configural learning for extensive visual learning, thus converging with primate visual processing. Therefore, the honeybee may be able to recognize human faces, and show sophisticated learning performance due to its foraging lifestyle involving visiting and memorizing many flowers. We investigated the visual capacities of the widespread invasive wasp Vespula vulgaris, which is unlikely to have any specialization for face processing. Freely flying individual wasps were trained in an appetitive-aversive differential conditioning procedure to discriminate between perceptually similar human face images from a standard face recognition test. The wasps could then recognize the target face from novel dissimilar or similar human faces, but showed a significant drop in performance when the stimuli were rotated by 180°, thus paralleling results acquired on a similar protocol with honeybees. This result confirms that a general visual system can likely solve complex recognition tasks, the first stage to evolve a visual expertise system to face recognition, even in the absence of neurobiological or behavioral specialization.

  15. Co-occurrence of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Fusarium decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae isolates in cushion galls disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Daynet Sosa del

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Flowery cushion gall of cacao is a disease complex with six types. Fusarium decemcellulare have been isolated from both flowery and green point galls and recognized as the etiological agent of the disease. In the present work we: i identified by ITS-rDNA sequencing and/or taxonomy the cultivable fungal species or Operative Taxonomic Units (OTUs associated with the five symptoms of cushion galls in cacao from Venezuela, and ii determined the gall inducing capacity on cacao peeled seeds after 45 days of inoculation with suspensions of mycelia/ spores from distinct isolate types. The whole isolate collection rendered an abundance of 113 isolates with a richness of 39 OTUs (27 and eight identified at the species or genera levels, respectively, and in unidentified fungi. The dominant recovered species (≈36% were F. decemcellulare and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Some isolates of F. decemcellulare, L. theobromae, F. equiseti, Fusarium spp., F. solani, F. incarnatum, Rhizocthonia solani and Penicillium sp. were pathogenic. Some other isolates of the first six mentioned taxa behave as non-pathogenic. Furthermore, pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates can also co-occur within a single plant and gall type. Moreover, 2-5 species within a single gall symptom in a single tree were identified (not necessarily at the same point in the tree, indicating a broad diversity of co-occurring taxa.

  16. Size, age and composition: characteristics of plant taxa as diversity predictors of gall-midges (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Araújo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the diversity of gall-midge insects (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae, some of them taking into account plant diversity. This study aims to test the importance of size, age and composition of host plant taxa in the diversity of Cecidomyiidae. For this we used inventories data on the diversity of galling and host plants in Brazil. We found that Asterales, Myrtales and Malpighiales, were the most important orders, with 34, 33 and 25, gall morphotypes, respectively. The most representative host families were Asteraceae (34 morphotypes, Myrtaceae (23 and Fabaceae (22. In general, the order size and the plant family were good predictors of the galling diversity, but not the taxon age. The most diverse host genera for gall-midges were Mikania, Eugenia and Styrax, with 15, 13 and nine galler species, respectively. The size of plant genera showed no significant relationship with the richness of Cecidomyiidae, contrary to the prediction of the plant taxon size hypothesis. The plant genera with the greatest diversity of galling insects are not necessarily those with the greatest number of species. These results indicate that some plant taxa have a high intrinsic richness of galling insects, suggesting that the plant species composition may be equally or more important for the diversity of gall-midges than the size or age of the host taxon. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (4: 1599- 1607. Epub 2011 December 01.Muchas hipótesis se han propuesto para explicar la diversidad de dipteros de la familia Cecidomyiidae, algunos de ellos teniendo en cuenta la diversidad de las plantas. Este estudio tiene como objetivo probar la importancia del tamaño, la edad y la composición de las plantas en la diversidad de Cecidomyiidae, a través de los inventarios de las agallas y las plantas hospederas, en Brasil. Asterales, Malpighiales y Myrtales fueron los órdenes más importantes, con 34, 33 y 25 tipos de agallas, respectivamente. Las familias m

  17. The genomic features of parasitism, Polyembryony and immune evasion in the endoparasitic wasp Macrocentrus cingulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Chuanlin; Li, Meizhen; Hu, Jian; Lang, Kun; Chen, Qiming; Liu, Jinding; Guo, Dianhao; He, Kang; Dong, Yipei; Luo, Jiapeng; Song, Zhenkun; Walters, James R; Zhang, Wenqing; Li, Fei; Chen, Xuexin

    2018-05-30

    Parasitoid wasps are well-known natural enemies of major agricultural pests and arthropod borne diseases. The parasitoid wasp Macrocentrus cingulum (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) has been widely used to control the notorious insect pests Ostrinia furnacalis (Asian Corn Borer) and O. nubilalis (European corn borer). One striking phenomenon exhibited by M. cingulum is polyembryony, the formation of multiple genetically identical offspring from a single zygote. Moreover, M. cingulum employs a passive parasitic strategy by preventing the host's immune system from recognizing the embryo as a foreign body. Thus, the embryos evade the host's immune system and are not encapsulated by host hemocytes. Unfortunately, the mechanism of both polyembryony and immune evasion remains largely unknown. We report the genome of the parasitoid wasp M. cingulum. Comparative genomics analysis of M. cingulum and other 11 insects were conducted, finding some gene families with apparent expansion or contraction which might be linked to the parasitic behaviors or polyembryony of M. cingulum. Moreover, we present the evidence that the microRNA miR-14b regulates the polyembryonic development of M. cingulum by targeting the c-Myc Promoter-binding Protein 1 (MBP-1), histone-lysine N-methyltransferase 2E (KMT2E) and segmentation protein Runt. In addition, Hemomucin, an O-glycosylated transmembrane protein, protects the endoparasitoid wasp larvae from being encapsulated by host hemocytes. Motif and domain analysis showed that only the hemomucin in two endoparasitoids, M. cingulum and Venturia canescens, possessing the ability of passive immune evasion has intact mucin domain and similar O-glycosylation patterns, indicating that the hemomucin is a key factor modulating the immune evasion. The microRNA miR-14b participates in the regulation of polyembryonic development, and the O-glycosylation of the mucin domain in the hemomucin confers the passive immune evasion in this wasp. These key findings provide

  18. Clinical features of severe wasp sting patients with dominantly toxic reaction: analysis of 1091 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuihong Xie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Massive wasp stings have been greatly underestimated and have not been systematically studied. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical features and treatment strategies of severe wasp stings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A multicenter retrospective study was undertaken in 35 hospitals and medical centers including 12 tertiary care hospitals and 23 secondary care hospitals in the Hubei Province, China. The detailed clinical data of 1091 hospitalized wasp sting patients were investigated. Over three-fourths (76.9% of the cases had 10 or more stings and the in-hospital mortality of patients was 5.1%. Forty-eight patients died of organ injury following toxic reactions to the stings, whereas six died from anaphylactic shock. The in-hospital mortality in patients with >10 stings was higher than that of ≤10 stings (5.2% vs. 1.0%, p = 0.02. Acute kidney injury (AKI was seen in 21.0% patients and most patients required blood purification therapy. Rhabdomyolysis was seen in 24.1% patients, hemolysis in 19.2% patients, liver injury in 30.1% patients, and coagulopathy in 22.5% patients. Regression analysis revealed that high creatinine level, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death. Blood purification therapy was beneficial for patients with ≥20 stings and delayed hospital admission of patients (≥4 hours after sting. CONCLUSIONS: In China, most patients with multiple wasp stings presented with toxic reactions and multiple organ dysfunction caused by the venom rather than an anaphylactic reaction. AKI is the prominent clinical manifestation of wasp stings with toxic reaction. High creatinine levels, shock, oliguria, and anemia were risk factors for death.

  19. THE HOMOGENEOUS STUDY OF TRANSITING SYSTEMS (HoSTS). I. THE PILOT STUDY OF WASP-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Maqueo Chew, Yilen; Cargile, Phillip; Hebb, Leslie; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Faedi, Francesca; Pollacco, Don [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Doyle, Amanda P.; Smalley, Barry [Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG (United Kingdom); Ghezzi, Luan; Cunha, Katia; Smith, Verne V. [Observatorio Nacional, Rua Gal. Jose Cristino 77, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 20921-400 (Brazil); Sousa, Sergio; Santos, Nuno C. [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Barros, Susana C. C. [LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, F-13388 Marseille (France); Schuler, Simon C. [Stewart Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Collier Cameron, Andrew, E-mail: yilen.gomez@vanderbilt.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2013-05-01

    We present the fundamental stellar and planetary properties of the transiting planetary system WASP-13 within the framework of the Homogeneous Study of Transiting Systems (HoSTS). HoSTS aims to derive the fundamental stellar (T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], M{sub *}, R{sub *}) and planetary (M{sub pl}, R{sub pl}, T{sub eq}) physical properties of known transiting planets using a consistent methodology and homogeneous high-quality data set. Four spectral analysis techniques are independently applied to a Keck+HIRES spectrum of WASP-13 considering two distinct cases: unconstrained parameters and constrained log g from transit light curves. We check the derived stellar temperature against that from a different temperature diagnostic based on an INT+IDS H{alpha} spectrum. The four unconstrained analyses render results that are in good agreement, and provide an improvement of 50% in the precision of T{sub eff}, and of 85% in [Fe/H] with respect to the WASP-13 discovery paper. The planetary parameters are then derived via the Monte Carlo Markov Chain modeling of the radial velocity and light curves, in iteration with stellar evolutionary models to derive realistic uncertainties. WASP-13 (1.187 {+-} 0.065 M{sub Sun }; 1.574 {+-} 0.048 R{sub Sun }) hosts a Saturn-mass, transiting planet (0.500 {+-} 0.037 M{sub Jup}; 1.407 {+-} 0.052 R{sub Jup}), and is at the end of its main-sequence lifetime (4-5.5 Gyr). Our analysis of WASP-13 showcases that both a detailed stellar characterization and transit modeling are necessary to well determine the fundamental properties of planetary systems, which are paramount in identifying and determining empirical relationships between transiting planets and their hosts.

  20. Competitive exclusion among fig wasps achieved via entrainment of host plant flowering phenology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Liu

    Full Text Available Molecular techniques are revealing increasing numbers of morphologically similar but co-existing cryptic species, challenging the niche theory. To understand the co-existence mechanism, we studied phenologies of morphologically similar species of fig wasps that pollinate the creeping fig (F. pumila in eastern China. We compared phenologies of fig wasp emergence and host flowering at sites where one or both pollinators were present. At the site where both pollinators were present, we used sticky traps to capture the emerged fig wasps and identified species identity using mitochondrial DNA COI gene. We also genotyped F. pumila individuals of the three sites using polymorphic microsatellites to detect whether the host populations were differentiated. Male F. pumila produced two major crops annually, with figs receptive in spring and summer. A small partial third crop of receptive figs occurred in the autumn, but few of the second crop figs matured at that time. Hence, few pollinators were available to enter third crop figs and they mostly aborted, resulting in two generations of pollinating wasps each year, plus a partial third generation. Receptive figs were produced on male plants in spring and summer, timed to coincide with the release of short-lived adult pollinators from the same individual plants. Most plants were pollinated by a single species. Plants pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 1 released wasps earlier than those pollinated by Wiebesia sp. 3, with little overlap. Plants occupied by different pollinators were not spatially separated, nor genetically distinct. Our findings show that these differences created mismatches with the flight periods of the other Wiebesia species, largely 'reserving' individual plants for the resident pollinator species. This pre-emptive competitive displacement may prevent long term co-existence of the two pollinators.

  1. Different patterns of oviposition learning in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasakawa, Kôji; Uchijima, Kenta; Shibao, Harunobu; Shimada, Masakazu

    2013-02-01

    Many parasitoid wasps learn host-associated cues and use them in subsequent host-searching behavior. This associative learning, namely "oviposition learning," has been investigated in many studies. However, few studies have compared multiple species, and no comparative study has previously been conducted on ectoparasitoid species. We compared the effects of oviposition learning on host preference and offspring sex ratio in two closely related ectoparasitoid wasps with contrasting reproductive strategies, Anisopteromalus calandrae (r-strategist) and its sibling species (K-strategist). Using two bruchine hosts, Callosobruchus chinensis and Callosobruchus maculatus larvae infesting the cowpea Vigna unguiculata, oviposition choice experiments were performed at high and low host densities. In both species, no conspicuous effect on the offspring sex ratio was detected, but effects on host preference were found to differ between the species. In A. calandrae, the effects were detected only at high host density, suggesting that oviposition learning plays a role in host discrimination from a short distance but not from a long distance. In the sibling species, those effects were not detected in any of the cases, suggesting the absence of oviposition learning. These results are compatible with those of previous comparative studies of endoparasitoid wasps in that few lifetime oviposition experiences and/or low reward per foraging decision result in low or absent oviposition learning ability. This finding may indicate that ecological traits contributing to learning ability are similar between endoparasitoid and ectoparasitoid wasps. Thus, our species comparison of ectoparasitoids provides another model system for investigating learning and memory dynamics in parasitoid wasps.

