WorldWideScience

Sample records for galactic hard x-ray

  1. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. II. X-Ray Point Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, JaeSub; Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first survey results of hard X-ray point sources in the Galactic Center (GC) region by NuSTAR. We have discovered 70 hard (3-79 keV) X-ray point sources in a 0.6 deg2 region around Sgr A* with a total exposure of 1.7 Ms, and 7 sources in the Sgr B2 field with 300 ks. We identify...... persistent luminous X-ray binaries (XBs) and the likely run-away pulsar called the Cannonball. New source-detection significance maps reveal a cluster of hard (>10 keV) X-ray sources near the Sgr. A diffuse complex with no clear soft X-ray counterparts. The severe extinction observed in the Chandra spectra...... indicate that the X-ray spectra of the NuSTAR sources should have kT > 20 keV on average for a single temperature thermal plasma model or an average photon index of Gamma = 1.5-2 for a power-law model. These findings suggest that the GC X-ray source population may contain a larger fraction of XBs with high...

  2. Cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers unveiled by hard X-ray observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    We review the current understanding of the cosmological evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers elucidated by X-ray surveys of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Hard X-ray observations at energies above 2 keV are the most efficient and complete tools to find "obscured" AGNs, which are dominant populations among all AGNs. Combinations of surveys with various flux limits and survey area have enabled us to determine the space number density and obscuration properties of AGNs as a function of luminosity and redshift. The results have essentially solved the origin of the X-ray background in the energy band below ∼10 keV. The downsizing (or anti-hierarchical) evolution that more luminous AGNs have the space-density peak at higher redshifts has been discovered, challenging theories of galaxy and black hole formation. Finally, we summarize unresolved issues on AGN evolution and prospects for future X-ray missions.

  3. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Survey of the Galactic Center Region. I. Hard X-ray Morphology and Spectroscopy of the Diffuse Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Hailey, Charles J.; Krivonos, Roman

    2015-01-01

    self-consistently determined their intrinsic column density (similar to 10(23) cm(-2)), primary X-ray spectra (power-laws with Gamma similar to 2) and set a lower limit of the X-ray luminosity of Sgr A* flare illuminating the Sgr A clouds to L-X >= 10(38) erg s(-1). Above similar to 20 keV, hard X......We present the first sub-arcminute images of the Galactic Center above 10 keV, obtained with NuSTAR. NuSTAR resolves the hard X-ray source IGR J17456-2901 into non-thermal X-ray filaments, molecular clouds, point sources, and a previously unknown central component of hard X-ray emission (CHXE). Nu......STAR detects four non-thermal X-ray filaments, extending the detection of their power-law spectra with Gamma similar to 1.3-2.3 up to similar to 50 keV. A morphological and spectral study of the filaments suggests that their origin may be heterogeneous, where previous studies suggested a common origin in young...

  4. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SWIFT BAT ULTRA HARD X-RAY SELECTED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Gehrels, Neil; Valencic, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    We have assembled the largest sample of ultra hard X-ray selected (14-195 keV) active galactic nucleus (AGN) with host galaxy optical data to date, with 185 nearby (z * >10.5) have a 5-10 times higher rate of spiral morphologies than in SDSS AGNs or inactive galaxies. We also see enhanced far-infrared emission in BAT AGN suggestive of higher levels of star formation compared to the comparison samples. BAT AGNs are preferentially found in the most massive host galaxies with high concentration indexes indicative of large bulge-to-disk ratios and large supermassive black holes. The narrow-line (NL) BAT AGNs have similar intrinsic luminosities as the SDSS NL Seyferts based on measurements of [O III] λ5007. There is also a correlation between the stellar mass and X-ray emission. The BAT AGNs in mergers have bluer colors and greater ultra hard X-ray emission compared to the BAT sample as a whole. In agreement with the unified model of AGNs, and the relatively unbiased nature of the BAT sources, the host galaxy colors and morphologies are independent of measures of obscuration such as X-ray column density or Seyfert type. The high fraction of massive spiral galaxies and galaxy mergers in BAT AGNs suggest that host galaxy morphology is related to the activation and fueling of local AGN.

  5. Multiwavelength observations of Active Galactic Nuclei from the radio to the hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuchert, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Active Galaxies form a peculiar type of galaxies. Their cores, the so-called "Active Galactic Nuclei" (AGN), are the most persistent luminous objects in the universe. Accretion of several solar masses per year onto black holes of Millions to Billions of solar masses drive the immense energy output of these systems, which can exceed that of the entire galaxy. The compact energy source, however, only measures about one over a Billion times that of the entire galaxy. Subject of my thesis are observations of the two main channels of energy release of selected AGN systems, both of which are encompassed by profound and yet unanswered questions. These channels are on the one hand the pronounced X-ray emission of the hot and compact accreting environment in close vicinity of the black hole, and on the other hand the radio synchrotron emission of magnetically collimated jets that are fed by portions of the accreted matter. These jets also function as effective accelerators and drive the injected matter deep into the intergalactic medium. As the circumnuclear environment of AGN is too compact to be spatially resolved in the X-rays, I show how X-ray spectroscopy can be used to: (1) understand the effects of strong gravity to trace the geometry and physics of the X-ray source and (2) more consistently quantify matter that surrounds and dynamically absorbs our direct line of sight towards the X-ray source. Second, I unveil the valuable information contained in the polarized radio light being emitted from magnetized jet outflows. In contrast to the X-ray emitting region, I am able to spatially resolve the inner parts of the jet of a prominent galaxy with help of the Very Long Baseline Array, a large network of radio telescopes. The resulting polarization maps turn out to be exceptionally promising in answering fundamental questions related to jet physics.

  6. Infrared and Hard X-Ray Diagnostics of Active Galactic Nucleus Identification from the Swift/BAT and AKARI All-sky Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuta, K.; Gandhi, P.; Dotani, T.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Ueda, Y.; Ichikawa, K.; Terashima, Y.; Oyabu, S.; Yamamura, I.; Stawarz, Ł.

    2012-07-01

    We combine data from two all-sky surveys in order to study the connection between the infrared and hard X-ray (>10 keV) properties for local active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The Swift Burst Alert Telescope all-sky survey provides an unbiased, flux-limited selection of hard X-ray-detected AGNs. Cross-correlating the 22 month hard X-ray survey with the AKARI all-sky survey, we studied 158 AGNs detected by the AKARI instruments. We find a strong correlation for most AGNs between the infrared (9, 18, and 90 μm) and hard X-ray (14-195 keV) luminosities, and quantify the correlation for various subsamples of AGNs. Partial correlation analysis confirms the intrinsic correlation after removing the redshift contribution. The correlation for radio galaxies has a slope and normalization identical to that for Seyfert 1 galaxies, implying similar hard X-ray/infrared emission processes in both. In contrast, Compton-thick (CT) sources show a large deficit in the hard X-ray band, because high gas column densities diminish even their hard X-ray luminosities. We propose two photometric diagnostics for source classification: one is an X-ray luminosity versus infrared color diagram, in which type 1 radio-loud AGNs are well isolated from the others in the sample. The other uses the X-ray versus infrared color as a useful redshift-independent indicator for identifying CT AGNs. Importantly, CT AGNs and starburst galaxies in composite systems can also be differentiated in this plane based upon their hard X-ray fluxes and dust temperatures. This diagram may be useful as a new indicator to classify objects in new and upcoming surveys such as WISE and NuSTAR.

  7. Evidence for Intermediate Polars as the Origin of the Galactic Center Hard X-ray Emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Perez, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    estimated white dwarf mass. Observations of the inner 10 pc can be accounted for by IPs with 〈MWD〉≈0.9M⊙, consistent with that of the CV population in general and the X-ray observed field IPs in particular. The lower mass derived by Chandra and XMM-Newton appears to be an artifact of narrow energy...

  8. Lifting the Veil on Obscured Accretion: Active Galactic Nuclei Number Counts and Survey Strategies for Imaging Hard X-ray Missions

    OpenAIRE

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Draper, A. R.; Madsen, K. K.; Rigby, J. R.; Treister, E.

    2011-01-01

    Finding and characterizing the population of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that produces the X-ray background (XRB) is necessary to connect the history of accretion to observations of galaxy evolution at longer wavelengths. The year 2012 will see the deployment of the first hard X-ray imaging telescope which, through deep extragalactic surveys, will be able to measure the AGN population at the energies where the XRB peaks (~20-30 keV). Here, we present predictions of AGN number counts in thre...

  9. The galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gursky, H.; Schreier, E.

    1975-01-01

    The current observational evidence on galactic X-ray sources is presented both from an astrophysical and astronomical point of view. The distributional properties of the sources, where they appear in the Galaxy, and certain average characteristics are discussed. In this way, certain properties of the X-ray sources can be deduced which are not apparent in the study of single objects. The properties of individual X-ray sources are then described. The hope is that more can be learnt about neutron stars and black holes, their physical properties, their origin and evolution, and their influence on other galactic phenomena. Thus attention is paid to those elements of data which appear to have the most bearing on these questions. (Auth.)

  10. Suzaku  Observations of Heavily Obscured (Compton-thick) Active Galactic Nuclei Selected by the Swift/BAT Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Kawamuro, Taiki; Ricci, Claudio; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Terashima, Yuichi

    2018-02-01

    We present a uniform broadband X-ray (0.5–100.0 keV) spectral analysis of 12 Swift/Burst Alert Telescope selected Compton-thick ({log}{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2≥slant 24) active galactic nuclei (CTAGNs) observed with Suzaku. The Suzaku data of three objects are published here for the first time. We fit the Suzaku and Swift spectra with models utilizing an analytic reflection code and those utilizing the Monte-Carlo-based model from an AGN torus by Ikeda et al. The main results are as follows: (1) The estimated intrinsic luminosity of a CTAGN strongly depends on the model; applying Compton scattering to the transmitted component in an analytic model may largely overestimate the intrinsic luminosity at large column densities. (2) Unabsorbed reflection components are commonly observed, suggesting that the tori are clumpy. (3) Most of CTAGNs show small scattering fractions (<0.5%), implying a buried AGN nature. (4) Comparison with the results obtained for Compton-thin AGNs suggests that the properties of these CTAGNs can be understood as a smooth extension from Compton-thin AGNs with heavier obscuration; we find no evidence that the bulk of the population of hard-X-ray-selected CTAGNs are different from less obscured objects.

  11. Hard X-ray Photoelectric Polarimeter

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our objective is to determine the gas mixtures and pressures that would enable a sensitive, hard X-ray polarimeter using existing flight components with the goal of...

  12. X-Ray and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy of Dim X-Ray Point Sources Constituting the Galactic Ridge X-Ray Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumiko Morihana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of X-ray and Near-Infrared observations of the Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE. We extracted 2,002 X-ray point sources in the Chandra Bulge Field (l =0°.113, b = 1°.424 down to ~10-14.8 ergscm-2s-1 in 2-8 keV band with the longest observation (900 ks of the GRXE. Based on X-ray brightness and hardness, we classied the X-ray point sources into three groups: A (hard, B (soft and broad spectrum, and C (soft and peaked spectrum. In order to know populations of the X-ray point sources, we carried out NIR imaging and spectroscopy observation. We identied 11% of X-ray point sources with NIR and extracted NIR spectra for some of them. Based on X-ray and NIR properties, we concluded that non-thermal sources in the group A are mostly active galactic nuclei and the thermal sources are mostly white dwarf binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs and Pre-CVs. We concluded that the group B and C sources are X-ray active stars in flare and quiescence, respectively.

