WorldWideScience

Sample records for galactic nuclei ii

  1. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Pooley, David, E-mail: Robert.Barrows@Colorado.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trinity University, San Antonio, TX 78212 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (∼0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  2. Spatially Offset Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Triggering in Galaxy Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, R. Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.; Pooley, David

    2017-04-01

    Galaxy mergers are likely to play a role in triggering active galactic nuclei (AGNs), but the conditions under which this process occurs are poorly understood. In Paper I, we constructed a sample of spatially offset X-ray AGNs that represent galaxy mergers hosting a single AGN. In this paper, we use our offset AGN sample to constrain the parameters that affect AGN observability in galaxy mergers. We also construct dual-AGN samples with similar selection properties for comparison. We find that the offset AGN fraction shows no evidence for a dependence on AGN luminosity, while the dual-AGN fractions show stronger evidence for a positive dependence, suggesting that the merger events forming dual AGNs are more efficient at instigating accretion onto supermassive black holes than those forming offset AGNs. We also find that the offset and dual-AGN fractions both have a negative dependence on nuclear separation and are similar in value at small physical scales. This dependence may become stronger when restricted to high AGN luminosities, although a larger sample is needed for confirmation. These results indicate that the probability of AGN triggering increases at later merger stages. This study is the first to systematically probe down to nuclear separations of <1 kpc (˜0.8 kpc) and is consistent with predictions from simulations that AGN observability peaks in this regime. We also find that the offset AGNs are not preferentially obscured compared to the parent AGN sample, suggesting that our selection may be targeting galaxy mergers with relatively dust-free nuclear regions.

  3. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, M.; Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A.; Sigut, T. A. A.; Pradhan, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission

  4. THE Fe II EMISSION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: EXCITATION MECHANISMS AND LOCATION OF THE EMITTING REGION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinello, M. [Universidade Federal de Itajubá, Rua Doutor Pereira Cabral 1303, 37500-903, Itajubá, MG (Brazil); Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Garcia-Rissmann, A. [Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, Rua Estados Unidos 154, Itajubá, MG, 37504-364 (Brazil); Sigut, T. A. A. [The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada); Pradhan, A. K., E-mail: murilo.marinello@gmail.com [McPherson Laboratory, The Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    We present a study of Fe ii emission in the near-infrared region (NIR) for 25 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to obtain information about the excitation mechanisms that power it and the location where it is formed. We employ an NIR Fe ii template derived in the literature and find that it successfully reproduces the observed Fe ii spectrum. The Fe ii bump at 9200 Å detected in all objects studied confirms that Lyα fluorescence is always present in AGNs. The correlation found between the flux of the 9200 Å bump, the 1 μm lines, and the optical Fe ii implies that Lyα fluorescence plays an important role in Fe ii production. We determined that at least 18% of the optical Fe ii is due to this process, while collisional excitation dominates the production of the observed Fe ii. The line profiles of Fe ii λ10502, O i λ11287, Ca ii λ8664, and Paβ were compared to gather information about the most likely location where they are emitted. We found that Fe ii, O i and Ca ii have similar widths and are, on average, 30% narrower than Paβ. Assuming that the clouds emitting the lines are virialized, we show that the Fe ii is emitted in a region twice as far from the central source than Paβ. The distance, though, strongly varies: from 8.5 light-days for NGC 4051 to 198.2 light-days for Mrk 509. Our results reinforce the importance of the Fe ii in the NIR to constrain critical parameters that drive its physics and the underlying AGN kinematics, as well as more accurate models aimed at reproducing this complex emission.

  5. Elusive active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiolino, R.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Nagar, N. M.; Bianchi, S.; Böker, T.; Colbert, E.; Krabbe, A.; Marconi, A.; Matt, G.; Salvati, M.

    2003-10-01

    A fraction of active galactic nuclei do not show the classical Seyfert-type signatures in their optical spectra, i.e. they are optically `elusive'. X-ray observations are an optimal tool to identify this class of objects. We combine new Chandra observations with archival X-ray data in order to obtain a first estimate of the fraction of elusive active galactic nuclei (AGN) in local galaxies and to constrain their nature. Our results suggest that elusive AGN have a local density comparable to or even higher than optically classified Seyfert nuclei. Most elusive AGN are heavily absorbed in the X-rays, with gas column densities exceeding 1024 cm-2, suggesting that their peculiar nature is associated with obscuration. It is likely that in elusive AGN the nuclear UV source is completely embedded and the ionizing photons cannot escape, which prevents the formation of a classical narrow-line region. Elusive AGN may contribute significantly to the 30-keV bump of the X-ray background.

  6. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Blandford, RD; Woltjer, L

    1990-01-01

    Starting with this volume, the Lecture Notes of the renowned Advanced Courses of the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy will be published annually. In each course, three extensive lectures given by leading experts in their respective fields cover different and essential aspects of the subject. The 20th course, held at Les Diablerets in April 1990, dealt with current research on active galactic nuclei; it represents the most up-to-date views on the subject, presented with particular regard for clarity. The previous courses considered a wide variety of subjects, beginning with ""Theory

  7. Supermassive Black Holes in Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Calibration of the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura; Merritt, David

    2004-01-01

    We calibrate reverberation-based black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by using the correlation between black hole mass, M, and bulge/spheroid stellar velocity dispersion, sigma. We use new measurements of sigma for 6 AGNs and published velocity dispersions for 10 others......, in conjunction with improved reverberation mapping results, to determine the scaling factor required to bring reverberation-based black hole masses into agreement with the quiescent galaxy M-sigma relationship. The scatter in the AGN black hole masses is found to be less than a factor of 3. The current...

  8. AN STIS ATLAS OF Ca II TRIPLET ABSORPTION LINE KINEMATICS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batcheldor, D.; Mandalou, J.; Axon, D.; Valluri, M.; Merritt, D.

    2013-01-01

    The relations observed between supermassive black holes and their host galaxies suggest a fundamental link in the processes that cause these two objects to evolve. A more comprehensive understanding of these relations could be gained by increasing the number of supermassive black hole mass (M . ) measurements. This can be achieved, in part, by continuing to model the stellar dynamics at the centers of galactic bulges using data of the highest possible spatial resolution. Consequently, we present here an atlas of galaxies in the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) data archive that may have spectra suitable for new M . estimates. Archived STIS G750M data for all non-barred galactic bulges are co-aligned and combined, where appropriate, and the radial signal-to-noise ratios calculated. The line-of-sight velocity distributions from the Ca II triplet are then determined using a maximum penalized likelihood method. We find 19 out of 42 galaxies may provide useful new M . estimates since they are found to have data that is comparable in quality with data that has been used in the past to estimate M . . However, we find no relation between the signal-to-noise ratio in the previously analyzed spectra and the uncertainties of the black hole masses derived from the spectra. We also find that there is a very limited number of appropriately observed stellar templates in the archive from which to estimate the effects of template mismatching

  9. Active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2012-01-01

    This AGN textbook includes phenomena based on new results in the X-Ray domain from new telescopes such as Chandra and XMM Newton not mentioned in any other book. Furthermore, it considers also the Fermi Gamma Ray Space Telescope with its revolutionary advances of unprecedented sensitivity, field of view and all-sky monitoring. Those and other new developments as well as simulations of AGN merging events and formations, enabled through latest super-computing capabilities. The book gives an overview on the current knowledge of the Active Galacitc Nuclei phenomenon. The spectral energy d

  10. TANAMI: Tracking Active Galactic Nuclei with Austral Milliarcsecond Interferometry. II. Additional sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, C.; Kadler, M.; Ojha, R.; Schulz, R.; Trüstedt, J.; Edwards, P. G.; Ros, E.; Carpenter, B.; Angioni, R.; Blanchard, J.; Böck, M.; Burd, P. R.; Dörr, M.; Dutka, M. S.; Eberl, T.; Gulyaev, S.; Hase, H.; Horiuchi, S.; Katz, U.; Krauß, F.; Lovell, J. E. J.; Natusch, T.; Nesci, R.; Phillips, C.; Plötz, C.; Pursimo, T.; Quick, J. F. H.; Stevens, J.; Thompson, D. J.; Tingay, S. J.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Weston, S.; Wilms, J.; Zensus, J. A.

    2018-02-01

    Context. TANAMI is a multiwavelength program monitoring active galactic nuclei (AGN) south of - 30° declination including high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging, radio, optical/UV, X-ray, and γ-ray studies. We have previously published first-epoch8.4 GHz VLBI images of the parsec-scale structure of the initial sample. In this paper, we present images of 39 additional sources. The full sample comprises most of the radio- and γ-ray brightest AGN in the southern quarter of the sky, overlapping with the region from which high-energy (> 100 TeV) neutrino events have been found. Aims: We characterize the parsec-scale radio properties of the jets and compare them with the quasi-simultaneous Fermi/LAT γ-ray data. Furthermore, we study the jet properties of sources which are in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events compared to the full sample. We test the positional agreement of high-energy neutrino events with various AGN samples. Methods: TANAMI VLBI observations at 8.4 GHz are made with southern hemisphere radio telescopes located in Australia, Antarctica, Chile, New Zealand, and South Africa. Results: Our observations yield the first images of many jets below - 30° declination at milliarcsecond resolution. We find that γ-ray loud TANAMI sources tend to be more compact on parsec-scales and have higher core brightness temperatures than γ-ray faint jets, indicating higher Doppler factors. No significant structural difference is found between sources in positional coincidence with high-energy neutrino events and other TANAMI jets. The 22 γ-ray brightest AGN in the TANAMI sky show only a weak positional agreement with high-energy neutrinos demonstrating that the > 100 TeV IceCube signal is not simply dominated by a small number of the γ-ray brightest blazars. Instead, a larger number of sources have to contribute to the signal with each individual source having only a small Poisson probability for producing an event in

  11. Searching for dual active galactic nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. Rubinur

    2018-02-09

    Feb 9, 2018 ... Abstract. Binary or dual active galactic nuclei (DAGN) are expected from galaxy formation theories. How- ... cuss results from the multi-frequency Expanded Very .... mid-IR color using WISE observations where they have.

  12. Quasars, Seyfert galaxies and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is devoted to the spectroscopic methods for analyzing the observed plasma in the nuclei of quasars, Seyfert galazies, and active galactic nuclei. Both the narrow-line region and the broad-line region are discussed. Physical models are presented

  13. STAR FORMATION IN SELF-GRAVITATING DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. EPISODIC FORMATION OF BROAD-LINE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WangJianmin; Du Pu; Ge Junqiang; Hu Chen; Baldwin, Jack A.; Ferland, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    This is the second in a series of papers discussing the process and effects of star formation in the self-gravitating disk around the supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have previously suggested that warm skins are formed above the star-forming (SF) disk through the diffusion of warm gas driven by supernova explosions. Here we study the evolution of the warm skins when they are exposed to the powerful radiation from the inner part of the accretion disk. The skins initially are heated to the Compton temperature, forming a Compton atmosphere (CAS) whose subsequent evolution is divided into four phases. Phase I is the duration of pure accumulation supplied by the SF disk. During phase II clouds begin to form due to line cooling and sink to the SF disk. Phase III is a period of preventing clouds from sinking to the SF disk through dynamic interaction between clouds and the CAS because of the CAS overdensity driven by continuous injection of warm gas from the SF disk. Finally, phase IV is an inevitable collapse of the entire CAS through line cooling. This CAS evolution drives the episodic appearance of broad-line regions (BLRs). We follow the formation of cold clouds through the thermal instability of the CAS during phases II and III, using linear analysis. Since the clouds are produced inside the CAS, the initial spatial distribution of newly formed clouds and angular momentum naturally follow the CAS dynamics, producing a flattened disk of clouds. The number of clouds in phases II and III can be estimated, as well as the filling factor of clouds in the BLR. Since the cooling function depends on the metallicity, the metallicity gradients that originate in the SF disk give rise to different properties of clouds in different radial regions. We find from the instability analysis that clouds have column density N H ∼ 22 cm –2 in the metal-rich regions whereas they have N H ∼> 10 22 cm –2 in the metal-poor regions. The metal-rich clouds

  14. The near-infrared broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei - II. The 1-μm continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Elvis, Martin; Ward, Martin J.; Bentz, Misty C.; Korista, Kirk T.; Karovska, Margarita

    2011-06-01

    We use quasi-simultaneous near-infrared (near-IR) and optical spectroscopy from four observing runs to study the continuum around 1 μm in 23 well-known broad emission line active galactic nuclei (AGN). We show that, after correcting the optical spectra for host galaxy light, the AGN continuum around this wavelength can be approximated by the sum of mainly two emission components, a hot dust blackbody and an accretion disc. The accretion disc spectrum appears to dominate the flux at ˜ 1 μm, which allows us to derive a relation for estimating AGN black hole masses based on the near-IR virial product. This result also means that a near-IR reverberation programme can determine the AGN state independent of simultaneous optical spectroscopy. On average we derive hot dust blackbody temperatures of ˜1400 K, a value close to the sublimation temperature of silicate dust grains, and relatively low hot dust covering factors of ˜7 per cent. Our preliminary variability studies indicate that in most sources, the hot dust emission responds to changes in the accretion disc flux with the expected time lag; however, a few sources show a behaviour that can be attributed to dust destruction.

  15. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1989-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) have taunted astrophysicists for a quarter century. How do these objects produce huge luminosities---in some cases, far outshining our galaxy---from a region perhaps no larger than the solar system? Accretion onto supermassive black holes has been widely considered the best buy in theories of AGN. Much work has gone into accretion disk theory, searches for black holes in galactic nuclei, and observational tests. These efforts have not proved the disk model, but there is progress. Evidence for black holes in the nuclei of nearby galaxies is provided by observations of stellar velocities, and radiation from the disk's hot surface may be observed in the ultraviolet (UV) and neighboring spectral bands. In the review, the author describe some of the recent work on accretion disks in AGN, with an emphasis on points of contact between theory and observation

  16. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ 2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ 2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  17. Resonant Tidal Disruption in Galactic Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Rauch, Kevin P.; Ingalls, Brian

    1997-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the rate of angular momentum relaxation in nearly-Keplerian star clusters is greatly increased by a process termed resonant relaxation (Rauch & Tremaine 1996), who also argued that tidal disruption of stars in galactic nuclei containing massive black holes could be noticeably enhanced by this process. We describe here the results of numerical simulations of resonant tidal disruption which quantitatively test the predictions made by Rauch & Tremaine. The simulat...

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SAMPLE OF INTERMEDIATE-TYPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST BULGE PROPERTIES AND BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benitez, Erika; Cruz-Gonzalez, Irene; Martinez, Benoni; Jimenez-Bailon, Elena [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico); Mendez-Abreu, Jairo; Lopez-Martin, Luis [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Fuentes-Carrera, Isaura [Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Instituto Politecnico Nacional (ESFM-IPN), U.P. Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Mexico D.F. 07730 (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51-216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Leon-Tavares, Jonathan, E-mail: erika@astro.unam.mx [Aalto University Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, Metsaehovintie 114, 02540 Kylmaelae (Finland)

    2013-02-15

    We present a study of the host bulge properties and their relations with the black hole mass for a sample of 10 intermediate-type active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our sample consists mainly of early-type spirals, four of them hosting a bar. For 70{sup +10} {sub -17}% of the galaxies, we have been able to determine the type of the bulge, and find that these objects probably harbor a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge, suggesting that pseudobulges might be frequent in intermediate-type AGNs. In our sample, 50% {+-} 14% of the objects show double-peaked emission lines. Therefore, narrow double-peaked emission lines seem to be frequent in galaxies harboring a pseudobulge or a combination of classical bulge/pseudobulge. Depending on the bulge type, we estimated the black hole mass using the corresponding M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation and found them within a range of 5.69 {+-} 0.21 < log M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} < 8.09 {+-} 0.24. Comparing these M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} values with masses derived from the FWHM of H{beta} and the continuum luminosity at 5100 A from their SDSS-DR7 spectra (M {sub BH}), we find that 8 out of 10 (80{sup +7} {sub -17}%) galaxies have black hole masses that are compatible within a factor of 3. This result would support that M {sub BH} and M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} are the same for intermediate-type AGNs, as has been found for type 1 AGNs. However, when the type of the bulge is taken into account, only three out of the seven (43{sup +18} {sub -15}%) objects of the sample have their M {sup {sigma}}*{sub BH} and M {sub BH} compatible within 3{sigma} errors. We also find that estimations based on the M {sub BH}-{sigma}* relation for pseudobulges are not compatible in 50% {+-} 20% of the objects.

  19. INVISIBLE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. RADIO MORPHOLOGIES AND FIVE NEW H i 21 cm ABSORPTION LINE DETECTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ting; Stocke, John T.; Darling, Jeremy [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, UCB 389, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Momjian, Emmanuel [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sharma, Soniya [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mt Stromlo Observatory, ACT 2611 (Australia); Kanekar, Nissim [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag 3, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2016-03-15

    This is the second paper directed toward finding new highly redshifted atomic and molecular absorption lines at radio frequencies. To this end, we selected a sample of 80 candidates for obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and presented their basic optical/near-infrared (NIR) properties in Paper I. In this paper, we present both high-resolution radio continuum images for all of these sources and H i 21 cm absorption spectroscopy for a few selected sources in this sample. A-configuration 4.9 and 8.5 GHz Very Large Array continuum observations find that 52 sources are compact or have substantial compact components with size <0.″5 and flux densities >0.1 Jy at 4.9 GHz. The 36 most compact sources were then observed with the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4 GHz. One definite and 10 candidate Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs) are newly identified, which is a detection rate of CSOs ∼three times higher than the detection rate previously found in purely flux-limited samples. Based on possessing compact components with high flux densities, 60 of these sources are good candidates for absorption-line searches. Twenty-seven sources were observed for H i 21 cm absorption at their photometric or spectroscopic redshifts with only six detections (five definite and one tentative). However, five of these were from a small subset of six CSOs with pure galaxy optical/NIR spectra (i.e., any AGN emission is obscured) and for which accurate spectroscopic redshifts place the redshifted 21 cm line in a radio frequency intereference (RFI)-free spectral “window” (i.e., the percentage of H i 21 cm absorption-line detections could be as high as ∼90% in this sample). It is likely that the presence of ubiquitous RFI and the absence of accurate spectroscopic redshifts preclude H i detections in similar sources (only 1 detection out of the remaining 22 sources observed, 13 of which have only photometric redshifts); that is, H i absorption may well be present but is masked by

  20. The first IRAM/PdBI polarimetric millimeter survey of active galactic nuclei. II. Activity and properties of individual sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippe, S.; Neri, R.; Krips, M.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Bremer, M.; Piétu, V.; Winters, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    We present an analysis of the linear polarization of six active galactic nuclei - 0415+379 (3C 111), 0507+179, 0528+134 (OG+134), 0954+658, 1418+546 (OQ+530), and 1637+574 (OS+562). Our targets were monitored from 2007 to 2011 in the observatory-frame frequency range 80-253 GHz, corresponding to a rest-frame frequency range 88-705 GHz. We find average degrees of polarization mL ≈ 2 - 7%; this indicates that the polarization signals are effectively averaged out by the emitter geometries. From a comparison of the fluctuation rates in flux and degree of polarization we conclude that the spatial scales relevant for polarized emission are of the same order of, but probably not smaller than, the spatial scales relevant for the emission of the total flux. We see indication for fairly strong shocks and/or complex, variable emission region geometries in our sources, with compression factors ≲ 0.9 and/or changes in viewing angles by ≳ 10°. An analysis of correlations between source fluxes and polarization parameter points out special cases: the presence of (at least) two distinct emission regions with different levels of polarization (for 0415+379) as well as emission from a single, predominant component (for 0507+179 and 1418+546). Regarding the evolution of flux and polarization, we find good agreement between observations and the signal predicted by "oblique shock in jet" scenarios in one source (1418+546). We attempt to derive rotation measures for all sources, leading to actual measurements for two AGN and upper limits for three sources. We derive values of RM = (-39 ± 1stat ± 13sys) × 103 rad m-2 and RM = (42 ± 1stat ± 11sys) × 104 rad m-2 for 1418+546 and 1637+574, respectively; these are the highest values reported to date for AGN. These values indicate magnetic field strengths of the order ~10-4 G. For 0415+379, 0507+179, and 0954+658 we derive upper limits |RM| < 1.7 × 104 rad m-2. From the relation |RM| ∝ νa we find a = 1.9 ± 0.3 for 1418+546, in

  1. Central Masses and Broad-Line Region Sizes of Active Galactic Nuclei. II. A Homogeneous Analysis of a Large Reverberation-Mapping Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, B. M.; Ferrarese, L.; Gilbert, K. M.

    2004-01-01

    We present improved black hole masses for 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a complete and consistent reanalysis of broad emission-line reverberation-mapping data. From objects with multiple line measurements, we find that the highest precision measure of the virial product is obtained...

  2. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei: The Effect of Host-Galaxy Starlight on Luminosity Measurements. II. The Full Sample of Reverberation-Mapped AGNs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to gro...

  3. Accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begelman, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    The innermost regions of the central engines in active galactic nuclei are examined, and it is shown how different modes of accretion with angular momentum may account for the diverse manifestations of activity in the nuclei of galaxies. These modes are subsequently compared with the observed properties of quasars, Type I Seyferts, and radio galaxies. It was found that the qualitative features of an accretion flow orbiting a massive black hole depend principally on the ratio of the actual accretion rate to the Eddington accretion rate. For a value of this ratio much less than one, the flow may become an ion torus supported by gas pressure; for a value much greater than one, the flow traps its radiative output and becomes an inefficient radiation torus. At intermediate values, the flow may settle into a thin accretion disk. 62 references

  4. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. II. PROPERTIES OF WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE NDWFS BOÖTES FIELD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blain, A. W.; Brodwin, M.; Brown, M. J. I.; Donoso, E.; Jarrett, T. H.; Yan, L.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Stanford, S. A.; Wu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg 2 COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 ≥ 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1–W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 ± 4 deg –2 AGN candidates for W2 AGN ∼ 3 × 10 44 erg s –1 , 29% ± 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at ∼4 × 10 45 erg s –1 the fraction is 64% ± 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds

  5. STELLAR TRANSITS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Béky, Bence; Kocsis, Bence

    2013-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are typically surrounded by a dense stellar population in galactic nuclei. Stars crossing the line of site in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) produce a characteristic transit light curve, just like extrasolar planets do when they transit their host star. We examine the possibility of finding such AGN transits in deep optical, UV, and X-ray surveys. We calculate transit light curves using the Novikov-Thorne thin accretion disk model, including general relativistic effects. Based on the expected properties of stellar cusps, we find that around 10 6 solar mass SMBHs, transits of red giants are most common for stars on close orbits with transit durations of a few weeks and orbital periods of a few years. We find that detecting AGN transits requires repeated observations of thousands of low-mass AGNs to 1% photometric accuracy in optical, or ∼10% in UV bands or soft X-ray. It may be possible to identify stellar transits in the Pan-STARRS and LSST optical and the eROSITA X-ray surveys. Such observations could be used to constrain black hole mass, spin, inclination, and accretion rate. Transit rates and durations could give valuable information on the circumnuclear stellar clusters as well. Transit light curves could be used to image accretion disks with unprecedented resolution, allowing us to resolve the SMBH silhouette in distant AGNs.

  6. Optical Variability of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozłowski, Szymon, E-mail: simkoz@astrouw.edu.pl [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-09-21

    Variability studies of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) typically use either power spectral density (PSD) and structure function (SF) analyses or direct modeling of light curves with the damped random walk (DRW) and the continuous autoregressive moving average (CARMA) models. A fair fraction of research publications on the subject are flawed, and simply report incorrect results, because they lack a deep understanding of where these methods originate from and what their limitations are. For example, SF analyses typically lack or use a wrong noise subtraction procedure, leading to flat SFs. DRW, on the other hand, can only be used if the experiment length is sufficient, at least ten times the signal decorrelation time scale τ, and if the data show the power-law SF slope of γ ≡ 0.5.

  7. Thermal-nonthermal relationships in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, G.J. de.

    1986-01-01

    This dissertation reports on optical and radio observations of active galactic nuclei, selected on the basis of the presence of dominant narrow (narrow line radio galaxies, Seyfert II galaxies, QSOs) and/or broad (broad line radio galaxies, Seyfert I galaxies, QSOs) optical emission lines in their spectra. Special attention is drawn to possible relationships and physical links between the two regimes responsible for the optical (thermal) and radio (non-thermal) emission. Several projects, each studying such relationships on different angular (and thus linear) scales and at different observational frequencies were conceived with a variety of detection devices. (Auth.)

  8. Dynamics and evolution of galactic nuclei (princeton series in astrophysics)

    CERN Document Server

    Merritt, David

    2013-01-01

    Deep within galaxies like the Milky Way, astronomers have found a fascinating legacy of Einstein's general theory of relativity: supermassive black holes. Connected to the evolution of the galaxies that contain these black holes, galactic nuclei are the sites of uniquely energetic events, including quasars, stellar tidal disruptions, and the generation of gravitational waves. This textbook is the first comprehensive introduction to dynamical processes occurring in the vicinity of supermassive black holes in their galactic environment. Filling a critical gap, it is an authoritative resource for astrophysics and physics graduate students, and researchers focusing on galactic nuclei, the astrophysics of massive black holes, galactic dynamics, and gravitational wave detection. It is an ideal text for an advanced graduate-level course on galactic nuclei and as supplementary reading in graduate-level courses on high-energy astrophysics and galactic dynamics. David Merritt summarizes the theoretical work of the las...

  9. Environmental properties related to active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, Lianne H.

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanisms responsible for the initiation of activity in galactic nuclei. It is well understood that the non-thermal energy produced by an AGN is due to accretion onto a supermassive black hole. It has not yet been determined, however, what leads particular galaxies to become active. An accurate exploration into what triggers an AGN demands an analysis of a large sample of galaxies across a diverse set of environments. In this work, we investigate possible environmental influences by carrying out a statistical investigation of galaxy groups. Using the catalogue of Yang et al. (2007), in which groups of galaxies containing between 2 and 20 members with redshifts between 0.01 -- 0.20 were taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we investigate the fraction of active galactic nuclei (AGN) within these groups and compare it to the sample of isolated galaxies also obtained from Yang et al. (2007). After correcting our spectroscopic data for extinction and underlying stellar absorption, we classify the galaxy sample using relevant emission-line ratios. We propose an alternate method for classifying emission-line galaxies, including AGN, which builds upon standard diagnostic utilities used for optical classification and includes uncertainties. Such classification probabilities offer a more robust and consistent method of investigating the effect of group environments with galaxy type. We find our sample to be a fair representation of the local universe by comparing the luminosity function of our entire data set to that of Blanton et al. (2001), Blanton et al. (2003b), and Montero-Dorta & Prada (2009). The evidence also suggests that the luminosity function of galaxies differs between isolated galaxies and galaxies in groups. We find a significant increase in the fraction of AGNs identified in grouped environments. On the other hand, we find a higher fraction of starforming galaxies within isolated systems. We

  10. UNOBSCURED TYPE 2 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yong; Rieke, George H.; Smith, Paul; Donley, Jennifer; Schmidt, Gary; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Rigby, Jane; Hines, Dean

    2010-01-01

    Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intrinsically weak broad emission lines (BELs) would be exceptions to the unified model. After examining a number of proposed candidates critically, we find that the sample is contaminated significantly by objects with BELs of strengths indicating that they actually contain intermediate-type AGNs, plus a few Compton-thick sources as revealed by extremely low ratios of X-ray to nuclear IR luminosities. We develop quantitative metrics that show two (NGC 3147 and NGC 4594) of the remaining candidates to have BELs 2-3 orders of magnitude weaker than those of typical type 1 AGNs. Several more galaxies remain as candidates to have anomalously weak BELs, but this status cannot be confirmed with the existing information. Although the parent sample is poorly defined, the two confirmed objects are well under 1% of its total number of members, showing that the absence of a BEL is possible, but very uncommon in AGN. We evaluate these two objects in detail using multi-wavelength measurements including new IR data obtained with Spitzer and ground-based optical spectropolarimeteric observations. They have little X-ray extinction with N H 21 cm -2 . Their IR spectra show strong silicate emission (NGC 4594) or weak aromatic features on a generally power-law continuum with a suggestion of silicates in emission (NGC 3147). No polarized BEL is detected in NGC 3147. These results indicate that the two unobscured type 2 objects have circumnuclear tori that are approximately face-on. Combined with their X-ray and optical/UV properties, this behavior implies that we have an unobscured view of the nuclei and thus that they have intrinsically weak BELs. We compare their properties with those of the other less-extreme candidates. We then compare the distributions of bolometric luminosities and accretion rates of these objects with theoretical models that predict weak BELs.

  11. Gas Flows in Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller Sanchez, Francisco; Comerford, Julia M.; Davies, Richard; Treister, Ezequiel; Privon, George C.; Nevin, Becky

    2018-06-01

    Dual Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are the Rosetta stone to understand the role of galaxy mergers in triggering nuclear activity and regulating black hole (BH) and galaxy growth. But very little is known about the physical processes required to effectively trigger AGN activity and regulate the growth of the two BHs. The work I will present here characterizes for the first time the properties of the stars, gas (molecular, ionized, and highly-ionized) and dust in all the confirmed dual AGN at z prototypical merger system NGC 6240: vigorous star formation, two AGNs, outflowing winds of ionized gas, rippling dust and gas lanes, and tidal tails. In this galaxy, we observe for the first time a dual outflow of different species of gas: an AGN-driven outflow of highly-ionized gas to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of ionized hydrogen to the northwest. This shows that stellar feedback and supermassive black hole feedback can work in tandem to regulate the stellar growth of a galaxy after a merger event. These results open a new door to studies of dual AGN and AGN pairs in general, and enable dual AGN to be used, for the first time, for studies of galaxy evolution.

  12. Black hole masses in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Kelly D.

    2010-11-01

    We present the complete results from two, high sampling-rate, multi-month, spectrophotometric reverberation mapping campaigns undertaken to obtain either new or improved Hbeta reverberation lag measurements for several relatively low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We have reliably measured the time delay between variations in the continuum and Hbeta emission line in seven local Seyfert 1 galaxies. These measurements are used to calculate the mass of the supermassive black hole at the center of each of these AGNs. We place our results in context to the most current calibration of the broad-line region (BLR) RBLR-L relationship, where our results remove many outliers and significantly reduce the scatter at the low-luminosity end of this relationship. A detailed analysis of the data from our high sampling rate, multi-month reverberation mapping campaign in 2007 reveals that the Hbeta emission region within the BLRs of several nearby AGNs exhibit a variety of kinematic behaviors. Through a velocity-resolved reverberation analysis of the broad Hbeta emission-line flux variations in our sample, we reconstruct velocity-resolved kinematic signals for our entire sample and clearly see evidence for outflowing, infalling, and virialized BLR gas motions in NGC 3227, NGC 3516, and NGC 5548, respectively. Finally, we explore the nature of systematic errors that can arise in measurements of black hole masses from single-epoch spectra of AGNs by utilizing the many epochs available for NGC 5548 and PG1229+204 from reverberation mapping databases. In particular, we examine systematics due to AGN variability, contamination due to constant spectral components (i.e., narrow lines and host galaxy flux), data quality (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio, S/N), and blending of spectral features. We investigate the effect that each of these systematics has on the precision and accuracy of single-epoch masses calculated from two commonly-used line-width measures by comparing these

  13. Astrophysics of gaseous nebulae and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A graduate-level text and reference book on gaseous nebulae and the emission regions in Seyfert galaxies, quasars, and other types of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is presented. The topics discussed include: photoionization equilibrium, thermal equilibrium, calculation of emitted spectrum, comparison of theory with observations, internal dynamics of gaseous nebulae, interstellar dust, regions in the galactic context, planetary nebulae, nova and supernova remnants, diagnostics and physics of AGN, observational results on AGN

  14. CHANDRA X-RAY AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING OF OPTICALLY SELECTED KILOPARSEC-SCALE BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. HOST GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND AGN ACTIVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangguan, Jinyi; Ho, Luis C.; Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Peng, Chien Y.; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) provide clues to how gas-rich mergers trigger and fuel AGNs and how supermassive black hole (SMBH) pairs evolve in a gas-rich environment. While significant effort has been invested in their identification, the detailed properties of binary AGNs and their host galaxies are still poorly constrained. In a companion paper, we examined the nature of ionizing sources in the double nuclei of four kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs with redshifts between 0.1 and 0.2. Here, we present their host galaxy morphology based on F336W ( U -band) and F105W ( Y -band) images taken by the Wide Field Camera 3 on board the Hubble Space Telescope . Our targets have double-peaked narrow emission lines and were confirmed to host binary AGNs with follow-up observations. We find that kiloparsec-scale binary AGNs occur in galaxy mergers with diverse morphological types. There are three major mergers with intermediate morphologies and a minor merger with a dominant disk component. We estimate the masses of the SMBHs from their host bulge stellar masses and obtain Eddington ratios for each AGN. Compared with a representative control sample drawn at the same redshift and stellar mass, the AGN luminosities and Eddington ratios of our binary AGNs are similar to those of single AGNs. The U − Y color maps indicate that clumpy star-forming regions could significantly affect the X-ray detection of binary AGNs, e.g., the hardness ratio. Considering the weak X-ray emission in AGNs triggered in merger systems, we suggest that samples of X-ray-selected AGNs may be biased against gas-rich mergers.

  15. THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: THE EFFECT OF HOST-GALAXY STARLIGHT ON LUMINOSITY MEASUREMENTS. II. THE FULL SAMPLE OF REVERBERATION-MAPPED AGNs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Netzer, Hagai; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images of all 35 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measurements at 5100 A. After correcting the luminosities of the AGNs for the contribution from starlight, we re-examine the Hβ R BLR -L relationship. Our best fit for the relationship gives a power-law slope of 0.52 with a range of 0.45-0.59 allowed by the uncertainties. This is consistent with our previous findings, and thus still consistent with the naive assumption that all AGNs are simply luminosity-scaled versions of each other. We discuss various consistency checks relating to the galaxy modeling and starlight contributions, as well as possible systematic errors in the current set of reverberation measurements from which we determine the form of the R BLR -L relationship.

  16. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained high resolution images of the central regions of 14 reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGN) using the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys High Resolution Camera to account for host-galaxy starlight contamination of measured AGN luminosities. We measure th...

  17. Studies of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei with SKA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agudo, I.; Bottcher, M.; Falcke, H.; Georganopoulos, M.; Ghisellini, G.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Gomez, J.L.; Gurvits, L.; Laing, R.; Lister, M.; Marti, J.M.; Meyer, E.T.; Mizuno, Y.; O'Sullivan, S.; Padovani, P.; Paragi, Z.; Perucho, M.; Schleicher, D.; Stawarz, L.; Vlahakis, N.; Wardle, J.

    2014-01-01

    Relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are among the most powerful astrophysical objects discovered to date. Indeed, jetted AGN studies have been considered a prominent science case for SKA, and were included in several different chapters of the previous SKA Science Book (Carilli &

  18. Nucleons in nuclei (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laget, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    This summary is a review of our understanding of nuclei in terms of hadrons exchanging mesons. The open problems are: the determination of the high momentum components of nuclear systems, the role of the three-body forces and the nature of the short range correlations. The ways of studying these problems are discussed

  19. MERGERS IN DOUBLE-PEAKED [O III] ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Hai; Djorgovski, S. G.; Myers, Adam D.; Yan Lin

    2011-01-01

    As a natural consequence of galaxy mergers, binary active galactic nuclei (AGNs) should be commonplace. Nevertheless, observational confirmations are rare, especially for binaries with separations less than 10 kpc. Such a system may show two sets of narrow emission lines in a single spectrum owing to the orbital motion of the binary. We have obtained high-resolution near-infrared images of 50 double-peaked [O III]λ5007 AGNs with the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample is compiled from the literature and consists of 17 type-1 AGNs between 0.18 BH -σ * relation because of overestimated stellar velocity dispersions, illustrating the importance of removing mergers from the samples defining the M BH -σ * relations. Finally, we find that the emission-line properties are indistinguishable for spatially resolved and unresolved sources, emphasizing that scenarios involving a single AGN can produce the same double-peaked line profiles and they account for at least 70% of the double-peaked [O III] AGNs.

  20. EVOLUTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MAGNETIC FIELDS FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN GALAXY CLUSTERS. II. THE EFFECTS OF CLUSTER SIZE AND DYNAMICAL STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Li Hui; Collins, David C.; Li, Shengtai; Norman, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and simulations suggest that magnetic fields from radio jets and lobes powered by their central super massive black holes can be an important source of magnetic fields in the galaxy clusters. This is Paper II in a series of studies where we present self-consistent high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological magnetohydrodynamic simulations that simultaneously follow the formation of a galaxy cluster and evolution of magnetic fields ejected by an active galactic nucleus. We studied 12 different galaxy clusters with virial masses ranging from 1 x 10 14 to 2 x 10 15 M sun . In this work, we examine the effects of the mass and merger history on the final magnetic properties. We find that the evolution of magnetic fields is qualitatively similar to those of previous studies. In most clusters, the injected magnetic fields can be transported throughout the cluster and be further amplified by the intracluster medium (ICM) turbulence during the cluster formation process with hierarchical mergers, while the amplification history and the magnetic field distribution depend on the cluster formation and magnetism history. This can be very different for different clusters. The total magnetic energies in these clusters are between 4 x 10 57 and 10 61 erg, which is mainly decided by the cluster mass, scaling approximately with the square of the total mass. Dynamically older relaxed clusters usually have more magnetic fields in their ICM. The dynamically very young clusters may be magnetized weakly since there is not enough time for magnetic fields to be amplified.

  1. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Dadina, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s –1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ∼10,000 km s –1 (∼0.03c) up to ∼100,000 km s –1 (∼0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ∼42,000 km s –1 (∼0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ∼ 3-6 erg s –1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ∼ 4.2 erg s –1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ∼ 10 22 -10 24 cm –2 , with a mean value of N H ∼ 10 23 cm –2 . We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected

  2. Dual Active Galactic Nuclei in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Mousumi; Rubinur, Khatun; Karb, Preeti; Varghese, Ashlin; Novakkuni, Navyasree; James, Atul

    2018-04-01

    Galaxy mergers play a crucial role in the formation of massive galaxies and the buildup of their bulges. An important aspect of the merging process is the in-spiral of the supermassive black-holes (SMBHs) to the centre of the merger remnant and the eventual formation of a SMBH binary. If both the SMBHs are accreting they will form a dual or binary active galactic nucleus (DAGN). The final merger remnant is usually very bright and shows enhanced star formation. In this paper we summarise the current sample of DAGN from previous studies and describe methods that can be used to identify strong DAGN candidates from optical and spectroscopic surveys. These methods depend on the Doppler separation of the double peaked AGN emission lines, the nuclear velocity dispersion of the galaxies and their optical/UV colours. We describe two high resolution, radio observations of DAGN candidates that have been selected based on their double peaked optical emission lines (DPAGN). We also examine whether DAGN host galaxies have higher star formation rates (SFRs) compared to merging galaxies that do not appear to have DAGN. We find that the SFR is not higher for DAGN host galaxies. This suggests that the SFRs in DAGN host galaxies is due to the merging process itself and not related to the presence of two AGN in the system.

  3. Black-hole galactic nuclei: a high-energy perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Boldt, E; Loewenstein, M

    2002-01-01

    The gravitational radiation signals to be anticipated from events involving black-hole galactic nuclei depend on the spin of the underlying object. To obtain evidence about the spin of Seyfert AGN black holes, we can rely on future ultra-high resolution spectral/spatial x-ray studies of iron K line fluorescence from the innermost regions of accreting matter. Normal galaxies present more of a challenge. To account for the highest energy cosmic rays, we propose that ultra-relativistic particle acceleration can occur near the event horizons of spun-up supermassive black-holes at the non-active nuclei of giant elliptical galaxies. This conjecture about the black hole spin associated with such nuclei is subject to verification via the characteristic TeV curvature radiation expected to be detected with upcoming gamma-ray observatories.

  4. The ionizing radiation of Seyfert 2 galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Luis C.; Shields, Joseph C.; Filippenko, Alexei V.

    1993-01-01

    We report the discovery of a nonrandom trend in the dispersion of emission-line intensity ratios for Seyfert 2 galaxies. The sense of this pattern suggests the influence of a single physical parameter, the hardness of the ionizing continuum, which controls the heating energy per ionizing photon. We compare the observed line ratios with new photoionization calculations and find that the observed distributions can be reproduced if the ionizing continuum is parametrized by a power law. Our results also suggest an inverse correlation between luminosity and continuum hardness for Seyfert 2 nuclei; if true, this trend extends a similar pattern known in quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies to active galactic nuclei of lower luminosity. Samples of Seyfert 2 nuclei with improved selection uniformity are desirable for elaboration of these findings.

  5. Galactic nuclei evolution with spinning black holes: method and implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiacconi, Davide; Sijacki, Debora; Pringle, J. E.

    2018-04-01

    Supermassive black holes at the centre of galactic nuclei mostly grow in mass through gas accretion over cosmic time. This process also modifies the angular momentum (or spin) of black holes, both in magnitude and in orientation. Despite being often neglected in galaxy formation simulations, spin plays a crucial role in modulating accretion power, driving jet feedback, and determining recoil velocity of coalescing black hole binaries. We present a new accretion model for the moving-mesh code AREPO that incorporates (i) mass accretion through a thin α-disc, and (ii) spin evolution through the Bardeen-Petterson effect. We use a diverse suite of idealised simulations to explore the physical connection between spin evolution and larger scale environment. We find that black holes with mass ≲ 107 M⊙ experience quick alignment with the accretion disc. This favours prolonged phases of spin-up, and the spin direction evolves according to the gas inflow on timescales as short as ≲ 100 Myr, which might explain the observed jet direction distribution in Seyfert galaxies. Heavier black holes (≳ 108 M⊙) are instead more sensitive to the local gas kinematic. Here we find a wider distribution in spin magnitudes: spin-ups are favoured if gas inflow maintains a preferential direction, and spin-downs occur for nearly isotropic infall, while the spin direction does not change much over short timescales ˜100 Myr. We therefore conclude that supermassive black holes with masses ≳ 5 × 108 M⊙ may be the ideal testbed to determine the main mode of black hole fuelling over cosmic time.

  6. Galactic planetary nebulae and evolution of their nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khromov, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    The galactic system of planetary nebulae is investigated using previously constructed distance scale and kinematics data. A strong effect of observational selection is established, which has the consequence that with increasing distance, ever brighter and younger objects are observed. More accurate determinations of the spatial and surface densities of the planetary nebulae system are obtained as well as a new estimate of their total number in the Galaxy, which is approximately 200,000. New estimates are also made of the masses of the nebulae, the absolute magnitudes of the nebulae and their nuclei, and other physical parameters of these objects. The spatial and kinematic characteristics of the planetary nebulae indicate that they are objects of the old type I population. It is possible that their remote ancestors are main sequence stars of the type B8-A5-F or as yet unidentified objects of the same galactic subsystem

  7. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2014-04-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).

  8. The Effects of the Local Environment on Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzer, L. H.; De Robertis, M. M.

    2014-06-01

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanism(s) responsible for the initiation and maintenance of activity in galactic nuclei. In this paper we will investigate possible environmental triggers of nuclear activity through a statistical analysis of a large sample of galaxy groups. The focus of this paper is to identify active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and other emission-line galaxies in these groups and to compare their frequency with a sample of over 260,000 isolated galaxies from the same catalog. The galaxy groups are taken from the catalog of Yang et al., in which over 20,000 virialized groups of galaxies (2 universe. After correcting emission-line equivalent widths for extinction and underlying Balmer stellar absorption, we classify galaxies in the sample using traditional emission-line ratios, while incorporating measurement uncertainties. We find a significantly higher fraction of AGNs in groups compared with the isolated sample. Likewise, a significantly higher fraction of absorption-line galaxies are found in groups, while a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies prefer isolated environments. Within grouped environments, AGNs and star-forming galaxies are found more frequently in small- to medium-richness groups, while absorption-line galaxies prefer groups with larger richnesses. Groups containing only emission-line galaxies have smaller virial radii, velocity dispersions, and masses compared with those containing only absorption-line galaxies. Furthermore, the AGN fraction increases with decreasing distance to the group centroid, independent of galaxy morphology. Using properties obtained from Galaxy Zoo, there is an increased fraction of AGNs within merging systems, unlike star-forming galaxies. These results provide some indication that the local environment does play a role in initiating activity in galactic nuclei, but it is by no means simple or straightforward.

  9. Reverberation Mapping of the Continuum Source in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausnaugh, Michael Martin

    I present results from a monitoring campaign of 11 active galactic nuclei (AGN) conducted in Spring of 2014. I use the reverberation mapping method to probe the interior structures of the AGN, specifically the broad line regions (BLRs) and accretion disks. One of these AGN, NGC 5548, was also subject to multi-wavelength (X-ray, UV, optical, and near-IR) monitoring using 25 ground-based telescopes and four space-based facilities. For NGC 5548, I detect lags between the continuum emission at different wavelengths that follow a trend consistent with the prediction for continuum reprocessing by an accretion disk with temperature profile T ∝ R -3/4. However, the lags imply a disk radius that is 3 times larger than the prediction from standard thin-disk models. The lags at wavelengths longer than the Vband are also equal to or greater than the lags of high-ionization-state emission lines (such as HeII lambda1640 and lambda4686), suggesting that the continuum-emitting source is of a physical size comparable to the inner broad-line region. Using optical spectra from the Large Binocular Telescope, I estimate the bias of the interband continuum lags due to BLR emission observed in the filters, and I find that the bias for filters with high levels of BLR contamination (˜20%) can be important for the shortest continuum lags. This likely has a significant impact on the u and U bands owing to Balmer continuum emission. I then develop a new procedure for the internal (night-to-night) calibration of time series spectra that can reach precisions of ˜1 millimagnitude and improves traditional techniques by up to a factor of 5. At this level, other systematic issues (e.g., the nightly sensitivity functions and Fe II contamination) limit the final precision of the observed light curves. Using the new calibration method, I next present the data and first results from the optical spectroscopic monitoring component of the reverberation mapping campaign. Five AGN were sufficiently

  10. Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepashchuk, A M

    2014-01-01

    In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M BH =(4−20)M ⊙ ) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M BH =(10 6 −10 10 )M ⊙ ) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a ∗ have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a ∗ =0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths λ≲1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope). (100

  11. The effects of the local environment on active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzer, L. H.; De Robertis, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanism(s) responsible for the initiation and maintenance of activity in galactic nuclei. In this paper we will investigate possible environmental triggers of nuclear activity through a statistical analysis of a large sample of galaxy groups. The focus of this paper is to identify active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and other emission-line galaxies in these groups and to compare their frequency with a sample of over 260,000 isolated galaxies from the same catalog. The galaxy groups are taken from the catalog of Yang et al., in which over 20,000 virialized groups of galaxies (2 ≤ N ≤ 20) with redshifts between 0.01 and 0.20 are from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We first investigate the completeness of our data set and find, though biases are a concern particularly at higher redshift, that our data provide a fair representation of the local universe. After correcting emission-line equivalent widths for extinction and underlying Balmer stellar absorption, we classify galaxies in the sample using traditional emission-line ratios, while incorporating measurement uncertainties. We find a significantly higher fraction of AGNs in groups compared with the isolated sample. Likewise, a significantly higher fraction of absorption-line galaxies are found in groups, while a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies prefer isolated environments. Within grouped environments, AGNs and star-forming galaxies are found more frequently in small- to medium-richness groups, while absorption-line galaxies prefer groups with larger richnesses. Groups containing only emission-line galaxies have smaller virial radii, velocity dispersions, and masses compared with those containing only absorption-line galaxies. Furthermore, the AGN fraction increases with decreasing distance to the group centroid, independent of galaxy morphology. Using properties obtained from Galaxy Zoo, there is an increased fraction of AGNs within merging systems

  12. The effects of the local environment on active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzer, L. H.; De Robertis, M. M., E-mail: liannemanzer@gmail.com, E-mail: mmdr@yorku.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3 (Canada)

    2014-06-20

    There continues to be significant controversy regarding the mechanism(s) responsible for the initiation and maintenance of activity in galactic nuclei. In this paper we will investigate possible environmental triggers of nuclear activity through a statistical analysis of a large sample of galaxy groups. The focus of this paper is to identify active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and other emission-line galaxies in these groups and to compare their frequency with a sample of over 260,000 isolated galaxies from the same catalog. The galaxy groups are taken from the catalog of Yang et al., in which over 20,000 virialized groups of galaxies (2 ≤ N ≤ 20) with redshifts between 0.01 and 0.20 are from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We first investigate the completeness of our data set and find, though biases are a concern particularly at higher redshift, that our data provide a fair representation of the local universe. After correcting emission-line equivalent widths for extinction and underlying Balmer stellar absorption, we classify galaxies in the sample using traditional emission-line ratios, while incorporating measurement uncertainties. We find a significantly higher fraction of AGNs in groups compared with the isolated sample. Likewise, a significantly higher fraction of absorption-line galaxies are found in groups, while a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies prefer isolated environments. Within grouped environments, AGNs and star-forming galaxies are found more frequently in small- to medium-richness groups, while absorption-line galaxies prefer groups with larger richnesses. Groups containing only emission-line galaxies have smaller virial radii, velocity dispersions, and masses compared with those containing only absorption-line galaxies. Furthermore, the AGN fraction increases with decreasing distance to the group centroid, independent of galaxy morphology. Using properties obtained from Galaxy Zoo, there is an increased fraction of AGNs within merging systems

  13. Photon losses in cosmic ray acceleration in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    The usual assumption of the acceleration of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays, greater than or equal to 10 18 eV in quasars, Seyfert galaxies, and other active galactic nuclei is challenged on the basis of the photon interactions with the accelerated nucleons. This is similar to the effect of the black body radiation on particles > 10 20 eV for times of the age of the universe except that the photon spectrum is harder and the energy density greater by approx. = 10 13 . Hence, a single traversal, radial or circumferential, of radiation whose energy density is no greater than the emitted flux will damp an ultrahigh energy cosmic ray 10 20 eV by greater than 10 4 times its energy. Hence, it is unlikely that any reasonable configuration of acceleration can avoid disastrous photon energy loss. A different site for ultrahigh energy cosmic ray acceleration must be found

  14. Outflow and Accretion Physics in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Sean Michael

    2016-09-01

    This dissertation focuses on placing observational constraints on outflows and accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN) for the purpose of better understanding the physics of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) and their evolution with the host galaxy over cosmic time. Quasar outflows and their importance in SMBH-host galaxy co-evolution can be further understood by analyzing broad absorption lines (BALs) in rest-frame UV spectra that trace a range of wind conditions. We quantify the properties of the flows by conducting BAL variability studies using multiple-epoch spectra acquired primarily from MDM Observatory and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Iron low-ionization BALs (FeLoBALs) are a rare type of outflow that may represent a transient phase in galaxy evolution, and we analyze the variations in 12 FeLoBAL quasars with redshifts between 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 1.9 and rest frame timescales between ˜10 d to 7.6 yr. We investigate BAL variability in 71 quasar outflows that exhibit P V absorption, a tracer of high column density gas (i.e. NH ≥ 1022 cm -2), in order to quantify the energies and momenta of the flows. We also characterize the variability patterns of 26 quasars with mini-BALs, an interesting class of absorbers that may represent a distinct phase in the evolution of outflows. Low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) are important objects to study since their prominence in the local Universe suggest a possible evolution from the quasar era, and their low radiative outputs likely indicate a distinct mode of accretion onto the SMBH. We probe the accretion conditions in the LLAGN NGC 4203 by estimating the SMBH mass, which is obtained by modeling the 2-dimensional velocity field of the nebular gas using spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect significant BAL and mini-BAL variability in a subset of quasars from each of our samples, with measured rest-frame variability time-scales from days to years and over multiple years on average. Variable wavelength

  15. Visibility of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Illustris Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson-Smith, Tenley; Kelley, Luke; Moreno, Jorge; Hernquist, Lars; Illustris Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are the very bright, luminous regions surrounding supermassive black holes (SMBH) located at the centers of galaxies. Supermassive black holes are the source of AGN feedback, which occurs once the SMBH reaches a certain critical mass. Almost all large galaxies contain a SMBH, but SMBH binaries are extremely rare. Finding these binary systems are important because it can be a source of gravitational waves if the two SMBH collide. In order to study supermassive black holes, astronomers will often rely on the AGN’s light in order to locate them, but this can be difficult due to the extinction of light caused by the dust and gas surrounding the AGN. My research project focuses on determining the fraction of light we can observe from galactic centers using the Illustris simulation, one of the most advanced cosmological simulations of the universe which was created using a hydrodynamic code and consists of a moving mesh. Measuring the fraction of light observable from galactic centers will help us know what fraction of the time we can observe dual and binary AGN in different galaxies, which would also imply a binary SMBH system. In order to find how much light is being blocked or scattered by the gas and dust surrounding the AGN, we calculated the density of the gas and dust along the lines of sight. I present results including the density of gas along different lines of sight and how it correlates with the image of the galaxy. Future steps include taking an average of the column densities for all the galaxies in Illustris and studying them as a function of galaxy type (before merger, during merger, and post-merger), which will give us information on how this can also affect the AGN luminosity.

  16. ENSEMBLE VARIABILITY OF NEAR-INFRARED-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzuma, S.; Yamaoka, H.

    2012-01-01

    We present the properties of the ensemble variability V for nearly 5000 near-infrared active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the catalog of Quasars and Active Galactic Nuclei (13th Edition) and the SDSS-DR7 quasar catalog. From three near-infrared point source catalogs, namely, Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS), Deep Near Infrared Survey (DENIS), and UKIDSS/LAS catalogs, we extract 2MASS-DENIS and 2MASS-UKIDSS counterparts for cataloged AGNs by cross-identification between catalogs. We further select variable AGNs based on an optimal criterion for selecting the variable sources. The sample objects are divided into subsets according to whether near-infrared light originates by optical emission or by near-infrared emission in the rest frame; and we examine the correlations of the ensemble variability with the rest-frame wavelength, redshift, luminosity, and rest-frame time lag. In addition, we also examine the correlations of variability amplitude with optical variability, radio intensity, and radio-to-optical flux ratio. The rest-frame optical variability of our samples shows negative correlations with luminosity and positive correlations with rest-frame time lag (i.e., the structure function, SF), and this result is consistent with previous analyses. However, no well-known negative correlation exists between the rest-frame wavelength and optical variability. This inconsistency might be due to a biased sampling of high-redshift AGNs. Near-infrared variability in the rest frame is anticorrelated with the rest-frame wavelength, which is consistent with previous suggestions. However, correlations of near-infrared variability with luminosity and rest-frame time lag are the opposite of these correlations of the optical variability; that is, the near-infrared variability is positively correlated with luminosity but negatively correlated with the rest-frame time lag. Because these trends are qualitatively consistent with the properties of radio-loud quasars reported

  17. THE NATURE OF OPTICALLY DULL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Gabor, Jared M.; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Nagao, Tohru; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Brusa, Marcella; Civano, Francesca; Elvis, Martin; Kelly, Brandon C.; Huchra, John P.; Jahnke, Knud; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Capak, Peter; Scoville, Nick Z.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Maineri, Vincenzo

    2009-01-01

    We present infrared, optical, and X-ray data of 48 X-ray bright, optically dull active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the COSMOS field. These objects exhibit the X-ray luminosity of an AGN but lack broad and narrow emission lines in their optical spectrum. We show that despite the lack of optical emission lines, most of these optically dull AGNs are not well described by a typical passive red galaxy spectrum: instead they exhibit weak but significant blue emission like an unobscured AGN. Photometric observations over several years additionally show significant variability in the blue emission of four optically dull AGNs. The nature of the blue and infrared emission suggest that the optically inactive appearance of these AGNs cannot be caused by obscuration intrinsic to the AGNs. Instead, up to ∼70% of optically dull AGNs are diluted by their hosts, with bright or simply edge-on hosts lying preferentially within the spectroscopic aperture. The remaining ∼30% of optically dull AGNs have anomalously high f X /f O ratios and are intrinsically weak, not obscured, in the optical. These optically dull AGNs are best described as a weakly accreting AGN with a truncated accretion disk from a radiatively inefficient accretion flow.

  18. Probing dark matter with active galactic nuclei jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorchtein, Mikhail; Profumo, Stefano; Ubaldi, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility of detecting a signature of particle dark matter in the spectrum of gamma-ray photons from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) resulting from the scattering of high-energy particles in the AGN jet off of dark matter particles. We consider particle dark matter models in the context of both supersymmetry and universal extra dimensions , and we present the complete lowest-order calculation for processes where a photon is emitted in dark matter-electron and/or dark matter-proton scattering, where electrons and protons belong to the AGN jet. We find that the process is dominated by a resonance whose energy is dictated by the particle spectrum in the dark matter sector (neutralino and selectron for the case of supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein photon and electron for universal extra dimensions ). The resulting gamma-ray spectrum exhibits a very characteristic spectral feature, consisting of a sharp break to a hard power-law behavior. Although the normalization of the gamma-ray flux depends strongly on assumptions on both the AGN jet geometry, composition and particle spectrum as well as on the particle dark matter model and density distribution, we show that for realistic parameters choices, and for two prominent nearby AGNs (Centaurus A and M87), the detection of this effect is in principle possible. Finally, we compare our predictions and results with recent gamma-ray observations from the Fermi, H.E.S.S., and VERITAS telescopes.

  19. Water Masers and Accretion Disks in Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, L. J.

    2005-12-01

    There are over 50 sources of H2O maser emission in type-2 active galactic nuclei, a large fraction discovered in the last two years. Interferometer maps of water masers are presently the only means by which structures ⪉ 1 pc from massive black holes can be mapped directly, which is particularly important for type-2 systems because edge-on orientation and obscuration complicate study by other means. Investigations of several sources have demonstrated convincingly that the maser emission traces warped accretion disks 0.1 to 1 pc from central engines of order 106-108 M⊙. The same may be true for almost half the known (but unmapped) sources, based on spectral characteristics consistent with emission from edge-on accretion disks. Mapping these sources is a high priority. Study of most recently discovered masers requires long baseline arrays that include 100-m class apertures and would benefit from aggregate bit rates on the order of 1 gigabit per second. The Square Kilometer Array should provide an order of magnitude boost in mapping sensitivity, but outrigger antennas will be needed to achieve necesssary angular resolutions, as may be space-borne antennas.

  20. Diffuse γ-ray emission from misaligned active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F. [Physics Department, Torino University, and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Calore, F. [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Latronico, L., E-mail: donato@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Torino, via Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2014-01-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with jets seen at small viewing angles are the most luminous and abundant objects in the γ-ray sky. AGNs with jets misaligned along the line of sight appear fainter in the sky but are more numerous than the brighter blazars. We calculate the diffuse γ-ray emission due to the population of misaligned AGNs (MAGNs) unresolved by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). A correlation between the γ-ray luminosity and the radio-core luminosity is established and demonstrated to be physical by statistical tests, as well as compatible with upper limits based on Fermi-LAT data for a large sample of radio-loud MAGNs. We constrain the derived γ-ray luminosity function by means of the source-count distribution of the radio galaxies detected by the Fermi-LAT. We finally calculate the diffuse γ-ray flux due to the whole MAGN population. Our results demonstrate that MAGNs can contribute from 10% up to nearly the entire measured isotropic gamma-ray background. We evaluate a theoretical uncertainty on the flux of almost an order of magnitude.

  1. VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PROPAGATING TURBULENT RELATIVISTIC JETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollack, Maxwell; Pauls, David; Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: wiitap@tcnj.edu [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    We use the Athena hydrodynamics code to model propagating two-dimensional relativistic jets as approximations to the growth of radio-loud active galactic nuclei for various input jet velocities and jet-to-ambient matter density ratios. Using results from these simulations we estimate the changing synchrotron emission by summing the fluxes from a vertical strip of zones behind the reconfinement shock, which is nearly stationary, and from which a substantial portion of the flux variability should arise. We explore a wide range of timescales by considering two light curves from each simulation; one uses a relativistic turbulence code with bulk velocities taken from our simulations as input, while the other uses the bulk velocity data to compute fluctuations caused by variations in the Doppler boosting due to changes in the direction and the speed of the flow through all zones in the strip. We then calculate power spectral densities (PSDs) from the light curves for both turbulent and bulk velocity origins for variability. The range of the power-law slopes of the PSDs for the turbulence induced variations is −1.8 to −2.3, while for the bulk velocity produced variations this range is −2.1 to −2.9; these are in agreement with most observations. When superimposed, these power spectra span a very large range in frequency (about five decades), with the turbulent fluctuations yielding most of the shorter timescale variations and the bulk flow changes dominating the longer periods.

  2. VARIABILITY IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PROPAGATING TURBULENT RELATIVISTIC JETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, Maxwell; Pauls, David; Wiita, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    We use the Athena hydrodynamics code to model propagating two-dimensional relativistic jets as approximations to the growth of radio-loud active galactic nuclei for various input jet velocities and jet-to-ambient matter density ratios. Using results from these simulations we estimate the changing synchrotron emission by summing the fluxes from a vertical strip of zones behind the reconfinement shock, which is nearly stationary, and from which a substantial portion of the flux variability should arise. We explore a wide range of timescales by considering two light curves from each simulation; one uses a relativistic turbulence code with bulk velocities taken from our simulations as input, while the other uses the bulk velocity data to compute fluctuations caused by variations in the Doppler boosting due to changes in the direction and the speed of the flow through all zones in the strip. We then calculate power spectral densities (PSDs) from the light curves for both turbulent and bulk velocity origins for variability. The range of the power-law slopes of the PSDs for the turbulence induced variations is −1.8 to −2.3, while for the bulk velocity produced variations this range is −2.1 to −2.9; these are in agreement with most observations. When superimposed, these power spectra span a very large range in frequency (about five decades), with the turbulent fluctuations yielding most of the shorter timescale variations and the bulk flow changes dominating the longer periods

  3. Bubbles, jets, and clouds in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.D.; Smarr, L.; Norman, M.L.; Wilson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The Blandford and Reese 1974 fluid twin-exhaust model for jet formation is thoroughly investigated. We perform detailed analytic calculations of all aspects of the cavity-nozzle structures for the nonrelativistic case: the preshock flow, the central shock, cavity flow, and the nozzle. Our analytic results are in excellent agreement with recent sophisticated numerical calculations. We find that for a given central confining gas cloud, only a finite range of jet powers is possible. The sound speed ratio between cavity and cloud must be less than 30. Central masses of approx.10 9 M/sub sun/ within 1 pc are necessary for high-powered (10 46 ergs s -1 ) extragalactic jets. For a fixed confining cloud sound speed C 0 , there are three regimes determined by the central engine's luminosity. For low luminosity, a stream of bubbles emerges; for a middle range of luminosities, a jet forms; for too high a luminosity, large clouds are emitted. In the jet regime we find that L/sub j/approx.C 0 5 . The critical dependence of jet power on confining cloud sound speed enables a schematic picture for active galactic nuclei to be proposed. Seyfert galaxies and quasars are placed in the bubble regime. Variable compact radio sources reach the cloud regime. Evolutionary paths are suggested and may provide an indirect test for this picture

  4. Optical monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei from ARIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal-Krishna; Wiita, Paul Joseph

    2018-04-01

    This overview provides a historical perspective highlighting the pioneering role which the fairly modest observational facilities of ARIES have played since the 1990s in systematically characterizing the optical variability on hour-like time scale (intra-night optical variability, or INOV) of several major types of high-luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). Such information was previously available only for blazars. Similar studies have since been initiated in at least a dozen countries, giving a boost to AGN variability research. Our work has, in particular, provided strong indication that mild INOV occurs in radio-quiet QSOs (amplitude up to 3 – 5 % and duty cycle 10%) and, moreover, has demonstrated that similarly mild INOV is exhibited even by the vast majority of radio-loud quasars which possess powerful relativistic jets (even including many that are beamed towards us). The solitary outliers are blazars, the tiny strongly polarized subset of powerful AGN, which frequently exhibit a pronounced INOV. Among the blazars, BL Lac objects often show a bluer-when-brighter chromatic behavior, while the flat spectrum radio quasars seem not to. Quantifying any differences of INOV among the major subclasses of non-blazar type AGNs will require dedicated monitoring programs using 2 - 3 metre class telescopes.