  2. Comparison of Inoculation with the InoqulA and WASP Automated Systems with Manual Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxatto, Antony; Dijkstra, Klaas; Prod'hom, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The quality of sample inoculation is critical for achieving an optimal yield of discrete colonies in both monomicrobial and polymicrobial samples to perform identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Consequently, we compared the performance between the InoqulA (BD Kiestra), the WASP (Copan), and manual inoculation methods. Defined mono- and polymicrobial samples of 4 bacterial species and cloudy urine specimens were inoculated on chromogenic agar by the InoqulA, the WASP, and manual methods. Images taken with ImagA (BD Kiestra) were analyzed with the VisionLab version 3.43 image analysis software to assess the quality of growth and to prevent subjective interpretation of the data. A 3- to 10-fold higher yield of discrete colonies was observed following automated inoculation with both the InoqulA and WASP systems than that with manual inoculation. The difference in performance between automated and manual inoculation was mainly observed at concentrations of >106 bacteria/ml. Inoculation with the InoqulA system allowed us to obtain significantly more discrete colonies than the WASP system at concentrations of >107 bacteria/ml. However, the level of difference observed was bacterial species dependent. Discrete colonies of bacteria present in 100- to 1,000-fold lower concentrations than the most concentrated populations in defined polymicrobial samples were not reproducibly recovered, even with the automated systems. The analysis of cloudy urine specimens showed that InoqulA inoculation provided a statistically significantly higher number of discrete colonies than that with WASP and manual inoculation. Consequently, the automated InoqulA inoculation greatly decreased the requirement for bacterial subculture and thus resulted in a significant reduction in the time to results, laboratory workload, and laboratory costs. PMID:25972424

  3. Shifts in Plant Assemblages Reduce the Richness of Galling Insects Across Edge-Affected Habitats in the Atlantic Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Danielle G; Santos, Jean C; Oliveira, Marcondes A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2016-10-01

    Impacts of habitat loss and fragmentation on specialist herbivores have been rarely addressed. Here we examine the structure of plant and galling insect assemblages in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic forest to verify a potential impoverishment of these assemblages mediated by edge effects. Saplings and galling insects were recorded once within a 0.1-ha area at habitat level, covering forest interior stands, forest edges, and small fragments. A total of 1,769 saplings from 219 tree species were recorded across all three habitats, with differences in terms of sapling abundance and species richness. Additionally, edge-affected habitats exhibited reduced richness of both host-plant and galling insects at plot and habitat spatial scale. Attack levels also differed among forest types at habitat spatial scale (21.1% of attacked stems in forest interior, 12.4% in small fragments but only 8.5% in forest edges). Plot ordination resulted in three clearly segregated clusters: one formed by forest interior, one by small fragments, and another formed by edge plots. Finally, the indicator species analysis identified seven and one indicator plant species in forest interior and edge-affected habitats, respectively. Consequently, edge effects lead to formation of distinct taxonomic groups and also an impoverished assemblage of plants and galling insects at multiple spatial scales. The results of the present study indicate that fragmentation-related changes in plant assemblages can have a cascade effects on specialist herbivores. Accordingly, hyperfragmented landscapes may not be able to retain an expressive portion of tropical biodiversity. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Thermal Phase Variations of WASP-12b: Defying Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R(sub p)/R(sub *))(sup 2) = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 micrometers, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F(sub day)/F(sub *) = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 micrometers, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 micrometers, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 micrometers, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 micrometer ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 micrometer transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 micrometer depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much

  5. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M.; Machalek, Pavel; Croll, Bryce; Burrows, Adam; Deming, Drake; Greene, Tom; Hora, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared—(R p /R * ) 2 = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively—indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 μm, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F day /F * = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 μm, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 μm, but our parameter uncertainties—estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo—keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 μm, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 μm ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 μm transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 μm depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 μm eclipse depth, consistent with a solar composition and modest

  6. THERMAL PHASE VARIATIONS OF WASP-12b: DEFYING PREDICTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Shekhtman, Louis M. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Machalek, Pavel [SETI Institute, 189 Bernardo Ave., Suite 100, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Croll, Bryce [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Burrows, Adam [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 05844 (United States); Deming, Drake [Planetary Systems Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Greene, Tom [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Hora, Joseph L., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    We report Warm Spitzer full-orbit phase observations of WASP-12b at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m. This extremely inflated hot Jupiter is thought to be overflowing its Roche lobe, undergoing mass loss and accretion onto its host star, and has been claimed to have a C/O ratio in excess of unity. We are able to measure the transit depths, eclipse depths, thermal and ellipsoidal phase variations at both wavelengths. The large-amplitude phase variations, combined with the planet's previously measured dayside spectral energy distribution, are indicative of non-zero Bond albedo and very poor day-night heat redistribution. The transit depths in the mid-infrared-(R{sub p} /R{sub *}){sup 2} = 0.0123(3) and 0.0111(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively-indicate that the atmospheric opacity is greater at 3.6 than at 4.5 {mu}m, in disagreement with model predictions, irrespective of C/O ratio. The secondary eclipse depths are consistent with previous studies: F{sub day}/F{sub *} = 0.0038(4) and 0.0039(3) at 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m, respectively. We do not detect ellipsoidal variations at 3.6 {mu}m, but our parameter uncertainties-estimated via prayer-bead Monte Carlo-keep this non-detection consistent with model predictions. At 4.5 {mu}m, on the other hand, we detect ellipsoidal variations that are much stronger than predicted. If interpreted as a geometric effect due to the planet's elongated shape, these variations imply a 3:2 ratio for the planet's longest:shortest axes and a relatively bright day-night terminator. If we instead presume that the 4.5 {mu}m ellipsoidal variations are due to uncorrected systematic noise and we fix the amplitude of the variations to zero, the best-fit 4.5 {mu}m transit depth becomes commensurate with the 3.6 {mu}m depth, within the uncertainties. The relative transit depths are then consistent with a solar composition and short scale height at the terminator. Assuming zero ellipsoidal variations also yields a much deeper 4.5 {mu}m eclipse depth

  7. Seasonal variation of phenolic content in galled and non-galled tissues of Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae Variação sazonal do conteúdo fenólico em tecidos galhados e não-galhados de Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Lima Detoni

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two species, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti and T. mecanga, induce distinct galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, a globose and a fusiform gall morphotype. Seasonal changes of phenolic content in the tissues of the two distinct galls were compared to those of non-galled leaves and stems of the host plants over one year. The variation in the phenolic content profiles was similar in both non-galled and galled tissues, and was primarily associated with changes in the levels of rainfall, indicating a direct response to hydric stress. In periods of drastic changes in water precipitation, the alterations were significantly higher in non-galled than in galled tissues suggesting that the gall inducers might limit the variation in the phenolic concentration for their own benefit.Duas espécies, Tanaostigmodes ringueleti e T. mecanga, induzem galhas distintas em Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae, um morfotipo globoso e um fusiforme. Mudanças sazonais no conteúdo fenólico nos tecidos das duas galhas foram comparadas àquelas de folha e caule não galhados das plantas hospedeiras por um ano. A variação no perfil de conteúdo fenólico foi similar em tecidos galhados e não galhados, sendo associada primariamente às mudanças nos níveis de chuva, constituindo uma resposta direta ao estresse hídrico. Nos períodos de mudanças drásticas na precipitação de água, as alterações foram significativamente maiores em tecido não galhados do que em tecidos galhados, sugerindo que os galhadores estariam limitando a variação do conteúdo fenólico em seu próprio benefício.

  8. Host-associated genetic differentiation in the goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, John D; Heard, Stephen B; Williams, Frederick R

    2002-07-01

    Careful study of apparently generalist phytophagous insects often reveals that they instead represent complexes of genetically differentiated host races or cryptic species. The goldenrod elliptical-gall moth, Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis, attacks two goldenrods in the Solidago canadensis complex: S. altissima and S. gigantea (Asteraceae). We tested for host-associated genetic differentiation in G. gallaesolidaginis via analysis of variation at 12 allozyme loci among larvae collected at six sites in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska. Gnorimoschema gallaesolidaginis from each host are highly polymorphic (3.6-4.7 alleles/locus and expected heterozygosity 0.28-0.38 within site-host combinations). Although there were no fixed differences between larvae from S. altissima and S. gigantea at any site, these represent well differentiated host forms, with 11 of 12 loci showing significantly different allele frequencies between host-associated collections at one or more sites. Host plant has a larger effect on genetic structure among populations than does location (Wright's FST = 0.16 between host forms vs. F(ST) = 0.061 and 0.026 among altissima and gigantea populations, respectively). The estimated F(ST) between host forms suggests that the historical effective rate of gene flow has been low (N(e)m approximately 1.3). Consistent with this historical estimate is the absence of detectable recombinant (hybrid and introgressant between host form) individuals in contemporary populations (none of 431 genotyped individuals). Upper 95% confidence limits for the frequency of recombinant individuals range from 5% to 9%. Host association is tight, but imperfect, with only one likely example of a host mismatch (a larva galling the wrong host species). Our inferences about hybridization and host association are based on new maximum-likelihood methods for estimating frequencies of genealogical classes (in this case, two parental classes, F1 and F2 hybrids, and backcrosses) in a population

  9. L’INSEGNAMENTO DELLE SCIENZE IN EUROPA: ASPETTI LINGUISTICI A CONFRONTO (ITALIA, DANIMARCA, GALLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Marianna Bollone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La componente linguistica riveste un ruolo prioritario nell’insegnamento-apprendimento delle scienze, specificamente prescritto dai programmi scolastici attualmente vigenti in Europa e pienamente accolto dalle Indicazioni nazionali per il curricolo della scuola dell'infanzia e del primo ciclo d’istruzione, di cui D.M. 254/2012. Il presente lavoro intende indagare l’incidenza dell’aspetto linguistico-comunicativo nel processo di insegnamento-apprendimento delle scienze nell’ambito di tre differenti contesti europei: l’Italia, la Danimarca e il Galles, nella fascia di età compresa all’incirca tra gli 11 e 14 anni, corrispondente per l’Italia alla Scuola secondaria di primo grado, per la Danimarca ad un segmento della Folkeskole, e per il Galles alla fase iniziale della Secondary School. La ricerca, incentrata su uno specifico argomento del programma di scienze comune ai tre sistemi scolastici, prevede un’analisi dei programmi ministeriali, delle programmazioni degli insegnanti, dei manuali in uso nelle scuole, nell’intento di definire il ruolo assegnato agli aspetti linguistici nell’insegnamento delle scienze sia livello legislativo-istituzionale che nella quotidiana pratica didattica.  Teaching science in Europe: language issues compared (Italy, Denmark, Wales The linguistic component plays a major role in the teaching and learning of science, specifically prescribed by the curriculum currently in force in Europe and fully supported by the National Guidelines for the curriculum in kindergarten and the first cycle of education, regulated by DM 254/2012. This paper aims to investigate the linguistic-communicative impact in the process of teaching and learning science in three different European contexts: Italy, Denmark and Wales in children aged 11 to 14, corresponding in Italy to Middle school, in Denmark to a segment of the Folkeskole, and in Wales to the initial phase of the Secondary school. The research focused on a

  10. Detection limits for close eclipsing and transiting sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in the WASP survey

    OpenAIRE

    Faedi, F.; West, R. G.; Burleigh, M. R.; Goad, M. R.; Hebb, L.

    2010-01-01

    We have performed extensive simulations to explore the possibility of detecting eclipses and transits of close, sub-stellar and planetary companions to white dwarfs in WASP light-curves. Our simulations cover companions $\\sim0.3\\Re

  11. Interactions to the fifth trophic level: secondary and tertiary parasitoid wasps show extraordinary efficiency in utilizing host resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harvey, J.A.; Wagenaar, R.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2009-01-01

    1. Parasitoid wasps are highly efficient organisms at utilizing and assimilating limited resources from their hosts. This study explores interactions over three trophic levels, from the third (primary parasitoid) to the fourth (secondary parasitoid) and terminating in the fifth (tertiary

  12. Transcriptome and target DNA enrichment sequence data provide new insights into the phylogeny of vespid wasps (Hymenoptera: Aculeata: Vespidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bank, Sarah; Sann, Manuela; Mayer, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    The wasp family Vespidae comprises more than 5000 described species which represent life history strategies ranging from solitary and presocial to eusocial and socially parasitic. The phylogenetic relationships of the major vespid wasp lineages (i.e., subfamilies and tribes) have been investigate...... studies on species of the family Vespidae, including their genomes, life styles, evolution of sociality, and co-evolution with other organisms....

  13. Ketamine-associated CT findings of damage in liver and gall and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Keyun; Wang Lijuan; Wang Jiajun; Cheng Kuishan; Chen Aidi; Xu Dasheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the image signs of damage e in urinary system and liver and gall system and diagnostic value of CT findings in abuse of ketamine. Methods: With ethics committee approval, a retrospective analysis of 10 patients with a history of taking K powder (1 to 10 years) was done with abdominal CT scan and enhanced scan data to analysis the imaging findings of ketamine-related abdominal organ damage. Results: CT images of the 10 patients showed different degrees of reduced bladder capacity, bladder wall thickening range of 3∼14 mm. Of which the wall were thickened on both sides with the waist-shaped in 5 patients. Bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureterosis was found in 3 cases with uniform wall thickening of both ureters. 4 cases of renal multi-lesion papillary necrosis was found, of which 2 patients showed multi-lesion ischemic changes in renal parenchyma in both kidneys. Expansion of the common bile duct appeared in 3 cases, of which 2 cases with merger intrahepatic bile duct dilation. Conclusion: CT findings of ketamine associated abdominal organ injuries in the bladder and renal may have certain characteristics. It is helpful to make diagnosis with the combination of favorable clinical data and medical history. (authors)

  14. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Cell division factors from crown gall tumors: a strategy for structural elucidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manning, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    Mitogenic compounds present in extracts of Vinca rosea crown gall tumor tissue were investigated. An isolation procedure, consisting of solvent partitions and reverse phase chromatography, has yielded a group of isomeric compounds which show activity in the tobacco pith bioassay. Initial characterizations revealed an unsaturated base, a sugar residue, a β-linked glucose, an allylic alcohol, and two methyl groups. A two part strategy of mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 H NMR) was envisioned. The aglycone structure would be determined by MS and the regiochemical relationships among the structural units would be defined by 1 H NMR data. The utility of this approach was demonstrated by the structure assignment of a specific inhibitor of β-D-glucuronidase, 2(S)-carboxy-3(R),4(R),5(S)-trihydroxypiperidine. The relative stereochemistry of the hydroxyls was revealed by 1 H NMR and the absolute configuration was deduced by a comparison of Cotton effects with a model compound. The use of 1 H NMR to establish regiochemical relationships was investigated. Terpenes containing quaternary carbons and methyl groups were excellent models for the regiochemical problems presented by the mitogenic factors. This 1 H NMR spectroscopy has been applied to the cell division factor structure problem. These data, with information from two dimensional nOe experiments, have defined some of the regio-relationships among the structural units present in the isolated factors

  16. Defense gene expression in root galls induced by Nacobbus aberrans in CM334 chilli plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villar-Luna E.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum L. CM334 is susceptible to Nacobbus aberrans but highly resistant to Phy-tophthora capsici. Resistance to P. capsici is associated with the over-expression of various defense genes such as those encoding pathogenesis-related proteins. The transcriptional alterations of defense-related genes were determined in galls induced by N. aberrans (Na in CM334 chili roots. Transcripts accumulation of WRKY-a, WRKY1, POX (peroxidase, PR-1 (pathogenesis-related protein 1, and EAS (5-epiaristolochene synthase was estimated by qRT-PCR, and they were compared with those recorded in the incompatible CM334- P. capsici (Pc interaction. The levels of all studied genes were significantly (P s 0.05 lower (WRKY1, POX and PR-1 or down-regulated (WRKY-a and EAS in the presence of N. aberrans; in contrast, in the incompatible interaction, all genes were significantly up-regulated. The alterations induced by N. aberrans could be necessary to ensure the successful completion of its life cycle in CM334 chili roots.

  17. Identification of Agrobacterium vitis as a causal agent of grapevine crown gall in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzmanović N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, a serious outbreak of crown gall disease was observed on grapevines (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in several commercial vineyards located in the Vojvodina province, Serbia. Bacteria were isolated from the young tumor tissue on nonselective YMA medium and five representative strains were selected for further identification. Tumorigenic (Ti plasmid was detected in all strains by PCR using primers designed to amplify the virC pathogenicity gene, producing a 414-bp PCR product. The strains were identified as Agrobacterium vitis using differential physiological and biochemical tests, and a multiplex PCR assay targeting 23S rRNA gene sequences. In the pathogenicity assay, all strains induced characteristic symptoms on inoculated tomato and grapevine plants. They were less virulent on tomato plants in comparison to the reference strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis. [Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III46008: Development of integrated management of harmful organisms in plant production in order to overcome resistance and to improve food quality and safety

  18. Model compounds of iron gall inks – a Mössbauer study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerf, A.; Wagner, F. E.