  13. Some observational aspects of compact galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heise, J.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis contains the following observations of compact galactic X-ray sources: i) the X-ray experiments onboard the Astronomical Netherlands Satellite ANS, ii) a rocket-borne ultra soft X-ray experiment and iii) the Objective Grating Spectrometer onboard the EINSTEIN observatory. In Chapter I the various types of compact galactic X-ray sources are reviewed and put into the perspective of earlier and following observations. In Chapter II the author presents some of the observations of high luminosity X-ray sources, made with ANS, including the detection of soft X-rays from the compact X-ray binary Hercules X-1 and the ''return to the high state'' of the black hole candidate Cygnus X-1. Chapter III deals with transient X-ray phenomena. Results on low luminosity galactic X-ray sources are collected in Chapter IV. (Auth.)

  14. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; Joss, P.C.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1981-01-01

    In this article we shall discuss the observed X-ray, optical, infrared and radio properties of the galactic bulge sources, with an emphasis on those that produce type I X-ray bursts. There is persuasive evidence that these burst sources and many other galactic bulge sources are neutron stars in low-mass, close-binary stellar systems. (orig./WL)

  15. Microfabrication of hard x-ray lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stöhr, Frederik

    This thesis deals with the development of silicon compound refractive lenses (Si-CRLs) for shaping hard x-ray beams. The CRLs are to be fabricated using state of the art microfabrication techniques. The primary goal of the thesis work is to produce Si-CRLs with considerably increased structure...... intense and wider line beams with narrower waists. The thesis starts with a review of alternative x-ray lenses. Si-CRLs are identified as valuable optical components that allow shaping hard x-rays efficiently and creating beam waists that are clearly in the nanometer range. They stand out...... and characterized with respect to their shape. Their optical performances were tested at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Two 1D-focusing Si-CRLs suitable as condensers in hard-XRM were developed utilizing the aforementioned two different strategies. The first Si-condenser showed focusing of a 56...

  16. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2015-01-01

    of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10...... range. This emission is more sharply peaked towards the Galactic Centre than is the surface brightness of the soft-X-ray population. This could indicate a significantly more massive population of accreting white dwarfs, large populations of low-mass X-ray binaries or millisecond pulsars, or particle...

  17. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Keisuke

    2009-01-01

    Except in the very early stage of the development of X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) by Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers, the excitation sources for XPS studies have predominantly been the Al Kα and Mg Kα emission lines. The advent of synchrotron radiation sources opened up the possibility of tuning the excitation photon energy with much higher throughputs for photoemission spectroscopy, however the excitation energy range was limited to the vacuum ultra violet and soft X-ray regions. Over the past 5-6 years, bulk-sensitive hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using high-brilliance high-flux X-rays from third generation synchrotron radiation facilities has been developed. This article reviews the history of HXPES covering the period from Kai Siegbahn and his coworkers' pioneering works to the present, and describes the fundamental aspects, instrumentation, applications to solid state physics, applied physics, materials science, and industrial applications of HXPES. Finally, several challenging new developments which have been conducted at SPring-8 by collaborations among several groups are introduced.

  18. The X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culhane, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Recent observations of the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei are reviewed. After an outline of the properties of these sources deduced from observations at other wavelengths, the relevance of X-ray spectra to our understanding of the X-ray emission mechanisms and of the ultimate source of energy is discussed. The emission and absorption features that are observed arise from the interaction of the X-rays from the active nuclei with the surrounding gas. Observations of these features are reviewed and the information they provide on the nature of the surrounding gas is discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Hard x-ray telescope mission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorenstein, P.; Worrall, D.; Joensen, K.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hard X-Ray Telescope was selected for study as a possible new intermediate size mission for the early 21st century. Its principal attributes are: (1) multiwavelength observing with a system of focussing telescopes that collectively observe from the UV to over 1 MeV, (2) much higher sensitivity...... and much better angular resolution in the 10 - 100 keV band, and (3) higher sensitivity for detecting gamma ray lines of known energy in the 100 keV to 1 MeV band. This paper emphasizes the mission aspects of the concept study such as the payload configuration and launch vehicle. An engineering team...

  20. Hard X-ray Imaging Polarimeter for PolariS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Kiyoshi

    2016-07-01

    We present the current status of development of hard X-ray imaging polarimeters for the small satellite mission PolariS. The primary aim of PolariS is hard X-ray (10-80keV) polarimetry of sources brighter than 10mCrab. Its targets include stellar black holes, neutron stars, super nova remnants, and active galactic nuclei. This aim is enabled with three sets of hard X-ray telescopes and imaging polarimeters installed on their focal planes. The imaging polarimeter consists of two kinds of (plastic and GSO) scintillator pillars and multi-anode photo multiplier tubes (MAPMTs). When an X-ray photon incident to a plastic scintillator cause a Compton scattering, a recoiled electron makes a signal on the corresponding MAPMT pixel, and a scatted X-rays absorbed in surrounding GSO makes another signal. This provide information on the incident position and the scattered direction. The latter information is employed for polarimetry. For 20keV X-ray incidence, the recoiled electron energy is as low as 1keV. Thus, the performance of this imaging polarimeter is primarily determined by the efficiency that we can detect low level signal of recoiled electrons generated in plastic scintillators. The efficiency could depend on multiple factors, e.g. quenching of light in scintillators, electric noise, pedestal error, cross talk of the lights to adjacent MAPMT pixels, MAPMT dark current etc. In this paper, we examined these process experimentally and optimize the event selection algorithm, in which single photo-electron events are selected. We then performed an X-ray (10-80keV monochromatic polarized beam) irradiation test at a synchrotron facility. The modulation contrast (M) is about 60% in 15-80keV range. We succeeded in detecting recoiled electrons for 10-80keV X-ray incidence, though detection efficiency is lower at lowest end of the energy range. Expected MDP will also be shown.

  1. Hard x-ray Morphological and Spectral Studies of the Galactic Center Molecular Cloud SGR B2: Constraining Past SGR A* Flaring Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuo; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, NuSTAR observed the Sgr B2 region and for the first time resolved its hard X-ray emission on subarcminute scales. Two prominent features are detected above 10 keV:. a newly emerging cloud, G0.66-0.13, and the central 90 '' radius region containing two compact cores, Sgr B2(M) and Sgr B2(N......-energy cosmic-ray (CR) proton bombardment. In this scenario, from the NuSTAR measurements we infer a CR ion power of dW/dt = (1 - 4) x 1039 erg s-1 and a CR ionization rate of ζH = (6 - 10) x 10-15 H-1 s-1. measurements can become powerful tools to constrain the GC CR population....

  2. Hard X-Ray View of HCG 16 (Arp 318)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Saeko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Tanimoto, Atsushi; Ricci, Claudio

    2018-03-01

    We report the hard X-ray (3–50 keV) view of the compact group HCG 16 (Arp 318) observed with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). NGC 838 and NGC 839 are undetected at energies above 8 keV, showing no evidence of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). This confirms that these are starburst-dominant galaxies as previously suggested. We perform a comprehensive broadband (0.3–50 keV) X-ray spectral analysis of the interacting galaxies NGC 833 and NGC 835, using data of NuSTAR, Chandra, and XMM-Newton observed on multiple epochs from 2000 to 2015. NuSTAR detects the transmitted continua of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs) in NGC 833 and NGC 835 with line-of-sight column densities of ≈3 × 1023 cm‑2 and intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosities of ≈3 × 1041 erg s‑1. The iron-Kα to hard X-ray luminosity ratios of NGC 833 and NGC 835 suggest that their tori are moderately developed, which may have been triggered by the galaxy interactions. We find that NGC 835 underwent long-term variability in both intrinsic luminosity (by a factor of 5) and absorption (by ΔN H ≈ 2 × 1023 cm‑2). We discuss the relation between the X-ray and total infrared luminosities in local LLAGNs hosted by spiral galaxies. The large diversity in their ratios is consistent with the general idea that the mass accretion process in the nucleus and the star-forming activity in the disk are not strongly coupled, regardless of the galaxy environment.

  3. Broad-band hard X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K.D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hoghoj, P.

    1997-01-01

    Interest in optics for hard X-ray broad-band application is growing. In this paper, we compare the hard X-ray (20-100 keV) reflectivity obtained with an energy-dispersive reflectometer, of a standard commercial gold thin-film with that of a 600 bilayer W/Si X-ray supermirror. The reflectivity...... that of the gold, Various other design options are discussed, and we conclude that continued interest in the X-ray supermirror for broad-band hard X-ray applications is warranted....

  4. Prospects for supermirrors in hard x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    . The measured x-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard x ray applications that could benefit from x-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, collimating and focusing devices for synchrotron...

  5. Studying Dust Scattering Halos with Galactic X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeler, Doreen; Corrales, Lia; Heinz, Sebastian

    2018-01-01

    Dust is an important part of the interstellar medium (ISM) and contributes to the formation of stars and planets. Since the advent of modern X-ray telescopes, Galactic X-ray point sources have permitted a closer look at all phases of the ISM. Interstellar metals from oxygen to iron — in both gas and dust form — are responsible for absorption and scattering of X-ray light. Dust scatters the light in a forward direction and creates a diffuse halo image surrounding many bright Galactic X-ray binaries. We use all the bright X-ray point sources available in the Chandra HETG archive to study dust scattering halos from the local ISM. We have described a data analysis pipeline using a combination of the data reduction software CIAO and Python. We compare our results from Chandra HETG and ACIS-I observations of a well studied dust scattering halo around GX 13+1, in order to characterize any systematic errors associated with the HETG data set. We describe how our data products will be used to measure ISM scaling relations for X-ray extinction, dust abundance, and dust-to-metal ratios.

  6. Detectability of rotation-powered pulsars in future hard X-ray surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei

    2009-01-01

    Recent INTEGRAL/IBIS hard X-ray surveys have detected about 10 young pulsars. We show hard X-ray properties of these 10 young pulsars, which have a luminosity of 10 33 -10 37 erg s -1 and a photon index of 1.6-2.1 in the energy range of 20-100 keV. The correlation between X-ray luminosity and spin-down power of L X ∝ L sd 1.31 suggests that the hard X-ray emission in rotation-powered pulsars is dominated by the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) component. Assuming spectral properties are similar in 20-100 keV and 2-10 keV for both the pulsar and PWN components, the hard X-ray luminosity and flux of 39 known young X-ray pulsars and 8 millisecond pulsars are obtained, and a correlation of L X ∝ L sd 1.5 is derived. About 20 known young X-ray pulsars and 1 millisecond pulsars could be detected with future INTEGRAL and HXMT surveys. We also carry out Monte Carlo simulations of hard X-ray pulsars in the Galaxy and the Gould Belt, assuming values for the pulsar birth rate, initial position, proper motion velocity, period, and magnetic field distribution and evolution based on observational statistics and the L X - L sd relations: L X ∝ L sd 1.31 and L X ∝ L sd 1.5 . More than 40 young pulsars (mostly in the Galactic plane) could be detected after ten years of INTEGRAL surveys and the launch of HXMT. So, the young pulsars would be a significant part of the hard X-ray source population in the sky, and will contribute to unidentified hard X-ray sources in present and future hard X-ray surveys by INTEGRAL and HXMT.