  5. Optical spectral properties of active galactic nuclei and quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, H.K.C.

    1981-01-01

    Four separate investigations dealing with the properties of optical continuum and emission-lines of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and quasars are presented. Multichannel scans of 3CR radio galaxies are decomposed by using a two-component model-an elliptical galaxy and a power-law nonthermal component. It is found that there is a strong correlation between the luminosity of the power-law component and the strength of the Balmer emission-lines. In most cases, by extrapolating to the Lyman continuum, the power-law models derived provide enough ionizing radiation to account for the Balmer line strengths. Extending the study of radio galaxies to include Seyfert galaxies and quasars, it is found that there is a strong continuity between broad-line AGN's and quasars in terms of similarities in the correlations between line luminosities and nonthermal continuum luminosity. Next, a study of the variability of absolute optical energy distribution and emission-lines of the N-galaxies 3C382 and 3C390.3 is made. Lastly, a preliminary study of surface photometry of Markarian Seyfert galaxies are presented. It is found that the properties of the underlying galaxies such as scale-length and surface brightness of the disk, color, and total brightness, do not depart systematically from those of luminous normal spiral galaxies

  6. THE OPTX PROJECT. V. IDENTIFYING DISTANT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.; Tremonti, C.

    2011-01-01

    The Baldwin, Phillips, and Terlevich emission-line ratio diagnostic ([O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα, hereafter BPT diagram) efficiently separates galaxies whose signal is dominated by star formation (BPT-SF) from those dominated by active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity (BPT-AGN). Yet this BPT diagram is limited to z eff ) = 1.0 +0.4 –0.4 ) and has a high X-ray luminosity to total infrared luminosity ratio. This suggests that, on average, the X-ray signal in BPT-comp is dominated by obscured or low accretion rate AGN activity rather than by star formation, supporting their inclusion in the TBT-AGN regime.

  7. Emission line galaxies and active galactic nuclei in WINGS clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziani, P.; D'Onofrio, M.; Bettoni, D.; Poggianti, B. M.; Moretti, A.; Fasano, G.; Fritz, J.; Cava, A.; Varela, J.; Omizzolo, A.

    2017-03-01

    We present the analysis of the emission line galaxies members of 46 low-redshift (0.04 employing diagnostic diagrams. We examined the emission line properties and frequencies of star-forming galaxies, transition objects, and active galactic nuclei (AGNs: LINERs and Seyferts), unclassified galaxies with emission lines, and quiescent galaxies with no detectable line emission. A deficit of emission line galaxies in the cluster environment is indicated by both a lower frequency, and a systematically lower Balmer emission line equivalent width and luminosity with respect to control samples; this implies a lower amount of ionized gas per unit mass and a lower star formation rate if the source is classified as Hii region. A sizable population of transition objects and of low-luminosity LINERs (≈ 10-20% of all emission line galaxies) are detected among WINGS cluster galaxies. These sources are a factor of ≈1.5 more frequent, or at least as frequent, as in control samples with respect to Hii sources. Transition objects and LINERs in clusters are most affected in terms ofline equivalent width by the environment and appear predominantly consistent with so-called retired galaxies. Shock heating can be a possible gas excitation mechanism that is able to account for observed line ratios. Specific to the cluster environment, we suggest interaction between atomic and molecular gas and the intracluster medium as a possible physical cause of line-emitting shocks. The data whose description is provided in Table B.1, and emission line catalog of the WINGS database are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/599/A83

  8. Constraining the contribution of active galactic nuclei to reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sultan; Davé, Romeel; Mitra, Sourav; Finlator, Kristian; Ciardi, Benedetta; Santos, Mario G.

    2018-01-01

    Recent results have suggested that active galactic nuclei (AGN) could provide enough photons to reionize the Universe. We assess the viability of this scenario using a semi-numerical framework for modelling reionization, to which we add a quasar contribution by constructing a Quasar Halo Occupancy Distribution (QHOD) based on Giallongo et al. observations. Assuming a constant QHOD, we find that an AGN-only model cannot simultaneously match observations of the optical depth τe, neutral fraction and ionizing emissivity. Such a model predicts τe too low by ∼2σ relative to Planck constraints, and reionizes the Universe at z ≲ 5. Arbitrarily increasing the AGN emissivity to match these results yields a strong mismatch with the observed ionizing emissivity at z ∼ 5. If we instead assume a redshift-independent AGN luminosity function yielding an emissivity evolution like that assumed in Madau & Haardt model, then we can match τe albeit with late reionization; however, such evolution is inconsistent with observations at z ∼ 4-6 and poorly motivated physically. These results arise because AGN are more biased towards massive haloes than typical reionizing galaxies, resulting in stronger clustering and later formation times. AGN-dominated models produce larger ionizing bubbles that are reflected in ∼×2 more 21 cm power on all scales. A model with equal part galaxies and AGN contribution is still (barely) consistent with observations, but could be distinguished using next-generation 21 cm experiments such as Hydrogen Epoch of Reionization Array and SKA-low. We conclude that, even with recent claims of more faint AGN than previously thought, AGN are highly unlikely to dominate the ionizing photon budget for reionization.

  9. Formation of Offset and Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Scott; Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2018-06-01

    Galaxy mergers are effective mechanisms for triggering accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and thereby powering active galactic nuclei (AGN). In the merger scenario, when the SMBH from only one galaxy is accreting we observe a spatially offset AGN, and when the SMBHs from both galaxies are accreting we observe a dual AGN. Understanding the merger conditions that lead to the formation of offset AGN versus dual AGN is fundamental to informing models of hierarchical SMBH growth and the physics leading to the accretion of matter onto SMBHs. However, while the role of galaxy mergers for AGN triggering has been well-studied, the efficiency with which these events trigger offset AGN versus dual AGN is currently unclear. One reason for this gap in knowledge can be attributed to the observational difficulties in distinguishing between offset and dual AGN since doing so requires high spatial resolution, especially in the small separation regime where merger-driven AGN triggering is most likely to occur. To overcome this hurdle, we have utilized the spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray Observatory to develop a unique sample of AGN hosted by late-stage galaxy mergers. Moreover, we have recently acquired Hubble Space Telescope imaging for a subset of these systems to examine the role that their merger morphologies play in SMBH growth and the formation of offset and dual AGN. We find that offset AGN are predominately found in minor mergers, whereas dual AGN are usually hosted by major mergers and galaxies with large morphological asymmetries. Furthermore, in both offset and dual AGN, the rate of SMBH growth increases toward more major mergers and larger morphological asymmetries. These results are in agreement with numerical simulations predicting that merger morphology is a relevant parameter governing SMBH merger-driven growth, and these results are the first to observationally confirm these trends at small pair separations.

  10. Spectropolarimetry, variability, and the taxonomy of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodrich, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    Two subclasses of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are studied using spectropolarimetry, with the intent of defining the relationships of the subclasses to other classes of AGNs, and to study the physics of the objects themselves. In the Seyfert 1.8/1.9 class there is good evidence for dust just outside of the broad-line regions in two objects, IRAS 1958-183 and NGC 2622. Spectropolarimetry of the latter object reveals the presence of dust moving at ∼ -800 s -1 along the our line-of-sight, and causing much of the polarization in the object. In addition, three of these objects have undergone extreme variability. Combining IDS data from Osterbrock and collaborators with the more recent CCD data it is shown that in all three cases the changes in both broad emission line fluxes and featureless continuum are consistent with changes in the line-of-sight reddening to the broad-line region. Together with the polarimetric evidence for dust and IRAS photometry this strongly suggests that the Seyfert 1.8/1.9 character is caused by dust and the consequent reddening and extinction. Variability occurs when dust clouds evaporate or move out of line-of-sight, and the extinction then changes. In the so-called narrow line Seyfert 1s spectropolarimetry reveals seven highly-polarized objects. In Mrk 1239 there is evidence for at least two components of polarization, one probably due to dust reflection. In two other objects, Mrk 766 and IRAS 1509-211, the polarization also appears to indicate dust reflection as the polarigenic mechanism. There is a weak circumstantial evidence for an association of the low-density region and the polarizing source, provided by comparison of the radio axes and polarization position angles in Mrk 766 and Mrk 1126

  11. H II REGION DRIVEN GALACTIC BUBBLES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP TO THE GALACTIC MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavel, Michael D.; Clemens, D. P., E-mail: pavelmi@bu.edu, E-mail: clemens@bu.edu [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2012-12-01

    The relative alignments of mid-infrared traced Galactic bubbles are compared to the orientation of the mean Galactic magnetic field in the disk. The orientations of bubbles in the northern Galactic plane were measured and are consistent with random orientations-no preferential alignment with respect to the Galactic disk was found. A subsample of H II region driven Galactic bubbles was identified, and as a single population they show random orientations. When this subsample was further divided into subthermal and suprathermal H II regions, based on hydrogen radio recombination linewidths, the subthermal H II regions showed a marginal deviation from random orientations, but the suprathermal H II regions showed significant alignment with the Galactic plane. The mean orientation of the Galactic disk magnetic field was characterized using new near-infrared starlight polarimetry and the suprathermal H II regions were found to preferentially align with the disk magnetic field. If suprathermal linewidths are associated with younger H II regions, then the evolution of young H II regions is significantly affected by the Galactic magnetic field. As H II regions age, they cease to be strongly linked to the Galactic magnetic field, as surrounding density variations come to dominate their morphological evolution. From the new observations, the ratios of magnetic-to-ram pressures in the expanding ionization fronts were estimated for younger H II regions.

  12. The angular clustering of WISE-selected active galactic nuclei: Different halos for obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Astronómicas, de la Tierra, y del Espacio (ICATE), 5400 San Juan (Argentina); Yan, Lin [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D.; Assef, R. J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the angular correlation function for a sample of ∼170,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extracted from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, selected to have red mid-IR colors (W1 – W2 > 0.8) and 4.6 μm flux densities brighter than 0.14 mJy). The sample is expected to be >90% reliable at identifying AGNs and to have a mean redshift of (z) = 1.1. In total, the angular clustering of WISE AGNs is roughly similar to that of optical AGNs. We cross-match these objects with the photometric Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog and distinguish obscured sources with r – W2 > 6 from bluer, unobscured AGNs. Obscured sources present a higher clustering signal than unobscured sources. Since the host galaxy morphologies of obscured AGNs are not typical red sequence elliptical galaxies and show disks in many cases, it is unlikely that the increased clustering strength of the obscured population is driven by a host galaxy segregation bias. By using relatively complete redshift distributions from the COSMOS survey, we find that obscured sources at (z) ∼ 0.9 have a bias of b = 2.9 ± 0.6 and are hosted in dark matter halos with a typical mass of log (M/M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) ∼ 13.5. In contrast, unobscured AGNs at (z) ∼ 1.1 have a bias of b = 1.6 ± 0.6 and inhabit halos of log (M/M {sub ☉} h {sup –1}) ∼ 12.4. These findings suggest that obscured AGNs inhabit denser environments than unobscured AGNs, and they are difficult to reconcile with the simplest AGN unification models, where obscuration is driven solely by orientation.

  13. PAH features within few hundred parsecs of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, J. J.; Hönig, S. F.; Rakshit, S.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Asmus, D.; Gandhi, P.; Kishimoto, M.; Smette, A.; Tristram, K. R. W.

    2017-09-01

    Spectral features from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules observed in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) range are typically used to infer the amount of recent and ongoing star formation on kiloparsec scales around active galactic nuclei (AGN) where more traditional methods fail. This method assumes that the observed PAH features are excited predominantly by star formation. With current ground-based telescopes and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope, much smaller spatial scales can be probed and we aim at testing if this assumption still holds in the range of few tens to few hundreds of parsecs. For that, we spatially map the emitted 11.3 μm PAH surface flux as a function of distance from 0.4-4 arcsec from the centre in 28 nearby AGN using ground-based high-angular-resolution mid-IR spectroscopy. We detect and extract the 11.3 μm PAH feature in 13 AGN. The fluxes within each aperture are scaled to a luminosity-normalized distance from the nucleus to be able to compare intrinsic spatial scales of AGN radiation spanning about two orders of magnitude in luminosity. For this, we establish an empirical relation between the absorption-corrected X-ray luminosity and the sublimation radius in these sources. Once normalized, the radial profiles of the emitted PAH surface flux show similar radial slopes, with a power-law index of approximately -1.1, and similar absolute values, consistent within a factor of a few of each other as expected from the uncertainty in the intrinsic scale estimate. We interpret this as evidence that the profiles are caused by a common compact central physical process, either the AGN itself or circumnuclear star formation linked in strength to the AGN power. A photoionization-based model of an AGN exciting dense clouds in its environment can reproduce the observed radial slope and confirms that the AGN radiation field is strong enough to explain the observed PAH surface fluxes within ∼10-500 pc of the nucleus. Our results advice caution

  14. Active galactic nuclei. From the central engine to the host galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, Didier

    2008-01-01

    After some recalls on galaxies, on their classification, on the Universe expansion and on the Hubble law, this academic report addresses active galactic nuclei (AGN) by describing their anatomy (central black hole, accretion disk, jets and winds, Broad Line Region, Narrow Line Region, molecular torus and dusts, radio lobes). The author also presents the unified model. In the next part, he proposes an overview of active galaxies and active galactic nuclei by distinguishing galaxies with a strong stellar activity, radio-quiet and radio-loud active galactic nuclei. Examples are presented for each of these types. In the last part, the author draws perspectives for research in cosmology, and outlines questions which are still to be answered

  15. Study and modeling of the most energetic Active Galactic Nuclei with the Fermi satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, D.

    2010-06-01

    The Fermi satellite was launched in June 2008. The onboard LAT detector is dedicated to the study of galactic and extra-galactic gamma sources with an energy comprised between 200 MeV and 300 GeV. 1451 sources have been detected in less than 11 months. This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) gamma astronomy, 2) the Fermi satellite, 3) the active galactic nuclei (NAG), 4) the observation of several blazars (PKS-2155-304 and PG-1553+113) and its simulation, 5) the observation of PKS-2155-304 with both RXTE and Fermi, and 6) conclusion

  16. Active galactic nuclei and their role in galaxy evolution : The infrared perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.

    The remarkable progress made in infrared (IR) astronomical instruments over the last 10-15 years has radically changed our vision of the extragalactic IR sky, and overall understanding of galaxy evolution. In particular, this has been the case for the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN), for which

  17. Simulating Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the LSST Image Simulation Effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pizagno II, Jim; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Bard, D.; Connolly, A.; Chang, C.; Gibson, R. R.; Gilmore, K.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Jernigan, J. G.; Jones, L.; Kahn, S. M.; Krughoff, S. K.; Lorenz, S.; Marshall, S.; Shmakova, S. M.; Sylvestri, N.; Todd, N.; Young, M.

    We present an extragalactic source catalog, which includes galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei, that is used for the Large Survey Synoptic Telescope Imaging Simulation effort. The galaxies are taken from the De Lucia et. al. (2006) semi-analytic modeling (SAM) of the Millennium Simulation. The LSST

  18. Correlation of the highest-energy cosmic rays with the positions of nearby active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Aguirre, C.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Alvarez-Muniz, J.; Ambrosio, M.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Anzalone, A.; Aramo, C.; Argiro, S.; Arisaka, K.; Armengaud, E.; Arneodo, F.; Arqueros, F.; Asch, T.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Atulugama, B. S.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avila, G.; Baecker, T.; Badagnani, D.; Barbosa, A. F.; Barnhill, D.; Barroso, S. L. C.; Bauleo, P.; Beatty, J. J.; Beau, T.; Becker, B. R.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Berat, C.; Bergmann, T.; Bernardini, P.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blanch-Bigas, O.; Blanco, F.; Blasi, P.; Bleve, C.; Bluemer, H.; Bohacova, M.; Bonifazi, C.; Bonino, R.; Brack, J.; Brogueira, P.; Brown, W. C.; Buchholz, P.; Bueno, A.; Burton, R. E.; Busca, N. G.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Cai, B.; Camin, D. V.; Caramete, L.; Caruso, R.; Carvalho, W.; Castellina, A.; Catalano, O.; Cataldi, G.; Cazon, L.; Cester, R.; Chauvin, J.; Chiavassa, A.; Chinellato, J. A.; Chou, A.; Chye, J.; Clay, R. W.; Colombo, E.; Conceicao, R.; Connolly, B.; Contreras, F.; Coppens, J.; Cordier, A.; Cotti, U.; Coutu, S.; Covault, C. E.; Creusot, A.; Criss, A.; Cronin, J.; Curutiu, A.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; Daumiller, K.; Dawson, B. R.; de Almeida, R. M.; De Donato, C.; Bg, S. J. de Jong; De La Vega, G.; de Mello, W. J. M.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; De Mitri, I.; de Souza, V.; del Peral, L.; Deligny, O.; Della Selva, A.; Delle Fratte, C.; Dembinski, H.; Di Giulio, C.; Diaz, J. C.; Diep, P. N.; Dobrigkeit, C.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Dong, P. N.; Dornic, D.; Dorofeev, A.; dos Anjos, J. C.; Dova, M. T.; D'Urso, D.; Dutan, I.; DuVernois, M. A.; Engel, R.; Epele, L.; Escobar, C. O.; Etchegoyen, A.; Luis, P. Facal San; Falcke, H.; Farrar, G.; Fauth, A. C.; Fazzini, N.; Ferrer, F.; Ferry, S.; Fick, B.; Filevich, A.; Filipcic, A.; Fleck, I.; Fracchiolla, C. E.; Fulgione, W.; Garcia, B.; Gaimez, D. Garcia; Garcia-Pinto, D.; Garrido, X.; Geenen, H.; Gelmini, G.; Gemmeke, H.; Ghia, P. L.; Giller, M.; Glass, H.; Gold, M. S.; Golup, G.; Albarracin, F. Gomez; Berisso, M. Gomez; Herrero, R. Gomez; Goncalves, P.; do Amaral, M. Goncalves; Gonzalez, D.; Gonzalezc, J. G.; Gonzalez, M.; Gora, D.; Gorgi, A.; Gouffon, P.; Grassi, V.; Grillo, A. F.; Grunfeld, C.; Guardincerri, Y.; Guarino, F.; Guedes, G. P.; Gutierrez, J.; Hague, J. D.; Hamilton, J. C.; Hansen, P.; Harari, D.; Harmsma, S.; Harton, J. L.; Haungs, A.; Hauschildt, T.; Healy, M. D.; Hebbeker, T.; Hebrero, G.; Heck, D.; Hojvat, C.; Holmes, V. C.; Homola, P.; Hoerandel, J.; Horneffer, A.; Horvat, M.; Hrabovsky, M.; Huege, T.; Hussain, M.; Larlori, M.; Insolia, A.; Ionita, F.; Italiano, A.; Kaducak, M.; Kampert, K. H.; Karova, T.; Kegl, B.; Keilhauer, B.; Kemp, E.; Kieckhafer, R. M.; Klages, H. O.; Kleifges, M.; Kleinfeller, J.; Knapik, R.; Knapp, J.; Koanga, V. -H.; Krieger, A.; Kroemer, O.; Kuempel, D.; Kunka, N.; Kusenko, A.; La Rosa, G.; Lachaud, C.; Lago, B. L.; Lebrun, D.; LeBrun, P.; Lee, J.; de Oliveira, M. A. Leigui; Lopez, R.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Leuthold, M.; Lhenry-Yvon, I.; Aguera, A. Lopez; Bahilo, J. Lozano; Garcia, R. Luna; Maccarone, M. C.; Macolino, C.; Maldera, S.; Mancarella, G.; Mancenido, M. E.; Mandatat, D.; Mantsch, P.; Mariazzi, A. G.; Maris, I. C.; Falcon, H. R. Marquez; Martello, D.; Martinez, J.; Bravo, O. Martinez; Mathes, H. J.; Matthews, J.; Matthews, J. A. J.; Matthiae, G.; Maurizio, D.; Mazur, P. O.; McCauley, T.; McEwen, M.; McNeil, R. R.; Medina, M. C.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Meli, A.; Melo, D.; Menichetti, E.; Menschikov, A.; Meurer, Chr.; Meyhandan, R.; Micheletti, M. I.; Miele, G.; Miller, W.; Mollerach, S.; Monasor, M.; Ragaigne, D. Monnier; Montanet, F.; Morales, B.; Morello, C.; Moreno, J. C.; Morris, C.; Mostafa, M.; Muller, M. A.; Mussa, R.; Navarra, G.; Navarro, J. L.; Navas, S.; Necesal, P.; Nellen, L.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Newton, D.; Nhung, P. T.; Nierstenhoefer, N.; Nitz, D.; Nosek, D.; Nozka, L.; Oehlschlaeger, J.; Ohnuki, T.; Olinto, A.; Olmos-Gilbaja, V. M.; Ortiz, M.; Ortolani, F.; Ostapchenko, S.; Otero, L.; Pacheco, N.; Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk; Palatka, M.; Pallotta, J.; Parente, G.; Parizot, E.; Parlati, S.; Pastor, S.; Patel, M.; Paul, T.; Pavlidou, V.; Payet, K.; Pech, M.; Pekala, J.; Pelayo, R.; Pepe, I. M.; Perrone, L.; Petrera, S.; Petrinca, P.; Petrov, Y.; Pichel, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pierog, T.; Pimenta, M.; Pinto, T.; Pirronello, V.; Pisanti, O.; Platino, M.; Pochon, J.; Privitera, P.; Prouza, M.; Quel, E. J.; Rautenberg, J.; Redondo, A.; Reucroft, S.; Revenu, B.; Rezende, F. A. S.; Ridky, J.; Riggi, S.; Risse, M.; Riviere, C.; Rizi, V.; Roberts, M.; Robledo, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Martino, J. Rodriguez; Rojo, J. Rodriguez; Rodriguez-Cabo, I.; Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.; Ros, G.; Rosado, J.; Roth, M.; Rouille-d'Orfeuil, B.; Roulet, E.; Roverok, A. C.; Salamida, F.; Salazar, H.; Salina, G.; Sanchez, F.; Santander, M.; Santo, C. E.; Santos, E. M.; Sarazin, F.; Sarkar, S.; Sato, R.; Scherini, V.; Schieler, H.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, F.; Schmidt, T.; Scholten, O.; Schovanek, P.; Schuessler, F.; Sciutto, S. J.; Scuderi, M.; Segreto, A.; Semikoz, D.; Settimo, M.; Shellard, R. C.; Sidelnik, I.; Siffert, B. B.; Sigl, G.; De Grande, N. Smetniansky; Smialkowski, A.; Smida, R.; Smith, A. G. K.; Smith, B. E.; Snow, G. R.; Sokolsky, P.; Sommers, P.; Sorokin, J.; Spinka, H.; Squartini, R.; Strazzeri, E.; Stutz, A.; Suarez, F.; Suomijarvi, T.; Supanitsky, A. D.; Sutherland, M. S.; Swain, J.; Szadkowski, Z.; Takahashi, J.; Tamashiro, A.; Tamburro, A.; Tascau, O.; Tcaciuc, R.; Thao, N. T.; Thomas, D.; Ticona, R.; Tiffenberg, J.; Timmermans, C.; Tkaczyk, W.; Peixoto, C. J. Todero; Tome, B.; Tonachini, A.; Torres, I.; Travnicek, P.; Tripathi, A.; Tristram, G.; Tscherniakhovski, D.; Tueros, M.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Urban, M.; Galicia, J. F. Valdes; Valino, I.; Valore, L.; van den Berg, A. M.; van Elewyck, V.; Vazquez, R. A.; Veberic, D.; Veiga, A.; Velarde, A.; Venters, T.; Verzi, V.; Videla, M.; Villasenor, L.; Vorobiov, S.; Voyvodic, L.; Wahlberg, H.; Wainberg, O.; Warner, D.; Watson, A. A.; Westerhoff, S.; Wieczorek, G.; Wiencke, L.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wileman, C.; Winnick, M. G.; Wu, H.; Wundheiler, B.; Yamamoto, T.; Younk, P.; Zas, E.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zavrtanik, M.; Zech, A.; Zepeda, A.; Ziolkowski, M.

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of the cosmic rays with the highest-energies, which are correlated with the positions of relatively nearby active galactic nuclei (AGN) [Pierre Auger Collaboration, Science 318 (2007) 938]. The

  19. EVN observations of low-luminosity flat-spectrum active galactic nuclei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caccianiga, A; Marcha, MJM; Thean, A; Dennett-Thorpe, J

    2001-01-01

    We present and discuss the results of very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI, EVN) observations of three low-luminosity (P-5GHz <10(25) W Hz(-1)) broad emission line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) carefully selected from a sample of flat-spectrum radio sources (CLASS). Based on the total and the

  20. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no

  1. General relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei surrounded by a disk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogt, D.; Letelier, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    An exact but simple general relativistic model for the gravitational field of active galactic nuclei is constructed, based on the superposition in Weyl coordinates of a black hole, a Chazy-Curzon disk and two rods, which represent matter jets. The influence of the rods on the matter properties of

  2. On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the high-redshift metagalactic ionizing background

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aloisio, Anson; Upton Sanderbeck, Phoebe R.; McQuinn, Matthew; Trac, Hy; Shapiro, Paul R.

    2017-07-01

    Motivated by the claimed detection of a large population of faint active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at high redshift, recent studies have proposed models in which AGNs contribute significantly to the z > 4 H I ionizing background. In some models, AGNs are even the chief sources of reionization. If proved true, these models would make necessary a complete revision to the standard view that galaxies dominated the high-redshift ionizing background. It has been suggested that AGN-dominated models can better account for two recent observations that appear to be in conflict with the standard view: (1) large opacity variations in the z ˜ 5.5 H I Ly α forest, and (2) slow evolution in the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest. Large spatial fluctuations in the ionizing background from the brightness and rarity of AGNs may account for the former, while the earlier onset of He II reionization in these models may account for the latter. Here we show that models in which AGN emissions source ≳50 per cent of the ionizing background generally provide a better fit to the observed H I Ly α forest opacity variations compared to standard galaxy-dominated models. However, we argue that these AGN-dominated models are in tension with constraints on the thermal history of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Under standard assumptions about the spectra of AGNs, we show that the earlier onset of He II reionization heats up the IGM well above recent temperature measurements. We further argue that the slower evolution of the mean opacity of the He II Ly α forest relative to simulations may reflect deficiencies in current simulations rather than favour AGN-dominated models as has been suggested.

  3. Cooling Timescale of Dust Tori in Dying Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Kohei [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tazaki, Ryo, E-mail: k.ichikawa@astro.columbia.edu [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2017-07-20

    We estimate the dust torus cooling timescale once the active galactic nucleus (AGN) is quenched. In a clumpy torus system, once the incoming photons are suppressed, the cooling timescale of one clump from T {sub dust} = 1000 K to several 10 K is less than 10 years, indicating that the dust torus cooling time is mainly governed by the light crossing time of the torus from the central engine. After considering the light crossing time of the torus, the AGN torus emission at 12 μ m becomes over two orders of magnitude fainter within 100 years after the quenching. We also propose that those “dying” AGNs could be found using the AGN indicators with a different physical scale R such as 12 μ m band luminosity tracing AGN torus ( R ∼ 10 pc) and the optical [O iii] λ 5007 emission line tracing narrow line regions ( R = 10{sup 2–4} pc).

  4. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Peter L.; Becker, Julia K.; Caramete, Laurentiu; Curutiu, Alex; Engel, Ralph; Falcke, Heino; Gergely, Laszlo A.; Isar, P. Gina; Maris, Ioana C.; Meli, Athina; Kampert, Karl-Heinz; Stanev, Todor; Tascau, Oana; Zier, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  5. Active Galactic Nuclei: Sources for ultra high energy cosmic rays?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astron., Univ. of Bonn (Germany); Dept. of Phys. and Astr., Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States); Dept. of Phys., Univ. of Alabama at Huntsville, AL (United States); Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Institution foer Fysik, Goeteborgs Univ. (Sweden); Dept. of Phys., Univ. Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Curutiu, Alex [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Engel, Ralph [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Falcke, Heino [Dept. of Astrophys., IMAP, Radboud Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); ASTRON, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Gergely, Laszlo A. [Dept. Appl. Sci., London South Bank University (United Kingdom); Dept. of Theoret. and Exp. Phys., Univ. of Szeged, Szeged (Hungary); Isar, P. Gina [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Institute for Space Studies, Bucharest (Romania); Maris, Ioana C. [Inst. Nucl. Phys. FZ, Karlsruhe Inst. of Techn. (KIT) (Germany); Meli, Athina [Physik. Inst. Univ. Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Kampert, Karl-Heinz [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Tascau, Oana [Phys. Dept., Univ. Wuppertal (Germany); Zier, Christian [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Raman Res. Inst., Bangalore (India)

    2009-05-15

    The origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays promises to lead us to a deeper understanding of the structure of matter. This is possible through the study of particle collisions at center-of-mass energies in interactions far larger than anything possible with the Large Hadron Collider, albeit at the substantial cost of no control over the sources and interaction sites. For the extreme energies we have to identify and understand the sources first, before trying to use them as physics laboratories. Here we describe the current stage of this exploration. The most promising contenders as sources are radio galaxies and gamma ray bursts. The sky distribution of observed events yields a hint favoring radio galaxies. Key in this quest are the intergalactic and galactic magnetic fields, whose strength and structure are not yet fully understood. Current data and statistics do not yet allow a final judgement. We outline how we may progress in the near future.

  6. X-ray spectra and time variability of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushotzky, R.F.

    1984-02-01

    The X-ray spectra of broad line active galactic nuclei (AGN) of all types (Seyfert I's, NELG's, broadline radio galaxies) are well fit by a power law in the .5 to 100 keV band of man energy slope alpha .68 + or - .15. There is, as yet, no strong evidence for time variability of this slope in a given object. The constraints that this places on simple models of the central energy source are discussed. BL Lac objects have quite different X-ray spectral properties and show pronounced X-ray spectral variability. On time scales longer than 12 hours most radio quiet AGN do not show strong, delta I/I .5, variability. The probability of variability of these AGN seems to be inversely related to their luminosity. However characteristics timescales for variability have not been measured for many objects. This general lack of variability may imply that most AGN are well below the Eddington limit. Radio bright AGN tend to be more variable than radio quiet AGN on long, tau approx 6 month, timescales

  7. Dense Molecular Gas Around Protostars and in Galactic Nuclei European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Baan, W A; Langevelde, H J

    2004-01-01

    The phenomena observed in young stellar objects (YSO), circumstellar regions and extra-galactic nuclei show some similarity in their morphology, dynamical and physical processes, though they may differ in scale and energy. The European Workshop on Astronomical Molecules 2004 gave astronomers a unique opportunity to discuss the links among the observational results and to generate common interpretations of the phenomena in stars and galaxies, using the available diagnostic tools such as masers and dense molecular gas. Their theoretical understanding involves physics, numerical simulations and chemistry. Including a dozen introductory reviews, topics of papers in this book also cover: maser and dense gas diagnostics and related phenomena, evolution of circumstellar regions around protostars, evolution of circumnuclear regions of active galaxies, diagnostics of the circumnuclear gas in stars and galactic nuclei. This book summarizes our present knowledge in these topics, highlights major problems to be addressed...

  8. Searching for axion-like particles with active-galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine; Shaw, Douglas J.

    2009-12-01

    Strong mixing between photons and axion-like particles in the magnetic fields of clusters of galaxies induces a scatter in the observed luminosities of compact sources in the cluster. This is used to construct a new test for axion-like particles; applied to observations of active galactic nuclei it is strongly suggestive of the existence of a light axion-like particle. (orig.)

  9. Searching for axion-like particles with active-galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Davis, Anne-Christine [Centre for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Shaw, Douglas J. [Queen Mary Univ. of London (United Kingdom). Astronomy Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences

    2009-12-15

    Strong mixing between photons and axion-like particles in the magnetic fields of clusters of galaxies induces a scatter in the observed luminosities of compact sources in the cluster. This is used to construct a new test for axion-like particles; applied to observations of active galactic nuclei it is strongly suggestive of the existence of a light axion-like particle. (orig.)

  10. MAJOR GALAXY MERGERS ONLY TRIGGER THE MOST LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Urry, C. M.; Simmons, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    Using multiwavelength surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) across a wide range of bolometric luminosities (10 43 bol (erg s –1 ) 46 ) and redshifts (0 bol -f merger relation suggests that downsizing, i.e., the general decline in AGN and star formation activity with decreasing redshift, is driven by a decline in the frequency of major mergers combined with a decrease in the availability of gas at lower redshifts.

  11. Infrared emission from galactic H II regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeilik, M. II.

    1975-01-01

    Near-infrared observations are presented of selected galactic HII regions (especially G45.5 + 0.1, G45.1 + 0.1, S88, and W3A) to infer the physical conditions of the dust responsible for the 2 to 25 micron emission. Two-component dust models are developed to match the observed characteristics of the infrared emission from HII regions. The dust, assumed to be bare and well-mixed with the gas in the ionized volume, consists of large (0.1 micron) ''silicate'' grains and small (0.2 micron) graphite grains. The ''silicates'' have their cosmic maximum abundance with respect to hydrogen, but the graphite grains are depleted by factors of 25 to 100 in mass. The Lyman-alpha radiation field predominately heats the ''silicate'' grains, which produce almost all the emission at 20 microns and most of it from 8 to 13 microns. The stellar radiation field predominately heats the graphite grains, which generate most of the emission at 3.5 and 5 microns. Roughly half of the observed 2 to 25 micron luminosity (when corrected for extinction) arises from Lyman-alpha photons and the other half from the Lyman and Balmer continua. The grains are too hot to provide significant emission in the far-infrared; this probably arises from a dust shell around the HII region. This two-component model predicts that HII regions should have smaller sizes at 3.5 and 5 microns than at 10 and 20 microns. The emissivities of fine-structure infrared lines for the regions are calculated. In the one instance where observations of such lines have been published (G29.9 - 0.0), predicted emissivities fall below those observed, especially for the 12.86-micron line of NeII. The discrepancy probably arises from an incorrect modeling of the region's ionization structure, but it might also reflect variations in elemental abundances or deficiencies in model stellar atmospheres for hot stars

  12. Atomic hydrogen properties of active galactic nuclei host galaxies: H I in 16 nuclei of galaxies (NUGA) sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, Sebastian; Schinnerer, Eva; Mundell, Carole G.; García-Burillo, Santiago; Combes, Francoise

    2008-01-01

    We present a comprehensive spectroscopic imaging survey of the distribution and kinematics of atomic hydrogen (H I) in 16 nearby spiral galaxies hosting low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN), observed with high spectral and spatial resolution (resolution: ∼20'', ∼5 km s –1 ) using the NRAO Very Large Array (VLA). The sample contains a range of nuclear types ranging from Seyfert to star-forming nuclei, and was originally selected for the NUclei of GAlaxies project (NUGA)—a spectrally and spatially resolved interferometric survey of gas dynamics in nearby galaxies designed to identify the fueling mechanisms of AGN and the relation to host galaxy evolution. Here we investigate the relationship between the H I properties of these galaxies, their environment, their stellar distribution, and their AGN type. The large-scale H I morphology of each galaxy is classified as ringed, spiral, or centrally concentrated; comparison of the resulting morphological classification with the AGN type reveals that ring structures are significantly more common in low-ionization narrow emission-line regions (LINER) than in Seyfert host galaxies, suggesting a time evolution of the AGN activity together with the redistribution of the neutral gas. Dynamically disturbed H I disks are also more prevalent in LINER host galaxies than in Seyfert host galaxies. While several galaxies are surrounded by companions (some with associated H I emission), there is no correlation between the presence of companions and the AGN type (Seyfert/LINER).

  13. Spatially Resolved Imaging and Spectroscopy of Candidate Dual Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, R. C.; Max, C. E.; Medling, A. M.; Shields, G. A.; Comerford, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    When galaxies merge, both central supermassive black holes are immersed in a dense and chaotic environment. If there is sufficient gas in the nuclear regions, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O iii] emission lines has been proposed as a technique to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O iii] emitting AGNs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck II Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared camera NIRC2, we show that 30% of 140 double-peaked [O iii] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3″ radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up three spatially double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and 10 candidates with long-slit spectroscopy from the Shane Kast Double Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. We find that the double-peaked emission lines in our sample of 12 candidates are caused by: one dual AGN (SDSS J114642.47+511029.6), one confirmed outflow and four likely outflows, two pairs of star-forming galaxies, one candidate indeterminate due to sky line interference, and three AGNs with spatially coincident double [O iii] peaks, likely due to unresolved complex narrow line kinematics, outflows, binary AGN, or small-scale jets.

  14. SPATIALLY RESOLVED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF CANDIDATE DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGurk, R. C.; Max, C. E. [Astronomy Department and UCO-Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Medling, A. M. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Shields, G. A. [Laguna Falls Institute for Astrophysics, Austin, TX 78746 (United States); Comerford, J. M., E-mail: rosalie.mcgurk@gmail.com, E-mail: max@ucolick.org, E-mail: anne.medling@anu.edu.au, E-mail: shields@lfastro.org, E-mail: julie.comerford@colorado.edu [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-09-20

    When galaxies merge, both central supermassive black holes are immersed in a dense and chaotic environment. If there is sufficient gas in the nuclear regions, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O iii] emission lines has been proposed as a technique to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O iii] emitting AGNs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck II Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared camera NIRC2, we show that 30% of 140 double-peaked [O iii] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3″ radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up three spatially double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and 10 candidates with long-slit spectroscopy from the Shane Kast Double Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. We find that the double-peaked emission lines in our sample of 12 candidates are caused by: one dual AGN (SDSS J114642.47+511029.6), one confirmed outflow and four likely outflows, two pairs of star-forming galaxies, one candidate indeterminate due to sky line interference, and three AGNs with spatially coincident double [O iii] peaks, likely due to unresolved complex narrow line kinematics, outflows, binary AGN, or small-scale jets.

  15. SPATIALLY RESOLVED IMAGING AND SPECTROSCOPY OF CANDIDATE DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGurk, R. C.; Max, C. E.; Medling, A. M.; Shields, G. A.; Comerford, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    When galaxies merge, both central supermassive black holes are immersed in a dense and chaotic environment. If there is sufficient gas in the nuclear regions, one expects to see close pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), or dual AGNs, in a fraction of galaxy mergers. However, finding them remains a challenge. The presence of double-peaked [O iii] emission lines has been proposed as a technique to select dual AGNs efficiently. We studied a sample of double-peaked narrow [O iii] emitting AGNs from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7. By obtaining new and archival high spatial resolution images taken with the Keck II Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system and the near-infrared camera NIRC2, we show that 30% of 140 double-peaked [O iii] emission line SDSS AGNs have two spatial components within a 3″ radius. However, spatially resolved spectroscopy or X-ray observations are needed to confirm these galaxy pairs as systems containing two AGNs. We followed up three spatially double candidate dual AGNs with integral field spectroscopy from Keck OSIRIS and 10 candidates with long-slit spectroscopy from the Shane Kast Double Spectrograph at Lick Observatory. We find that the double-peaked emission lines in our sample of 12 candidates are caused by: one dual AGN (SDSS J114642.47+511029.6), one confirmed outflow and four likely outflows, two pairs of star-forming galaxies, one candidate indeterminate due to sky line interference, and three AGNs with spatially coincident double [O iii] peaks, likely due to unresolved complex narrow line kinematics, outflows, binary AGN, or small-scale jets

  16. Distribution of Si II in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, P.; Herter, T.; Gull, G. E.; Houck, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    A map of the Galactic center region in the forbidden Si II 34.8-micron line is presented. The line emission arises from within the photodissociation region (PDR) associated with the neutral gas ring surrounding an ionized gas core confined within 2 pc of the Galactic center. Si II is a useful probe of the inner regions of the ring since it is always optically thin. The Si II data, when analyzed in conjunction with O I, C II, and molecular measurements, outlines the transition region between the PDR and the surrounding molecular cloud. The Si II emission is found to extend beyond that of the O II into the neutral gas ring. Although the interpretation is not unique, the data are consistent with a constant gas-phase abundance of silicon within the inner part of the PDR while the gaseous silicon is depleted by molecule formation in the transition region.

  17. COMBINING SEMIANALYTIC MODELS WITH SIMULATIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: THE NEED FOR HEATING FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, C. J.; Thomas, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    We present hydrodynamical N-body simulations of clusters of galaxies with feedback taken from semianalytic models of galaxy formation. The advantage of this technique is that the source of feedback in our simulations is a population of galaxies that closely resembles that found in the real universe. We demonstrate that, to achieve the high entropy levels found in clusters, active galactic nuclei must inject a large fraction of their energy into the intergalactic/intracluster media throughout the growth period of the central black hole. These simulations reinforce the argument of Bower et al., who arrived at the same conclusion on the basis of purely semianalytic reasoning.

  18. On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the diffuse X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that cosmological evolution has a pronounced effect on the contributions of active galactic nuclei to the diffuse x-ray background. The dependence of such contributions on the form and amount of density evolution, on the deceleration parameter, and on the formation epoch is found. It is established, in particular, that x-ray Seyferts can account for all of the observed 2-10 keV background when the effects of evolution are considered; the required amount of evolution is intermediate between the evolution of quasars and no evolution. (author)

  19. Unification of Active Galactic Nuclei at X-rays and soft gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report contains presentations of teaching activities in stellar astrophysics and extragalactic astronomy and cosmology, of student supervision activities in different academic places, and of various publications and participations to conferences and meetings. After a brief text highlighting the relevance and originality of his research works, the author proposes a large overview of his research works which dealt with different aspects of active galactic nuclei and related issues. Future projects are evoked. The report also contains numerous publications (press articles, conference proceedings, and so on)

  20. Exploring Black Hole Accretion in Active Galactic Nuclei with Simbol-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goosmann, R. W.; Dovčiak, M.; Mouchet, M.; Czerny, B.; Karas, V.; Gonçalves, A.

    2009-05-01

    A major goal of the Simbol-X mission is to improve our knowledge about black hole accretion. By opening up the X-ray window above 10 keV with unprecedented sensitivity and resolution we obtain new constraints on the X-ray spectral and variability properties of active galactic nuclei. To interpret the future data, detailed X-ray modeling of the dynamics and radiation processes in the black hole vicinity is required. Relativistic effects must be taken into account, which then allow to constrain the fundamental black hole parameters and the emission pattern of the accretion disk from the spectra that will be obtained with Simbol-X.

  1. A new approach for measuring power spectra and reconstructing time series in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min

    2018-05-01

    We provide a new approach to measure power spectra and reconstruct time series in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on the fact that the Fourier transform of AGN stochastic variations is a series of complex Gaussian random variables. The approach parametrizes a stochastic series in frequency domain and transforms it back to time domain to fit the observed data. The parameters and their uncertainties are derived in a Bayesian framework, which also allows us to compare the relative merits of different power spectral density models. The well-developed fast Fourier transform algorithm together with parallel computation enables an acceptable time complexity for the approach.

  2. Evidence for Infrared-faint Radio Sources as z > 1 Radio-loud Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Minh T.; Norris, Ray P.; Siana, Brian; Middelberg, Enno

    2010-02-01

    Infrared-Faint Radio Sources (IFRSs) are a class of radio objects found in the Australia Telescope Large Area Survey which have no observable mid-infrared counterpart in the Spitzer Wide-area Infrared Extragalactic (SWIRE) survey. The extended Chandra Deep Field South now has even deeper Spitzer imaging (3.6-70 μm) from a number of Legacy surveys. We report the detections of two IFRS sources in IRAC images. The non-detection of two other IFRSs allows us to constrain the source type. Detailed modeling of the spectral energy distribution of these objects shows that they are consistent with high-redshift (z >~ 1) active galactic nuclei.

  3. On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the diffuse X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1978-01-01

    We show that cosmological evolution has a pronounced effect on the contributions of active galactic nuclei to the diffuse x-ray background. We find the dependence of such contributions on the form and amount of density evolution, on the deceleration parameter, and on the formation epoch. We find in particular that x-ray Seyferts can account for all of the observed 2-10 keV background when the effects of evolution are considered; the required amount of evolution is intermediate between the evolution of quasars and no evolution. (orig.) [de

  4. On the High-Energy Neutrino Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Kun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We review observational aspects of the active galactic nuclei and their jets in connection with the detection of high-energy neutrinos by the Antarctic IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We propose that a reoriented jet generated by the spin-flipping supermassive black hole in a binary merger is likely the source of such high-energy neutrinos. Hence they encode important information on the afterlife of coalescing supermassive black hole binaries. As the gravitational radiation emanating from them will be monitored by the future LISA space mission, high-energy neutrino detections could be considered a contributor to multi-messenger astronomy.

  5. Hard X-ray emission mechanism of active galactic nuclei sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, E.P.T.

    1979-01-01

    Within the framework of unsaturated Compton disk accretion onto a supermassive black hole as model for power-law active galactic nuclei X-ray sources (as opposed to the synchro-Compton model), we compare the hot inner disk model of Shapiro, Lightman, and Eardley and the disk corona model with balanced conduction and Compton losses. Both can generate electron temperatures > or approx. =10 9 K in the supermassive case but promise other observable distinctions. The sandwich configuration of the disk corona provides a natural explanation of why Comptonization is unsaturated

  6. Search for emission of ultra high energy radiation from active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    A search for emission of ultra-high energy gamma radiation from 13 active galactic nuclei that were detected by EGRET, using the CYGNUS extensive air-shower array, is described. The data set has been searched for continuous emission, emission on the time scale of one week, and for on the time scale of out day. No evidence for emission from any of the AGN on any of the time scales examined was found. The 90% C.L. upper limit to the continuous flux from Mrk 421 above 50 TeV is 7.5 x 10 -14 cm -2 s -1

  7. New structures of power density spectra for four Kepler active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrotka, A.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Bajčičáková, I.

    2017-09-01

    Many nearby active galactic nuclei display a significant short-term variability. In this work, we reanalyse photometric data of four active galactic nuclei observed by Kepler in order to study the flickering activity, with our main goal to search for multiple components in the power density spectra. We find that all four objects have similar characteristics, with two break frequencies at approximately log( f /Hz) = -5.2 and -4.7. We consider some physical phenomena whose characteristic time-scales are consistent with those observed, in particular mass accretion fluctuations in the inner geometrically thick disc (hot X-ray corona) and unstable relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor modes. The former is supported by detection of the same break frequencies in the Swift X-ray data of ZW229-15. We also discuss rms-flux relations, and we detect a possible typical linear trend at lower flux levels. Our findings support the hypothesis of a multiplicative character of variability, in agreement with the propagating accretion fluctuation model.

  8. Neutrino-heated stars and broad-line emission from active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, James; Stanev, Todor; Biermann, Peter L.

    1991-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation from active galactic nuclei indicates the presence of highly relativistic particles. The interaction of these high-energy particles with matter and photons gives rise to a flux of high-energy neutrinos. In this paper, the influence of the expected high neutrino fluxes on the structure and evolution of single, main-sequence stars is investigated. Sequences of models of neutrino-heated stars in thermal equilibrium are presented for masses 0.25, 0.5, 0.8, and 1.0 solar mass. In addition, a set of evolutionary sequences for mass 0.5 solar mass have been computed for different assumed values for the incident neutrino energy flux. It is found that winds driven by the heating due to high-energy particles and hard electromagnetic radiation of the outer layers of neutrino-bloated stars may satisfy the requirements of the model of Kazanas (1989) for the broad-line emission clouds in active galactic nuclei.

  9. DUST IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: ANOMALOUS SILICATE TO OPTICAL EXTINCTION RATIOS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Jianwei; Hao, Lei [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, Aigen, E-mail: haol@shao.ac.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Dust plays a central role in the unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, little is known about the nature (e.g., size, composition) of the dust that forms a torus around the AGN. In this Letter, we report a systematic exploration of the optical extinction (A{sub V} ) and the silicate absorption optical depth (Δτ{sub 9.7}) of 110 type 2 AGNs. We derive A{sub V} from the Balmer decrement based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, and Δτ{sub 9.7} from the Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph data. We find that with a mean ratio of (A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7}) ≲ 5.5, the optical-to-silicate extinction ratios of these AGNs are substantially lower than that of the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) for which A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ≈ 18.5. We argue that the anomalously low A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ratio could be due to the predominance of larger grains in the AGN torus compared to that in the Galactic diffuse ISM.

  10. PREFACE: Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserlohe, Christof; Karas, Vladimir; Krips, Melanie; Eckart, Andreas; Britzen, Silke; Fischer, Sebastian

    2012-07-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution 2011: The central kiloparsec in galactic nuclei conference. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum of the Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG), Bad Honnef, Germany, from 28 August to 2 September 2011. It was the second conference of this kind, following the Astronomy at High Angular Resolution conference held in Bad Honnef, three years earlier in 2008. The main objective of the conference was to frame the discussion of the broad range of physical processes that occur in the central 100pc of galactic nuclei. In most cases, this domain is difficult to probe through observations. This is mainly because of the lack of angular resolution, the brightness of the central engine and possible obscurations through dust and gas, which play together in the central regions of host galaxies of galactic nuclei within a broad range of activity. The presence of large amounts of molecular and atomic (both neutral and ionized) gas, dust and central engines with outflows and jets implies that the conditions for star formation in these regions are very special, and probably different from those in the disks of host galaxies. Numerous presentations covering a broad range of topics, both theoretical and experimental, those related to research on Active Galactic Nuclei and on a wide range of observed wavelengths were submitted to the Scientific Organizing Committee. Presentations have been grouped into six sessions: The nuclei of active galaxies The Galactic Center The immediate environment of Super Massive Black Holes The physics of nuclear jets and the interaction of the interstellar medium The central 100pc of the nuclear environment Star formation in that region The editors thank all participants of the AHAR 2011 conference for their enthusiasm and their numerous and vivid contributions to this conference. We would especially like to thank John Hugh Seiradakis from the Aristotle

  11. Analysis of nearly simultaneous x-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two x-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectra observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the active galactic nuclei. X-ray variability was detected in eight of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the x-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the x-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the x-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the x-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec

  12. The COS-AGN survey: Revealing the nature of circum-galactic gas around hosts of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Trystyn A. M.; Ellison, Sara L.; Tumlinson, Jason; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Horton, Ryan; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Schaye, Joop

    2018-04-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are thought to play a critical role in shaping galaxies, but their effect on the circumgalactic medium (CGM) is not well studied. We present results from the COS-AGN survey: 19 quasar sightlines that probe the CGM of 20 optically-selected AGN host galaxies with impact parameters 80 frame equivalent widths EW≥124 mÅ) whilst many of the metal ions are not detected in individual sightlines. A sightline-by-sightline comparison between COS-AGN and the control sample yields no significant difference in EW distribution. However, stacked spectra of the COS-AGN and control samples show significant (>3σ) enhancements in the EW of both Siiii And Lyα at impact parameters >164 kpc by a factor of +0.45 ± 0.05 dex and >+0.75 dex respectively. The lack of detections of both high-ionization species near the AGN and strong kinematic offsets between the absorption systemic galaxy redshifts indicates that neither the AGN's ionization nor its outflows are the origin of these differences. Instead, we suggest the observed differences could result from either AGN hosts residing in haloes with intrinsically distinct gas properties, or that their CGM has been affected by a previous event, such as a starburst, which may also have fuelled the nuclear activity.

  13. Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray nuclei from extragalactic pulsars and the effect of their Galactic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Ke; Olinto, Angela V.; Kotera, Kumiko

    2013-01-01

    The acceleration of ultrahigh energy nuclei in fast spinning newborn pulsars can explain the observed spectrum of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and the trend towards heavier nuclei for energies above 10 19 eV as reported by the Auger Observatory. Pulsar acceleration implies a hard injection spectrum ( ∼ E −1 ) due to pulsar spin down and a maximum energy E max ∼ Z 10 19 eV due to the limit on the spin rate of neutron stars. We have previously shown that the escape through the young supernova remnant softens the spectrum, decreases slightly the maximum energy, and generates secondary nuclei. Here we show that the distribution of pulsar birth periods and the effect of propagation in the interstellar and intergalactic media modifies the combined spectrum of all pulsars. By assuming a normal distribution of pulsar birth periods centered at 300 ms, we show that the contribution of extragalactic pulsar births to the ultrahigh energy cosmic ray spectrum naturally gives rise to a contribution to very high energy cosmic rays (VHECRs, between 10 16 and 10 18 eV) by Galactic pulsar births. The required injected composition to fit the observed spectrum depends on the absolute energy scale, which is uncertain, differing between Auger Observatory and Telescope Array. The contribution of Galactic pulsar births can also bridge the gap between predictions for cosmic ray acceleration in supernova remnants and the observed spectrum just below the ankle, depending on the composition of the cosmic rays that escape the supernova remnant and the diffusion behavior of VHECRs in the Galaxy

  14. CO LINE EMISSION FROM COMPACT NUCLEAR STARBURST DISKS AROUND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armour, J. N.; Ballantyne, D. R., E-mail: jarmour3@gatech.edu [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, 837 State Street, Atlanta, GA 30332-0430 (United States)

    2012-06-20

    There is substantial evidence for a connection between star formation in the nuclear region of a galaxy and growth of the central supermassive black hole. Furthermore, starburst activity in the region around an active galactic nucleus (AGN) may provide the obscuration required by the unified model of AGNs. Molecular line emission is one of the best observational avenues to detect and characterize dense, star-forming gas in galactic nuclei over a range of redshift. This paper presents predictions for the carbon monoxide (CO) line features from models of nuclear starburst disks around AGNs. These small-scale ({approx}< 100 pc), dense and hot starbursts have CO luminosities similar to scaled-down ultra-luminous infrared galaxies and quasar host galaxies. Nuclear starburst disks that exhibit a pc-scale starburst and could potentially act as the obscuring torus show more efficient CO excitation and higher brightness temperature ratios than those without such a compact starburst. In addition, the compact starburst models predict strong absorption when J{sub Upper} {approx}> 10, a unique observational signature of these objects. These findings allow for the possibility that CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) could be used to determine if starburst disks are responsible for the obscuration in z {approx}< 1 AGNs. Directly isolating the nuclear CO line emission of such compact regions around AGNs from galactic-scale emission will require high-resolution imaging or selecting AGN host galaxies with weak galactic-scale star formation. Stacking individual CO SLEDs will also be useful in detecting the predicted high-J features.

  15. Photon damping in cosmic-ray acceleration in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The usual assumption of the acceleration of ultra high energy cosmic rays, greater than or equal to 10 18 eV in quasars, Seyfert galaxies and other active galactic nuclei is challenged on the basis of the photon interactions with the accelerated nucleons. This is similar to the effect of the black body radiation on particles > 10 20 eV for times of the age of the universe except that the photon spectrum is harder and the energy density greater by approx. = 10 15 . Hence, a single traversal, radial or circumferential, of radiation whose energy density is no greater than the emitted flux will damp an ultra high energy. Hence, it is unlikely that any reasonable configuration of acceleration can void disastrous photon energy loss. A different site for ultra high energy cosmic ray acceleration must be found

  16. The Fermi LAT Very Important Project (VIP) List of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David J.; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Using nine years of Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (LAT) observations, we have identified 30 projects for Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) that appear to provide strong prospects for significant scientific advances. This Very Important Project (VIP) AGN list includes AGNs that have good multiwavelength coverage, are regularly detected by the Fermi LAT, and offer scientifically interesting timing or spectral properties. Each project has one or more LAT scientists identified who are actively monitoring the source. They will be regularly updating the LAT results for these VIP AGNs, working together with multiwavelength observers and theorists to maximize the scientific return during the coming years of the Fermi mission. See https://confluence.slac.stanford.edu/display/GLAMCOG/VIP+List+of+AGNs+for+Continued+Study

  17. Extragalactic Background Light expected from photon-photon absorption on spectra of distant Active Galactic Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyna, V. G.; Sinitsyna, V. Y.

    2013-01-01

    Extragalactic background radiation blocks the propagation of TeV gamma-ray over large distances by producing e + e - pairs. As a result, primary spectrum of gamma-source is changed, depending on spectrum of background light. So, hard spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei with high red shifts allow the determination of a EBL spectrum. The redshifts of SHALON TeV gamma-ray sources range from 0.018 to 1.375 those spectra are resolved at the energies from 800 GeV to 30 TeV. Spectral energy distribution of EBL constrained from observations of Mkn421 (z=0.031), Mkn501 (z=0.034), Mkn180 (z=0.046), OJ287 (z=0.306), 3c454.3 (z=0.859) and 1739+5220(z=1.375) together with models and measurements are presented. (authors)

  18. Nonthermal electron-positron pairs and cold matter in the central engines of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1992-01-01

    The nonthermal e(+/-) pair model of the central engine of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is discussed. The model assumes that nonthermal e(+/-) pairs are accelerated to highly relativistic energies in a compact region close to the central black hole and in the vicinity of some cold matter. The model has a small number of free parameters and explains a large body of AGN observations from EUV to soft gamma-rays. In particular, the model explains the existence of the UV bump, the soft X-rays excess, the canonical hard X-ray power law, the spectral hardening above about 10 keV, and some of the variability patterns in the soft and hard X-rays. In addition, the model explains the spectral steepening above about 50 keV seen in NGC 4151.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF X-RAY FEEDBACK FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON HOST GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambrick, D. Clay; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have typically employed feedback that is purely local, i.e., an injection of energy to the immediate neighborhood of the black hole (BH). We perform GADGET-2 simulations of massive elliptical galaxies with an additional feedback component: an observationally calibrated X-ray radiation field which emanates from the BH and heats gas out to large radii from the galaxy center. We find that including the heating and radiation pressure associated with this X-ray flux in our simulations enhances the effects which are commonly reported from AGN feedback. This new feedback model is twice as effective as traditional feedback at suppressing star formation, produces three times less star formation in the last 6 Gyr, and modestly lowers the final BH mass (30%). It is also significantly more effective than an X-ray background in reducing the number of satellite galaxies.

  20. The structure of the broad-line region in active galactic nuclei. I. Reconstructed velocity-delay maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grier, C.J.; Peterson, B.M.; Pogge, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velo...

  1. On the rate of black hole binary mergers in galactic nuclei due to dynamical hardening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, N. W. C.; Geller, A. M.; McKernan, B.; Ford, K. E. S.; Mac Low, M.-M.; Bellovary, J.; Haiman, Z.; Lyra, W.; Samsing, J.; O'Dowd, M.; Kocsis, B.; Endlich, S.

    2018-03-01

    We assess the contribution of dynamical hardening by direct three-body scattering interactions to the rate of stellar-mass black hole binary (BHB) mergers in galactic nuclei. We derive an analytic model for the single-binary encounter rate in a nucleus with spherical and disc components hosting a super-massive black hole (SMBH). We determine the total number of encounters NGW needed to harden a BHB to the point that inspiral due to gravitational wave emission occurs before the next three-body scattering event. This is done independently for both the spherical and disc components. Using a Monte Carlo approach, we refine our calculations for NGW to include gravitational wave emission between scattering events. For astrophysically plausible models, we find that typically NGW ≲ 10. We find two separate regimes for the efficient dynamical hardening of BHBs: (1) spherical star clusters with high central densities, low-velocity dispersions, and no significant Keplerian component and (2) migration traps in discs around SMBHs lacking any significant spherical stellar component in the vicinity of the migration trap, which is expected due to effective orbital inclination reduction of any spherical population by the disc. We also find a weak correlation between the ratio of the second-order velocity moment to velocity dispersion in galactic nuclei and the rate of BHB mergers, where this ratio is a proxy for the ratio between the rotation- and dispersion-supported components. Because discs enforce planar interactions that are efficient in hardening BHBs, particularly in migration traps, they have high merger rates that can contribute significantly to the rate of BHB mergers detected by the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory.

  2. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H 2 O masers. For initial cloud column densities ∼ 23.5 cm –2 the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  3. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C.; Horne, Keith; Bentz, M. C.; Denney, K. D.; Siverd, R.; Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A.; Kaspi, S.; Bord, D. J.; Che, X.

    2013-01-01

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the Hβ emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II λ4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  4. THE STRUCTURE OF THE BROAD-LINE REGION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. RECONSTRUCTED VELOCITY-DELAY MAPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grier, C. J.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Martini, Paul; Kochanek, C. S.; Zu, Y.; Shappee, B.; Beatty, T. G.; Salvo, C. Araya; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife, KY16 9SS Scotland (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, One Park Place South SE, Suite 700, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Denney, K. D. [Marie Curie Fellow at the Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Siverd, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 5301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 98409 (Ukraine); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Bord, D. J. [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan - Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Rd, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); Che, X. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 41809 (United States); and others

    2013-02-10

    We present velocity-resolved reverberation results for five active galactic nuclei. We recovered velocity-delay maps using the maximum entropy method for four objects: Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, 3C 120, and PG 2130+099. For the fifth, Mrk 6, we were only able to measure mean time delays in different velocity bins of the H{beta} emission line. The four velocity-delay maps show unique dynamical signatures for each object. For 3C 120, the Balmer lines show kinematic signatures consistent with both an inclined disk and infalling gas, but the He II {lambda}4686 emission line is suggestive only of inflow. The Balmer lines in Mrk 335, Mrk 1501, and PG 2130+099 show signs of infalling gas, but the He II emission in Mrk 335 is consistent with an inclined disk. We also see tentative evidence of combined virial motion and infalling gas from the velocity-binned analysis of Mrk 6. The maps for 3C 120 and Mrk 335 are two of the most clearly defined velocity-delay maps to date. These maps constitute a large increase in the number of objects for which we have resolved velocity-delay maps and provide evidence supporting the reliability of reverberation-based black hole mass measurements.