    2016-01-01

    Ferrogallic inks were used for at least two millennia before they became obsolete in the 20 th century. The chemistry of such inks is, however, still largely unclear. Today it is of particular interest for the conservation of old manuscripts. 57 Fe Mössbauer spectra of the ink on historical documents showed the presence of Fe(II) oxalate and of Fe(III) sites presumably representing iron oxihydroxides. To obtain more information on the behaviour of ink on paper we have performed Mössbauer studies at 300 and 4.2 K on iron gall inks prepared from FeSO 4 ⋅7H 2 O and tannin. These inks were either written on paper or isolated as a precipitate by centrifugation. In the dried precipitate there is still a strong contribution of the FeSO 4 ⋅7H 2 O which is absent in the same ink written on paper, for which a broad ferrous component with a quadrupole splitting (QS) of about 2.5 mm/s was found. The dominant Fe(III) site present in all inks on paper with QS ≈ 0.82 mm/s is not Fe(III) gallate and different from the precipitates. We propose that nanoparticulate oxidic clusters or molecular composites covered by a shell of polymerized oxidation products of the phenols are formed on the paper.

  19. The association between gall bladder mucoceles and hyperlipidaemia in dogs: a retrospective case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutsunai, M; Kanemoto, H; Fukushima, K; Fujino, Y; Ohno, K; Tsujimoto, H

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of gall bladder mucoceles (GM) in dogs has become increasingly frequent in veterinary medicine. Primary breed-specific hyperlipidaemia is reported in Shetland Sheepdogs and Miniature Schnauzers, breeds in which GM are known to occur more frequently than in other breeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between GM and hyperlipidaemia in dogs. The study design was a retrospective case control study. Medical records of dogs diagnosed with GM at the Veterinary Medical Centre of The University of Tokyo between 1 April 2007 and 31 March 2012, were reviewed. Fifty-eight dogs with GM and a record of either serum cholesterol, triglyceride, or glucose concentrations were included in the study. Hypercholesterolaemia (15/37 cases; odds ratio [OR]: 2.92; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-8.36) and hypertriglyceridaemia (13/24 cases; OR: 3.55; 95% CI:1.12-15.91) showed significant association with GM. Pomeranians (OR: 10.69), American Cocker Spaniels (OR: 8.94), Shetland Sheepdogs (OR: 6.21), Miniature Schnauzers (OR: 5.23), and Chihuahuas (OR: 3.06) were significantly predisposed to GM. Thirty-nine out of 58 cases had at least one concurrent disease, including pancreatitis (five cases), hyperadrenocorticism (two cases), and hypothyroidism (two cases). A significant association between GM and hyperlipidaemia was confirmed, suggesting that hyperlipidaemia may play a role in the pathogenesis of GM. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Model compounds of iron gall inks – a Mössbauer study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerf, A. [Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Walther Meißner Institute (Germany); Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department E15 (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Ferrogallic inks were used for at least two millennia before they became obsolete in the 20{sup th} century. The chemistry of such inks is, however, still largely unclear. Today it is of particular interest for the conservation of old manuscripts. {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra of the ink on historical documents showed the presence of Fe(II) oxalate and of Fe(III) sites presumably representing iron oxihydroxides. To obtain more information on the behaviour of ink on paper we have performed Mössbauer studies at 300 and 4.2 K on iron gall inks prepared from FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O and tannin. These inks were either written on paper or isolated as a precipitate by centrifugation. In the dried precipitate there is still a strong contribution of the FeSO{sub 4}⋅7H{sub 2}O which is absent in the same ink written on paper, for which a broad ferrous component with a quadrupole splitting (QS) of about 2.5 mm/s was found. The dominant Fe(III) site present in all inks on paper with QS ≈ 0.82 mm/s is not Fe(III) gallate and different from the precipitates. We propose that nanoparticulate oxidic clusters or molecular composites covered by a shell of polymerized oxidation products of the phenols are formed on the paper.

  1. Ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a model facultative pathogen: Agrobacterium and crown gall disease of plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ian S; Fuqua, Clay; Platt, Thomas G

    2018-01-01

    Many important pathogens maintain significant populations in highly disparate disease and non-disease environments. The consequences of this environmental heterogeneity in shaping the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of these facultative pathogens are incompletely understood. Agrobacterium tumefaciens, the causative agent for crown gall disease of plants has proven a productive model for many aspects of interactions between pathogens and their hosts and with other microbes. In this review, we highlight how this past work provides valuable context for the use of this system to examine how heterogeneity and transitions between disease and non-disease environments influence the ecology and evolution of facultative pathogens. We focus on several features common among facultative pathogens, such as the physiological remodelling required to colonize hosts from environmental reservoirs and the consequences of competition with host and non-host associated microbiota. In addition, we discuss how the life history of facultative pathogens likely often results in ecological tradeoffs associated with performance in disease and non-disease environments. These pathogens may therefore have different competitive dynamics in disease and non-disease environments and are subject to shifting selective pressures that can result in pathoadaptation or the within-host spread of avirulent phenotypes. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Indian Council of Medical Research consensus document for the management of gall bladder cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Hari Shankar; Sirohi, Bhawna; Behari, Anu; Sharma, Atul; Majumdar, Jahar; Ganguly, Manomoy; Tewari, Mallika; Kumar, Sandeep; Saini, Sunil; Sahni, Peush; Singh, Tomcha; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Sucharita, V.; Kaur, Tanvir; Shukla, Deepak Kumar; Rath, Goura Kishor

    2015-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The document is based on consensus among the experts and best available evidence pertaining to Indian population and is meant for practice in India.All postcholecystectomy gallbladder specimens should be opened and examined carefully by the operating surgeon and be sent for histopathological examination.All “incidental” gall bladder cancers (GBCs) picked up on histopathological examination should have an expert opinion.Evaluation of a patient with early GBC should include essential tests: A computed tomography (CT) scan (multi-detector or helical) of the abdomen and pelvis for staging with a CT chest or chest X-ray, and complete blood counts, renal and liver function tests. magnetic resonance imaging/positron emission tomography (PET)-CT are not recommended for all patients.For early stage disease (up to Stage IVA), surgery is recommended. The need for adjuvant treatment would be guided by the histopathological analysis of the resected specimen.Patients with Stage IVB/metastatic disease must be assessed for palliative e.g. endoscopic or radiological intervention, chemotherapy versus best supportive care on an individual basis. These patients do not require extensive workup outside of a clinical trial setting.There is an urgent need for multicenter trials from India covering various aspects of epidemiology (viz., identification of population at high-risk, organized follow-up), clinical management (viz., bile spill during surgery, excision of all port sites, adjuvant/neoadjuvant therapy) and basic research (viz., what causes GBC). PMID:26157282

  3. TRANSIT TIMING VARIATION MEASUREMENTS OF WASP-12b AND QATAR-1b: NO EVIDENCE OF ADDITIONAL PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Karen A.; Stassun, Keivan G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Kielkopf, John F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  4. Chemical camouflage: a key process in shaping an ant-treehopper and fig-fig wasp mutualistic network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Lu, Min; Cook, James M; Yang, Da-Rong; Dunn, Derek W; Wang, Rui-Wu

    2018-01-30

    Different types of mutualisms may interact, co-evolve and form complex networks of interdependences, but how species interact in networks of a mutualistic community and maintain its stability remains unclear. In a mutualistic network between treehoppers-weaver ants and fig-pollinating wasps, we found that the cuticular hydrocarbons of the treehoppers are more similar to the surface chemical profiles of fig inflorescence branches (FIB) than the cuticular hydrocarbons of the fig wasps. Behavioral assays showed that the cuticular hydrocarbons from both treehoppers and FIBs reduce the propensity of weaver ants to attack treehoppers even in the absence of honeydew rewards, suggesting that chemical camouflage helps enforce the mutualism between weaver ants and treehoppers. High levels of weaver ant and treehopper abundances help maintain the dominance of pollinating fig wasps in the fig wasp community and also increase fig seed production, as a result of discriminative predation and disturbance by weaver ants of ovipositing non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs). Ants therefore help preserve this fig-pollinating wasp mutualism from over exploitation by NPFWs. Our results imply that in this mutualistic network chemical camouflage plays a decisive role in regulating the behavior of a key species and indirectly shaping the architecture of complex arthropod-plant interactions.

  5. Foraging Behavior Interactions Between Two non-Native Social Wasps, Vespula germanica and V. vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Vespidae): Implications for Invasion Success?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Ana Julia; Pirk, Gabriela I.; Corley, Juan C.

    2016-01-01

    Vespula vulgaris is an invasive scavenging social wasp that has very recently arrived in Patagonia (Argentina), a territory previously invaded ? 35 yrs earlier ? by another wasp, Vespula germanica. Although V. vulgaris wasps possess features that could be instrumental in overcoming obstacles through several invasion stages, the presence of preestablished populations of V. germanica could affect their success. We studied the potential role played by V. germanica on the subsequent invasion proc...

  6. Some pollinators are more equal than others: Factors influencing pollen loads and seed set capacity of two actively and passively pollinating fig wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjellberg, Finn; Suleman, Nazia; Raja, Shazia; Tayou, Abelouahad; Hossaert-McKey, Martine; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    The nursery pollination system of fig trees (Ficus) results in the plants providing resources for pollinator fig wasp larvae as part of their male reproductive investment, with selection determining relative investment into pollinating wasps and the pollen they carry. The small size of Ficus pollen suggests that the quantities of pollen transported by individual wasps often limits male reproductive success. We assessed variation in fig wasp pollen loads and its influence on seed production in actively pollinated (Ficus montana) and passively pollinated (Ficus carica) dioecious fig trees.

  7. Insect-induced effects on plants and possible effectors used by galling and leaf-mining insects to manipulate their host-plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, David; Huguet, Elisabeth; Stone, Graham N; Body, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    Gall-inducing insects are iconic examples in the manipulation and reprogramming of plant development, inducing spectacular morphological and physiological changes of host-plant tissues within which the insect feeds and grows. Despite decades of research, effectors involved in gall induction and basic mechanisms of gall formation remain unknown. Recent research suggests that some aspects of the plant manipulation shown by gall-inducers may be shared with other insect herbivorous life histories. Here, we illustrate similarities and contrasts by reviewing current knowledge of metabolic and morphological effects induced on plants by gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, and ask whether leaf-miners can also be considered to be plant reprogrammers. We review key plant functions targeted by various plant reprogrammers, including plant-manipulating insects and nematodes, and functionally characterize insect herbivore-derived effectors to provide a broader understanding of possible mechanisms used in host-plant manipulation. Consequences of plant reprogramming in terms of ecology, coevolution and diversification of plant-manipulating insects are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Permissive and instructive anterior patterning rely on mRNA localization in the wasp embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Ava E; Yucel, Gozde; Small, Stephen; Desplan, Claude

    2007-03-30

    The long-germ mode of embryogenesis, in which segments arise simultaneously along the anteriorposterior axis, has evolved several times in different lineages of the holometabolous, or fully metamorphosing, insects. Drosophila's long-germ fate map is established largely by the activity of the dipteran-specific Bicoid (Bcd) morphogen gradient, which operates both instructively and permissively to accomplish anterior patterning. By contrast, all nondipteran long-germ insects must achieve anterior patterning independently of bcd. We show that bcd's permissive function is mimicked in the wasp by a maternal repression system in which anterior localization of the wasp ortholog of giant represses anterior expression of the trunk gap genes so that head and thorax can properly form.

  9. z'-BAND GROUND-BASED DETECTION OF THE SECONDARY ECLIPSE OF WASP-19b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burton, J. R.; Watson, C. A.; Pollacco, D. [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Littlefair, S. P.; Dhillon, V. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Gibson, N. P. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Marsh, T. R., E-mail: jburton04@qub.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-01

    We present the ground-based detection of the secondary eclipse of the transiting exoplanet WASP-19b. The observations were made in the Sloan z' band using the ULTRACAM triple-beam CCD camera mounted on the New Technology Telescope. The measurement shows a 0.088% {+-} 0.019% eclipse depth, matching previous predictions based on H- and K-band measurements. We discuss in detail our approach to the removal of errors arising due to systematics in the data set, in addition to fitting a model transit to our data. This fit returns an eclipse center, T{sub 0}, of 2455578.7676 HJD, consistent with a circular orbit. Our measurement of the secondary eclipse depth is also compared to model atmospheres of WASP-19b and is found to be consistent with previous measurements at longer wavelengths for the model atmospheres we investigated.

  10. Partial avoidance of female inflorescences of a dioecious fig by their mutualistic pollinating wasps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, M. C.; Gibernau, M.; Hossaert-McKey, M.

    1998-01-01

    Every dioecious species of fig is pollinated by a specific wasp that only reproduces within the inflorescences of male trees. Pollinators usually die within the closed urn-shaped inflorescence (fig or syconium) they visit. Thus pollinators that enter female syconia allow seed production but die without reproducing. In a previous study, pollinators of one dioecious fig where male and female trees flower synchronously, Ficus hispida, did not exhibit differential attraction or choice between inflorescences of the two sexes. Here we show that Blastophaga psenes, the pollinator of another dioecious species of different lineage, the common fig (F. carica), significantly avoided female syconia, when we experimentally induce a situation of choice. Paradoxically, choosiness can be demonstrated in F. carica where usually wasps do not face a choice because male and female trees do not flower synchronously. We discuss how the mutualism may be stable despite this discrimination and hypothesize why the two species of fig-pollinators exhibit different behaviour on dioecious figs.

  11. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis following a wasp sting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, L; Xu, X; Ran, Y

    2017-04-10

    We report a case of an 87-year-old woman who presented with painful erythema of her right forearm 10 days after she had been stung by a wasp on her right hand. The lesion had rapidly deteriorated during the week before presentation, and treatment with antibiotics and glucocorticoids did not improve the condition. After careful evaluation, we performed cultures from the lesion aspiration, and morphological and genetic analysis of bacteria cultures confirmed a bacterial infection with Nocardia brasiliensis. The patient recovered after 3 weeks. Primary cutaneous nocardiosis due to Nocardia spp. is relatively uncommon in clinics, but it was the distance of the lesions from the affected area of the wasp sting that has made this an even rarer case and of interest to report. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Metagenomic analysis of microbial community of a parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Nedoluzhko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of multicellular organisms coexist with bacterial symbionts that may play various roles during their life cycle. Parasitoid wasp Megaphragma amalphitanum (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae belongs to the smallest known insects whose size is comparable with some bacteria. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS, we described microbiota diversity for this arthropod and its potential impact on their lifecycle. Metagenomic sequences were deposited to SRA database which is available at NCBI with accession number SRX2363723 and SRX2363724. We found that small body size and limited lifespan do not lead to a significant reduction of bacterial symbionts diversity. At the same time, we show here a specific feature of microbiota composition in M. amalphitanum – the absence of the Rickettsiaceae family representatives that are known to cause sex-ratio distortion in arthropods and well represented in other populations of parasitoid wasps.