  7. X-ray bursters and the X-ray sources of the galactic bulge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, W. H. G.; Joss, P. C.

    An attempt is made to distill from observational and theoretical information on the galactic bulge X-ray sources in general, and on the X-ray burst sources in particular, those aspects which seem to have the greatest relevance to the understanding of these sources. Galactic bulge sources appear to be collapsed objects of roughly solar mass, in most cases neutron stars, which are accreting matter from low-mass stellar companions. Type I bursts seem to result from thermonuclear flashes in the surface layers of some of these neutron stars, while the type II bursts from the Rapid Burster are almost certainly due to an instability in the accretion flow onto a neutron star. It is concluded that the studies cited offer a new and powerful observational handle on the fundamental properties of neutron stars and of the interacting binary systems in which they are often contained.

  8. Modeling X-ray Emission of Galactic Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomesh, Teague; Gould Zweibel, Ellen; Bustard, Chad

    2017-06-01

    Despite galaxies being the main players on the cosmological scene, and our living inside of one, the processes of evolution which create these structures are still a mystery. Galactic winds are an important component of galaxy evolution and the mechanisms which drive these outflows have yet to be explained. We have incorporated x-ray production into a preexisting model of galactic outflows in order to generate predictions of x-ray luminosity to test current wind theories against observations. Specifically, the model is a representation of thermally driven winds. First, we incorporated the equations for x-ray luminosity into the wind model and tested its effects over a wide range of parameter space. We then created models to match the parameters of several cool galactic outflows previously studied. Finally, we searched the relevant literature for observations of these galaxies that we could use to compare with our predicted luminosities. Our models consistently predicted luminosities within a factor of two of the observed values. This led to the conclusion that if the hot and cool gas are coupled then thermal energy may play a role in the driving of these winds. Unraveling this mystery will be key to understanding galactic outflows and galactic evolution overall.

  9. Scotch-Tape Mirror for Hard X-rays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Scotch-Tape Mirror for Hard X-rays project is to test the possibility of building a grazing incidence mirror for hard X-rays (E>20 keV) using a “scotch-tape”...

  10. Diffuse X-ray sky in the Galactic center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Katsuji

    2018-01-01

    The Galactic diffuse X-ray emission (GDXE) in the Milky Way Galaxy is spatially and spectrally decomposed into the Galactic center X-ray emission (GCXE), the Galactic ridge X-ray emission (GRXE), and the Galactic bulge X-ray emission (GBXE). The X-ray spectra of the GDXE are characterized by the strong K-shell lines of the highly ionized atoms, and the brightest lines are the K-shell transition (principal quantum number transition of n = 2 → 1) of neutral iron (Fe I-Kα), He-like iron (Fe XXV-Heα), and He-like sulfur (S XV-Heα). Accordingly, the GDXE is composed of a high-temperature plasma of ˜7 keV (HTP) and a low-temperature plasma of ˜1 keV, which emit the Fe XXV-Heα and S XV-Heα lines, respectively. The Fe I-Kα line is emitted from nearly neutral irons, and hence the third component of the GDXE is a cool gas (CG). The Fe I-Kα distribution in the GCXE region is clumpy (Fe I-Kα clump), associated with giant molecular cloud (MC) complexes (Sagittarius A, B, C, D, and E) in the central molecular zone. The origin of the Fe I-Kα clumps is the fluorescence and Thomson scattering from the MCs irradiated by past big flares of the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*. The scale heights and equivalent widths of the Fe I-Kα, Fe XXV-Heα, and Fe XXVI-Lyα (n = 2 → 1 transition of H-like iron) lines are different among the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE. Therefore, their structures and origins are separately examined. This paper gives an overview of the research history and the present understandings of the GDXE, while in particular focusing on the origin of the HTP and CG in the GCXE.

  11. Extended hard-X-ray emission in the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Kerstin; Hailey, Charles J; Bauer, Franz E; Krivonos, Roman A; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K; Barrière, Nicolas M; Boggs, Steven E; Christensen, Finn E; Craig, William W; Grefenstette, Brian W; Grindlay, Jonathan E; Harrison, Fiona A; Hong, Jaesub; Madsen, Kristin K; Nynka, Melania; Stern, Daniel; Tomsick, John A; Wik, Daniel R; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W; Zoglauer, Andreas

    2015-04-30

    The Galactic Centre hosts a puzzling stellar population in its inner few parsecs, with a high abundance of surprisingly young, relatively massive stars bound within the deep potential well of the central supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A* (ref. 1). Previous studies suggest that the population of objects emitting soft X-rays (less than 10 kiloelectronvolts) within the surrounding hundreds of parsecs, as well as the population responsible for unresolved X-ray emission extending along the Galactic plane, is dominated by accreting white dwarf systems. Observations of diffuse hard-X-ray (more than 10 kiloelectronvolts) emission in the inner 10 parsecs, however, have been hampered by the limited spatial resolution of previous instruments. Here we report the presence of a distinct hard-X-ray component within the central 4 × 8 parsecs, as revealed by subarcminute-resolution images in the 20-40 kiloelectronvolt range. This emission is more sharply peaked towards the Galactic Centre than is the surface brightness of the soft-X-ray population. This could indicate a significantly more massive population of accreting white dwarfs, large populations of low-mass X-ray binaries or millisecond pulsars, or particle outflows interacting with the surrounding radiation field, dense molecular material or magnetic fields. However, all these interpretations pose significant challenges to our understanding of stellar evolution, binary formation, and cosmic-ray production in the Galactic Centre.

  12. Backscatter, anisotropy, and polarization of solar hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, T.; Ramaty, R.

    1978-01-01

    Hard X-rays incident upon the photosphere with energies > or approx. =15 keV have high probabilities of backscatter due to Compton collisions with electrons. This effect has a strong influence on the spectrum, intensity, and polarization of solar hard X-rays - especially for anisotropic models in which the primary X-rays are emitted predominantly toward the photosphere. We have carried out a detailed study of X-ray backscatter, and we have investigated the interrelated problems of anisotropy, polarization, center-to-limb variation of the X-ray spectrum, and Compton backscatter in a coherent fashion. The results of this study are compared with observational data. Because of the large contribution from backscatter, for an anisotropic primary X-ray source which is due to bremsstrahlung of accelerated electrons moving predominantly down toward the photosphere, the observed X-ray flux around 30 keV does not depend significantly on the position of flare on the Sun. For such an anisotropic source, the X-ray spectrum observed in the 15-50 keV range becomes steeper with the increasing heliocentric angle of the flare. These results are compatible with the data. The degree of polarization of the sum of the primary and reflected X-rays with energies between about 15 and 30 keV can be very large for anisotropic primary X-ray sources, but it is less than about 4% for isotropic sources. We also discuss the characteristics of the brightness distribution of the X-ray albedo patch created by the Compton backscatter. The height and anisotropy of the primary hard X-ray source might be inferred from the study of the albedo patch

  13. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Quantitative Phase Imaging Using Hard X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Gureyev, T.E.; Cookson, D.J.; Paganin, D.; Barnea, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The quantitative imaging of a phase object using 16keV xrays is reported. The theoretical basis of the techniques is presented along with its implementation using a synchrotron x-ray source. We find that our phase image is in quantitative agreement with independent measurements of the object. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Massive stars, x-ray ridge, and galactic 26Al gamma-ray line emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmerle, T.

    1986-07-01

    Massive stars interact with their parent molecular cloud by means of their ionizing flux and strong winds, thereby creating giant, hollow HII regions. To account for the observed structure of these HII regions, it appears necessary that all the wind energy be dissipated. Dorland and Montmerle have recently proposed a new dissipation mechanism, in the process, diffuse hard X-rays are emitted. If the observed galactic X-ray ''ridge'' results from this process on a galactic scale, it can be accounted for by the interaction of ∼3000 Wolf-Rayet stars (mostly within a ∼6.5 kpc ring) with their surrounding interstellar gas. This result is essentially consistent with the suggestion by Prantzos and Casse that the galactic 26 Al γ-ray line emission originates in Wolf-Rayet stars

  16. INTEGRAL detection of a hard X-ray transient in NGC 6440

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Bozzo, E.; Bazzano, A.

    2015-01-01

    Referred to by ATel #: 7106, 7136, 7183 Tweet During INTEGRAL Galactic bulge monitoring (e.g., ATel #438) observations performed on UT 2015 February 17 at 12.53-16:45, IBIS/ISGRI detected renewed activity at hard X-rays from a transient within the Globular Cluster NGC 6440. The best determined po...

  17. Scotch-Tape Mirror for Hard X-rays Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to build a grazing incidence mirror for hard X-rays (E>20 keV) using a “scotch-tape” design, in which a thin plastic tape with a...

  18. Prospects for supermirrors in hard x-ray spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1994-01-01

    reflectivity for x rays. For hard x rays (≥ 15 keV), the absorption, however, is low enough that it is possible to design supermirrors with 10 - 70% reflectivity in a band ≈ 3 times the width of the total reflection regime. Supermirrors of W/Si and Ni/C have been successfully fabricated and characterized....... The measured x-ray reflectivities are well accounted for by the standard dynamical theories of multilayer reflection. Hard x ray applications that could benefit from x-ray supermirror coatings include focusing and imaging instrumentation for astrophysics, collimating and focusing devices for synchrotron......Supermirrors are multilayer structures where the thickness of the layers down through the structure changes so that wide-band reflection occurs. The principles were developed in the mid-70s and have been used extensively for neutron optics. Absorption in the upper layers limits the attainable...

  19. Hard X-ray irradiation of cosmic silicate analogs: structural evolution and astrophysical implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilan, L.; Jäger, C.; Simionovici, A.; Lemaire, J. L.; Sabri, T.; Foy, E.; Yagoubi, S.; Henning, T.; Salomon, D.; Martinez-Criado, G.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Protoplanetary disks, interstellar clouds, and active galactic nuclei contain X-ray-dominated regions. X-rays interact with the dust and gas present in such environments. While a few laboratory X-ray irradiation experiments have been performed on ices, X-ray irradiation experiments on bare cosmic dust analogs have been scarce up to now. Aims: Our goal is to study the effects of hard X-rays on cosmic dust analogs via in situ X-ray diffraction. By using a hard X-ray synchrotron nanobeam, we seek to simulate cumulative X-ray exposure on dust grains during their lifetime in these astrophysical environments and provide an upper limit on the effect of hard X-rays on dust grain structure. Methods: We prepared enstatite (MgSiO3) nanograins, which are analogs to cosmic silicates, via the melting-quenching technique. These amorphous grains were then annealed to obtain polycrystalline grains. These were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) before irradiation. Powder samples were prepared in X-ray transparent substrates and were irradiated with hard X-rays nanobeams (29.4 keV) provided by beamline ID16B of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble). X-ray diffraction images were recorded in transmission mode, and the ensuing diffractograms were analyzed as a function of the total X-ray exposure time. Results: We detected the amorphization of polycrystalline silicates embedded in an organic matrix after an accumulated X-ray exposure of 6.4 × 1027 eV cm-2. Pure crystalline silicate grains (without resin) do not exhibit amorphization. None of the amorphous silicate samples (pure and embedded in resin) underwent crystallization. We analyze the evolution of the polycrystalline sample embedded in an organic matrix as a function of X-ray exposure. Conclusions: Loss of diffraction peak intensity, peak broadening, and the disappearance of discrete spots and arcs reveal the amorphization

  20. The X-ray source content of the XMM-Newton Galactic plane survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motch, C.; Warwick, R.; Cropper, M. S.; Carrera, F.; Guillout, P.; Pineau, F.-X.; Pakull, M. W.; Rosen, S.; Schwope, A.; Tedds, J.; Webb, N.; Negueruela, I.; Watson, M. G.