  5. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Galaxy Pair Fraction and Correlated Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Steffen, Joshua L.; Gross, Arran C.; Dai, Y. Sophia; Isbell, Jacob W.; Lin, Lihwai; Wake, David; Xue, Rui; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Pan, Kaike

    2018-04-01

    We have identified 105 galaxy pairs at z ∼ 0.04 with the MaNGA integral-field spectroscopic data. The pairs have projected separations between 1 and 30 kpc, and are selected to have radial velocity offsets less than 600 km s‑1 and stellar mass ratio between 0.1 and 1. The pair fraction increases with both the physical size of the integral-field unit and the stellar mass, consistent with theoretical expectations. We provide the best-fit analytical function of the pair fraction and find that ∼3% of M* galaxies are in close pairs. For both isolated galaxies and paired galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are selected using emission-line ratios and Hα equivalent widths measured inside apertures at a fixed physical size. We find AGNs in ∼24% of the paired galaxies and binary AGNs in ∼13% of the pairs. To account for the selection biases in both the pair sample and the MaNGA sample, we compare the AGN comoving volume densities with those expected from the mass- and redshift-dependent AGN fractions. We find a strong (∼5×) excess of binary AGNs over random pairing and a mild (∼20%) deficit of single AGNs. The binary AGN excess increases from ∼2× to ∼6× as the projected separation decreases from 10–30 to 1–10 kpc. Our results indicate that the pairing of galaxies preserves the AGN duty cycle in individual galaxies but increases the population of binary AGNs through correlated activities. We suggest tidally induced galactic-scale shocks and AGN cross-ionization as two plausible channels to produce low-luminosity narrow-line-selected binary AGNs.

  6. ON THE SCATTER IN THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilerci Eser, E.; Vestergaard, M. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Peterson, B. M.; Denney, K. D. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bentz, M. C., E-mail: ecekilerci@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: vester@dark-cosmology.dk, E-mail: kelly@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: peterson@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: bentz@chara.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2015-03-01

    We investigate and quantify the observed scatter in the empirical relationship between the broad line region size R and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus, in order to better understand its origin. This study is motivated by the indispensable role of this relationship in the mass estimation of cosmologically distant black holes, but may also be relevant to the recently proposed application of this relationship for measuring cosmic distances. We study six nearby reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which simultaneous UV and optical monitoring data exist. We also examine the long-term optical luminosity variations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 and employ Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of the intrinsic variability of individual objects on the scatter in the global relationship for a sample of ∼40 AGNs. We find the scatter in this relationship has a correctable dependence on color. For individual AGNs, the size of the Hβ emitting region has a steeper dependence on the nuclear optical luminosity than on the UV luminosity, which can introduce a scatter of ∼0.08 dex into the global relationship, due the nonlinear relationship between the variations in the ionizing continuum and those in the optical continuum. Also, our analysis highlights the importance of understanding and minimizing the scatter in the relationship traced by the intrinsic variability of individual AGNs since it propagates directly into the global relationship. We find that using the UV luminosity as a substitute for the ionizing luminosity can reduce a sizable fraction of the current observed scatter of ∼0.13 dex.

  7. ON THE SCATTER IN THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilerci Eser, E.; Vestergaard, M.; Peterson, B. M.; Denney, K. D.; Bentz, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate and quantify the observed scatter in the empirical relationship between the broad line region size R and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus, in order to better understand its origin. This study is motivated by the indispensable role of this relationship in the mass estimation of cosmologically distant black holes, but may also be relevant to the recently proposed application of this relationship for measuring cosmic distances. We study six nearby reverberation-mapped active galactic nuclei (AGNs) for which simultaneous UV and optical monitoring data exist. We also examine the long-term optical luminosity variations of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 and employ Monte Carlo simulations to study the effects of the intrinsic variability of individual objects on the scatter in the global relationship for a sample of ∼40 AGNs. We find the scatter in this relationship has a correctable dependence on color. For individual AGNs, the size of the Hβ emitting region has a steeper dependence on the nuclear optical luminosity than on the UV luminosity, which can introduce a scatter of ∼0.08 dex into the global relationship, due the nonlinear relationship between the variations in the ionizing continuum and those in the optical continuum. Also, our analysis highlights the importance of understanding and minimizing the scatter in the relationship traced by the intrinsic variability of individual AGNs since it propagates directly into the global relationship. We find that using the UV luminosity as a substitute for the ionizing luminosity can reduce a sizable fraction of the current observed scatter of ∼0.13 dex

  8. THE SECOND CATALOG OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI DETECTED BY THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Antolini, E.; Bonamente, E.; Atwood, W. B.; Bouvier, A.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.

    2011-01-01

    The second catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) in two years of scientific operation is presented. The second LAT AGN catalog (2LAC) includes 1017 γ-ray sources located at high Galactic latitudes (|b| > 10°) that are detected with a test statistic (TS) greater than 25 and associated statistically with AGNs. However, some of these are affected by analysis issues and some are associated with multiple AGNs. Consequently, we define a Clean Sample which includes 886 AGNs, comprising 395 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lac objects), 310 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 157 candidate blazars of unknown type (i.e., with broadband blazar characteristics but with no optical spectral measurement yet), 8 misaligned AGNs, 4 narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1s), 10 AGNs of other types, and 2 starburst galaxies. Where possible, the blazars have been further classified based on their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) as archival radio, optical, and X-ray data permit. While almost all FSRQs have a synchrotron-peak frequency 14 Hz, about half of the BL Lac objects have a synchrotron-peak frequency >10 15 Hz. The 2LAC represents a significant improvement relative to the first LAT AGN catalog (1LAC), with 52% more associated sources. The full characterization of the newly detected sources will require more broadband data. Various properties, such as γ-ray fluxes and photon power-law spectral indices, redshifts, γ-ray luminosities, variability, and archival radio luminosities and their correlations are presented and discussed for the different blazar classes. The general trends observed in 1LAC are confirmed.

  9. A (Si VI) (1.92 micrometer) coronal line survey of galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, A.; Moorwood, A. F. M.; Salvati, M.; Oliva, E.

    1994-11-01

    We present the results of a (Si VI) lambda 1.962 emission line survey of active, starburst and IRAS luminous galaxies. The line was only detected in known Seyfert type 1 and 2 nuclei confirming previous suggestions that (Si VI) is related to Seyfert activity. By modeling the formation of (Si VI) and (Fe VIII) lambda 6087 we find further strong evidence that these lines arise in gas photoionized by the active nucleus although collisional ionization e.g. by shock fronts may be important in some galaxies exhibiting (Fe VII) much greater than (Si VI). Our failure to detect (Si VI) in the IRAS ultraluminous galaxies does not exclude the possible presence of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs), particularly as some of the known Seyferts were also not detected. Molecular hydrogen lines (a by-product of our spectra) are common in all galaxy types including several IRAS ultraluminous galaxies whose H2 equivalent widths (Wlambda less that 20 A) are 'normal'and much lower than the extreme value (Wlambda approximately = 70 A) found in NGC 6240 and NGC 1275. 'Bare' Seyferts have Wlambda(H2) less than 1 A and a factor greater than or approximately 10 lower than starbursts, and we do not confirm previous claims of H2 line emission in the quasar 3C273. Although the ratio of H2 to (Si VI) emission varies over a wide range it does not appear to provide a useful indicator of activity type or to impose constraints on the He excitation mechanism.

  10. NEAR-INFRARED REVERBERATION BY DUSTY CLUMPY TORI IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Mori, Masao

    2011-01-01

    According to recent models, the accretion disk and black hole in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are surrounded by a clumpy torus. We investigate the NIR flux variation of the torus in response to a UV flash for various geometries. Anisotropic illumination by the disk and the torus self-occultation contrast our study with earlier works. Both the waning effect of each clump and the torus self-occultation selectively reduce the emission from the region with a short delay. Therefore, the NIR delay depends on the viewing angle (where a more inclined angle leads to a longer delay), and the time response shows an asymmetric profile with negative skewness, opposing the results for optically thin tori. The range of the computed delay coincides with the observed one, suggesting that the viewing angle is primarily responsible for the scatter of the observed delay. We also propose that the red NIR-to-optical color of type 1.8/1.9 objects is caused not only by the dust extinction but also the intrinsically red color. Compared with the modest torus thickness, both a thick and a thin tori display weaker NIR emission. A selection bias is thus expected such that NIR-selected AGNs tend to possess moderately thick tori. A thicker torus shows a narrower and more heavily skewed time profile, while a thin torus produces a rapid response. A super-Eddington accretion rate leads to much weaker NIR emission due to the disk self-occultation and the disk truncation by self-gravity. A long delay is expected from an optically thin and/or a largely misaligned torus. Very weak NIR emission, such as in hot-dust-poor active nuclei, can arise from a geometrically thin torus, a super-Eddington accretion rate, or a slightly misaligned torus.

  11. Infrared Selection of Obscured Active Galactic Nuclei in the COSMOS Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Juneau, Stéphanie; da Cunha, Elisabete; Salvato, Mara; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Ilbert, Olivier; Toba, Yoshiki; Lim, Chen-Fatt; Tang, Ji-Jia; Wang, Wei-Hao; Ferraro, Nicholas; Urry, Megan C.; Griffiths, Richard E.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.

    2017-12-01

    We present a study of the connection among black hole accretion, star formation, and galaxy morphology at z≤slant 2.5. We focus on active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected by their mid-IR power-law emission. By fitting optical to far-IR photometry with state-of-the-art spectral energy distribution (SED) techniques, we derive stellar masses, star formation rates, dust properties, and AGN contributions in galaxies over the whole COSMOS field. We find that obscured AGNs lie within or slightly above the star-forming sequence. We confirm our previous finding about compact host galaxies of obscured AGNs at z˜ 1, and find that galaxies with 20%-50% AGN contributions tend to have smaller sizes, by ˜25%-50%, compared to galaxies without AGNs. Furthermore, we find that a high merger fraction of up to 0.5 is appropriate for the most luminous ({log}({L}{IR}/{L}⊙ )˜ 12.5) AGN hosts and non-AGN galaxies, but not for the whole obscured AGN sample. Moreover, the merger fraction depends on the total and star-forming IR luminosity, rather than on the decomposed AGN infrared luminosity. Our results suggest that major mergers are not the main driver of AGN activity, and therefore obscured AGNs might be triggered by internal mechanisms, such as secular processes, disk instabilities, and compaction in a particular evolutionary stage. We make the SED modeling results publicly available.

  12. THE SUBARCSECOND MID-INFRARED VIEW OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. POLAR DUST EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations have shown that in a few active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the bulk of the infrared emission originates from the polar region above the putative torus, where only a little dust should be present. Here, we investigate whether such strong polar dust emission is common in AGNs. Out of 149 Seyferts in the MIR atlas of local AGNs, 21 show extended MIR emission on single-dish images. In 18 objects, the extended MIR emission aligns with the position angle (PA) of the system axis, established by [O iii], radio, polarization, and maser-based PA measurements. The relative amount of resolved MIR emission is at least 40% and scales with the [O iv] fluxes, implying a strong connection between the extended continuum and [O iv] emitters. These results together with the radio-quiet nature of the Seyferts support the scenario that the bulk of MIR emission is emitted by dust in the polar region and not by the torus, which would demand a new paradigm for the infrared emission structure in AGNs. The current low detection rate of polar dust in the AGNs of the MIR atlas is explained by the lack of sufficient high-quality MIR data and the requirements on the orientation, strength of narrow-line region, and distance of the AGNs. The James Webb Space Telescope will enable much deeper nuclear MIR studies with comparable angular resolution, allowing us to resolve the polar emission and surroundings in most of the nearby AGNs.

  13. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): the effect of galaxy group environment on active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Yjan A.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Owers, Matt S.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Croom, Scott M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Loveday, Jonathan; Mahajan, Smriti; Wang, Lingyu

    2018-04-01

    In galaxy clusters, efficiently accreting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially located in the infall regions of the cluster projected phase-space, and are rarely found in the cluster core. This has been attributed to both an increase in triggering opportunities for infalling galaxies, and a reduction of those mechanisms in the hot, virialized, cluster core. Exploiting the depth and completeness (98 per cent at r 9.9 in 695 groups with 11.53 ≤ log10(M200/M⊙) ≤ 14.56 at z 13.5, AGNs are preferentially found in the infalling galaxy population with 3.6σ confidence. At lower halo masses, we observe no difference in AGN fraction between core and infalling galaxies. These observations support a model where a reduced number of low-speed interactions, ram pressure stripping and intra-group/cluster medium temperature, the dominance of which increase with halo mass, work to inhibit AGN in the cores of groups and clusters with log10(M200/M⊙) > 13.5, but do not significantly affect nuclear activity in cores of less massive structures.

  14. RESOLVING THE GEOMETRY OF THE INNERMOST RELATIVISTIC JETS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algaba, J. C.; Lee, S. S. [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776, Daedeokdae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakamura, M.; Asada, K., E-mail: algaba@kasi.re.kr [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, AS/NTU. No.1, Section 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C (China)

    2017-01-01

    In the current paradigm, it is believed that the compact VLBI radio core of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) represents the innermost upstream regions of relativistic outflows. These regions of AGN jets have generally been modeled by a conical outflow with a roughly constant opening angle and flow speed. Nonetheless, some works suggest that a parabolic geometry would be more appropriate to fit the high energy spectral distribution properties and it has been recently found that, at least in some nearby radio galaxies, the geometry of the innermost regions of the jet is parabolic. We compile here multi-frequency core sizes of archival data to investigate the typically unresolved upstream regions of the jet geometry of a sample of 56 radio-loud AGNs. Data combined from the sources considered here are not consistent with the classic picture of a conical jet starting in the vicinity of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), and may exclude a pure parabolic outflow solution, but rather suggest an intermediate solution with quasi-parabolic streams, which are frequently seen in numerical simulations. Inspection of the large opening angles near the SMBH and the range of the Lorentz factors derived from our results support our analyses. Our result suggests that the conical jet paradigm in AGNs needs to be re-examined by millimeter/sub-millimeter VLBI observations.

  15. Investigating the variability of active galactic nuclei using combined multi-quarter Kepler data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revalski, Mitchell; Nowak, Dawid; Wiita, Paul J. [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States); Wehrle, Ann E. [Space Science Institute, 4750 Walnut Street, Suite 205, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Unwin, Stephen C., E-mail: revalsm1@tcnj.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 321-100, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    We used photometry from the Kepler satellite to characterize the variability of four radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on timescales from years to minutes. The Kepler satellite produced nearly continuous high precision data sets which provided better temporal coverage than possible with ground based observations. We have now accumulated 11 quarters of data, eight of which were reported in our previous paper. In addition to constructing power spectral densities (PSDs) and characterizing the variability of the last three quarters, we have linked together the individual quarters using a multiplicative scaling process, providing data sets spanning ∼2.8 yr with >98% coverage at a 30 minute sampling rate. We compute PSDs on these connected data sets that yield power law slopes at low frequencies in the approximate range of –1.5 to –2.0, with white noise seen at higher frequencies. These PSDs are similar to those of both the individual quarters and to those of ground-based optical observations of other AGNs. We also have explored a PSD binning method intended to reduce a bias toward shallow slope fits by evenly distributing the points within the PSDs. This tends to steepen the computed PSD slopes, especially when the low frequencies are relatively poorly fit. We detected flares lasting several days in which the brightness increased by ∼15%-20% in one object, as well a smaller flare in another. Two AGNs showed only small, ∼1%-2%, fluctuations in brightness.

  16. An Iwasawa-Taniguchi Effect for Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Peter G.; Gandhi, Poshak; Baloković, Mislav; Brightman, Murray; Harrison, Fiona; Ricci, Claudio; Stern, Daniel

    2018-04-01

    We present the first study of an Iwasawa-Taniguchi/`X-ray Baldwin' effect for Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGN). We report a statistically significant anti-correlation between the rest-frame equivalent width (EW) of the narrow core of the neutral Fe Kα fluorescence emission line, ubiquitously observed in the reflection spectra of obscured AGN, and the mid-infrared 12 μ m continuum luminosity (taken as a proxy for the bolometric AGN luminosity). Our sample consists of 72 Compton-thick AGN selected from pointed and deep-field observations covering a redshift range of z ˜ 0.0014 - 3.7. We employ a Monte Carlo-based fitting method, which returns a Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient of ρ = - 0.28 ± 0.12, significant to 98.7% confidence. The best fit found is log(EW_{Fe Kα }) ∝ -0.08± 0.04 log(L_{12 {μ } m}), which is consistent with multiple studies of the X-ray Baldwin effect for unobscured and mildly obscured AGN. This is an unexpected result, as the Fe Kα line is conventionally thought to originate from the same region as the underlying reflection continuum, which together constitute the reflection spectrum. We discuss the implications this could have if confirmed on larger samples, including a systematic underestimation of the line of sight X-ray obscuring column density and hence the intrinsic luminosities and growth rates for the most luminous AGN.

  17. Black Hole Mergers in Galactic Nuclei Induced by the Eccentric Kozai–Lidov Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Bao-Minh; Naoz, Smadar; Kocsis, Bence; Rasio, Frederic A.; Dosopoulou, Fani

    2018-04-01

    Nuclear star clusters around a central massive black hole (MBH) are expected to be abundant in stellar black hole (BH) remnants and BH–BH binaries. These binaries form a hierarchical triple system with the central MBH, and gravitational perturbations from the MBH can cause high-eccentricity excitation in the BH–BH binary orbit. During this process, the eccentricity may approach unity, and the pericenter distance may become sufficiently small so that gravitational-wave emission drives the BH–BH binary to merge. In this work, we construct a simple proof-of-concept model for this process, and specifically, we study the eccentric Kozai–Lidov mechanism in unequal-mass, soft BH–BH binaries. Our model is based on a set of Monte Carlo simulations for BH–BH binaries in galactic nuclei, taking into account quadrupole- and octupole-level secular perturbations, general relativistic precession, and gravitational-wave emission. For a typical steady-state number of BH–BH binaries, our model predicts a total merger rate of ∼1–3 {Gpc} ‑3 {yr} ‑1, depending on the assumed density profile in the nucleus. Thus, our mechanism could potentially compete with other dynamical formation processes for merging BH–BH binaries, such as the interactions of stellar BHs in globular clusters or in nuclear star clusters without an MBH.

  18. A Catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei from the First 1.5 Gyr of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perger, Krisztina [Department of Astronomy, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (Hungary); Frey, Sándor; Gabányi, Krisztina É. [Konkoly Observatory, MTA Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); Tóth, L. Viktor, E-mail: k.perger@astro.elte.hu [Department of Astronomy, Eötvös Loránd University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-08-08

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are prominent astrophysical objects that can be observed throughout the whole Universe. To understand the underlying physical processes and the different appearance of AGN types, extensive samples are needed. Nowadays, various AGN catalogs are available at different wavebands. However, at the highest redshifts data are still relatively sparse. These data are required for examining AGN properties in the early Universe. This way we can compare the earliest AGN with those seen at lower redshifts, and can study their cosmological evolution. Additionally, because of their high luminosity, AGN may also be used as probes to test cosmological models. With the aim of constructing a complete sample of all known AGN at z ≥ 4, we are currently compiling a photometric catalog from literature sources. We cross-match catalogs particularly at optical and radio wavebands, to build up a sample for detailed high-resolution radio interferometric studies. The continuously updated list now contains nearly 2,600 objects with known spectroscopic redshifts, optical magnitudes, and auxiliary information about observations at other wavebands. About 170 of them are known radio sources for which we collect existing radio interferometric data from the literature.

  19. The origin of the mid-infrared nuclear polarization of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Alonso-Herrero, A.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Ichikawa, K.; Levenson, N. A.; Martinez-Paredes, M.; Nikutta, R.; Packham, C.; Perlman, E.; Almeida, C. Ramos; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Telesco, C. M.

    2018-05-01

    We combine new (NGC 1275, NGC 4151, and NGC 5506) and previously published (Cygnus A, Mrk 231, and NGC 1068) sub-arcsecond resolution mid-infrared (MIR; 8-13 μm) imaging- and spectro-polarimetric observations of six Seyfert galaxies using CanariCam on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio CANARIAS. These observations reveal a diverse set of physical processes responsible for the nuclear polarization, and permit characterization of the origin of the MIR nuclear polarimetric signature of active galactic nuclei (AGN). For all radio quiet objects, we found that the nuclear polarization is low (sensitivity to detect such extended emission (i.e., NGC 1068 and NGC 4151). We suggest that the higher degree of polarization previously found in lower resolution data arises only on the larger-than-nuclear scales. Only the radio-loud Cygnus A exhibits significant nuclear polarization (˜11 per cent), attributable to synchrotron emission from the pc-scale jet close to the core. We present polarization models that suggest that the MIR nuclear polarization for highly obscured objects arises from a self-absorbed MIR polarized clumpy torus and/or dichroism from the host galaxy, while for unabsorbed cores, MIR polarization arises from dust scattering in the torus and/or surrounding nuclear dust.

  20. From molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei - The universality of the jet phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konigl, A.

    1986-01-01

    Jets are among the most remarkable astrophysical phenomena explored in recent years. The term ''jets'' was originally coined to describe the narrow, elongated features that had been discovered in radio maps (and, in some cases, also by X-ray and optical observations) of extragalactic sources. Similar features have subsequently been found, however, also in our own galaxy, with the relativistic beams of SS433 being probably the most celebrated example. While the SS433 beams are still unique, there is now mounting evidence that oppositely directed jets are very frequently associated with nascent stars embedded in dense molecular clouds. The purpose of this article is, in essence, to ''bridge the gap'' between these smallest-scale jets and their enormously larger extragalactic counterparts. By concentrating on the similarities between molecular-cloud and extragalactic jets, the author shall try to extract some of the basic dynamical principles that could account for the apparent universality of this phenomenon. Following an observational overview, he considers the general hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) aspects of the production, the collimation, and the propagation of jets in protostellar and in active-galactic-nuclei (AGN) environments

  1. A Catalog of Active Galactic Nuclei from the First 1.5 Gyr of the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisztina Perger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Active galactic nuclei (AGN are prominent astrophysical objects that can be observed throughout the whole Universe. To understand the underlying physical processes and the different appearance of AGN types, extensive samples are needed. Nowadays, various AGN catalogs are available at different wavebands. However, at the highest redshifts data are still relatively sparse. These data are required for examining AGN properties in the early Universe. This way we can compare the earliest AGN with those seen at lower redshifts, and can study their cosmological evolution. Additionally, because of their high luminosity, AGN may also be used as probes to test cosmological models. With the aim of constructing a complete sample of all known AGN at z ≥ 4, we are currently compiling a photometric catalog from literature sources. We cross-match catalogs particularly at optical and radio wavebands, to build up a sample for detailed high-resolution radio interferometric studies. The continuously updated list now contains nearly 2,600 objects with known spectroscopic redshifts, optical magnitudes, and auxiliary information about observations at other wavebands. About 170 of them are known radio sources for which we collect existing radio interferometric data from the literature.

  2. Geometrically Thick Obscuration by Radiation-driven Outflow from Magnetized Tori of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi-Ho [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Krolik, Julian H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Near-Eddington radiation from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) has significant dynamical influence on the surrounding dusty gas, plausibly furnishing AGNs with geometrically thick obscuration. We investigate this paradigm with radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulations. The simulations solve the magnetohydrodynamics equations simultaneously with the infrared (IR) and ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer (RT) equations; no approximate closure is used for RT. We find that our torus, when given a suitable sub-Keplerian angular momentum profile, spontaneously evolves toward a state in which its opening angle, density distribution, and flow pattern change only slowly. This “steady” state lasts for as long as there is gas resupply toward the inner edge. The torus is best described as a midplane inflow and a high-latitude outflow. The outflow is launched from the torus inner edge by UV radiation and expands in solid angle as it ascends; IR radiation continues to drive the wide-angle outflow outside the central hole. The dusty outflow obscures the central source in soft X-rays, the IR, and the UV over three-quarters of solid angle, and each decade in column density covers roughly equal solid angle around the central source; these obscuration properties are similar to what observations imply.

  3. A near-infrared relationship for estimating black hole masses in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Ward, Martin J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Bentz, Misty C.; Elvis, Martin; Korista, Kirk T.; Karovska, Margarita

    2013-06-01

    Black hole masses for samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) are currently estimated from single-epoch optical spectra using scaling relations anchored in reverberation mapping results. In particular, the two quantities needed for calculating black hole masses, namely the velocity and the radial distance of the orbiting gas are derived from the widths of the Balmer hydrogen broad emission lines and the optical continuum luminosity, respectively. We have recently presented a near-infrared (near-IR) relationship for estimating AGN black hole masses based on the widths of the Paschen hydrogen broad emission lines and the total 1 μm continuum luminosity. The near-IR offers several advantages over the optical: it suffers less from dust extinction, the AGN continuum is observed only weakly contaminated by the host galaxy and the strongest Paschen broad emission lines Paα and Paβ are unblended. Here, we improve the calibration of the near-IR black hole mass relationship by increasing the sample from 14 to 23 reverberation-mapped AGN using additional spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini Near-Infrared Spectrograph. The additional sample improves the number statistics in particular at the high-luminosity end.

  4. The near-infrared radius-luminosity relationship for active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Elvis, Martin; Ward, Martin J.; Korista, Kirk T.; Karovska, Margarita

    2011-05-01

    Black hole masses for samples of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are currently estimated from single-epoch optical spectra. In particular, the size of the broad-line emitting region needed to compute the black hole mass is derived from the optical or ultraviolet continuum luminosity. Here we consider the relationship between the broad-line region size, R, and the near-infrared (near-IR) AGN continuum luminosity, L, as the near-IR continuum suffers less dust extinction than at shorter wavelengths and the prospects for separating the AGN continuum from host-galaxy starlight are better in the near-IR than in the optical. For a relationship of the form R∝Lα, we obtain for a sample of 14 reverberation-mapped AGN a best-fitting slope of α= 0.5 ± 0.1, which is consistent with the slope of the relationship in the optical band and with the value of 0.5 naïvely expected from photoionization theory. Black hole masses can then be estimated from the near-IR virial product, which is calculated using the strong and unblended Paschen broad emission lines (Paα or Paβ).

  5. Constraints on the outer radius of the broad emission line region of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landt, Hermine; Ward, Martin J.; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita

    2014-03-01

    Here we present observational evidence that the broad emission line region (BELR) of active galactic nuclei (AGN) generally has an outer boundary. This was already clear for sources with an obvious transition between the broad and narrow components of their emission lines. We show that the narrow component of the higher-order Paschen lines is absent in all sources, revealing a broad emission line profile with a broad, flat top. This indicates that the BELR is kinematically separate from the narrow emission line region. We use the virial theorem to estimate the BELR outer radius from the flat top width of the unblended profiles of the strongest Paschen lines, Paα and Paβ, and find that it scales with the ionizing continuum luminosity roughly as expected from photoionization theory. The value of the incident continuum photon flux resulting from this relationship corresponds to that required for dust sublimation. A flat-topped broad emission line profile is produced by both a spherical gas distribution in orbital motion and an accretion disc wind if the ratio between the BELR outer and inner radius is assumed to be less than ˜100-200. On the other hand, a pure Keplerian disc can be largely excluded, since for most orientations and radial extents of the disc the emission line profile is double-horned.

  6. Probing the Large Faraday Rotation Measure Environment of Compact Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Pasetto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Knowing how the ambient medium in the vicinity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs is shaped is crucial to understanding generally the evolution of such cosmic giants as well as AGN jet formation and launching. Thanks to the new broadband capability now available at the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA, we can study changes in polarization properties, fractional polarization, and polarization angles, together with the total intensity spectra of a sample of 14 AGNs, within a frequency range from 1 to 12 GHz. Depolarization modeling has been performed by means of so-called “qu-fitting” to the polarized data, and a synchrotron self absorption model has been used for fitting to the total intensity data. We found complex behavior both in the polarization spectra and in the total intensity spectra, and several Faraday components with a large rotation measure (RM and several synchrotron components were needed to represent these spectra. Here, results for three targets are shown. This new method of analyzing broadband polarization data through qu-fitting successfully maps the complex surroundings of unresolved objects.

  7. MID- AND FAR-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF A COMPLETE SAMPLE OF LOCAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Oyabu, Shinki; Gandhi, Poshak; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuta, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the mid- (MIR) to far-infrared (FIR) properties of a nearly complete sample of local active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) all-sky hard X-ray (14-195 keV) survey, based on the cross correlation with the AKARI infrared survey catalogs complemented by those with Infrared Astronomical Satellite and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Out of 135 non-blazer AGNs in the Swift/BAT nine-month catalog, we obtain the MIR photometric data for 128 sources either in the 9, 12, 18, 22, and/or 25 μm band. We find good correlation between their hard X-ray and MIR luminosities over three orders of magnitude (42 λ (9, 18 μm) < 45), which is tighter than that with the FIR luminosities at 90 μm. This suggests that thermal emission from hot dusts irradiated by the AGN emission dominate the MIR fluxes. Both X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed AGNs follow the same correlation, implying isotropic infrared emission, as expected in clumpy dust tori rather than homogeneous ones. We find excess signals around 9 μm in the averaged infrared spectral energy distribution from heavy obscured 'new type' AGNs with small scattering fractions in the X-ray spectra. This could be attributed to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission feature, suggesting that their host galaxies have strong starburst activities.

  8. THREE-YEAR SWIFT-BAT SURVEY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: RECONCILING THEORY AND OBSERVATIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlon, D.; Greiner, J.; Merloni, A.; Ajello, M.; Comastri, A.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    It is well accepted that unabsorbed as well as absorbed active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are needed to explain the nature and shape of the Cosmic X-ray background (CXB), even if the fraction of highly absorbed objects (dubbed Compton-thick sources) still substantially escapes detection. We derive and analyze the absorption distribution using a complete sample of AGNs detected by Swift-BAT in the first three years of the survey. The fraction of Compton-thick AGNs represents only 4.6% of the total AGN population detected by Swift-BAT. However, we show that once corrected for the bias against the detection of very absorbed sources the real intrinsic fraction of Compton-thick AGNs is 20 -6 +9 %. We proved for the first time (also in the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) band) that the anti-correlation of the fraction of absorbed AGNs and luminosity is tightly connected to the different behavior of the X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) of absorbed and unabsorbed AGNs. This points toward a difference between the two subsamples of objects with absorbed AGNs being, on average, intrinsically less luminous than unobscured ones. Moreover, the XLFs show that the fraction of obscured AGNs might also decrease at very low luminosity. This can be successfully interpreted in the framework of a disk cloud outflow scenario as the disappearance of the obscuring region below a critical luminosity. Our results are discussed in the framework of population synthesis models and the origin of the CXB.

  9. The Nature of Double-peaked [O III] Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hai; Yan, Lin; Myers, Adam D.; Stockton, Alan; Djorgovski, S. G.; Aldering, G.; Rich, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked [O III] lines are suspected to be sub-kpc or kpc-scale binary AGNs. However, pure gas kinematics can produce the same double-peaked line profile in spatially integrated spectra. Here we combine integral-field spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging of 42 double-peaked [O III] AGNs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the constituents of the population. We find two binary AGNs where the line splitting is driven by the orbital motion of the merging nuclei. Such objects account for only ~2% of the double-peaked AGNs. Almost all (~98%) of the double-peaked AGNs were selected because of gas kinematics; and half of those show spatially resolved narrow-line regions that extend 4-20 kpc from the nuclei. Serendipitously, we find two spectrally unresolved binary AGNs where gas kinematics produced the double-peaked [O III] lines. The relatively frequent serendipitous discoveries indicate that only ~1% of binary AGNs would appear double-peaked in Sloan spectra and 2.2+2.5 -0.8% of all Sloan AGNs are binary AGNs. Therefore, the double-peaked sample does not offer much advantage over any other AGN samples in finding binary AGNs. The binary AGN fraction implies an elevated AGN duty cycle (8+8 -3%), suggesting galaxy interactions enhance nuclear accretion. We illustrate that integral-field spectroscopy is crucial for identifying binary AGNs: several objects previously classified as "binary AGNs" with long-slit spectra are most likely single AGNs with extended narrow-line regions (ENLRs). The formation of ENLRs driven by radiation pressure is also discussed. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  10. THE NUCLEAR INFRARED EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Lopez-Rodriguez, E.; Packham, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, P.O. Box 112055, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Alonso-Herrero, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Levenson, N. A.; Radomski, J. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/Via Lactea, s/n, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Colina, L. [Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC/INTA), Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Crta de Torrejon a Ajalvir, km 4, 28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Elitzur, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Aretxaga, I. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Aptdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Roche, P. F. [Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Oi, N. [Department of Astronomy, School of Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    We present high-resolution mid-infrared (MIR) imaging, nuclear spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and archival Spitzer spectra for 22 low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs; L{sub bol} {approx}< 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}). Infrared (IR) observations may advance our understanding of the accretion flows in LLAGNs, the fate of the obscuring torus at low accretion rates, and, perhaps, the star formation histories of these objects. However, while comprehensively studied in higher-luminosity Seyferts and quasars, the nuclear IR properties of LLAGNs have not yet been well determined. We separate the present LLAGN sample into three categories depending on their Eddington ratio and radio emission, finding different IR characteristics for each class. (1) At the low-luminosity, low-Eddington-ratio (log L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} < -4.6) end of the sample, we identify 'host-dominated' galaxies with strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon bands that may indicate active (circum-)nuclear star formation. (2) Some very radio-loud objects are also present at these low Eddington ratios. The IR emission in these nuclei is dominated by synchrotron radiation, and some are likely to be unobscured type 2 AGNs that genuinely lack a broad-line region. (3) At higher Eddington ratios, strong, compact nuclear sources are visible in the MIR images. The nuclear SEDs of these galaxies are diverse; some resemble typical Seyfert nuclei, while others lack a well-defined MIR 'dust bump'. Strong silicate emission is present in many of these objects. We speculate that this, together with high ratios of silicate strength to hydrogen column density, could suggest optically thin dust and low dust-to-gas ratios, in accordance with model predictions that LLAGNs do not host a Seyfert-like obscuring torus. We anticipate that detailed modeling of the new data and SEDs in terms of accretion disk, jet, radiatively inefficient accretion flow, and torus components will provide further

  11. Small Galactic H II regions. II. The molecular clouds and star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.A.; Thronson, H.A. Jr.; Wilton, C.

    1990-01-01

    CO maps of molecular clouds associated with 11 small Galactic H II regions are presented and compared with IR images obtained by IRAS. The molecular masses of the clouds are computed and compared with the masses of the stellar content. The mapped clouds have masses of 1000-60,000 solar and are typical of the more numerous, smaller Galactic molecular clouds. All of the clouds have recently made massive OB stars, and many have complex spatial and kinematic structures. The coincidence of IRAS sources and CO peaks suggests that many of the clouds have sites of star formation other than the optically visible H II region. Star-formation efficiencies are uncertain, with values for the clouds ranging from 0.02 to 0.6 with an average value of 0.2. There is no trend of the upper stellar mass limit with Galactic radius and with molecular cloud mass. 53 refs

  12. ON THE 10 μm SILICATE FEATURE IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikutta, Robert; Elitzur, Moshe; Lacy, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The 10 μm silicate feature observed with Spitzer in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reveals some puzzling behavior. It (1) has been detected in emission in type 2 sources, (2) shows broad, flat-topped emission peaks shifted toward long wavelengths in several type 1 sources, and (3) is not seen in deep absorption in any source observed so far. We solve all three puzzles with our clumpy dust radiative transfer formalism. Addressing (1), we present the spectral energy distribution (SED) of SST1721+6012, the first type 2 quasar observed to show a clear 10 μm silicate feature in emission. Such emission arises in models of the AGN torus easily when its clumpy nature is taken into account. We constructed a large database of clumpy torus models and performed extensive fitting of the observed SED. We find that the cloud radial distribution varies as r -1.5 and the torus contains 2-4 clouds along radial equatorial rays, each with optical depth at visual ∼60-80. The source bolometric luminosity is ∼3 x 10 12 L sun . Our modeling suggests that ∼<35% of objects with tori sharing these characteristics and geometry would have their central engines obscured. This relatively low obscuration probability can explain the clear appearance of the 10 μm emission feature in SST1721+6012 together with its rarity among other QSO2. Investigating (2), we also fitted the SED of PG1211+143, one of the first type 1 QSOs with a 10 μm silicate feature detected in emission. Together with other similar sources, this QSO appears to display an unusually broadened feature whose peak is shifted toward longer wavelengths. Although this led to suggestions of non-standard dust chemistry in these sources, our analysis fits such SEDs with standard galactic dust; the apparent peak shifts arise from simple radiative transfer effects. Regarding (3), we find additionally that the distribution of silicate feature strengths among clumpy torus models closely resembles the observed distribution, and the

  13. On the 10 μm Silicate Feature in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikutta, Robert; Elitzur, Moshe; Lacy, Mark

    2009-12-01

    The 10 μm silicate feature observed with Spitzer in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reveals some puzzling behavior. It (1) has been detected in emission in type 2 sources, (2) shows broad, flat-topped emission peaks shifted toward long wavelengths in several type 1 sources, and (3) is not seen in deep absorption in any source observed so far. We solve all three puzzles with our clumpy dust radiative transfer formalism. Addressing (1), we present the spectral energy distribution (SED) of SST1721+6012, the first type 2 quasar observed to show a clear 10 μm silicate feature in emission. Such emission arises in models of the AGN torus easily when its clumpy nature is taken into account. We constructed a large database of clumpy torus models and performed extensive fitting of the observed SED. We find that the cloud radial distribution varies as r -1.5 and the torus contains 2-4 clouds along radial equatorial rays, each with optical depth at visual ~60-80. The source bolometric luminosity is ~3 × 1012 Lsun. Our modeling suggests that lsim35% of objects with tori sharing these characteristics and geometry would have their central engines obscured. This relatively low obscuration probability can explain the clear appearance of the 10 μm emission feature in SST1721+6012 together with its rarity among other QSO2. Investigating (2), we also fitted the SED of PG1211+143, one of the first type 1 QSOs with a 10 μm silicate feature detected in emission. Together with other similar sources, this QSO appears to display an unusually broadened feature whose peak is shifted toward longer wavelengths. Although this led to suggestions of non-standard dust chemistry in these sources, our analysis fits such SEDs with standard galactic dust; the apparent peak shifts arise from simple radiative transfer effects. Regarding (3), we find additionally that the distribution of silicate feature strengths among clumpy torus models closely resembles the observed distribution, and the feature

  14. WHAT GOVERNS THE BULK VELOCITY OF THE JET COMPONENTS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Bo; Cao Xinwu; Gu Minfeng

    2012-01-01

    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on Königl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long baseline interferometry and X-ray data.. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecular clouds) might have played a more important role. If this is true, then the correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components found in this work implies that the motion velocity of the jet components is probably governed by the black hole spin. No correlation is found between the magnetic field strength at 10R S (R S = 2GM/c 2 is the Schwarzschild radius) in the jets and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample. This is consistent with the black hole spin scenario, i.e., the faster moving jets are magnetically accelerated by the magnetic fields threading the horizon of more rapidly rotating black holes. The results imply that the Blandford-Znajek mechanism may dominate over the Blandford-Payne mechanism for the jet acceleration, at least in these radio-loud AGNs.

  15. CHARACTERIZING THE OPTICAL VARIABILITY OF BRIGHT BLAZARS: VARIABILITY-BASED SELECTION OF FERMI ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Burnett, T. H.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ∼30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales σ-circumflex. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and σ-circumflex allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E ≥ 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r < 8'. We find that the suggested radio counterpart to Fermi source 2FGL J1649.6+5238 has optical variability consistent with other γ-ray blazars and is likely to be the γ-ray source. Our results suggest that the variability of the non-thermal jet emission in blazars is stochastic in nature, with unique variability properties due to the effects of relativistic beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ∼3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ∼320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  16. Characterizing the Optical Variability of Bright Blazars: Variability-based Selection of Fermi Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, John J.; Anderson, Scott F.; MacLeod, Chelsea L.; Becker, Andrew C.; Burnett, T. H.; Davenport, James R. A.; Ivezić, Željko; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Plotkin, Richard M.; Sesar, Branimir; Stuart, J. Scott

    2012-11-01

    We investigate the use of optical photometric variability to select and identify blazars in large-scale time-domain surveys, in part to aid in the identification of blazar counterparts to the ~30% of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog still lacking reliable associations. Using data from the optical LINEAR asteroid survey, we characterize the optical variability of blazars by fitting a damped random walk model to individual light curves with two main model parameters, the characteristic timescales of variability τ, and driving amplitudes on short timescales \\hat{\\sigma }. Imposing cuts on minimum τ and \\hat{\\sigma } allows for blazar selection with high efficiency E and completeness C. To test the efficacy of this approach, we apply this method to optically variable LINEAR objects that fall within the several-arcminute error ellipses of γ-ray sources in the Fermi 2FGL catalog. Despite the extreme stellar contamination at the shallow depth of the LINEAR survey, we are able to recover previously associated optical counterparts to Fermi active galactic nuclei with E >= 88% and C = 88% in Fermi 95% confidence error ellipses having semimajor axis r beaming. After correcting for beaming, we estimate that the characteristic timescale of blazar variability is ~3 years in the rest frame of the jet, in contrast with the ~320 day disk flux timescale observed in quasars. The variability-based selection method presented will be useful for blazar identification in time-domain optical surveys and is also a probe of jet physics.

  17. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minjin [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Peng, Chien Y. [Giant Magellan Telescope Corporation, 251 S. Lake Ave., Suite 300, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Irvine, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Im, Myungshin, E-mail: mkim@kasi.re.kr, E-mail: lho.pku@gmail.com, E-mail: peng@gmto.org, E-mail: barth@uci.edu, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Frontier Physics Research Division (FPRD), Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift ( z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope . The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (H β FWHM ≤ 2000 km s{sup −1}) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (H β FWHM > 2000 km s{sup −1}) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population.

  18. Multiwavelength observations of Active Galactic Nuclei from the radio to the hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchert, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Active Galaxies form a peculiar type of galaxies. Their cores, the so-called "Active Galactic Nuclei" (AGN), are the most persistent luminous objects in the universe. Accretion of several solar masses per year onto black holes of Millions to Billions of solar masses drive the immense energy output of these systems, which can exceed that of the entire galaxy. The compact energy source, however, only measures about one over a Billion times that of the entire galaxy. Subject of my thesis are observations of the two main channels of energy release of selected AGN systems, both of which are encompassed by profound and yet unanswered questions. These channels are on the one hand the pronounced X-ray emission of the hot and compact accreting environment in close vicinity of the black hole, and on the other hand the radio synchrotron emission of magnetically collimated jets that are fed by portions of the accreted matter. These jets also function as effective accelerators and drive the injected matter deep into the intergalactic medium. As the circumnuclear environment of AGN is too compact to be spatially resolved in the X-rays, I show how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to: (1) understand the effects of strong gravity to trace the geometry and physics of the X-ray source and (2) more consistently quantify matter that surrounds and dynamically absorbs our direct line of sight towards the X-ray source. Second, I unveil the valuable information contained in the polarized radio light being emitted from magnetized jet outflows. In contrast to the X-ray emitting region, I am able to spatially resolve the inner parts of the jet of a prominent galaxy with help of the Very Long Baseline Array, a large network of radio telescopes. The resulting polarization maps turn out to be exceptionally promising in answering fundamental questions related to jet physics.

  19. A survey of dual active galactic nuclei in simulations of galaxy mergers: frequency and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelo, Pedro R.; Dotti, Massimo; Volonteri, Marta; Mayer, Lucio; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Shen, Sijing

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the simultaneous triggering of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in merging galaxies, using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations. We compute dual-AGN observability time-scales using bolometric, X-ray and Eddington-ratio thresholds, confirming that dual activity from supermassive black holes (BHs) is generally higher at late pericentric passages, before a merger remnant has formed, especially at high luminosities. For typical minor and major mergers, dual activity lasts ˜20-70 and ˜100-160 Myr, respectively. We also explore the effects of X-ray obscuration from gas, finding that the dual-AGN time decreases at most by a factor of ˜2, and of contamination from star formation. Using projected separations and velocity differences rather than three-dimensional quantities can decrease the dual-AGN time-scales by up to ˜4, and we apply filters that mimic current observational-resolution limitations. In agreement with observations, we find that for a sample of major and minor mergers hosting at least one AGN, the fraction harbouring dual AGN is ˜20-30 and ˜1-10 per cent, respectively. We quantify the effects of merger mass ratio (0.1 to 1), geometry (coplanar, prograde and retrograde, and inclined), disc gas fraction and BH properties, finding that the mass ratio is the most important factor, with the difference between minor and major mergers varying between factors of a few to orders of magnitude, depending on the luminosity and filter used. We also find that a shallow imaging survey will require very high angular resolution whereas a deep imaging survey will be less resolution-dependent.

  20. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  1. NO CLEAR SUBMILLIMETER SIGNATURE OF SUPPRESSED STAR FORMATION AMONG X-RAY LUMINOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Del Moro, A.; Rovilos, E. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Altieri, B.; Coia, D. [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computation Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, E.; Le Floc' h, E.; Leiton, R. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/Service d Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dannerbauer, H. [Insitut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Dasyra, K. [Observatoire de Paris, LERMA (CNRS:UMR8112), 61 Av. de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Dickinson, M.; Kartaltepe, J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hickox, R. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Ivison, R. J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Magnelli, B.; Popesso, P.; Rosario, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); and others

    2012-11-20

    Many theoretical models require powerful active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to suppress star formation in distant galaxies and reproduce the observed properties of today's massive galaxies. A recent study based on Herschel-SPIRE submillimeter observations claimed to provide direct support for this picture, reporting a significant decrease in the mean star formation rates (SFRs) of the most luminous AGNs (L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) at z Almost-Equal-To 1-3 in the Chandra Deep Field-North (CDF-N). In this Letter, we extend these results using Herschel-SPIRE 250 {mu}m data in the COSMOS and Chandra Deep Field-South fields to achieve an order-of-magnitude improvement in the number of sources at L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. On the basis of our analysis, we find no strong evidence for suppressed star formation in L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} AGNs at z Almost-Equal-To 1-3. The mean SFRs of the AGNs are constant over the broad X-ray luminosity range of L{sub X} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 43}-10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1} (with mean SFRs consistent with typical star-forming galaxies at z Almost-Equal-To 2; (SFRs) Almost-Equal-To 100-200 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). We suggest that the previous CDF-N results were likely due to low number statistics. We discuss our results in the context of current theoretical models.

  2. MEASURING X-RAY VARIABILITY IN FAINT/SPARSELY SAMPLED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Paolillo, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Papadakis, I. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Pinto, C. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584-CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the normalized excess variance of variability process characterized by a ''red-noise'' power spectral density (PSD), as in the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform Monte Carlo simulations of light curves, assuming both a continuous and a sparse sampling pattern and various signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). We show that the normalized excess variance is a biased estimate of the variance even in the case of continuously sampled light curves. The bias depends on the PSD slope and on the sampling pattern, but not on the S/N. We provide a simple formula to account for the bias, which yields unbiased estimates with an accuracy better than 15%. We show that the normalized excess variance estimates based on single light curves (especially for sparse sampling and S/N < 3) are highly uncertain (even if corrected for bias) and we propose instead the use of an ''ensemble estimate'', based on multiple light curves of the same object, or on the use of light curves of many objects. These estimates have symmetric distributions, known errors, and can also be corrected for biases. We use our results to estimate the ability to measure the intrinsic source variability in current data, and show that they could also be useful in the planning of the observing strategy of future surveys such as those provided by X-ray missions studying distant and/or faint AGN populations and, more in general, in the estimation of the variability amplitude of sources that will result from future surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  3. GPU-BASED MONTE CARLO DUST RADIATIVE TRANSFER SCHEME APPLIED TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymann, Frank; Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing-time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust temperatures of one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are reproduced at high precision. The parallelization capability of various MC algorithms is analyzed and included in our treatment. We utilize the Lucy algorithm for the optical thin case where the Poisson noise is high, the iteration-free Bjorkman and Wood method to reduce the calculation time, and the Fleck and Canfield diffusion approximation for extreme optical thick cells. The code is applied to model the appearance of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at optical and infrared wavelengths. The AGN torus is clumpy and includes fluffy composite grains of various sizes made up of silicates and carbon. The dependence of the SED on the number of clumps in the torus and the viewing angle is studied. The appearance of the 10 μm silicate features in absorption or emission is discussed. The SED of the radio-loud quasar 3C 249.1 is fit by the AGN model and a cirrus component to account for the far-infrared emission.

  4. Local Swift-BAT active galactic nuclei prefer circumnuclear star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, D.; Shimizu, T.; Davies, R. I.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.; Veilleux, S.

    2018-01-01

    We use Herschel data to analyze the size of the far-infrared 70 μm emission for z BAT selected active galactic nuclei (AGN), and 515 comparison galaxies that are not detected by BAT. For modest far-infrared luminosities 8.5 BAT hosts that is only half that of comparison galaxies of same far-infrared luminosity. The result mostly reflects a more compact distribution of star formation (and hence gas) in the AGN hosts, but compact AGN heated dust may contribute in some extremely AGN dominated systems. Our findings are in support of an AGN-host coevolution where accretion onto the central black hole and star formation are fed from the same gas reservoir, with more efficient black hole feeding if that reservoir is more concentrated. The significant scatter in the far-infrared sizes emphasizes that we are mostly probing spatial scales much larger than those of actual accretion, and that rapid accretion variations can smear the distinction between the AGN and comparison categories. Large samples are hence needed to detect structural differences that favor feeding of the black hole. No size difference between AGN host and comparison galaxies is observed at higher far-infrared luminosities log(LFIR [L⊙]) > 10.5 (star formation rates ≳6 M⊙ yr-1), possibly because these are typically reached in more compact regions. Full Table A.1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/609/A9

  5. The case for inflow of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Goosmann, René W.

    2016-02-01

    The high-ionization lines of the broad-line region (BLR) of thermal active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show blueshifts of a few hundred km/s to several thousand km/sec with respect to the low-ionization lines. This has long been thought to be due to the high-ionization lines of the BLR arising in a wind of which the far side of the outflow is blocked from our view by the accretion disc. Evidence for and against the disc-wind model is discussed. The biggest problem for the model is that velocity-resolved reverberation mapping repeatedly fails to show the expected kinematic signature of outflow of the BLR. The disc-wind model also cannot readily reproduce the red side of the line profiles of high-ionization lines. The rapidly falling density in an outflow makes it difficult to obtain high equivalent widths. We point out a number of major problems with associating the BLR with the outflows producing broad absorption lines. An explanation which avoids all these problems and satisfies the constraints of both the line profiles and velocity-resolved reverberation-mapping is a model in which the blueshifting is due to scattering off material spiraling inwards with an inflow velocity of half the velocity of the blueshifting. We discuss how recent reverberation mapping results are consistent with the scattering-plus-inflow model but do not support a disc-wind model. We propose that the anti-correlation of the apparent redshifting of Hβ with the blueshifting of C iv is a consequence of contamination of the red wings of Hβ by the broad wings of [O iii].

  6. The energetics of relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei with various kinetic powers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musoke, Gibwa Rebecca; Young, Andrew; Molnar, Sandor; Birkinshaw, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Numerical simulations are an important tool in understanding the physical processes behind relativistic jets in active galactic nuclei. In such simulations different combinations of intrinsic jet parameters can be used to obtain the same jet kinetic powers. We present a numerical investigation of the effects of varying the jet power on the dynamic and energetic characteristics of the jets for two kinetic power regimes; in the first regime we change the jet density whilst maintaining a fixed velocity, in the second the jet density is held constant while the velocity is varied. We conduct 2D axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations of bipolar jets propagating through an isothermal cluster atmosphere using the FLASH MHD code in pure hydrodynamics mode. The jets are simulated with kinetic powers ranging between 1045 and 1046 erg/s and internal Mach numbers ranging from 5.6 to 21.5.As the jets begin to propagate into the intracluster medium (ICM), the injected jet energy is converted into the thermal, kinetic and gravitational potential energy components of the jet cocoon and ICM. We explore the temporal evolution of the partitioning of the injected jet energy into the cocoon and the ICM and quantify the importance of entrainment process on the energy partitioning. We investigate the fraction of injected energy transferred to the thermal energy component of the jet-ICM system in the context of heating the cluster environments, noting that the jets simulated display peak thermalisation efficiencies of least 65% and a marked dependence on the jet density. We compare the efficiencies of the energy partitioning between the cocoon and ICM for the two kinetic power regimes and discuss the resulting efficiency-power scaling relations of each regime.

  7. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN GROUPS AND CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: DETECTION AND HOST MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Timothy J.; Martini, Paul; Mulchaey, John S.; Berti, Angela; Jeltema, Tesla E.

    2009-01-01

    The incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the field, groups, and clusters can provide new information about how these objects are triggered and fueled, similar to how these environments have been employed to study galaxy evolution. We have obtained new XMM-Newton observations of seven X-ray selected groups and poor clusters with 0.02 -1 ). We find that the X-ray selected AGN fraction increases from f A (L X ≥ 10 41 ; M R ≤ M* R + 1) = 0.047 +0.023 -0.016 in clusters to 0.091 +0.049 -0.034 for the groups (85% significance), or a factor of 2, for AGN above an 0.3-8 keV X-ray luminosity of 10 41 ergs -1 hosted by galaxies more luminous than M* R + 1. The trend is similar, although less significant, for a lower-luminosity host threshold of M R = -20 mag. For many of the groups in the sample, we have also identified AGN via standard emission-line diagnostics and find that these AGNs are nearly disjoint from the X-ray selected AGN. Because there are substantial differences in the morphological mix of galaxies between groups and clusters, we have also measured the AGN fraction for early-type galaxies alone to determine if the differences are directly due to environment, or indirectly due to the change in the morphological mix. We find that the AGN fraction in early-type galaxies is also lower in clusters f A,n≥2.5 (L X ≥ 10 41 ; M R ≤ M* R + 1) = 0.048 +0.028 -0.019 compared to 0.119 +0.064 -0.044 for the groups (92% significance), a result consistent with the hypothesis that the change in AGN fraction is directly connected to environment.

  8. RefleX: X-ray absorption and reflection in active galactic nuclei for arbitrary geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltani, S.; Ricci, C.

    2017-11-01

    Reprocessed X-ray radiation carries important information about the structure and physical characteristics of the material surrounding the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in active galactic nuclei (AGN). We report here on a newly developed simulation platform, RefleX, which allows to reproduce absorption and reflection by quasi-arbitrary geometries. We show here the reliability of our approach by comparing the results of our simulations with existing spectral models such as pexrav, MYTorus and BNTorus. RefleX implements both Compton scattering on free electrons and Rayleigh scattering and Compton scattering on bound electrons. We show the effect of bound-electron corrections on a torus geometry simulated like in MYTorus. We release with this paper the RefleX executable, as well as RXTorus, a model that assumes absorption and reflection from a torus with a varying ratio of the minor to major axis of the torus. To allow major flexibility RXTorus is also distributed in three components: absorbed primary emission, scattered radiation and fluorescent lines. RXTorus is provided for different values of the abundance, and with (atomic configuration) or without (free-electron configuration) taking into account Rayleigh scattering and bound electrons. We apply the RXTorus model in both configurations on the XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of the Compton-thick AGN NGC 424 and find that the models are able to reproduce very well the observations, but that the assumption on the bound or free state of the electrons has significant consequences on the fit parameters. RefleX executable, user manual and example models are available at http://www.astro.unige.ch/reflex. A copy of the RefleX executable is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A31

  9. Science of active galactic nuclei with the GTC and CanariCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Nancy A.; Packham, Christopher C.; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Aretxaga, Itziar; Colina, Luis; Díaz-Santos, Tanio; Elitzur, Moshe; Mason, Rachel E.; Perlman, Eric S.; Radomski, James T.; Roche, Patrick F.; Rodríguez Espinosa, José Miguel; Young, Stuart; Telesco, Charles M.

    2008-07-01

    CanariCam is the facility mid-infrared (MIR) instrument for the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), a 10.4m telescope at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos on La Palma. One of the science drivers for CanariCam is the study of active galactic nuclei (AGN). We will exploit the instrument's high sensitivity in imaging, spectroscopy, and polarimetry modes to answer fundamental questions of AGN and their host galaxies. Dust in the nucleus of an active galaxy reprocesses the intrinsic radiation of the central engine to emerge in the MIR. Current work demonstrates that the hot dust immediately associated with the AGN, which blocks direct views of the AGN from some lines of sight, is confined to small (parsec) scales. Thus, high spatial resolution is essential to probe the "torus" of unified AGN models separate from the host galaxy. CanariCam provides a 0.08" pixel scale for Nyquist sampling the diffraction-limited point spread function at 8μm, and narrow (0.2") spectroscopy slits (with R=120-1300). New observations with the GTC/CanariCam will provide key constraints on the physical conditions in the clumpy torus, and we will sensitively determine AGN obscuration as a function of nuclear activity. We will therefore address the fueling process and its relationship to the torus, the interaction with the host galaxy, and dust chemistry. These data will be essential preparation for the next generation of telescopes that will observe the distant universe directly to explore galaxy and black hole formation and evolution, and the GTC/CanariCam system uniquely provides multiple modes to probe AGN.

  10. Merging Black Hole Binaries in Galactic Nuclei: Implications for Advanced-LIGO Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Fabio; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the recent detection of gravitational waves from the black hole binary merger GW150914, we study the dynamical evolution of (stellar-mass) black holes in galactic nuclei, where massive star clusters reside. With masses of ˜ {10}7 {M}⊙ and sizes of only a few parsecs, nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are the densest stellar systems observed in the local universe and represent a robust environment where black hole binaries can dynamically form, harden, and merge. We show that due to their large escape speeds, NSCs can retain a large fraction of their merger remnants. Successive mergers can then lead to significant growth and produce black hole mergers of several tens of solar masses similar to GW150914 and up to a few hundreds of solar masses, without the need to invoke extremely low metallicity environments. We use a semi-analytical approach to describe the dynamics of black holes in massive star clusters. Our models give a black hole binary merger rate of ≈ 1.5 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 from NSCs, implying up to a few tens of possible detections per year with Advanced LIGO. Moreover, we find a local merger rate of ˜ 1 {{Gpc}}-3 {{yr}}-1 for high mass black hole binaries similar to GW150914; a merger rate comparable to or higher than that of similar binaries assembled dynamically in globular clusters (GCs). Finally, we show that if all black holes receive high natal kicks, ≳ 50 {km} {{{s}}}-1, then NSCs will dominate the local merger rate of binary black holes compared to either GCs or isolated binary evolution.

  11. Dust inflated accretion disc as the origin of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Alexei; Laor, Ari

    2018-02-01

    The broad line region (BLR) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is composed of dense gas (˜1011 cm-3) on sub-pc scale, which absorbs about 30 per cent of the ionizing continuum. The outer size of the BLR is likely set by dust sublimation, and its density by the incident radiation pressure compression (RPC). But, what is the origin of this gas, and what sets its covering factor (CF)? Czerny & Hryniewicz (2011) suggested that the BLR is a failed dusty wind from the outer accretion disc. We explore the expected dust properties, and the implied BLR structure. We find that graphite grains sublimate only at T ≃ 2000 K at the predicted density of ˜1011 cm-3, and therefore large graphite grains (≥0.3 μm) survive down to the observed size of the BLR, RBLR. The dust opacity in the accretion disc atmosphere is ˜50 times larger than previously assumed, and leads to an inflated torus-like structure, with a predicted peak height at RBLR. The illuminated surface of this torus-like structure is a natural place for the BLR. The BLR CF is mostly set by the gas metallicity, the radiative accretion efficiency, a dynamic configuration and ablation by the incident optical-UV continuum. This model predicts that the BLR should extend inwards of RBLR to the disc radius where the surface temperature is ≃2000 K, which occurs at Rin ≃ 0.18RBLR. The value of Rin can be tested by reverberation mapping of the higher ionization lines, predicted by RPC to peak well inside RBLR. The dust inflated disc scenario can also be tested based on the predicted response of RBLR and the CF to changes in the AGN luminosity and accretion rate.

  12. Parsec-scale Faraday rotation and polarization of 20 active galactic nuclei jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, E. V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Sokolovsky, K. V.

    2017-05-01

    We perform polarimetry analysis of 20 active galactic nuclei jets using the very long baseline array at 1.4, 1.6, 2.2, 2.4, 4.6, 5.0, 8.1, 8.4 and 15.4 GHz. The study allowed us to investigate linearly polarized properties of the jets at parsec scales: distribution of the Faraday rotation measure (RM) and fractional polarization along the jets, Faraday effects and structure of Faraday-corrected polarization images. Wavelength dependence of the fractional polarization and polarization angle is consistent with external Faraday rotation, while some sources show internal rotation. The RM changes along the jets, systematically increasing its value towards synchrotron self-absorbed cores at shorter wavelengths. The highest core RM reaches 16 900 rad m-2 in the source rest frame for the quasar 0952+179, suggesting the presence of highly magnetized, dense media in these regions. The typical RM of transparent jet regions has values of an order of a hundred rad m-2. Significant transverse RM gradients are observed in seven sources. The magnetic field in the Faraday screen has no preferred orientation, and is observed to be random or regular from source to source. Half of the sources show evidence for the helical magnetic fields in their rotating magneto-ionic media. At the same time jets themselves contain large-scale, ordered magnetic fields and tend to align its direction with the jet flow. The observed variety of polarized signatures can be explained by a model of spine-sheath jet structure.

  13. Towards a physical model of dust tori in Active Galactic Nuclei. Radiative transfer calculations for a hydrostatic torus model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartmann, M.; Meisenheimer, K.; Camenzind, M.; Wolf, S.; Henning, Th.

    2005-07-01

    We explore physically self-consistent models of dusty molecular tori in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) with the goal of interpreting VLTI observations and fitting high resolution mid-IR spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The input dust distribution is analytically calculated by assuming hydrostatic equilibrium between pressure forces - due to the turbulent motion of the gas clouds - and gravitational and centrifugal forces as a result of the contribution of the nuclear stellar distribution and the central black hole. For a fully three-dimensional treatment of the radiative transfer problem through the tori we employ the Monte Carlo code MC3D. We find that in homogeneous dust distributions the observed mid-infrared emission is dominated by the inner funnel of the torus, even when observing along the equatorial plane. Therefore, the stratification of the distribution of dust grains - both in terms of size and composition - cannot be neglected. In the current study we only include the effect of different sublimation radii which significantly alters the SED in comparison to models that assume an average dust grain property with a common sublimation radius, and suppresses the silicate emission feature at 9.7~μm. In this way we are able to fit the mean SED of both type I and type II AGN very well. Our fit of special objects for which high angular resolution observations (≤0.3´´) are available indicates that the hottest dust in NGC 1068 reaches the sublimation temperature while the maximum dust temperature in the low-luminosity AGN Circinus falls short of 1000 K.

  14. GOODS-HERSCHEL: SEPARATING HIGH-REDSHIFT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR-FORMING GALAXIES USING INFRARED COLOR DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Dasyra, Kalliopi; Leiton, Roger [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Scott, Douglas; Magnelli, Benjamin; Popesso, Paola [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Postfach 1312, D-85741, Garching (Germany); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela; Valtchanov, Ivan [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Dannerbauer, Helmut [Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Astrophysik, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Dickinson, Mark; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Magdis, Georgios [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    We have compiled a large sample of 151 high-redshift (z = 0.5-4) galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} > 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-infrared spectrum into contributions from star formation and activity in the galactic nuclei. In addition, we have a wealth of photometric data from Spitzer IRAC/MIPS and Herschel PACS/SPIRE. We explore how effective different infrared color combinations are at separating our mid-IR spectroscopically determined active galactic nuclei from our star-forming galaxies. We look in depth at existing IRAC color diagnostics, and we explore new color-color diagnostics combining mid-IR, far-IR, and near-IR photometry, since these combinations provide the most detail about the shape of a source's IR spectrum. An added benefit of using a color that combines far-IR and mid-IR photometry is that it is indicative of the power source driving the IR luminosity. For our data set, the optimal color selections are S {sub 250}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6} and S {sub 100}/S {sub 24} versus S {sub 8}/S {sub 3.6}; both diagnostics have {approx}10% contamination rate in the regions occupied primarily by star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei, respectively. Based on the low contamination rate, these two new IR color-color diagnostics are ideal for estimating both the mid-IR power source of a galaxy when spectroscopy is unavailable and the dominant power source contributing to the IR luminosity. In the absence of far-IR data, we present color diagnostics using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR bands which can efficiently select out high-z (z {approx} 2) star-forming galaxies.