  13. First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available First report of interspecific facultative social parasitism in the paper wasp genus Mischocyttarus Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Parasitism of colonies of the social wasp Mischocyttarus cerberus Ducke, 1918 by females of Mischocyttarus consimilis Zikán, 1949 was observed in a rural area of Dourados, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In all monitored cases, the invasion occurred in the pre-emergence colony stage, generally by a single female of M. consimilis. The period of establishment of the foreign female in the host colony was marked by antagonistic behaviors between the host female and the invasive. In general, the architecture of the parasitized nest was modified from the typical architecture of the host species nest.

  14. Apomictic parthenogenesis in a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis, uncommon in the haplodiploid order Hymenoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Y; Maeto, K; Hamaguchi, K; Isaki, Y; Takami, Y; Naito, T; Miura, K

    2014-06-01

    Although apomixis is the most common form of parthenogenesis in diplodiploid arthropods, it is uncommon in the haplodiploid insect order Hymenoptera. We found a new type of spontaneous apomixis in the Hymenoptera, completely lacking meiosis and the expulsion of polar bodies in egg maturation division, on the thelytokous strain of a parasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Braconidae, Euphorinae) on pest lepidopteran larvae Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Noctuidae). The absence of the meiotic process was consistent with a non-segregation pattern in the offspring of heterozygous females, and no positive evidence was obtained for the induction of thelytoky by any bacterial symbionts. We discuss the conditions that enable the occurrence of such rare cases of apomictic thelytoky in the Hymenoptera, suggesting the significance of fixed heterosis caused by hybridization or polyploidization, symbiosis with bacterial agents, and occasional sex. Our finding will encourage further genetic studies on parasitoid wasps to use asexual lines more wisely for biological control.

  15. Development of a regional capacity expansion plan in the Russian Federation. Application of the WASP Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernilin, Yu.; Kononov, S.; Zakharova, E.; Kagramanyan, V.; Malenkov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is used for the development of optimal capacity expansion plans in Russia. The object of the WASP study is the Central power pool, which is the largest power pool in Russia and has an essential share of nuclear power in electricity generation. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term competitiveness of nuclear power in the region. The major features of the power system analyzed with WASP are the following: 1) four types of electricity generators are considered: condensity fossil fuel plants, cogeneration fossil fuel plants, nuclear power plants and hydraulic plants; 2) nine fuel categories are considered: gas/fuel oil fuel, several types of coal and several nuclear fuels; 3) escalation of capital, operation and maintenance, and fuel costs as a result of economic transition is explicitly modeled. Under these assumptions, a regional optimal capacity expansion plan is developed that showed the following: (a) Until 2004 there is no need for new electricity generation capacities due to the drop in demand in the 90s, certain lifetime margin of existing capacities, committed additions of co-generators and planned refurbishment/repowering measures; (b) The structure of the optimal capacity mix confirms that nuclear power can retain its role as one of the major electricity generation sources in the region. The most important factor with a positive of effect upon the competitiveness of nuclear power plants is the projected escalation of the prices of fossil fuels; (c) The application of WASP has proved that the model can serve as a valuable planning tool at the power pool level in Russia. (author). 14 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs

  16. Novel insights into the ontogeny of nestmate recognition in Polistes social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorotti, Lisa; Cappa, Federico; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Cervo, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The importance of early experience in animals' life is unquestionable, and imprinting-like phenomena may shape important aspects of behaviour. Early learning typically occurs during a sensitive period, which restricts crucial processes of information storage to a specific developmental phase. The characteristics of the sensitive period have been largely investigated in vertebrates, because of their complexity and plasticity, both in behaviour and neurophysiology, but early learning occurs also in invertebrates. In social insects, early learning appears to influence important social behaviours such as nestmate recognition. Yet, the mechanisms underlying recognition systems are not fully understood. It is currently believed that Polistes social wasps are able to discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates following the perception of olfactory cues present on the paper of their nest, which are learned during a strict sensitive period, immediately after emergence. Here, through differential odour experience experiments, we show that workers of Polistes dominula develop correct nestmate recognition abilities soon after emergence even in absence of what have been so far considered the necessary cues (the chemicals spread on nest paper). P. dominula workers were exposed for the first four days of adult life to paper fragments from their nest, or from a foreign conspecific nest or to a neutral condition. Wasps were then transferred to their original nests where recognition abilities were tested. Our results show that wasps do not alter their recognition ability if exposed only to nest material, or in absence of nest material, during the early phase of adult life. It thus appears that the nest paper is not used as a source of recognition cues to be learned in a specific time window, although we discuss possible alternative explanations. Our study provides a novel perspective for the study of the ontogeny of nestmate recognition in Polistes wasps and in other social insects.

  17. Foraging behaviour of the exotic wasp Vespula germanica (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) on a native caterpillar defoliator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrantuono, A L; Moreyra, S; Lozada, M

    2017-09-19

    Vespula germanica is a social wasp and an opportunistic predator. While foraging, these wasps learn and integrate different kinds of cues. They have successfully invaded many parts of the world, including native Nothofagus and Lophozonia forests located in the Andean-Patagonian region, where they forage on native arthropods. Perzelia arda, a lepidopteron defoliator of Lophozonia obliqua, uses the foliage to hide in and feed on. The purpose of this work is to study whether V. germanica use olfactory cues when foraging on P. arda. To do this, we used a Y-tube olfactometer and established three treatments to compare pairs of all combinations of stimuli (larvae, leaves with larval traces, and leaves without larval traces) and controls. Data were analysed via two developed models that showed decisions made by V. germanica and allowed to establish a scale of preferences between the stimuli. The analysis demonstrates that V. germanica wasps choose P. arda as larval prey and are capable of discriminating between the offered stimuli (deviance information criterion (DIC) null model = 873.97; DIC simple model = 84.5, n = 152). According to the preference scale, V. germanica preferred leaves with traces of larvae, suggesting its ability to associate these traces with the presence of the prey. This may be because, under natural conditions, larvae are never exposed outside their shelters of leaves and therefore V. germanica uses indirect signals. The presence of V. germanica foraging on P. arda highlights the flexible foraging behaviour of this wasp which may also act as a positive biological control, reducing lepidopteran populations.

  18. Implementation of large-scale average geostrophic wind shear in WAsP12.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floors, Rogier Ralph; Troen, Ib; Kelly, Mark C.

    The vertical extrapolation model described in the European Wind Atlas Troen and Petersen (1989) is modified to take into account large-scale average geostrophic wind shear to describe the effect of horizontal temperature gradients on the geostrophic wind. The method is implemented by extracting...... the average geostrophic wind shear from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) data and the values of nearest grid point are automatically used in the WAsP 12.1 user interface to provide better AEP predictions....

  19. Revisiting the Energy Budget of WASP-43b: Enhanced Day–Night Heat Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keating, Dylan; Cowan, Nicolas B. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montréal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2017-11-01

    The large day–night temperature contrast of WASP-43b has so far eluded explanation. We revisit the energy budget of this planet by considering the impact of reflected light on dayside measurements and the physicality of implied nightside temperatures. Previous analyses of the infrared eclipses of WASP-43b have assumed reflected light from the planet is negligible and can be ignored. We develop a phenomenological eclipse model including reflected light, thermal emission, and water absorption, and we use it to fit published Hubble and Spitzer eclipse data. We infer a near-infrared geometric albedo of 24% ± 1% and a cooler dayside temperature of 1483 ± 10 K. Additionally, we perform light curve inversion on the three published orbital phase curves of WASP-43b and find that each suggests unphysical, negative flux on the nightside. By requiring non-negative brightnesses at all longitudes, we correct the unphysical parts of the maps and obtain a much hotter nightside effective temperature of 1076 ± 11 K. The cooler dayside and hotter nightside suggest a heat recirculation efficiency of 51% for WASP-43b, essentially the same as for HD 209458b, another hot Jupiter with nearly the same temperature. Our analysis therefore reaffirms the trend that planets with lower irradiation temperatures have more efficient day–night heat transport. Moreover, we note that (1) reflected light may be significant for many near-IR eclipse measurements of hot Jupiters, and (2) phase curves should be fit with physically possible longitudinal brightness profiles—it is insufficient to only require that the disk-integrated light curve be non-negative.

  20. Diapriinae Wasps (Hymenoptera: Diaprioidea: Diapriidae Associated with Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta S. Loiácono

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide an overview of diapriid wasps associated with ants in Argentina and the diversity of interactions they have developed with their hosts. As a result, we report 16 species of nine genera of Diapriinae, two new geographic distributions, three new association records, illustrations, and photographs. We highlight myrmecophile symphylic species, with a high degree of integration with the host ants, adaptation being morphological and behavioral. A table with diapriid species and ant hosts is given.

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Transiting planet WASP-6b (Tregloan-Reed+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregloan-Reed, J.; Southworth, J.; Burgdorf, M.; Calchi Novati, S.; Dominik, M.; Finet, F.; Jorgensen, U. G.; Maier, G.; Mancini, L.; Prof, S.; Ricci, D.; Snodgrass, C.; Bozza, V.; Browne, P.; Dodds, P.; Gerner, T.; Harpsoe, K.; Hinse, T. C.; Hundertmark, M.; Kains, N.; Kerins, E.; Liebig, C.; Penny, M. T.; Rahvar, S.; Sahu, K.; Scarpetta, G.; Schafer, S.; Schonebeck, F.; Skottfelt, J.; Surdej, J.

    2018-05-01

    Four light curves of transits of the extrasolar planetary system WASP-6 are presented. They were obtained using the Danish 1.54m telescope at ESO La Silla, Chile, in the Bessell R passband. The errorbars for each transit have been scaled so the best-fitting model (obtained using the JKTEBOP code and without accounting for the presence of starspots) has a reduced chi-squared value of 1.0. (1 data file).

  2. Genomics and peptidomics of neuropeptides and protein hormones present in the parasitic wasp Nasonia vitripennis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, Frank; Neupert, Susanne; Williamson, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptides and protein hormones constitute a very important group of signaling molecules, regulating central physiological processes such as reproduction, development, and behavior. Using a bioinformatics approach, we screened the recently sequenced genome of the parasitic wasp, Nasonia vitrip...... melanogaster, Aedes aegypti (both Diptera), Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera), Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera), Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera), and Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera). This lower number of neuropeptide genes might be related to Nasonia's parasitic life....

  3. Social Complexity and Nesting Habits Are Factors in the Evolution of Antimicrobial Defences in Wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Hoggard, Stephen J.; Wilson, Peter D.; Beattie, Andrew J.; Stow, Adam J.

    2011-01-01

    Microbial diseases are important selective agents in social insects and one major defense mechanism is the secretion of cuticular antimicrobial compounds. We hypothesized that given differences in group size, social complexity, and nest type the secretions of these antimicrobials will be under different selective pressures. To test this we extracted secretions from nine wasp species of varying social complexity and nesting habits and assayed their antimicrobial compounds against cultures of S...

  4. FIRST RECORDS OF THE INVASIVE AMERICAN WASP ISODONTIA MEXICANA (HYMENOPTERA: SPHECIDAE) IN SERBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ćetković, Aleksandar; Čubrilović, Branka; Plećaš, Milan; Popović, Anđelka; Savić, Dragiša; Stanisavljević, Ljubiša

    2012-01-01

    The first verified occurrences of the invasive American sphecid wasp, Isodontia mexicana (Saussure, 1867), in Serbia are reported. It was first collected from a trap-nest sample in the northern surroundings of Belgrade in 2010. During 2012, we recorded well-established, abundant populations in the central city area of Belgrade, its surroundings, and also at a single site on the Fruška Gora Mt. We briefly review the circumstances and course of its recent eastward and northeastward spreading in...

  5. Artificial covering on trap nests improves the colonization of trap-nesting wasps

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Hisatomo; Kevan, Peter G.; Viana, Blandina Felipe; Silva, Fabiana O.; Buck, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 225-229 To evaluate the role that a trap-nest cover might have on sampling methodologies, the abundance of each species of trap-nesting Hymenoptera and the parasitism rate in a Canadian forest were compared between artificially covered and uncovered traps. Of trap tubes exposed at eight forest sites in six trap-nest boxes, 531 trap tubes were occupied and 1216 individuals of 12 wasp species of four predatory families, Vespidae (Eumeninae), Crabronidae...

  6. Functional morphology and wasp pollination of two South American asclepiads (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemer, A P; Sérsic, A N; Marino, S; Simões, A O; Cocucci, A A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS The extreme complexity of asclepiad flowers (Asclepiadoideae-Apocynaceae) has generated particular interest in the pollination biology of this group of plants especially in the mechanisms involved in the pollination processes. This study compares two South American species, Morrenia odorata and Morrenia brachystephana, with respect to morphology and anatomy of flower structures, dynamic aspects of the pollination mechanism, diversity of visitors and effectiveness of pollinators. Floral structure was studied with fresh and fixed flowers following classical techniques. The pollination mechanism was studied by visiting fresh flowers in the laboratory with artificial pollinator body parts created with an eyelash. Morphometric and nectar measurements were also taken. Pollen transfer efficiency in the flowers was calculated by recording the frequency of removed and inserted pollinia. Visitor activity was recorded in the field, and floral visitors were captured for subsequent analysis of pollen loads. Finally, pollinator effectiveness was calculated with an index. The detailed structure of the flowers revealed a complex system of guide rails and chambers precisely arranged in order to achieve effective pollinaria transport. Morrenia odorata is functionally specialized for wasp pollination, and M. brachystephana for wasp and bee pollination. Pollinators transport chains of pollinaria adhered to their mouthparts. Morrenia odorata and M. brachystephana present differences in the morphology and size of their corona, gynostegium and pollinaria, which explain the differences in details of the functioning of the general pollination mechanism. Pollination is performed by different groups of highly effective pollinators. Morrenia species are specialized for pollination mainly by several species of wasps, a specialized pollination which has been poorly studied. In particular, pompilid wasps are reported as important pollinators in other regions outside South

  7. Variation in the diversity and richness of parasitoid wasps based on sampling effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Thomas E; Ward, Darren F

    2018-01-01

    Parasitoid wasps are a mega-diverse, ecologically dominant, but poorly studied component of global biodiversity. In order to maximise the efficiency and reduce the cost of their collection, the application of optimal sampling techniques is necessary. Two sites in Auckland, New Zealand were sampled intensively to determine the relationship between sampling effort and observed species richness of parasitoid wasps from the family Ichneumonidae. Twenty traps were deployed at each site at three different times over the austral summer period, resulting in a total sampling effort of 840 Malaise-trap-days. Rarefaction techniques and non-parametric estimators were used to predict species richness and to evaluate the variation and completeness of sampling. Despite an intensive Malaise-trapping regime over the summer period, no asymptote of species richness was reached. At best, sampling captured two-thirds of parasitoid wasp species present. The estimated total number of species present depended on the month of sampling and the statistical estimator used. Consequently, the use of fewer traps would have caught only a small proportion of all species (one trap 7-21%; two traps 13-32%), and many traps contributed little to the overall number of individuals caught. However, variation in the catch of individual Malaise traps was not explained by seasonal turnover of species, vegetation or environmental conditions surrounding the trap, or distance of traps to one another. Overall the results demonstrate that even with an intense sampling effort the community is incompletely sampled. The use of only a few traps and/or for very short periods severely limits the estimates of richness because (i) fewer individuals are caught leading to a greater number of singletons; and (ii) the considerable variation of individual traps means some traps will contribute few or no individuals. Understanding how sampling effort affects the richness and diversity of parasitoid wasps is a useful

  8. Suppressed Far-UV Stellar Activity and Low Planetary Mass Loss in the WASP-18 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, L.; Koskinen, T.; France, K.; Cubillos, P. E.; Haswell, C. A.; Lanza, A. F.; Pillitteri, I.