    2010-11-01

    We report the results of an optical campaign carried out by the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre with the specific goal of identifying the brightest X-ray sources in the XMM-Newton Galactic plane survey. In addition to photometric and spectroscopic observations obtained at the ESO-VLT and ESO-3.6 m, we used cross-correlations with the 2XMMi, USNO-B1.0, 2MASS, and GLIMPSE catalogues to advance the identification process. Active coronae account for 16 of the 30 positively or tentatively identified X-ray sources and exhibit the softest X-ray spectra. Many of the identified hard X-ray sources are associated with massive stars, possible members of binary systems and emitting at intermediate X-ray luminosities of 1032-34 erg s-1. Among these are (i) a very absorbed, likely hyper-luminous star with X-ray/optical spectra and luminosities comparable to those of η Carina; (ii) a new X-ray-selected WN8 Wolf-Rayet star in which most of the X-ray emission probably arises from wind collision in a binary; (iii) a new Be/X-ray star belonging to the growing class of γ-Cas analogues; and (iv) a possible supergiant X-ray binary of the kind discovered recently by INTEGRAL. One of the sources, XGPS-25, has a counterpart of moderate optical luminosity that exhibits HeII λ4686 and Bowen CIII-NIII emission lines, suggesting that this may be a quiescent or X-ray shielded low mass X-ray binary, although its X-ray properties might also be consistent with a rare kind of cataclysmic variable (CV). We also report the discovery of three new CVs, one of which is a likely magnetic system displaying strong X-ray variability. The soft (0.4-2.0 keV) band log N(>S) - log S curve is completely dominated by active stars in the flux range of 1×10-13 to 1×10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. Several active coronae are also detected above 2 keV suggesting that the population of RS CVn binaries contributes significantly to the hard X-ray source population. In total, we are able to identify a large fraction of the hard

  1. Design and Tests of the Hard X-Ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilicke, M.; Baring, M. G.; Barthelmy, S.; Binns, W. R.; Buckley, J.; Cowsik, R.; Dowkontt, P.; Garson, A.; Guo, Q.; Haba, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information about high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested a hard X-ray polarimeter X-Calibur to be used in the focal plane of the InFOC(mu)S grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope. X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 10 - 80 keY X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  2. Hard X-ray studies on the Castor tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.

    1990-04-01

    The electron runaway processes in tokamaks are discussed with regard to hard X radiation measurements. The origin and confinement of runaway electrons, their bremsstrahlung spectra and the influence of lower hybrid current drive on the distribution of high-energy electrons are analyzed for the case of the Castor tokamak. The hard X-ray spectrometer designed for the Castor tokamak is also described and preliminary qualitative results of hard X-ray measurements are presented. The first series of integral measurements made it possible to map the azimuthal dependence of the hard X radiation

  3. New design concept of hard x-ray supermirrors for astronomical x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangfang; Zhu, Jingtao; Tan, Moyan; Jiang, Li; Wang, Zhanshan

    2010-10-01

    A numerical and analysis method for optimizing multilayer supermirrors is developed based on the combination of the power-law method and the local optimization method of simplex algorithm. The parameters in the power-law formula are optimized by genetic algorithm. This allows a global minimization of the merit function and a many-fold decrease of the computing time. Several groups of X-ray supermirrors with the energy extended to 30 keV are successfully designed using this optimization method for a hard X-ray telescope. Tungsten and boron carbide are chosen as the multilayer materials. High reflectivity and high effective area are obtained, indicating that this numerical and analysis method is an effective tool to design hard X-ray supermirrors.

  4. New active galactic nuclei among the INTEGRAL and SWIFT X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burenin, R. A.; Mescheryakov, A. V.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Sazonov, S. Yu.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2008-06-01

    We present the results of our optical identifications of a set of X-ray sources from the INTEGRAL and SWIFT all-sky surveys. The optical data have been obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish Telescope (RTT-150). Nine X-ray sources have been identified with active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Two of them are located in the nearby spiral galaxies MCG-01-05-047 and NGC 973 seen almost edge-on. One source, IGR J16562-3301, is probably a BL Lac object (blazar). The remaining AGNs are observed as the starlike nuclei of spiral galaxies whose spectra exhibit broad emission lines. The relation between the hard X-ray (17-60 keV) luminosity and the [O III] 5007 line luminosity, log L x/ L [O III] ≈ 2.1, holds good for most of the AGNs detected in hard X rays. However, the luminosities of some AGNs deviate from this relation. The fraction of such objects can reach ˜20%. In particular, the [O III] line flux is lower for two nearby edge-on spiral galaxies. This can be explained by the effect of absorption in the galactic disks.

  5. A hard X ray and soft gamma ray telescope spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, L.I.; Trombka, J.I.; Schmadebeck, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    A telescope spectrometer in the hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray region from 30 keV to 200 keV can provide significant information in investigations related to solar physics and planetary science. The present study is concerned with the preliminary design of such an instrument, taking into account a use of the Low Intensity X-ray Imaging Scope (Lixiscope). In the design of the considered telescope spectrometer, attention would have to be given to three major components, including the X-ray and gamma-ray input optics, an imaging detector-spectrometer, and an output processor. The preliminary results provided by the present study indicate that, in principle, a complete hard X-ray and soft gamma-ray telescope imaging spectrometer system using the Lixiscope is feasible. However, much work remains to be done with respect to the optimization and improvement of the system for future flight applications

  6. The over-the-limb hard X-ray events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, H. S.

    Over-the-limb hard X-ray events offer a uniquely direct view of the hard X-ray emission from the solar corona during a major flare. Limb occultation at angles greater than about 10 deg (an arbitrary definition of this class of events) excludes any confusion with brighter chromospheric sources. Published observations of seven over-the-limb events, beginning with the prototype flare of March 30, 1969, are reviewed. The hard X-ray spectra appear to fall into two classes: hard events, with power-law index of about 2.0; and soft events, with power-law index about 5.4. This tendency towards bimodality is only significant at the 90-percent confidence level due to the smallness of the number of events observed to date. If borne out by future data, the bimodality would suggest the existence of two different acceleration mechanisms.

  7. Hard x-ray characterization of the NeXT hard x-ray telescopes at SPring-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Takuya; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Iwahara, Tomonaga; Kanou, Yasufumi; Sasaki, Naoki; Makinae, Youta; Sasaya, Shiori; Inukai, Yuuki; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Koujun; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tamura, Keisuke; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Okajima, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    We present a plan for calibration of the NeXT hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) at the synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. In hard X-rays, it is difficult for a laboratory-based beamline using a conventional X-ray source to provide sufficient capabilities for pre-flight high-precision calibration. Therefore, we plan to characterize the NeXT HXT at the SPring-8 beamline BL20B2. SPring-8 is one of the world's third-generation synchrotron radiation facilities. Measurements at BL20B2 have great advantages over those done with conventional sources, such as an extremely high flux, a larger beam with less divergence, and a selectable, narrow bandwidth covering the hard X-ray region from 8 to over 100 keV. The 16m-long experimental hutch has sufficient capability for characterization of the NeXT HXT (FL=12m). In the past, we have measured the Point Spread Function (PSF) and effective area of telescopes for balloon-borne hard X-ray imaging experiments (e.g. InFOCuS, SUMIT) at several energies from 20 to 60 keV. Furthermore, we have successfully established a tuning procedure to improve their image quality. We plan to measure the X-ray characteristics (PSF, effective area, stray light, and so on) of the NeXT HXT to build up the HXT response function.

  8. Design and Tests of the Hard X-ray Polarimeter X-Calibur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beilicke

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available X-ray polarimetry promises to give qualitatively new information bout high-energy astrophysical sources, such as binary black hole  systems, micro-quasars, active galactic nuclei, and gamma-ray bursts. We designed, built and tested ahard X-ray polarimeter, X-Calibur, to be used in the focal plane of the InFOCuS grazing incidence hard X-ray telescope.X-Calibur combines a low-Z Compton scatterer with a CZT detector assembly to measure the polarization of 20−60 keV X-rays making use of the fact that polarized photons Compton scatter preferentially perpendicular to the electric field orientation; in principal, a similar space-borne experiment could be operated in the 5−100 keV regime. X-Calibur achieves a high detection efficiency of order unity.

  9. A hard X-ray laboratory for monochromator characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamelin, B. [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Since their installation at ILL during the 1970`s the ILL {gamma}-ray diffractometers have been intensively used in the development of neutron monochromators. However, the ageing of the sources and new developments in hard X-ray diffractometry lead to a decision at the end of 1995 to replace the existing {gamma}-ray laboratory with a hard X-ray laboratory, based on a 420 keV generator, making available in the long term several beam-lines for rapid characterisation of monochromator crystals. The facility is now installed and its characteristics and advantages are outlined. (author). 2 refs.

  10. Recent developments in hard X-ray tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Rau, C; Snigirev, A; Schrör, C; Tümmler, J; Lengeler, B

    2001-01-01

    A new technique for magnified hard X-ray tomography using compound refractive lenses (CRLs) has been tested. A full-field X-ray microscope was included into a conventional microtomography setup at a synchrotron undulator beamline. Experiments were carried out at 19.7 keV with a monochromatic beam as well as with the so-called 'pink' beam using a larger energy bandwidth. During this pilot experiment a resolution of about 1 mu m was already achieved, which corresponds to the best resolution obtained with phase-contrast enhanced microtomography. The technique has the potential to increase the spatial resolution of hard-X-ray microtomography to a scale of several hundred nanometers.

  11. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, Jason E.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, William W.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a small explorer (SMEX) mission currently under an extended Phase A study by NASA. NuSTAR will be the first satellite mission to employ focusing optics in the hard X-ray band (8- 80 keV). Its design eliminates high detector backgrounds, allows...

  12. Crab Nebula Variations in Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.

    2012-01-01

    The Crab Nebula was surprisingly variable from 2001-2010, with less variability before 2001 and since mid-2010. We presented evidence for spectral softening from RXTE, Swift/BAT, and Fermi GBM during the mid-2008-2010 flux decline. We see no clear connections between the hard X-ray variations and the GeV flares

  13. Imaging of reconnection processes in hard X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svestka, Z.; Poletto, G.