  15. Stellar Photometric Structures of the Host Galaxies of Nearby Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Barth, Aaron J.; Im, Myungshin

    2017-10-01

    We present detailed image analysis of rest-frame optical images of 235 low-redshift (z ≲ 0.35) Type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope. The high-resolution images enable us to perform rigorous two-dimensional image modeling to decouple the luminous central point source from the host galaxy, which, when warranted, is further decomposed into its principal structural components (bulge, bar, and disk). In many cases, care must be taken to account for structural complexities such as spiral arms, tidal features, and overlapping or interacting companion galaxies. We employ Fourier modes to characterize the degree of asymmetry of the light distribution of the stars as a quantitative measure of morphological distortion due to interactions or mergers. We examine the dependence of the physical parameters of the host galaxies on the properties of the AGNs, namely, radio-loudness and the width of the broad emission lines. In accordance with previous studies, narrow-line (Hβ FWHM ≤ 2000 km s-1) Type 1 AGNs, in contrast to their broad-line (Hβ FWHM > 2000 km s-1) counterparts, are preferentially hosted in later-type, lower-luminosity galaxies, which have a higher incidence of pseudo-bulges, are more frequently barred, and are less morphologically disturbed. This suggests that narrow-line Type 1 AGNs experienced a more quiescent evolutionary history driven primarily by internal secular evolution instead of external dynamical perturbations. The fraction of AGN hosts showing merger signatures is larger for more luminous sources. Radio-loud AGNs generally preferentially live in earlier-type (bulge-dominated), more massive hosts, although a minority of them appear to contain a significant disk component. We do not find convincing evidence for enhanced merger signatures in the radio-loud population. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute

  16. THE NATURE OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH VELOCITY OFFSET EMISSION LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller-Sánchez, F.; Comerford, J. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Harrison, F. A. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2016-10-10

    We obtained Keck/OSIRIS near-IR adaptive optics-assisted integral-field spectroscopy to probe the morphology and kinematics of the ionized gas in four velocity-offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These objects possess optical emission lines that are offset in velocity from systemic as measured from stellar absorption features. At a resolution of ∼0.″18, OSIRIS allows us to distinguish which velocity offset emission lines are produced by the motion of an AGN in a dual supermassive black hole system, and which are produced by outflows or other kinematic structures. In three galaxies, J1018+2941, J1055+1520, and J1346+5228, the spectral offset of the emission lines is caused by AGN-driven outflows. In the remaining galaxy, J1117+6140, a counterrotating nuclear disk is observed that contains the peak of Pa α emission 0.″2 from the center of the galaxy. The most plausible explanation for the origin of this spatially and kinematically offset peak is that it is a region of enhanced Pa α emission located at the intersection zone between the nuclear disk and the bar of the galaxy. In all four objects, the peak of ionized gas emission is not spatially coincident with the center of the galaxy as traced by the peak of the near-IR continuum emission. The peaks of ionized gas emission are spatially offset from the galaxy centers by 0.″1–0.″4 (0.1–0.7 kpc). We find that the velocity offset originates at the location of this peak of emission, and the value of the offset can be directly measured in the velocity maps. The emission-line ratios of these four velocity-offset AGNs can be reproduced only with a mixture of shocks and AGN photoionization. Shocks provide a natural explanation for the origin of the spatially and spectrally offset peaks of ionized gas emission in these galaxies.

  17. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION DISK WINDS AS X-RAY ABSORBERS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We present the two-dimensional ionization structure of self-similar magnetohydrodynamic winds off accretion disks around and irradiated by a central X-ray point source. On the basis of earlier observational clues and theoretical arguments, we focus our attention on a subset of these winds, namely those with radial density dependence n(r) ∝ 1/r (r is the spherical radial coordinate). We employ the photoionization code XSTAR to compute the ionic abundances of a large number of ions of different elements and then compile their line-of-sight (LOS) absorption columns. We focus our attention on the distribution of the column density of the various ions as a function of the ionization parameter ξ (or equivalently r) and the angle θ. Particular attention is paid to the absorption measure distribution (AMD), namely their hydrogen-equivalent column per logarithmic ξ interval, dN H /dlog ξ, which provides a measure of the winds' radial density profiles. For the chosen density profile n(r) ∝ 1/r, the AMD is found to be independent of ξ, in good agreement with its behavior inferred from the X-ray spectra of several active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For the specific wind structure and X-ray spectrum, we also compute detailed absorption line profiles for a number of ions to obtain their LOS velocities, v ∼ 100-300 km s -1 (at log ξ ∼ 2-3) for Fe XVII and v ∼ 1000-4000 km s -1 (at log ξ ∼ 4-5) for Fe XXV, in good agreement with the observation. Our models describe the X-ray absorption properties of these winds with only two parameters, namely the mass-accretion rate m-dot and the LOS angle θ. The probability of obscuration of the X-ray ionizing source in these winds decreases with increasing m-dot and increases steeply with the LOS inclination angle θ. As such, we concur with previous authors that these wind configurations, viewed globally, incorporate all the requisite properties of the parsec scale 'torii' invoked in AGN unification schemes. We indicate that a

  18. XMM FOLLOW-UP OBSERVATIONS OF THREE SWIFT BAT-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trippe, M. L.; Reynolds, C. S.; Koss, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Winter, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of three active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken as part of a hunt to find very heavily obscured Compton-thick AGNs. For obscuring columns greater than 10 25 cm -2 , AGNs are only visible at energies below 10 keV via reflected/scattered radiation, characterized by a flat power law. We therefore selected three objects (ESO 417-G006, IRAS 05218-1212, and MCG -01-05-047) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray survey catalog with Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) 0.5-10 keV spectra with flat power-law indices as candidate Compton-thick sources for follow-up observations with the more sensitive instruments on XMM-Newton. The XMM spectra, however, rule out reflection-dominated models based on the weakness of the observed Fe Kα lines. Instead, the spectra are well fit by a model of a power-law continuum obscured by a Compton-thin absorber plus a soft excess. This result is consistent with previous follow-up observations of two other flat-spectrum BAT-detected AGNs. Thus, out of the six AGNs in the 22 month BAT catalog with apparently flat Swift XRT spectra, all five that have had follow-up observations are not likely Compton thick. We also present new optical spectra of two of these objects, IRAS 05218-1212 and MCG -01-05-047. Interestingly, though both the AGNs have similar X-ray spectra, their optical spectra are completely different, adding evidence against the simplest form of the geometric unified model of AGNs. IRAS 05218-1212 appears in the optical as a Seyfert 1, despite the ∼8.5 x 10 22 cm -2 line-of-sight absorbing column indicated by its X-ray spectrum. MCG -01-05-047's optical spectrum shows no sign of AGN activity; it appears as a normal galaxy.

  19. CO Spectral Line Energy Distributions of Infrared-Luminous Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-06-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR(8-1000 μm) >~ 1011 L sun), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR>1012 L sun), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)—the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293—using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C+ line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  20. CO SPECTRAL LINE ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF INFRARED-LUMINOUS GALAXIES AND ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P.; Van der Werf, Paul; Isaak, Kate; Xilouris, Emmanuel M.

    2010-01-01

    We report on new sensitive CO J = 6-5 line observations of several luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs; L IR (8-1000 μm) ∼> 10 11 L sun ), 36% (8/22) of them ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) (L IR >10 12 L sun ), and two powerful local active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-the optically luminous QSO PG 1119+120 and the powerful radio galaxy 3C 293-using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. We combine these observations with existing low-J CO data and dust emission spectral energy distributions in the far-infrared-submillimeter from the literature to constrain the properties of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM) in these systems. We then build the first local CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) for the global molecular gas reservoirs that reach up to high J-levels. These CO SLEDs are neither biased by strong lensing (which affects many of those constructed for high-redshift galaxies), nor suffer from undersampling of CO-bright regions (as most current high-J CO observations of nearby extended systems do). We find: (1) a significant influence of dust optical depths on the high-J CO lines, suppressing the J = 6-5 line emission in some of the most IR-luminous LIRGs, (2) low global CO line excitation possible even in vigorously star-forming systems, (3) the first case of a shock-powered high-excitation CO SLED in the radio galaxy 3C 293 where a powerful jet-ISM interaction occurs, and (4) unusually highly excitated gas in the optically powerful QSO PG 1119+120. In Arp 220 and possibly other (U)LIRGs very faint CO J = 6-5 lines can be attributed to significant dust optical depths at short submillimeter wavelengths immersing those lines in a strong dust continuum, and also causing the C + line luminosity deficit often observed in such extreme starbursts. Re-analysis of the CO line ratios available for submillimeter galaxies suggests that similar dust opacities also may be present in these high-redshift starbursts, with genuinely low

  1. Determining the Covering Factor of Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nuclei with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightman, M.; Balokovic, M.; Stern, D.; Arevalo, P.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Christensen, F. E.; Zhang, W. W.

    2015-01-01

    The covering factor of Compton-thick (CT) obscuring material associated with the torus in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is at present best understood through the fraction of sources exhibiting CT absorption along the line of sight (N(sub H) greater than 1.5 x 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)) in the X-ray band, which reveals the average covering factor. Determining this CT fraction is difficult, however, due to the extreme obscuration. With its spectral coverage at hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is sensitive to the AGNs covering factor since Compton scattering of X-rays off optically thick material dominates at these energies. We present a spectral analysis of 10 AGNs observed with NuSTAR where the obscuring medium is optically thick to Compton scattering, so-called CT AGNs. We use the torus models of Brightman and Nandra that predict the X-ray spectrum from reprocessing in a torus and include the torus opening angle as a free parameter and aim to determine the covering factor of the CT gas in these sources individually. Across the sample we find mild to heavy CT columns, with N(sub H) measured from 10(exp 24) to 10(exp 26) cm(exp -2), and a wide range of covering factors, where individual measurements range from 0.2 to 0.9. We find that the covering factor, f(sub c), is a strongly decreasing function of the intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity, L(sub X), where f(sub c) = (-0.41 +/- 0.13)log(sub 10)(L(sub X)/erg s(exp -1))+18.31 +/- 5.33, across more than two orders of magnitude in L(sub X) (10(exp 41.5) - 10(exp 44) erg s(exp -1)). The covering factors measured here agree well with the obscured fraction as a function of LX as determined by studies of local AGNs with L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 42.5) erg s(exp -1).

  2. INFRARED CLASSIFICATION AND LUMINOSITIES FOR DUSTY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THE MOST LUMINOUS QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weedman, Daniel; Sargsyan, Lusine; Houck, James; Barry, Donald; Lebouteiller, Vianney

    2012-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectroscopic measurements from the Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) on Spitzer are given for 125 hard X-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs; 14-195 keV) from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) sample and for 32 AGNs with black hole masses (BHMs) from reverberation mapping. The 9.7 μm silicate feature in emission or absorption defines an infrared AGN classification describing whether AGNs are observed through dust clouds, indicating that 55% of the BAT AGNs are observed through dust. The mid-infrared dust continuum luminosity is shown to be an excellent indicator of intrinsic AGN luminosity, scaling closely with the hard X-ray luminosity, log νL ν (7.8 μm)/L(X) = –0.31 ± 0.35, and independent of classification determined from silicate emission or absorption. Dust luminosity scales closely with BHM, log νL ν (7.8 μm) = (37.2 ± 0.5) + 0.87 log BHM for luminosity in erg s –1 and BHM in M ☉ . The 100 most luminous type 1 quasars as measured in νL ν (7.8 μm) are found by comparing Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optically discovered quasars with photometry at 22 μm from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), scaled to rest frame 7.8 μm using an empirical template determined from IRS spectra. The most luminous SDSS/WISE quasars have the same maximum infrared luminosities for all 1.5 IR = 10 14.4 L ☉ . Comparing with dust-obscured galaxies from Spitzer and WISE surveys, we find no evidence of hyperluminous obscured quasars whose maximum infrared luminosities exceed the maximum infrared luminosities of optically discovered quasars. Bolometric luminosities L bol estimated from rest-frame optical or ultraviolet luminosities are compared to L IR . For the local AGN, the median log L IR /L bol = –0.35, consistent with a covering factor of 45% for the absorbing dust clouds. For the SDSS/WISE quasars, the median log L IR /L bol = 0.1, with extremes indicating that ultraviolet-derived L bol can be seriously underestimated even for type 1

  3. MOJAVE: Monitoring of jets in active galactic nuclei with VLBA experiments. XI. Spectral distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovatta, Talvikki [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 830 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Clausen-Brown, Eric; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Pushkarev, Alexander B.; Savolainen, Tuomas [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Homan, Daniel C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Lister, Matthew L., E-mail: thovatta@caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We have obtained milliarcsecond-scale spectral index distributions for a sample of 190 extragalactic radio jets through the Monitoring of Jets in Active Galactic Nuclei with the VLBA Experiments (MOJAVE) project. The sources were observed in 2006 at 8.1, 8.4, 12.1, and 15.4 GHz, and we have determined spectral index maps between 8.1 and 15.4 GHz to study the four-frequency spectrum in individual jet features. We have performed detailed simulations to study the effects of image alignment and (u, v)-plane coverage on the spectral index maps to verify our results. We use the spectral index maps to study the spectral index evolution along the jet and determine the spectral distributions in different locations of the jets. The core spectral indices are on average flat with a mean value of +0.22 ± 0.03 for the sample, while the jet spectrum is in general steep with a mean index of –1.04 ± 0.03. A simple power-law fit is often inadequate for the core regions, as expected if the cores are partially self-absorbed. The overall jet spectrum steepens at a rate of about –0.001 to –0.004 per deprojected parsec when moving further out from the core with flat spectrum radio quasars having significantly steeper spectra (mean –1.09 ± 0.04) than the BL Lac objects (mean –0.80 ± 0.05). However, the spectrum in both types of objects flattens on average by ∼0.2 at the locations of the jet components indicating particle acceleration or density enhancements along the jet. The mean spectral index at the component locations of –0.81 ± 0.02 corresponds to a power-law index of ∼2.6 for the electron energy distribution. We find a significant trend that jet components with linear polarization parallel to the jet (magnetic field perpendicular to the jet) have flatter spectra, as expected for transverse shocks. Compared to quasars, BL Lacs have more jet components with perpendicular magnetic field alignment, which may explain their generally flatter spectra. The overall

  4. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND EMISSION LINE RATIOS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, ionic emission lines, and mid-infrared continuum properties in a sample of 171 emission line galaxies taken from the literature plus 15 new active galactic nucleus (AGN) Spitzer spectra. We normalize the spectra at λ = 23 μm and grouped them according to the type of nuclear activity. The continuum shape steeply rises for longer wavelengths and can be fitted with a warm blackbody distribution of T ∼ 150-300 K. The brightest PAH spectral bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μm) and the forbidden emission lines of [Si II] 34.8 μm, [Ar II] 6.9 μm, [S III] 18.7 and 33.4 μm were detected in all the starbursts and in ∼80% of the Seyfert 2. Taking under consideration only the PAH bands at 7.7 μm, 11.3 μm, and 12.7 μm, we find that they are present in ∼80% of the Seyfert 1, while only half of this type of activity show the 6.2 μm and 8.6 μm PAH bands. The observed intensity ratios for neutral and ionized PAHs (6.2 μm/7.7 μm x 11.3 μm/7.7 μm) were compared to theoretical intensity ratios, showing that AGNs have higher ionization fraction and larger PAH molecules (≥180 carbon atoms) than SB galaxies. The ratio between the ionized (7.7 μm) and the neutral PAH bands (8.6 μm and 11.3 μm) are distributed over different ranges for AGNs and SB galaxies, suggesting that these ratios could depend on the ionization fraction, as well as on the hardness of the radiation field. The ratio between the 7.7 μm and 11.3 μm bands is nearly constant with the increase of [Ne III]15.5 μm/[Ne II] 12.8 μm, indicating that the fraction of ionized to neutral PAH bands does not depend on the hardness of the radiation field. The equivalent width of both PAH features show the same dependence (strongly decreasing) with [Ne III]/[Ne II], suggesting that the PAH molecules, emitting either ionized (7.7 μm) or neutral (11.3 μm) bands, may be destroyed with the increase of the hardness of the radiation field.

  5. The Black Hole Mass-Bulge Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei From Reverberation Mapping and Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope...... of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ~0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH vprop L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall...

  6. RADIO-LOUD NARROW-LINE SEYFERT 1 AS A NEW CLASS OF GAMMA-RAY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Cameron, R. A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery with Fermi/LAT of γ-ray emission from three radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies: PKS 1502+036 (z = 0.409), 1H 0323+342 (z = 0.061), and PKS 2004 - 447 (z = 0.24). In addition to PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.585), the first source of this type to be detected in γ rays, they may form an emerging new class of γ-ray active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These findings can have strong implications on our knowledge about relativistic jets and the unified model of the AGN.

  7. Study of fossil tracks due to 50≤Z≤92 galactic cosmic ray nuclei in meteoritic crystals: Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.; Petrova, R.I.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Brandt, R.; Vater, P.; Rebetez, M.; Spohr, R.; Vetter, J.; Perron, C.

    1999-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of investigation of charge and energy spectra of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei, based on fossil track study of extraterrestrial olivine crystals has been developed. The results of an investigation of ultra heavy Galactic cosmic ray nuclei (Z=50-92) in meteoritic olivine crystals are presented. The technique was based on calibration of olivine crystals with accelerated Xe, Au, Pb and U ions and well-controlled partial annealing of 'fresh' and 'fossil' tracks. It allows us to determine the charge spectra and abundances of cosmic ray nuclei based on fossil track length study in meteoritic and Moon crystals. The comparative studies of the spectra of ''fossil' tracks and tracks due to 208 Pb and 238 U nuclei have shown that the group of 210 μm 'fossil' tracks, first observed in 1980 at JINR is due to Th-U nuclei-products of recent r-process nucleosyntesis in our Galaxy. The method in principle allows one to resolve Pt-Pb peaks in fossil tracks, to establish the upper limit of the abundance of Z>110 nuclei in the Galactic cosmic rays at the level ≤10 -3 to the abundance of actinide nuclei and to get information on the history of Z>50 cosmic ray nuclei in time interval up to 220 M.Y

  8. Observations of active galactic nuclei from radio to gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, Moritz

    2013-01-01

    In this work, Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) - the brightest persistent objects in the universe - are discussed. According to current knowledge they consist out of several components. The central object of such systems is a supermassive black hole located in the center of a galaxy. Estimated masses of such black holes range from millions to billions of solar masses. The enormous gravitational field of the black hole affects material in its surrounding. Matter, such as gas, dust particles or stellar wind virtually provides the fuel for the AGN. The accretion process is highly efficient and partly explains the extreme luminosities of Active Galactic Nuclei. The thermal emission of the accretion disk is, however, insufficient for explaining the total emission of AGN. Observations show that some of these objects are visible throughout the complete electromagnetic spectrum. The emission in the radio regime as well as, most likely, high-energy emission seem to originate from jets. Unlike material accreted by the black hole, jets are collimated outflows with velocities near the speed of light. AGN are not completely understood. There are numerous open questions remaining, such as the exact accretion geometry, the formation and composition of the relativistic jets, the interaction between different components of these systems, as well as the place of origin and the underlying physical processes of the emission in different energy ranges. In order to address these questions a multiwavelength analysis of AGN has been performed in this work. The different energy regimes and observational techniques allow for insights into different processes and properties of such objects. A study of the connection between the accretion disk and properties of the jet has been done based on the object NGC 1052 using radio and X-ray observations. This object is a galaxy with an active nucleus. In the radio regime a double-sided jet with a projected length of several kpc is visible. In addition

  9. Modelling the Galactic bar using OGLE-II red clump giant stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rattenbury, Nicholas J.; Mao, Shude; Sumi, Takahiro; Smith, Martin C.

    2007-01-01

    Red clump giant (RCG) stars can be used as distance indicators to trace the mass distribution of the Galactic bar. We use RCG stars from 44 bulge fields from the OGLE-II microlensing collaboration data base to constrain analytic triaxial models for the Galactic bar. We find the bar major-axis is

  10. MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER. I. CHARACTERIZING WISE-SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Benford, Dominic J.; Blain, Andrew; Cutri, Roc; Griffith, Roger L.; Jarrett, T. H.; Masci, Frank; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Yan, Lin; Dey, Arjun; Lake, Sean; Petty, Sara; Wright, E. L.; Stanford, S. A.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) is an extremely capable and efficient black hole finder. We present a simple mid-infrared color criterion, W1 – W2 ≥ 0.8 (i.e., [3.4]–[4.6] ≥0.8, Vega), which identifies 61.9 ± 5.4 active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates per deg 2 to a depth of W2 ∼ 15.0. This implies a much larger census of luminous AGNs than found by typical wide-area surveys, attributable to the fact that mid-infrared selection identifies both unobscured (type 1) and obscured (type 2) AGNs. Optical and soft X-ray surveys alone are highly biased toward only unobscured AGNs, while this simple WISE selection likely identifies even heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGNs. Using deep, public data in the COSMOS field, we explore the properties of WISE-selected AGN candidates. At the mid-infrared depth considered, 160 μJy at 4.6 μm, this simple criterion identifies 78% of Spitzer mid-infrared AGN candidates according to the criteria of Stern et al. and the reliability is 95%. We explore the demographics, multiwavelength properties and redshift distribution of WISE-selected AGN candidates in the COSMOS field.

  11. Galaxy mergers and active nuclei. II. Cosmological evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, N.

    1985-01-01

    Galaxy mergers may produce active galactic nuclei (AGNs) by repopulating stellar loss-cone orbits around a central black hole. In the companion paper we derived a local bolometric luminosity function of AGNs based on this process. In this paper we interpret the observed cosmological evolution of the luminosity function of AGNs as due to evolution of the merging rate among galaxies after their formation at a redshift of approx.3. An important difference between our model and previous (empirical) models is that the evolution depends on galactic (stellar) luminosity instead of central nonthermal luminosity. The radio counts at 1.4 GHz and optical counts are reproduced by the model if the merging rate of the galaxies at the bright end of the galaxy luminosity function evolves considerably faster than the merging rate of the smaller galaxies. The theoretical and observed luminosity functions at high redshift have similar characteristics: (i) at high luminosity the evolution is best described by luminosity evolution, and (2) the luminosity function has a maximum at approx.10 3 Gpc -3 , which is the space density of the most massive galaxies. A large fraction of these galaxies are presumably formed in the precursors of rich clusters. Their merger rate is high initially and declines rapidly on a time scale of a few billion years. If the initial density fluctuation spectrum for protoclusters of mass M/sub cl/ has the form deltarho/rhoproportionalM/sup( -1+n//3)/2/sub cl/, then the steep evolution of the most luminous galaxies suggests nroughly-equal-1.3 at a redshift of approx.3, which is consistent with the observed clustering of galaxies

  12. A Green Bank Telescope Survey of Large Galactic H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Luisi, Matteo; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.

    2018-02-01

    As part of our ongoing H II Region Discovery Survey (HRDS), we report the Green Bank Telescope detection of 148 new angularly large Galactic H II regions in radio recombination line (RRL) emission. Our targets are located at a declination of δ > -45^\\circ , which corresponds to 266^\\circ > {\\ell }> -20^\\circ at b=0^\\circ . All sources were selected from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer Catalog of Galactic H II Regions, and have infrared angular diameters ≥slant 260\\prime\\prime . The Galactic distribution of these “large” H II regions is similar to that of the previously known sample of Galactic H II regions. The large H II region RRL line width and peak line intensity distributions are skewed toward lower values, compared with that of previous HRDS surveys. We discover seven sources with extremely narrow RRLs 100 {pc}, making them some of the physically largest known H II regions in the Galaxy. This survey completes the HRDS H II region census in the Northern sky, where we have discovered 887 H II regions and more than doubled the size of the previously known census of Galactic H II regions.

  13. THE NEAR-INFRARED CORONAL LINE SPECTRUM OF 54 NEARBY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Ardila, A.; Prieto, M. A.; Portilla, J. G.; Tejeiro, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between the emission of coronal lines (CLs) and nuclear activity in 36 Type 1 and 18 Type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is analyzed, for the first time, based on near-infrared (0.8-2.4 μm) spectra. The eight CLs studied, of Si, S, Fe, Al, and Ca elements and corresponding to ionization potentials (IPs) in the range 125-450 eV, are detected (3σ) in 67% (36 AGNs) of the sample. Our analysis shows that the four most frequent CLs [Si VI] 1.963 μm, [S VIII] 0.9913 μm, [S IX] 1.252 μm, and [Si X] 1.430 μm display a narrow range in luminosity, with most lines located in the interval log L 39-40 erg s –1 . We found that the non-detection is largely associated with either loss of spatial resolution or increasing object distance: CLs are essentially nuclear and easily lose contrast in the continuum stellar light for nearby sources or get diluted by the strong AGN continuum as the redshift increases. Yet, there are AGNs where the lack of coronal emission, i.e., lines with IP ≥ 100 eV, may be genuine. The absence of these lines reflects a non-standard AGN ionizing continuum, namely, a very hard spectrum lacking photons below a few Kev. The analysis of the line profiles points out a trend of increasing FWHM with increasing IPs up to energies around 300 eV, where a maximum in the FWHM is reached. For higher IP lines, the FWHM remains nearly constant or decreases with increasing IPs. We ascribe this effect to an increasing density environment as we approach the innermost regions of these AGNs, where densities above the critical density of the CLs with IPs larger than 300 eV are reached. This sets a strict range limit for the density in the boundary region between the narrow and the broad region of 10 8 -10 9 cm –3 . A relationship between the luminosity of the CLs and that of the soft and hard X-ray emission and the soft X-ray photon index is observed: the coronal emission becomes stronger with both increasing X-ray emission (soft and hard) and

  14. Cosmological Studies with Galaxy Clusters, Active Galactic Nuclei, and Strongly Lensed Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Nicholas Andrew

    The large-scale structure (LSS) of the universe provides scientists with one of the best laboratories for studying Lambda Cold Dark Matter (LambdaCDM) cosmology. Especially at high redshift, we see increased rates of galaxy cluster and galaxy merging in LSS relative to the field, which is useful for studying the hierarchical merging predicted by LambdaCDM. The largest identified bound structures, superclusters, have not yet virialized. Despite the wide range of dynamical states of their constituent galaxies, groups, and clusters, they are all still actively evolving, providing an ideal laboratory in which to study cluster and galaxy evolution. In this dissertation, I present original research on several aspects of LSS and LambdaCDM cosmology. Three separate studies are included, each one focusing on a different aspect. In the first study, we use X-ray and optical observations from nine galaxy clusters at high redshift, some embedded in larger structures and some isolated, to study their evolutionary states. We extract X-ray gas temperatures and luminosities as well as optical velocity dispersions. These cluster properties are compared using low-redshift scaling relations. In addition, we employ several tests of substructure, using velocity histograms, Dressler-Shectman tests, and centroiding offsets. We conclude that two clusters out of our sample are most likely unrelaxed, and find support for deviations from self-similarity in the redshift evolution of the Lx-T relation. Our numerous complementary tests of the evolutionary state of clusters suggest potential under-estimations of systematic error in studies employing only a single such test. In the second study, we use multi-band imaging and spectroscopy to study active galactic nuclei (AGN) in high-redshift LSS. The AGN were identified using X-ray imaging and matched to optical catalogs that contained spectroscopic redshifts to identify members of the structures. AGN host galaxies tended to be associated with the

  15. Dynamical and luminosity evolution of active galactic nuclei - Models with a mass spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, B.W.; Cohn, H.N.; Durisen, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A multimass energy-space Fokker-Planck code is used to follow the dynamical and luminosity evolution of an AGN model that consists of a dense stellar system surrounding a massive black hole. It is found that stellar evolution and tidal disruption are the predominant mass-loss mechanisms for low-density nuclei, whereas physical collisions dominate in high-density nuclei. For initial central densities greater than 10 million solar masses/cu pc the core of the stellar system contacts due to the removal of kinetic energy by collisions, whereas for densities less than this the core of the stellar system expands due to heating that results from the settling of a small population of stars into orbits tightly bound to the black hole. These mechanisms produce differing power-law slopes in the resulting stellar density cusp surrounding the black hole, -7/4 and -1/2 for low- and high-density nuclei, respectively. 60 refs

  16. Stellar systems fed by outside stars: the evolution of model galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokuchaev, V.I.; Ozernoi, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Through relaxation mechanisms, a dense central core surrounded by an extended, rarefied stellar system in a nonisothermal galactic nuclear region can be kept supplied with energy and mass conveyed by incoming stars. These factors may significantly influence the secular evolution of the core, competing with the conventional star-evaporation process. Under certain circumstances the outside environment will in fact dominate the core evolution, causing not collapse but expansion

  17. Plunging neutron stars as origin of organised magnetic field in galactic nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Karas, Vladimír; Kopáček, Ondřej; Kunneriath, D.; Zajaček, M.; Araudo, Anabella; Eckart, A.; Kovář, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 1335-1842 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-16287S; GA MŠk LD15061 Grant - others:COST(XE) MP1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : magnetic fields * neutron stars * galactic centre Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  18. DISCOVERY OF CANDIDATE H2O DISK MASERS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND ESTIMATIONS OF CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhill, Lincoln J.; Moran, James M.; Tilak, Avanti; Kondratko, Paul T.

    2009-01-01

    Based on spectroscopic signatures, about one-third of known H 2 O maser sources in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to arise in highly inclined accretion disks around central engines. These 'disk maser candidates' are of interest primarily because angular structure and rotation curves can be resolved with interferometers, enabling dynamical study. We identify five new disk maser candidates in studies with the Green Bank Telescope, bringing the total number published to 30. We discovered two (NGC 1320, NGC 17) in a survey of 40 inclined active galaxies (v sys -1 ). The remaining three disk maser candidates were identified in monitoring of known sources: NGC 449, NGC 2979, and NGC 3735. We also confirm a previously marginal case in UGC 4203. For the disk maser candidates reported here, inferred rotation speeds are 130-500 km s -1 . Monitoring of three more rapidly rotating candidate disks (CG 211, NGC 6264, VV 340A) has enabled measurement of likely orbital centripetal acceleration, and estimation of central masses ((2-7) x10 7 M sun ) and mean disk radii (0.2-0.4 pc). Accelerations may ultimately permit estimation of distances when combined with interferometer data. This is notable because the three AGNs are relatively distant (10,000 km s -1 sys -1 ), and fractional error in a derived Hubble constant, due to peculiar motion of the galaxies, would be small. As signposts of highly inclined geometries at galactocentric radii of ∼0.1-1 pc, disk masers also provide robust orientation references that allow analysis of (mis)alignment between AGNs and surrounding galactic stellar disks, even without extensive interferometric mapping. We find no preference among published disk maser candidates to lie in high-inclination galaxies. This provides independent support for conclusions that in late-type galaxies, central engine accretion disks and galactic plane orientations are not correlated.

  19. THE ROLE OF THE ACCRETION DISK, DUST, AND JETS IN THE IR EMISSION OF LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Ramos Almeida, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Nemmen, R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Alonso-Herrero, A., E-mail: rmason@gemini.edu [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2013-11-10

    We use recent high-resolution infrared (IR; 1-20 μm) photometry to examine the origin of the IR emission in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGN). The data are compared with published model fits that describe the spectral energy distribution (SED) of LLAGN in terms of an advection-dominated accretion flow, truncated thin accretion disk, and jet. The truncated disk in these models is usually not luminous enough to explain the observed IR emission, and in all cases its spectral shape is much narrower than the broad IR peaks in the data. Synchrotron radiation from the jet appears to be important in very radio-loud nuclei, but the detection of strong silicate emission features in many objects indicates that dust must also contribute. We investigate this point by fitting the IR SED of NGC 3998 using dusty torus and optically thin (τ{sub mid-IR} ∼ 1) dust shell models. While more detailed modeling is necessary, these initial results suggest that dust may account for the nuclear mid-IR emission of many LLAGN.

  20. THE LOW FREQUENCY OF DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI VERSUS THE HIGH MERGER RATE OF GALAXIES: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingjuan; Lu Youjun; Mohayaee, Roya; Colin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are natural byproducts of hierarchical mergers of galaxies in the ΛCDM cosmogony. Recent observations have shown that only a small fraction (∼0.1%-2.5%) of AGNs at redshift z ∼< 0.3 are dual with kpc-scale separations, which is rather low compared to the high merger rate of galaxies. Here we construct a phenomenological model to estimate the number density of dual AGNs and its evolution according to the observationally estimated major merger rates of galaxies and various scaling relations on the properties of galaxies and their central massive black holes. We show that our model reproduces the observed frequency and separation distribution of dual AGNs provided that significant nuclear activities are triggered only in gas-rich progenitor galaxies with central massive black holes and only when the nuclei of these galaxies are roughly within the half-light radii of their companion galaxies. Under these constraints, the observed low dual AGN frequency is consistent with the relatively high merger rate of galaxies and supports the hypothesis that major mergers lead to AGN/QSO activities. We also predict that the number of kpc-scale dual AGNs decreases with increasing redshift and only about 0.02%-0.06% of AGNs are dual AGNs with double-peaked narrow line features at redshifts of z ∼ 0.5-1.2. Future observations of high-redshift dual AGNs would provide a solid test for this prediction.

  1. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: formation of a central stellar disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panamarev, Taras; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Meiron, Yohai; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer; Omarov, Chingis; Vilkoviskij, Emmanuil

    2018-05-01

    We perform high-resolution direct N-body simulations to study the effect of an accretion disc on stellar dynamics in an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We show that the interaction of the nuclear stellar cluster (NSC) with the gaseous accretion disc (AD) leads to formation of a stellar disc in the central part of the NSC. The accretion of stars from the stellar disc on to the super-massive black hole is balanced by the capture of stars from the NSC into the stellar disc, yielding a stationary density profile. We derive the migration time through the AD to be 3 per cent of the half-mass relaxation time of the NSC. The mass and size of the stellar disc are 0.7 per cent of the mass and 5 per cent of the influence radius of the super-massive black hole. An AD lifetime shorter than the migration time would result in a less massive nuclear stellar disc. The detection of such a stellar disc could point to past activity of the hosting galactic nucleus.

  2. Nebular excitation in z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS and LUCI surveys: The influence of shocks and active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Sarah F.; Genzel, Reinhard [Department of Astronomy, Campbell Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Buschkamp, Peter; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Kurk, Jaron; Rosario, David; Davies, Ric; Eisenhauer, Frank; Lutz, Dieter [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstr. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sternberg, Amiel [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Gnat, Orly [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Mancini, Chiara; Renzini, Alvio [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Lilly, Simon J.; Carollo, C. Marcella [Institute of Astronomy, Department of Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Burkert, Andreas [Universitäts-Sternwarte Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (USM), Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 München (Germany); Cresci, Giovanni [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica Osservatorio di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Genel, Shy [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Shapiro Griffin, Kristen [Space Sciences Research Group, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Hicks, Erin K. S., E-mail: sfnewman@berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Box 351580, U.W., Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); and others

    2014-01-20

    Based on high-resolution, spatially resolved data of 10 z ∼ 2 star-forming galaxies from the SINS/zC-SINF survey and LUCI data for 12 additional galaxies, we probe the excitation properties of high-z galaxies and the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), shocks, and photoionization. We explore how these spatially resolved line ratios can inform our interpretation of integrated emission line ratios obtained at high redshift. Many of our galaxies fall in the 'composite' region of the z ∼ 0 [N II]/Hα versus [O III]/Hβ diagnostic (BPT) diagram, between star-forming galaxies and those with AGNs. Based on our resolved measurements, we find that some of these galaxies likely host an AGN, while others appear to be affected by the presence of shocks possibly caused by an outflow or from an enhanced ionization parameter as compared with H II regions in normal, local star-forming galaxies. We find that the Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic, which separates purely star-forming and AGN hosting local galaxies in the [O III]/Hβ versus stellar mass plane, does not properly separate z ∼ 2 galaxies classified according to the BPT diagram. However, if we shift the galaxies based on the offset between the local and z ∼ 2 mass-metallicity relation (i.e., to the mass they would have at z ∼ 0 with the same metallicity), we find better agreement between the MEx and BPT diagnostics. Finally, we find that metallicity calibrations based on [N II]/Hα are more biased by shocks and AGNs at high-z than the [O III]/Hβ/[N II]/Hα calibration.

  3. The secular tidal disruption of stars by low-mass Super Massive Black Holes secondaries in galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragione, Giacomo; Leigh, Nathan

    2018-06-01

    Stars passing too close to a super massive black hole (SMBH) can produce tidal disruption events (TDEs). Since the resulting stellar debris can produce an electromagnetic flare, TDEs are believed to probe the presence of single SMBHs in galactic nuclei, which otherwise remain dark. In this paper, we show how stars orbiting an IMBH secondary are perturbed by an SMBH primary. We find that the evolution of the stellar orbits are severely affected by the primary SMBH due to secular effects and stars orbiting with high inclinations with respect to the SMBH-IMBH orbital plane end their lives as TDEs due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations, hence illuminating the secondary SMBH/IMBH. Above a critical SMBH mass of ≈1.15 × 108 M⊙, no TDE can occur for typical stars in an old stellar population since the Schwarzschild radius exceeds the tidal disruption radius. Consequently, any TDEs due to such massive SMBHs will remain dark. It follows that no TDEs should be observed in galaxies more massive than ≈4.15 × 1010 M⊙, unless a lower-mass secondary SMBH or IMBH is also present. The secular mechanism for producing TDEs considered here therefore offers a useful probe of SMBH-SMBH/IMBH binarity in the most massive galaxies. We further show that the TDE rate can be ≈10-4 - 10-3 yr-1, and that most TDEs occur on ≈0.5 Myr. Finally, we show that stars may be ejected with velocities up to thousands of km s-1, which could contribute to the observed population of Galactic hypervelocity stars.

  4. THE LONGEST TIMESCALE X-RAY VARIABILITY REVEALS EVIDENCE FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE HIGH ACCRETION STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Youhong

    2011-01-01

    The All Sky Monitor (ASM) on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer has continuously monitored a number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with similar sampling rates for 14 years, from 1996 January to 2009 December. Utilizing the archival ASM data of 27 AGNs, we calculate the normalized excess variances of the 300-day binned X-ray light curves on the longest timescale (between 300 days and 14 years) explored so far. The observed variance appears to be independent of AGN black-hole mass and bolometric luminosity. According to the scaling relation of black-hole mass (and bolometric luminosity) from galactic black hole X-ray binaries (GBHs) to AGNs, the break timescales that correspond to the break frequencies detected in the power spectral density (PSD) of our AGNs are larger than the binsize (300 days) of the ASM light curves. As a result, the singly broken power-law (soft-state) PSD predicts the variance to be independent of mass and luminosity. Nevertheless, the doubly broken power-law (hard-state) PSD predicts, with the widely accepted ratio of the two break frequencies, that the variance increases with increasing mass and decreases with increasing luminosity. Therefore, the independence of the observed variance on mass and luminosity suggests that AGNs should have soft-state PSDs. Taking into account the scaling of the break timescale with mass and luminosity synchronously, the observed variances are also more consistent with the soft-state than the hard-state PSD predictions. With the averaged variance of AGNs and the soft-state PSD assumption, we obtain a universal PSD amplitude of 0.030 ± 0.022. By analogy with the GBH PSDs in the high/soft state, the longest timescale variability supports the standpoint that AGNs are scaled-up GBHs in the high accretion state, as already implied by the direct PSD analysis.

  5. THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES TO REDSHIFT 1.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, Paul; Sivakoff, Gregory R.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the luminous active galactic nucleus (AGN) population in a large sample of clusters of galaxies and find evidence for a substantial increase in the cluster AGN population from z ∼ 0.05 to z ∼ 1.3. The present sample now includes 32 clusters of galaxies, including 15 clusters above z = 0.4, which corresponds to a three-fold increase compared to our previous work at high redshift. At z R R (z) + 1 that host AGNs with rest-frame, hard X-ray [2-10 keV] luminosities L X,H ≥ 10 43 erg s -1 . The AGN fraction increases from f A = 0.134 +0.18 -0.087 % at a median z = 0.19 to f A = 1.00 +0.29 -0.23 % at a median z = 0.72. Our best estimate of the evolution is a factor of 8 increase to z = 1 and the statistical significance of the increase is 3.8σ. This dramatic evolution is qualitatively similar to the evolution of the star-forming galaxy population in clusters known as the Butcher-Oemler effect. We discuss the implications of this result for the coevolution of black holes and galaxies in clusters, the evolution of AGN feedback, searches for clusters with the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and the possible detection of environment-dependent downsizing.

  6. Super massive black hole in galactic nuclei with tidal disruption of stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank and Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  7. Super Massive Black Hole in Galactic Nuclei with Tidal Disruption of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shiyan; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer

    2014-09-01

    Tidal disruption of stars by super massive central black holes from dense star clusters is modeled by high-accuracy direct N-body simulation. The time evolution of the stellar tidal disruption rate, the effect of tidal disruption on the stellar density profile, and, for the first time, the detailed origin of tidally disrupted stars are carefully examined and compared with classic papers in the field. Up to 128k particles are used in simulation to model the star cluster around a super massive black hole, and we use the particle number and the tidal radius of the black hole as free parameters for a scaling analysis. The transition from full to empty loss-cone is analyzed in our data, and the tidal disruption rate scales with the particle number, N, in the expected way for both cases. For the first time in numerical simulations (under certain conditions) we can support the concept of a critical radius of Frank & Rees, which claims that most stars are tidally accreted on highly eccentric orbits originating from regions far outside the tidal radius. Due to the consumption of stars moving on radial orbits, a velocity anisotropy is found inside the cluster. Finally we estimate the real galactic center based on our simulation results and the scaling analysis.

  8. Effects of thermal plasma on self-absorbed synchrotron sources in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Kool, M.; Begelman, M.C.

    1989-01-01

    The observable effects of a thermal background plasma in a self-absorbed synchrotron source are reviewed, in the context of a model for the central engine of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Considering the effects of free-free absorption and emission, Thomson and Compton scattering, and spatial stratification, it is found that the observations set an upper limit on the thermal electron scattering optical depth in the central synchrotron-emitting region of an AGN. The upper limit, tau(max) about 1, results mainly from the apparent absence of induced Compton scattering and inverse thermal Comptonization effects. The low value of tau(max) poses some problems for nonthermal models of the AGN continuum that can be partly resolved by assuming a thin disk or layer-like geometry for the source, with (h/R) less than about 0.01. A likely site for the synchrotron-producing region seems to be the surface of an accretion disk or torus. 20 refs

  9. LUMINOUS BURIED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS A FUNCTION OF GALAXY INFRARED LUMINOSITY REVEALED THROUGH SPITZER LOW-RESOLUTION INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masatoshi

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph 5-35 μm low-resolution spectroscopic energy diagnostics of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z> 0.15, classified optically as non-Seyferts. Based on the equivalent widths of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission and the optical depths of silicate dust absorption features, we searched for signatures of intrinsically luminous, but optically elusive, buried active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in these optically non-Seyfert ULIRGs. We then combined the results with those of non-Seyfert ULIRGs at z IR 12 L sun . We found that the energetic importance of buried AGNs clearly increases with galaxy infrared luminosity, becoming suddenly discernible in ULIRGs with L IR > 10 12 L sun . For ULIRGs with buried AGN signatures, a significant fraction of infrared luminosities can be accounted for by the detected buried AGN and modestly obscured (A V < 20 mag) starburst activity. The implied masses of spheroidal stellar components in galaxies for which buried AGNs become important roughly correspond to the value separating red massive and blue less-massive galaxies in the local universe. Our results may support the widely proposed AGN-feedback scenario as the origin of galaxy downsizing phenomena, where galaxies with currently larger stellar masses previously had higher AGN energetic contributions and star formation originating infrared luminosities, and have finished their major star formation more quickly, due to stronger AGN feedback.

  10. Failed Radiatively Accelerated Dusty Outflow Model of the Broad Line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. Analytical Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerny, B.; Panda, S.; Wildy, C.; Sniegowska, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland); Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, J.-M. [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Hryniewicz, K.; Sredzinska, J. [Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland); Karas, V., E-mail: bcz@cft.edu.pl [Astronomical Institute, Academy of Sciences, Bocni II 1401, CZ-141 00 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2017-09-10

    The physical origin of the broad line region in active galactic nuclei is still unclear despite many years of observational studies. The reason is that the region is unresolved, and the reverberation mapping results imply a complex velocity field. We adopt a theory-motivated approach to identify the principal mechanism responsible for this complex phenomenon. We consider the possibility that the role of dust is essential. We assume that the local radiation pressure acting on the dust in the accretion disk atmosphere launches the outflow of material, but higher above the disk the irradiation from the central parts causes dust evaporation and a subsequent fallback. This failed radiatively accelerated dusty outflow is expected to represent the material forming low ionization lines. In this paper we formulate simple analytical equations to describe the cloud motion, including the evaporation phase. The model is fully described just by the basic parameters of black hole mass, accretion rate, black hole spin, and viewing angle. We study how the spectral line generic profiles correspond to this dynamic. We show that the virial factor calculated from our model strongly depends on the black hole mass in the case of enhanced dust opacity, and thus it then correlates with the line width. This could explain why the virial factor measured in galaxies with pseudobulges differs from that obtained from objects with classical bulges, although the trend predicted by the current version of the model is opposite to the observed trend.

  11. Fermi-LAT γ-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza; Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic γ-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the γ-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations

  12. THE INTRINSIC EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Mackenzie L.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Black, Christine S.; Hainline, Kevin N.; DiPompeo, Michael A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Goulding, Andy D. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    An important question in extragalactic astronomy concerns the distribution of black hole accretion rates of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Based on observations at X-ray wavelengths, the observed Eddington ratio distribution appears as a power law, while optical studies have often yielded a lognormal distribution. There is increasing evidence that these observed discrepancies may be due to contamination by star formation and other selection effects. Using a sample of galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7, we test whether or not an intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution that takes the form of a Schechter function is consistent with previous work suggesting that young galaxies in optical surveys have an observed lognormal Eddington ratio distribution. We simulate the optical emission line properties of a population of galaxies and AGNs using a broad, instantaneous luminosity distribution described by a Schechter function near the Eddington limit. This simulated AGN population is then compared to observed galaxies via their positions on an emission line excitation diagram and Eddington ratio distributions. We present an improved method for extracting the AGN distribution using BPT diagnostics that allows us to probe over one order of magnitude lower in Eddington ratio, counteracting the effects of dilution by star formation. We conclude that for optically selected AGNs in young galaxies, the intrinsic Eddington ratio distribution is consistent with a possibly universal, broad power law with an exponential cutoff, as this distribution is observed in old, optically selected galaxies and X-rays.

  13. Fermi-LAT γ-ray anisotropy and intensity explained by unresolved radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, Mattia Di; Cuoco, Alessandro; Donato, Fiorenza [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, Torino, 10125 Italy (Italy); Siegal-Gaskins, Jennifer M., E-mail: mattia.dimauro@to.infn.it, E-mail: alessandro.cuoco@to.infn.it, E-mail: donato@to.infn.it, E-mail: jsg@tapir.caltech.edu [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) are expected to contribute substantially to both the intensity and anisotropy of the isotropic γ-ray background (IGRB). In turn, the measured properties of the IGRB can be used to constrain the characteristics of proposed contributing source classes. We consider individual subclasses of radio-loud AGN, including low-, intermediate-, and high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects, flat-spectrum radio quasars, and misaligned AGN. Using updated models of the γ-ray luminosity functions of these populations, we evaluate the energy-dependent contribution of each source class to the intensity and anisotropy of the IGRB. We find that collectively radio-loud AGN can account for the entirety of the IGRB intensity and anisotropy as measured by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). Misaligned AGN provide the bulk of the measured intensity but a negligible contribution to the anisotropy, while high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lacertae objects provide the dominant contribution to the anisotropy. In anticipation of upcoming measurements with the Fermi-LAT and the forthcoming Cherenkov Telescope Array, we predict the anisotropy in the broader energy range that will be accessible to future observations.

  14. Galaxy Evolution in the Radio Band: The Role of Star-forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancuso, C.; Prandoni, I. [INAF-IRA, Via P. Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Lapi, A.; Obi, I.; Perrotta, F.; Bressan, A.; Celotti, A.; Danese, L. [SISSA, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Gonzalez-Nuevo, J. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo, C. Calvo Sotelo s/n, E-33007 Oviedo (Spain)

    2017-06-20

    We investigate the astrophysics of radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and elucidate their statistical properties in the radio band, including luminosity functions, redshift distributions, and number counts at sub-mJy flux levels, which will be crucially probed by next-generation radio continuum surveys. Specifically, we exploit the model-independent approach by Mancuso et al. to compute the star formation rate functions, the AGN duty cycles, and the conditional probability of a star-forming galaxy to host an AGN with given bolometric luminosity. Coupling these ingredients with the radio emission properties associated with star formation and nuclear activity, we compute relevant statistics at different radio frequencies and disentangle the relative contribution of star-forming galaxies and AGNs in different radio luminosity, radio flux, and redshift ranges. Finally, we highlight that radio-emitting star-forming galaxies and AGNs are expected to host supermassive black holes accreting with different Eddington ratio distributions and to occupy different loci in the galaxy main-sequence diagrams. These specific predictions are consistent with current data sets but need to be tested with larger statistics via future radio data with multiband coverage on wide areas, as will become routinely achievable with the advent of the Square Kilometre Array and its precursors.

  15. The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies and Active Galactic Nuclei in the Southern Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsden, Danica; Gralla, Megan; Marriage, Tobias A.; Switzer, Eric R.; Partridge, Bruce; Massardi, Marcella; Morales, Gustavo; Addison, Graeme; Bond, J. Richard; Crighton, Devin; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present a catalogue of 191 extragalactic sources detected by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 and/or 218 GHz in the 2008 Southern survey. Flux densities span 14 -1700 mJy, and we use source spectral indices derived using ACT-only data to divide our sources into two subpopulations: 167 radio galaxies powered by central active galactic nuclei (AGN) and 24 dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs). We cross-identify 97 per cent of our sources (166 of the AGN and 19 of the DSFGs) with those in currently available catalogues. When combined with flux densities from the Australia Telescope 20 GHz survey and follow-up observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array, the synchrotron-dominated population is seen to exhibit a steepening of the slope of the spectral energy distribution from 20 to 148 GHz, with the trend continuing to 218 GHz. The ACT dust-dominated source population has a median spectral index, A(sub 148-218), of 3.7 (+0.62 or -0.86), and includes both local galaxies and sources with redshift around 6. Dusty sources with no counterpart in existing catalogues likely belong to a recently discovered subpopulation of DSFGs lensed by foreground galaxies or galaxy groups.

  16. EVOLUTION OF WARPED ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. I. ROLES OF FEEDING AT THE OUTER BOUNDARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Cheng, Cheng; Qiu, Jie

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the alignment processes of spinning black holes and their surrounding warped accretion disks in a frame of two different types of feeding at the outer boundaries. We consider (1) fixed flows in which gas is continually fed with a preferred angular momentum, and (2) free flows in which there is no gas supply and the disks diffuse freely at their outer edges. As expected, we find that for the cases of fixed flows the black hole disk systems always align on timescales of several 10 6 yr, irrespective of the initial inclinations. If the initial inclination angles are larger than π/2, the black hole accretion transits from retrograde to prograde fashion, and the accreted mass onto the black holes during these two phases is comparable. On the other hand, for the cases of free flows, both alignments and anti-alignments can occur, depending on the initial inclinations and the ratios of the angular momentum of the disks to that of the black holes. In such cases, the disks will be consumed within timescales of 10 6 yr by black holes accreting at the Eddington limit. We propose that there is a close connection between the black hole spin and the lifetime for which the feeding persists, which determines the observable episodic lifetimes of active galactic nuclei. We conclude that careful inclusion of the disk feeding at the outer boundaries is crucial for modeling the evolution of the black hole spin.

  17. Oscillatory patterns in the light curves of five long-term monitored type 1 active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačević, Andjelka B.; Pérez-Hernández, Ernesto; Popović, Luka Č.; Shapovalova, Alla I.; Kollatschny, Wolfram; Ilić, Dragana

    2018-04-01

    New combined data of five well-known type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are probed with a novel hybrid method in a search for oscillatory behaviour. Additional analysis of artificial light curves obtained from the coupled oscillatory models gives confirmation for detected periods that could have a physical background. We find periodic variations in the long-term light curves of 3C 390.3, NGC 4151 and NGC 5548, and E1821 + 643, with correlation coefficients larger than 0.6. We show that the oscillatory patterns of two binary black hole candidates, NGC 5548 and E1821 + 643, correspond to qualitatively different dynamical regimes of chaos and stability, respectively. We demonstrate that the absence of oscillatory patterns in Arp 102B could be the result of a weak coupling between oscillatory mechanisms. This is the first good evidence that 3C 390.3 and Arp 102B, categorized as double-peaked Balmer line objects, have qualitative different dynamics. Our analysis shows a novelty in the oscillatory dynamical patterns of the light curves of these type 1 AGNs.

  18. Bulgeless galaxies at intermediate redshift: Sample selection, color properties, and the existence of powerful active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzocchi, Luca; Leonardo, Elvira; Grossi, Marco; Afonso, José; Fernandes, Cristina; Retrê, João [Centro de Astronomia e Astrofísica da Universidade de Lisboa, Observatório Astronómico de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-018 Lisbon (Portugal); Filho, Mercedes E.; Lobo, Catarina [Centro de Astrofísica da Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Griffith, Roger L. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Anton, Sonia [Centro de Investigação em Ciências Geo-Espaciais, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Henriques, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 1, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de astronomía, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas, Universidad de Concepción (Chile)

    2014-02-10

    We present a catalog of bulgeless galaxies, which includes 19,225 objects selected in four of the deepest, largest multi-wavelength data sets available—COSMOS, AEGIS, GEMS, and GOODS—at intermediate redshift (0.4 ≤ z ≤ 1.0). The morphological classification was provided by the Advanced Camera for Surveys General Catalog (ACS-GC), which used publicly available data obtained with the ACS instrument on the Hubble Space Telescope. Rest-frame photometric quantities were derived using kcorrect. We analyze the properties of the sample and the evolution of pure-disk systems with redshift. Very massive [log (M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}) > 10.5] bulgeless galaxies contribute to ∼30% of the total galaxy population number density at z ≥ 0.7, but their number density drops substantially with decreasing redshift. We show that only a negligible fraction of pure disks appear to be quiescent systems, and red sequence bulgeless galaxies show indications of dust-obscured star formation. X-ray catalogs were used to search for X-ray emission within our sample. After visual inspection and detailed parametric morphological fitting we identify 30 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that reside in galaxies without a classical bulge. The finding of such peculiar objects at intermediate redshift shows that while AGN growth in merger-free systems is a rare event (0.2% AGN hosts in this sample of bulgeless galaxies), it can indeed happen relatively early in the history of the universe.

  19. SDSS-IV MaNGA: identification of active galactic nuclei in optical integral field unit surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Drory, Niv; Andrews, Brett H.; Merloni, Andrea; Thomas, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate 2727 galaxies observed by MaNGA as of 2016 June to develop spatially resolved techniques for identifying signatures of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We identify 303 AGN candidates. The additional spatial dimension imposes challenges in identifying AGNs due to contamination from diffuse ionized gas, extraplanar gas and photoionization by hot stars. We show that the combination of spatially resolved line diagnostic diagrams and additional cuts on H α surface brightness and H α equivalent width can distinguish between AGN-like signatures and high-metallicity galaxies with low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions-like spectra. Low-mass galaxies with high specific star formation rates are particularly difficult to diagnose and routinely show diagnostic line ratios outside of the standard star formation locus. We develop a new diagnostic - the distance from the standard diagnostic line in the line-ratio space - to evaluate the significance of the deviation from the star formation locus. We find 173 galaxies that would not have been selected as AGN candidates based on single-fibre spectral measurements but exhibit photoionization signatures suggestive of AGN activity in the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO resolved observations, underscoring the power of large integral field unit surveys. A complete census of these new AGN candidates is necessary to understand their nature and probe the complex co-evolution of supermassive black holes and their hosts.

  20. THE RELATION OF OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET AND X-RAY EMISSION IN LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yadi

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation of optical/UV and X-ray emission in the low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs), using a sample of 49 sources including 28 local Seyfert galaxies and 21 low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions with optical/UV spectral luminosity at wavelength λ = 2500 A, 23.0 ≤ log L ν(2500A) (erg s -1 Hz -1 ) ≤ 27.7, and X-ray spectral luminosity at 2 keV, 20.5 ≤ log L ν(2keV) ≤ 25.3. Strong correlations are found between the X-ray luminosity and the optical/UV-to-X-ray index, α ox , with the optical/UV luminosity, with slopes very similar to the findings for the luminous AGNs in previous works. The correlation between α ox and L ν(2keV) is very weak, as is that found for the luminous AGNs in the majority of previous similar works. We also study the relation between α ox and the Eddington ratio L bol /L Edd for our sample and find a significant anti-correlation for the sources with L bol /L Edd ∼ -3 , which is opposite to the correlation between the two variables for the luminous AGNs. Using the advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model, we roughly reproduce this anti-correlationship for the two variables for the LLAGNs. This result strongly supports the ADAF as a candidate for the accretion mode in LLAGNs.

  1. Spectral evolution of active galactic nuclei: A unified description of the X-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letter, D.; Boldt, E.

    1982-01-01

    A model for spectral evolution is presented whereby active galactic nuclei (AGN) of the type observed individually have emerged from an earlier stage at zroughly-equal4 in which they are the thermal X-ray sources responsible for most of the comic X-ray background (CXB). We pursue the conjecture that these precursor objects are initially supermassive Schwarzschild black holes with accretion disks radiating near the Eddington luminosity limit. It is noted that after approx.10 8 years these central black holes are spun up to a ''canonical'' Kerr equilibriuim state (a/M = 0.998) and shown how they can lead to spectral evolution involving nonthermal emission extending to gamma-rays, at the expense of reduced thermal disk radiation. A superposition of sources in the precursor stage can thereby account for that major portion of the CXB remaining after the contributions of usual AGN are considered, while a superposition of AGN sources at z<1 can account for the gamima-ray background. Extensive X-ray measurements carried out with the HEAO 1 and HEAO 2 missions, as well as gamma-ray and optical data, are shown to compare favorably with principal features of this model. Several further observational tests are suggested for establishing the validity of this scenario for AGN spectral evolution

  2. THE DIFFERENCES IN THE TORUS GEOMETRY BETWEEN HIDDEN AND NON-HIDDEN BROAD LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichikawa, Kohei; Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Packham, Christopher; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrique; Alsip, Crystal D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Ramos, Andrés Asensio; González-Martín, Omaira [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/Vía Láctea, s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Díaz-Santos, Tanio [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MS 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Elitzur, Moshe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506-0055 (United States); Hönig, Sebastian F. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Imanishi, Masatoshi [Subaru Telescope, 650 North A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Levenson, Nancy A. [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Mason, Rachel E. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N. A’ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Perlman, Eric S., E-mail: ichikawa@kusastro.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States)

    2015-04-20

    We present results from the fitting of infrared (IR) spectral energy distributions of 21 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with clumpy torus models. We compiled high spatial resolution (∼0.3–0.7 arcsec) mid-IR (MIR) N-band spectroscopy, Q-band imaging, and nuclear near- and MIR photometry from the literature. Combining these nuclear near- and MIR observations, far-IR photometry, and clumpy torus models enables us to put constraints on the torus properties and geometry. We divide the sample into three types according to the broad line region (BLR) properties: type-1s, type-2s with scattered or hidden broad line region (HBLR) previously observed, and type-2s without any published HBLR signature (NHBLR). Comparing the torus model parameters gives us the first quantitative torus geometrical view for each subgroup. We find that NHBLR AGNs have smaller torus opening angles and larger covering factors than HBLR AGNs. This suggests that the chance to observe scattered (polarized) flux from the BLR in NHBLR could be reduced by the dual effects of (a) less scattering medium due to the reduced scattering volume given the small torus opening angle and (b) the increased torus obscuration between the observer and the scattering region. These effects give a reasonable explanation for the lack of observed HBLR in some type-2 AGNs.

  3. THE BLACK HOLE MASS-BULGE LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM REVERBERATION MAPPING AND HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Pogge, Richard W.; Vestergaard, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between black hole mass and bulge luminosity for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with reverberation-based black hole mass measurements and bulge luminosities from two-dimensional decompositions of Hubble Space Telescope host galaxy images. We find that the slope of the relationship for AGNs is 0.76-0.85 with an uncertainty of ∼0.1, somewhat shallower than the M BH ∝ L 1.0±0.1 relationship that has been fit to nearby quiescent galaxies with dynamical black hole mass measurements. This difference is somewhat perplexing, as the AGN black hole masses include an overall scaling factor that brings the AGN M BH -σ * relationship into agreement with that of quiescent galaxies. We discuss biases that may be inherent to the AGN and quiescent galaxy samples and could cause the apparent inconsistency in the forms of their M BH -L bulge relationships. Recent work by Graham, however, presents a similar slope of ∼0.8 for the quiescent galaxies and may bring the relationship for AGNs and quiescent galaxies into agreement.

  4. Dynamo dominated accretion and energy flow: The mechanism of active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colgate, S.A.; Li, H.

    1998-12-31

    An explanation of the magnetic fields of the universe, the central mass concentration of galaxies, the massive black hole of every galaxy, and the AGN phenomena has been an elusive goal. The authors suggest here the outlines of such a theoretical understanding and point out where the physical understanding is missing. They believe there is an imperative to the sequence of mass flow and hence energy flow in the collapse of a galactic mass starting from the first non-linearity appearing in structure formation following decoupling. This first non-linearity of a two to one density fluctuation, the Lyman-{alpha} clouds, ultimately leads to the emission spectra of the phenomenon of AGN, quasars, blazars, etc. The over-arching physical principle is the various mechanisms for the transport of angular momentum. They believe they have now understood the new physics of two of these mechanisms that have previously been illusive and as a consequence they impose strong constraints on the initial conditions of the mechanisms for the subsequent emission of the gravitational binding energy. The new phenomena described are: (1) the Rossby vortex mechanism of the accretion disk {alpha}-viscosity, and (2) the mechanism of the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo in the accretion disk. The Rossby vortex mechanism leads to a prediction of the black hole mass and rate of energy release and the {alpha}-{Omega} dynamo leads to the generation of the magnetic flux of the galaxy (and the far greater magnetic flux of clusters) and separately explains the primary flux of energy emission as force-free magnetic energy density. This magnetic flux and magnetic energy density separately are the necessary consequence of the saturation of a dynamo created by the accretion disk with a gain greater than unity.