    2018-03-01

    WASP-18 hosts a massive, very close-in Jupiter-like planet. Despite its young age (extinction (E(B-V) ≈ 0.01 mag) and then the interstellar medium (ISM) column density for a number of ions, concluding that ISM absorption is not the origin of the anomaly. We measure the flux of the four stellar emission features detected in the COS spectrum (C II, C III, C IV, Si IV). Comparing the C II/C IV flux ratio measured for WASP-18 with that derived from spectra of nearby stars with known age, we see that the far-UV spectrum of WASP-18 resembles that of old (>5 Gyr), inactive stars, in stark contrast with its young age. We conclude that WASP-18 has an intrinsically low activity level, possibly caused by star–planet tidal interaction, as suggested by previous studies. Re-scaling the solar irradiance reference spectrum to match the flux of the Si IV line, yields an XUV integrated flux at the planet orbit of 10.2 erg s‑1 cm‑2. We employ the rescaled XUV solar fluxes to models of the planetary upper atmosphere, deriving an extremely low thermal mass-loss rate of 10‑20 M J Gyr‑1. For such high-mass planets, thermal escape is not energy limited, but driven by Jeans escape. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from MAST at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13859. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 092.D-0587.

  9. Development of a regional capacity expansion plan in the Russian Federation. Application of the WASP Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernilin, Yu; Kononov, S; Zakharova, E [Russian Research Inst. ` ` Kurchatov Inst.` ` , Moscow (Russian Federation); Kagramanyan, V; Malenkov, A [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    The Wien Automatic System Planning Package (WASP) is used for the development of optimal capacity expansion plans in Russia. The object of the WASP study is the Central power pool, which is the largest power pool in Russia and has an essential share of nuclear power in electricity generation. The objective of the study is to assess the long-term competitiveness of nuclear power in the region. The major features of the power system analyzed with WASP are the following: 1) four types of electricity generators are considered: condensity fossil fuel plants, cogeneration fossil fuel plants, nuclear power plants and hydraulic plants; 2) nine fuel categories are considered: gas/fuel oil fuel, several types of coal and several nuclear fuels; 3) escalation of capital, operation and maintenance, and fuel costs as a result of economic transition is explicitly modeled. Under these assumptions, a regional optimal capacity expansion plan is developed that showed the following: (a) Until 2004 there is no need for new electricity generation capacities due to the drop in demand in the 90s, certain lifetime margin of existing capacities, committed additions of co-generators and planned refurbishment/repowering measures; (b) The structure of the optimal capacity mix confirms that nuclear power can retain its role as one of the major electricity generation sources in the region. The most important factor with a positive of effect upon the competitiveness of nuclear power plants is the projected escalation of the prices of fossil fuels; (c) The application of WASP has proved that the model can serve as a valuable planning tool at the power pool level in Russia. (author). 14 refs, 8 figs, 10 tabs.

  10. Structure elucidation of female-specific volatiles released by the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Tröger

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Females of the parasitoid wasp Trichogramma turkestanica produce the putative polydeoxypropionates (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-diene and (2E,4E,6S,8S,10S-4,6,8,10-tetramethyltrideca-2,4-dien-1-ol or their enantiomers as sex specific volatiles. The structures were assigned on the basis of GC–MS investigations using synthetic reference compounds.

  11. Adaptations to different habitats in sexual and asexual populations of parasitoid wasps: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, I; Kacelnik, A; van Alphen, JJM; Desouhant, E; Bernstein, C

    2017-01-01

    Background Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals in...

  12. WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b are Members of Triple Star Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Johnson, John Asher; Howard, Andrew W.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Morton, Timothy D.

    2014-06-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ⊙ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  13. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T.; Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher; Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D.; Howard, Andrew W.

    2014-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M ☉ using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  14. Trapping social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) with acetic acid and saturated short chain alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, P J; Smithhisler, C S; Reed, H C; McDonough, L M

    2000-12-01

    Nineteen compounds were evaluated in combination with a solution of acetic acid as baits for trapping the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica (F.), the western yellowjacket Vespula pensylvanica (Sausssure), and the golden paper wasp Polistes aurifer Saussure. Compounds with three to six carbon chains or branched chains and with a hydroxy functional group were selected for testing based on their similarity to isobutanol. They were compared with isobutanol with acetic acid, which is a known wasp attractant. None of the compounds tested were superior to isobutanol when presented with acetic acid as a lure for these species of wasps. However, traps baited with either the S-(-)- or the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol in combination with acetic acid captured similar numbers of both species of yellowjackets, compared with isobutanol with acetic acid. Polistes aurifer responded strongly to the S-(-)-enantiomer and to the racemic mixture of 2-methyl-1-butanol with acetic acid and not to the R-(+)-enantiomer with acetic acid.

  15. Cdc42/N-WASP signaling links actin dynamics to pancreatic β cell delamination and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesavan, Gokul; Lieven, Oliver; Mamidi, Anant; Öhlin, Zarah Löf; Johansson, Jenny Kristina; Li, Wan-Chun; Lommel, Silvia; Greiner, Thomas Uwe; Semb, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Delamination plays a pivotal role during normal development and cancer. Previous work has demonstrated that delamination and epithelial cell movement within the plane of an epithelium are associated with a change in cellular phenotype. However, how this positional change is linked to differentiation remains unknown. Using the developing mouse pancreas as a model system, we show that β cell delamination and differentiation are two independent events, which are controlled by Cdc42/N-WASP signaling. Specifically, we show that expression of constitutively active Cdc42 in β cells inhibits β cell delamination and differentiation. These processes are normally associated with junctional actin and cell-cell junction disassembly and the expression of fate-determining transcription factors, such as Isl1 and MafA. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that genetic ablation of N-WASP in β cells expressing constitutively active Cdc42 partially restores both delamination and β cell differentiation. These findings elucidate how junctional actin dynamics via Cdc42/N-WASP signaling cell-autonomously control not only epithelial delamination but also cell differentiation during mammalian organogenesis. PMID:24449844

  16. WASP-12b AND HAT-P-8b are members of triple star systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechter, Eric B.; Crepp, Justin R.; Matthews, Christopher T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ngo, Henry; Knutson, Heather A.; Batygin, Konstantin; Johnson, John Asher [Department of Planetary Science, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hinkley, Sasha; Muirhead, Philip S.; Montet, Benjamin T.; Morton, Timothy D. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Howard, Andrew W., E-mail: ebechter@nd.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    We present high spatial resolution images that demonstrate that WASP-12b and HAT-P-8b orbit the primary stars of hierarchical triple star systems. In each case, two distant companions with colors and brightnesses consistent with M dwarfs co-orbit the hot Jupiter planet host as well as one another. Our adaptive optics images spatially resolve the secondary around WASP-12, previously identified by Bergfors et al. and Crossfield et al. into two distinct sources separated by 84.3 ± 0.6 mas (21 ± 3 AU). We find that the secondary to HAT-P-8, also identified by Bergfors et al., is in fact composed of two stars separated by 65.3 ± 0.5 mas (15 ± 1 AU). Our follow-up observations demonstrate physical association through common proper motion. HAT-P-8 C has a particularly low mass, which we estimate to be 0.18 ± 0.02 M {sub ☉} using photometry. Due to their hierarchy, WASP-12 BC and HAT-P-8 BC will enable the first dynamical mass determination for hot Jupiter stellar companions. These previously well studied planet hosts now represent higher-order multi-star systems with potentially complex dynamics, underscoring the importance of diffraction-limited imaging and providing additional context for understanding the migrant population of transiting hot Jupiters.

  17. EXAMINING THE BROADBAND EMISSION SPECTRUM OF WASP-19b: A NEW z-BAND ECLIPSE DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, George; Bayliss, Daniel D. R. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Rd, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kedziora-Chudczer, Lucyna; Bailey, Jeremy, E-mail: george@mso.anu.edu.au [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-09-10

    WASP-19b is one of the most irradiated hot-Jupiters known. Its secondary eclipse is the deepest of all transiting planets and has been measured in multiple optical and infrared bands. We obtained a z-band eclipse observation with a measured depth of 0.080% {+-} 0.029%, using the 2 m Faulkes Telescope South, which is consistent with the results of previous observations. We combined our measurement of the z-band eclipse with previous observations to explore atmosphere models of WASP-19b that are consistent with its broadband spectrum. We use the VSTAR radiative transfer code to examine the effect of varying pressure-temperature profiles and C/O abundance ratios on the emission spectrum of the planet. We find that models with super-solar carbon enrichment best match the observations, which is consistent with previous model retrieval studies. We also include upper atmosphere haze as another dimension in the interpretation of exoplanet emission spectra and find that particles <0.5 {mu}m in size are unlikely to be present in WASP-19b.

  18. ENPEP and the microcomputer version of WASP-III: Overview and recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buehring, W.A.; Wolsko, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has developed a microcomputer-based energy planning package entitled ENergy and Power Evaluation Program (ENPEP). It consists of seven technical modules, four commercial software packages, and an executive system that conveniently integrates the many options associated with performing energy studies. The seven technical modules and their functions are as follows: MACRO allows the user to specify macroeconomic growth (global or sectoral) that will be the drivers of energy demand. DEMAND projects energy demand based upon the macroeconomic growth information supplied in MACRO. PLANTDATA provides a library of technical data on electric generating plants that is used by BALANCE and ELECTRIC. BALANCE computes marketplace energy supply/demand balances over the study period. LOAD computes detailed electric load forecast information for use in ELECTRIC. ELECTRIC, the microcomputer (PC) version of WASP-III, calculates a minimum cost electric supply system to meet electric demand and reliability goals. IMPACTS calculates environmental impacts and resource requirements associated with energy supply system options. ENPEP provides the potential for energy planners in developing countries to carry out important studies without access to inconvenient and/or expensive mainframe computers. The ELECTRIC module of ENPEP provides electric system planners the opportunity to use the WASP-III model for expansion planning of electrical generating systems. Extensive efforts have been made in converting WASP-III to the microcomputer to provide user-friendly data entry forms and options for operations. (author). 3 refs, 20 figs

  19. Poneromorph Ants Associated with Parasitoid Wasps of the Genus Kapala Cameron (Hymenoptera: Eucharitidae in French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Lachaud

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eucharitid wasps are specific, specialized parasitoids of ants. The genus Kapala Cameron is the most common in the Neotropics but few species are described, and information dealing with their biology, behavior and host associations is scarce. Numerous poneromorph ant colonies were inspected over 4 collection surveys in French Guiana. A diverse fauna of parasites and parasitoids was found, including mermithid nematodes, flies, eucharitids, and another gregarious endoparasitoid wasp. Five new host associations for Kapala are reported, all of them involving medium- to large-size poneromorph ant species from 4 genera: Ectatomma brunneum Fr. Smith, Gnamptogenys tortuolosa (Fr. Smith, Odontomachus haematodus (L., O. mayi Mann, and Pachycondyla verenae (Forel. Three other associations involving O. hastatus (Fabr., P. apicalis (Latreille, and P. stigma (Fabr., already reported for other countries but new for French Guiana, are confirmed. The data extend the number of hosts for Kapala to 24 ant species from 7 genera. The high diversity of the ant host genera associated with Kapala, combined with the fact that these ant genera are the most widely distributed among Neotropical poneromorph ants, could account for the dominant status of the genus Kapala among the eucharitine wasps of Central and South America.

  20. The Mechanisms of Water Exchange: The Regulatory Roles of Multiple Interactions in Social Wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Devanshu; Karsai, Istvan

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary benefits of task fidelity and improving information acquisition via multiple transfers of materials between individuals in a task partitioned system have been shown before, but in this paper we provide a mechanistic explanation of these phenomena. Using a simple mathematical model describing the individual interactions of the wasps, we explain the functioning of the common stomach, an information center, which governs construction behavior and task change. Our central hypothesis is a symmetry between foragers who deposit water and foragers who withdraw water into and out of the common stomach. We combine this with a trade-off between acceptance and resistance to water transfer. We ultimately derive a mathematical function that relates the number of interactions that foragers complete with common stomach wasps during a foraging cycle. We use field data and additional model assumptions to calculate values of our model parameters, and we use these to explain why the fullness of the common stomach stabilizes just below 50 percent, why the average number of successful interactions between foragers and the wasps forming the common stomach is between 5 and 7, and why there is a variation in this number of interactions over time. Our explanation is that our proposed water exchange mechanism places natural bounds on the number of successful interactions possible, water exchange is set to optimize mediation of water through the common stomach, and the chance that foragers abort their task prematurely is very low.

  1. Eocene and not Cretaceous origin of spider wasps: Fossil evidence from amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juanita Rodriguez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spider wasps had long been proposed to originate in the mid-Cretaceous based on the Burmese amber fossil Bryopompilus interfector Engel and Grimaldi, 2006. We performed a morphological examination of this fossil and determined it does not belong to Pompilidae or any other described hymenopteran family. Instead, we place it in the new family Bryopompilidae. The oldest verifiable member of the Pompilidae is from Baltic amber, which suggests the family probably originated in the Eocene, not in the mid-Cretaceous as previously proposed. The origin of spider wasps appears to be correlated with an increase in spider familial diversity in the Cenozoic. We also we add two genera to the extinct pompilid fauna: Tainopompilus gen. nov., and Paleogenia gen. nov., and describe three new species of fossil spider wasps: Anoplius planeta sp. nov., from Dominican amber (Burdigalian to Langhian; Paleogenia wahisi sp. nov., from Baltic amber (Lutetian to Priabonian; and Tainopompilus argentum sp. nov, from Dominican amber (Chattian to Langhian.