    1984-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Spectrometer aboard the SMM detected several events of energy release late in the development of two-ribbon flares. One such event, at 21:12 UT on 21 May, 1980 ( 20 min after the flare onset and 15 min after the peak of the impulsive phase) is studied in detail. The site of new

  14. Hard X-ray mirrors for Nuclear Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brejnholt, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hill, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alameda, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Soufli, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pivovaroff, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Pardini, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-07

    Research performed under this LDRD aimed to demonstrate the ability to detect and measure hard X-ray emissions using multilayer X-ray reflective optics above 400 keV, to enable the development of inexpensive and high-accuracy mirror substrates, and to investigate applications of hard X-ray mirrors of interest to the nuclear security community. Experiments conducted at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility demonstrated hard X-ray mirror reflectivity up to 650 keV for the first time. Hard X-ray optics substrates must have surface roughness under 3 to 4 Angstrom rms, and three materials were evaluated as potential substrates: polycarbonates, thin Schott glass and a new type of flexible glass called Willow Glass®. Chemical smoothing and thermal heating of the surface of polycarbonate samples, which are inexpensive but have poor intrinsic surface characteristics, did not yield acceptable surface roughness. D263 Schott glass was used for the focusing optics of the NASA NuSTAR telescope. The required specialized hardware and process were costly and motivated experiments with a modified non-contact slumping technique. The surface roughness of the glass was preserved and the process yielded cylindrical shells with good net shape pointing to the potential advantage of this technique. Finally, measured surface roughness of 200 and 130 μm thick Willow Glass sheets was between 2 and 2.5 A rms. Additional results of flexibility tests and multilayer deposition campaigns indicated it is a promising substrate for hard X-ray optics. The detection of U and Pu characteristics X-ray lines and gamma emission lines in a high background environment was identified as an area for which X-ray mirrors could have an impact and where focusing optics could help reduce signal to noise ratio by focusing signal onto a smaller detector. Hence the first one twelvetant of a Wolter I focusing optics for the 90 to 140 keV energy range based on aperiodic multilayer coating was designed. Finally

  15. Applications of Hard X-ray Full-Field Transmission X-ray Microscopy at SSRL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Andrews, J. C.; Meirer, F.; Mehta, A.; Gil, S. Carrasco; Sciau, P.; Mester, Z.; Pianetta, P.

    2011-09-01

    State-of-the-art hard x-ray full-field transmission x-ray microscopy (TXM) at beamline 6-2C of Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource has been applied to various research fields including biological, environmental, and material studies. With the capability of imaging a 32-micron field-of-view at 30-nm resolution using both absorption mode and Zernike phase contrast, the 3D morphology of yeast cells grown in gold-rich media was investigated. Quantitative evaluation of the absorption coefficient was performed for mercury nanoparticles in alfalfa roots exposed to mercury. Combining XANES and TXM, we also performed XANES-imaging on an ancient pottery sample from the Roman pottery workshop at LaGraufesenque (Aveyron).

  16. Hard X-ray Sources for the Mexican Synchrotron Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Herrera, Juan

    2016-10-01

    One of the principal tasks for the design of the Mexican synchrotron was to define the storage ring energy. The main criteria for choosing the energy come from studying the electromagnetic spectrum that can be obtained from the synchrotron, because the energy range of the spectrum that can be obtained will determine the applications available to the users of the future light source. Since there is a public demand of hard X-rays for the experiments in the synchrotron community users from Mexico, in this work we studied the emission spectra from some hard X-ray sources which could be the best options for the parameters of the present Mexican synchrotron design. The calculations of the flux and the brightness for one Bending Magnet and four Insertion Devices are presented; specifically, for a Superconducting Bending Magnet (SBM), a Superconducting Wiggler (SCW), an In Vacuum Short Period Undulator (IV-SPU), a Superconducting Undulator (SCU) and for a Cryogenic Permanent Magnet Undulator (CPMU). Two commonly available synchrotron radiation programs were used for the computation (XOP and SRW). From the results, it can be concluded that the particle beam energy from the current design is enough to have one or more sources of hard X-rays. Furthermore, a wide range of hard X-ray region can be covered by the analyzed sources, and the choice of each type should be based on the specific characteristics of the X-ray beam to perform the experiments at the involved beamline. This work was done within the project Fomix Conacyt-Morelos ”Plan Estrategico para la construccion y operación de un Sincrotron en Morelos” (224392).

  17. The hard x-ray spectrum of SN 1987A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumper, J.; Reppin, C.; Pietsch, W.; Englhauser, J.; Voges, W.; Kendziorra, E.; Bezler, M.; Staubert, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Kaniovskiy, A.; Efremov, V.; Grebenev, M.; Kuznetsov, A.; Meliorazkiy, A.; Stepanov, D.; Chulkov, I.

    1988-01-01

    The authors report the discovery of hard x-rays in the energy range from 20 to 350 keV. The hard x-rays were first observed on August 10, 1987 and thereafter SN 1987A became the main target of the observatory. The measured spectrum is extremely hard. At high energies the photon spectrum has a power law index of ∼ 1.4. At lower energies the spectrum becomes flatter and there is indication of a cut-off below 25 keV. The luminosity in the above energy band is ∼ 2 x 10 38 erg/s. The flux shows little variation between August 10 and beginning of October

  18. Monitoring the activity variations of galactic X-ray sources with WATCH on EURECA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Søren; Lund, N.

    1995-01-01

    Among the many instruments carried on the first EURECA mission was also one aimed at doing astrophysical research. This instrument, WATCH, (Wide Angle Telescope for Cosmic Hard X-rays) is sensitive in the 6 to 150 keV energy range and has a total field of view covering a quarter of the sky. During...... its 11 month operational life, EURECA tracked the Sun, and WATCH gradually scanned across the entire sky. The signals from more than two dozen known galactic X-ray sources have been identified in the data, and the activity state of each source has been recorded as a function of time. For several...... a special “offset pointing” program was initiated on request from the WATCH PI. This program proved very successful and allowed WATCH to scan more than 80% of the sky in the course of only two weeks....

  19. Where are Compton-thick radio galaxies? A hard X-ray view of three candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursini, F.; Bassani, L.; Panessa, F.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Malizia, A.; Ubertini, P.

    2018-03-01

    We present a broad-band X-ray spectral analysis of the radio-loud active galactic nuclei NGC 612, 4C 73.08 and 3C 452, exploiting archival data from NuSTAR, XMM-Newton, Swift and INTEGRAL. These Compton-thick candidates are the most absorbed sources among the hard X-ray selected radio galaxies studied in Panessa et al. We find an X-ray absorbing column density in every case below 1.5 × 1024 cm-2, and no evidence for a strong reflection continuum or iron K α line. Therefore, none of these sources is properly Compton-thick. We review other Compton-thick radio galaxies reported in the literature, arguing that we currently lack strong evidences for heavily absorbed radio-loud AGNs.

  20. The Swift BAT Hard X-ray Survey - A New Window on the Local AGN Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Swift Burst and Transient telescope (BAT) has surveyed the entire sky for the last 3.5 years obtaining the first sensitive all sky survey of the 14-195 keV sky. At high galactic latitudes the vast majority of the detected sources are AGN. Since hard x-rays penetrate all but Compton thick obscuring material (Column densities of 1.6E24 atms/cm2) this survey is unbiased with respect to obscuration, host galaxy type, optical , radio or IR properties. We will present results on the broad band x-ray properties, the nature of the host galaxies, the luminosity function and will discuss a few of the optical, IR and x-ray results in detail.

  1. Black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients: a hard X-ray view of their outbursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.

    2004-01-01

    The RXTE public observations of the outbursts of black hole soft X-ray transients XTE J1550-564, XTE J1859+226, 4U 1630-47, XTE J1118+480, XTE J1650-500, and the neutron star soft X-ray transients 4U 1608-52, Aquila X-1, including a variable 'persistent' neutron star low mass X-ray binary 4U 1705-44, are summarized in this paper. The hard X-ray view of those outbursts, which is quite different from that of the soft X-ray band, suggests that there are several types of outbursts which result in different hard X-ray outburst profile - the outburst profiles are energy dependent. One type is the low/hard state outbursts, the other type is the outburst showing transitions from the low/hard state to the high/soft state, or to the intermediate or to the very high state. The later has an initial low/hard state, introducing the phenomena that the hard X-ray precedes the soft X-ray in the outburst rise. Such outbursts in XTE J1550-564, Aql X-1 and 4U 1705-44 support a two-accretion-flow model which involves one Keplerian disk flow and one sub-Keplerian flow for the initial outburst rise

  2. The 105-Month Swift-BAT All-sky Hard X-Ray Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyuseok; Koss, Michael; Markwardt, Craig B.; Schawinski, Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Gehrels, Neil; Mushotzky, Richard; Petulante, Abigail; Ricci, Claudio; Lien, Amy; Trakhtenbrot, Benny

    2018-03-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources detected in the first 105 months of observations with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) coded-mask imager on board the Swift observatory. The 105-month Swift-BAT survey is a uniform hard X-ray all-sky survey with a sensitivity of 8.40× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 90% of the sky and 7.24× {10}-12 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {cm}}-2 over 50% of the sky in the 14–195 keV band. The Swift-BAT 105-month catalog provides 1632 (422 new detections) hard X-ray sources in the 14–195 keV band above the 4.8σ significance level. Adding to the previously known hard X-ray sources, 34% (144/422) of the new detections are identified as Seyfert active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in nearby galaxies (zBAT catalog, we release eight-channel spectra and monthly sampled light curves for each object in the online journal and at the Swift-BAT 105-month website.

  3. A Long Decay of X-Ray Flux and Spectral Evolution in the Supersoft Active Galactic Nucleus GSN 069

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, X. W.; Wang, S. S.; Dou, L. M.; Jiang, N.; Wang, J. X.; Wang, T. G.

    2018-04-01

    GSN 069 is an optically identified very low-mass active galactic nuclei (AGN) that shows supersoft X-ray emission. The source is known to exhibit a huge X-ray outburst, with flux increased by more than a factor of ∼240 compared to the quiescence state. We report its long-term evolution in the X-ray flux and spectral variations over a timescale of ∼decade, using both new and archival X-ray observations from the XMM-Newton and Swift. The new Swift observations detected the source in its lowest level of X-ray activity since the outburst, a factor of ∼4 lower in the 0.2–2 keV flux than that obtained with the XMM-Newton observations nearly eight years ago. Combining with the historical X-ray measurements, we find that the X-ray flux is decreasing slowly. There seemed to be spectral softening associated with the drop of X-ray flux. In addition, we find evidence for the presence of a weak, variable, hard X-ray component, in addition to the dominant thermal blackbody emission reported before. The long decay of X-ray flux and spectral evolution, as well as the supersoft X-ray spectra, suggest that the source could be a tidal disruption event (TDE), though a highly variable AGN cannot be fully ruled out. Further continued X-ray monitoring would be required to test the TDE interpretation, by better determining the flux evolution in the decay phase.

  4. THE NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Hong, Jaesub; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Bauer, Franz; Rahoui, Farid; Stern, Daniel K.; Bodaghee, Arash; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 x 10(exp -14) and 4 x 10(exp -14) ergs/s/sq cm in the 3-10 and 10-20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected, and 10 are detected with low significance; 8 of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multiwavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of approx. 10-20 keV, consistent with the Galactic ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than the temperatures of CVs near the Galactic center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma region has a lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic center. The NuSTAR logN-logS distribution in the 10-20keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2-10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT approx. =15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.

  5. The Correlation between Hard X-Ray Peak Flux and Soft X-Ray Peak Flux in the Outburst Rise of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, W.; van der Klis, M.; Fender, R.P.