  5. IRON OPACITY BUMP CHANGES THE STABILITY AND STRUCTURE OF ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yan-Fei [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Davis, Shane W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    Accretion disks around supermassive black holes have regions where the Rosseland mean opacity can be larger than the electron scattering opacity due to the large number of bound–bound transitions in iron. We study the effects of this iron opacity “bump” on the thermal stability and vertical structure of radiation-pressure-dominated accretion disks, utilizing three-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations in the local shearing box approximation. The simulations self-consistently calculate the heating due to MHD turbulence caused by magneto-rotational instability and radiative cooling by using the radiative transfer module based on a variable Eddington tensor in Athena. For a 5 × 10{sup 8} solar mass black hole with ∼3% of the Eddington luminosity, a model including the iron opacity bump maintains its structure for more than 10 thermal times without showing significant signs of thermal runaway. In contrast, if only electron scattering and free–free opacity are included as in the standard thin disk model, the disk collapses on the thermal timescale. The difference is caused by a combination of (1) an anti-correlation between the total optical depth and the midplane pressure, and (2) enhanced vertical advective energy transport. These results suggest that the iron opacity bump may have a strong impact on the stability and structure of active galactic nucleus (AGN) accretion disks, and may contribute to a dependence of AGN properties on metallicity. Since this opacity is relevant primarily in UV emitting regions of the flow, it may help to explain discrepancies between observation and theory that are unique to AGNs.

  6. The typecasting of active galactic nuclei: Mrk 590 no longer fits the role

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denney, K. D.; De Rosa, G.; Croxall, K.; Gupta, A.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Mathur, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Shappee, B. J. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Bentz, M. C., E-mail: denney@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present multiwavelength observations that trace more than 40 yr in the life of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 590, traditionally known as a classic Seyfert 1 galaxy. From spectra recently obtained from Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra, and the Large Binocular Telescope, we find that the activity in the nucleus of Mrk 590 has diminished so significantly that the continuum luminosity is a factor of 100 lower than the peak luminosity probed by our long-baseline observations. Furthermore, the broad emission lines, once prominent in the UV/optical spectrum, have all but disappeared. Since AGN type is defined by the presence of broad emission lines in the optical spectrum, our observations demonstrate that Mrk 590 has now become a 'changing-look' AGN. If classified by recent optical spectra, Mrk 590 would be a Seyfert ∼1.9–2, where the only broad emission line still visible in the optical spectrum is a weak component of Hα. As an additional consequence of this change, we have definitively detected UV narrow-line components in a Type 1 AGN, allowing an analysis of these emission-line components with high-resolution COS spectra. These observations challenge the historical paradigm that AGN type is only a consequence of the line-of-sight viewing angle toward the nucleus in the presence of a geometrically flattened, obscuring medium (i.e., the torus). Our data instead suggest that the current state of Mrk 590 is a consequence of the change in luminosity, which implies the black hole accretion rate has significantly decreased.

  7. The typecasting of active galactic nuclei: Mrk 590 no longer fits the role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denney, K. D.; De Rosa, G.; Croxall, K.; Gupta, A.; Fausnaugh, M. M.; Grier, C. J.; Martini, P.; Mathur, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Shappee, B. J.; Bentz, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present multiwavelength observations that trace more than 40 yr in the life of the active galactic nucleus (AGN) in Mrk 590, traditionally known as a classic Seyfert 1 galaxy. From spectra recently obtained from Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra, and the Large Binocular Telescope, we find that the activity in the nucleus of Mrk 590 has diminished so significantly that the continuum luminosity is a factor of 100 lower than the peak luminosity probed by our long-baseline observations. Furthermore, the broad emission lines, once prominent in the UV/optical spectrum, have all but disappeared. Since AGN type is defined by the presence of broad emission lines in the optical spectrum, our observations demonstrate that Mrk 590 has now become a 'changing-look' AGN. If classified by recent optical spectra, Mrk 590 would be a Seyfert ∼1.9–2, where the only broad emission line still visible in the optical spectrum is a weak component of Hα. As an additional consequence of this change, we have definitively detected UV narrow-line components in a Type 1 AGN, allowing an analysis of these emission-line components with high-resolution COS spectra. These observations challenge the historical paradigm that AGN type is only a consequence of the line-of-sight viewing angle toward the nucleus in the presence of a geometrically flattened, obscuring medium (i.e., the torus). Our data instead suggest that the current state of Mrk 590 is a consequence of the change in luminosity, which implies the black hole accretion rate has significantly decreased.

  8. THE LOW-LUMINOSITY END OF THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne; Grier, Catherine J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Pogge, Richard W.; Barth, Aaron J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong; Gates, Elinor L.; Greene, Jenny E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Stern, Daniel; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2013-01-01

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the Hβ broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create ''AGN-free'' images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the Hβ time lag, which is assumed to yield the average Hβ BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the R BLR -L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of α= 0.533 +0.035 -0.033 , consistent with previous work and with simple photoionization arguments. Only two AGNs appear to be outliers from the relationship, but both of them have monitoring light curves that raise doubt regarding the accuracy of their reported time lags. The scatter around the relationship is found to be 0.19 ± 0.02 dex, but would be decreased to 0.13 dex by the removal of these two suspect measurements. A large fraction of the remaining scatter in the relationship is likely due to the inaccurate distances to the AGN host galaxies. Our results help support the possibility that the R BLR -L relationship could potentially be used to turn the BLRs of AGNs into standardizable candles. This would allow the cosmological expansion of the universe to be probed by a separate population of objects, and over a larger range of redshifts.

  9. THE LOW-LUMINOSITY END OF THE RADIUS-LUMINOSITY RELATIONSHIP FOR ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Denney, Kelly D.; Vestergaard, Marianne [Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Grier, Catherine J.; Peterson, Bradley M.; De Rosa, Gisella; Pogge, Richard W. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N. [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Canalizo, Gabriela [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States); Filippenko, Alexei V.; Li Weidong [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Elinor L. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Greene, Jenny E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall - Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Malkan, Matthew A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Woo, Jong-Hak, E-mail: bentz@chara.gsu.edu [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-20

    We present an updated and revised analysis of the relationship between the H{beta} broad-line region (BLR) radius and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus (AGN). Specifically, we have carried out two-dimensional surface brightness decompositions of the host galaxies of nine new AGNs imaged with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3. The surface brightness decompositions allow us to create ''AGN-free'' images of the galaxies, from which we measure the starlight contribution to the optical luminosity measured through the ground-based spectroscopic aperture. We also incorporate 20 new reverberation-mapping measurements of the H{beta} time lag, which is assumed to yield the average H{beta} BLR radius. The final sample includes 41 AGNs covering four orders of magnitude in luminosity. The additions and updates incorporated here primarily affect the low-luminosity end of the R{sub BLR}-L relationship. The best fit to the relationship using a Bayesian analysis finds a slope of {alpha}= 0.533{sup +0.035}{sub -0.033}, consistent with previous work and with simple photoionization arguments. Only two AGNs appear to be outliers from the relationship, but both of them have monitoring light curves that raise doubt regarding the accuracy of their reported time lags. The scatter around the relationship is found to be 0.19 {+-} 0.02 dex, but would be decreased to 0.13 dex by the removal of these two suspect measurements. A large fraction of the remaining scatter in the relationship is likely due to the inaccurate distances to the AGN host galaxies. Our results help support the possibility that the R{sub BLR}-L relationship could potentially be used to turn the BLRs of AGNs into standardizable candles. This would allow the cosmological expansion of the universe to be probed by a separate population of objects, and over a larger range of redshifts.

  10. Active Galactic Nuclei: the Shape of Material Around Black Holes and the Witch of Agnesi Function. Asymmetry of Neutrino Particle Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vezzoli G. C.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical representation is given and physically described for the shape of the very hot material that immediately surrounds a black hole and the warm material located at a greater distance from the black hole, as related to active galactic nuclei. The shape of the material surrounding the black hole is interpreted in terms of asymmetry of the neutrino flux. Detailed experimental measurements on radioactive decay influenced by astrophysical events are given to support this interpretation.

  11. Difference Image Analysis of Galactic Microlensing. II. Microlensing Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, C.; Allsman, R. A.; Alves, D.; Axelrod, T. S.; Becker, A. C.; Bennett, D. P.; Cook, K. H.; Drake, A. J.; Freeman, K. C.; Griest, K. (and others)

    1999-09-01

    The MACHO collaboration has been carrying out difference image analysis (DIA) since 1996 with the aim of increasing the sensitivity to the detection of gravitational microlensing. This is a preliminary report on the application of DIA to galactic bulge images in one field. We show how the DIA technique significantly increases the number of detected lensing events, by removing the positional dependence of traditional photometry schemes and lowering the microlensing event detection threshold. This technique, unlike PSF photometry, gives the unblended colors and positions of the microlensing source stars. We present a set of criteria for selecting microlensing events from objects discovered with this technique. The 16 pixel and classical microlensing events discovered with the DIA technique are presented. (c) (c) 1999. The American Astronomical Society.

  12. Time-dependent narrow emission-line profiles of quasars and active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capriotti, E.R.; Foltz, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The narrow-line emitting regions of quasars and active nuclei of galaxies are assumed to consist of material undergoing gravitational infall due to acceleration by centrally located mass concentrations. Two cases are considered. In one, the material is assumed to be in the form of optically thick, similar clouds which emit line radiation monochromatically, isotropically and in inverse proportion to the square of the distance from the center of the system. In the other case, the material is assumed to be homogeneous, isothermal and to have the same ionization structure everywhere. The material is assumed to be excited by an ionizing continuum created ty a supernova-like outburst of radiation. Line profiles are computed for various combinations of epoch after outburst, continuum decay times, and spectral resolution. The computed profiles are clearly asymmetric to the blue of the profile peak and for certain combinations of epoch and decay time, clearly asymmetric to the blue of line center. The computed profiles compare well with many observed [O III] profiles

  13. Galactic cosmic-ray model in the light of AMS-02 nuclei data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Jia-Shu; Li, Tianjun

    2018-01-01

    Cosmic ray (CR) physics has entered a precision-driven era. With the latest AMS-02 nuclei data (boron-to-carbon ratio, proton flux, helium flux, and antiproton-to-proton ratio), we perform a global fitting and constrain the primary source and propagation parameters of cosmic rays in the Milky Way by considering 3 schemes with different data sets (with and without p ¯ /p data) and different propagation models (diffusion-reacceleration and diffusion-reacceleration-convection models). We find that the data set with p ¯/p data can remove the degeneracy between the propagation parameters effectively and it favors the model with a very small value of convection (or disfavors the model with convection). The separated injection spectrum parameters are used for proton and other nucleus species, which reveal the different breaks and slopes among them. Moreover, the helium abundance, antiproton production cross sections, and solar modulation are parametrized in our global fitting. Benefited from the self-consistence of the new data set, the fitting results show a little bias, and thus the disadvantages and limitations of the existed propagation models appear. Comparing to the best fit results for the local interstellar spectra (ϕ =0 ) with the VOYAGER-1 data, we find that the primary sources or propagation mechanisms should be different between proton and helium (or other heavier nucleus species). Thus, how to explain these results properly is an interesting and challenging question.

  14. MID-INFRARED PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BURST ALERT TELESCOPE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SAMPLE OF THE LOCAL UNIVERSE. I. EMISSION-LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth, E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.; Armus, L.

    2010-01-01

    We compare mid-infrared emission-line properties from high-resolution Spitzer spectra of a hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission lines, [O IV] 25.89 μm, [Ne II] 12.81 μm, [Ne III] 15.56 μm, and [Ne V] 14.32/24.32 μm, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations; however, six newly discovered BAT AGNs are under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT fluxes and luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGNs. We also compare the mid-infrared emission lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of ULIRGs, Palomar-Green quasars, star-forming galaxies, and LINERs. We find that the BAT AGN sample falls into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] ratios. These line ratios are lower in sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGNs than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGNs represent the main contribution to the observed line emission. These ratios represent a new emission line diagnostic for distinguishing between AGNs and star-forming galaxies.

  15. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L.; Silverman, John D.; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, J. Trevor; Patton, David R.

    2014-01-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  16. Changing ionization conditions in SDSS galaxies with active galactic nuclei as a function of environment from pairs to clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khabiboulline, Emil T.; Steinhardt, Charles L. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East-California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Silverman, John D. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa-Shi, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ellison, Sara L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Finnerty Road, Victoria, British Columbia, V8P 1A1 (Canada); Mendel, J. Trevor [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Patton, David R., E-mail: ekhabibo@caltech.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2014-11-01

    We study how active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity changes across environments from galaxy pairs to clusters using 143,843 galaxies with z < 0.2 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using a refined technique, we apply a continuous measure of AGN activity, characteristic of the ionization state of the narrow-line emitting gas. Changes in key emission-line ratios ([N II] λ6548/Hα, [O III] λ5007/Hβ) between different samples allow us to disentangle different environmental effects while removing contamination. We confirm that galaxy interactions enhance AGN activity. However, conditions in the central regions of clusters are inhospitable for AGN activity even if galaxies are in pairs. These results can be explained through models of gas dynamics in which pair interactions stimulate the transfer of gas to the nucleus and clusters suppress gas availability for accretion onto the central black hole.

  17. MOJAVE. X. PARSEC-SCALE JET ORIENTATION VARIATIONS AND SUPERLUMINAL MOTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, M. L.; Richards, J. L. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 817 Dennison Building, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Homan, D. C. [Department of Physics, Denison University, Granville, OH 43023 (United States); Kellermann, K. I. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Kovalev, Y. Y. [Astro Space Center of Lebedev Physical Institute, Profsoyuznaya 84/32, 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A. B.; Ros, E.; Savolainen, T., E-mail: mlister@purdue.edu [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ∼0.°5 to ∼2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas yr{sup –1}), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the

  18. Unification of Active Galactic Nuclei at X-rays and soft gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Volker

    2010-01-01

    from the observation of a fundamental plane which connects type 1 and type 2 objects smoothly (Beckmann et al. 2009d). In addition, in the case of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 I showed that the spectral energy distribution of this source and its accretion rate is similar to that of a Galactic binary (Beckmann et al. 2008a). Throughout the studies I have shown that the intrinsic spectral shape appears to be very stable on weeks to year time scale (Beckmann et al. 2004d, 2005b, 2007b, 2008a). This implies that the overall geometry of the AGN over these time scales did not change dramatically. The variations in intensity can then be explained in two ways: either the amount of material emitting the hard X-rays varies, or the amount of plasma visible to the observer varied, e.g. through different orientation of the disk with respect to the observer. In an upcoming paper we will show though, that NGC 4151 indeed also shows different spectral states, similar to the low-hard versus high-soft spectra in Galactic black hole binaries (Lubinski et al. 2010). A similar result seems to emerge from our INTEGRAL studies on NGC 2110 (Beckmann and Do Cao 2011). For INTEGRAL's AO-8 I have submitted a proposal in order to study spectral states in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2992, which seems to show a state change over the past 5 years as seen in Swift/BAT long term monitoring. The work on the luminosity function of AGN at hardest X-rays (Beckmann et al. 2006d) had a large impact on our understanding of the cosmic X-ray background. As this was the first study of its kind, it showed for the first time that indeed the fraction of highly obscured Compton thick AGN is much lower than expected before the launch of INTEGRAL and Swift. The X-ray luminosity function we revealed is indeed not consistent with the source population seen by INTEGRAL (Beckmann et al. 2006a, 2009d; Sazonov et al. 2007) and Swift (Tueller et al. 2008) being the only contributors to the cosmic hard X-ray background

  19. GRAVITATIONAL ENCOUNTERS AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. ANOMALOUS RELAXATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, David [Department of Physics and Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This paper is the third in a series presenting the results of direct numerical integrations of the Fokker–Planck equation for stars orbiting a supermassive black hole (SBH) at the center of a galaxy. The algorithm of Paper II included diffusion coefficients that described the effects of random (“classical”) and correlated (“resonant”) relaxation. In this paper, the diffusion coefficients of Paper II have been generalized to account for the effects of “anomalous relaxation,” the qualitatively different way in which eccentric orbits evolve in the regime of rapid relativistic precession. Two functional forms for the anomalous diffusion coefficients are investigated, based on power-law or exponential modifications of the resonant diffusion coefficients. The parameters defining the modified coefficients are first constrained by comparing the results of Fokker–Planck integrations with previously published N-body integrations. Steady-state solutions are then obtained via the Fokker–Planck equation for models with properties similar to those of the Milky Way nucleus. Inclusion of anomalous relaxation leads to the formation of less prominent cores than in the case of resonant relaxation alone, due to the lengthening of diffusion timescales for eccentric orbits. Steady-state capture rates of stars by the SBH are found to always be less than capture rates in the presence of resonant relaxation alone.

  20. GRAVITATIONAL ENCOUNTERS AND THE EVOLUTION OF GALACTIC NUCLEI. III. ANOMALOUS RELAXATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper is the third in a series presenting the results of direct numerical integrations of the Fokker–Planck equation for stars orbiting a supermassive black hole (SBH) at the center of a galaxy. The algorithm of Paper II included diffusion coefficients that described the effects of random (“classical”) and correlated (“resonant”) relaxation. In this paper, the diffusion coefficients of Paper II have been generalized to account for the effects of “anomalous relaxation,” the qualitatively different way in which eccentric orbits evolve in the regime of rapid relativistic precession. Two functional forms for the anomalous diffusion coefficients are investigated, based on power-law or exponential modifications of the resonant diffusion coefficients. The parameters defining the modified coefficients are first constrained by comparing the results of Fokker–Planck integrations with previously published N-body integrations. Steady-state solutions are then obtained via the Fokker–Planck equation for models with properties similar to those of the Milky Way nucleus. Inclusion of anomalous relaxation leads to the formation of less prominent cores than in the case of resonant relaxation alone, due to the lengthening of diffusion timescales for eccentric orbits. Steady-state capture rates of stars by the SBH are found to always be less than capture rates in the presence of resonant relaxation alone

  1. THE BLUESHIFTING AND BALDWIN EFFECTS FOR THE [O III] λ5007 EMISSION LINE IN TYPE 1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kai; Dong Xiaobo; Wang Tinggui; Gaskell, C. Martin

    2011-01-01

    We use homogeneous samples of radio-quiet Seyfert 1 galaxies and QSOs selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to investigate the connection between the velocity shift and the equivalent width (EW) of the [O III] λ5007 emission line, and their correlations with physical parameters of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find a significant and negative correlation between the EW of the core component, EW(core), and the blueshift of either the core (the peak), the wing, or the total profile of [O III] emission; it is fairly strong for the blueshift of the total profile in particular. However, both quantities (EW and velocity shift) generally have only weak, if any, correlations with fundamental AGN parameters such as the nuclear continuum luminosity at 5100 A ( 5100 ), black hole mass (M BH ), and the Eddington ratio (L/L Edd ); these correlations include the classical Baldwin effect of EW(core), an inverse Baldwin effect of EW(wing), and the relationship between velocity shifts and L/L Edd . Our findings suggest that both the large object-to-object variation in the strength of [O III] emission and the blueshift-EW(core) connection are not governed primarily by fundamental AGN parameters such as L 5100 , M BH , and L/L Edd . We propose that the interstellar medium conditions of the host galaxies play a major role instead in the diversity of the [O III] properties in active galaxies. This suggests that the use of [O III] λ5007 luminosity as a proxy of AGN luminosity does not depend strongly on the above-mentioned fundamental AGN parameters.

  2. ON THE X-RAY BALDWIN EFFECT IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI OBSERVED BY THE CHANDRA HIGH-ENERGY GRATING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, X. W.; Wang, J. X.; Jiang, P.; Zhou, Y. Y.; Yaqoob, T.

    2012-01-01

    Using Chandra high-energy grating (HEG) observations of 32 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we present a systematic study of the X-ray Baldwin effect (XBE; i.e., the anti-correlation between the narrow Fe Kα line equivalent width (EW) and X-ray continuum luminosity for AGN samples) with the highest spectral resolution currently available. We have previously reported an anti-correlation with EW∝L –0.22 2-10keV in an HEG sample, and the correlation is much weaker after averaging multiple observations of individual AGNs (EW∝L –0.13 2-10keV ). This indicates that rapid variation in the X-ray continuum plays an important role in producing the XBE, and such an effect should also be visible in individual AGNs. In this Letter, by normalizing the line EWs and continuum luminosities to the time-averaged values for each AGN in our sample with multiple HEG observations, we find a strong anti-correlation between EW and L X (EW/(EW)∝(L/(L)) –0.82±0.10 ), consistent with the XBE expected in an individual AGN if the narrow line flux remains constant while the continuum varies. This is first observational evidence that the Fe Kα line flux in a large sample of AGNs lacks a corresponding response to the continuum variation, supporting the fact that the narrow Fe-K line emission originates from a region far from the nucleus. We then performed Monte Carlo simulations to address whether the global XBE can be produced by X-ray continuum variation solely, and found that such an interpretation of the XBE cannot be ruled out statistically. One should thus be very cautious before drawing any scientific conclusion based on an observed XBE.

  3. Study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei in the mid-infrared with the ISOCAM instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, Olivier

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to the study of starburst galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the mid-infrared between 3 and 16 μm with the ISOCAM instrument. The study of nearby prototypical galaxies such as NGC 1068 and M 82 lead me to decompose the emission into three components. The star forming regions are characterized by (1) the infrared bands at 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.7 μm originating from the photo-dissociation regions and also by (2) a continuum at 15 μm produced by the very small grains in HII regions. I show that AGNs have (3) strong continuum with an important contribution between 3 and 10 μm arising from hot dust heated to high temperatures of the order of 1000 K. I present two diagnostic diagrams based on the spectral properties of the three components allowing me to distinguish AGNs from starburst regions. In interacting galaxies, I show that some extra-nuclear regions harboring starburst activity can dominate the emission at 15 μm as in the Cartwheel and the Antennae galaxies. Using mid-infrared spectral features, I also define two prototypes of ultra-luminous galaxies dominated either by starburst activity in the case of Arp 220 or by the AGN in the Super-Antennae galaxy (IRAS 19254-7245). I explain how this diagram and the selection criteria evolve according to redshift. Finally, I show how we can develop new diagnostics using filters of the IRAC instrument on board the next infrared space observatory SIRTF. (author) [fr

  4. New Spectral Model for Constraining Torus Covering Factors from Broadband X-Ray Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Comastri, A.; Ricci, C.; Buchner, J.; Gandhi, P.; Farrah, D.; Stern, D.

    2018-02-01

    The basic unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) invokes an anisotropic obscuring structure, usually referred to as a torus, to explain AGN obscuration as an angle-dependent effect. We present a new grid of X-ray spectral templates based on radiative transfer calculations in neutral gas in an approximately toroidal geometry, appropriate for CCD-resolution X-ray spectra (FWHM ≥ 130 eV). Fitting the templates to broadband X-ray spectra of AGNs provides constraints on two important geometrical parameters of the gas distribution around the supermassive black hole: the average column density and the covering factor. Compared to the currently available spectral templates, our model is more flexible, and capable of providing constraints on the main torus parameters in a wider range of AGNs. We demonstrate the application of this model using hard X-ray spectra from NuSTAR (3–79 keV) for four AGNs covering a variety of classifications: 3C 390.3, NGC 2110, IC 5063, and NGC 7582. This small set of examples was chosen to illustrate the range of possible torus configurations, from disk-like to sphere-like geometries with column densities below, as well as above, the Compton-thick threshold. This diversity of torus properties challenges the simple assumption of a standard geometrically and optically thick toroidal structure commonly invoked in the basic form of the unified model of AGNs. Finding broad consistency between our constraints and those from infrared modeling, we discuss how the approach from the X-ray band complements similar measurements of AGN structures at other wavelengths.

  5. The [O III] Profiles of Infrared-selected Active Galactic Nuclei: More Powerful Outflows in the Obscured Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Carroll, C. M.; Runnoe, J. C.; Mullaney, J. R.; Fischer, T. C.

    2018-03-01

    We explore the kinematics of ionized gas via the [O III] λ5007 emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected on the basis of their mid-infrared (IR) emission, and split into obscured and unobscured populations based on their optical‑IR colors. After correcting for differences in redshift distributions, we provide composite spectra of spectroscopically and photometrically defined obscured/Type 2 and unobscured/Type 1 AGNs from 3500 to 7000 Å. The IR-selected obscured sources contain a mixture of narrow-lined Type 2 AGNs and intermediate sources that have broad Hα emission and significantly narrower Hβ. Using both [O III] luminosities and AGN luminosities derived from optical‑IR spectral energy distribution fitting, we find evidence for enhanced large-scale obscuration in the obscured sources. In matched bins of luminosity we find that the obscured population typically has broader, more blueshifted [O III] emission than in the unobscured sample, suggestive of more powerful AGN-driven outflows. This trend is not seen in spectroscopically classified samples, and is unlikely to be entirely explained by orientation effects. In addition, outflow velocities increase from small to moderate AGN E(B ‑ V) values, before flattening out (as traced by FWHM) and even decreasing (as traced by blueshift). While difficult to fully interpret in a single physical model, due to both the averaging over populations and the spatially averaged spectra, these results agree with previous findings that simple geometric unification models are insufficient for the IR-selected AGN population, and may fit into an evolutionary model for obscured and unobscured AGNs.

  6. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. I. First results from a new reverberation mapping campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min; Lu, Kai-Xing; Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai

    2014-01-01

    We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6 −2.9 +1.7 , 6.4 −2.2 +0.8 and 11.4 −1.9 +2.9 days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3 −3.2 +2.6 )×10 6 M ⊙ , (3.4 −1.2 +0.5 )×10 6 M ⊙ , and (7.5 −4.1 +4.3 )×10 6 M ⊙ , and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.

  7. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. I. First Results from a New Reverberation Mapping Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Lu, Kai-Xing; Wang, Fang; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming; Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH Collaboration

    2014-02-01

    We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6^{+1.7}_{-2.9}, 6.4^{+0.8}_{-2.2} and 11.4^{+2.9}_{-1.9} days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3_{-3.2}^{+2.6})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, (3.4_{-1.2}^{+0.5})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, and (7.5_{-4.1}^{+4.3})\\times 10^6\\,M_{\\odot }, and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.

  8. X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei in the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Suganuma, Makoto; Akiyama, Masayuki; Greene, Jenny E.; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Nagao, Tohru; Noda, Hirofumi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We construct a sample of X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei by combining Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, XMM-Newton, and infrared source catalogs. Fifty-three X-ray sources satisfying i-band magnitude fainter than 23.5 mag and X-ray counts with the EPIC-PN detector larger than 70 are selected from 9.1 deg2, and their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and X-ray spectra are analyzed. Forty-four objects with an X-ray to i-band flux ratio FX/Fi > 10 are classified as extreme X-ray-to-optical flux sources. Spectral energy distributions of 48 among 53 are represented by templates of type 2 AGNs or star-forming galaxies and show the optical signature of stellar emission from host galaxies in the source rest frame. Infrared/optical SEDs indicate a significant contribution of emission from dust to the infrared fluxes, and that the central AGN is dust obscured. The photometric redshifts determined from the SEDs are in the range of 0.6-2.5. The X-ray spectra are fitted by an absorbed power-law model, and the intrinsic absorption column densities are modest (best-fit log NH = 20.5-23.5 cm-2 in most cases). The absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities are in the range of 6 × 1042-2 × 1045 erg s-1. Twenty objects are classified as type 2 quasars based on X-ray luminsosity and NH. The optical faintness is explained by a combination of redshifts (mostly z > 1.0), strong dust extinction, and in part a large ratio of dust/gas.

  9. Line-driven disk winds in active galactic nuclei: The critical importance of ionization and radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higginbottom, Nick; Knigge, Christian; Matthews, James H. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southampton, Highfield, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Proga, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 4505 South Maryland Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89154-4002 (United States); Long, Knox S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sim, Stuart A., E-mail: nick_higginbottom@fastmail.fm [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-01

    Accretion disk winds are thought to produce many of the characteristic features seen in the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). These outflows also represent a natural form of feedback between the central supermassive black hole and its host galaxy. The mechanism for driving this mass loss remains unknown, although radiation pressure mediated by spectral lines is a leading candidate. Here, we calculate the ionization state of, and emergent spectra for, the hydrodynamic simulation of a line-driven disk wind previously presented by Proga and Kallman. To achieve this, we carry out a comprehensive Monte Carlo simulation of the radiative transfer through, and energy exchange within, the predicted outflow. We find that the wind is much more ionized than originally estimated. This is in part because it is much more difficult to shield any wind regions effectively when the outflow itself is allowed to reprocess and redirect ionizing photons. As a result, the calculated spectrum that would be observed from this particular outflow solution would not contain the ultraviolet spectral lines that are observed in many AGN/QSOs. Furthermore, the wind is so highly ionized that line driving would not actually be efficient. This does not necessarily mean that line-driven winds are not viable. However, our work does illustrate that in order to arrive at a self-consistent model of line-driven disk winds in AGN/QSO, it will be critical to include a more detailed treatment of radiative transfer and ionization in the next generation of hydrodynamic simulations.

  10. THE RADIO/GAMMA-RAY CONNECTION IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE ERA OF THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Angelakis, E.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Bouvier, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed statistical analysis of the correlation between radio and gamma-ray emission of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected by Fermi during its first year of operation, with the largest data sets ever used for this purpose. We use both archival interferometric 8.4 GHz data (from the Very Large Array and ATCA, for the full sample of 599 sources) and concurrent single-dish 15 GHz measurements from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO, for a sub sample of 199 objects). Our unprecedentedly large sample permits us to assess with high accuracy the statistical significance of the correlation, using a surrogate data method designed to simultaneously account for common-distance bias and the effect of a limited dynamical range in the observed quantities. We find that the statistical significance of a positive correlation between the centimeter radio and the broadband (E > 100 MeV) gamma-ray energy flux is very high for the whole AGN sample, with a probability of -7 for the correlation appearing by chance. Using the OVRO data, we find that concurrent data improve the significance of the correlation from 1.6 x 10 -6 to 9.0 x 10 -8 . Our large sample size allows us to study the dependence of correlation strength and significance on specific source types and gamma-ray energy band. We find that the correlation is very significant (chance probability -7 ) for both flat spectrum radio quasars and BL Lac objects separately; a dependence of the correlation strength on the considered gamma-ray energy band is also present, but additional data will be necessary to constrain its significance.

  11. Can Winds Driven by Active Galactic Nuclei Account for the Extragalactic Gamma-Ray and Neutrino Backgrounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruo-Yu; Murase, Kohta; Inoue, Susumu; Ge, Chong; Wang, Xiang-Yu

    2018-05-01

    Various observations are revealing the widespread occurrence of fast and powerful winds in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that are distinct from relativistic jets, likely launched from accretion disks and interacting strongly with the gas of their host galaxies. During the interaction, strong shocks are expected to form that can accelerate nonthermal particles to high energies. Such winds have been suggested to be responsible for a large fraction of the observed extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB) and the diffuse neutrino background, via the decay of neutral and charged pions generated in inelastic pp collisions between protons accelerated by the forward shock and the ambient gas. However, previous studies did not properly account for processes such as adiabatic losses that may reduce the gamma-ray and neutrino fluxes significantly. We evaluate the production of gamma rays and neutrinos by AGN-driven winds in detail by modeling their hydrodynamic and thermal evolution, including the effects of their two-temperature structure. We find that they can only account for less than ∼30% of the EGB flux, as otherwise the model would violate the independent upper limit derived from the diffuse isotropic gamma-ray background. If the neutrino spectral index is steep with Γ ≳ 2.2, a severe tension with the isotropic gamma-ray background would arise as long as the winds contribute more than 20% of the IceCube neutrino flux in the 10–100 TeV range. At energies ≳ 100 TeV, we find that the IceCube neutrino flux may still be accountable by AGN-driven winds if the spectral index is as small as Γ ∼ 2.0–2.1.

  12. Contributions of type II and Ib/c supernovae to Galactic chemical evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahijpal Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    Type II and Ib/c supernovae (SNe II and Ib/c) have made major stellar nucleosynthetic contributions to the inventories of stable nuclides during chemical evolution of the Galaxy. A case study is performed here with the help of recently developed numerical simulations of Galactic chemical evolution in the solar neighborhood to understand the contributions of SNe II and Ib/c by comparing the stellar nucleosynthetic yields obtained by two leading groups in this field. These stellar nucleosynthetic yields differ in terms of their treatment of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis. The formulation describing Galactic chemical evolution is developed with the recently revised solar metallicity of ∼0.014. Furthermore, the recent nucleosynthetic yields of stellar models based on the revised solar metallicity are also used. The analysis suggests that it could be difficult to explain, in a self-consistent manner, the various features associated with the elemental evolutionary trends over Galactic timescales by any single adopted stellar nucleosynthetic model that incorporates SNe II and Ib/c

  13. Supermassive Black Holes with High Accretion Rates in Active Galactic Nuclei. IX. 10 New Observations of Reverberation Mapping and Shortened Hβ Lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Pu; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Wang, Kai; Huang, Ying-Ke; Zhang, Yue; Lu, Kai-Xing; Hu, Chen; Li, Yan-Rong; Bai, Jin-Ming; Bian, Wei-Hao; Yuan, Ye-Fei; Ho, Luis C.; Wang, Jian-Min; SEAMBH collaboration

    2018-03-01

    As one paper in a series reporting on a large reverberation mapping campaign of super-Eddington accreting massive black holes (SEAMBHs) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs), we present the results of 10 SEAMBHs monitored spectroscopically during 2015–2017. Six of them are observed for the first time, and have generally higher 5100 Å luminosities than the SEAMBHs monitored in our campaign from 2012 to 2015; the remaining four are repeat observations to check if their previous lags change. Similar to the previous SEAMBHs, the Hβ time lags of the newly observed objects are shorter than the values predicted by the canonical R Hβ –L 5100 relation of sub-Eddington AGNs, by factors of ∼2–6, depending on the accretion rate. The four previously observed objects have lags consistent with previous measurements. We provide linear regressions for the R Hβ –L 5100 relation, solely for the SEAMBH sample and for low-accretion AGNs. We find that the relative strength of Fe II and the profile of the Hβ emission line can be used as proxies of accretion rate, showing that the shortening of Hβ lags depends on accretion rates. The recent SDSS-RM discovery of shortened Hβ lags in AGNs with low accretion rates provides compelling evidence for retrograde accretion onto the black hole. These evidences show that the canonical R Hβ –L 5100 relation holds only in AGNs with moderate accretion rates. At low accretion rates, it should be revised to include the effects of black hole spin, whereas the accretion rate itself becomes a key factor in the regime of high accretion rates.

  14. nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkov N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the effects of quadrupole-octupole deformations on the energy and magnetic properties of high-K isomeric states in even-even heavy and superheavy nuclei. The neutron two-quasiparticle (2qp isomeric energies and magnetic dipole moments are calculated within a deformed shell model with the Bardeen-Cooper- Schrieffer (BCS pairing interaction over a wide range of quadrupole and octupole deformations. We found that in most cases the magnetic moments exhibit a pronounced sensitivity to the octupole deformation, while the 2qp energies indicate regions of nuclei in which the presence of high-K isomeric states may be associated with the presence of octupole softness or even with octupole deformation. In the present work we also examine the influence of the BCS pairing strength on the energy of the blocked isomer configuration. We show that the formation of 2qp energy minima in the space of quadrupole-octupole and eventually higher multipolarity deformations is a subtle effect depending on nuclear pairing correlations.

  15. Suzaku View of the Swift/BAT Active Galactic Nuclei. V. Torus Structure of Two Luminous Radio-Loud Active Galactic Nuclei (3C 206 and PKS 0707-35)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazaki, Fumie; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Terashima, Yuichi; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Tombesi, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    We present the results from broadband X-ray spectral analysis of 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35 with Suzaku and Swift/BAT, two of the most luminous unobscured and obscured radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard X-ray luminosities of 10(sup 45.5) erg per second and 10(sup 44.9) erg per second (14-195 keV), respectively. Based on the radio core luminosity, we estimate that the X-ray spectrum of 3C 206 contains a significant (60% in the 14-195 keV band) contribution from the jet, while it is negligible in PKS 0707-35.We can successfully model the spectra with the jet component (for 3C 206), the transmitted emission, and two reflection components from the torus and the accretion disk. The reflection strengths from the torus are found to be R(sub torus)(=Omega/2pi) = 0.29 +/- 0.18 and 0.41 +/- 0.18 for 3C 206 and PKS 0707-35, respectively, which are smaller than those in typical Seyfert galaxies. Utilizing the torus model by Ikeda et al., we quantify the relation between the half-opening angle of a torus (theta(sub oa)) and the equivalent width of an iron-K line. The observed equivalent width of 3C 206, less than 71 eV, constrains the column density in the equatorial plane to N(sup eq)(sub H) lesst han 10(sup 23) per square centimeter, or the half-opening angle to theta(sub oa) greater than 80 deg. if N(sup eq)(sub H) = 10(sup 24) per square centimeter is assumed. That of PKS 0707-35, 72 +/- 36 eV, is consistent with N(sup eq)(sub H) 10(sup 23) per square centimeter. Our results suggest that the tori in luminous radio-loud AGNs are only poorly developed. The trend is similar to that seen in radio-quiet AGNs, implying that the torus structure is not different between AGNs with jets and without jets.

  16. Supermassive black holes with high accretion rates in active galactic nuclei. I. First results from a new reverberation mapping campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Pu; Hu, Chen; Qiu, Jie; Li, Yan-Rong; Wang, Jian-Min [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19B Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Lu, Kai-Xing [Astronomy Department, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Fang; Bai, Jin-Ming [Yunnan Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011, Yunnan (China); Kaspi, Shai; Netzer, Hagai [Wise Observatory, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Collaboration: SEAMBH collaboration

    2014-02-10

    We report first results from a large project to measure black hole (BH) mass in high accretion rate active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Such objects may be different from other AGNs in being powered by slim accretion disks and showing saturated accretion luminosities, but both are not yet fully understood. The results are part of a large reverberation mapping (RM) campaign using the 2.4 m Shangri-La telescope at the Yunnan Observatory in China. The goals are to investigate the gas distribution near the BH and the properties of the central accretion disks, to measure BH mass and Eddington ratios, and to test the feasibility of using such objects as a new type of cosmological candles. The paper presents results for three objects, Mrk 335, Mrk 142, and IRAS F12397+3333, with Hβ time lags relative to the 5100 Å continuum of 10.6{sub −2.9}{sup +1.7}, 6.4{sub −2.2}{sup +0.8} and 11.4{sub −1.9}{sup +2.9} days, respectively. The corresponding BH masses are (8.3{sub −3.2}{sup +2.6})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, (3.4{sub −1.2}{sup +0.5})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and (7.5{sub −4.1}{sup +4.3})×10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}, and the lower limits on the Eddington ratios are 0.6, 2.3, and 4.6 for the minimal radiative efficiency of 0.038. Mrk 142 and IRAS F12397+333 (extinction corrected) clearly deviate from the currently known relation between Hβ lag and continuum luminosity. The three Eddington ratios are beyond the values expected in thin accretion disks and two of them are the largest measured so far among objects with RM-based BH masses. We briefly discuss implications for slim disks, BH growth, and cosmology.

  17. GOODS-HERSCHEL: IMPACT OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY ON INFRARED SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS AT HIGH REDSHIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, Allison; Pope, Alexandra [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01002 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Charmandaris, Vassilis [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003, Heraklion (Greece); Daddi, Emmanuele; Elbaz, David; Gabor, Jared; Mullaney, James; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Bournaud, Frederic; Dasyra, Kalliopi [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Universite Paris Diderot, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Hwang, Ho Seong [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ivison, Rob [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Scott, Douglas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Altieri, Bruno; Coia, Daniela [Herschel Science Centre, European Space Astronomy Centre, Villanueva de la Canada, E-28691 Madrid (Spain); Buat, Veronique [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM), Universite d' Aix-Marseille, CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Dannerbauer, Helmut, E-mail: kirkpatr@astro.umass.edu [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); and others

    2012-11-10

    We explore the effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation activity on the infrared (0.3-1000 {mu}m) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of luminous infrared galaxies from z = 0.5 to 4.0. We have compiled a large sample of 151 galaxies selected at 24 {mu}m (S {sub 24} {approx}> 100 {mu}Jy) in the GOODS-N and ECDFS fields for which we have deep Spitzer IRS spectroscopy, allowing us to decompose the mid-IR spectrum into contributions from star formation and AGN activity. A significant portion ({approx}25%) of our sample is dominated by an AGN (>50% of the mid-IR luminosity) in the mid-IR. Based on the mid-IR classification, we divide our full sample into four sub-samples: z {approx} 1 star-forming (SF) sources, z {approx} 2 SF sources, AGNs with clear 9.7 {mu}m silicate absorption, and AGNs with featureless mid-IR spectra. From our large spectroscopic sample and wealth of multi-wavelength data, including deep Herschel imaging at 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, we use 95 galaxies with complete spectral coverage to create a composite SED for each sub-sample. We then fit a two-temperature component modified blackbody to the SEDs. We find that the IR SEDs have similar cold dust temperatures, regardless of the mid-IR power source, but display a marked difference in the warmer dust temperatures. We calculate the average effective temperature of the dust in each sub-sample and find a significant ({approx}20 K) difference between the SF and AGN systems. We compare our composite SEDs to local templates and find that local templates do not accurately reproduce the mid-IR features and dust temperatures of our high-redshift systems. High-redshift IR luminous galaxies contain significantly more cool dust than their local counterparts. We find that a full suite of photometry spanning the IR peak is necessary to accurately account for the dominant dust temperature components in high-redshift IR luminous galaxies.

  18. Near-Infrared [Fe II] and H2 Study of the Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Hyun; Koo, Bon-Chul; Lee, Jae-Joon; Jaffe, Daniel T.; Burton, Michael G.; Ryder, Stuart D.

    2018-01-01

    We have searched for near-infrared (NIR) [Fe II] (1.644 μm) and H2 1-0 S(1) (2.122 μm) emission features associated with Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs) using the narrow-band imaging surveys UWIFE / UWISH2 (UKIRT Widefield Infrared Survey for [Fe II] / H2). Both surveys cover about 180 square degrees of the first Galactic quadrant (7° reversal” phenomenon, i.e., the H2 emission features are detected outside the [Fe II] emission boundary. We carried out high resolution (R~40,000) NIR H- and K-band spectroscopy of the five SNRs showing the [Fe II]-H2 reversal (G11.2-0.3, KES 73, W44, 3C 396, W49B) using IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrograph). Various ro-vibrational H2 lines have been detected, which are used to derive the kinematic distances to the SNRs and to investigate the origin of the H2 emission. The detected H2 lines show broad line width (> 10 km s-1) and line flux ratios of thermal excitation. We discuss the origin of the extended H2 emission features beyond the the [Fe II] emission boundary.

  19. A systematic study of the condensation of the corona and the application for Γ 2-10 keV-Lbol/LEdd correlation in luminous active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Erlin; Liu, B. F.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we explained the observed Γ _2-10 keV-L_bol/L_Edd correlation in luminous active galactic nuclei within the framework of the condensation of the corona around a supermassive black hole (Liu et al.; Qiao & Liu). Specifically, we systemically test the effects of black hole mass M, the viscosity parameter α, and the magnetic parameter β (with magnetic pressure p_m=B^2/{8π }=(1-β )p_tot, ptot = pgas + pm) on the structure of the accretion disc and the corona, as well as the corresponding emergent spectra. It is found that the hard X-ray photon index Γ _2-10 keV nearly does not change with changing black hole mass M, or changing magnetic parameter β. Meanwhile, it is found that the geometry of the accretion flow, i.e. the relative configuration of the disc and corona, as well as the emergent spectra can be strongly affected by changing the value of α. By comparing with a sample composed of 29 luminous active galactic nuclei with well constrained X-ray spectra and Eddington ratios, it is found that the observed Γ _2-10 keV-L_bol/L_Edd correlation can be well matched with a relatively bigger value of α, i.e. α ˜ 1, as previously also suggested by Narayan for luminous accreting black holes.

  20. Extragalactic Background Light and energy spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei 3c454.3 and 1739+522 with high red shifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinitsyna, V.G.; Malyshko, A.A.; Musin, F.I.; Nikolsky, S.I.; Sinitsyna, V.Y. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation)

    2009-12-15

    The cosmological processes, connecting the physics of matter in active galactic nuclei will be observed in the energy spectrum of electro-magnetic radiation. The understanding of mechanisms in active galactic nuclei requires the detection of a large sample of very high energy gamma-ray objects at varying redshifts. The redshifts of very high energy gamma-ray sources observed by SHALON range from z=0.0179 to z=1.375. During the period 1992-2008, SHALON has been used for observing the metagalactic sources NGC1275 (z=0.0183), SN2006gy (z=0.019), Mkn421 (z=0.031), Mkn501 (z=0.034), Mkn180 (z=0.046), OJ 287 (z=0.306), 3c454.3 (z=0.895), 1739+522 (z=1.375). The most distant object 1739+522 (with redshift z=1.375), seen at TeV energies, is also the most powerful. Thus, modern gamma-astronomical observations put forward the question: what mechanisms might be responsible for the currently observed gamma-ray fluxes from remote metagalactic sources? Observations of distant metagalactic sources have shown that the Universe is more transparent to very high energy gamma-rays than previously believed.

  1. Extragalactic Background Light and energy spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei 3c454.3 and 1739+522 with high red shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyna, V.G.; Malyshko, A.A.; Musin, F.I.; Nikolsky, S.I.; Sinitsyna, V.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The cosmological processes, connecting the physics of matter in active galactic nuclei will be observed in the energy spectrum of electro-magnetic radiation. The understanding of mechanisms in active galactic nuclei requires the detection of a large sample of very high energy gamma-ray objects at varying redshifts. The redshifts of very high energy gamma-ray sources observed by SHALON range from z=0.0179 to z=1.375. During the period 1992-2008, SHALON has been used for observing the metagalactic sources NGC1275 (z=0.0183), SN2006gy (z=0.019), Mkn421 (z=0.031), Mkn501 (z=0.034), Mkn180 (z=0.046), OJ 287 (z=0.306), 3c454.3 (z=0.895), 1739+522 (z=1.375). The most distant object 1739+522 (with redshift z=1.375), seen at TeV energies, is also the most powerful. Thus, modern gamma-astronomical observations put forward the question: what mechanisms might be responsible for the currently observed gamma-ray fluxes from remote metagalactic sources? Observations of distant metagalactic sources have shown that the Universe is more transparent to very high energy gamma-rays than previously believed.

  2. DUST IN THE POLAR REGION AS A MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO THE INFRARED EMISSION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, S. F.; Antonucci, R. [Department of Physics, University of California in Santa Barbara, Broida Hall, Santa Barbara, CA 93109 (United States); Kishimoto, M.; Tristram, K. R. W.; Asmus, D.; Weigelt, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Prieto, M. A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Gandhi, P. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Burtscher, L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrae, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Duschl, W. J., E-mail: shoenig@physics.ucsb.edu [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 15, D-24098, Kiel (Germany)

    2013-07-10

    Dust around active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is distributed over a wide range of spatial scales and can be observed in the infrared (IR). It is generally assumed that the distribution on parsec scales forms a geometrically and optically thick entity in the equatorial plane around the accretion disk and broad-line region-dubbed {sup d}ust torus{sup -}that emits the bulk of the subarcsecond-scale IR emission and gives rise to orientation-dependent obscuration. However, recent IR interferometry studies with unprecedented position angle (P.A.) and baseline coverage on these small scales in two obscured (type 2) AGNs have revealed that the majority of the mid-IR emission in these objects is elongated in the polar direction. These observations are difficult to reconcile with the standard interpretation that most of the parsec-scale mid-IR emission in AGNs originate from the torus and challenges the justification of using simple torus models to model the broadband IR emission. Here, we report detailed interferometry observations of the unobscured (type 1) AGN in NGC 3783 that allow us to constrain the size, elongation, and direction of the mid-IR emission with high accuracy. The mid-IR emission is characterized by a strong elongation toward position angle P.A. -52 Degree-Sign , closely aligned with the polar axis (P.A. -45 Degree-Sign ). We determine half-light radii along the major and minor axes at 12.5 {mu}m of (20.0 {+-} 3.0) mas Multiplication-Sign (6.7 {+-} 1.0) mas or (4.23 {+-} 0.63) pc Multiplication-Sign (1.42 {+-} 0.21) pc, which corresponds to intrinsically scaled sizes of (69.4 {+-} 10.8) r{sub in} Multiplication-Sign (23.3 {+-} 3.5) r{sub in} for the inner dust radius of r{sub in} = 0.061 pc as inferred from near-IR reverberation mapping. This implies an axis ratio of 3:1, with about 60%-90% of the 8-13 {mu}m emission associated with the polar-elongated component. It is quite likely that the hot-dust emission as recently resolved by near-IR interferometry is

  3. Structure of odd-A Pm nuclei (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piiparinen, M.; Kortelahti, M.; Pakkanen, A.; Komppa, T.; Komu, R.

    1977-12-01

    The level structures of 141 Pm and 145 Pm were studied by methods of in-beam γ-ray and electron spectroscopy using the reactions 142 Nd(p,2n) 141 Pm, 141 Pr( 3 He,3n) 141 Pm and 146 Nd(p,2n) 145 Pm. Nineteen new levels with spins up to (19/2) were observed in 141 Pm and twenty-two new levels with spins up to 15/2 in 145 Pm. In both nuclei, a group of positive-parity levels have been identified which can be interpreted as members of multiplets of d 5 / 2 and g 7 / 2 protons coupled to the quadrupole vibrations of the core. Transition probabilities of the decay modes of isomeric h 11 / 2 states have been determined. (author)

  4. Study and modeling of the most energetic Active Galactic Nuclei with the Fermi satellite; Etude et modelisation des noyaux actifs de galaxie les plus energetiques avec le satellite Fermi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, D.

    2010-06-15

    The Fermi satellite was launched in June 2008. The onboard LAT detector is dedicated to the study of galactic and extra-galactic gamma sources with an energy comprised between 200 MeV and 300 GeV. 1451 sources have been detected in less than 11 months. This document is divided into 6 chapters: 1) gamma astronomy, 2) the Fermi satellite, 3) the active galactic nuclei (NAG), 4) the observation of several blazars (PKS-2155-304 and PG-1553+113) and its simulation, 5) the observation of PKS-2155-304 with both RXTE and Fermi, and 6) conclusion

  5. Dust-enshrouded star near supermassive black hole: predictions for high-eccentricity passages near low-luminosity galactic nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zajaček, Michal; Karas, Vladimír; Eckart, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 565, May (2014), A17/1-A17/15 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC13-00070J Grant - others:UK(CZ) SVV-26089 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galactic centre * black holes * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  6. From Newton to Einstein - N-body dynamics in galactic nuclei and SPH using new special hardware and astrogrid-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spurzem, R; Berczik, P; Berentzen, I; Merritt, D; Nakasato, N; Adorf, H M; Bruesemeister, T; Schwekendiek, P; Steinacker, J; Wambsganss, J; Martinez, G Marcus; Lienhart, G; Kugel, A; Maenner, R; Burkert, A; Naab, T; Vasquez, H; Wetzstein, M

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of galactic nuclei containing multiple supermassive black holes is modelled including relativistic dynamics. It is shown that for certain initial conditions there is no stalling problem for the relativistic coalescence of supermassive black hole binaries. This astrophysical application and another one using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code are our first use cases on a new computer architecture using GRAPE and new MPRACE accelerator cards based on reconfigurable chips, developed in the GRACE project. We briefly discuss our science applications and first benchmarks obtained with the new hardware. Our present architecture still relies on the GRAPE special purpose hardware (not reconfigurable), but next generations will focus on new architectural approaches including custom network and computing architectures. The new hardware is embedded into national and international grid infrastructures

  7. Extragalactic Background Light expected from photon-photon absorption on spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei at distances from z=0.018 to z=1.375

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyna, V Y; Sinitsyna, V G

    2013-01-01

    Extragalactic background radiation blocks the propagation of TeV gamma-ray over large distances by producing e + e − pairs. As a result, primary spectrum of gamma-source is changed, depending on spectrum of background light. So, hard spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei with high red shifts allow the determination of a EBL spectrum. The redshifts of SHALON TeV gamma-ray sources range from 0.018 to 1.375 those spectra are resolved at the energies from 800 GeV to about 50 TeV. Spectral energy distribution of EBL constrained from observations of Mkn421, Mkn501, Mkn180, OJ287, 3c454.3 and 1739+522 together with models and measurements are presented.

  8. Can we constrain the maximum value for the spin parameter of the super-massive objects in galactic nuclei without knowing their actual nature?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2011-01-01

    In 4-dimensional General Relativity, black holes are described by the Kerr solution and are subject to the bound |a * |≤1, where a * is the black hole spin parameter. If current black hole candidates are not the black holes predicted in General Relativity, this bound does not hold and a * might exceed 1. In this Letter, I relax the Kerr black hole hypothesis and I find that the value of the spin parameter of the super-massive black hole candidates in galactic nuclei cannot be higher than about 1.2. A higher spin parameter would not be consistent with a radiative efficiency η>0.15, as observed at least for the most luminous AGN. While a rigorous proof is lacking, I conjecture that the bound |a * |≤1.2 is independent of the exact nature of these objects.

  9. Comparison of some properties of star forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei between two BOSS galaxy samples from SDSS DR9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xin-Fa

    2014-01-01

    Using the LOWZ and CMASS samples of the ninth data release (DR9) from the SDSS-III Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), I investigate properties of star forming galaxies and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The CMASS sample seriously suffers from the radial selection effect, even within the redshift 0.44 ≤ z ≤ 0.6, which will likely lead to statistical conclusions in the CMASS sample being less robust. In the LOWZ sample, the fraction of star-forming galaxies is nearly constant from the least dense regime to the densest regime; the AGN fraction is also insensitive to the local environment. In addition, I note that in the LOWZ sample, the distributions of stellar mass and stellar velocity dispersion for star forming galaxies and AGNs are nearly the same

  10. The properties of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei. I - Luminosity function, cosmological evolution, and contribution to the diffuse X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Della ceca, R.; Gioia, I.M.; Morris, S.L.; Stocke, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) and their implications for cosmological evolution are determined for 420 X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGN). The local XLFs flatten considerably when L(x) is less than or equal to 5 x 10 to the 42nd ergs/s, and higher-luminosity XLF are demonstrated to fit a power-law approximation. Cosmological evolution in terms of two pure-luminosity evolutionary models is directly supported by model-independent AGN XLF, showing weak evolution when z is less than 0.4 and more pronounced evolution at higher z. The parameter C is determined for the two models, and the values support the 'slower' evolution of these AGN relative to QSOs selected optically. The deevolved XLF best-fit slope is found to be 3.05 for high luminosities and 1.35 for low luminosities, with no evidence of slope changes for other luminosities. 38 refs

  11. STELLAR ARCHAEOLOGY IN THE GALACTIC HALO WITH THE ULTRA-FAINT DWARFS. VI. URSA MAJOR II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Ora, M.; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Marconi, Marcella; Musella, Ilaria, E-mail: dallora@na.astro.it, E-mail: ripepi@na.astro.it, E-mail: marcella@na.astro.it, E-mail: ilaria@na.astro.it [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy); and others

    2012-06-10

    We present a B, V color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the Milky Way dwarf satellite Ursa Major II (UMa II), spanning the magnitude range from V {approx} 15 to V {approx} 23.5 mag and extending over an 18 Multiplication-Sign 18 arcmin{sup 2} area centered on the Galaxy. Our photometry goes down to about 2 mag below the Galaxy's main-sequence turnoff that we detected at V {approx} 21.5 mag. We have discovered a bona fide RR Lyrae variable star in UMa II, which we use to estimate a conservative dereddened distance modulus for the galaxy of (m - M){sub 0} = 17.70 {+-} 0.04 {+-} 0.12 mag, where the first error accounts for the uncertainties of the calibrated photometry, and the second reflects our lack of information on the metallicity of the star. The corresponding distance to UMa II is 34.7{sup +0.6}{sub -0.7}({sup +2.0}{sub -1.9}) kpc. Our photometry shows evidence of a spread in the Galaxy's subgiant branch, compatible with a spread in metal abundance in the range between Z = 0.0001 and Z = 0.001. Based on our estimate of the distance, a comparison of the fiducial lines of the Galactic globular clusters M68 and M5 ([Fe/H] = -2.27 {+-} 0.04 dex and -1.33 {+-} 0.02 dex, respectively), with the position on the CMD of spectroscopically confirmed Galaxy members, may suggest the existence of stellar populations of different metal abundance/age in the central region of UMa II.

  12. RELIABLE IDENTIFICATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE WISE, 2MASS, AND ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelson, R.; Malkan, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed the ''S IX '' statistic to identify bright, highly likely active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates solely on the basis of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) data. This statistic was optimized with data from the preliminary WISE survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and tested with Lick 3 m Kast spectroscopy. We find that sources with S IX 95% likelihood of being an AGN (defined in this paper as a Seyfert 1, quasar, or blazar). This statistic was then applied to the full WISE/2MASS/RASS dataset, including the final WISE data release, to yield the ''W2R'' sample of 4316 sources with S IX 2 , permitting construction of AGN samples in any sufficiently large region of sky.

  13. RELIABLE IDENTIFICATIONS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM THE WISE, 2MASS, AND ROSAT ALL-SKY SURVEYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelson, R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-2421 (United States); Malkan, M., E-mail: rickedelson@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-05-20

    We have developed the ''S{sub IX}'' statistic to identify bright, highly likely active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates solely on the basis of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS), and ROSAT all-sky survey (RASS) data. This statistic was optimized with data from the preliminary WISE survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and tested with Lick 3 m Kast spectroscopy. We find that sources with S{sub IX} < 0 have a {approx}>95% likelihood of being an AGN (defined in this paper as a Seyfert 1, quasar, or blazar). This statistic was then applied to the full WISE/2MASS/RASS dataset, including the final WISE data release, to yield the ''W2R'' sample of 4316 sources with S{sub IX} < 0. Only 2209 of these sources are currently in the Veron-Cetty and Veron (VCV) catalog of spectroscopically confirmed AGNs, indicating that the W2R sample contains nearly 2000 new, relatively bright (J {approx}< 16) AGNs. We utilize the W2R sample to quantify biases and incompleteness in the VCV catalog. We find that it is highly complete for bright (J < 14), northern AGNs, but the completeness drops below 50% for fainter, southern samples and for sources near the Galactic plane. This approach also led to the spectroscopic identification of 10 new AGNs in the Kepler field, more than doubling the number of AGNs being monitored by Kepler. The W2R sample contains better than 1 bright AGN every 10 deg{sup 2}, permitting construction of AGN samples in any sufficiently large region of sky.

  14. Star Formation Activity in the Galactic H II Region Sh2-297

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-11-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm-3 and 9.15 × 105 cm-6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ~7farcm5 × 7farcm5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H - K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ~0.1-2 M ⊙ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V-I) and NIR (J/J-H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ~1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  15. The NuSTAR View of Nearby Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei: The Cases of NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloković, M.; Comastri, A.; Harrison, F. A.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Koss, M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Luo, B.; Madejski, G. M.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Markwardt, C. B.; Puccetti, S.; Reynolds, C. S.; Risaliti, G.; Rivers, E.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-09-30

    We present X-ray spectral analyses for three Seyfert 2 active galactic nuclei, NGC 424, NGC 1320, and IC 2560, observed by NuSTAR in the 3-79 keV band. The high quality hard X-ray spectra allow detailed modeling of the Compton reflection component for the first time in these sources. Using quasi-simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift/XRT data, as well as archival XMM-Newton data, we find that all three nuclei are obscured by Compton-thick material with column densities in excess of ~ 5 x 1024 cm-2, and that their X-ray spectra above 3 keV are dominated by reflection of the intrinsic continuum on Compton-thick material. Due to the very high obscuration, absorbed intrinsic continuum components are not formally required by the data in any of the sources. We constrain the intrinsic photon indices and the column density of the reflecting medium through the shape of the reflection spectra. Using archival multi-wavelength data we recover the intrinsic X-ray luminosities consistent with the broadband spectral energy distributions. Our results are consistent with the reflecting medium being an edge-on clumpy torus with a relatively large global covering factor and overall reflection efficiency of the order of 1%. Given the unambiguous confirmation of the Compton-thick nature of the sources, we investigate whether similar sources are likely to be missed by commonly used selection criteria for Compton-thick AGN, and explore the possibility of finding their high-redshift counterparts.

  16. No more active galactic nuclei in clumpy disks than in smooth galaxies at z ∼ 2 in CANDELS/3D-HST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trump, Jonathan R.; Luo, Bin; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Barro, Guillermo; Guo, Yicheng; Koo, David C.; Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Juneau, Stéphanie [Irfu/Service d' Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Brammer, Gabriel B.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Bell, Eric F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Dekel, Avishai [Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Hopkins, Philip F. [California Institute of Technology, MC 105-24, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kocevski, Dale D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); McIntosh, Daniel H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    We use CANDELS imaging, 3D-HST spectroscopy, and Chandra X-ray data to investigate if active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are preferentially fueled by violent disk instabilities funneling gas into galaxy centers at 1.3 < z < 2.4. We select galaxies undergoing gravitational instabilities using the number of clumps and degree of patchiness as proxies. The CANDELS visual classification system is used to identify 44 clumpy disk galaxies, along with mass-matched comparison samples of smooth and intermediate morphology galaxies. We note that despite being mass-matched and having similar star formation rates, the smoother galaxies tend to be smaller disks with more prominent bulges compared to the clumpy galaxies. The lack of smooth extended disks is probably a general feature of the z ∼ 2 galaxy population, and means we cannot directly compare with the clumpy and smooth extended disks observed at lower redshift. We find that z ∼ 2 clumpy galaxies have slightly enhanced AGN fractions selected by integrated line ratios (in the mass-excitation method), but the spatially resolved line ratios indicate this is likely due to extended phenomena rather than nuclear AGNs. Meanwhile, the X-ray data show that clumpy, smooth, and intermediate galaxies have nearly indistinguishable AGN fractions derived from both individual detections and stacked non-detections. The data demonstrate that AGN fueling modes at z ∼ 1.85—whether violent disk instabilities or secular processes—are as efficient in smooth galaxies as they are in clumpy galaxies.

  17. A RADIAL VELOCITY TEST FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES AS AN EXPLANATION FOR BROAD, DOUBLE-PEAKED EMISSION LINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jia; Halpern, Jules P. [Astronomy Department, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Institute for Gravitation and The Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2016-01-20

    One of the proposed explanations for the broad, double-peaked Balmer emission lines observed in the spectra of some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is that they are associated with sub-parsec supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. Here, we test the binary broad-line region hypothesis through several decades of monitoring of the velocity structure of double-peaked Hα emission lines in 13 low-redshift, mostly radio-loud AGNs. This is a much larger set of objects compared to an earlier test by Eracleous et al. and we use much longer time series for the three objects studied in that paper. Although systematic changes in radial velocity can be traced in many of their lines, they are demonstrably not like those of a spectroscopic binary in a circular orbit. Any spectroscopic binary period must therefore be much longer than the span of the monitoring (assuming a circular orbit), which in turn would require black hole masses that exceed by 1–2 orders of magnitude the values obtained for these objects using techniques such as reverberation mapping and stellar velocity dispersion. Moreover, the response of the double-peaked Balmer line profiles to fluctuations of the ionizing continuum and the shape of the Lyα profiles are incompatible with an SMBH binary. The binary broad-line region hypothesis is therefore disfavored. Other processes evidently shape these line profiles and cause the long-term velocity variations of the double peaks.