  2. Essential oils and their compositions as spatial repellents for pestiferous social wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-He; Schneidmiller, Rodney G; Hoover, Doreen R

    2013-04-01

    The study objectives were: (1) to field test potential repellency of common essential oils against several pestiferous social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), using attractant-baited traps; (2) to identify vespid antennally active compounds from the repellent essential oils; (3) to determine potential repellency of these electroantennographic detection (EAD) active compounds in the field. Of the 21 essential oils tested, 17 showed significant repellency on yellowjackets [mainly Vespula pensylvanica (Saussure)] and paper wasps [mainly Polistes dominulus (Christ)]: clove, pennyroyal, lemongrass, ylang ylang, spearmint, wintergreen, sage, rosemary, lavender, geranium, patchouli, citronella, Roman chamomile, thyme, fennel seed, anise and peppermint. Two essential oil mixtures - 3EO-mix (clove, geranium and lemongrass) and 4EO-mix (clove, geranium, lemongrass and rosemary) - totally blocked the attraction of vespid workers. Twenty-nine vespid antennally active compounds were identified from solid-phase microextraction (SPME) samples of 11 strongly repellent essential oils by GC-EAD/MS techniques. Among the synthetic EAD-active compounds field tested, eugenol, P/I-menthone, pulegone, α/β-thujone, l-carvone, E/Z-citral, citronellal, methyl benzoate, benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate and 3-octanol showed a significant repellency on vespid workers. These compounds are likely responsible for the repellency of their corresponding essential oils. These repellent essential oils and their active compositions have great potential for efficient, environmentally sound semiochemical-based IPM of pestiferous vespid wasps. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. WASP-121b: An ultrahot gas-giant exoplanet with a stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Evans, Thomas M.; Sing, David; Goyal, Jayesh; Nikolov, Nikolay; Wakeford, Hannah R.; Deming, Drake; Marley, Mark S.; PanCET Team

    2018-01-01

    Stratospheres are ubiquitous in the atmospheres of solar system planets, and provide crucial information about an atmosphere’s chemical composition, vertical temperature structure, and energy budget. While it has been suggested that stratospheres could form in highly irradiated exoplanets, the extent to which this occurs has so far been unresolved both theoretically and observationally. Here we present secondary eclipse observations of the ultra-hot (Teq ~ 2500 K) gas giant exoplanet WASP-121b made using HST/WFC3 in spectroscopic mode across the 1.12-1.64 micron wavelength range. The spectrum is inconsistent with an isothermal atmosphere and has spectrally-resolved water features in emission, providing a detection of an exoplanet stratosphere at 5-sigma confidence. WASP-121b is one of the standout exoplanets available for atmospheric characterization, both in transmission and emission, due to its large radius (1.8 Rjup), high temperature, and bright host star (H=9.4mag). As such, we will also discuss follow-up observations of WASP-121b with HST and JWST to probe the longitudinal extent of its stratosphere, and the molecular absorbers that may produce it.

  4. Wasp sting induced STEMI with complete coronary artery occlusion: a case of Kounis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Benjamin; Choudhury, Tawfiqur Rahman; Hindle, Mark; Galasko, Gavin

    2017-09-07

    A 45-year-old previously healthy man with minimal coronary artery disease on imaging presented with an acute MI after sustaining a wasp sting following previous non-eventful exposures throughout his life. This is the first case of Kounis syndrome with optical coherence tomography imaging and proven IgE wasp venom hypersensitivity. The Hymenoptera venom is composed of allergenic proteins and vasoactive amines which are responsible for venom toxicity. This patient also has a history of atopy giving a predisposition for developing IgE-mediated allergic reactions. Hymenoptera stings can be severe in atopic individuals and anaphylaxis may ensue. However, it is a rare cause of myocardial infarction (MI) (Kounis syndrome). Multiple wasp stings in the past may have contributed to sensitisation. Kounis syndrome is a rare clinical manifestation which should remain in the minds of physicians, especially with younger patients with no history of ischaemic heart disease or few risk factors. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. High bee and wasp diversity in a heterogeneous tropical farming system compared to protected forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schüepp

    Full Text Available It is a globally important challenge to meet increasing demands for resources and, at the same time, protect biodiversity and ecosystem services. Farming is usually regarded as a major threat to biodiversity due to its expansion into natural areas. We compared biodiversity of bees and wasps between heterogeneous small-scale farming areas and protected forest in northern coastal Belize, Central America. Malaise traps operated for three months during the transition from wet to dry season. Farming areas consisted of a mosaic of mixed crop types, open habitat, secondary forest, and agroforestry. Mean species richness per site (alpha diversity, as well as spatial and temporal community variation (beta diversity of bees and wasps were equal or higher in farming areas compared to protected forest. The higher species richness and community variation in farmland was due to additional species that did not occur in the forest, whereas most species trapped in forest were also found in farming areas. The overall regional species richness (gamma diversity increased by 70% with the inclusion of farming areas. Our results suggest that small-scale farming systems adjacent to protected forest may not only conserve, but even favour, biodiversity of some taxonomic groups. We can, however, not exclude possible declines of bee and wasp diversity in more intensified farmland or in landscapes completely covered by heterogeneous farming systems.

  6. What do foraging wasps optimize in a variable environment, energy investment or body temperature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Brodschneider, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Vespine wasps (Vespula sp.) are endowed with a pronounced ability of endothermic heat production. To show how they balance energetics and thermoregulation under variable environmental conditions, we measured the body temperature and respiration of sucrose foragers (1.5 M, unlimited flow) under variable ambient temperature (T a = 20-35 °C) and solar radiation (20-570 W m(-2)). Results revealed a graduated balancing of metabolic efforts with thermoregulatory needs. The thoracic temperature in the shade depended on ambient temperature, increasing from ~37 to 39 °C. However, wasps used solar heat gain to regulate their thorax temperature at a rather high level at low T a (mean T thorax ~ 39 °C). Only at high T a they used solar heat to reduce their metabolic rate remarkably. A high body temperature accelerated the suction speed and shortened foraging time. As the costs of foraging strongly depended on duration, the efficiency could be significantly increased with a high body temperature. Heat gain from solar radiation enabled the wasps to enhance foraging efficiency at high ambient temperature (T a = 30 °C) by up to 63 %. The well-balanced change of economic strategies in response to environmental conditions minimized costs of foraging and optimized energetic efficiency.

  7. Learning in an exotic social wasp while relocating a food source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada, Mariana; D'Adamo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review several studies on Vespulagermanica behavioral plasticity while relocating a food source in natural environments. This exotic social wasp, which has become established in many parts of the world, displays diverse cognitive abilities when foraging. Given its successful invasiveness worldwide, our initial hypothesis was that this species has great behavioral plasticity, which enables it to face environmental uncertainty. In our work we have analyzed foraging behavior associated with undepleted resources. Throughout several experiments, rapid learning was observed in this species; after few learning experiences they associate diverse contextual cues with a food source. However, by exploring wasp behavior when food suddenly disappeared, either because it had been removed or displaced, we found that they continued searching over a no longer rewarding site for a considerable period of time, suggesting that past experience can hinder new learning. Particularly surprising is the fact that when food was displaced nearby, wasps persisted in searching over the empty dish, ignoring the presence of food close by. We propose that this species could be a suitable model for studying cognitive plasticity in relation to environmental uncertainty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to avocado (Persea americana pollination in southern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesica Perez-Balam

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Although avocado is native to Mexico, there are no comparative measures in this country on the performance of its flower visitors as pollinators. The contribution of honey bees, flies and wasps to the pollination of avocado from tropical Mexico was assessed by comparing abundance, speed of flower visitation, quantity of pollen carried per individual and pollen deposited on virgin flowers after single visits. The values of abundance and frequency of flower visitation with pollen deposition were combined to obtain a measure of pollinator performance (PP. The most abundant insects on avocado were flies (mean ± SE: 15. 2 ± 6.2, followed by honey bees (9.4 ± 6.3 and wasps (4.2 ± 3.1 (ANOVA F = 91.71, d.f. = 2,78; P P P = 0.001, the number of pollen grains deposited on a stigma after a single visit was similar for the three taxa (2-5. There was evidence for a significant and similarly positive PP of both honey bees and flies as avocado pollinators over wasps, given their abundance, potential for pollen transport and deposition of pollen on stigmas.

  9. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Non-indigenous invasive mole crickets, Scapteriscus vicinus Scudder (Orthoptera: Gryllotalpidae) in Florida and S. didactylus (Latreille) (the 'changa') in Puerto Rico, are being managed with an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema scapterisci (Nguyen and Smart) (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae), and a parasitic wasp, Larra bicolor L. (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae). Pest mole cricket populations have declined by 95% in north central Florida since these specialist natural enemies were released and established in the 1980s. Commercial production of the nematode was initiated, nearly 70 billion were applied in 34 Florida counties, and their establishment, spread, and impact on mole crickets were monitored. The infected mole crickets dispersed the nematode rapidly, so that within 6 months these parasites were present in most of the insects trapped in experimental pastures. Three years later, mole cricket populations were reduced to acceptable levels and the bahiagrass had recovered. The nematode was released for the first time in Puerto Rico during 2001 and has persisted; the wasp was introduced in the late 1930s. The geographical distribution of the wasp is being expanded in Florida and Puerto Rico by planting plots of Spermacoce verticillata (L.), a wildflower indigenous to Puerto Rico and widely distributed in southern Florida. Pastures, sod farms, golf courses, landscapes, and vegetable farms in Florida and Puerto Rico are benefiting from biological control of invasive mole crickets. (author) [es

  10. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR A TEMPERATURE INVERSION IN THE DAYSIDE ATMOSPHERE OF HOT JUPITER WASP-33b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, Korey; Mandell, Avi M. [Solar System Exploration Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Deming, Drake [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Knutson, Heather, E-mail: khaynes0112@gmail.com [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2015-06-20

    We present observations of two occultations of the extrasolar planet WASP-33b using the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) on the Hubble Space Telescope, which allow us to constrain the temperature structure and composition of its dayside atmosphere. WASP-33b is the most highly irradiated hot Jupiter discovered to date, and the only exoplanet known to orbit a δ-Scuti star. We observed in spatial scan mode to decrease instrument systematic effects in the data, and removed fluctuations in the data due to stellar pulsations. The rms for our final, binned spectrum is 1.05 times the photon noise. We compare our final spectrum, along with previously published photometric data, to atmospheric models of WASP-33b spanning a wide range in temperature profiles and chemical compositions. We find that the data require models with an oxygen-rich chemical composition and a temperature profile that increases at high altitude. We find that our measured spectrum displays an excess in the measured flux toward short wavelengths that is best explained as emission from TiO. If confirmed by additional measurements at shorter wavelengths, this planet would become the first hot Jupiter with a thermal inversion that can be definitively attributed to the presence of TiO in its dayside atmosphere.

  11. TRAP-NESTING BEES AND WASPS (HYMENOPTERA, ACULEATA IN A SEMIDECIDUAL SEASONAL FOREST FRAGMENT, SOUTHERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRISCILA S. OLIVEIRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Trap-nesting bee and wasp inventories are common in Brazil but many phytophysiognomies are still poorly studied. The main objective of this study is to survey trap-nesting bees and wasps in a Semidecidual Seasonal Forest fragment. Also, we test the differences on nesting between interior and edge transects. A sum of 1,500 trap nests was made with bamboo cane internodes and two consecutive years were monitored. In the first year 46 nests were occupied by Pachodynerus grandis (19 nests, Pachodynerus guadulpensis (19, Centris analis (two, and Centris tarsata, Megachile fiebrigi, Megachile guaranitica, Megachile susurrans, Trypoxylon sp and Zethus smithii with one nest each. No statistical differences were found between interior and edge transects for richness and occupation rate, but the species composition was different. In the second year 39 nests were occupied by four species, three previously recorded, C. analis (seven nests, P. guadulpensis and P. grandis (six nests each, plus Monobia angulosa with 15 nests. Parasitoids from four families and one cleptoparasite were recorded and the mortality rate was higher in bees than in wasps. These findings reinforce the notion that trap nests assemblages from different studies are not directly comparable for richness and composition.

  12. The Optical Transmission Spectrum of the Inflated Hot Jupiter WASP-94Ab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta-Thompson, Zachory; Diamond-Lowe, Hannah; Osip, David; McDonald, Michael; Triaud, Amaury; Hellier, Coel; Gillon, Michael; Delrez, Laetitia; Queloz, Didier; Neveu-VanMalle, Marion; Demory, Brice-Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Exoplaneteers study the color of sunset on other planets, by measuring the wavelength-dependence of the fraction of starlight transmitted through the planets' atmospheres during transit. These transmission spectroscopy observations can reveal the molecular composition and aerosol distribution along the planet's day-night terminator. Here, we present new observations of the transmission spectrum of WASP-94Ab, an inflated hot Jupiter in a 3.95 day orbit around a bright 6200K, V=10.1 dwarf star. The star is in a visual binary with a nearly identical star (6100K, V=10.5) located 15" away. We observed three transits of WASP-94Ab with the Magellan/LDSS3C multiobject spectrograph, taking advantage of the nearby companion to correct for temporal variations in Earth's telluric spectrum. Thanks to the Magellan Clay telescope's large 6.5m aperture and WASP-94Ab's low surface gravity, we achieve a spectrophotometric precision (in units of atmospheric scale heights) that rivals Hubble/STIS spectroscopy of the famous and much brighter hot Jupiter system HD209458b. We highlight the valuable role ground-based telescopes can play for exoplanetary characterization in the TESS era.

  13. Analytical evidences of the use of iron-gall ink as a pigment on miniature paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Calà, Elisa

    2017-12-01

    Iron-gall ink (IGI) has been used by scribes for writing since at least the 4th century CE. Another typical use of this ink was for drawing: many Old Masters created beautiful sketches in brown-black hues. Despite its widespread use to draw lines, it seems like IGI was hardly used for painting as well. In fact, the number of identification on manuscripts is very low at present. This could be partially due to a lack of reliable diagnostic information. In this work we tried to better define the possibility of identifying IGI as a pigment on illuminate manuscripts, evaluating the pros and cons of three different techniques: UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry with optic fibres (FORS), Raman spectroscopy and XRF spectrometry. With concern to in situ non-invasive analysis, Raman spectroscopy has the best diagnostic power but FORS seems to provide the better compromise between selectivity and ease of application. Moreover, new analytical evidences was given on the particular use of IGI by ancient illuminators: a non-invasive and micro-invasive diagnostic survey on Western manuscripts datable in the range 6-16th centuries was carried out showing that, apart from its widespread use as an ink for writing and drawing, IGI was largely used as a pigment too. The large number of identification obtained allows us to hypothesise that this pigment was used all through medieval Europe up to at least the Renaissance, where its use is already documented in drawing. The occurrence of IGI in miniature paintings older than 6th century or more recent than 16th century cannot be excluded, as is its use beyond Europe; further measurements could instead widen the time range and the geographic area. Nevertheless, the present study allows shedding a new light on the use of this colourant all along the period of medieval and Renaissance miniature painting art.