    2004-01-01

    We have analyzed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer pointed observations of the outbursts of black hole and neutron star soft X-ray transients in which an initial low/hard state, or ``island'' state, followed by a transition to a softer state was observed. In three sources-the black hole transient XTE

  6. Bulk sensitive hard x-ray photoemission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, M; Wiemann, C; Weber, N; Escher, M; Gloskovskii, A; Drube, W; Merkel, M; Schneider, C M

    2014-11-01

    Hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has now matured into a well-established technique as a bulk sensitive probe of the electronic structure due to the larger escape depth of the highly energetic electrons. In order to enable HAXPES studies with high lateral resolution, we have set up a dedicated energy-filtered hard x-ray photoemission electron microscope (HAXPEEM) working with electron kinetic energies up to 10 keV. It is based on the NanoESCA design and also preserves the performance of the instrument in the low and medium energy range. In this way, spectromicroscopy can be performed from threshold to hard x-ray photoemission. The high potential of the HAXPEEM approach for the investigation of buried layers and structures has been shown already on a layered and structured SrTiO3 sample. Here, we present results of experiments with test structures to elaborate the imaging and spectroscopic performance of the instrument and show the capabilities of the method to image bulk properties. Additionally, we introduce a method to determine the effective attenuation length of photoelectrons in a direct photoemission experiment.

  7. The Swift/BAT Hard X-ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R.H.D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as ne as 64 seconds. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the ux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public web page. Since 2005 February, 242 sources have been detected in the monitor, 149 of them persistent and 93 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 16 were previously unknown and discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and ltering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure. We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries and present basic data analysis and interpretations for those sources with previously unpublished results.

  8. The Swift-BAT Hard X-Ray Transient Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimm, H. A.; Holland, S. T.; Corbet, R. H. D.; Pearlman, A. B.; Romano, P.; Kennea, J. A.; Bloom, J. S.; Barthelmy, S. D.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Cummings, J. R.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) hard X-ray transient monitor provides near real-time coverage of the X-ray sky in the energy range 15-50 keV. The BAT observes 88% of the sky each day with a detection sensitivity of 5.3 mCrab for a full-day observation and a time resolution as fine as 64 s. The three main purposes of the monitor are (1) the discovery of new transient X-ray sources, (2) the detection of outbursts or other changes in the flux of known X-ray sources, and (3) the generation of light curves of more than 900 sources spanning over eight years. The primary interface for the BAT transient monitor is a public Web site. Between 2005 February 12 and 2013 April 30, 245 sources have been detected in the monitor, 146 of them persistent and 99 detected only in outburst. Among these sources, 17 were previously unknown and were discovered in the transient monitor. In this paper, we discuss the methodology and the data processing and filtering for the BAT transient monitor and review its sensitivity and exposure.We provide a summary of the source detections and classify them according to the variability of their light curves. Finally, we review all new BAT monitor discoveries. For the new sources that are previously unpublished, we present basic data analysis and interpretations.

  9. X-ray microscopy of soft and hard human tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, Bert, E-mail: bert.mueller@unibas.ch; Schulz, Georg, E-mail: georg.schulz@unibas.ch; Deyhle, Hans, E-mail: hans.deyhle@unibas.ch; Stalder, Anja K., E-mail: anja.stalder@unibas.ch; Ilgenstein, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.ilgenstein@unibas.ch; Holme, Margaret N., E-mail: m.holme@imperial.ac.uk; Hieber, Simone E., E-mail: simone.hieber@unibas.ch [Biomaterials Science Center (BMC), University of Basel, c/o University Hospital, 4031 Basel (Switzerland); Weitkamp, Timm, E-mail: weitkamp@synchrotron-soleil.fr [Beamline ANATOMIX, Synchrotron Soleil, L’Orme des Merisiers, Saint Aubin - B.P. 48, 91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Beckmann, Felix, E-mail: felix.beckmann@hzg.de [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht, c/o HZG at DESY, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-01-28

    The simultaneous post mortem visualization of soft and hard tissues using absorption-based CT remains a challenge. If the photon energy is optimized for the visualization of hard tissue, the surrounding soft tissue components are almost X-ray transparent. Therefore, the combination with other modalities such as phase-contrast CT, magnetic resonance microscopy, and histology is essential to detect the anatomical features. The combination of the 2D and 3D data sets using sophisticated segmentation and registration tools allows for conclusions about otherwise inaccessible anatomical features essential for improved patient treatments.

  10. Hard X-ray sources from miniature plasma focus devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raspa, V. [Buenos Aires Univ., PLADEMA, CONICET and INFIP (Argentina); Silva, P.; Moreno, J.; Zambra, M.; Soto, L. [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)

    2004-07-01

    As first stage of a program to design a repetitive pulsed radiation generator for industrial applications, two miniature plasma foci have been designed and constructed at the Chilean commission of nuclear energy. The devices operate at an energy level of the order of tens of joules (PF-50 J, 160 nF capacitor bank, 20-35 kV, 32-100 J, {approx} 150 ns time to peak current) and hundred of joules (PF-400 J, 880 nF, 20-35 kV, 176-539 J, {approx} 300 ns time to peak current). Hard X-rays are being studied in these devices operating with hydrogen. Images of metallic plates with different thickness were obtained on commercial radiographic film, Agfa Curix ST-G2, in order to characterize the energy of the hard X-ray outside of the discharge chamber of PF-400 J. An effective energy of the order of 90 keV was measured under those conditions. X ray images of different metallic objects also have been obtained. (authors)

  11. ON THE NATURE OF HARD X-RAY EXTRAGALACTIC SOURCES OBSERVED WITH XMM-NEWTON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Huerta, E. M.; Krongold, Y.; Chavushyan, V.; Schartel, N.; Santos-Lleó, M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decade, X-ray surveys have provided outstanding new results due to the lack of the common selection effects present at other wavelengths. Here, we have selected a sample of unidentified sources from the XMM-Newton Slew Survey Catalog, likely to be extragalactic. Five of them were observed with the XMM-Newton observatory. In this work, we present the results of the spectral analysis of these objects in the X-ray and optical bands. Only three of them had useful spectroscopic X-ray data, and follow up observations were carried out in the optical range to determine their coordinates, classification, and redshift. The sources are different types of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with redshifts ranging from 0.059 to 0.386. The properties at both spectral ranges (X-rays and optical) are compatible with the common properties of their types of AGNs. Although the sources were selected by their hard X-ray properties, none of the three detected objects turned out to be an obscured AGN.

  12. NEAR-INFRARED COUNTERPARTS TO CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER. I. STATISTICS AND A CATALOG OF CANDIDATES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauerhan, J. C.; Muno, M. P.; Morris, M. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Nishiyama, S.; Nagata, T.

    2009-01-01

    We present a catalog of 5184 candidate infrared counterparts to X-ray sources detected toward the Galactic center. The X-ray sample contains 9017 point sources detected in this region by the Chandra X-ray Observatory during the past decade, including data from a recent deep survey of the central 2 0 x 0. 0 8 of the Galactic plane. A total of 6760 of these sources have hard X-ray colors, and the majority of them lie near the Galactic center, while most of the remaining 2257 soft X-ray sources lie in the foreground. We cross-correlated the X-ray source positions with the 2MASS and SIRIUS near-infrared catalogs, which collectively contain stars with a 10σ limiting flux of K s ≤ 15.6 mag. In order to distinguish absorbed infrared sources near the Galactic center from those in the foreground, we defined red and blue sources as those which have H - K s ≥ 0.9 and <0.9 mag, respectively. We find that 5.8% ± 1.5% (2σ) of the hard X-ray sources have real infrared counterparts, of which 228 ± 99 are red and 166 ± 27 are blue. The red counterparts are probably comprised of Wolf-Rayet and O stars, high-mass X-ray binaries, and symbiotic binaries located near the Galactic center. Foreground X-ray binaries suffering intrinsic X-ray absorption could be included in the sample of blue infrared counterparts to hard X-ray sources. We also find that 39.4% ± 1.0% of the soft X-ray sources have blue infrared counterparts; most of these are probably coronally active dwarfs in the foreground. There is a noteworthy collection of ∼20 red counterparts to hard X-ray sources near the Sagittarius B H II region, which are probably massive binaries that have formed within the last several Myr. For each of the infrared matches to X-ray sources in our catalog we derived the probability that the association is real, based on the source properties and the results of the cross-correlation analysis. These data are included in our catalog and will serve spectroscopic surveys to identify

  13. On the origin of highly ionized X-ray absorbers detected in the galactic X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao

    2014-01-01

    X-ray observations of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) revealed numerous highly ionized metal absorption lines. However, it is unclear whether such lines are produced by the hot interstellar medium (ISM) or the circumstellar medium intrinsic to the binaries. Here we present a Chandra X-ray absorption line study of 28 observations of 12 XRBs, with a focus on the Ne IX and Fe XVII lines. We report the first detections of these lines in a significant amount of observations. We do not find a significant dependence of the line equivalent width on the distance of the XRBs, but we do see a weak dependence on the source X-ray luminosity. We also find 2 out of 12 selected targets show strong temporal variation of the Ne IX absorbers. While the line ratio between the two ion species suggests a temperature consistent with the previous predictions of the ISM, comparing with two theoretical models of the ISM shows the observed column densities are significantly higher than predictions. On the other hand, photoionization by the XRBs provides a reasonably good fit to the data. Our findings suggest that a significant fraction of these X-ray absorbers may originate in the hot gas intrinsic to the XRBs, and that the ISM makes small, if not negligible, contribution. We briefly discuss the implications to the study of the Milky Way hot gas content.

  14. Hard-X-ray Zone Plates: Recent Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syue-Ren Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The technology to focus hard-X-rays (photon energy larger than 1–2 keV has made great progress in the past three years. The progress was particularly spectacular for lenses based on the Fresnel zone plate concept. The spatial resolution notably increased by a factor of three, opening up entirely new domains of application, specifically in biomedical research. As we shall see, this evolution is the result of a painstaking optimization of many different aspects rather than of a single technical breakthrough.

  15. A laboratory-based hard x-ray monochromator for high-resolution x-ray emission spectroscopy and x-ray absorption near edge structure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, G T; Mortensen, D R; Remesnik, A J; Pacold, J I; Ball, N A; Barry, N; Styczinski, M; Hoidn, O R

    2014-11-01

    We report the development of a laboratory-based Rowland-circle monochromator that incorporates a low power x-ray (bremsstrahlung) tube source, a spherically bent crystal analyzer, and an energy-resolving solid-state detector. This relatively inexpensive, introductory level instrument achieves 1-eV energy resolution for photon energies of ∼5 keV to ∼10 keV while also demonstrating a net efficiency previously seen only in laboratory monochromators having much coarser energy resolution. Despite the use of only a compact, air-cooled 10 W x-ray tube, we find count rates for nonresonant x-ray emission spectroscopy comparable to those achieved at monochromatized spectroscopy beamlines at synchrotron light sources. For x-ray absorption near edge structure, the monochromatized flux is small (due to the use of a low-powered x-ray generator) but still useful for routine transmission-mode studies of concentrated samples. These results indicate that upgrading to a standard commercial high-power line-focused x-ray tube or rotating anode x-ray generator would result in monochromatized fluxes of order 10(6)-10(7) photons/s with no loss in energy resolution. This work establishes core technical capabilities for a rejuvenation of laboratory-based hard x-ray spectroscopies that could have special relevance for contemporary research on catalytic or electrical energy storage systems using transition-metal, lanthanide, or noble-metal active species.