  18. Partial dust obscuration in active galactic nuclei as a cause of broad-line profile and lag variability, and apparent accretion disc inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin; Harrington, Peter Z.

    2018-04-01

    The profiles of the broad emission lines of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and the time delays in their response to changes in the ionizing continuum ("lags") give information about the structure and kinematics of the inner regions of AGNs. Line profiles are also our main way of estimating the masses of the supermassive black holes (SMBHs). However, the profiles often show ill-understood, asymmetric structure and velocity-dependent lags vary with time. Here we show that partial obscuration of the broad-line region (BLR) by outflowing, compact, dusty clumps produces asymmetries and velocity-dependent lags similar to those observed. Our model explains previously inexplicable changes in the ratios of the hydrogen lines with time and velocity, the lack of correlation of changes in line profiles with variability of the central engine, the velocity dependence of lags, and the change of lags with time. We propose that changes on timescales longer than the light-crossing time do not come from dynamical changes in the BLR, but are a natural result of the effect of outflowing dusty clumps driven by radiation pressure acting on the dust. The motion of these clumps offers an explanation of long-term changes in polarization. The effects of the dust complicate the study of the structure and kinematics of the BLR and the search for sub-parsec SMBH binaries. Partial obscuration of the accretion disc can also provide the local fluctuations in luminosity that can explain sizes deduced from microlensing.

  19. DETERMINATION OF THE POINT-SPREAD FUNCTION FOR THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE FROM ON-ORBIT DATA AND LIMITS ON PAIR HALOS OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Asano, K. [Interactive Research Center of Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro City, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Atwood, W. B. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, Department of Physics and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brandt, T. J. [CNRS, IRAP, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' M. Merlin' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: mdwood@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: mar0@uw.edu [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-03-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is a pair-conversion telescope designed to detect photons with energies from Almost-Equal-To 20 MeV to >300 GeV. The pre-launch response functions of the LAT were determined through extensive Monte Carlo simulations and beam tests. The point-spread function (PSF) characterizing the angular distribution of reconstructed photons as a function of energy and geometry in the detector is determined here from two years of on-orbit data by examining the distributions of {gamma} rays from pulsars and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Above 3 GeV, the PSF is found to be broader than the pre-launch PSF. We checked for dependence of the PSF on the class of {gamma}-ray source and observation epoch and found none. We also investigated several possible spatial models for pair-halo emission around BL Lac AGNs. We found no evidence for a component with spatial extension larger than the PSF and set upper limits on the amplitude of halo emission in stacked images of low- and high-redshift BL Lac AGNs and the TeV blazars 1ES0229+200 and 1ES0347-121.

  20. Models of Emission-Line Profiles and Spectral Energy Distributions to Characterize the Multi-Frequency Properties of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni La Mura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs are often characterized by a wealth of emission lines with different profiles and intensity ratios that lead to a complicated classification. Their electromagnetic radiation spans more than 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. In spite of the differences between various classes, the origin of their activity is attributed to a combination of emitting components, surrounding an accreting supermassive black hole (SMBH, in the unified model. Currently, the execution of sky surveys, with instruments operating at various frequencies, provides the possibility to detect and to investigate the properties of AGNs on very large statistical samples. As a result of the spectroscopic surveys that allow the investigation of many objects, we have the opportunity to place new constraints on the nature and evolution of AGNs. In this contribution, we present the results obtained by working on multi-frequency data, and we discuss their relations with the available optical spectra. We compare our findings with the AGN unified model predictions, and we present a revised technique to select AGNs of different types from other line-emitting objects. We discuss the multi-frequency properties in terms of the innermost structures of the sources.

  1. Suzaku  Observations of Heavily Obscured (Compton-thick) Active Galactic Nuclei Selected by the Swift/BAT Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ricci, Claudio; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Terashima, Yuichi

    2018-02-01

    We present a uniform broadband X-ray (0.5–100.0 keV) spectral analysis of 12 Swift/Burst Alert Telescope selected Compton-thick ({log}{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2≥slant 24) active galactic nuclei (CTAGNs) observed with Suzaku. The Suzaku data of three objects are published here for the first time. We fit the Suzaku and Swift spectra with models utilizing an analytic reflection code and those utilizing the Monte-Carlo-based model from an AGN torus by Ikeda et al. The main results are as follows: (1) The estimated intrinsic luminosity of a CTAGN strongly depends on the model; applying Compton scattering to the transmitted component in an analytic model may largely overestimate the intrinsic luminosity at large column densities. (2) Unabsorbed reflection components are commonly observed, suggesting that the tori are clumpy. (3) Most of CTAGNs show small scattering fractions (<0.5%), implying a buried AGN nature. (4) Comparison with the results obtained for Compton-thin AGNs suggests that the properties of these CTAGNs can be understood as a smooth extension from Compton-thin AGNs with heavier obscuration; we find no evidence that the bulk of the population of hard-X-ray-selected CTAGNs are different from less obscured objects.

  2. Studying The Spectral Shape And The X-ray/uv Variability Of Active Galactic Nuclei With Data From Swift And Xmm Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turriziani, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Many efforts have been made in understanding the underlying origin of variability in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), but at present they could give still no conclusive answers. Since a deeper knowledge of variability will enable to understand better the accretion process onto supermassive black holes, I built the first ensemble struction function analysis of the X-ray variability of samples of quasars with data from Swift and XMM-Newton archives in order to study the average properties of their variability. Moreover, it is known that UV and X-ray luminosities of quasars are correlated and recent studies quantified this relation across 5 orders of magnitude. In this context, I presents results on the X-ray/UV ratio from simultaneous observations in UV and X-ray bands of a sample of quasars with data from XMM-Newton archive. Lastly, I will present a complete sample of Swift/SDSS faint blazars and other non-thermal dominated AGNs. I used this sample to calculate the general statistical properties of faint blazars and radio galaxies and in particular their Radio LogN-LogS with fluxes down to 10 mJy, in order to gain knowledge on the contribution to Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and gamma-ray background radiation from the faint tail of the radio population. I acknowledge financial support through Grant ASI I/088/06/0.

  3. THE STRUCTURE AND SPECTRAL FEATURES OF A THIN DISK AND EVAPORATION-FED CORONA IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J. Y.; Liu, B. F.; Qiao, E. L.; Mineshige, S.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the accretion process in high-luminosity active galactic nuclei (HLAGNs) in the scenario of the disk evaporation model. Based on this model, the thin disk can extend down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) at accretion rates higher than 0.02 M-dot Edd while the corona is weak since part of the coronal gas is cooled by strong inverse Compton scattering of the disk photons. This implies that the corona cannot produce as strong X-ray radiation as observed in HLAGNs with large Eddington ratio. In addition to the viscous heating, other heating to the corona is necessary to interpret HLAGN. In this paper, we assume that a part of accretion energy released in the disk is transported into the corona, heating up the electrons, and is thereby radiated away. For the first time, we compute the corona structure with additional heating, fully taking into account the mass supply to the corona, and find that the corona could indeed survive at higher accretion rates and that its radiation power increases. The spectra composed of bremsstrahlung and Compton radiation are also calculated. Our calculations show that the Compton-dominated spectrum becomes harder with the increase of energy fraction (f) liberating in the corona, and the photon index for hard X-ray (2-10 keV) is 2.2 bol /L 2-10keV ) increases with increasing accretion rate for f < 8/35, which is roughly consistent with the observational results.

  4. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AS MAIN CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ULTRAVIOLET IONIZING EMISSIVITY AT HIGH REDSHIFTS: PREDICTIONS FROM A Λ-CDM MODEL WITH LINKED AGN/GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giallongo, E.; Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Pentericci, L.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the contribution of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) population to the ionization history of the universe based on a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation and evolution in the cold dark matter cosmological scenario. The model connects the growth of black holes and of the ensuing AGN activity to galaxy interactions. In the model we have included a self-consistent physical description of the escape of ionizing UV photons; this is based on the blast-wave model for the AGN feedback we developed in a previous paper to explain the distribution of hydrogen column densities in AGNs of various redshifts and luminosities, due to absorption by the host galaxy gas. The model predicts UV luminosity functions for AGNs that are in good agreement with those derived from the observations especially at low and intermediate redshifts (z ∼ 3). At higher redshifts (z > 5), the model tends to overestimate the data at faint luminosities. Critical biases in both the data and in the model are discussed to explain such apparent discrepancies. The predicted hydrogen photoionization rate as a function of redshift is found to be consistent with that derived from the observations. All of the above suggests that we should reconsider the role of the AGNs as the main driver of the ionization history of the universe.

  5. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. II. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY FROM SPITZER/INFRARED SPECTROGRAPH SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel [Centro de Astrobiologia, INTA-CSIC, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Rieke, George H. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Rigopoulou, Dimitra [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-01

    We quantify the active galactic nucleus (AGN) contribution to the mid-infrared (mid-IR) and the total infrared (IR, 8-1000 {mu}m) emission in a complete volume-limited sample of 53 local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs, L{sub IR} = 10{sup 11}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }). We decompose the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph low-resolution 5-38 {mu}m spectra of the LIRGs into AGN and starburst components using clumpy torus models and star-forming galaxy templates, respectively. We find that 50% (25/50) of local LIRGs have an AGN component detected with this method. There is good agreement between these AGN detections through mid-IR spectral decomposition and other AGN indicators, such as the optical spectral class, mid-IR spectral features, and X-ray properties. Taking all the AGN indicators together, the AGN detection rate in the individual nuclei of LIRGs is {approx}62%. The derived AGN bolometric luminosities are in the range L{sub bol}(AGN) = (0.4-50) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}. The AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosities of the galaxies is generally small, with 70% of LIRGs having L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} {<=} 0.05. Only {approx_equal} 8% of local LIRGs have a significant AGN bolometric contribution L{sub bol}[AGN]/L{sub IR} > 0.25. From the comparison of our results with literature results of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (L{sub IR} = 10{sup 12}-10{sup 13} L{sub Sun }), we confirm that in the local universe the AGN bolometric contribution to the IR luminosity increases with the IR luminosity of the galaxy/system. If we add up the AGN bolometric luminosities we find that AGNs only account for 5%{sub -3%}{sup +8%} of the total IR luminosity produced by local LIRGs (with and without AGN detections). This proves that the bulk of the IR luminosity of local LIRGs is due to star formation activity. Taking the newly determined IR luminosity density of LIRGs in the local universe, we then estimate an AGN IR luminosity density of {Omega}{sup AGN

  6. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY IN THE GALACTIC H II REGION Sh2-297

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, K. K.; Ojha, D. K.; Dewangan, L. K.; Samal, M. R.; Pandey, A. K.; Bhatt, B. C.; Ghosh, S. K.; Tamura, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength study of the Galactic H II region Sh2-297, located in the Canis Major OB1 complex. Optical spectroscopic observations are used to constrain the spectral type of ionizing star HD 53623 as B0V. The classical nature of this H II region is affirmed by the low values of electron density and emission measure, which are calculated to be 756 cm –3 and 9.15 × 10 5 cm –6 pc using the radio continuum observations at 610 and 1280 MHz, and Very Large Array archival data at 1420 MHz. To understand local star formation, we identified the young stellar object (YSO) candidates in a region of area ∼7.'5 × 7.'5 centered on Sh2-297 using grism slitless spectroscopy (to identify the Hα emission line stars), and near infrared (NIR) observations. NIR YSO candidates are further classified into various evolutionary stages using color-color and color-magnitude (CM) diagrams, giving 50 red sources (H – K > 0.6) and 26 Class II-like sources. The mass and age range of the YSOs are estimated to be ∼0.1-2 M ☉ and 0.5-2 Myr using optical (V/V–I) and NIR (J/J–H) CM diagrams. The mean age of the YSOs is found to be ∼1 Myr, which is of the order of dynamical age of 1.07 Myr of the H II region. Using the estimated range of visual extinction (1.1-25 mag) from literature and NIR data for the region, spectral energy distribution models have been implemented for selected YSOs which show masses and ages to be consistent with estimated values. The spatial distribution of YSOs shows an evolutionary sequence, suggesting triggered star formation in the region. The star formation seems to have propagated from the ionizing star toward the cold dark cloud LDN1657A located west of Sh2-297.

  7. THE SPITZER MID-INFRARED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS SURVEY. I. OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF OBSCURED CANDIDATES AND NORMAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI SELECTED IN THE MID-INFRARED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacy, M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Ridgway, S. E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Gates, E. L. [UCO/Lick Observatory, P.O. Box 85, Mount Hamilton, CA 95140 (United States); Nielsen, D. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Petric, A. O. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sajina, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tuffs University, 212 College Avenue, Medford, MA 02155 (United States); Urrutia, T. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Cox Drews, S. [946 Mangrove Avenue 102, Sunnyvale, CA 94086 (United States); Harrison, C. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Seymour, N. [CSIRO, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Storrie-Lombardi, L. J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We present the results of a program of optical and near-infrared spectroscopic follow-up of candidate active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected in the mid-infrared. This survey selects both normal and obscured AGNs closely matched in luminosity across a wide range, from Seyfert galaxies with bolometric luminosities L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉} to highly luminous quasars (L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}), all with redshifts ranging from 0 to 4.3. Samples of candidate AGNs were selected with mid-infrared color cuts at several different 24 μm flux density limits to ensure a range of luminosities at a given redshift. The survey consists of 786 candidate AGNs and quasars, of which 672 have spectroscopic redshifts and classifications. Of these, 137 (20%) are type 1 AGNs with blue continua, 294 (44%) are type 2 objects with extinctions A{sub V} ∼> 5 toward their AGNs, 96 (14%) are AGNs with lower extinctions (A{sub V} ∼ 1), and 145 (22%) have redshifts, but no clear signs of AGN activity in their spectra. Of the survey objects 50% have L {sub bol} > 10{sup 12} L {sub ☉}, in the quasar regime. We present composite spectra for type 2 quasars and objects with no signs of AGN activity in their spectra. We also discuss the mid-infrared—emission-line luminosity correlation and present the results of cross correlations with serendipitous X-ray and radio sources. The results show that: (1) obscured objects dominate the overall AGN population, (2) mid-infrared selected AGN candidates exist which lack AGN signatures in their optical spectra but have AGN-like X-ray or radio counterparts, and (3) X-ray and optical classifications of obscured and unobscured AGNs often differ.

  8. Diagnosing the Kinematics of the Tori in Active Galactic Nuclei with the Velocity-resolved Reverberation Mapping of the Narrow Iron K α Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuan; Li Xiaobo, E-mail: liuyuan@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: lixb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-3, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2017-07-20

    The properties of the dusty tori in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been investigated in detail, mainly focusing on the geometry and components; however, the kinematics of the torus are still not clear. The narrow iron K α line at 6.4 keV is thought to be produced by the X-ray reflection from the torus. Thus, the velocity-resolved reverberation mapping of it is able to constrain the kinematics of the torus. Such effort is limited by the spectral resolution of current charged coupled device (CCD) detectors and should be possible with the microcalorimeter on the next generation X-ray satellite. In this paper, we first construct the response functions of the torus under a uniform inflow, a Keplerian rotation, and a uniform outflow. Then the energy-dependent light curve of the narrow iron K α line is simulated according to the performance of the X-ray Integral Field Unit in Athena. Finally, the energy-dependent cross-correlation function is calculated to reveal the kinematic signal. According to our results, 100 observations with 5 ks exposure of each are sufficient to distinguish the above three velocity fields. Although the real geometry and velocity field of the torus could be more complex than we assumed, the present result proves the feasibility of the velocity-resolved reverberation mapping of the narrow iron K α line. The combination of the dynamics of the torus with those of the broad-line region and the host galaxy is instructive for the understanding of the feeding and feedback process of AGNs.

  9. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2017-05-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line Hα/Hβ ratio of ≈2.72 ± 0.04, consistent with a Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (far-ultraviolet-near-ultraviolet) colour index strongly rules out a steep Small Magellanic Cloud-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum for the bluest AGNs. For very blue AGNs, the Ly α/Hβ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhanced Ly α/Hβ ratio at very high velocities is a consequence of continuum fluorescence in the Lyman lines (Case C). Reddenings of AGNs mean that the far-UV luminosity is often underestimated by up to an order of magnitude. This is a major factor causing the discrepancies between measured accretion disc sizes and the predictions of simple accretion disc theory. Dust covering fractions for most AGNs are lower than has been estimated. The total mass in lower mass supermassive black holes must be greater than hitherto estimated.

  10. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc'h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin; Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla; Trump, Jonathan R.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  11. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc' h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin [CEA-Saclay, DSM/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Charlot, Stéphane; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla [UPMC-CNRS, UMR 7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014 Paris (France); Trump, Jonathan R. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Dickinson, Mark, E-mail: stephanie.juneau@cea.fr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2014-06-10

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  12. LIFTING THE VEIL ON OBSCURED ACCRETION: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI NUMBER COUNTS AND SURVEY STRATEGIES FOR IMAGING HARD X-RAY MISSIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Draper, A. R.; Madsen, K. K.; Rigby, J. R.; Treister, E.

    2011-01-01

    Finding and characterizing the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that produces the X-ray background (XRB) is necessary to connect the history of accretion to observations of galaxy evolution at longer wavelengths. The year 2012 will see the deployment of the first hard X-ray imaging telescope which, through deep extragalactic surveys, will be able to measure the AGN population at the energies where the XRB peaks (∼20-30 keV). Here, we present predictions of AGN number counts in three hard X-ray bandpasses: 6-10 keV, 10-30 keV, and 30-60 keV. Separate predictions are presented for the number counts of Compton thick AGNs, the most heavily obscured active galaxies. The number counts are calculated for five different models of the XRB that differ in the assumed hard X-ray luminosity function, the evolution of the Compton thick AGNs, and the underlying AGN spectral model. The majority of the hard X-ray number counts will be Compton thin AGNs, but there is a greater than tenfold increase in the Compton thick number counts from the 6-10 keV to the 10-30 keV band. The Compton thick population shows enough variation that a hard X-ray number counts measurement will constrain the models. The computed number counts are used to consider various survey strategies for the NuSTAR mission, assuming a total exposure time of 6.2 Ms. We find that multiple surveys will allow a measurement of Compton thick evolution. The predictions presented here should be useful for all future imaging hard X-ray missions.

  13. Toward a comprehensive model for feedback by active galactic nuclei: New insights from M87 observations by LOFAR, Fermi, and H.E.S.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfrommer, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Feedback by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) appears to be critical in balancing radiative cooling of the low-entropy gas at the centers of galaxy clusters and in mitigating the star formation of elliptical galaxies. New observations of M87 enable us to put forward a comprehensive model for the physical heating mechanism. Low-frequency radio observations by LOFAR revealed the absence of fossil cosmic-ray (CR) electrons in the radio halo surrounding M87. This puzzle can be resolved by accounting for the CR release from the radio lobes and the subsequent mixing of CRs with the dense ambient intracluster gas, which thermalizes the electrons on a timescale similar to the radio halo age of 40 Myr. Hadronic interactions of similarly injected CR protons with the ambient gas should produce an observable gamma-ray signal in accordance with the steady emission of the low state of M87 detected by Fermi and H.E.S.S. Hence, we normalize the CR population to the gamma-ray emission, which shows the same spectral slope as the CR injection spectrum probed by LOFAR, thereby supporting a common origin. We show that CRs, which stream at the Alfvén velocity with respect to the plasma rest frame, heat the surrounding thermal plasma at a rate that balances that of radiative cooling on average at each radius. However, the resulting global thermal equilibrium is locally unstable and allows for the formation of the observed cooling multi-phase medium through thermal instability. Provided that CR heating balances cooling during the emerging 'cooling flow', the collapse of the majority of the gas is halted around 1 keV—in accordance with X-ray data. We show that both the existence of a temperature floor and the similar radial scaling of the heating and cooling rates are generic predictions of the CR heating model.

  14. Active galactic nuclei cores in infrared-faint radio sources. Very long baseline interferometry observations using the Very Long Baseline Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, A.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Spitler, L. R.; Deller, A. T.; Collier, J. D.; Parker, Q. A.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) form a new class of galaxies characterised by radio flux densities between tenths and tens of mJy and faint or absent infrared counterparts. It has been suggested that these objects are radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at significant redshifts (z ≳ 2). Aims: Whereas the high redshifts of IFRS have been recently confirmed based on spectroscopic data, the evidence for the presence of AGNs in IFRS is mainly indirect. So far, only two AGNs have been unquestionably confirmed in IFRS based on very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In this work, we test the hypothesis that IFRS contain AGNs in a large sample of sources using VLBI. Methods: We observed 57 IFRS with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) down to a detection sensitivity in the sub-mJy regime and detected compact cores in 35 sources. Results: Our VLBA detections increase the number of VLBI-detected IFRS from 2 to 37 and provide strong evidence that most - if not all - IFRS contain AGNs. We find that IFRS have a marginally higher VLBI detection fraction than randomly selected sources with mJy flux densities at arcsec-scales. Moreover, our data provide a positive correlation between compactness - defined as the ratio of milliarcsec- to arcsec-scale flux density - and redshift for IFRS, but suggest a decreasing mean compactness with increasing arcsec-scale radio flux density. Based on these findings, we suggest that IFRS tend to contain young AGNs whose jets have not formed yet or have not expanded, equivalent to very compact objects. We found two IFRS that are resolved into two components. The two components are spatially separated by a few hundred milliarcseconds in both cases. They might be components of one AGN, a binary black hole, or the result of gravitational lensing.

  15. X-ray short-time lags in the Fe-K energy band produced by scattering clouds in active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizumoto, Misaki; Done, Chris; Hagino, Kouichi; Ebisawa, Ken; Tsujimoto, Masahiro; Odaka, Hirokazu

    2018-05-01

    X-rays illuminating the accretion disc in active galactic nuclei give rise to an iron K line and its associated reflection spectrum which are lagged behind the continuum variability by the light-travel time from the source to the disc. The measured lag timescales in the iron band can be as short as ˜Rg/c, where Rg is the gravitational radius, which is often interpreted as evidence for a very small continuum source close to the event horizon of a rapidly spinning black hole. However, the short lags can also be produced by reflection from more distant material, because the primary photons with no time-delay dilute the time-lags caused by the reprocessed photons. We perform a Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate the dilution effect in the X-ray reverberation lags from a half-shell of neutral material placed at 100 Rg from the central source. This gives lags of ˜2 Rg/c, but the iron line is a distinctly narrow feature in the lag-energy plot, whereas the data often show a broader line. We show that both the short lag and the line broadening can be reproduced if the scattering material is outflowing at ˜0.1c. The velocity structure in the wind can also give shifts in the line profile in the lag-energy plot calculated at different frequencies. Hence we propose that the observed broad iron reverberation lags and shifts in profile as a function of frequency of variability can arise from a disc wind at fairly large distances from the X-ray source.

  16. Zooming into local active galactic nuclei: the power of combining SDSS-IV MaNGA with higher resolution integral field unit observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylezalek, Dominika; Schnorr Müller, Allan; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Greene, Jenny E.; Müller-Sánchez, Francisco; Kelly, Michael; Liu, Guilin; Law, David R.; Barrera-Ballesteros, Jorge K.; Riffel, Rogemar A.; Thomas, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are ubiquitous in high-luminosity AGN with outflow speeds apparently correlated with the total bolometric luminosity of the AGN. This empirical relation and theoretical work suggest that in the range Lbol ˜ 1043-45 erg s-1 there must exist a threshold luminosity above which the AGN becomes powerful enough to launch winds that will be able to escape the galaxy potential. In this paper, we present pilot observations of two AGN in this transitional range that were taken with the Gemini North Multi-Object Spectrograph integral field unit (IFU). Both sources have also previously been observed within the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-IV (SDSS) Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. While the MaNGA IFU maps probe the gas fields on galaxy-wide scales and show that some regions are dominated by AGN ionization, the new Gemini IFU data zoom into the centre with four times better spatial resolution. In the object with the lower Lbol we find evidence of a young or stalled biconical AGN-driven outflow where none was obvious at the MaNGA resolution. In the object with the higher Lbol we trace the large-scale biconical outflow into the nuclear region and connect the outflow from small to large scales. These observations suggest that AGN luminosity and galaxy potential are crucial in shaping wind launching and propagation in low-luminosity AGN. The transition from small and young outflows to galaxy-wide feedback can only be understood by combining large-scale IFU data that trace the galaxy velocity field with higher resolution, small-scale IFU maps.

  17. THE AKARI 2.5-5.0 μm SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TYPE-1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATOR, LINE RATIO, AND HOT DUST TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Ji Hoon; Jun, Hyunsung David; Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Takagi, Toshinobu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Oyabu, Shinki [Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Ohyama, Youichi, E-mail: dohyeong@astro.snu.ac.kr, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-01-01

    We present 2.5-5.0 μm spectra of 83 nearby (0.002 < z < 0.48) and bright (K < 14 mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. The 2.5-5.0 μm spectral region contains emission lines such as Brβ (2.63 μm), Brα (4.05 μm), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.3 μm), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activity in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson et al. Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physical conditions of the broad line region. Moreover, we fit the hot and warm dust components of the dust torus by adding photometric data of SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and ISO to the AKARI spectra, finding hot and warm dust temperatures of ∼1100 K and ∼220 K, respectively, rather than the commonly cited hot dust temperature of 1500 K.

  18. RADIATION MECHANISM AND JET COMPOSITION OF GAMMA-RAY BURSTS AND GeV-TeV-SELECTED RADIO-LOUD ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jin; Lu Ye; Zhang Shuangnan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Liang Enwei; Sun Xiaona [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Zhang Bing, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and GeV-TeV-selected radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are compared based on our systematic modeling of the observed spectral energy distributions of a sample of AGNs with a single-zone leptonic model. We show that the correlation between the jet power (P{sub jet}) and the prompt gamma-ray luminosity (L{sub jet}) of GRBs is consistent, within the uncertainties, with the correlation between jet power and the synchrotron peak luminosity (L{sub s,jet}) of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Their radiation efficiencies ({epsilon}) are also comparable (>10% for most sources), which increase with the bolometric jet luminosity (L{sub bol,jet}) for FSRQs and with the L{sub jet} for GRBs with similar power-law indices. BL Lac objects (BL Lacs) do not follow the P{sub jet}-L{sub s,jet} relation of FSRQs. They have lower {epsilon} and L{sub bol,jet} values than FSRQs, and a tentative L{sub bol,jet}-{epsilon} relation is also found, with a power-law index different from that of the FSRQs. The magnetization parameters ({sigma}) of FSRQs are on average larger than that of BL Lacs. They are anti-correlated with {epsilon} for the FSRQs, but positively correlated with {epsilon} for the BL Lacs. GeV narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies potentially share similar properties with FSRQs. Based on the analogy between GRBs and FSRQs, we suggest that the prompt gamma-ray emission of GRBs is likely produced by the synchrotron process in a magnetized jet with high radiation efficiency, similar to FSRQs. The jets of BL Lacs, on the other hand, are less efficient and are likely more matter-dominated.

  19. Probing the Galactic Structure of the Milky Way with H II Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red, Wesley Alexander; Wenger, Trey V.; Balser, Dana; Anderson, Loren; Bania, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the structure of the Milky Way is challenging since we reside within the Galactic disk and distances are difficult to determine. Elemental abundances provide important constraints on theories of the formation and evolution of the Milky Way. HII regions are the brightest objects in the Galaxy at radio wavelengths and are detected across the entire Galactic disk. We use the Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) to observe the radio recombination line (RRL) and continuum emission of 120 Galactic HII regions located across the Galactic disk. In thermal equilibrium, metal abundances are expected to set the nebular electron temperature with high abundances producing low temperatures. We derive the metallicity of HII regions using an empirical relation between an HII region's radio recombination line-to-continuum ratio and nebular metallicity. Here we focus on a subset of 20 HII regions from our sample that have been well studied with the Green Bank Telescope (GBT) to test our data reduction pipeline and analysis methods. Our goal is to expand this study to the Southern skies with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and create a metallicity map of the entire Galactic disk.

  20. THE BOLOCAM GALACTIC PLANE SURVEY. II. CATALOG OF THE IMAGE DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosolowsky, Erik; Dunham, Miranda K.; Evans, Neal J.; Harvey, Paul; Ginsburg, Adam; Bally, John; Battersby, Cara; Glenn, Jason; Stringfellow, Guy S.; Bradley, E. Todd; Aguirre, James; Cyganowski, Claudia; Dowell, Darren; Drosback, Meredith; Walawender, Josh; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2010-01-01

    We present a catalog of 8358 sources extracted from images produced by the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). The BGPS is a survey of the millimeter dust continuum emission from the northern Galactic plane. The catalog sources are extracted using a custom algorithm, Bolocat, which was designed specifically to identify and characterize objects in the large-area maps generated from the Bolocam instrument. The catalog products are designed to facilitate follow-up observations of these relatively unstudied objects. The catalog is 98% complete from 0.4 Jy to 60 Jy over all object sizes for which the survey is sensitive ( -2.4±0.1 and that the mean Galactic latitude for sources is significantly below the midplane: (b) = (-0. 0 095 ± 0. 0 001).

  1. Supergiants and the Galactic metallicity gradient. II. Spectroscopic abundances for 64 distant F- to M-type supergiants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, R.E.; Bond, H.E.

    1989-01-01

    The metallicity gradient in the Galactic disk from in situ stars with visual magnitude ranging from 6 to 10 is analyzed. Atmospheric parameters and detailed chemical abundances for 64 Population I supergiants of spectral types F through M and luminosity classes Ia through II have been determined. The derived Fe/H ratios ranging from -0.5 to + 0.7 show a mean value of +0.13 with an estimated uncertainty of + or - 0.2. A subset of 25 supergiants fainter than 7th magnitude lying in the direction of the Galactic center shows a Fe/H mean of +0.18 + or - 0.04, while a similar sample of 15 faint supergiants lying in the direction of the Galactic anticenter shows a lower Fe/H mean of +0.07 + or - 0.06. For a sample of bright supergiants analyzed by Luck and Lambert (1985), the mean abundance pattern for all 64 stars showed the following: deficient C and O along with enhancement of N, indicating mixing of CNO-cycled material to the stellar surfaces; an apparent Sr enhancement attributed to departures from LTE; and an essentially solar pattern of other chemical elements. 50 refs

  2. Photoionization modelling of planetary nebulae - II. Galactic bulge nebulae, a comparison with literature results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoof, PAM; Van de Steene, GC

    1999-01-01

    We have constructed photoionization models of five galactic bulge planetary nebulae using our automatic method, which enables a fully self-consistent determination of the physical parameters of a planetary nebula. The models are constrained using the spectrum, the IRAS and radio fluxes and the

  3. THE GALACTIC O-STAR SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY (GOSSS). II. BRIGHT SOUTHERN STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sota, A.; Apellániz, J. Maíz; Alfaro, E. J.; Morrell, N. I.; Barbá, R. H.; Arias, J. I.; Walborn, N. R.; Gamen, R. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present the second installment of GOSSS, a massive spectroscopic survey of Galactic O stars, based on new homogeneous, high signal-to-noise ratio, R ∼ 2500 digital observations from both hemispheres selected from the Galactic O-Star Catalog (GOSC). In this paper we include bright stars and other objects drawn mostly from the first version of GOSC, all of them south of δ = –20°, for a total number of 258 O stars. We also revise the northern sample of Paper I to provide the full list of spectroscopically classified Galactic O stars complete to B = 8, bringing the total number of published GOSSS stars to 448. Extensive sequences of exceptional objects are given, including the early Of/WN, O Iafpe, Ofc, ON/OC, Onfp, Of?p, and Oe types, as well as double/triple-lined spectroscopic binaries. The new spectral subtype O9.2 is also discussed. The magnitude and spatial distributions of the observed sample are analyzed. We also present new results from OWN, a multi-epoch high-resolution spectroscopic survey coordinated with GOSSS that is assembling the largest sample of Galactic spectroscopic massive binaries ever attained. The OWN data combined with additional information on spectroscopic and visual binaries from the literature indicate that only a very small fraction (if any) of the stars with masses above 15-20 M ☉ are born as single systems. In the future we will publish the rest of the GOSSS survey, which is expected to include over 1000 Galactic O stars

  4. POLAMI: Polarimetric Monitoring of Active Galactic Nuclei at Millimetre Wavelengths - III. Characterization of total flux density and polarization variability of relativistic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudo, Iván; Thum, Clemens; Ramakrishnan, Venkatessh; Molina, Sol N.; Casadio, Carolina; Gómez, José L.

    2018-01-01

    We report on the first results of the POLAMI (Polarimetric Monitoring of AGNs with Millimetre Wavelengths) programme, a simultaneous 3.5 and 1.3 mm full-Stokes-polarization monitoring of a sample of 36 of the brightest active galactic nuclei in the northern sky with the IRAM 30 m telescope. Through a systematic statistical study of data taken from 2006 October (from 2009 December for the case of the 1.3 mm observations) to 2014 August, we characterize the variability of the total flux density and linear polarization. We find that all sources in the sample are highly variable in total flux density at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm, as well as in spectral index, which (except in particularly prominent flares) is found to be optically thin between these two wavelengths. The total flux-density variability at 1.3 mm is found, in general, to be faster, and to have larger fractional amplitude and flatter power-spectral-density slopes than at 3.5 mm. The polarization degree is on average larger at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm, by a factor of 2.6. The variability of linear polarization degree is faster and has higher fractional amplitude than for total flux density, with the typical time-scales during prominent polarization peaks being significantly faster at 1.3 mm than at 3.5 mm. The polarization angle at both 3.5 and 1.3 mm is highly variable. Most of the sources show one or two excursions of >180° on time-scales from a few weeks to about a year during the course of our observations. The 3.5 and 1.3 mm polarization angle evolution follows each other rather well, although the 1.3 mm data show a clear preference to more prominent variability on the short time-scales, i.e. weeks. The data are compatible with multizone models of conical jets involving smaller emission regions for the shortest-wavelength emitting sites. Such smaller emitting regions should also be more efficient in energising particle populations, as implied by the coherent evolution of the spectral index and the total flux

  5. Stellar Population and Star Formation History of the Distant Galactic H II Regions NGC 2282 and Sh2-149

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, S.; Mondal, S.; Jose, J.; Das, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    We present here the recent results on two distant Galactic H II regions, namely NGC 2282 and Sh2-149, obtained with multiwavelength observations. Our optical spectroscopic analysis of the bright sources have been used to identify the massive members, and to derive the fundamental parameters such as age and distance of these regions. Using IR color-color criteria and Hα-emission properties, we have identified and classified the candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) in these regions. The 12CO(1-0) continuum maps along with the K-band extinction maps, and spatial distribution of YSOs are used to investigate the structure and morphology of the molecular cloud associated with these H II regions. Overall analysis of these regions suggests that the star formation occurs at the locations of the denser gas, and we also find possible evidences of the induced star formation due to the feedback from massive stars to its surrounding molecular medium.

  6. Spectrophotometry of four H II regions in the Perseus arm and a reassessment of galactic abundance gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talent, D.L.; Dufour, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    The results from deep spectrophotometry of four Perseus arm H II regions (NGC 1624, NGC 2359, NGC 7538, and NGC 7635) obtained with the KPNO IIDS are presented. The observed line strengths are used to derive electron temperatures, densities, and the relative concentrations of H, He, N, O, S, Cl, and Ar in the nebulae. These abundances are combined with similarly derived abundances for seven other well-observed galactic H II regions, and are used to estimate the magnitude of galactic abundance gradients over the 8--14 kpc region of the solar neighborhood.Significant radial gradients for oxygen and nitrogen are found: d log (O/H)/dR=-0.059 +- 0.017 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR= -0.083 +- 0.018 kpc -1 , while only marginal evidence for a helium gradient is found: d log (He/H)/dR=-0.008 +- 0.008 kpc -1 . Little evidence for gradient in S/H is found. From the red [N II] and [S II] lines we found d log (N + /S + )/dR=-0.068 +- 0.024 kpc -1 , which suggests that a radial gradient in S/O exists in the Galaxy. The O/H gradient found in this study is similar to that found from planetary nebulae, while the N/H gradient is significantly smaller. These results suggest that most of the nitrogen in the interstellar medium of the Galaxy was produced by primary nucleosynthesis processes.We also find evidence that the radial O/H and N/H gradients for H II regions in a given spiral arm are 2 to 3 times steeper than the global gradients over the 8--14 kpc interval in galactocentric distance. For four H II regions in the Sagittarius arm we found d log (O/H)/dR=-0.24 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR=-0.16 kpc -1 . For five H II regions in the Perseus arm we found d log (O/H)/dR=-0.18 kpc -1 and d log (N/H)/dR=-0.15 kpc -1 . The larger magnitudes of these gradients are greater than those of the global gradients by amounts which exceed reasonable errors in abundances and/or relative distances

  7. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic CHaMP. II. Dense gas clumps. (Ma+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, B.; Tan, J. C.; Barnes, P. J.

    2015-04-01

    A total of 303 dense gas clumps have been detected using the HCO+(1-0) line in the CHaMP survey (Paper I, Barnes et al. 2011, J/ApJS/196/12). In this article we have derived the SED for these clumps using Spitzer, MSX, and IRAS data. The Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) was launched in 1996 April. It conducted a Galactic plane survey (0MSX band wavelengths are centered at 8.28, 12.13, 14.65, and 21.3um. The best image resolution is ~18" in the 8.28um band, with positional accuracy of about 2". Calibrated images of the Galactic plane were obtained from the online MSX image server at the IPAC website. The IRAS performed an all-sky survey at 12, 25, 60, and 100um. The nominal resolution is about 4' at 60um. High Resolution Image Restoration (HIRES) uses the maximum correlation method to produce higher resolution images, better than 1' at 60um. Sources chosen for processing with HIRES were processed at all four IRAS bands with 20 iterations. The Spitzer InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) is a four-channel camera that provides simultaneous 5.2"x5.2" images at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8um with an angular resolution of about 2" at 8um. We searched the Spitzer archive at IPAC. Most of these data are from two large survey programs: PID 189 (Churchwell, E., "The SIRTF Galactic Plane Survey") and PID 40791 (Majewski, S., "Galactic Structure and Star Formation in Vela-Carina"). Hill et al. (2005, J/MNRAS/363/405) carried out a 1.2mm continuum emission survey toward 131 star-forming complexes using the Swedish ESO Submillimetre Telescope (SEST) IMaging Bolometer Array (SIMBA). Hill et al. list the 1.2mm flux for 404 sources, 15 of which are in our sample. (2 data files).

  8. Study of II Galactic quadrant of Milky Way Galaxy using open clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Devendra; Ganesh, Shashikiran; Baliyan, Kiran Singh; Yadav, Ramakant Singh; Durgapal, Alok

    2018-04-01

    We have made UBV I CCD observations for the open clusters Teutsch 1, Riddle 4 and Czernik 6 using 1.04-m Sampurnanand telescope located at the ARIES observatory (Manora peak, Nainital, India). We have used 2MASS JHKS data for the clusters Teutsch 126, Teutsch 54 and Czernik 3. For the estimation of fundamental parameters, we have plotted radial density profiles, colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams. Using these inputs, we have studied the structure of Milky Way Galaxy in the second Galactic quadrant. We have considered the open clusters that are younger than 1 Gyrs and lay in the longitude range from 90 to 180 deg. Our study shows that up to 3.5 Kpc, the Galactic disc bends towards the southern hemisphere while after 3.5 Kpc it bends towards the northern hemisphere. The distribution of reddening with longitude and age shows a decreasing trend with the longitude and age of the clusters. Our study also indicates that younger clusters have more reddening than older ones.

  9. RADIAL VELOCITIES OF GALACTIC O-TYPE STARS. II. SINGLE-LINED SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, S. J.; Gies, D. R.; Hillwig, T. C.; McSwain, M. V.; Huang, W.

    2013-01-01

    We report on new radial velocity measurements of massive stars that are either suspected binaries or lacking prior observations. This is part of a survey to identify and characterize spectroscopic binaries among O-type stars with the goal of comparing the binary fraction of field and runaway stars with those in clusters and associations. We present orbits for HDE 308813, HD 152147, HD 164536, BD–16°4826, and HDE 229232, Galactic O-type stars exhibiting single-lined spectroscopic variation. By fitting model spectra to our observed spectra, we obtain estimates for effective temperature, surface gravity, and rotational velocity. We compute orbital periods and velocity semiamplitudes for each system and note the lack of photometric variation for any system. These binaries probably appear single-lined because the companions are faint and because their orbital Doppler shifts are small compared to the width of the rotationally broadened lines of the primary.

  10. Exploring the Dust Content of Galactic Winds with Herschel. II. Nearby Dwarf Galaxies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-03-01

    We present results from analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20% of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar disks, but this fraction reaches ˜60% in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disk by energy inputs from on-going star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disk by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disk that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  11. Exploring the dust content of galactic winds with Herschel - II. Nearby dwarf galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Meléndez, Marcio; Martin, Crystal L.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Cecil, Gerald; Heitsch, Fabian; Müller, Thomas; Rupke, David S. N.; Engelbracht, Chad

    2018-06-01

    We present the results from an analysis of deep Herschel Space Observatory observations of six nearby dwarf galaxies known to host galactic-scale winds. The superior far-infrared sensitivity and angular resolution of Herschel have allowed detection of cold circumgalactic dust features beyond the stellar components of the host galaxies traced by Spitzer 4.5 μm images. Comparisons of these cold dust features with ancillary data reveal an imperfect spatial correlation with the ionized gas and warm dust wind components. We find that typically ˜10-20 per cent of the total dust mass in these galaxies resides outside of their stellar discs, but this fraction reaches ˜60 per cent in the case of NGC 1569. This galaxy also has the largest metallicity (O/H) deficit in our sample for its stellar mass. Overall, the small number of objects in our sample precludes drawing strong conclusions on the origin of the circumgalactic dust. We detect no statistically significant trends with star formation properties of the host galaxies, as might be expected if the dust were lifted above the disc by energy inputs from ongoing star formation activity. Although a case for dust entrained in a galactic wind is seen in NGC 1569, in all cases, we cannot rule out the possibility that some of the circumgalactic dust might be associated instead with gas accreted or removed from the disc by recent galaxy interaction events, or that it is part of the outer gas-rich portion of the disc that lies below the sensitivity limit of the Spitzer 4.5 μm data.

  12. Remarkable long-range-systematic in the binding energies of α-nuclei. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, D.H.E.

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter I present further data that show the remarkable evidence for the existence of an α-cluster structure in the ground states of even-even N=Z nuclei. Such a remarkable systematic was observed 20 years ago Gross and Nemes [Phys. Lett. B 130 (1983) 131] for these nuclei at A≤72 and is extended here up to A=100

  13. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Survey: First Direct Measurements of the Greater Than Or Similar To 10 Kev X-Ray Luminosity Function For Active Galactic Nuclei At z > 0.1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aird, J.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2015-01-01

    We present the first direct measurements of the rest-frame 10-40 keV X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) based on a sample of 94 sources at 0.1 ... program. Our results are consistent with the strong evolution of the AGN population seen in prior, lower-energy studies of the XLF. However, different models of the intrinsic distribution of absorption, which are used to correct for selection biases, give significantly different predictions for the total...... component (with a relative normalization of R ∼ 2 at all luminosities) can bring extrapolations of the XLF from 2-10 keV into agreement with our NuSTAR sample. Ultimately, X-ray spectral analysis of the NuSTAR sources is required to break this degeneracy between the distribution of absorbing column...

  14. Post-Newtonian evolution of massive black hole triplets in galactic nuclei - II. Survey of the parameter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonetti, Matteo; Haardt, Francesco; Sesana, Alberto; Barausse, Enrico

    2018-04-01

    Massive black hole binaries (MBHBs) are expected to form at the centre of merging galaxies during the hierarchical assembly of the cosmic structure, and are expected to be the loudest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the low frequency domain. However, because of the dearth of energy exchanges with background stars and gas, many of these MBHBs may stall at separations too large for GW emission to drive them to coalescence in less than a Hubble time. Triple MBH systems are then bound to form after a further galaxy merger, triggering a complex and rich dynamics that can eventually lead to MBH coalescence. Here we report on the results of a large set of numerical simulations, where MBH triplets are set in spherical stellar potentials and MBH dynamics is followed through 2.5 post-Newtonian order in the equations of motion. From our full suite of simulated systems we find that a fraction ≃ 20 - 30 % of the MBH binaries that would otherwise stall are led to coalesce within a Hubble time. The corresponding coalescence timescale peaks around 300 Myr, while the eccentricity close to the plunge, albeit small, is non-negligible (≲ 0.1). We construct and discuss marginalised probability distributions of the main parameters involved and, in a companion paper of the series, we will use the results presented here to forecast the contribution of MBH triplets to the GW signal in the nHz regime probed by Pulsar Timing Array experiments.

  15. Halo histories versus galaxy properties at z = 0 II: large-scale galactic conformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jeremy L.; Hahn, ChangHoon; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Conroy, Charlie

    2018-06-01

    Using group catalogues from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7, we measure galactic conformity in the local universe. We measure the quenched fraction of neighbour galaxies around isolated primary galaxies, dividing the isolated sample into star-forming and quiescent objects. We restrict our measurements to scales >1 Mpc to probe the correlations between halo formation histories. Over the stellar mass range 109.7 ≤ M*/M⊙ ≤ 1010.9, we find minimal evidence for conformity. We further compare these data to predictions of the halo age-matching model, in which the oldest galaxies are associated with the oldest haloes. For models with strong correlations between halo and stellar age, the conformity is too large to be consistent with the data. Weaker implementations of the age-matching model would not produce a detectable signal in SDSS data. We reproduce the results of Kauffmann et al., in which the star formation rates of neighbour galaxies are reduced around primary galaxies when the primaries are low star formers. However, we find this result is mainly driven by contamination in the isolation criterion; when removing the small fraction of satellite galaxies in the sample, the conformity signal largely goes away. Lastly, we show that small conformity signals, i.e. 2-5 per cent differences in the quenched fractions of neighbour galaxies, can be produced by mechanisms other than halo assembly bias. For example, if passive galaxies occupy more massive haloes than star-forming galaxies of the same stellar mass, a conformity signal that is consistent with recent measurements from PRIMUS (Berti et al.) can be produced.

  16. Analytical mass formula and nuclear surface properties in the ETF approximation. Part II: asymmetric nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymard, François; Gulminelli, Francesca; Margueron, Jérôme

    2016-08-01

    We have recently addressed the problem of the determination of the nuclear surface energy for symmetric nuclei in the framework of the extended Thomas-Fermi (ETF) approximation using Skyrme functionals. We presently extend this formalism to the case of asymmetric nuclei and the question of the surface symmetry energy. We propose an approximate expression for the diffuseness and the surface energy. These quantities are analytically related to the parameters of the energy functional. In particular, the influence of the different equation of state parameters can be explicitly quantified. Detailed analyses of the different energy components (local/non-local, isoscalar/isovector, surface/curvature and higher order) are also performed. Our analytical solution of the ETF integral improves previous models and leads to a precision of better than 200 keV per nucleon in the determination of the nuclear binding energy for dripline nuclei.

  17. Pairing correlations. II. Microscopic analysis of odd-even mass staggering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguet, T.; Bonche, P.; Heenen, P.-H.; Meyer, J.

    2002-01-01

    The odd-even mass staggering in nuclei is analyzed in the context of self-consistent mean-field calculations, for spherical as well as for deformed nuclei. For these nuclei, the respective merits of the energy differences Δ (3) and Δ (5) to extract both the pairing gap and the time-reversal symmetry breaking effect at the same time are extensively discussed. The usual mass formula Δ (3) is shown to contain additional mean-field contributions when realistic pairing is used in the calculation. A simple tool is proposed in order to remove the time-reversal symmetry breaking effects from Δ (5) . Extended comparisons with the odd-even mass staggering obtained in the zero-pairing limit (schematic model and self-consistent calculations) show the nonperturbative contribution of pairing correlations on this observable

  18. MAXIMALLY STAR-FORMING GALACTIC DISKS. II. VERTICALLY RESOLVED HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF STARBURST REGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shetty, Rahul [Zentrum fuer Astronomie der Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Str. 2, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: R.Shetty@.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: ostriker@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    We explore the self-regulation of star formation using a large suite of high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations, focusing on molecule-dominated regions (galactic centers and [U]LIRGS) where feedback from star formation drives highly supersonic turbulence. In equilibrium, the total midplane pressure, dominated by turbulence, must balance the vertical weight of the interstellar medium. Under self-regulation, the momentum flux injected by feedback evolves until it matches the vertical weight. We test this flux balance in simulations spanning a wide range of parameters, including surface density {Sigma}, momentum injected per stellar mass formed (p{sub *}/m{sub *}), and angular velocity. The simulations are two-dimensional radial-vertical slices, and include both self-gravity and an external potential that helps to confine gas to the disk midplane. After the simulations reach a steady state in all relevant quantities, including the star formation rate {Sigma}{sub SFR}, there is remarkably good agreement between the vertical weight, the turbulent pressure, and the momentum injection rate from supernovae. Gas velocity dispersions and disk thicknesses increase with p{sub *}/m{sub *}. The efficiency of star formation per free-fall time at the midplane density, {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}), is insensitive to the local conditions and to the star formation prescription in very dense gas. We measure {epsilon}{sub ff}(n{sub 0}) {approx} 0.004-0.01, consistent with low and approximately constant efficiencies inferred from observations. For {Sigma} in (100-1000) M{sub Sun} pc{sup -2}, we find {Sigma}{sub SFR} in (0.1-4) M{sub Sun} kpc{sup -2} yr{sup -1}, generally following a {Sigma}{sub SFR} {proportional_to} {Sigma}{sup 2} relationship. The measured relationships agree very well with vertical equilibrium and with turbulent energy replenishment by feedback within a vertical crossing time. These results, along with the observed {Sigma}-{Sigma}{sub SFR} relation in high

  19. TIDAL BREAKUP OF BINARY STARS AT THE GALACTIC CENTER. II. HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonini, Fabio; Merritt, David; Lombardi, James C. Jr

    2011-01-01

    In Paper I, we followed the evolution of binary stars as they orbited near the supermassive black hole (SMBH) at the Galactic center, noting the cases in which the two stars would come close enough together to collide. In this paper, we replace the point-mass stars by fluid realizations, and use a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics code to follow the close interactions. We model the binary components as main-sequence stars with initial masses of 1, 3, and 6 solar masses, and with chemical composition profiles taken from stellar evolution codes. Outcomes of the close interactions include mergers, collisions that leave both stars intact, and ejection of one star at high velocity accompanied by capture of the other star into a tight orbit around the SMBH. For the first time, we follow the evolution of the collision products for many (∼> 100) orbits around the SMBH. Stars that are initially too small to be tidally disrupted by the SMBH can be puffed up by close encounters or collisions, with the result that tidal stripping occurs in subsequent periapse passages. In these cases, mass loss occurs episodically, sometimes for hundreds of orbits before the star is completely disrupted. Repeated tidal flares, of either increasing or decreasing intensity, are a predicted consequence. In collisions involving a low-mass and a high-mass star, the merger product acquires a high core hydrogen abundance from the smaller star, effectively resetting the nuclear evolution 'clock' to a younger age. Elements like Li, Be, and B that can exist only in the outermost envelope of a star are severely depleted due to envelope ejection during collisions and due to tidal forces from the SMBH. Tidal spin-up can occur due to either a collision or tidal torque by the SMBH at periapsis. However, in the absence of collisions, tidal spin-up of stars is only important in a narrow range of periapse distances, r t /2 ∼ per ∼ t , with r t the tidal disruption radius. We discuss the implications of

  20. THE H I MASS DENSITY IN GALACTIC HALOS, WINDS, AND COLD ACCRETION AS TRACED BY Mg II ABSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Swinburne University of Technology, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Churchill, Christopher W., E-mail: gkacprzak@astro.swin.edu.au, E-mail: cwc@nmsu.edu [New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    It is well established that Mg II absorption lines detected in background quasar spectra arise from gas structures associated with foreground galaxies. The degree to which galaxy evolution is driven by the gas cycling through halos is highly uncertain because their gas mass density is poorly constrained. Fitting the Mg II equivalent width (W) distribution with a Schechter function and applying the N(H I)-W correlation of Menard and Chelouche, we computed {Omega}(H I){sub MgII} {identical_to} {Omega}(H I){sub halo} = 1.41{sup +0.75}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} for 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 1.4. We exclude damped Ly{alpha}'s (DLAs) from our calculations so that {Omega}(H I){sub halo} comprises accreting and/or outflowing halo gas not locked up in cold neutral clouds. We deduce that the cosmic H I gas mass density fraction in galactic halos traced by Mg II absorption is {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}(H I){sub DLA} {approx_equal} 15% and {Omega}(H I){sub halo}/{Omega}{sub b} {approx_equal} 0.3%. Citing several lines of evidence, we propose that infall/accretion material is sampled by small W whereas outflow/winds are sampled by large W, and find that {Omega}(H I){sub infall} is consistent with {Omega}(H I){sub outflow} for bifurcation at W = 1.23{sup +0.15}{sub -0.28} Angstrom-Sign ; cold accretion would then comprise no more than {approx}7% of the total H I mass density. We discuss evidence that (1) the total H I mass cycling through halos remains fairly constant with cosmic time and that the accretion of H I gas sustains galaxy winds, and (2) evolution in the cosmic star formation rate depends primarily on the rate at which cool H I gas cycles through halos.

  1. What to expect from dynamical modelling of galactic haloes - II. The spherical Jeans equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenting; Han, Jiaxin; Cole, Shaun; More, Surhud; Frenk, Carlos; Schaller, Matthieu

    2018-06-01

    The spherical Jeans equation (SJE) is widely used in dynamical modelling of the Milky Way (MW) halo potential. We use haloes and galaxies from the cosmological Millennium-II simulation and hydrodynamical APOSTLE (A Project of Simulations of The Local Environment) simulations to investigate the performance of the SJE in recovering the underlying mass profiles of MW mass haloes. The best-fitting halo mass and concentration parameters scatter by 25 per cent and 40 per cent around their input values, respectively, when dark matter particles are used as tracers. This scatter becomes as large as a factor of 3 when using star particles instead. This is significantly larger than the estimated statistical uncertainty associated with the use of the SJE. The existence of correlated phase-space structures that violate the steady-state assumption of the SJE as well as non-spherical geometries is the principal source of the scatter. Binary haloes show larger scatter because they are more aspherical in shape and have a more perturbed dynamical state. Our results confirm that the number of independent phase-space structures sets an intrinsic limiting precision on dynamical inferences based on the steady-state assumption. Modelling with a radius-independent velocity anisotropy, or using tracers within a limited outer radius, result in significantly larger scatter, but the ensemble-averaged measurement over the whole halo sample is approximately unbiased.

  2. Environment of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 971214: A Giant H ii Region Surrounded by a Galactic Supershell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn

    2000-02-10

    Among a number of gamma-ray bursts whose host galaxies are known, GRB 971214 stands out for its high redshift (z>/=3) and the Lyalpha emission line having a P Cygni-type profile, which is interpreted to be a direct consequence of the expanding supershell. From a profile-fitting analysis, we estimate the expansion velocity of the supershell (vexp=1500 km s-1) and the neutral column density (NHi=1020 cm -2). The redshift z=3.418 of the host galaxy proposed by Kulkarni et al. in 1998 has been revised to be z=3.425 from our profile analysis. The observed Lyalpha profile is fitted well by a Gaussian curve, which yields the Lyalpha luminosity LLyalpha=&parl0;1.8+/-0.8&parr0;x1042 ergs s-1. Assuming that the photon source is a giant H ii region, we deduce the electron number density in the H ii region ne=&parl0;40+/-10&parr0;&parl0;L/LLyalpha&parr0;0.5&parl0;R/100 pc&parr0;-1.5 cm-3, which corresponds to the illumination by about 104 O5 stars. We estimate the star formation rate to be RSF=7+/-3 M middle dot in circle yr-1 with the internal and the Galactic extinction corrected. The theory on the evolution of supernova remnants is used to propose that the supershell is at the adiabatic phase, with its radius R=18E1&solm0;253 pc, its age t=4.7x103E1&solm0;253 yr, and the density of the ambient medium n1=5.4E-1&solm0;253 cm-3, where E53=E&solm0;1053 ergs; we estimate the kinetic energy of the supershell to be Ek=7.3x1052E53 ergs. These values are consistent with the hypothesis that the supershell is the remnant of a gamma-ray burst. We note similarities between supershells found in nearby galaxies and remote primeval galaxies and propose that the gamma-ray burst may have occurred in a giant H ii region whose environment is similar to that in star-forming galaxies.

  3. Optical polarimetric and near-infrared photometric study of the RCW95 Galactic H II region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-González, J.; Roman-Lopes, A.; Santos, F. P.; Franco, G. A. P.; Santos, J. F. C.; Maia, F. F. S.; Sanmartim, D.

    2018-02-01

    We carried out an optical polarimetric study in the direction of the RCW 95 star-forming region in order to probe the sky-projected magnetic field structure by using the distribution of linear polarization segments which seem to be well aligned with the more extended cloud component. A mean polarization angle of θ = 49.8° ± 7.7°7 was derived. Through the spectral dependence analysis of polarization it was possible to obtain the total-to-selective extinction ratio (RV) by fitting the Serkowski function, resulting in a mean value of RV = 2.93 ± 0.47. The foreground polarization component was estimated and is in agreement with previous studies in this direction of the Galaxy. Further, near-infrared (NIR) images from Vista Variables in the Via Láctea (VVV) survey were collected to improve the study of the stellar population associated with the H II region. The Automated Stellar Cluster Analysis algorithm was employed to derive structural parameters for two clusters in the region, and a set of PAdova and TRieste Stellar Evolution Code (PARSEC) isochrones was superimposed on the decontaminated colour-magnitude diagrams to estimate an age of about 3 Myr for both clusters. Finally, from the NIR photometry study combined with spectra obtained with the Ohio State Infrared Imager and Spectrometer mounted at the Southern Astrophysics Research Telescope we derived the spectral classification of the main ionizing sources in the clusters associated with IRAS 15408-5356 and IRAS 15412-5359, both objects classified as O4V stars.

  4. AN X-RAY SPECTRAL MODEL OF REPROCESSING BY SMOOTH AND CLUMPY MOLECULAR TORI IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH THE MONACO FRAMEWORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furui, Shun’ya; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Ohno, Masanori; Hayashi, Kazuma [Department of Physical Science, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Odaka, Hirokazu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Kawaguchi, Toshihiro, E-mail: fukazawa@hep01.hepl.hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Sapporo Medical University, S1W17, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8556 (Japan)

    2016-02-20

    We construct an X-ray spectral model of reprocessing by a torus in an active galactic nucleus (AGN) with the Monte Carlo simulation framework MONACO. Two torus geometries of smooth and clumpy cases are considered and compared. In order to reproduce a Compton shoulder accurately, MONACO includes not only free electron scattering but also bound electron scattering. Raman and Rayleigh scattering are also treated, and scattering cross sections dependent on chemical states of hydrogen and helium are included. Doppler broadening by turbulence velocity can be implemented. Our model gives results consistent with other available models, such as MYTorus, except for differences due to different physical parameters and assumptions. We studied the dependence on torus parameters for a Compton shoulder, and found that a intensity ratio of a Compton shoulder to the line core mainly depends on column density, inclination angle, and metal abundance. For instance, an increase of metal abundance makes a Compton shoulder relatively weak. Also, the shape of a Compton shoulder depends on the column density. Furthermore, these dependences become different between smooth and clumpy cases. Then, we discuss the possibility of ASTRO-H/SXS spectroscopy of Compton shoulders in AGN reflection spectra.

  5. A NEW NETWORK FOR HIGHER-TEMPERATURE GAS-PHASE CHEMISTRY. I. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ACCRETION DISKS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Nanase; Herbst, Eric; Wakelam, Valentine

    2010-01-01

    We present a new interstellar chemical gas-phase reaction network for time-dependent kinetics that can be used for modeling high-temperature sources up to ∼800 K. This network contains an extended set of reactions based on the Ohio State University (OSU) gas-phase chemical network. The additional reactions include processes with significant activation energies, reverse reactions, proton exchange reactions, charge exchange reactions, and collisional dissociation. Rate coefficients already in the OSU network are modified for H 2 formation on grains, ion-neutral dipole reactions, and some radiative association reactions. The abundance of H 2 O is enhanced at high temperature by hydrogenation of atomic O. Much of the elemental oxygen is in the form of water at T ≥ 300 K, leading to effective carbon-rich conditions, which can efficiently produce carbon-chain species such as C 2 H 2 . At higher temperatures, HCN and NH 3 are also produced much more efficiently. We have applied the extended network to a simplified model of the accretion disk of an active galactic nucleus.

  6. Study of biodistribution of lipidic nanospheres charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez R, V.; Juarez O, C.; Medina L, A.; Perez C, E.; Garcia L, P.

    2007-01-01

    The general objective of the study was to evaluate the lipidic nanospheres biodistribution charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111 (Lip-Cis-in-111) in Wistar rats and in a tumoral model of CaCu. The conclusions were: 1. The system Lip-Cis-in-111 it presents a very fast elimination probably, to a fast recognition response of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). 2. It is planned to make modifications to the formulation to increase the quantity of the hydrophilic polymer (PEG), so that its time of residence in the blood is bigger and allow a bigger accumulation in the tumor. (Author)

  7. THE DISCOVERY OF THE FIRST “CHANGING LOOK” QUASAR: NEW INSIGHTS INTO THE PHYSICS AND PHENOMENOLOGY OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Cales, Sabrina; Urry, C. Megan [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Moran, Edward C. [Astronomy Department, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States); Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy 3905, University of Wyoming, 1000 E. University, Laramaie, WY 82071 (United States); Richards, Gordon T. [Department of Physics, Drexel University, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Eracleous, Michael [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Gallo, Luigi [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary’s University, Halifax, NS B3H 3C3 (Canada)

    2015-02-20

    SDSS J015957.64+003310.5 is an X-ray selected, z = 0.31 active galactic nucleus (AGN) from the Stripe 82X survey that transitioned from a Type 1 quasar to a Type 1.9 AGN between 2000 and 2010. This is the most distant AGN, and first quasar, yet observed to have undergone such a dramatic change. We re-observed the source with the double spectrograph on the Palomar 5 m telescope in 2014 July and found that the spectrum is unchanged since 2010. From fitting the optical spectra, we find that the AGN flux dropped by a factor of 6 between 2000 and 2010 while the broad Hα emission faded and broadened. Serendipitous X-ray observations caught the source in both the bright and dim state, showing a similar 2–10 keV flux diminution as the optical while lacking signatures of obscuration. The optical and X-ray changes coincide with g-band magnitude variations over multiple epochs of Stripe 82 observations. We demonstrate that variable absorption, as might be expected from the simplest AGN unification paradigm, does not explain the observed photometric or spectral properties. We interpret the changing state of J0159+0033 to be caused by dimming of the AGN continuum, reducing the supply of ionizing photons available to excite gas in the immediate vicinity around the black hole. J0159+0033 provides insight into the intermittency of black hole growth in quasars, as well as an unprecedented opportunity to study quasar physics (in the bright state) and the host galaxy (in the dim state), which has been impossible to do in a single sources until now.