  14. Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Somavilla

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Diversity and aspects of the ecology of social wasps (Vespidae, Polistinae in Central Amazonian "terra firme" forest. The knowledge of social wasp richness and biology in the Amazonian region is considered insufficient. Although the Amazonas state is the largest in the region, until now only two brief surveys were conducted there. Considering that the systematic inventory of an area is the first step towards its conservation and wise use, this study presents faunal data on social wasp diversity in a 25 km² area of "terra firme" (upland forest at the Ducke Reserve, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Wasps were collected in the understory, following a protocol of three collectors walking along 60 trails 1,000 m in extension for 16 days between August and October 2010. Methods used were active search of individuals with entomological nets and nest collecting. Fifty-eight species of social wasps, allocated in 13 genera, were recorded; 67% of the collected species belong to Polybia, Agelaia and Mischocyttarus; other genera were represented by only four species or less. The most frequent species in active searches were Agelaia fulvofasciata (DeGeer, 1773, Agelaia testacea (Fabricius, 1804 and Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier, 1836. Twelve species were collected in nests. Prior to this study, 65 Polistinae species were deposited at the INPA Collection. Collecting in the study grid, an area not previously sampled for wasps, resulted in an increase of 25% species, and species richness was 86. According to the results, there is evidence that the diversity of social wasps at the Ducke Reserve is even higher, making it one of the richest areas in the Brazilian Amazonia.

  15. Transmission spectroscopy of the hot Jupiter WASP-12b from 0.7 to 5 μm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Bean, Jacob L.; Seifahrt, Andreas; Kreidberg, Laura [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 170-25 1200, East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Bergmann, Marcel [National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO), Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Homeier, Derek, E-mail: kbs@uchicago.edu [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574, CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-06-01

    Since the first report of a potentially non-solar carbon-to-oxygen ratio (C/O) in its dayside atmosphere, the highly irradiated exoplanet WASP-12b has been under intense scrutiny and the subject of many follow-up observations. Additionally, the recent discovery of stellar binary companions ∼1'' from WASP-12 has obfuscated interpretation of the observational data. Here we present new ground-based multi-object transmission-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b that we acquired over two consecutive nights in the red optical with Gemini-N/GMOS. After correcting for the influence of WASP-12's stellar companions, we find that these data rule out a cloud-free H{sub 2} atmosphere with no additional opacity sources. We detect features in the transmission spectrum that may be attributed to metal oxides (such as TiO and VO) for an O-rich atmosphere or to metal hydrides (such as TiH) for a C-rich atmosphere. We also reanalyzed NIR transit-spectroscopy observations of WASP-12b from HST/WFC3 and broadband transit photometry from Warm Spitzer. We attribute the broad spectral features in the WFC3 data to either H{sub 2}O or CH{sub 4} and HCN for an O-rich or C-rich atmosphere, respectively. The Spitzer data suggest shallower transit depths than the models predict at infrared wavelengths, albeit at low statistical significance. A multi-instrument, broad-wavelength analysis of WASP-12b suggests that the transmission spectrum is well approximated by a simple Rayleigh scattering model with a planet terminator temperature of 1870 ± 130 K. We conclude that additional high-precision data and isolated spectroscopic measurements of the companion stars are required to place definitive constraints on the composition of WASP-12b's atmosphere.

  16. An observational study on the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome with gall stone disease requiring cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farah; Baloch, Qamaruddin; Memon, Zahid Ali; Ali, Iqra

    2017-05-01

    Recognition of Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome in patients with gallstones undergoing laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy, along with it we will also study the life style of patients with gall stones. Patients with gallstones have associated NAFLD, with concurrent metabolic syndrome and these ailments share similar factors for example obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes mellitus. Factors like body mass index, gender, raised lipid levels, use of contraceptives and alcohol and having diabetes, physical inactiveness, multiparous women, water with excessive iron content, metabolic syndrome, and NAFLD are accountable factors for gallstones formation. This was a case series done at Surgical Unit 1 of Civil Hospital Karachi. Selective samples of 88 patients were included. Duration was 3 months. We included both sexes with ultrasound proof of gall stone irrespective of cholecystitis. Excluded patients with history of seropositive viral hepatitis, autoimmune and wilson's disease. As these conditions can act as a confounder to our variables. Nafld was present in 62.5%(n = 55) while 28.4% (n = 25) had metabolic syndrome. 26.94% had BMI less than 18, 32.12 had BMI between 18 and 25 and majority had BMI greater than 25 i.e in 40.93%. Of all 46.6% had a family history of cholelithiasis. Gallstone patients with NAFLD reported about their first degree relative being suffering from cholelithiasis at a significant p-value of 0.034 while this was not significant in cases of metabolic syndrome and the p -value was 0.190. We found association of metabolic syndrome with gallstones and NAFLD. Non alcoholic fatty liver was highly prevalent in our study subjects. Huge percentage of first degree relatives of gall stone patients had gallstones and this relation was more pronounced patients who had associated NAFLD.

  17. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VC Maia

    Full Text Available Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae. The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  18. Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae) from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, V C; Fernandes, S P C

    2011-05-01

    Two new species of gall midges (Diptera, Cecidomyiidae) Dasineura ovalifoliae and Clinodiplosis maricaensis are described based on material from the Barra de Maricá restinga, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Both species are associated with Erythroxylum ovalifolium Peyr. (Erythroxylaceae). The former is the gall inducer and the latter an inquiline.

  19. Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae and Trichogrammatidae) of the gall-making leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Uzbekistan, with taxonomic notes on the Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakitov, Roman; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the Aphelinoidea Girault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), A. (Aphelinoidea) sariq Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n., is described from Uzbekistan. Both sexes were reared from eggs of the only known truly gall-making leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste), laid inside its galls on camelthorn, Alhagi maurorum Medikus; additional females were found dead inside the galls. Aphelinoidea sariq is the only known species of the nominate subgenus of Aphelinoidea whose body color is predominantly yellow. Taxonomic notes on other Palaearctic species of Aphelinoidea are provided; A. scythica Fursov, syn. n. is synonymized underA. (Aphelinoidea) turanica S. Trjapitzin. Another trichogrammatid, Par-acentrobia (Paracentrobia) sp., was reared from eggs of S. viridis in much smaller numbers. Also described from the same locality and host is Gonatocerus (Lymaenon) mitjaevi Triapitsyn & Rakitov sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae).

  20. Efeito de vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus - vespas de figos Effect of non-pollinating fig wasps over fig-fig wasp mutualism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa G. Elias

    Full Text Available Relações ecológicas interespecíficas, que resultam em benefício para todos os organismos participantes, são conhecidas como mutualismo. No entanto, tal cooperação abre espaço para o surgimento de estratégias oportunistas (ou de trapaça, representadas por indivíduos parasitas do mutualismo, que recebem o benefício de um dos parceiros sem oferecer nada em troca. A interação figueiras - vespas - de - figo é um sistema adequado para o estudo do mutualismo e de estratégias oportunistas (parasitas de mutualismos. Representantes do gênero Ficus (Moraceae apresentam uma relação mutualística com pequenas vespas polinizadoras (Agaonidae e são explorados por outras espécies de vespas não-polinizadoras. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto das vespas não-polinizadoras sobre o mutualismo Ficus citrifolia e suas vespas polinizadoras, Pegoscapus tonduzi Grandi, 1919. Para tal, foi comparada a produção de aquênios (função feminina e de fêmeas da espécie polinizadora (função masculina entre amostras de sicônios altamente infestados e pouco infestados por vespas não-polinizadoras, coletadas nos municípios de Londrina (Paraná, Campinas e Ribeirão Preto (São Paulo, Brasil. Nossos resultados apontaram que as vespas não-polinizadoras exercem impacto negativo nos componentes feminino e masculino da planta, sendo maior no masculino. A produção de vespas polinizadoras foi cerca de sete vezes menor nos figos infestados, ao passo que a produção de aquênios foi 1,5 vez menor nesses mesmos figos. Hipóteses sobre a estabilidade do mutualismo na presença das espécies oportunistas são discutidas.Mutualism is the name given to interspecific interactions which result in benefit for all partners involved. However, such cooperation is open to opportunistic strategies: individuals that extract the benefit from the partner, but do not offer any benefit in exchange. The fig-fig wasp interaction is an appropriate case to

  1. A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chaoyang; Escalante, Lucio Navarro; Chen, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms...... in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents...

  2. Gall-forming insects in a lowland tropical rainforest: low species diversity in an extremely specialised quild

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Butterill, Philip T.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 4 (2015), s. 409-419 ISSN 0307-6946 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10486S Grant - others:European Social Fund(CZ) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0064; National Science Foundation(US) DEB 0515678; UK Darwin Initiative for the Survival Species(GB) 14/054 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : gall-forming insects * host specificity * Papua New Guinea Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.687, year: 2015 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/een.12198/abstract

  3. Klippel-Feil syndrome with associated agenesis of lung and gall bladder presenting with asthma and allergic rhinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, Puneet; Panjabi, Chandramani; Shah, Ashok

    2005-01-01

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS), a triad of short neck, limitation of neck movement and low posterior hairline, is characterized by the presence of congenitally fused cervical vertebrae and is often associated with multiple congenital anomalies. A 35-year-old male was referred for evaluation of an 'opaque hemithorax'. This led to a diagnosis of KFS, agenesis of left lung and gall bladder. The patient had history of wheezing dyspnea with nasal symptoms, which were diagnosed as asthma and allergic rhinitis. A high index of suspicion is required to recognize such a patient, and efforts should be made to seek other congenital anomalies. (author)

  4. Trends in cancer of the liver, gall bladder, bile duct, and pancreas in elderly in Denmark, 1980-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Jon Kroll; Mortensen, Michael Bau; Pfeiffer, Per

    2016-01-01

    , mortality, prevalence and relative survival for these cancers.Materials and methods HBP-c was defined as ICD-10 codes C22 (liver), C23-24 (gall bladder), and C25 (pancreas). Data derived from the NORDCAN database with comparable data on cancer incidence, mortality, prevalence and relative survival.......Conclusion As the number of persons aged 80 years or more will increase dramatically in the following years, and our results show a gap in relative survival, it is important to continue to study this population in order to improve management and outcome....

  5. Signs of strong Na and K absorption in the transmission spectrum of WASP-103b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendl, M.; Cubillos, P. E.; Hagelberg, J.; Müller, A.; Juvan, I.; Fossati, L.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Transmission spectroscopy has become a prominent tool for characterizing the atmospheric properties on close-in transiting planets. Recent observations have revealed a remarkable diversity in exoplanet spectra, which show absorption signatures of Na, K and H2O, in some cases partially or fully attenuated by atmospheric aerosols. Aerosols (clouds and hazes) themselves have been detected in the transmission spectra of several planets thanks to wavelength-dependent slopes caused by the particles' scattering properties. Aims: We present an optical 550-960 nm transmission spectrum of the extremely irradiated hot Jupiter WASP-103b, one of the hottest (2500 K) and most massive (1.5 MJ) planets yet to be studied with this technique. WASP-103b orbits its star at a separation of less than 1.2 times the Roche limit and is predicted to be strongly tidally distorted. Methods: We have used Gemini/GMOS to obtain multi-object spectroscopy throughout three transits of WASP-103b. We used relative spectrophotometry and bin sizes between 20 and 2 nm to infer the planet's transmission spectrum. Results: We find that WASP-103b shows increased absorption in the cores of the alkali (Na, K) line features. We do not confirm the presence of any strong scattering slope as previously suggested, pointing towards a clear atmosphere for the highly irradiated, massive exoplanet WASP-103b. We constrain the upper boundary of any potential cloud deck to reside at pressure levels above 0.01 bar. This finding is in line with previous studies on cloud occurrence on exoplanets which find that clouds dominate the transmission spectra of cool, low surface gravity planets while hot, high surface gravity planets are either cloud-free, or possess clouds located below the altitudes probed by transmission spectra. The spectrophotometric time series data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  6. New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Meij, Sancia E. T.; Benzoni, Francesca; Berumen, Michael L.; Naruse, Tohru

    2016-01-01

    The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing identical haplotypes for the Red Sea, Maldivian and Japanese material and three haplotypes in the Indonesian material. Opecarcinus cathyae has one of the widest known recorded distribution ranges for all gall crab species.

  7. New distribution records of the gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Cryptochiridae) from the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan

    KAUST Repository

    Meij, Sancia E. T.

    2016-11-12

    The gall crab Opecarcinus cathyae van der Meij, 2014 has been reported from various localities in Indonesia and Malaysia. Recent surveys in the Red Sea, Maldives and Japan yielded additional specimens of O. cathyae, considerably expanding the known distribution range of this species to the east and west. The identity of O. cathyae was confirmed based on COI sequence data, revealing identical haplotypes for the Red Sea, Maldivian and Japanese material and three haplotypes in the Indonesian material. Opecarcinus cathyae has one of the widest known recorded distribution ranges for all gall crab species.

  8. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  9. Revisiting the Phase Curves of WASP-43b: Confronting Re-analyzed Spitzer Data with Cloudy Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, João M.; Malik, Matej; Demory, Brice-Olivier; Heng, Kevin

    2018-04-01

    Recently acquired Hubble and Spitzer phase curves of the short-period hot Jupiter WASP-43b make it an ideal target for confronting theory with data. On the observational front, we re-analyze the 3.6 and 4.5 μm Spitzer phase curves and demonstrate that our improved analysis better removes residual red noise due to intra-pixel sensitivity, which leads to greater fluxes emanating from the nightside of WASP-43b, thus reducing the tension between theory and data. On the theoretical front, we construct cloud-free and cloudy atmospheres of WASP-43b using our Global Circulation Model (GCM), THOR, which solves the non-hydrostatic Euler equations (compared to GCMs that typically solve the hydrostatic primitive equations). The cloud-free atmosphere produces a reasonable fit to the dayside emission spectrum. The multi-phase emission spectra constrain the cloud deck to be confined to the nightside and have a finite cloud-top pressure. The multi-wavelength phase curves are naturally consistent with our cloudy atmospheres, except for the 4.5 μm phase curve, which requires the presence of enhanced carbon dioxide in the atmosphere of WASP-43b. Multi-phase emission spectra at higher spectral resolution, as may be obtained using the James Webb Space Telescope, and a reflected-light phase curve at visible wavelengths would further constrain the properties of clouds in WASP-43b.