  16. X-ray beam splitting design for concurrent imaging at hard X-ray FELs and synchrotron facilities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Mokso, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 85-89 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffractive-refractive optics * hard X-ray FEL * X-ray imaging Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168900213009613

  17. Galactic Starburst NGC 3603 from X-Rays to Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A. F. J.; Corcoran, M. F.; Stevens, I. R.; Skalkowski, G.; Marchenko, S. V.; Muecke, A.; Ptak, A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Brenneman, L.; Mushotzky, R.; hide

    2002-01-01

    NGC 3603 is the most massive and luminous visible starburst region in the Galaxy. We present the first Chandra/ACIS-I X-ray image and spectra of this dense, exotic object, accompanied by deep cm-wavelength ATCA radio image at similar or less than 1 inch spatial resolution, and HST/ground-based optical data. At the S/N greater than 3 level, Chandra detects several hundred X-ray point sources (compared to the 3 distinct sources seen by ROSAT). At least 40 of these sources are definitely associated with optically identified cluster O and WR type members, but most are not. A diffuse X-ray component is also seen out to approximately 2 feet (4 pc) form the center, probably arising mainly from the large number of merging/colliding hot stellar winds and/or numerous faint cluster sources. The point-source X-ray fluxes generally increase with increasing bolometric brightnesses of the member O/WR stars, but with very large scatter. Some exceptionally bright stellar X-ray sources may be colliding wind binaries. The radio image shows (1) two resolved sources, one definitely non-thermal, in the cluster core near where the X-ray/optically brightest stars with the strongest stellar winds are located, (2) emission from all three known proplyd-like objects (with thermal and non-thermal components, and (3) many thermal sources in the peripheral regions of triggered star-formation. Overall, NGC 3603 appears to be a somewhat younger and hotter, scaled-down version of typical starbursts found in other galaxies.

  18. Femtosecond X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at a Hard X-ray Free Electron Laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Henrik T.; Bressler, Christian; Chen, Lin X.

    2013-01-01

    -quality X-ray absorption data and we report femtosecond time-resolved X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements of a spin-crossover system, iron(II) tris(2,2'-bipyridine) in water. The data indicate that the low-spin to high-spin transition can be modeled by single-exponential kinetics...

  19. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%

  20. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)], E-mail: Martin.Gerlach@ptb.de; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Mueller, P.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestr. 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2007-09-21

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 {mu}m in thickness, inclined by 30 deg., and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 {mu}m in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  1. A cryogenic electrical substitution radiometer for hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Ulm, G.

    2007-09-01

    Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESR) are well established in radiometry to determine radiant power with low uncertainties from the infrared to the soft X-ray region. The absorbers are made of copper to achieve a small time constant. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESR due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard X-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at BESSY II. In the first place, extensive simulations were performed for a variety of materials and absorber geometries using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a 7 T wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in an absorber with a gold base 500 μm in thickness, inclined by 30°, and a cylindrical shell made of copper 80 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused mainly by fluorescence. The absorber was manufactured at PTB by means of electroforming and was implemented into an existing ESR. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative uncertainties below 1%.

  2. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Chiu, Jeng-Lun; Clavel, Maïca; Krivonos, Roman A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hong, JaeSub [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz; Corral-Santana, Jesús [Instituto de Astrofísica and Centro de Astroingeniería, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, K. Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bodaghee, Arash [Georgia College, 231 W. Hancock Street, Milledgeville, GA 31061 (United States); Alexander, David M. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Barret, Didier [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, 9 Av. colonel Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Christensen, Finn E., E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [DTU Space—National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); and others

    2017-04-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively. In the area of deepest coverage, sensitivity limits of 5 × 10{sup −14} and 4 × 10{sup −14} erg s{sup −1} cm{sup −2} in the 3–10 and 10–20 keV bands, respectively, are reached. Twenty-eight sources are firmly detected, and 10 are detected with low significance; 8 of the 38 sources are expected to be active galactic nuclei. The three brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multiwavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black hole binary, and a plurality of cataclysmic variables (CVs). The CV candidates in the Norma region have plasma temperatures of ≈10–20 keV, consistent with the Galactic ridge X-ray emission spectrum but lower than the temperatures of CVs near the Galactic center. This temperature difference may indicate that the Norma region has a lower fraction of intermediate polars relative to other types of CVs compared to the Galactic center. The NuSTAR log N –log S distribution in the 10–20 keV band is consistent with the distribution measured by Chandra at 2–10 keV if the average source spectrum is assumed to be a thermal model with kT  ≈ 15 keV, as observed for the CV candidates.

  3. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibaud, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17498-2921, during the observations performed from 2011-08-11 22:45 to 2011-08-12 05:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a preliminary significance level of 11 and 9 sigma in the 20-40 keV and 40-80 keV energy bands......, respectively. The corresponding fluxes are 19+/-2 and 23+/-3 mCrab (68% c.l., only statistical). The best determined source position is at RA=17:49:49; DEC=-29:21:14 (J2000) with a 90% confinement radius of 2.3 arcmin. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum (exposure time 15.9 ks) can be well described by a a power...

  4. High spatial resolution hard X-ray microscope using X-ray refractive lens and phase contrast imaging experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Takeuchi, A; Takano, H; Suzuki, Y; Ishikawa, T; Ohigashi, T; Yokosuka, H

    2001-01-01

    A high spatial resolution X-ray microscope was constructed using an X-ray refractive lens as an objective. The spatial resolution was tested using 18 keV X-ray. A 0.4 mu m line and 0.4 mu m space tantalum test pattern was successfully resolved. Using the similar setup with the addition of a phase plate, a Zernike type phase-contrast microscopy experiment was carried out for the phase retrieval of the samples. Two-dimensional phase-contrast images were successfully taken for the first time in the hard X-ray region. Images of a gold mesh sample were analyzed and the validity of this method was indicated. An improvement of the lens, however, is required for the precise phase retrieval of the samples.

  5. Low dose hard x-ray contact microscopy assisted by a photoelectric conversion layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gomella

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hard x-ray contact microscopy provides images of dense samples at resolutions of tens of nanometers. However, the required beam intensity can only be delivered by synchrotron sources. We report on the use of a gold photoelectric conversion layer to lower the exposure dose by a factor of 40 to 50, allowing hard x-ray contact microscopy to be performed with a compact x-ray tube. We demonstrate the method in imaging the transmission pattern of a type of hard x-ray grating that cannot be fitted into conventional x-ray microscopes due to its size and shape. Generally the method is easy to implement and can record images of samples in the hard x-ray region over a large area in a single exposure, without some of the geometric constraints associated with x-ray microscopes based on zone-plate or other magnifying optics.

  6. Balloon-borne hard x-ray imaging observations of non-thermal phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunieda, Hideyo

    2006-06-01

    Non-thermal phenomena is now-a-days recognized as an important half of the energetics of the Universe. Hard X-ray emission from energetic particles is the most important clue to investigate the non-thermal phenomena. Hard X-ray imaging telescopes are known to improve the sensitivity of hard X-ray observations dramatically. Since hard X-rays above 25 keV can be observed at the altitude of 40 km, we are performing hard X-ray imaging balloon experiments as the path finders of future satellite missions of hard X-ray imaging. Major fields we are looking into are non-thermal components from SNR and Cluster of galaxies and the power law components from AGN even with thick column. The former are related to acceleration mechanisms of high energy particles responsible for hard X-ray power law components. The latter is the complete search of emission from massive blackholes which contribute most to the cosmic X-ray background. Our current balloon programs are InFOCμS experiment and SUMIT project. NeXT is the hard X-ray imaging mission proposed as the next Japanese X-ray mission.

  7. Characteristics of hard X-ray double sources in impulsive solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, T.; Kosugi, T.; Masuda, S.; Yaji, K.; Inda-Koide, M.; Makishima, K.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging observations of solar flare hard X-ray sources with the Hard X-ray Telescope (HXT) aboard the Yohkoh satellite have revealed that hard X-ray emissions (greater than 30 ke V) originate most frequently from double sources. The double sources are located on both sides of the magnetic neutral line, suggesting that the bulk of hard X-rays is emitted from footpoints of flaring magnetic loops. We also found that hard X-rays from the double sources are emitted simultaneously within a fraction of second and that the weaker source tends to be located in the stronger magnetic field region, showing a softer spectrum. Physcial implications on the observed characteristics of the hard X-ray double sources are discussed.

  8. Flares from a new Integral hard X-ray source, IGR J17407-2808 likely associated with the ROSAT source SBM 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmar, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Hermsen, W.; Ubertini, P.; Winkler, C.; Brandt, S.; Diehl, R.

    2004-01-01

    On Oct 9, 2004 Integral observed hard X-ray flares from a source located at R.A.=17h 40.7m, Dec.=-28s 08' (J2000, error radius 2.3'). This new hard X-ray source, IGRJ17407-2808, is positionally coincident with a faint ROSAT source listed as no. 10 in the catalogue of sources in the Galactic Center

  9. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-01-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK μW -1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  10. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard X-ray range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Muller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig and Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK {mu}W{sup -1} and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%. (authors)

  11. Cryogenic radiometry in the hard x-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, M.; Krumrey, M.; Cibik, L.; Müller, P.; Rabus, H.; Ulm, G.

    2008-10-01

    For many applications in radiometry, spectroscopy or astrophysics, absolute measurement of radiant power with low uncertainty is essential. Cryogenic electrical substitution radiometers (ESRs) are regarded as the highest-accuracy primary standard detector in radiometry, from the infrared to the ultraviolet region; in combination with tuneable monochromatized synchrotron radiation from electron storage rings, their range of operation has been extended to the soft x-ray region. ESRs are absolute thermal detectors, based on the equivalence of electrical power and radiant power that can be traced back to electrical SI units and be measured with low uncertainties. Their core piece is a cavity absorber, which is typically made of copper to achieve a short response time suitable for use with synchrotron radiation. At higher photon energies, the use of copper prevents the operation of ESRs due to increasing transmittance. A new absorber design for hard x-rays has been developed at the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) at the electron storage ring BESSY II. The Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4 was applied to optimize its absorptance for photon energies of up to 60 keV, resulting in a cavity absorber with a gold base and a cylindrical shell made of copper, in combination with a thermal sensitivity of around 150 mK µW-1 and a time constant of less than 3 min, which is short compared with the lifetime of many hours for the storage ring current. The measurement of the radiant power of monochromatized synchrotron radiation was achieved with relative standard uncertainties of less than 0.2%, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was used to calibrate silicon photodiodes against the ESR for photon energies up to 60 keV with relative standard uncertainties below 0.3%.