  8. Theory of extended stellar atmospheres. II. A grid of static spherical models for O stars and planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunasz, P.B.; Hummer, D.G.; Mihalas, D.

    1975-01-01

    Spherical static non-LTE model atmospheres are presented for stars with M/M/sub sun/=30 and 60 at various points on their evolutionary tracks, and for some nuclei of planetary nebulae at two points of a modified Harman-Seaton sequence. The method of Mihalas and Hummer was employed, which uses a parametrized radiation force multiplier to simulate the force of radiation arising from the entire line spectrum. However, in the present work the density structure computed in the LTE models was held fixed in the calculation of the corresponding non-LTE models; in addition, the opacity of an ''average light ion'' was taken into account. The temperatures for the non-LTE models are generally lower, at a given depth, than for the corresponding LTE models when T/sub eff/<45,000 K, while the situation is reversed at higher temperatures. The continuous energy distributions are generally flattened by extension. The Lyman jump is in emission for extended models of massive stars, but never for the models of nuclei of planetary nebulae (this is primarily a temperature effect). The Balmer jumps are always in absorption. The Lyman lines are in emission, and the Balmer lines in absorption; He ii lambda4686 comes into emission in the most extended models without hydrogen line pumping, showing that it is an indicator of atmospheric extension. Very severe limb darkening is found for extended models, which have apparent angular sized significantly smaller than expected from the geometrical size of the star. Extensive tables are given of monochromatic magnitudes, continuum jumps and gradients, Stomgren-system colors, monochromatic extensions, and the profiles and equivalent widths of the hydrogen lines for all models, and of the He ii lines for some of the 60 M/sub X/ models

  9. THE XMM CLUSTER SURVEY: ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES IN XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 AT z = 1.46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilton, Matt; Lloyd-Davies, Ed; Romer, A. Kathy; Hosmer, Mark; Liddle, Andrew R.; Mehrtens, Nicola; Stanford, S. Adam; Stott, John P.; Collins, Chris A.; Hoyle, Ben; Kay, Scott T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sahlen, Martin; Viana, Pedro T. P.

    2010-01-01

    We use Chandra X-ray and Spitzer infrared (IR) observations to explore the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and starburst populations of XMMXCS J2215.9-1738 at z = 1.46, one of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxy clusters known. The high-resolution X-ray imaging reveals that the cluster emission is contaminated by point sources that were not resolved in XMM-Newton observations of the system, and have the effect of hardening the spectrum, leading to the previously reported temperature for this system being overestimated. From a joint spectroscopic analysis of the Chandra and XMM-Newton data, the cluster is found to have temperature T = 4.1 +0.6 -0.9 keV and luminosity L X = (2.92 +0.24 -0.35 ) x 10 44 erg s -1 , extrapolated to a radius of 2 Mpc. As a result of this revised analysis, the cluster is found to lie on the σ v -T relation, but the cluster remains less luminous than would be expected from self-similar evolution of the local L X -T relation. Two of the newly discovered X-ray AGNs are cluster members, while a third object, which is also a prominent 24 μm source, is found to have properties consistent with it being a high-redshift, highly obscured object in the background. We find a total of eight >5σ 24 μm sources associated with cluster members (four spectroscopically confirmed and four selected using photometric redshifts) and one additional 24 μm source with two possible optical/near-IR counterparts that may be associated with the cluster. Examining the Infrared Array Camera colors of these sources, we find that one object is likely to be an AGN. Assuming that the other 24 μm sources are powered by star formation, their IR luminosities imply star formation rates ∼100 M sun yr -1 . We find that three of these sources are located at projected distances of <250 kpc from the cluster center, suggesting that a large amount of star formation may be taking place in the cluster core, in contrast to clusters at low redshift.

  10. Galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of hot, apparently normal, massive stars far from the galactic plane has been a major puzzle in an understanding of galactic structure and evolution. Such stars have been discovered and studied at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) over a number of years. During 1989 further evidence has been obtained indicating that these stars are normal, massive objects. Other studies of galactic structure conducted by the SAAO have included research on: the central bulge region of our galaxy; populations of M giants in the galaxy; a faint blue object survey; a survey of the galactic plane for distant Cepheid variables; interstellar reddening, and K-type dwarfs as tracers for the gravitational force perpendicular to the galactic plane. 1 fig

  11. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Akiyama, Masayuki [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, 6-3 Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Hasinger, Günther [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Miyaji, Takamitsu [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Watson, Michael G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  12. THE VLA SURVEY OF CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH. V. EVOLUTION AND LUMINOSITY FUNCTIONS OF SUB-MILLIJANSKY RADIO SOURCES AND THE ISSUE OF RADIO EMISSION IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padovani, P.; Mainieri, V.; Rosati, P.; Miller, N.; Kellermann, K. I.; Tozzi, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present the evolutionary properties and luminosity functions of the radio sources belonging to the Chandra Deep Field South Very Large Array survey, which reaches a flux density limit at 1.4 GHz of 43 μJy at the field center and redshift ∼5 and which includes the first radio-selected complete sample of radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We use a new, comprehensive classification scheme based on radio, far- and near-IR, optical, and X-ray data to disentangle star-forming galaxies (SFGs) from AGNs and radio-quiet from radio-loud AGNs. We confirm our previous result that SFGs become dominant only below 0.1 mJy. The sub-millijansky radio sky turns out to be a complex mix of SFGs and radio-quiet AGNs evolving at a similar, strong rate; non-evolving low-luminosity radio galaxies; and declining radio powerful (P ∼> 3 x 10 24 W Hz -1 ) AGNs. Our results suggest that radio emission from radio-quiet AGNs is closely related to star formation. The detection of compact, high brightness temperature cores in several nearby radio-quiet AGNs can be explained by the coexistence of two components, one non-evolving and AGN related and one evolving and star formation related. Radio-quiet AGNs are an important class of sub-millijansky sources, accounting for ∼30% of the sample and ∼60% of all AGNs, and outnumbering radio-loud AGNs at ∼< 0.1 mJy. This implies that future, large area sub-millijansky surveys, given the appropriate ancillary multiwavelength data, have the potential of being able to assemble vast samples of radio-quiet AGNs, bypassing the problems of obscuration that plague the optical and soft X-ray bands.

  13. Galactic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2008-01-01

    Since it was first published in 1987, Galactic Dynamics has become the most widely used advanced textbook on the structure and dynamics of galaxies and one of the most cited references in astrophysics. Now, in this extensively revised and updated edition, James Binney and Scott Tremaine describe the dramatic recent advances in this subject, making Galactic Dynamics the most authoritative introduction to galactic astrophysics available to advanced undergraduate students, graduate students, and researchers. Every part of the book has been thoroughly overhauled, and many section

  14. THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE ELEMENTS IN THE GALACTIC DISK. II. AZIMUTHAL AND RADIAL VARIATION IN ABUNDANCES FROM CEPHEIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Kovtyukh, V. V.; Gieren, W.; Graczyk, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the spectroscopic investigation of 101 Cepheids in the Carina region. These Cepheids extend previous samples by about 35% in number and increase the amount of the Galactic disk coverage especially in the direction of l ∼ 270 0 . The new Cepheids do not add much information to the radial gradient, but provide a substantial increase in azimuthal coverage. We find no azimuthal dependence in abundance over an 80 deg. angle from the Galactic center in an annulus of 1 kpc depth centered on the Sun. A simple linear fit to the Cepheid data yields a gradient d[Fe/H]/dR G = -0.055 ± 0.003 dex kpc -1 which is somewhat shallower than found from our previous, smaller Cepheid sample.

  15. New Wolf-Rayet stars in Galactic open clusters - Sher 1 and the giant H II region core Westerlund 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Shara, Michael M.; Potter, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Two new Galactic Wolf-Rayet stars were found in open clusters: a WN4 star in the O9 cluster Sher 1 and a WN7 star in the O7 cluster Westerlund 2. This confirms a previous trend, namely that fainter, hotter WN stars tend to be older than brighter, cooler WN stars. This may be a consequence of evolution via extreme mass loss.

  16. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  17. C II forbidden-line 158 micron mapping in Sagittarius A Rotation curve and mass distribution in the galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugten, J. B.; Genzel, R.; Crawford, M. K.; Townes, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    Based on data obtained with the NASA Kuiper Airborne Observatory 91.4 cm telescope, the 158-micron fine structure line emission of C(+) is mapped near the galactic center. The strongest emission comes from a 10-pc FWHM diameter disk centered on Sgr A West whose dominant motion is rotation. Extended C(+) emission is also found from the +50 km/s galactic center molecular cloud, and a second cloud at v(LSR) of about -35 km/s. The rotation curve and mass distribution within 10 pc of the galactic center are derived, and the C(+) profiles show a drop-off of rotation velocity between 2 and 10 pc. A mass model is suggested with 2-4 million solar masses in a central point mass, and a M/L ratio of the central stellar cluster of 0.5 solar masses/solar luminosities, suggesting a large abundance of giants and relatively recent star formation in the center.

  18. Primordial nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The recent detection of intergalactic helium by NASA's Astro-2 mission backs up two earlier measurements by ESA and the University of California, San Diego, using instruments aboard the Hubble Space Telescope. Taken together, these results give strong evidence that this helium is primordial, confirming a key prediction of the Big Bang theory. The amount of helium the results imply could also account for some of the Universe's invisible dark matter - material which affects galactic motion but is otherwise undetectable. According to theory, helium nuclei formed at around 100 seconds after the Big Bang, but the amount of helium depended on even earlier events. Initially, protons turned into neutrons with the same probability that neutrons turned into protons. But after about one second, the Universe had cooled down enough for the weak interaction to freeze out. Neutrons continued to decay into the slightly lighter protons, whilst the opposite reaction became much more scarce. At around 100 seconds, thermonuclear fusion reactions could begin, and all the neutrons that were left became absorbed into helium nuclei, leaving the remaining protons locked up in hydrogen. The ratio of helium to hydrogen was therefore determined by events occurring when the Universe was just one second old. Standard models of primordial nucleosynthesis fix this ratio at slightly less than 2 5% by mass. All heavier elements were cooked up much later in the stars, and amount to less than 1 % of the Universe's mass. These predictions have been borne out remarkably well by observation, although proof of the primordial origins of hydrogen and helium has remained elusive until now. Big Bang nucleosynthesis goes on to estimate that primordial baryonic matter in the form of light nuclei could account for around 10% of the Universe's dark matter. All three recent measurements used the same technique of looking at distant quasars, some of the most luminous objects in the Universe, to

  19. I. Surface properties of neutron-rich nuclei. II. Pion condensation at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolehmainen, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    In part I, the energy density formalism, the Thomas-Fermi approximation, and Skyrme-type interactions were used to describe the energy density of a semi-infinite slab of neturon-rich nuclear matter at zero temperature. The existence of a drip phase at low proton fractions is allowed in addition to the more dense nuclear phase, and various bulk properties of both phases are found when the system is in equilibrium. The usual definition of the surface energy is extended to apply to the case where drip is present. Assuming a Fermi function type density profile, a constrained variational calculation is performed to determine the neutron and proton surface diffuseness parameters, the thickness of the neutron skin, and the surface energy. Results are obtained for proton fractions reanging from 0.5 (symmetric nuclear matter) to zero (pure neutron matter) for most Skyrme-type interactions in common use. The results are in close agreement with the predictions of the droplet model, as well as with the results of more exact calculations in those cases where the more exact results exist (only for symmetric or nearly symmetric matter in most cases). Significantly different asymmetry dependences for different interactions are found. In part II, several simple but increasingly complex models are used to calculate the threshold for charged pion condensation in neutron-rich nuclear matter at finite temperature. Unlike in mean field theory descriptions of pion condensation, the effects of thermal excitations of the pion field are included. The thermal pion excitations have two important effects: first, to modify the phase diagram qualitatively from that predicted by mean field theory, and second, to make the phase transition to a spatially nonuniform condensed state at finite temperature always first, rather than second, order

  20. The Segue K giant survey. II. A catalog of distance determinations for the Segue K giants in the galactic halo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Xiang-Xiang; Rix, Hans-Walter; Ma, Zhibo; Morrison, Heather L.; Harding, Paul; Beers, Timothy C.; Ivans, Inese I.; Jacobson, Heather R.; Johnson, Jennifer; Lee, Young Sun; Lucatello, Sara; Rockosi, Constance M.; Sobeck, Jennifer S.; Yanny, Brian; Zhao, Gang; Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We present an online catalog of distance determinations for 6036 K giants, most of which are members of the Milky Way's stellar halo. Their medium-resolution spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey/Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration are used to derive metallicities and rough gravity estimates, along with radial velocities. Distance moduli are derived from a comparison of each star's apparent magnitude with the absolute magnitude of empirically calibrated color-luminosity fiducials, at the observed (g – r) 0 color and spectroscopic [Fe/H]. We employ a probabilistic approach that makes it straightforward to properly propagate the errors in metallicities, magnitudes, and colors into distance uncertainties. We also fold in prior information about the giant-branch luminosity function and the different metallicity distributions of the SEGUE K-giant targeting sub-categories. We show that the metallicity prior plays a small role in the distance estimates, but that neglecting the luminosity prior could lead to a systematic distance modulus bias of up to 0.25 mag, compared to the case of using the luminosity prior. We find a median distance precision of 16%, with distance estimates most precise for the least metal-poor stars near the tip of the red giant branch. The precision and accuracy of our distance estimates are validated with observations of globular and open clusters. The stars in our catalog are up to 125 kpc from the Galactic center, with 283 stars beyond 50 kpc, forming the largest available spectroscopic sample of distant tracers in the Galactic halo.

  1. Galactic sprinklers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandeusen, W.

    1984-01-01

    It is believed by many astronomers that gravitation is responsible for holding a strong whirlpool of hot, dense material together at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. However, the galactic-sprinkler model suggests that the whirlpool is not being held together, and that the stars, gas and dust within the spirals are being thrown outward. It is also suggested that much of the ejected material eventually returns to the galactic center, as do stars within our stellar neighborhood. The material is believed to be subjected to extreme changes in the gravitational time rate which may cause it to follow an inbound spiral that is basically similar to the outbound spiral. Radio studies also indicate that the galactic arms on either side of the galactic center move at different velocities and in different directions with respect to our location and that the whole group of stars in the vicinity of the solar system may be moving outward from the galactic center at a velocity of about 40 kps. Through the use of velocity data in kps, and distance data in light years, the radial component of the sun's trajectory can be estimated with respect to time by a parabola. The spiral trajectory of the sun can be calculated and plotted on polar coordinates by combining both the radial component and tangential component (230 kps)

  2. Relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, D E; Krawczynski

    2012-01-01

    Written by a carefully selected consortium of researchers working in the field, this book fills the gap for an up-to-date summary of the observational and theoretical status. As such, this monograph includes all used wavelengths, from radio to gamma, the FERMI telescope, a history and theory refresher, and jets from gamma ray bursts. For astronomers, nuclear physicists, and plasmaphysicists.

  3. Active Galactic Nuclei in Dwarf Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Megan; Secrest, N.; Satyapal, S.

    2014-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) one million to a few billion times the mass of our sun are thought to reside in the center of most, if not all, bulge-dominated galaxies. It has been observed that the mass of these SMBHs is strongly correlated with the mass of these bulges, leading to the popular view that these central black holes are formed by galaxy mergers, which induce the growth of the galaxy's bulge and provide matter with which to feed the black hole. Although these properties and their possible consequences have been studied extensively in high mass galaxies and galaxies with large bulges, there is very little research on the possible existence and subsequent properties of SMBHs in low mass galaxies or galaxies with small or no central bulges. This is a significant weakness in the research of these objects as the study of this population of galaxies would allow us to gain valuable insight into SMBH seeds, black holes thought to have formed in the early universe. Strong X-rays are a good indicator of an accreting black hole, because they require more energy to produce and SMBHs are highly energetic, as well as being easier to see due to their ability to penetrate matter more easily than other forms of radiation. In this poster, I will present the results from an X-ray investigation using data matched from the Chandra X-ray observatory to a sample of low mass galaxies (with a mass of log(M) < 9).

  4. Active galactic nuclei as cosmological probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusso, Elisabeta; Risaliti, Guido

    2018-01-01

    I will present the latest results on our analysis of the non-linear X-ray to UV relation in a sample of optically selected quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, cross-matched with the most recent XMM-Newton and Chandra catalogues. I will show that this correlation is not only very tight, but can be potentially even tighter by including a further dependence on the emission line full-width half maximum. This result imply that the non-linear X-ray to optical-ultraviolet luminosity relation is the manifestation of an ubiquitous physical mechanism, whose details are still unknown, that regulates the energy transfer from the accretion disc to the X-ray emitting corona in quasars. I will discuss what the perspectives of AGN in the context of observational cosmology are. I will introduce a novel technique to test the cosmological model using quasars as “standard candles” by employing the non-linear X-ray to UV relation as an absolute distance indicator.

  5. Galactic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchler, J.R.; Gottesman, S.T.; Hunter, J.H. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Various papers on galactic models are presented. Individual topics addressed include: observations relating to galactic mass distributions; the structure of the Galaxy; mass distribution in spiral galaxies; rotation curves of spiral galaxies in clusters; grand design, multiple arm, and flocculent spiral galaxies; observations of barred spirals; ringed galaxies; elliptical galaxies; the modal approach to models of galaxies; self-consistent models of spiral galaxies; dynamical models of spiral galaxies; N-body models. Also discussed are: two-component models of galaxies; simulations of cloudy, gaseous galactic disks; numerical experiments on the stability of hot stellar systems; instabilities of slowly rotating galaxies; spiral structure as a recurrent instability; model gas flows in selected barred spiral galaxies; bar shapes and orbital stochasticity; three-dimensional models; polar ring galaxies; dynamical models of polar rings

  6. Pseudomagic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharff-Goldhaber, G.

    1979-01-01

    It was shown previously that, below a critical angular momentum, yrast bands of nonmagic nuclei are well described by the two-parameter variable moment of inertia model. Some striking exceptions to this rule are found in nuclei which have the same mass number as doubly magic nuclei but possess either one (or two) proton pairs beyond a magic number and one (or two) neutron hole pairs, or vice versa. Yrast bands in these pseudomagic nuclei resemble those in magic nuclei. 17 references

  7. KINEMATICAL AND CHEMICAL VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK. II. A LACK OF DARK MATTER IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Smith, R.; Carraro, G.; Méndez, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    We estimated the dynamical surface mass density Σ at the solar position between Z = 1.5 and 4 kpc from the Galactic plane, as inferred from the kinematics of thick disk stars. The formulation is exact within the limit of validity of a few basic assumptions. The resulting trend of Σ(Z) matches the expectations of visible mass alone, and no dark component is required to account for the observations. We extrapolate a dark matter (DM) density in the solar neighborhood of 0 ± 1 mM ☉ pc –3 , and all the current models of a spherical DM halo are excluded at a confidence level higher than 4σ. A detailed analysis reveals that a small amount of DM is allowed in the volume under study by the change of some input parameter or hypothesis, but not enough to match the expectations of the models, except under an exotic combination of non-standard assumptions. Identical results are obtained when repeating the calculation with kinematical measurements available in the literature. We demonstrate that a DM halo would be detected by our method, and therefore the results have no straightforward interpretation. Only the presence of a highly prolate (flattening q > 2) DM halo can be reconciled with the observations, but this is highly unlikely in ΛCDM models. The results challenge the current understanding of the spatial distribution and nature of the Galactic DM. In particular, our results may indicate that any direct DM detection experiment is doomed to fail if the local density of the target particles is negligible.

  8. KINEMATICAL AND CHEMICAL VERTICAL STRUCTURE OF THE GALACTIC THICK DISK. II. A LACK OF DARK MATTER IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moni Bidin, C.; Smith, R. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile); Carraro, G. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Mendez, R. A., E-mail: cmbidin@astro-udec.cl [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile)

    2012-05-20

    We estimated the dynamical surface mass density {Sigma} at the solar position between Z = 1.5 and 4 kpc from the Galactic plane, as inferred from the kinematics of thick disk stars. The formulation is exact within the limit of validity of a few basic assumptions. The resulting trend of {Sigma}(Z) matches the expectations of visible mass alone, and no dark component is required to account for the observations. We extrapolate a dark matter (DM) density in the solar neighborhood of 0 {+-} 1 mM{sub Sun} pc{sup -3}, and all the current models of a spherical DM halo are excluded at a confidence level higher than 4{sigma}. A detailed analysis reveals that a small amount of DM is allowed in the volume under study by the change of some input parameter or hypothesis, but not enough to match the expectations of the models, except under an exotic combination of non-standard assumptions. Identical results are obtained when repeating the calculation with kinematical measurements available in the literature. We demonstrate that a DM halo would be detected by our method, and therefore the results have no straightforward interpretation. Only the presence of a highly prolate (flattening q > 2) DM halo can be reconciled with the observations, but this is highly unlikely in {Lambda}CDM models. The results challenge the current understanding of the spatial distribution and nature of the Galactic DM. In particular, our results may indicate that any direct DM detection experiment is doomed to fail if the local density of the target particles is negligible.

  9. Casein kinase II protein kinase is bound to lamina-matrix and phosphorylates lamin-like protein in isolated pea nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    A casein kinase II (CK II)-like protein kinase was identified and partially isolated from a purified envelope-matrix fraction of pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei. When [gamma-32P]ATP was directly added to the envelope-matrix preparation, the three most heavily labeled protein bands had molecular masses near 71, 48, and 46 kDa. Protein kinases were removed from the preparation by sequential extraction with Triton X-100, EGTA, 0.3 M NaCl, and a pH 10.5 buffer, but an active kinase still remained bound to the remaining lamina-matrix fraction after these treatments. This kinase had properties resembling CK II kinases previously characterized from animal and plant sources: it preferred casein as an artificial substrate, could use GTP as efficiently as ATP as the phosphoryl donor, was stimulated by spermine, was calcium independent, and had a catalytic subunit of 36 kDa. Some animal and plant CK II kinases have regulatory subunits near 29 kDa, and a lamina-matrix-bound protein of this molecular mass was recognized on immunoblot by anti-Drosophila CK II polyclonal antibodies. Also found associated with the envelope-matrix fraction of pea nuclei were p34cdc2-like and Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases, but their properties could not account for the protein kinase activity bound to the lamina. The 71-kDa substrate of the CK II-like kinase was lamin A-like, both in its molecular mass and in its cross-reactivity with anti-intermediate filament antibodies. Lamin phosphorylation is considered a crucial early step in the entry of cells into mitosis, so lamina-bound CK II kinases may be important control points for cellular proliferation.

  10. Confirmation of the Galactic Thick Disk Component by the Basle RGU-and UBV-photometric space densities. II. (Synopsis of 25 years Basle Halo Program; II: Plaut I, NGC 6171, SA 158, M 13)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenkart, R.

    1989-01-01

    This contribution treats four fields, all with directions pointing into the galactic centre hemisphere (270 0 0 ). The purpose of the comparison-phase of the BHP is to homogeneously compare the three-colour photometrically determined space densities for different luminosity groups of the combined (photometric) populations I and II with the gradients predicted for the involved direction by a representative set of current standard multi-component models for the stellar space distribution in the Galaxy and to evaluate a best-fitting model by a simple quantitative procedure. In no case the existence of a Thick Disk component is ruled out by the findings; in the safer directions it is even slightly indicated, though much less compellingly than in all previous investigations of the model-comparison phase

  11. Nuclear ground state properties and self-consistent calculations with the Skyrme interaction. II. S-D shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flocard, H.

    1975-04-01

    Hartree-Fock results concerning the ground state properties of some S-D shell nuclei are discussed. Two different Skyrme interactions have been used. They both lead to good agreement with the experimental total binding energies, charge radii and multipole moments. In particular the observed prolate-oblate transitions occuring in the S-D shell are reproduced. The calculated spectroscopic factors are also shown to be consistent with experimental data [fr

  12. The molecular complex associated with the Galactic H II region Sh2-90: a possible site of triggered star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, M. R.; Zavagno, A.; Deharveng, L.; Molinari, S.; Ojha, D. K.; Paradis, D.; Tigé, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Russeil, D.

    2014-06-01

    Aims: We investigate the star formation activity in the molecular complex associated with the Galactic H ii region Sh2-90. Methods: We obtain the distribution of the ionized and cold neutral gas using radio-continuum and Herschel observations. We use near-infrared and Spitzer data to investigate the stellar content of the complex. We discuss the evolutionary status of embedded massive young stellar objects (MYSOs) using their spectral energy distribution. Results: The Sh2-90 region presents a bubble morphology in the mid-infrared. Radio observations suggest it is an evolved H ii region with an electron density ~144 cm-3, emission measure ~ 6.7 × 104 cm-6 pc and an ionized mass ~55 M⊙. From Herschel and CO (J = 3 - 2) observations we found that the H ii region is part of an elongated extended molecular cloud (H2 column density ≥ 3 × 1021 cm-2 and dust temperature 18-27 K) of total mass ≥ 1 × 104 M⊙. We identify the ionizing cluster of Sh2-90, the main exciting star being an O8-O9 V star. Five cold dust clumps, four mid-IR blobs around B stars, and a compact H ii region are found at the edge of the bubble. The velocity information derived from CO data cubes suggest that most of them are associated with the Sh2-90 region. One hundred and twenty-nine low mass (≤3 M⊙) YSOs have been identified, and they are found to be distributed mostly in the regions of high column density. Four candidate Class 0/I MYSOs have been found. We suggest that multi-generation star formation is present in the complex. From evidence of interaction, time scales involved, and evolutionary status of stellar/protostellar sources, we argue that the star formation at the edges of Sh2-90 might have been triggered. However, several young sources in this complex are probably formed by some other processes. Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/566/A122

  13. Exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villari, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The actual tendencies to study exotic nuclei; applications of exotic nuclei beams in material study and medicine; recent results obtained by GANIL and Berkeley Laboratories of measurements of binding energy and radii of light nuclei; the future experiences to be carry out in several international laboratories and; proposal of studies in Brazil using Pelletron-USP accelerator and the LINAC superconductor accelerator, in construction in the same laboratory, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  14. Dusty cradles in a turbulent nursery: the SGR A east H II region complex at the galactic center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R. M.; Herter, T. L.; Adams, J. D. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, 202 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853-6801 (United States); Morris, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, 430 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    We present imaging at 19, 25, 31, and 37 μm of the compact H II region complex G-0.02-0.07 located 6 pc in projection from the center of the Galaxy obtained with SOFIA using FORCAST. G-0.02-0.07 contains three compact H II regions (A, B, and C) and one ultra-compact H II region (D). Our observations reveal the presence of two faint, infrared sources located 23'' and 35'' to the east of region C (FIRS 1 and 2) and detect dust emission in two of the three 'ridges' of ionized gas west of region A. The 19/37 color temperature and 37 μm optical depth maps of regions A-C are used to characterize the dust energetics and morphology. Regions A and B exhibit average 19/37 color temperatures of ∼105 K, and regions C and D exhibit color temperatures of ∼115 K and ∼130 K, respectively. Using the DustEM code, we model the SEDs of regions A-D and FIRS 1, all of which require populations of very small, transiently heated grains and large, equilibrium-heated grains. We also require the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in regions A-C in order to fit the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm fluxes observed by Spitzer/IRAC. The location of the heating source for region A is determined by triangulation from distances and temperatures derived from DustEM models fit to SEDs of three different points around the region, and it is found to be displaced to the northeast of the center of curvature near the color temperature peak. Based on total luminosity, expected 1.90 μm fluxes, and proximity to the mid-IR color temperature peaks, we identify heating source candidates for regions A, B, and C. However, for region D, the observed fluxes at 1.87 and 1.90 μm of the previously proposed ionizing star are a factor of ∼40 times too bright to be the heating source and hence is likely just a star lying along the line of sight toward region D.

  15. Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei with Double-peaked [O III] Lines. II. Single AGNs with Complex Narrow-line Region Kinematics are More Common than Binary AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yue; Liu, Xin; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2011-07-01

    Approximately 1% of low-redshift (z interpreted as either due to kinematics, such as biconical outflows and/or disk rotation of the narrow line region (NLR) around single black holes, or due to the relative motion of two distinct NLRs in a merging pair of AGNs. Here, we report follow-up near-infrared (NIR) imaging and optical slit spectroscopy of 31 double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) parent sample presented in Liu et al. The NIR imaging traces the old stellar population in each galaxy, while the optical slit spectroscopy traces the NLR gas. These data reveal a mixture of origins for the double-peaked feature. Roughly 10% of our objects are best explained by binary AGNs at (projected) kpc-scale separations, where two stellar components with spatially coincident NLRs are seen. ~50% of our objects have [O III] emission offset by a few kpc, corresponding to the two velocity components seen in the SDSS spectra, but there are no spatially coincident double stellar components seen in the NIR imaging. For those objects with sufficiently high-quality slit spectra, we see velocity and/or velocity dispersion gradients in [O III] emission, suggestive of the kinematic signatures of a single NLR. The remaining ~40% of our objects are ambiguous and will need higher spatial resolution observations to distinguish between the two scenarios. Our observations therefore favor the kinematics scenario with a single AGN for the majority of these double-peaked [O III] type 2 AGNs. We emphasize the importance of combining imaging and slit spectroscopy in identifying kpc-scale binary AGNs, i.e., in no cases does one of these alone allow an unambiguous identification. We estimate that ~0.5%-2.5% of the z ~ 150 km s-1. Based in part on observations obtained with the 6.5 m Magellan telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile, and with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium.

  16. I. Exchange currents in electron scattering from light nuclei. II. Heavy-ion scattering at intermediate and high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubach, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a formalism that will allow one to search the wide variety of transitions presented by nuclei in order to locate situations in which the exchange-current effects are important or dominant and thus allow one to study the contributions of the meson exchanges to the electromagnetic densities within the nucleus. The nuclei studied are assumed to be described in a shell model using harmonic oscillator wave functions. The formalism needed to allow one to do a multipole analysis of these exchange currents within 1s and 1p nuclei is developed. This formalism is then applied to an examination of electron scattering from a series of light nuclei: 3 He, 6 Li, 7 Li, 9 Be, and 10 B. Three significant effects due to the inclusion of exchange currents are seen: (1) The exchange currents can often introduce new structure into the form factors. (2) At larger momentum transfer (700 to 1000 MeV/c) the exchange current contributions to the form factor dominate the simpler one-body form factor by a few orders of magnitude. (3) The exchange currents can excite E4 and M5 multipoles in the p shell which are forbidden to the simpler one-body currents. The elastic scattering of two heavy ions at intermediate and high energies (compared to the Coulomb barrier) is examined in the formalism of the WKB and ''Glauber theory'' approximations. As a concrete example, the scattering of 16 O from 60 Ni is studied assuming an optical-model potential that fits elastic scattering data at low energies. One immediate result is that the WKB approximation agrees quite well with ''exact'' numerical calculations at energies as low as 60 MeV. The Glauber theory fails below about 1 GeV but correction terms are developed that can extend the usefulness of the Glauber theory to much lower energies. The model problem of scattering from a black-sphere model of the nucleus is briefly examined

  17. The Galactic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jinlin

    2006-01-01

    A good progress has been made on studies of Galactic magnetic fields in last 10 years. I describe what we want to know about the Galactic magnetic fields, and then review we current knowledge about magnetic fields in the Galactic disk, the Galactic halo and the field strengths. I also listed many unsolved problems on this area

  18. Galactic cosmic ray iron composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.

    1980-11-01

    We have studied the isotopic compostition of galactic cosmic ray iron in the energy interval 500-750 MeV/nucleon with a visual track detector system consisting of nuclear emulsion and cellulose-nitrate platic. Stopping iron nuclei were identified from ionization - range measurements in the two detector parts. Cone lengths were measured in the plastic sheets and the residual ranges of the particles were measured in plastic and in emulsion. We have determined the mass of 17 iron nuclei with an uncertainty of about 0.3 amu. The isotopic composition at the detector level was found to be 52 Fe: 53 Fe: 54 Fe: 55 Fe: 56 Fe: 57 Fe: 58 Fe = 0:1: 4:3:8:1:0. These numbers are not in conflict with the assumption that the isotopic composition of cosmic ray iron at the source is similar to the solar system composition. (author)

  19. Galactic structure and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, Michel; Cesarsky, Catherine; Paul Jacques

    1977-01-01

    A model of spiral structure of the Galaxy is outlined from radiosynchrotron and gamma observations. The most interesting observations in the galactic context, obtained by the SAS II American satellite are concerned with the distribution of the γ photoemission at energies higher than 10 8 eV, along the galactic equator. The model proposed is in quantitative agreement with the present ideas on the spiral structure of the Galaxy, the galactic magnetic field, and the confinement of cosmic rays by the magnetic field and of the magnetic field by matter. Following the American era, the European COS-B satellite opens the European phase towards an identification of the discrete gamma radiation sources [fr

  20. Galactic bulges

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier; Gadotti, Dimitri

    2016-01-01

    This book consists of invited reviews on Galactic Bulges written by experts in the field. A central point of the book is that, while in the standard picture of galaxy formation a significant amount of the baryonic mass is expected to reside in classical bulges, the question what is the fraction of galaxies with no classical bulges in the local Universe has remained open. The most spectacular example of a galaxy with no significant classical bulge is the Milky Way. The reviews of this book attempt to clarify the role of the various types of bulges during the mass build-up of galaxies, based on morphology, kinematics, and stellar populations, and connecting their properties at low and high redshifts. The observed properties are compared with the predictions of the theoretical models, accounting for the many physical processes leading to the central mass concentration and their destruction in galaxies. This book serves as an entry point for PhD students and non-specialists and as a reference work for researchers...

  1. Interpretations of galactic center gamma-ray excess confronting the PandaX-II constraints on dark matter-neutron spin-dependent scatterings in the NMSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Liangliang; He, Yangle; Lian, Jingwei; Pan, Yusi

    2018-05-01

    The Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) has been one of the most attractive candidates for Dark Matter (DM), and the lightest neutralino (\\widetilde{χ }^0_1) in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) is an interesting realization of the WIMP framework. The Galactic Center Excess (GCE) indicated from the analysis of the photon data of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) in the gamma-ray wavelength ≲ 1 fm, can be explained by WIMP DM annihilations in the sky, as shown in many existing works. In this work we consider an interesting scenario in the Z_3-NMSSM where the singlet S and Singlino \\widetilde{S}^0 components play important roles in the Higgs and DM sector. Guided by our analytical arguments, we perform a sophisticated scan over the NMSSM parameter space by considering various observables such as the Standard Model (SM) Higgs data measured by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), and the B-physics observables BR(B_s→ X_sγ ) and BR(B_s→ μ ^+μ ^-). We first collect samples which can explain the GCE well while passing all constraints we consider except for the DM direct detection (DD) bounds from XENON1T and PandaX-II experiments. We analyze the features of these samples suitable for the GCE interpretation and find that \\widetilde{χ }^0_1 DM are mostly Singlino-like and annihilation products are mostly the bottom quark pairs \\bar{b}b through a light singlet-like CP-odd Higgs A_1. Moreover, a good fit to the GCE spectrum generically requires sizable DM annihilation rates 0 in today's Universe. However, the correlation between the coupling C_{A_1 b\\bar{b}} in 0 and the coupling C_{Z \\widetilde{χ }^0_1 \\widetilde{χ }^0_1} in DM-neutron Spin Dependent (SD) scattering rate σ ^{SD}_{\\widetilde{χ }^0_1-N} makes all samples we obtain for GCE explanation get excluded by the PandaX-II results. Although the DM resonant annihilation scenarios may be beyond the reach of our analytical

  2. Microscopically based energy density functionals for nuclei using the density matrix expansion. II. Full optimization and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Pérez, R.; Schunck, N.; Dyhdalo, A.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Bogner, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Background: Energy density functional methods provide a generic framework to compute properties of atomic nuclei starting from models of nuclear potentials and the rules of quantum mechanics. Until now, the overwhelming majority of functionals have been constructed either from empirical nuclear potentials such as the Skyrme or Gogny forces, or from systematic gradient-like expansions in the spirit of the density functional theory for atoms. Purpose: We seek to obtain a usable form of the nuclear energy density functional that is rooted in the modern theory of nuclear forces. We thus consider a functional obtained from the density matrix expansion of local nuclear potentials from chiral effective field theory. We propose a parametrization of this functional carefully calibrated and validated on selected ground-state properties that is suitable for large-scale calculations of nuclear properties. Methods: Our energy functional comprises two main components. The first component is a non-local functional of the density and corresponds to the direct part (Hartree term) of the expectation value of local chiral potentials on a Slater determinant. Contributions to the mean field and the energy of this term are computed by expanding the spatial, finite-range components of the chiral potential onto Gaussian functions. The second component is a local functional of the density and is obtained by applying the density matrix expansion to the exchange part (Fock term) of the expectation value of the local chiral potential. We apply the UNEDF2 optimization protocol to determine the coupling constants of this energy functional. Results: We obtain a set of microscopically constrained functionals for local chiral potentials from leading order up to next-to-next-to-leading order with and without three-body forces and contributions from Δ excitations. These functionals are validated on the calculation of nuclear and neutron matter, nuclear mass tables, single-particle shell structure

  3. Polarization of stellar, nebular, and galactic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulov, O.S.

    1981-01-01

    The history of polarimetric investigations at the Astronomical Observatory of Leningrad State University is reviewed. Instruments, facilities, and methods used are described, and various studies of lasting importance are summarized. Some results are presented for observations and studies of interstellar polarization and of polarization in close binaries, high-luminosity red and ir stars, several nebulae in the Galaxy, galaxies, galactic nuclei, quasars, N galaxies, and BL Lac objects.

  4. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David [American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central Park West, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, Rene [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, CP 6128, Succ. C-V, Montreal, QC, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Gerke, Jill [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210-1173 (United States); Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent, E-mail: mshara@amnh.org, E-mail: jfaherty@amnh.org, E-mail: dzurek@amnh.org, E-mail: moffat@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: doyon@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: gerke@astronomy.ohio-state.edu, E-mail: artigau@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: ldrissen@phy.ulaval.ca [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Pavillon Vachon, Quebec City, QC, G1K 7P4 (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg{sup 2} of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150 Degree-Sign in Galactic longitude and reaches 1 Degree-Sign above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  5. LIFTING THE DUSTY VEIL WITH NEAR- AND MID-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY. II. A LARGE-SCALE STUDY OF THE GALACTIC INFRARED EXTINCTION LAW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zasowski, G.; Majewski, S. R.; Indebetouw, R.

    2009-01-01

    We combine near-infrared (Two Micron All Sky Survey) and mid-infrared (Spitzer-IRAC) photometry to characterize the IR extinction law (1.2-8 μm) over nearly 150 deg. of contiguous Milky Way midplane longitude. The relative extinctions in five passbands across these wavelength and longitude ranges are derived by calculating color excess ratios for G and K giant red clump stars in contiguous midplane regions and deriving the wavelength dependence of extinction in each one. Strong, monotonic variations in the extinction law shape are found as a function of angle from the Galactic center, symmetric on either side of it. These longitudinal variations persist even when dense interstellar regions, known a priori to have a shallower extinction curve, are removed. The increasingly steep extinction curves toward the outer Galaxy indicate a steady decrease in the absolute-to-selective extinction ratio (R V ) and in the mean dust grain size at greater Galactocentric angles. We note an increasing strength of the 8 μm extinction inflection at high Galactocentric angles and, using theoretical dust models, show that this behavior is consistent with the trend in R V . Along several lines of sight where the solution is most feasible, A λ /A K s as a function of Galactic radius (R GC ) is estimated and shown to have a Galactic radial dependence. Our analyses suggest that the observed relationship between extinction curve shape and Galactic longitude is due to an intrinsic dependence of the extinction law on Galactocentric radius.

  6. A NEAR-INFRARED SURVEY OF THE INNER GALACTIC PLANE FOR WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. GOING FAINTER: 71 MORE NEW W-R STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shara, Michael M.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Zurek, David; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Doyon, René; Gerke, Jill; Artigau, Etienne; Drissen, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    We are continuing a J, K and narrowband imaging survey of 300 deg 2 of the plane of the Galaxy, searching for new Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars. Our survey spans 150° in Galactic longitude and reaches 1° above and below the Galactic plane. The survey has a useful limiting magnitude of K = 15 over most of the observed Galactic plane, and K = 14 (due to severe crowding) within a few degrees of the Galactic center. Thousands of emission-line candidates have been detected. In spectrographic follow-ups of 146 relatively bright W-R star candidates, we have re-examined 11 previously known WC and WN stars and discovered 71 new W-R stars, 17 of type WN and 54 of type WC. Our latest image analysis pipeline now picks out W-R stars with a 57% success rate. Star subtype assignments have been confirmed with the K-band spectra and distances approximated using the method of spectroscopic parallax. Some of the new W-R stars are among the most distant known in our Galaxy. The distribution of these new W-R stars is beginning to trace the locations of massive stars along the distant spiral arms of the Milky Way.

  7. Superdeformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    Superdeformation was first proposed some twenty years ago to explain the fission isomers observed in some actinide nuclei. It was later realized that superdeformed shapes can occur at high angular momentum in lighter nuclei. The interest in the mechanisms responsible for these exotic shapes has increased enormously with the discovery of a superdeformed band of nineteen discrete lines in 152 Dy (8). At about the same time, evidence for highly deformed nuclei (axis ratio 3:2) was also reported near 132 Ce(9). Striking properties emerged from the first experiments, such as the essentially constant energy spacing between transitions (picket-fence spectra), the unexpectedly strong population of superdeformed bands at high spins, and the apparent lack of a link between the superdeformed states and the yrast levels. These findings were reviewed by Nolan and Twin. The present article follows upon their work and discusses the wealth of information that has since become available. This includes the discovery of a new island of superdeformation near A = 190, the detailed spectroscopy of ground and excited bands in the superdeformed well near A = 150 and A = 190, the surprising occurrence of superdeformed bands with identical transition energies in nuclei differing by one or two mass units, and the improved understanding of mechanisms responsible for the feeding into and the decay out of the superdeformed states

  8. Study of biodistribution of lipidic nanospheres charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111; Estudio de biodistribucion de nanoesferas lipidicas cargadas con cis-diaminodicloroplatino (II) y marcadas con nucleos radioactivos de Indio-111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez R, V.; Juarez O, C.; Medina L, A. [Unidad de Investigacion Biomedica en Cancer INCAN-UNAM, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Perez C, E.; Garcia L, P. [Instituto nacional de cancerologia, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The general objective of the study was to evaluate the lipidic nanospheres biodistribution charged with cis-diaminedichloroplatinum (II) (cis-DDP) and labelled with radioactive nuclei of Indium-111 (Lip-Cis-in-111) in Wistar rats and in a tumoral model of CaCu. The conclusions were: 1. The system Lip-Cis-in-111 it presents a very fast elimination probably, to a fast recognition response of the reticuloendothelial system (RES). 2. It is planned to make modifications to the formulation to increase the quantity of the hydrophilic polymer (PEG), so that its time of residence in the blood is bigger and allow a bigger accumulation in the tumor. (Author)

  9. THE ARIZONA RADIO OBSERVATORY CO MAPPING SURVEY OF GALACTIC MOLECULAR CLOUDS. II. THE W3 REGION IN CO J = 2-1, 13CO J = 2-1, AND CO J = 3-2 EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieging, John H.; Peters, William L.

    2011-01-01

    We present fully sampled 38'' resolution maps of the CO and 13 CO J = 2-1 lines in the molecular clouds toward the H II region complex W3. The maps cover a 2. 0 0 x 1. 0 67 section of the galactic plane and span -70 to -20 km s -1 (LSR) in velocity with a resolution of ∼1.3 km s -1 . The velocity range of the images includes all the gas in the Perseus spiral arm. We also present maps of CO J = 3-2 emission for a 0. 0 5 x 0. 0 33 area containing the H II regions W3 Main and W3(OH). The J = 3-2 maps have velocity resolution of 0.87 km s -1 and 24'' angular resolution. Color figures display the peak line brightness temperature, the velocity-integrated intensity, and velocity channel maps for all three lines, and also the (CO/ 13 CO) J = 2-1 line intensity ratios as a function of velocity. The line intensity image cubes are made available in standard FITS format as electronically readable files. We compare our molecular line maps with the 1.1 mm continuum image from the BOLOCAM Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). From our 13 CO image cube, we derive kinematic information for the 65 BGPS sources in the mapped field, in the form of Gaussian component fits.

  10. Galactic radio astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    This book is a concise primer on galactic radio astronomy for undergraduate and graduate students, and provides wide coverage of galactic astronomy and astrophysics such as the physics of interstellar matter and the dynamics and structure of the Milky Way Galaxy and galaxies. Radio astronomy and its technological development have led to significant progress in galactic astronomy and contributed to understanding interstellar matter and galactic structures. The book begins with the fundamental physics of radio-wave radiation, i.e., black body radiation, thermal emission, synchrotron radiation, and HI and molecular line emissions. The author then gives overviews of ingredients of galactic physics, including interstellar matter such as the neutral (HI), molecular hydrogen, and ionized gases, as well as magnetic fields in galaxies. In addition, more advanced topics relevant to the Galaxy and galaxies are also contained here: star formation, supernova remnants, the Galactic Center and black holes, galactic dynamics...

  11. Search for far transuranic elements in galactic comic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelygin, V.P.; Lkhagvasuren, D.; Otgonsuren, O.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Yakupi, B.

    1976-01-01

    Experimental results on the search for the tracks of far transuranic elements of the galactic origin in olivine crystals from Marjalahti meteorite are presented. A total af 174 mm 3 of olivines taken from the surface layers of the meteorite and 60 mm 3 taken from its inner parts have been examined. The upper limit of the abundance of the Z >= 110 nuclei has been established to be -9 of the abundance of the Fe group nuclei. (orig.) [de

  12. Colliding nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, Roger; Remaud, Bernard; Suraud, E.; Durand, Dominique; Tamain, Bernard; Gobbi, A.; Cugnon, J.; Drapier, Olivier; Govaerts, Jan; Prieels, Rene

    1995-09-01

    This 14. international school Joliot-Curie of nuclear physic deals with nuclei in collision at high energy. Nine lectures are included in the proceedings of this summer school: 1 - From statistical mechanics outside equilibrium to transport equations (Balian, R.); 2 - Modeling of heavy ions reactions (Remaud, B.); 3 - Kinetic equations in heavy ions physics (Suraud, E.); 4 - Colliding nuclei near the Fermi energy (Durand, D.; Tamain, B.); 5 - From the Fermi to the relativistic energy domain: which observable? For which physics? (Gobbi, A.); 6 - Collisions at relativistic and ultra relativistic energies, Theoretical aspects (Cugnon, J.); 7 - Quark-gluon plasma: experimental signatures (Drapier, O.); 8 - Electroweak interaction: a window on physics beyond the standard model (Govaerts, J.); 9 - Symmetry tests in β nuclear process: polarization techniques (Prieels, R.)

  13. Formaldehyde in the Galactic Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.J.; Few, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    Formaldehyde 6-cm absorption in the direction of the Galactic Centre has been surveyed using the Jodrell Bank MK II radio telescope (beam-width 10 x 9 arcmin). The observations sample the region - 2 0 = 0 and - 0 0 .5 = 0 .5, with a velocity range of 620 km s -1 , a velocity resolution of 2.1 km s -1 and an rms noise level of approximately 0.03 K. The data are presented as contour maps showing line temperature as a function of latitude and velocity (b-V maps) and as a function of longitude and velocity (l-V maps). Similar maps of the line-to-continuum ratio are also presented. The radial distribution of formaldehyde (H 2 CO) in the Galactic Centre region is derived using two different kinematic models which give similar results. Formaldehyde is strongly concentrated in the Galactic Centre in a layer of latitude extent approximately 0 0 .5 and longitude extent approximately 4 0 which contains one quarter of all the H 2 CO in the Galaxy. The distribution is centred on l approximately 1 0 . The individual H 2 CO features are described in detail. (author)

  14. Stellar dynamics and galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, G.; Kuijken, K.; Wyse, R.F.G.

    1989-01-01

    Solar neighbourhood observations have the unique capability of providing detailed study of the consequences of the early evolution of the Galaxy. Important examples of this capability include determination of the distribution of luminous and unseen mass in the Galaxy, and deduction of the rate of star formation and chemical evolution in the proto-Galaxy. We describe a new method to determine the distribution of mass in the Galactic disk. We reinvestigate determinations of the local volume mass density (the Oort limit) and show there to be serious internal inconsistencies in the available data. The most likely value for the local volume mass density, based on old stars and with kinematic models consistent with the age structure of the local disk is ∼ 0.1 solar mass pc -3 , though this value is still poorly determined. Thus, there is no significant evidence for any missing mass associated with the Galactic disk. We also reinvestigate observational data on the chemical abundances and kinematics of old stars in the Galaxy. The (Intermediate Population II) thick disk stars are most likely as old as the globular clusters, and kinematically distinct from the old disk. This favours models of thick disk origin involving a discrete disruptive event, such as the accretion of a satellite of the Galaxy early in the evolution of the Galactic disk. (author)

  15. Continuum of active nuclei of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisson, C.; Durret, F.

    1987-01-01

    Most of the luminosity of active galactic nuclei (NAG) is radiated in the form of a continuum extending from radio to X-ray energies. It is important to understand the origin of this continuum in order to explain the relative importance of thermal and non-thermal processes in the different classes of NAG. We present here the observational aspect. A detailed study of the mechanisms will be presented by J.L. Masnou [fr

  16. Elementary excitations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmer, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The role of elementary quasi-particle and quasi-hole excitations is reviewed in connection with the analysis of data involving high-lying nuclear states. This article includes discussions on: (i) single quasi-hole excitations in pick-up reactions, (ii) the formation of single quasi-hole and quasi-particle excitations (in different nuclei) during transfer reactions, followed by (iii) quasi-particle quasi-hole excitations in the same nucleus that are produced by photon absorption. Finally, the question of photon absorption in the vicinity of the elementary Δ resonance is discussed, where nucleonic as well as nuclear degrees of freedom can be excited

  17. Gravitational physics of stellar and galactic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saslaw, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    The book concerns the gravitational interactions and evolution of astronomical systems on all scales, and is aimed at the graduate student of physics and astronomy. The text is divided into four parts, and each describes areas of the subject in order of decreasing symmetry. The four parts include: idealized homogeneous systems-basic ideas and gentle relaxation; infinite inhomogeneous systems and galaxy clustering; finite spherical systems including clusters of galaxies; galactic nuclei and globular clusters; and finite flattened systems and galaxies. (U.K.)

  18. Quasars and galactic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Woltjer, L

    1978-01-01

    The evolution of quasars is discussed. It is noted that substantial clustering may be present at faint magnitudes. The relationship between quasar evolution and galactic evolution is considered. (4 refs).

  19. PREFACE: Galactic Center Workshop 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schödel, Rainer; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Muno, Michael P.; Nayakshin, Sergei; Ott, Thomas

    2006-12-01

    We are pleased to present the proceedings from the Galactic Center Workshop 2006—From the Center of the Milky Way to Nearby Low-Luminosity Galactic Nuclei. The conference took place in the Physikzentrum, Bad Honnef, Germany, on 18 to 22 April 2006. It is the third workshop of this kind, following the Galactic Center Workshops held 1998 in Tucson, Arizona, and 2002 in Kona, Hawaii. The center of the Milky Way is the only galactic nucleus of a fairly common spiral galaxy that can be observed in great detail. With a distance of roughly 8 kpc, the resolution that can currently be achieved is of the order 40 mpc/8000 AU in the X-ray domain, 2 mpc/400 AU in the near-infrared, and 0.01 mpc/1 AU with VLBI in the millimeter domain. This is two to three orders of magnitude better than for any comparable nearby galaxy, making thus the center of the Milky Way thetemplate object for the general physical interpretation of the phenomena that can be observed in galactic nuclei. We recommend the summary article News from the year 2006 Galactic Centre workshopby Mark Morris and Sergei Nayakshin—who also gave the summary talk of the conference—to the reader in order to obtain a first, concise overview of the results presented at the workshop and some of the currently most exciting—and debated—developments in recent GC research. While the workshops held in 1998 and 2002 were dedicated solely to the center of the Milky Way, the field of view was widened in Bad Honnef to include nearby low-luminosity nuclei. This new feature followed the realization that not only the GC serves as a template for understanding extragalactic nuclei, but that the latter can also provide the context and broader statistical base for understanding the center of our Milky Way. This concerns especially the accretion and emission processes related to the Sagittarius A*, the manifestation of the super massive black hole in the GC, but also the surprising observation of great numbers of massive, young

  20. Probing the density tail of radioactive nuclei with antiprotons

    CERN Document Server

    Obertelli, Alexandre; Uesaka, Tomohiro; Corsi, Anna; Pollacco, Emmanuel; Flavigny, Freddy

    2017-01-01

    We propose an experiment to determine the proton and neutron content of the radial density tail in short-lived nuclei. The objectives are to (i) to evidence new proton and neutron halos, (ii) to understand the development of neutron skins in medium-mass nuclei, (iii) to provide a new observable that characterises the density tail of short-lived nuclei.

  1. Statistical studies on quasars and active nuclei of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasinska, G.

    1987-01-01

    A catalogue of optical, radio and X-ray properties of quasars and other active galactic nuclei, now in elaboration, is presented. This catalogue may serve as a data base for statistical studies. As an example, we give some preliminary results concerning the determination of the quasar masses [fr

  2. Are There Rotation Measure Gradients Across Active Galactic Nuclei Jets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    transverse RM gradient exists. We assume H0 = 71 km s−1 Mpc−1 and a ΛCDM cosmology with Ωλ = 0.7 and Ωm = 0.3 (e.g., Eisenstein et al. 2005; Hinshaw...O’Sullivan, S. P., & Gabuzda, D. C. 2010, MNRAS, 402, 259 Denn, G. R., Mutel, R. L., & Marscher, A. P. 2000, ApJS, 129, 61 Eisenstein , D. J., et al. 2005

  3. Active Galactic Nuclei at all wavelengths and from all angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    AGN are quite unique astronomical sources emitting over more than twenty orders of magnitude in frequency, with different electromagnetic bands providing windows on different sub-structures and their physics. They come in a large number of flavors only partially related to intrinsic differences. I highlight here the types of sources selected in different bands, the relevant selection effects and biases, and the underlying physical processes. I then look at the ``big picture'' by describing the most important parameters one needs to describe the variety of AGN classes and by discussing AGN at all frequencies in terms of their sky surface density. I conclude with a look at the most pressing open issues and the main new facilities, which will flood us with new data to tackle them.

  4. Active Galactic Nuclei at All Wavelengths and from All Angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padovani, Paolo, E-mail: ppadovan@eso.org [European Southern Observatory, Garching bei München (Germany)

    2017-11-07

    AGN are quite unique astronomical sources emitting over more than 20 orders of magnitude in frequency, with different electromagnetic bands providing windows on different sub-structures and their physics. They come in a large number of flavors only partially related to intrinsic differences. I highlight here the types of sources selected in different bands, the relevant selection effects and biases, and the underlying physical processes. I then look at the “big picture” by describing the most important parameters one needs to describe the variety of AGN classes and by discussing AGN at all frequencies in terms of their sky surface density. I conclude with a look at the most pressing open issues and the main new facilities, which will flood us with new data to tackle them.

  5. PAIR PRODUCTION IN LOW-LUMINOSITY GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscibrodzka, M.; Gammie, C. F.; Dolence, J. C.; Shiokawa, H.

    2011-01-01

    Electron-positron pairs may be produced near accreting black holes by a variety of physical processes, and the resulting pair plasma may be accelerated and collimated into a relativistic jet. Here, we use a self-consistent dynamical and radiative model to investigate pair production by γγ collisions in weakly radiative accretion flows around a black hole of mass M and accretion rate M-dot . Our flow model is drawn from general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and our radiation field is computed by a Monte Carlo transport scheme assuming the electron distribution function is thermal. We argue that the pair production rate scales as r -6 M -1 M-dot 6 . We confirm this numerically and calibrate the scaling relation. This relation is self-consistent in a wedge in M, M-dot parameter space. If M-dot is too low the implied pair density over the poles of the black hole is below the Goldreich-Julian density and γγ pair production is relatively unimportant; if M-dot is too high the models are radiatively efficient. We also argue that for a power-law spectrum the pair production rate should scale with the observables L X ≡ X-ray luminosity and M as L 2 X M -4 . We confirm this numerically and argue that this relation likely holds even for radiatively efficient flows. The pair production rates are sensitive to black hole spin and to the ion-electron temperature ratio which are fixed in this exploratory calculation. We finish with a brief discussion of the implications for Sgr A* and M87.

  6. Soft gamma-ray production in active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, M; Zbyszewska, M

    1985-02-01

    Recent studies by Lightman (1982), Svensson (1984), an others on the pair-equilibrium states of mildly relativistic thermal plasma, including magnetic fields and optical sources are considered. Resulting constraints on luminosities and proton densities together with observational data permit the selection of an accretion scenario in which a high-energy spectrum, similar to that of NGC 4151, is produced. It is shown that soft gamma-ray production via thermal bremsstrahlung can occur in the central region of the two-temperature, geometrically thick part of the disc. On the other hand, the power-law X-ray spectrum is expected to be generated in the intermediate region due to Comptonization of optical photons coming from an outer, geometrically thin part of the disc. Implications for the relation between quasars and Seyfert galaxies are discussed. 27 references.

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and Clusters Biman B. Nath

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    entropy into the ICM gas. The recently determined universal pressure pro- file of the ICM gas has been used and after comparing with the entropy profile of the gas from gravitational effects of the dark matter halo, the additional entropy injected by non-gravitational sources, as a function of the total cluster mass is determined.

  8. The Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.; Netzer, Hagai

    2009-01-01

    We present high-resolution HST images of all 35 AGNs with optical reverberation-mapping results, which we have modeled to create a nucleus-free image of each AGN host galaxy. From the nucleus-free images, we determine the host-galaxy contribution to ground-based spectroscopic luminosity measureme...

  9. Photon and neutrino emission from active galactic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, Peter L. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Becker, Julia K. [Inst. for Phys., Univ. Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Caramete, Laurentiu I. [MPI for Radioastronomy, Bonn (Germany); Fraschetti, Federico [Inst. for Phys., Univ. Bochum, Bochum (Germany); Kneiske, Tanja [Inst. fuer Exp.Physik, Univ. Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany); Meli, Athina [Erlangen Center for Astroparticle Physics, University Erlangen-Nuremberg (Germany); Stanev, Todor [Bartol Research Inst., Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies are very common. They are known to rotate, accrete, spin down and eject highly relativistic jets; those jets pointed at us all seem to show a spectrum with two strong bumps, one in the TeV photon range, and one in X-rays - ordered by the emission frequency of the first bump this constitutes the blazar sequence. Here we wish to explain this sequence as primary synchrotron emission of energetic electrons and protons, and secondary emission from interactions at the first strong shockwave pattern in the relativistic jet. With two key assumptions on particle scattering, this concept predicts that the two basic maximum peak frequencies {nu}{sub syn,e,p} scale with the mass of the central black hole as {nu}{sub e,p{approx}}M{sub BH}{sup -1/2}, of {nu}{sub syn,p}/{nu}{sub syn,e}=(m{sub p}/m{sub e}){sup 3}, and the luminosities with the mass itself L{sub e,p{approx}}M{sub BH}. Due to strong losses of the leptons, the peak luminosities are generally the same, but with large variations around equality. This model predicts large fluxes in ultra high energy cosmic rays, and also large neutrino luminosities.

  10. Spectral-luminosity evolution of active galactic nuclei (AGN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiter, Darryl; Boldt, Elihu

    1992-01-01

    The origin of the cosmic X-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds is explained via the mechanism of AGN spectral-luminosity evolution. The spectral evolution of precursor active galaxies into AGN, and Newton-Raphson input and output parameters are discussed.

  11. The radiative deceleration of ultrarelativistic jets in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melia, F.; Konigl, A.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed study of the dynamical interaction between a highly relativistic jet and the thermal radiation field from an AGN accretion disk is reported, and the Comptonized spectrum arising from this interaction is self-consistently determined. A simple model that captures the essential radiative and geometrical features of realistic disk configurations is presented, and the disk radiation field is calculated. The results confirm Phinney's (1987) suggestion that the thermal radiation field produced by accretion in an AGN could be very effective in decelerating ultrarelativistic jets that are accreted by electromagnetic or hydromagnetic forces closer to the central black hole. Terminal Lorentz factors are consistent with the values inferred in superluminal radio sources are readily produced in this model for plausible disk and jet parameters without additional acceleration in the interaction zone. A new interpretation of the hard X-ray component detected in BL Lac spectra is proposed. 55 refs

  12. Stability of emission line clouds in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krinsky, I.S.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed for a Quasar Stellar Object (QSO) broad emission line cloud (ELC) imbedded within a confining hot intercloud medium (HIM) for the purpose of studying its stability to perturbations in its temperature and density. A self-consistent model in radiative, pressure and thermal equilibrium is presented. The effect of trapped line radiation pressure is also included with the total pressure (particle plus radiation) held constant. The equilibrium model is found to have regions with radiation pressure exceeding gas pressure. Energy transport includes the effects of an external broken power law continuum and thermal conduction of heat from the HIM. Conduction is found to be unimportant to the total energy budget of the cloud, but is important to the dynamics of the ELC/HIM interface. Independent of the ELC/HIM model, an extension of second order probabilistic radiative transfer that treats the diffuse radiation field as composed of two oppositely directed streams is presented. The high ionization zone of the ELC is found to be unstable to radiatively driven sound waves. Both the external radiation field and the force of trapped line radiation are potential sources for driving the growth of sound waves. The final picture that emerges is that the ELC must be in a constant state of flux

  13. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR COROTATING INTERACTION REGIONS IN APPARENTLY SINGLE GALACTIC WOLF-RAYET STARS. II. A GLOBAL VIEW OF THE WIND VARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chene, A.-N.; St-Louis, N.

    2011-01-01

    This study is the second part of a survey searching for large-scale spectroscopic variability in apparently single Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars. In a previous paper (Paper I), we described and characterized the spectroscopic variability level of 25 WR stars observable from the northern hemisphere and found 3 new candidates presenting large-scale wind variability, potentially originating from large-scale structures named corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In this second paper, we discuss an additional 39 stars observable from the southern hemisphere. For each star in our sample, we obtained 4-5 high-resolution spectra with a signal-to-noise ratio of ∼100 and determined its variability level using the approach described in Paper I. In total, 10 new stars are found to show large-scale spectral variability of which 7 present CIR-type changes (WR 8, WR 44, WR55, WR 58, WR 61, WR 63, WR 100). Of the remaining stars, 20 were found to show small-amplitude changes and 9 were found to show no spectral variability as far as can be concluded from the data on hand. Also, we discuss the spectroscopic variability level of all single galactic WR stars that are brighter than v ∼ 12.5, and some WR stars with 12.5 < v ≤ 13.5, i.e., all the stars presented in our two papers and four more stars for which spectra have already been published in the literature. We find that 23/68 stars (33.8%) present large-scale variability, but only 12/54 stars (∼22.1%) are potentially of CIR type. Also, we find that 31/68 stars (45.6%) only show small-scale variability, most likely due to clumping in the wind. Finally, no spectral variability is detected based on the data on hand for 14/68 (20.6%) stars. Interestingly, the variability with the highest amplitude also has the widest mean velocity dispersion.