  10. Partial venom gland transcriptome of a Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina heterotoma, reveals novel and shared bioactive profiles with stinging Hymenoptera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, Mary E.; Gueguen, Gwenaelle; Rajwani, Roma; Pagan, Pedro E.; Small, Chiyedza; Govind, Shubha

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of natural host-parasite relationships reveals the evolutionary forces that shape the delicate and unique specificity characteristic of such interactions. The accessory long gland-reservoir complex of the wasp Leptopilina heterotoma (Figitidae) produces venom with virus-like particles. Upon delivery, venom components delay host larval development and completely block host immune responses. The host range of this Drosophila endoparasitoid notably includes the highly-studied model organism, Drosophila melanogaster. Categorization of 827 unigenes, using similarity as an indicator of putative homology, reveals that approximately 25% are novel or classified as hypothetical proteins. Most of the remaining unigenes are related to processes involved in signaling, cell cycle, and cell physiology including detoxification, protein biogenesis, and hormone production. Analysis of L. heterotoma’s predicted venom gland proteins demonstrates conservation among endo- and ectoparasitoids within the Apocrita (e.g., this wasp and the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis) and stinging aculeates (e.g., the honey bee and ants). Enzyme and KEGG pathway profiling predicts that kinases, esterases, and hydrolases may contribute to venom activity in this unique wasp. To our knowledge, this investigation marks the first functional genomic study for a natural parasitic wasp of Drosophila. Our findings will help explain how L. heterotoma shuts down its hosts’ immunity and shed light on the molecular basis of a natural arms race between these insects. PMID:23688557

  11. The Asian Rice Gall Midge (Orseolia oryzae Mitogenome Has Evolved Novel Gene Boundaries and Tandem Repeats That Distinguish Its Biotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isha Atray

    Full Text Available The complete mitochondrial genome of the Asian rice gall midge, Orseolia oryzae (Diptera; Cecidomyiidae was sequenced, annotated and analysed in the present study. The circular genome is 15,286 bp with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs and 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and a 578 bp non-coding control region. All protein coding genes used conventional start codons and terminated with a complete stop codon. The genome presented many unusual features: (1 rearrangement in the order of tRNAs as well as protein coding genes; (2 truncation and unusual secondary structures of tRNAs; (3 presence of two different repeat elements in separate non-coding regions; (4 presence of one pseudo-tRNA gene; (5 inversion of the rRNA genes; (6 higher percentage of non-coding regions when compared with other insect mitogenomes. Rearrangements of the tRNAs and protein coding genes are explained on the basis of tandem duplication and random loss model and why intramitochondrial recombination is a better model for explaining rearrangements in the O. oryzae mitochondrial genome is discussed. Furthermore, we evaluated the number of iterations of the tandem repeat elements found in the mitogenome. This led to the identification of genetic markers capable of differentiating rice gall midge biotypes and the two Orseolia species investigated.

  12. Duodeno gastric reflux in peptic ulcer disease: gall bladder emptying provoked by cholecystokinin or a fatty meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Donovan, I.A.; Mosimann, F.; Drumm, J.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1986-01-01

    A wide range of incidence of diodeno-gastric bile reflux has been reported in patients with duodenal ulcer (DU) or gastric ulcer (GU). Using either 100 units of CCK i/v or a fatty meal of 320 Cal containing 20 g fat to contract the gall bladder, we have investigated the incidence of reflux in 170 subjects: CCK (Control: 20; DU: 60; GU: 19), Meal (Control: 19; DU: 37; GU: 15). The CCK or meal was given in the supine subject 30 minutes after injection of 75 MBq sup(99m)Tc diethyl Hida. Reflux was considered present if labelled bile was seen in the stomach on 3 successive 2 minute gamma camera pictures. The percentage of patients showing reflux was as follows: CCK (Control: 45%; DU: 53%; GU: 58%), Meal (Control: 11%; DU: 24%; GU: 40%). These results have been compared using the Chi-squared test. There was no significant difference in the incidence of reflux between control, DU or GU patients either in the group of patients given CCK or a meal. However, reflux was more common after CCK than the meal in control subjects (p<0.05) and in those with DU (p<0.01) but not in those with GU. We conclude that the stimulus given to contract the gall bladder affects the incidence of reflux, and that any significant difference in reflux incidence of DU or GU patients may become apparent when more patients are studied. (Author)

  13. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of the Methanol Extract from the Galls of Quercus infectoria (Olivier in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Ha Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the analgesic activity of the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria in rats using hot plate and tail-flick methods. The extract was administered intraperitoneally at a dose of 20 mg/kg while morphine sulfate and sodium salicylate (10 mg/kg served as standards. The methanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity in the tail-flick model (P<0.05 by increasing the reaction time of the rats to 8.0 sec at 30 min after treatment in comparison to control (4.4 sec. Morphine sulfate produced a reaction time of 11.9 sec in the same test. At the peak of activity (30 min, the extract produced maximum possible analgesia (MPA of 34.2%, whilst morphine sulfate achieved a peak MPA of 70.9%. No analgesic effects have been observed using sodium salicylate in the tail-flick model. In the same model, the extract and sodium salicylate demonstrated comparable reaction times. Tail-flick is a better method to evaluate analgesic activity as no significant results were observed for all treatments using hot plate with the exception of morphine sulfate, which showed significant results only at 45 and 60 min after treatment. In conclusion, the methanol extract of the galls of Quercus infectoria displayed analgesic activity.

  14. Infection, Reproduction Potential, and Root Galling by Root-knot Nematode Species and Concomitant Populations on Peanut and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.

    1995-01-01

    Single populations of Meloidogyne arenaria races 1 (MA1) and 2 (MA2) and M. hapla (MH), and mixed populations of MA1 + MA2 and MA1 + MH with four inoculum levels of eggs were tested on peanut cv. 'Florigiant' and M. incognita-resistant tobacco cv. 'McNair 373' in a greenhouse experiment. Root infection, female development, and reproduction of MA2 on peanut and MA1 on resistant tobacco were limited at 2 and 6 weeks. MA1, MH, and MA1 + MH on peanut had similar root infection (total parasitic forms per root unit) at both 2 and 6 weeks, and similar female development and reproduction potentials at 6 weeks. MA2 tended to depress root infection, female development, and reproduction of MA1 on peanut. MH had little effect on MA1 on this crop. On tobacco, MA2 population had greater incidence of root infection than did MH at 2 weeks. The two nematode species had similar development in roots at 6 weeks. All of these processes were restricted when either MA2 or MH was present together with MA1. As initial inoculum level of parasitically fit populations increased, relative infection ratio on both peanut and tobacco, and reproduction factor on peanut decreased. Populations that had high infection incidence and reproduction rates induced greater root galling than did other populations. Root galling was suppressed in the presence of antagonistic response between nematode populations. PMID:19277277

  15. A comparative analysis of genetic differentiation across six shared willow host species in leaf- and bud-galling sawflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanna A Leppänen

    Full Text Available Genetic divergence and speciation in plant-feeding insects could be driven by contrasting selection pressures imposed by different plant species and taxa. While numerous examples of host-associated differentiation (HAD have been found, the overall importance of HAD in insect diversification remains unclear, as few studies have investigated its frequency in relation to all speciation events. One promising way to infer the prevalence and repeatability of HAD is to estimate genetic differentiation in multiple insect taxa that use the same set of hosts. To this end, we measured and compared variation in mitochondrial COI and nuclear ITS2 sequences in population samples of leaf-galling Pontania and bud-galling Euura sawflies (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae collected from six Salix species in two replicate locations in northern Fennoscandia. We found evidence of frequent HAD in both species complexes, as individuals from the same willow species tended to cluster together on both mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic trees. Although few fixed differences among the putative species were found, hierarchical AMOVAs showed that most of the genetic variation in the samples was explained by host species rather than by sampling location. Nevertheless, the levels of HAD measured across specific pairs of host species were not correlated in the two focal galler groups. Hence, our results support the hypothesis of HAD as a central force in herbivore speciation, but also indicate that evolutionary trajectories are only weakly repeatable even in temporally overlapping radiations of related insect taxa.

  16. RAPD markers for screening shoot gall maker (Betousa stylophora Swinhoe tolerant genotypes of amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethuraman Thilaga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is the most important medicinally useful tree crop in Asian Subcontinent and is severely infested by Betousa stylophora Swinhoe, known as shoot gall maker (SGM. This pest tunnels the shoots of seedlings and actively growing branches of trees and develops gall, leading to stunted growth, unusual branching and death of actively growing shoots. Our study revealed that trees possessing smooth bark were free from the attack of this pest than those with rough bark surface. Unfortunately, this character is not detectable either at seedling stage or during early growth of trees in the orchard. RAPD genetic fingerprinting of trees possessing smooth and rough bark revealed distinguishable and highly reproducible DNA banding pattern between the two genotypes. Of the 20 RAPD primers tested, five of them produced distinguishable RAPD bands between rough and smooth barked genotypes of P. emblica. Trees with smooth bark produced five unique RAPD bands with molecular weight ranging from 350 bp to 1500 bp and those with rough bark produced six RAPD bands (350 bp–650 bp to utilize these DNA bands as potential DNA marker for screening tolerant genotypes of this crop against SGM. The utility of this finding in genetic improvement of this tree crop against SGM is discussed.

  17. Pyrosequencing Reveals the Predominance of Pseudomonadaceae in Gut Microbiome of a Gall Midge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Bansal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbes are known to play various roles in insects such as digestion of inaccessible nutrients, synthesis of deficient amino acids, and interaction with ecological environments, including host plants. Here, we analyzed the gut microbiome in Hessian fly, a serious pest of wheat. A total of 3,654 high quality sequences of the V3 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene were obtained through 454-pyrosequencing. From these sequences, 311 operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained at the >97% similarity cutoff. In the gut of 1st instar, otu01, a member of Pseudomonas, was predominant, representing 90.2% of total sequences. otu13, an unidentified genus in the Pseudomonadaceae family, represented 1.9% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 2nd instar, otu01 and otu13 decreased to 85.5% and 1.5%, respectively. otu04, a member of Buttiauxella, represented 9.7% of total sequences. The remaining OTUs were each less than 1%. In the gut of the 3rd instar, otu01 and otu13 further decreased to 29.0% and 0%, respectively. otu06, otu08, and otu16, also three members of the Pseudomonadaceae family were 13.2%, 8.6%, and 2.3%, respectively. In addition, otu04 and otu14, two members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, were 4.7% and 2.5%; otu18 and otu20, two members of the Xanthomonadaceae family, were 1.3% and 1.2%, respectively; otu12, a member of Achromobacter, was 4.2%; otu19, a member of Undibacterium, was 1.4%; and otu9, otu10, and otu15, members of various families, were 6.1%, 6.3%, and 1.9%, respectively. The investigation into dynamics of Pseudomonas, the most abundant genera, revealed that its population level was at peak in freshly hatched or 1 day larvae as well as in later developmental stages, thus suggesting a prominent role for this bacterium in Hessian fly development and in its interaction with host plants. This study is the first comprehensive survey on bacteria associated with the gut of a gall

  18. A cuckoo in wolves' clothing? Chemical mimicry in a specialized cuckoo wasp of the European beewolf (Hymenoptera, Chrysididae and Crabronidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzner Gudrun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host-parasite interactions are among the most important biotic relationships. Host species should evolve mechanisms to detect their enemies and employ appropriate counterstrategies. Parasites, in turn, should evolve mechanisms to evade detection and thus maximize their success. Females of the European beewolf (Philanthus triangulum, Hymenoptera, Crabronidae hunt exclusively honeybee workers as food for their progeny. The brood cells containing the paralyzed bees are severely threatened by a highly specialized cuckoo wasp (Hedychrum rutilans, Hymenoptera, Chrysididae. Female cuckoo wasps enter beewolf nests to oviposit on paralyzed bees that are temporarily couched in the nest burrow. The cuckoo wasp larva kills the beewolf larva and feeds on it and the bees. Here, we investigated whether H. rutilans evades detection by its host. Since chemical senses are most important in the dark nest, we hypothesized that the cuckoo wasp might employ chemical camouflage. Results Field observations suggest that cuckoo wasps are attacked by beewolves in front of their nest, most probably after being recognized visually. In contrast, beewolves seem not to detect signs of the presence of these parasitoids neither when these had visited the nest nor when directly encountered in the dark nest burrow. In a recognition bioassay in observation cages, beewolf females responded significantly less frequently to filter paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females, than to filter paper discs treated with an extract from another cuckoo wasp species (Chrysis viridula. The behavior to paper discs treated with a cuticular extract from H. rutilans females did not differ significantly from the behavior towards filter paper discs treated with the solvent only. We hypothesized that cuckoo wasps either mimic the chemistry of their beewolf host or their host's prey. We tested this hypothesis using GC-MS analyses of the cuticles of male and

  19. Does size matter? – Thermoregulation of ‘heavyweight’ and ‘lightweight’ wasps (Vespa crabro and Vespula sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton

    2012-01-01

    Summary In insect groups with the ability of endothermy, the thermoregulatory capacity has a direct relation to body mass. To verify this relationship in vespine wasps, we compared the thermoregulation of hornets (Vespa crabro), the largest species of wasps in Central Europe, with two smaller wasps (Vespula vulgaris and Vespula germanica) in the entire range of ambient temperature (Ta: ∼0–40°C) where the insects exhibited foraging flights. Despite the great difference in body weight of Vespula (V. vulgaris: 84.1±19.0 mg, V. germanica: 74.1±9.6 mg) and Vespa (477.5±59.9 mg), they exhibited similarities in the dependence of thorax temperature on Ta on their arrival (mean Tth  =  30–40°C) and departure (mean Tth  =  33–40°C) at the nest entrance. However, the hornets' thorax temperature was up to 2.5°C higher upon arrival and up to 3°C lower at departure. The thorax temperature excess (Tth−Ta) above ambient air of about 5–18°C indicates a high endothermic capacity in both hornets and wasps. Heat gain from solar radiation elevated the temperature excess by up to 1°C. Results show that hornets and wasps are able to regulate their body temperature quite well, even during flight. A comparison of flight temperature with literature reports on other vespine wasps revealed a dependence of the Tth on the body mass in species weighing less than about 200 mg. PMID:23162695

  20. THE ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF THE HOT JUPITER WASP-43b: COMPARING THREE-DIMENSIONAL MODELS TO SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DATA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kataria, Tiffany; Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J.; Line, Michael R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Stevenson, Kevin B.; Kreidberg, Laura; Bean, Jacob L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel, E-mail: tkataria@astro.ex.ac.uk [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    The hot Jupiter WASP-43b (2 M{sub J}, 1 R{sub J}, T {sub orb} = 19.5 hr) has now joined the ranks of transiting hot Jupiters HD 189733b and HD 209458b as an exoplanet with a large array of observational constraints. Because WASP-43b receives a similar stellar flux as HD 209458b but has a rotation rate four times faster and a higher gravity, studying WASP-43b probes the effect of rotation rate and gravity on the circulation when stellar irradiation is held approximately constant. Here we present three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric circulation models of WASP-43b, exploring the effects of composition, metallicity, and frictional drag. We find that the circulation regime of WASP-43b is not unlike other hot Jupiters, with equatorial superrotation that yields an eastward-shifted hotspot and large day-night temperature variations (∼600 K at photospheric pressures). We then compare our model results to Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/WFC3 spectrophotometric phase curve measurements of WASP-43b from 1.12 to 1.65 μm. Our results show the 5× solar model light curve provides a good match to the data, with a peak flux phase offset and planet/star flux ratio that is similar to observations; however, the model nightside appears to be brighter. Nevertheless, our 5× solar model provides an excellent match to the WFC3 dayside emission spectrum. This is a major success, as the result is a natural outcome of the 3D dynamics with no model tuning. These results demonstrate that 3D circulation models can help interpret exoplanet atmospheric observations, even at high resolution, and highlight the potential for future observations with HST, James Webb Space Telescope, and other next-generation telescopes.