  14. Active galactic nucleus outflows in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Dashyan, Gohar

    2018-05-01

    Galactic outflows, driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), play a crucial role in galaxy formation and in the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes (BHs). AGN feedback couples to and affects gas, rather than stars, and in many, if not most, gas-rich galaxies cold gas is rotationally supported and settles in a disc. We present a 2D analytical model for AGN-driven outflows in a gaseous disc and demonstrate the main improvements, compared to existing 1D solutions. We find significant differences for the outflow dynamics and wind efficiency. The outflow is energy-driven due to inefficient cooling up to a certain AGN luminosity (˜1043 erg s-1 in our fiducial model), above which the outflow remains momentum-driven in the disc up to galactic scales. We reproduce results of 3D simulations that gas is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the disc and find that the fraction of ejected interstellar medium is lower than in 1D models. The recovery time of gas in the disc, defined as the free-fall time from the radius to which the AGN pushes the ISM at most, is remarkably short, of the order 1 Myr. This indicates that AGN-driven winds cannot suppress BH growth for long. Without the inclusion of supernova feedback, we find a scaling of the BH mass with the halo velocity dispersion of MBH ∝ σ4.8.

  15. VERITAS Galactic Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Gareth

    2013-06-15

    We report on recent Galactic results and discoveries made by the VERITAS collaboration. The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is a ground-based gamma-ray observatory, located in southern Arizona, able to detect gamma rays of energies from 100 GeV up to 30 TeV. VERITAS has been fully operational since 2007 and its current sensitivity enables the detection of a 1% Crab Nebula flux at 5 sigma in under 30 hours. The observatory is well placed to view large parts of the galactic plane including its center, resulting in a strong galactic program. Objects routinely observed include Pulsars, Pulsar Wind Nebula, X-ray binaries and sources with unidentified counterparts in other wavelengths.

  16. Far infrared observations of the galactic center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, I.

    1977-01-01

    Maps of a region 10' in diameter around the galactic center made simultaneously in three wavelength bands at 30 μm, 50 μm, and 100 μm with approximately 1' resolution are presented, and the distribution of far infrared luminosity and color temperature across this region is derived. The position of highest far infrared surface brightness coincides with the peak of the late-type stellar distribution and with the H II region Sgr A West. The high spatial and temperature resolution of the data is used to identify features of the far infrared maps with known sources of near infrared, radio continuum, and molecular emission. The emission mechanism and energy sources for the far infrared radiation are anslyzed qualitatively, and it is concluded that all of the observed far infrared radiation from the galactic center region can be attributed to thermal emission from dust heated both by the late-type stars and by the ultraviolet sources which ionize the H II regions. A self-consistent model for the far infrared emission from the galactic center region is presented. It is found that the visual extinction across the central 10 pc of the galaxy is only about 3 magnitudes, and that the dust density is fairly uniform in this region. An upper limit of 10 7 L/sub mass/ is set on the luminosity of any presently unidentified source of 0.1 to 1 μm radiation at the galactic center. Additional maps in the vicinity of the source Sgr B2 and observations of Sgr C bring the total number of H II regions within 1 0 of the galactic center studied by the present experiment to nine. The far infrared luminosity, color temperature and optical depth of these regions and the ratio of infrared flux to radio continuum flux lie in the range characteristic of spiral arm H II regions. The far infrared results are therefore consistent with the data that the galactic center H II regions are ionized by luminous, early type stars

  17. Models of mass segregation at the Galactic Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, Marc; Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Kalogera, Vassiliki

    2006-01-01

    We study the process of mass segregation through 2-body relaxation in galactic nuclei with a central massive black hole (MBH). This study has bearing on a variety of astrophysical questions, from the distribution of X-ray binaries at the Galactic centre, to tidal disruptions of main- sequence and giant stars, to inspirals of compact objects into the MBH, an important category of events for the future space borne gravitational wave interferometer LISA. In relatively small galactic nuclei, typical hosts of MBHs with masses in the range 10 4 - 10 7 M o-dot , the relaxation induces the formation of a steep density cusp around the MBH and strong mass segregation. Using a spherical stellar dynamical Monte-Carlo code, we simulate the long-term relaxational evolution of galactic nucleus models with a spectrum of stellar masses. Our focus is the concentration of stellar black holes to the immediate vicinity of the MBH. Special attention is given to models developed to match the conditions in the Milky Way nucleus

  18. Role of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors 2/3 and group I metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in developing rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvarosa; Frondaroli, Adele; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2005-08-22

    In brainstem slices from developing rats, metabotropic glutamate receptors mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 play different inhibitory roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity of the medial vestibular nuclei. The mGluR2/3 block (LY341495) reduces the occurrence of long-term depression after vestibular afferent high frequency stimulation at P8-P10, and increases that of long-term potentiation, while the mGluR5 block prevents high frequency stimulation long-term depression. Later on, the receptor block does not influence high frequency stimulation effects. In addition, while mGluR2/3 agonist (APDC) always provokes a transient reduction of synaptic responses, that of mGluR5 (CHPG) induces long-term depression per se at P8-P10. These results show a key role of mGluR5 in inducing high frequency stimulation long-term depression in developing medial vestibular nuclei, while mGluR2/3 modulate synaptic transmission, probably through presynaptic control of glutamate release.

  19. Galactic-scale Feedback Observed in the 3C 298 Quasar Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A.; Murray, Norman; Armus, Lee; Larkin, James E.; Mieda, Etsuko

    2017-12-01

    We present high angular resolution multiwavelength data of the 3C 298 radio-loud quasar host galaxy (z = 1.439) taken using the W.M. Keck Observatory OSIRIS integral field spectrograph (IFS) with adaptive optics, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3, and the Very Large Array (VLA). Extended emission is detected in the rest-frame optical nebular emission lines Hβ, [O III], Hα, [N II], and [S II], as well as in the molecular lines CO (J = 3‑2) and (J = 5‑4). Along the path of the relativistic jets of 3C 298, we detect conical outflows in ionized gas emission with velocities of up to 1700 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and an outflow rate of 450–1500 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 extended over 12 kpc. Near the spatial center of the conical outflow, CO (J = 3‑2) emission shows a molecular gas disk with a rotational velocity of ±150 {km} {{{s}}}-1 and total molecular mass ({M}{{{H}}2}) of 6.6+/- 0.36× {10}9 {M}ȯ . On the blueshifted side of the molecular disk, we observe broad extended emission that is due to a molecular outflow with a rate of 2300 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 and depletion timescale of 3 Myr. We detect no narrow Hα emission in the outflow regions, suggesting a limit on star formation of 0.3 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1 {{kpc}}-2. Quasar-driven winds are evacuating the molecular gas reservoir, thereby directly impacting star formation in the host galaxy. The observed mass of the supermassive black hole is {10}9.37{--9.56} {M}ȯ , and we determine a dynamical bulge mass of {M}{bulge}=1{--}1.7× {10}10\\tfrac{R}{1.6 {kpc}} {M}ȯ . The bulge mass of 3C 298 lies 2–2.5 orders of magnitude below the expected value from the local galactic bulge—supermassive black hole mass ({M}{bulge}{--}{M}{BH}) relationship. A second galactic disk observed in nebular emission is offset from the quasar by 9 kpc, suggesting that the system is an intermediate-stage merger. These results show that galactic-scale negative feedback is occurring early in the merger

  20. Modeling galactic extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchi-Pestellini, C.; Mulas, G.; Casu, S.; Iatì, M. A.; Saija, R.; Cacciola, A.; Borghese, F.; Denti, P.

    2011-01-01

    We present a model for interstellar extinction dust, in which we assume a bimodal distribution of extinction carriers, a dispersion of core-mantle grains, supplemented by a collection of PAHs in free molecular form. We use state-of-the-art methods to calculate the extinction due to macroscopic dust particles, and the absorption cross-sections of PAHs in four different charge states. While successfull for most of observed Galactic extinction curves, in few cases the model cannot provide reliab...

  1. [RNA polymerase II and pre-mRNA splicing factors in diplotene oocyte nuclei of the giant African gastropod Achatina fulica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, I S; Bogoliubov, D S

    2003-01-01

    The nuclear distribution of pre-mRNA splicing factors (snRNPs and SR-protein SC35) and unphosphorylated from of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) was studied using fluorescent and immunoelectron cytochemistry in diplotene oocytes of the gastropod Achatina fulica. Association of Pol II and splicing factors with oocyte nuclear structures was analysed. The antibodies against splicing factors and Pol II were shown to label perichromatin fibrils at the periphery of condensed chromatin blocks as well as those in interchromatin regions of nucleoplasm. The revealed character of distribution of snRNPs, SC35 protein, and Pol II, together with the decondensed chromatin and absence of karyosphere, enable us to suggest that oocyte chromosomes maintain their transcriptional activity at the diplotene stage of oogenesis. In A. fulica oocytes, sparse nuclear bodies (NBs) of a complex morphological structure were revealed. These NBs contain snRNPs rather than SC35 protein. NBs are associated with a fibrogranular material (FGM), which contains SC35 protein. No snRNPs were revealed in this material. Homology of A. fulica oocyte nuclear structures to Cajal bodies and interchromatin granule clusters is discussed.

  2. Relations between the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audouze, J.

    1984-01-01

    After a quick definition of the galactic evolution and a summary of the basic ingredients (namely the abundances of the chemical elements observed in different astrophysical sites), the parameters directly related to the stellar evolution which govern the galactic evolution are outlined. They are the rates of star formation, the initial mass functions and the various nucleosynthetic yields. The 'classical' models of chemical evolution of galaxies are then briefly recalled. Finally, attention is drawn to three recent contributions concerning both the galactic evolution and the stellar evolution. They are (i) some prediction of the rate of star formation for low mass stars made from the planetary nebula abundance distribution (ii) the chemical evolution of C, O and Fe and (iii) the chemical evolution of the galactic interstellar medium. (Auth.)

  3. Transition from galactic to extra-galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we review the main features of the observed Cosmic Rays spectrum in the energy range 10 17 eV to 10 20 eV. We present a theoretical model that explains the main observed features of the spectrum, namely the second Knee and Dip, and implies a transition from Galactic to Extra-Galactic cosmic rays at energy E ≅ 10 18 eV, with a proton dominated Extra-Galactic spectrum

  4. Studies of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    The study of the nuclei far off stability valley is of much interest for testing the nuclear models established for the stable nuclei but also for astrophysics to understand the nucleosynthesis. Experiments aim to measure the mass and lifetime, to build the decay schemes and also to study the structure and the properties of these nuclei. The radioactive beam group focused its research on light neutron-rich nuclei having a halo neutron structure. Mass measurements in N ∼ Z nuclei namely in A ∼ 60-80 proton-rich nuclei, important for understanding the rp process, are mentioned, as well as in nuclei in the 100 Sn region. In the newly obtained 26 O and 28 O nuclei the lifetimes, the probabilities of emission of one for more neutrons were determined. The data analysis has permitted to determine also for the first time the lifetimes of 27,29 F and 30 Ne. Studies of nuclei in the 100 Sn region, near the proton drip line in the ground and isomeric states are now under way. The spectroscopy (energy levels, gamma emissions, etc.) of the neutron-rich nuclei produced by the 36 S fragmentation has been carried out in 31 Ne, 17 B and 29 F. Studies by Coulomb excitation of the 2 + excited states and associated probability B (E2) in O, Ne, Ni and Zn are now analysed

  5. NACRE II: an update of the NACRE compilation of charged-particle-induced thermonuclear reaction rates for nuclei with mass number A<16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Goriely, S.; Arnould, M.; Ohta, M.; Utsunomiya, H.

    2013-01-01

    An update of the NACRE compilation [3] is presented. This new compilation, referred to as NACRE II, reports thermonuclear reaction rates for 34 charged-particle induced, two-body exoergic reactions on nuclides with mass number A 6 ≲T⩽10 10 K range. Along with the ‘adopted’ rates, their low and high limits are provided. The new rates are available in electronic form as part of the Brussels Library (BRUSLIB) of nuclear data. The NACRE II rates also supersede the previous NACRE rates in the Nuclear Network Generator (NETGEN) for astrophysics. [ (http://www.astro.ulb.ac.be/databases.html)

  6. The galactic distribution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    The galactic distribution of pulsars follows the general form of many population I objects in galactocentric radius, but has a wide distribution above and below the galactic plane due to high space velocities imparted to the pulsars at birth. The evidence for this model is described and the various factors involved in estimating the total galactic population and the galactic birthrate of pulsars are discussed. The various estimates of the galactic population which cluster around 5 x 10 5 are seen to be critically dependent upon the cut-off at low luminosities and upon the value of the mean electron density within 500 pc of the Earth. Estimates of the lifetimes of pulsars are available from both the characteristic ages and proper motion measurements and both give values of about 5 million years. The implied birthrate of one in every 10 years is barely compatible with most estimates of the galactic supernova rate. (Auth.)

  7. Nuclei and quantum worlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    This document gathers the slides and their commentaries that have been presented at the conference 'physics and fundamental questions' by P. Chomaz. The author reviews the different quantum aspects of nuclei: tunnel effect, symmetries, magic numbers, wave functions, size, shapes and deformations. The author shows that nuclei are quantum objects of great complexity, their structures are not yet well understood and the study of exotic nuclei will continue bringing valuable information

  8. Pairing correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, C.V.K.

    1988-01-01

    There are many similarities between the properties of nucleons in nuclei and electrons in metals. In addition to the properties explainable in terms of independent particle motion, there are many important co-operative effects suggesting correlated motion. Pairing correlation which leads to superconductivity in metals and several important properties in nuclei , is an exmple of such correlations. An attempt has been made to review the effects of pairing correlations in nuclei. Recent indications of reduction in pairing correlations at high angular momenta is discussed. A comparision between pairing correlations in the cases of nuclei and electrons in metals is attempted. (author). 20 refs., 10 figs

  9. The PSIMECX medium-energy neutron activation cross-section library. Part II: Calculational methods for light to medium mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, F.

    1998-09-01

    The PSIMECX library contains calculated nuclide production cross-sections from neutron-induced reactions in the energy range about 2 to 800 MeV in the following 72 stable isotopes of 24 elements: 12 C, 13 C, 16 O, 17 O, 18 O, 23 Na, 24 Mg, 25 Mg, 26 Mg, 27 Al, 28 Si, 29 Si, 30 Si, 31 P, 32 S, 33 S, 34 S, 36 S, 35 Cl, 37 Cl, 39 K, 40 K, 41 K, 40 Ca, 42 Ca, 43 Ca, 44 Ca, 46 Ca, 48 Ca, 46 Ti, 47 Ti, 48 Ti, 49 Ti, 50 Ti, 50 V, 51 V, 50 Cr, 52 Cr, 53 Cr, 54 Cr, 55 Mn, 54 Fe, 56 Fe, 57 Fe, 58 Fe, 58 Ni, 60 Ni, 61 Ni, 62 Ni, 64 Ni, 63 Cu, 65 Cu, 64 Zn, 66 Zn, 67 Zn, 68 Zn, 70 Zn, 92 Mo, 94 Mo, 95 Mo, 96 Mo, 97 Mo, 98 Mo, 100 Mo, 121 Sb, 123 Sb, 204 Pb, 206 Pb, 207 Pb, 208 Pb, 232 Th and 238 U. The energy range covers essentially all transmutation channels other than capture. The majority of the selected elements are principal constituents of normal materials of construction used in and around accelerator facilities and the library is, first and foremost, designed to be a tool for the estimation of their activation in wide-band neutron fields. This second report, of a series of three, describes and discusses the calculational methods used for the stable isotopes up to and including 123 Sb. The library itself has been described in the first report of the series and the treatment for the heavy nuclei is given in the third. (author)

  10. Galactic origin of cosmic rays II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The CR acceleration due to shocks in the ISM depends upon multiple crossings approx. = c/3 v/sub Alfven/ approx. = 10 4 per e-fold energy gain. The up-stream scattering required to produce this barrier is Alfven wave turbulence. When the ratio (CR pressure)/(B 2 /8π) identical = β > 1, the streaming velocity theoretically and observationally becomes >> v/sub Alfven/ and, hence, no effective up-stream barrier is likely to exist. If all ISM shock acceleration is limited to β approx. 10 13 to 10 14 eV. It is usually assumed that the energy dependent escape from the Galaxy E approx. > 10 15 eV produces a steeper spectrum from 10 15 to 10 18 eV. Above this energy SN's in all galaxies fill the meta galaxy with CR's with a flatter slope. Conversely, an external source that attempts to fill the Galaxy from the outside must have a still steeper spectrum ΔGAMMA approx. = -.75 to penetrate the diffusive barrier of our galaxy yet maintain the observed slope. This is unlikely since the energy density at 10 15 eV in the meta galaxy would be between 10 -1 to 10 -2 of CR's in this galaxy or of the order of 10 3 of the energy density of particles and fields in the IGM

  11. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  12. The PSIMECX medium-energy neutron activation cross-section library. Part II: Calculational methods for light to medium mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atchison, F.

    1998-09-01

    The PSIMECX library contains calculated nuclide production cross-sections from neutron-induced reactions in the energy range about 2 to 800 MeV in the following 72 stable isotopes of 24 elements: {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 16}O, {sup 17}O, {sup 18}O, {sup 23}Na, {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 27}Al, {sup 28}Si, {sup 29}Si, {sup 30}Si, {sup 31}P, {sup 32}S, {sup 33}S, {sup 34}S, {sup 36}S, {sup 35}Cl, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 39}K, {sup 40}K, {sup 41}K, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 42}Ca, {sup 43}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 46}Ca, {sup 48}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 49}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 50}V, {sup 51}V, {sup 50}Cr, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 53}Cr, {sup 54}Cr, {sup 55}Mn, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 57}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 61}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 66}Zn, {sup 67}Zn, {sup 68}Zn, {sup 70}Zn, {sup 92}Mo, {sup 94}Mo, {sup 95}Mo, {sup 96}Mo, {sup 97}Mo, {sup 98}Mo, {sup 100}Mo, {sup 121}Sb, {sup 123}Sb, {sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U. The energy range covers essentially all transmutation channels other than capture. The majority of the selected elements are principal constituents of normal materials of construction used in and around accelerator facilities and the library is, first and foremost, designed to be a tool for the estimation of their activation in wide-band neutron fields. This second report, of a series of three, describes and discusses the calculational methods used for the stable isotopes up to and including {sup 123}Sb. The library itself has been described in the first report of the series and the treatment for the heavy nuclei is given in the third. (author)

  13. Massive stellar content of some Galactic supershells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltcheva, Nadejda; Golev, Valeri

    2015-08-01

    The giant Galactic H II regions provide a unique opportunity to study the OB-star influence on the surrounding interstellar matter. In this contribution, several multi-wavelength surveys (Wisconsin H-α Mapper Northern Sky Survey, Southern H-α Sky Survey Atlas, MSX Mid-IR Galactic Plane Survey, WISE All-Sky Data Release, CO survey of the Milky Way, and the Southern Galactic Plane HI Survey) are combined with available intermediate-band uvbyβ photometry to attempt a precise spatial correlation between the OB-stars and the neutral and ionized material. Our study is focused on the H I supershell GSH 305+01-24 in Centaurus, the Car OB2 supershell, the Cygnus star-forming complex and the GSH 224-01+24 shell toward the GMN 39/Seagull nebula region. We refine the massive stellar content of these star-forming fields and study the energetics of its interaction with the shells’ material.

  14. Galactic chemical evolution: perspectives and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trimble, V.

    1987-01-01

    The first modern, quantitative models of galactic chemical evolution appeared exactly 20 years ago in the PhD dissertation of the late Beatrice M. Tinsley. Such models represent a synthesis of the behavior of the 10 11 or more stars that form over the 10 10 year age of a galaxy like their Milky Way and are vital both for understanding how and why galaxies have the luminosities, colors, and chemical compositions they see now and for interpreting observations of distant galaxies to answer cosmological questions about the size, age, density, inhomogeneities, and geometry of the universe. Since my last status report on the subject, some issues have become much clearer (the distinctness of nucleosynthesis in Type I, low mass, supernovae, from that in Type II's that make pulsars; the importance of galaxy mergers and interactions in triggering bursts of star formation), while others have remained puzzling (the sites of the r and p processes) or newly-surfaced (the nucleosynthetic contributions of pre-galactic massive objects; the nature and roll of dark matter in galaxies). The talk will touch briefly on the past, present, and future of galactic evolution studies

  15. Nuclei with exotic constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu.

    1990-08-01

    We discuss various interesting features in the behavior of exotic constituents of nuclei such as hyperons and mesons, in particular, with emphases on the aspect of exotic halos which are formed in general by short-range repulsion and long-range attraction. Specifically, Λ and Σ hypernuclei and pionic nuclei are discussed. (author)

  16. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  17. Baryon resonances in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenhoevel, H.

    1977-01-01

    The field of baryon resonances in nuclei is reviewed. Theoretical developments and experimental evidence as well are discussed. Special emphasis is laid on electromagnetic processes for the two nucleon system. Some aspects of real isobars in nuclei are touched upon. (orig.) [de

  18. Nuclei in high forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, Z.; Berger, J.F.; Heenen, P.H.; Heyde, K.; Haas, B.; Janssens, R.; Paya, D.; Gogny, D.; Huber, G.; Bjoernholm, S.; Brack, M.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of 1991 Joliot-Curie Summer School is to review the most advances in the understanding of the nuclei physics after the considerable progress in gamma spectroscopy. It covers the following topics: Highly and super-deformed nuclei, nuclear structures, mean-field approach and beyond, fission isomers, nuclear excitations with long lifetime and metal clusters

  19. Pair correlations in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yoshifumi

    2009-01-01

    Except for the closed shell nuclei, almost all nuclei are in the superconducting state at their ground states. This well-known pair correlation in nuclei causes various interesting phenomena. It is especially to be noted that the pair correlation becomes weak in the excited states of nuclei with high angular momentum, which leads to the pair phase transition to the normal state in the high spin limit. On the other hand, the pair correlation becomes stronger in the nuclei with lower nucleon density than in those with normal density. In the region of neutron halo or skin state of unstable nuclei, this phenomenon is expected to be further enhanced to be observed compared to the ground state of stable nuclei. An overview of those interesting aspects caused via the pair correlation is presented here in the sections titled 'pair correlations in ground states', pair correlations in high spin states' and 'pair correlations in unstable nuclei' focusing on the high spin state. (S. Funahashi)

  20. Eta mesons in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    The possibility of producing eta-mesic nuclei by the use of pions is discussed. If these nuclei are observed experimentally, then the binding energies of the eta in this new nuclear matter can be used to extract accurately the eta-N-N* coupling constant in a nucleus. The framework for these calculations is the coupled channel isobar model

  1. Evolution of planetary nebula nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The evolution of planetary nebula nuclei (PNNs) is examined with the aid of the most recent available stellar evolution calculations and new observations of these objects. Their expected distribution in the log L-log T plane is calculated based upon the stellar evolutionary models of Paczynski, Schoenberner and Iben, the initial mass function derived by Miller and Scalo, and various assumptions concerning mass loss during post-main sequence evolution. The distribution is found to be insensitive both to the assumed range of main-sequence progenitor mass and to reasonable variations in the age and the star forming history of the galactic disk. Rather, the distribution is determined by the strong dependence of the rate of stellar evolution upon core mass, the steepness of the initial mass function, and to a lesser extent the finite lifetime of an observable planetary nebula. The theoretical distributions are rather different than any of those inferred from earlier observations. Possible observational selection effects that may be responsible are examined, as well as the intrinsic uncertainties associated with the theoretical model predictions. An extensive photometric and smaller photographic survey of southern hemisphere planetary nebulae (PNs) is presented

  2. Traces of heavy and superheavy cosmic nuclei in olivins of extraterrestial origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatova, R.; Taneva, T.

    1982-01-01

    The paths of traces of WH nuclei from cosmic rays have been measured in olivines from the meteorites Maryalakhti, Eagle Stein, Liposki khutor with radiation ages 175, 45 and 220 million years respectively. 3 cm 3 olivines of these meteorites have been examined and more than 500 traces of nuclei with Z(>=)90 have been found measured including 3 traces 1.5-1.8 times longer than the traces created by the uranium and thorium nuclei. These traces may be left by nuclei with Z(>=)110. The crystals were chosen from localizations situated at 2-7 cm, 8-9 cm and 10-12 cm from the outside atmospheric surface of the meteorite. The abundancy of the Z(>=)50 nuclei in gigantic cosmic rays, averaged for a period of ( =)110 in galactic cosmic rays. It is 1.4 x 10 -9 from that of the iron group nuclei. (authors)

  3. Trek and ECCO: Abundance measurements of ultraheavy galactic cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    Using the Trek detector, we have measured the abundances of the heaviest elements (with Z>70) in the galactic cosmic rays with sufficient charge resolution to resolve the even-Z elements. We find that the abundance of Pb compared to Pt is ∼3 times lower than the value expected from the most widely-held class of models of the origin of galactic cosmic ray nuclei, that is, origination in a partially ionized medium with solar-like composition. The low abundance of Pb is, however, consistent with the interstellar gas and dust model of Meyer, Drury and Ellison, and with a source enriched in r-process material, proposed by Binns et al. A high-resolution, high-statistics measurement of the abundances of the individual actinides would distinguish between these models. This is the goal of ECCO, the Extremely Heavy Cosmic-ray Composition Observer, which we plan to deploy on the International Space Station

  4. Galactic population of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.; Manchester, R.N.

    1985-01-01

    In order to draw statistical conclusions about the overall population of pulsars in the Galaxy, a sample of 316 pulsars detected in surveys carried out at Jodrell Bank, Arecibo, Molonglo, and Green Bank has been analysed. The important selection effects of each survey are quantified and a statistically reliable pulsar distance scale based on a model for the large-scale distribution of free electrons in the Galaxy is described. These results allow the spatial and luminosity distribution functions of galactic pulsars to be computed. It is concluded that the Galaxy contains approximately 70 000 potentially observable pulsars with luminosities above 0.3 mJy kpc 2 . The period and luminosity evolution of pulsars, is also considered. (author)

  5. Galactic dust and extinction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyngaa, G.

    1979-01-01

    The ratio R between visual extinction and colour excess, is slightly larger than 3 and does not vary much throughout our part of the Galaxy. The distribution of dust in the galactic plane shows, on the large scale, a gradient with higher colour excesses towards l=50 0 than towards l=230 0 . On the smaller scale, much of the dust responsible for extinction is situated in clouds which tend to group together. The correlation between positions of interstellar dust clouds and positions of spiral tracers seems rather poor in our Galaxy. However, concentrated dark clouds as well as extended regions of dust show an inclined distribution similar to the Gould belt of bright stars. (Auth.)

  6. Nucleons in nuclei, however

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grange, P.; Mathiot, J.F.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Frascaria, R.; Gales, S.

    1990-01-01

    The topics presented at the 1989 Joliot-Curie Lectures are reported. Two main subjects were retained: a simplified description of the N-body motion of particles in the quasi-particle configuration; study of the dynamics of nuclear components which are not described by nucleons in their ground state. The following themes were presented: quasiparticles and the Green functions, relativistic aspects of the quasiparticle concept, the dimensions of nucleons in the nuclei and the EMC effect, quarks and gluons in the nuclei, the delta in the nuclei, the strangeness, quasiparticles far from the Fermi sea, diffusion of electrons, stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis [fr

  7. Dynamic polarisation of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borghini, M.; Abragam, A.

    1961-01-01

    In magnetic fields of about 13000 gauss, at a temperature of 1.5 deg. K, in samples of about 2 mm 3 , we have obtained by the 'solid effect' (application of a magnetic field at an appropriate frequency around 35000 MHz), nuclear polarizations /I of a few percent: 19 per cent for hydrogen nuclei in single crystals of La 2 Mg 3 (NO 3 ) 12 , 24H 2 O; 5 per cent for hydrogen nuclei in polystyrene; 6 per cent for fluorine nuclei in single crystals of LiF. (author) [fr

  8. Modeling Fe II Emission and Revised Fe II (UV) Empirical Templates for the Seyfert 1 Galaxy I Zw 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhweiler, F.; Verner, E.

    2008-03-01

    We use the narrow-lined broad-line region (BLR) of the Seyfert 1 galaxy, I Zw 1, as a laboratory for modeling the ultraviolet (UV) Fe II 2100-3050 Å emission complex. We calculate a grid of Fe II emission spectra representative of BLR clouds and compare them with the observed I Zw 1 spectrum. Our predicted spectrum for log [nH/(cm -3) ] = 11.0, log [ΦH/(cm -2 s-1) ] = 20.5, and ξ/(1 km s-1) = 20, using Cloudy and an 830 level model atom for Fe II with energies up to 14.06 eV, gives a better fit to the UV Fe II emission than models with fewer levels. Our analysis indicates (1) the observed UV Fe II emission must be corrected for an underlying Fe II pseudocontinuum; (2) Fe II emission peaks can be misidentified as that of other ions in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with narrow-lined BLRs possibly affecting deduced physical parameters; (3) the shape of 4200-4700 Å Fe II emission in I Zw 1 and other AGNs is a relative indicator of narrow-line region (NLR) and BLR Fe II emission; (4) predicted ratios of Lyα, C III], and Fe II emission relative to Mg II λ2800 agree with extinction corrected observed I Zw 1 fluxes, except for C IV λ1549 (5) the sensitivity of Fe II emission strength to microturbulence ξ casts doubt on existing relative Fe/Mg abundances derived from Fe II (UV)/Mg II flux ratios. Our calculated Fe II emission spectra, suitable for BLRs in AGNs, are available at http://iacs.cua.edu/people/verner/FeII. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 05-26555.

  9. Computational Topology Based Quantification Of Hepatocytes Nuclei In Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury In Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rojas Moraleda

    2016-06-01

    The computational topology approach proposed successfully detected hepatocyte cells under several natural variations. We evaluated on a per-pixel basis how the segmentation performs on: i all nuclei in the images, ii big round nuclei considered belonging to hepatocytes cells (accuracy 87.2%, recall 80.3%, and iii nuclei regarded to non-parenchymal cells.  

  10. Quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.G.

    1984-11-01

    The paper concerns the behaviour of quarks in nuclei. Confinement size changes and dynamical rescaling; A dependence; low-x region; gluons and confinement size; and nucleons in a nucleus; are all discussed. (U.K.)

  11. The shape of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, R.S.

    1977-01-01

    For the class of nuclei which are 'strongly deformed' it is possible to introduce the idea of an empirically measurable static nuclear shape. The limitations of this concept as applied to nuclei (fundamentally quantum-mechanical objects) are discussed. These are basically the limitations of the rotational model which must be introduced in order to define and measure nuclear shape. A unified discussion of the ways in which the shape has been parametrized is given with emphasis on the fact that different parametrizations correspond to different nuclear structures. Accounts of the various theoretical procedures for calculating nuclear shapes and of the interaction between nuclear shapes and nuclear spectroscopy are given. A coherent account of a large subset of nuclei (strongly deformed nuclei) can be given by means of a model in which the concept of nuclear shape plays a central role. (author)

  12. Structure of Warm Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberg, S.; Uhrenholt, H.

    2009-01-01

    We study the structure of nuclei in the energy region between the ground state and the neutron separation energy, here called warm nuclei. The onset of chaos in the nucleus as excitation energy is increased is briefly reviewed. Chaos implies fluctuations of energies and wave functions qualitatively the same for all chaotic nuclei. On the other hand, large structure effects are seen, e.g. in the level-density function at same excitation energies. A microscopic model for the level density is reviewed and we discuss effects on structure of the total level-density function, parity enhancement, and the spin distribution function. Comparisons to data are performed at the neutron separation energy for all observed nuclei, and structure of the level-density function for a few measured cases. The role of structure effects in the level-density function for fission dynamics is exemplified.

  13. Anomalous Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Framework of AMS-02

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiali, Behrouz [National Central University (NCU), ChungLi, Tao Yuan, 32054, Taiwan (China); Haino, Sadakazu; Feng, Jie, E-mail: behrouz.khiali@cern.ch [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Nankang, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-01

    The cosmic-ray (CR) energy spectra of protons and helium nuclei, which are the most abundant components of cosmic radiation, exhibit a remarkable hardening at energies above 100 GeV/nucleon. Recent data from AMS-02 confirm this feature with a higher significance. These data challenge the current models of CR acceleration in Galactic sources and propagation in the Galaxy. Here, we explain the observed break in the spectra of protons and helium nuclei in light of recent advances in CR diffusion theories in turbulent astrophysical sources as being a result of a transition between different CR diffusion regimes. We reconstruct the observed CR spectra using the fact that a transition from normal diffusion to superdiffusion changes the efficiency of particle acceleration and causes the change in the spectral index. We find that calculated proton and helium spectra match the data very well.

  14. Hot nuclei and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreau, D.

    1993-01-01

    A review is made of the present status concerning the production of nuclei above 5 MeV temperature. Considerable progress has been made recently on the understanding of the formation and the fate of such hot nuclei. It appears that the nucleus seems more stable against temperature than predicted by static calculations. However, the occurrence of multifragment production at high excitation energies is now well established. The various experimental features of the fragmentation process are discussed. (author) 59 refs., 12 figs

  15. New High Proper Motion Stars from the Digitized Sky Survey. II. Northern Stars with 0.5" yr-1 < μ < 2.0" yr-1 at High Galactic Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lépine, Sébastien; Shara, Michael M.; Rich, R. Michael

    2003-08-01

    In a continuation of our systematic search for high proper motion stars in the Digitized Sky Survey, we have completed the analysis of northern sky fields at Galactic latitudes above 25°. With the help of our SUPERBLINK software, a powerful automated blink comparator developed by us, we have identified 1146 stars in the magnitude range 8data mining of the Digitized Sky Survey, developed and operated by the Catalogs and Surveys Branch of the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore.

  16. Widespread rotationally hot hydronium ion in the galactic interstellar medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lis, D. C.; Phillips, T. G.; Schilke, P.; Comito, C.; Higgins, R.

    2014-01-01

    We present new Herschel observations of the (6,6) and (9,9) inversion transitions of the hydronium ion toward Sagittarius B2(N) and W31C. Sensitive observations toward Sagittarius B2(N) show that the high, ∼500 K, rotational temperatures characterizing the population of the highly excited metastable H 3 O + rotational levels are present over a wide range of velocities corresponding to the Sagittarius B2 envelope, as well as the foreground gas clouds between the Sun and the source. Observations of the same lines toward W31C, a line of sight that does not intersect the Central Molecular Zone but instead traces quiescent gas in the Galactic disk, also imply a high rotational temperature of ∼380 K, well in excess of the kinetic temperature of the diffuse Galactic interstellar medium. While it is plausible that some fraction of the molecular gas may be heated to such high temperatures in the active environment of the Galactic center, characterized by high X-ray and cosmic-ray fluxes, shocks, and high degree of turbulence, this is unlikely in the largely quiescent environment of the Galactic disk clouds. We suggest instead that the highly excited states of the hydronium ion are populated mainly by exoergic chemical formation processes and the temperature describing the rotational level population does not represent the physical temperature of the medium. The same arguments may be applicable to other symmetric top rotors, such as ammonia. This offers a simple explanation of the long-standing puzzle of the presence of a pervasive, hot molecular gas component in the central region of the Milky Way. Moreover, our observations suggest that this is a universal process not limited to the active environments associated with galactic nuclei.

  17. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasis, Georgios, E-mail: gbalasis@noa.gr [Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2016-05-23

    Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”.

  18. Book Review: Galactic Encounters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    Galactic Encounters” by Sheehan and Conselice provides a view of galaxies telling the story of how astronomers have pieced together what is known about the modern view of the Universe. The book helps the reader to understand “why” we know what we do, not simply “what,” starting with the development of the telescope that coincides with the modern picture of the Universe. William Sheehan is a noted historian of astronomy but also a Doctor of Medicine, specializing in psychiatry. In this perspective, he has a unique insight into the personalities of the pioneering figures of the history of science. Christopher Conselice is a Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Nottingham, who studies the formation of galaxies, addressing the issue of “how” rather than “when” galaxies form. Reading the book, amateur astronomers would have been able to feel what actually drives them: “it is the desire to participate in this vast universe, in their own small way,…and not let the experts do everything for them.” I have to admit that I have also quite enjoyed the author's remark pertinent to the history and philosophy of science about the distinction, nowadays, between “polymaths” and “monomaths.”

  19. Multifragmentation of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamain, B.

    1990-10-01

    It is difficult to deposit a large amount (∼ 1 Gev) of excitation energy into a nucleus. And if one wants to deposit large excitation energy values, the best way consists of shooting a given target nucleus with several nucleons, which can be achieved by using intermediate energy (10-100 MeV/nucleon) heavy ions. Such very excited objects were named hot nuclei. The study of hot nuclei has been undertaken only for 7 years because intermediate energy heavy ion facilities were not available before. The game is then to determine the decay properties of such nuclei, their limits of existence. Their study is connected with general properties of nuclear matter: namely its equation of state. Of special interest, is the onset of a new decay mechanism: multifragmentation, which is the non-sequential disassembly of a hot nucleus into several light nuclei (often called intermediate-mass fragments or IMF) or particles. This paper, shows how this mechanism can reflect fundamental properties of nuclear matter, but also how its experimental signature is difficult to establish. Multifragmentation has also been studied by using very energetic projectiles (protons and heavy ions) in the relativistic or ultra-relativistic region. The multifragmentation question of hot nuclei is far from being solved. One knows that IMF production increases when the excitation energy brought into a system is strongly increased, but very little is known about the mechanisms involved and a clear onset for multifragmentation is not established

  20. Cosmology and unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1995-01-01

    Primordial nucleosynthesis has established itself as one of the three pillars of Big Bang cosmology. Many of the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis reactions involve unstable nuclei. Hence there is a tight relationship hetween the subject of this conference and cosmology. The prime role of unstable nuclei in cosmology is related to lithium synthesis and the lack of cosmological synthesis of Be and B. These nuclei will thus be focused upon. Nucleosynthesis involves comparing calculated abundances with observed abundances. In general, abundance determinations are dominated by systematic rather than statistical errors, and work on bounding systematics is crucial. The quark-hadron inspired inhomogeneous calculations now unanimously agree that only relatively small variations in Ω b are possible vis-a-vis the homogeneous model; hence the robustness of Ω b ∼0.05 is now apparent. (These calculations depend critically on unstable nuclei.) The above argues that the bulk of the baryons in the universe are not producing visible light. A comparison with the ROSAT cluster data is also shown to be consistent with the standard BBN model. Ω b ∼1 seems to be definitely excluded, so if Ω TOTAL =1, as some recent observations may hint, then non-baryonic dark matter is required. The implications of the recently reported halo microlensing events are discussed. In summary, it is argued that the physics of unstable nuclei affects the fundamental dark matter argument. ((orig.))

  1. The Galactic stellar disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltzing, S; Bensby, T

    2008-01-01

    The study of the Milky Way stellar discs in the context of galaxy formation is discussed. In particular, we explore the properties of the Milky Way disc using a new sample of about 550 dwarf stars for which we have recently obtained elemental abundances and ages based on high-resolution spectroscopy. For all the stars we also have full kinematic information as well as information about their stellar orbits. We confirm results from previous studies that the thin and the thick discs have distinct abundance patterns. But we also explore a larger range of orbital parameters than what has been possible in our previous studies. Several new results are presented. We find that stars that reach high above the Galactic plane and have eccentric orbits show remarkably tight abundance trends. This implies that these stars formed out of well-mixed gas that had been homogenized over large volumes. We find some evidence that suggest that the event that most likely caused the heating of this stellar population happened a few billion years ago. Through a simple, kinematic exploration of stars with super-solar [Fe/H], we show that the solar neighbourhood contains metal-rich, high velocity stars that are very likely associated with the thick disc. Additionally, the HR1614 moving group and the Hercules and Arcturus stellar streams are discussed and it is concluded that, probably, a large fraction of the groups and streams so far identified in the disc are the result of evolution and interactions within the stellar disc rather than being dissolved stellar clusters or engulfed dwarf galaxies.

  2. A Disturbed Galactic Duo

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The galaxies in this cosmic pairing, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile, display some curious features, demonstrating that each member of the duo is close enough to feel the distorting gravitational influence of the other. The gravitational tug of war has warped the spiral shape of one galaxy, NGC 3169, and fragmented the dust lanes in its companion NGC 3166. Meanwhile, a third, smaller galaxy to the lower right, NGC 3165, has a front-row seat to the gravitational twisting and pulling of its bigger neighbours. This galactic grouping, found about 70 million light-years away in the constellation Sextans (The Sextant), was discovered by the English astronomer William Herschel in 1783. Modern astronomers have gauged the distance between NGC 3169 (left) and NGC 3166 (right) as a mere 50 000 light-years, a separation that is only about half the diameter of the Milky Way galaxy. In such tight quarters, gravity can start to play havoc with galactic structure. Spiral galaxies like NGC 3169 and NGC 3166 tend to have orderly swirls of stars and dust pinwheeling about their glowing centres. Close encounters with other massive objects can jumble this classic configuration, often serving as a disfiguring prelude to the merging of galaxies into one larger galaxy. So far, the interactions of NGC 3169 and NGC 3166 have just lent a bit of character. NGC 3169's arms, shining bright with big, young, blue stars, have been teased apart, and lots of luminous gas has been drawn out from its disc. In NGC 3166's case, the dust lanes that also usually outline spiral arms are in disarray. Unlike its bluer counterpart, NGC 3166 is not forming many new stars. NGC 3169 has another distinction: the faint yellow dot beaming through a veil of dark dust just to the left of and close to the galaxy's centre [1]. This flash is the leftover of a supernova detected in 2003 and known accordingly as SN 2003cg. A supernova of this

  3. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  4. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  5. Quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1983-01-01

    Some features of quark degrees of freedom in nuclei are discussed in the light of recent developments in QCD. The principal aim of this talk is to propose, and give a tentative support to, the motion that one can study through nuclear matter different facets of the vacuum structure implied by quantum chromodynamics (QCD). This will be done using the recent (exciting) results obtained in particle physics, in particular lattice gauge calculations. Relevance of this aspect of problem to quark degrees of freedom as well as meson degrees of freedom in nuclei will be discussed. (orig.)

  6. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V.

    2012-02-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies.

  7. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on kinematic separation and mass analysis of heavy recoiling nuclei, dynamical effects prior to heavy ion fusion, VACTIV-DELPHI graphical dialog based program for the analysis of gamma-ray spectra, irradiation of nuclear emulsions in relativistic beams of 6 He and 3 H nuclei, optical and structural investigations of PLZT x/65/35 (x = 4, 8 %) ferroelectric ceramics irradiated by a high-current pulsed electron beam, the oscillating charge and first evidence for neutrinoless double beta decay

  8. Particles and nuclei, letters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The present collection of letters from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on physics from extra dimensions, new physics in the new millennium with GENIUS: double beta decay, dark matter, solar neutrinos, the (μ - , e + ) conversion in nuclei mediated by light Majorana neutrinos, exotic muon-to-positron conversion in nuclei: partial transition sum evaluation by using shell model, solar neutrino problem accounting for self consistent magnetohydrodynamics solution for solar magnetic fields, first neutrino observations from the Sudbury neutrino observatory and status report on BOREXINO and results of the muon-background measurements at CERN

  9. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  10. RADIO VARIABILITY IN SEYFERT NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mundell, C. G.; Ferruit, P.; Nagar, N.; Wilson, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    within the central ∼<50 pc. If flares in radio light curves correspond to ejection of new relativistic components or emergence of shocks in the underlying flow, improved monitoring and high-resolution imaging using VLBI techniques are required to confirm that radio jets are intrinsically non-relativistic during quiescence but that Seyferts, as black-hole-driven active galactic nuclei (AGN), have the capacity to accelerate relativistic jets during radio flares. Finally, we conclude that our results taken together with the increased detection rate of flat spectrum radio nuclei in Seyferts imaged at VLBI resolutions and the detection of variable water megamaser emission support the paradigm of intermittent periods of quiescence and nuclear outburst across the Seyfert population.

  11. Where Galactic Snakes Live

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows what astronomers are referring to as a 'snake' (upper left) and its surrounding stormy environment. The sinuous object is actually the core of a thick, sooty cloud large enough to swallow dozens of solar systems. In fact, astronomers say the 'snake's belly' may be harboring beastly stars in the process of forming. The galactic creepy crawler to the right of the snake is another thick cloud core, in which additional burgeoning massive stars might be lurking. The colorful regions below the two cloud cores are less dense cloud material, in which dust has been heated by starlight and glows with infrared light. Yellow and orange dots throughout the image are monstrous developing stars; the red star on the 'belly' of the snake is 20 to 50 times as massive as our sun. The blue dots are foreground stars. The red ball at the bottom left is a 'supernova remnant,' the remains of massive star that died in a fiery blast. Astronomers speculate that radiation and winds from the star before it died, in addition to a shock wave created when it exploded, might have played a role in creating the snake. Spitzer was able to spot the two black cloud cores using its heat-seeking infrared vision. The objects are hiding in the dusty plane of our Milky Way galaxy, invisible to optical telescopes. Because their heat, or infrared light, can sneak through the dust, they first showed up in infrared images from past missions. The cloud cores are so thick with dust that if you were to somehow transport yourself into the middle of them, you would see nothing but black, not even a star in the sky. Now, that's spooky! Spitzer's new view of the region provides the best look yet at the massive embryonic stars hiding inside the snake. Astronomers say these observations will ultimately help them better understand how massive stars form. By studying the clustering and range of masses of the stellar embryos, they hope to determine if the stars

  12. The galactic distribution of pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyne, A.G.

    1982-01-01

    The galactic distribution of pulsars follows the general form of many population I objects in galactocentric radius, but has a wide distribution above and below the plane due to high space velocities imparted to the pulsars at birth. Statistical studies of the properties of large numbers of pulsars and proper motion measurements demonstrate that the effective magnetic dipole moments decay on a timescale of about 8 million years. This work provides a better knowledge of pulsar evolution and ages and shows that a birthrate of one pulsar every 20 to 50 years is required to sustain the observed galactic population of 300,000. This rate is comparable with most recent estimates of the galactic supernova rate, but requires nearly all supernovae to produce active pulsars. (orig.)

  13. Symmetries and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Electroweak interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1984-06-01

    Topics include: introduction to electroweak theory; the Weinberg-Salam theory for leptons; the Weinberg-Salam theory for hadrons-the GIM mechanism; electron scattering as a probe of the electroweak interaction (observation of PV, the weak interaction for nucleons, and parity violation in atoms); and time reversed invariance and electric dipole moments of nucleons, nuclei, and atoms. 52 references

  15. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs

  16. Collisions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulamov, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that interactions of high energy particles with nuclei, owing to possible intranuclear rescatterings, may provide information about the space-time behaviour of the production process. Therefore the main goals of these investigations are related with the attempts to study the space-time process of hadronization of coloured quarks and gluons produced at the initial stage of an interaction to white final state particles and to clarify the influence of composite quark-gluon structure of both the projectile and target on features of the production mechanisms. Since in both the initial and final states of these reactions the authors have strongly interacting multiparticle systems, it is of importance to study the collective properties of these systems. The questions to the point are: what is the degree of collectivization of particles newly produced in collisions with nuclei and what is the influence of the collective nature of a nucleus itself on the production mechanisms, in particular, what are the manifestations of possible multinucleon (multiquark) configurations in nuclei? It is obvious that the reductability of, say, hadron-nucleus (hA) interaction to hadron-nucleon (hN) collisions is directly related to the above problems. Due to time limitations the author discusses here only a few aspects of low p/sub t/ hA interactions which in his opinion are of importance for better understanding of general regularities of collisions with nuclei and for further investigations of the above problems

  17. Electromagnetic structure of nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.G.

    1986-07-01

    A brief review is given of selected topics in the electromagnetic structure of nucleons and nuclei, including nucleon form factors from both quantum chromodynamics and electron scattering data, measurements of the deuteron and triton form factors, quasi-elastic scattering, and the EMC effect. 47 refs., 13 figs

  18. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  19. Mesons and light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truhlik, E.; Mach, R.

    1992-01-01

    62 papers and one summary talk were presented at the conference, on subject matters in between nuclear physics (mainly light nuclei) and elementary particle physics, as indicated by the session headings (1) Electroweak nuclear interaction (2) Nuclear physics with pions and antiprotons (3) Nuclear physics with strange particles (4) Relativistic nuclear physics (5) Quark degrees of freedom. (Quittner)

  20. Radii of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittig, W.; Plagnol, E.; Schutz, Y.

    1989-11-01

    A new simple direct method for the measurement of the total reaction cross section (σ R ) for several light radioactive nuclei (A≤40) is developed. From that, the reduced strong absorption radii (r o 2 ) are obtained. A comparison is made with data obtained by other techniques. A strong isospin dependence of the nuclear radii is observed. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  2. Particles, imaging and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.

    1986-01-01

    The book on particles, imaging and nuclei is one of the Background Readers for the Revised Nuffield Advanced Physics course. The contents contain five educational articles, which extend concepts covered in the course and examine recent developments in physics. Four of the articles on:- particles and the forces of nature, radioisotopes, lasers probe the atomic nucleus, and nuclear history, are indexed separately. (UK)

  3. Unusual Metals in Galactic Center Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Kerry

    2018-03-01

    while one star is only slightly above solar metallicity, the other is likely more than four times as metal-rich as the Sun.The features in the observed and synthetic spectra generally matched well, but the absorption lines of scandium, vanadium, and yttrium were consistently stronger in the observed spectra than in the synthetic spectra. This led the authors to conclude that these galactic center stars are unusually rich in these metals trace elements that could reveal the formation history of the galactic nucleus.Old Stars, New Trends?Scandium to iron ratio versusiron abundance for stars in the disk of the Milky Way (blue) and the stars in this sample (orange). The value reported for this sample is a 95% lower limit. [Do et al. 2018]For stars in the disk of the Milky Way, the abundance of scandium relative to iron tends to decrease as the overall metallicity increases, but the stars investigated in this study are both iron-rich and anomalously high in scandium. This hints that the nuclear star cluster might represent a distinct stellar population with different metallicity trends.However, its not yet clear what could cause the elevated abundances of scandium, vanadium, and yttrium relative to other metals. Each of these elements is linked to a different source; scandium and vanadium are mainly produced in Type II and Type Ia supernovae, respectively, while yttrium is likely synthesized in asymptotic giant branch stars. Future observations of stars near the center of the Milky Way may help answer this question and further constrain the origin of our galaxys nuclear star cluster.CitationTuan Do et al 2018 ApJL 855 L5. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aaaec3

  4. Molecular Abundances in the Disk of AN Active Galactic Nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, N.; Thompson, T. A.; Herbst, E.

    2011-06-01

    There are galactic nuclei that emit high luminosities L˜1044-46 erg S-1 including luminosity produced by X-rays from high mass accretion onto the central black holes. These nuclei are called active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and they are accompanied by molecular disks. Observations show high abundances of CN and HCN in the disks; the molecules are proposed to be probes of X-ray dominated regions (XDRs) created by the X-rays from AGNs. We have constructed a spatially-dependent chemical-abundance model of the molecular disk in NGC 1068, a typical AGN-dominated galaxy. Recently, new observations of CN and HCN have been made at much higher spatial resolution, and there are also detections of polyatomic molecules such as HC3N, c-C3H2, and C2H. We discuss how these observations and our simulations can help us to better understand the physical conditions, the disk structure, and conditions for star formation within molecular disks, which are still uncertain. We also include a comparison with other types of galaxies such as (ultra-) luminous infrared galaxies. Usero et al.Astronomy and Astrophysics. 419 (897), 2004. Initial results were presented at the International Symposium on Molecular Spectroscopy 2010, RF05 Garcia-Burillo et al. Astronomy and Astrophysics. 519 (2), 2010. Garcia-Burillo et al. Journal of Physics Conference Series, 131 (12031), 2008. Costagliola et al. ArXiv e-print arXiv:1101.2122, 2011. Nakajima et al. Astrophysical Journal Letters 728 (L38), 2008.

  5. The decay of hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1988-11-01

    The formation of hot compound nuclei in intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions is discussed. The statistical decay of such compound nuclei is responsible for the abundant emission of complex fragments and high energy gamma rays. 43 refs., 23 figs

  6. Isotope shifts in unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebel, H.

    1980-05-01

    Current experimental investigations of isotope shifts in atomic spectra of unstable nuclei and the resulting information about size and shape of nuclei far off stability are discussed with reference to some representative examples. (orig.)

  7. TeV gamma-UHECR anisotropy by decaying nuclei in flight: First neutrino traces?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fargion Daniele

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultra High Cosmic Rays made by He-like lightest nuclei might solve the AUGER extragalactic clustering along Cen A. Moreover He like UHECR nuclei cannot arrive from Virgo because the light nuclei fragility and opacity above a few Mpc, explaining the Virgo UHECR absence. UHECR signals are spreading along Cen A as observed because horizontal galactic arms magnetic fields, bending them on vertical angles. Cen A events by He-like nuclei are deflected as much as the observed clustered ones; proton will be more collimated while heavy (iron nuclei are too much dispersed. Such a light nuclei UHECR component coexist with the other Auger heavy nuclei and with the Hires nucleon composition. We foresaw (2009 that UHECR He from Cen-A AGN being fragile should partially fragment into secondaries at tens EeV multiplet (D,He3,p nearly as the recent twin multiplet discovered ones (AUGER-ICRC-2011, at 20 EeV along Cen A UHECR clustering. Their narrow crowding occur by a posteriori very low probability, below 3 ⋅ 10−5. Remaining UHECR spread group may hint for correlations with other gamma (MeV − Al26 radioactive maps, mainly due to galactic SNR sources as Vela pulsar, the brightest, nearest GeV source. Other nearest galactic gamma sources show links with UHECR via TeV correlated maps. We suggest that UHECR are also heavy radioactive galactic nuclei as Ni56, Ni57 and Co57,Co60 widely bent (tens degree up to ≥ 100o by galactic fields. UHECR radioactivity (in β and γ channels and decay in flight at hundreds keV is boosted (by huge Lorentz factor ΓNi ≃ 109 − 108 leading to PeVs electrons and consequent synchrotron TeVs gamma offering UHECR-TeV correlated sky anisotropy. Moreover also rarest and non-atmospheric τ, and e neutrinos secondaries at PeVs, as the first two rarest shower just discovered in ICECUBE, maybe the first signature of such expected radioactive secondary tail.

  8. Angular Spectra of Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jung; Lazarian, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is believed that magnetic field lines are twisted and bend by turbulent motions in the Galaxy. Therefore, both Galactic synchrotron emission and thermal emission from dust reflects statistics of Galactic turbulence. Our simple model of Galactic turbulence, motivated by results of our simulations, predicts that Galactic disk and halo exhibit different angular power spectra. We show that observed angular spectra of synchrotron emission are compatible with our model. We also show that our mod...

  9. The role of quasiparticles in rotating transitional nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frauendorf, Stefan

    1984-01-01

    The yrast sequency of nuclei rotating about the symmetry axis is classified in analogy to class I and II superconductors, where the quasiparticles play the role of the quantized flux in metals. The experimental spectra show a class I behaviour. The ω-dependence of the quasiparticle excitation energy in collectively rotating nuclei is used as evidence for magnitude of the pair correlations and the occurrence of triaxial shapes. A transition from triaxial to oblate shape explains the experimental spectra and E2-transition probabilities in the N=88-90 nuclei. (author)

  10. Energetic Nuclei, Superdensity and Biomedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    High-energy, relativistic nuclei were first observed in cosmic rays. Studing these nuclei has provided an opportunity for analyzing the composition of cosmic rays and for experimentally verifying principles governing the behavior of nuclear matter at high and super-high temperatures. Medical research using accelerated nuclei is suggested.…

  11. Diffuse γ-ray emission from galactic pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calore, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.

    2014-01-01

    Millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are old fast-spinning neutron stars that represent the second most abundant source population discovered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi). As guaranteed γ-ray emitters, they might contribute non-negligibly to the diffuse emission measured at high latitudes by Fermi-LAT (i.e., the Isotropic Diffuse γ-Ray Background (IDGRB)), which is believed to arise from the superposition of several components of galactic and extragalactic origin. Additionally, γ-ray sources also contribute to the anisotropy of the IDGRB measured on small scales by Fermi-LAT. In this manuscript we aim to assess the contribution of the unresolved counterpart of the detected MSPs population to the IDGRB and the maximal fraction of the measured anisotropy produced by this source class. To this end, we model the MSPs' spatial distribution in the Galaxy and the γ-ray emission parameters by considering observational constraints coming from the Australia Telescope National Facility pulsar catalog and the Second Fermi-LAT Catalog of γ-ray pulsars. By simulating a large number of MSP populations through a Monte Carlo simulation, we compute the average diffuse emission and the anisotropy 1σ upper limit. We find that the emission from unresolved MSPs at 2 GeV, where the peak of the spectrum is located, is at most 0.9% of the measured IDGRB above 10° in latitude. The 1σ upper limit on the angular power for unresolved MSP sources turns out to be about a factor of 60 smaller than Fermi-LAT measurements above 30°. Our results indicate that this galactic source class represents a negligible contributor to the high-latitude γ-ray sky and confirm that most of the intensity and geometrical properties of the measured diffuse emission are imputable to other extragalactic source classes (e.g., blazars, misaligned active galactic nuclei, or star-forming galaxies). Nevertheless, because MSPs are more concentrated toward the

  12. Utrecht and Galactic Radio Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woerden, H.

    Important roles in early Dutch Galactic radio astronomy were played by several Utrecht astronomers: Van de Hulst, Minnaert and Houtgast. The poster announcing the conference contained a number of pictures referring to scientific achievements of the Astronomical Institute Utrecht. One of these

  13. Abundances in the Galactic bulge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbuy, B; Alves-Brito, A [Universidade de Sao Paulo, IAG, Rua do Matao 1226, Sao Paulo 05508-900 (Brazil); Ortolani, S; Zoccali, M [Dipartimento di Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 2, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Hill, V; Gomez, A [Observatoire de Paris-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France); Melendez, J [Centro de AstrofIsica da Universidade de Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Asplund, M [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Postfach 1317, 85741 Garching (Germany); Bica, E [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, CP 15051, Porto Alegre 91501-970 (Brazil); Renzini, A [Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Minniti, D [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)], E-mail: barbuy@astro.iag.usp.br

    2008-12-15

    The metallicity distribution and abundance ratios of the Galactic bulge are reviewed. Issues raised by recent work of different groups, in particular the high metallicity end, the overabundance of {alpha}-elements in the bulge relative to the thick disc and the measurement of giants versus dwarfs, are discussed. Abundances in the old moderately metal-poor bulge globular clusters are described.

  14. Observation of galactic gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.A.

    1982-09-01

    A complete and deep survey of the galactic high-energy gamma radiation is now available, thanks to the gamma-ray telescopes on board of the SAS-2 and COS-B spacecrafts. A comparison of the COS-B gamma-ray survey with a fully sampled CO survey together with an Hsub(I) survey is used to show that a simple model, in which uniformly distributed cosmic rays interact with the interstellar gas, can account for almost all the gamma-ray emission observed in the first galactic quadrant. At medium galactic latitudes, it is shown that a relationship exists between the gamma radiation and the interstellar absorption derived from galaxy counts. Therefore gamma rays from the local galactic environment can be used as a valuable probe of the content and structure of the local interstellar medium. The large scale features of the local interstellar gas are revealed, in particular wide concentrations of nearby molecular hydrogen. On a smaller scale, the detection of numerous localized gamma-ray sources focuses the attention on some particular phases of clusters of young and massive stars where diffuse processes of gamma-ray emission may also be at work

  15. PIPER and Polarized Galactic Foregrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuss, David

    2009-01-01

    In addition to probing inflationary cosmology, PIPER will measure the polarized dust emission from the Galaxy. PIPER will be capable of full (I,0,U,V) measurement over four frequency bands ' These measurements will provide insight into the physics of dust grains and a probe of the Galactic magnetic field on large and intermediate scales.

  16. Nature of 'unseen' galactic envelopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCrea, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, it is suggested that unseen matter in a galactic envelope or in a group of galaxies may consist of substellar bodies originating as the first permanent 'stars' in the formation of a very massive galaxy according to a model for galaxy-formation on the basis of simple big-bang cosmology. (Auth.)

  17. Magnetic braking in galactic flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparke, L.S.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear fireworks of active galaxies are believed to derive their power from the kinetic energy of gas falling onto a massive central objects; mass shed from evolving galactic stars is an obvious source of fuel for this process. But this ejected material shares the galactic rotation, and a centrifugal barrier will prevent it from reaching the nucleus, if its angular momentum is not removed. This paper shows that, if the large-scale galactic magnetic field has a strong enough radial component, magnetic torques can act to spin down the infalling matter. Rotation of the interstellar gas induces a toroidal magnetic field, and Maxwell stresses remove angular momentum from the flow; gas can then fall inward to the galactic center. In this way, the monster in the nucleus can be fed on gas from a galaxy's own stars. The magnetic fields in M87 and NGC 1275, giant elliptical galaxies which are accreting from an intracluster medium, appear to be strong enough to allow magnetic braking

  18. Black Hole Mass Estimation in Type 1 AGN: Hβ vs. Mg II Lines and the Role of Balmer Continuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovačević-Dojčinović, Jelena [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Marčeta-Mandić, Sladjana; Popović, Luka Č., E-mail: sladjana@aob.rs [Astronomical Observatory, Belgrade (Serbia); Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Mathematics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2017-07-24

    Here we investigate the Hβ and Mg II spectral line parameters used for the black hole mass (M{sub BH}) estimation for a sample of Type 1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) spectra selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. We have analyzed and compared the virialization of the Hβ and Mg II emission lines, and found that the Hβ line is more confident virial estimator than Mg II. We have investigated the influence of the Balmer continuum emission to the M{sub BH} estimation from the UV parameters, and found that the Balmer continuum emission can contribute to the overestimation of the M{sub BH} on average for ~5% (up to 10%).

  19. Disintegration of comet nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid V

    2012-01-01

    The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet nuclei and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet nuclei and other Solar System bodies. (physics of our days)

  20. Pions scatter by nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huefner, J.

    1975-01-01

    Are pions a good tool to study nuclei. If the emphasis of this question rests on ''tool'', the answer must be ''not yet.'' The reason: one does not even understand how a pion interacts with a nucleus. This is part of the many-body problem for strongly interacting particles and its study is a basic problem in physics. One must investigate questions like: Can one understand pion-nucleus interactions from pion-nucleon physics. How does a Δ-resonance look in nuclei. Once one has solved those basic problems, there will be spinoffs in medical, technical and nuclear areas. Then pions can be used as a tool to study nuclear properties