  12. Unification of Active Galactic Nuclei at X-rays and soft gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Volker

    2010-01-01

    from the observation of a fundamental plane which connects type 1 and type 2 objects smoothly (Beckmann et al. 2009d). In addition, in the case of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy MCG-05-23-016 I showed that the spectral energy distribution of this source and its accretion rate is similar to that of a Galactic binary (Beckmann et al. 2008a). Throughout the studies I have shown that the intrinsic spectral shape appears to be very stable on weeks to year time scale (Beckmann et al. 2004d, 2005b, 2007b, 2008a). This implies that the overall geometry of the AGN over these time scales did not change dramatically. The variations in intensity can then be explained in two ways: either the amount of material emitting the hard X-rays varies, or the amount of plasma visible to the observer varied, e.g. through different orientation of the disk with respect to the observer. In an upcoming paper we will show though, that NGC 4151 indeed also shows different spectral states, similar to the low-hard versus high-soft spectra in Galactic black hole binaries (Lubinski et al. 2010). A similar result seems to emerge from our INTEGRAL studies on NGC 2110 (Beckmann and Do Cao 2011). For INTEGRAL's AO-8 I have submitted a proposal in order to study spectral states in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2992, which seems to show a state change over the past 5 years as seen in Swift/BAT long term monitoring. The work on the luminosity function of AGN at hardest X-rays (Beckmann et al. 2006d) had a large impact on our understanding of the cosmic X-ray background. As this was the first study of its kind, it showed for the first time that indeed the fraction of highly obscured Compton thick AGN is much lower than expected before the launch of INTEGRAL and Swift. The X-ray luminosity function we revealed is indeed not consistent with the source population seen by INTEGRAL (Beckmann et al. 2006a, 2009d; Sazonov et al. 2007) and Swift (Tueller et al. 2008) being the only contributors to the cosmic hard X-ray background

  13. Experimental study on hard X-ray generation of relativistic electron beams in azimuthal magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Fan Ya Jun; Qiu Aici

    2002-01-01

    Experimental study on hard X-ray generation was carried out on Flash 2 accelerator, with the method of relativistic electron beams transported in a low pressure gas via azimuthal magnetic field and interacted with Ta target. At 47 cm transporting distance, the measured areal integral of hard X-ray dose rate was 2.1 x 10 sup 1 sup 0 Gy centre dot cm sup 2 /s, total areal integral of hard X-ray dose was 1843 Gy centre dot cm sup 2 , and X-ray convert rate was 108 Gy centre dot cm sup 2 /kJ

  14. Production of Loop-Top Hard X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, James A.; Seaquist, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The main goal of this work has been to understand the particle acceleration mechanism (or mechanisms) in impulsive solar flares, using hard X-ray observations of high spatial and spectral resolution. Several new observations, including the observations by YOHKOH that reveal emission from both footpoints and loop tops, have suggested to us that a model employing stochastic acceleration is the most likely candidate for explaining energetic particles in a majority (if not all) of impulsive flares. In this model, most of the flare energy is initially converted into plasma waves and turbulence, which in turn can accelerate particles from thermal to relativistic energies on sub-second timescales. This research has provided important tools for the interpretation of the high spectral and spatial resolution observations obtained from the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) . In the course of our research, we have focused on two different (but possibly related) stochastic acceleration models: (1) a model that employs high-frequency whistler turbulence and concentrates on the energetic electrons, and (2) a model that employs low frequency MHD waves, and is able to accelerate both the ambient electrons and ions.

  15. The nature of 50 Palermo Swift-BAT hard X-ray objects through optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A. F.; Masetti, N.; Minniti, D.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Hau, G.; McBride, V. A.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Galaz, G.; Gavignaud, I.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Morelli, L.; Palazzi, E.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present the nature of 50 hard X-ray emitting objects unveiled through an optical spectroscopy campaign performed at seven telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres. These objects were detected with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instrument onboard the Swift satellite and listed as of unidentified nature in the 54-month Palermo BAT catalogue. In detail, 45 sources in our sample are identified as active galactic nuclei of which, 27 are classified as type 1 (with broad and narrow emission lines) and 18 are classified as type 2 (with only narrow emission lines). Among the broad-line emission objects, one is a type 1 high-redshift quasi-stellar object, and among the narrow-line emission objects, one is a starburst galaxy, one is a X-ray bright optically normal galaxy, and one is a low ionization nuclear emission line region. We report 30 new redshift measurements, 13 confirmations and 2 more accurate redshift values. The remaining five objects are galactic sources: three are Cataclismic Variables, one is a X-ray Binary probably with a low mass secondary star, and one is an active star. Based on observations obtained from the following observatories: Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (Chile); Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy); Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (San Pedro Mártir, Mexico); Radcliffe telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (Sutherland, South Africa); Sloan Digital Sky Survey; Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Canary Islands, Spain) and New Technology Telescope (NTT) of La Silla Observatory, Chile.

  16. Swift/XRT detection of an active X-ray transient near the Galactic center

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, N.; Wijnands, R.; Reynolds, M.T.; Miller, J.M.; Kennea, J.A.; Gehrels, N.

    2013-01-01

    Daily monitoring observations of the Galactic center performed with the Swift/XRT (Atel #5006; see link below) reveal that in addition to the new magnetar SGR J1745-29 (Atels #5009,#5011, #5020, #5032, #5037, #5046, #5053; Kennea et al. 2013; Mori et al. 2013) a transient X-ray source located ~20"

  17. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  18. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope 57 Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  19. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  20. A new hard X-ray transient discovered by INTEGRAL: IGR J17559-2612

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esposito, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Bozzo, E.

    2012-01-01

    INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray transient, IGR J17559-2612, during the Galactic center observations performed from 2012-08-14 00:02:14 to 2012-08-14 14:45:54 UTC. The source is detected in the IBIS/ISGRI mosaic at a significance level of 8 σ (observation good time: 50 ks) both in the 20-40 ke....../ISGRI spectrum can be described (χ2red/d.o.f.=0.4 for 8 d.o.f.) by a power-law (Γ=1.6 ± 0.3, uncertainty at 90% c.l.). The 20-100 keV flux estimated from the spectral fit is 3.0 × 10-10 erg/s/cm2 (18 mCrab). Multi-wavelength follow-up observations are encouraged to unveil the nature of this transient....

  1. INTEGRAL discovered a new hard X-ray source: IGRJ17511-3057

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldovin, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Ferrigno, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the latest observations of the Galactic Bulge monitoring (see ATel #438), carried out between 2009-09-12 03:21:34 and 2009-09-12 05:27:22 (UTC), INTEGRAL discovered a new bright hard X-ray source, which we designate IGRJ17511-3057. The source is detected in the INTEGRAL/IBIS mosaic image...... by a single power-law with photon index 2.0+/-0.2. The source flux is 5.7e-10 erg/cm2/s in the 3-20 keV energy band and 4.8e-10 erg/cm2/s in the 20-100 keV energy band....

  2. AN XMM-NEWTON SURVEY OF THE SOFT X-RAY BACKGROUND. III. THE GALACTIC HALO X-RAY EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, David B.; Shelton, Robin L.

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of the Galactic halo's X-ray emission for 110 XMM-Newton sight lines selected to minimize contamination from solar wind charge exchange emission. We detect emission from few million degree gas on ∼4/5 of our sight lines. The temperature is fairly uniform (median = 2.22 × 10 6 K, interquartile range = 0.63 × 10 6 K), while the emission measure and intrinsic 0.5-2.0 keV surface brightness vary by over an order of magnitude (∼(0.4-7) × 10 –3 cm –6 pc and ∼(0.5-7) × 10 –12 erg cm –2 s –1 deg –2 , respectively, with median detections of 1.9 × 10 –3 cm –6 pc and 1.5 × 10 –12 erg cm –2 s –1 deg –2 , respectively). The high-latitude sky contains a patchy distribution of few million degree gas. This gas exhibits a general increase in emission measure toward the inner Galaxy in the southern Galactic hemisphere. However, there is no tendency for our observed emission measures to decrease with increasing Galactic latitude, contrary to what is expected for a disk-like halo morphology. The measured temperatures, brightnesses, and spatial distributions of the gas can be used to place constraints on models for the dominant heating sources of the halo. We provide some discussion of such heating sources, but defer comparisons between the observations and detailed models to a later paper

  3. Recurrent pulse trains in the solar hard X-ray flare of 1980 June 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiplinger, A.L.; Dennis, B.R.; Frost, K.J.; Orwig, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of the solar hard X-ray and γ-ray flare of 1980 June 7 as seen by the Hard X-Ray Burst Spectrometer on SMM. The hard X-ray profile is most unusual in that it is characterized by an initial pulse train of seven intense hard X-ray spikes. However, the event is unique among the 6300 events observed by HXRBS in that the temporal signature of this pulse train recurs twice during the flare. Such signatures of temporal stability in impulsive solar flares have not been observed before. Examinations of the hard X-ray data in conjunction with radio and γ-ray observations show that the 28--480 keV X-ray emission is simultaneous with the 17 GHz microwave fluxes within 128 ms and that the 3.5--6.5 MeV prompt γ-ray line emission is coincident with secondary maxima of the microwave and X-ray fluxes. Studies of the temporal and spectral properties of the pulses indicate that the pulses are not produced by purely reversible processes, and that if the source is oscillatory, it is not a high quality oscillator. Although the absence of spatially resolved hard X-ray observations leaves other possibilities open, a parameterization of the event as a set of seven sequentially firing loops is presented that offers many satisfying explanations of the observations

  4. Multiwavelength classification of Galactic X-ray sources using machine-learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jeremy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George G.; Posselt, Bettina; Volkov, Igor

    2018-01-01

    Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories have detected a large number of Galactic sources serendipitously. The X-ray properties of these sources are extracted and placed into catalogs where they remain largely unexplored. These rich datasets hold excellent potential for population studies of various types of astrophysical sources and may also hide rare source types, which we are yet to discover. However, X-ray data alone is often not enough to classify these sources and multiwavelength data must be used. We have developed a multiwavelength machine-learning pipeline (MUWCLASS), which uses a rich training dataset (of about 10,000 sources of known types) to classify X-ray sources. We describe the pipeline, training dataset, and verification and validation procedures used to build the pipeline. We then present and discuss the results of the classifications of X-ray sources, as well as the code's performance in multiple example environments, including dwarf galaxies, stellar clusters, SNRs, unidentified TeV sources, and a wide Galactic disk field.

  5. Spectroscopic classification of X-ray sources in the Galactic Bulge Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wevers, T.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Nelemans, G.; Heinke, C.; Mata Sánchez, D.; Johnson, C. B.; Gazer, R.; Steeghs, D. T. H.; Maccarone, T. J.; Hynes, R. I.; Casares, J.; Udalski, A.; Wetuski, J.; Britt, C. T.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2017-10-01

    We present the classification of 26 optical counterparts to X-ray sources discovered in the Galactic Bulge Survey. We use (time-resolved) photometric and spectroscopic observations to classify the X-ray sources based on their multiwavelength properties. We find a variety of source classes, spanning different phases of stellar/binary evolution. We classify CX21 as a quiescent cataclysmic variable (CV) below the period gap, and CX118 as a high accretion rate (nova-like) CV. CXB12 displays excess UV emission, and could contain a compact object with a giant star companion, making it a candidate symbiotic binary or quiescent low-mass X-ray binary (although other scenarios cannot be ruled out). CXB34 is a magnetic CV (polar) that shows photometric evidence for a change in accretion state. The magnetic classification is based on the detection of X-ray pulsations with a period of 81 ± 2 min. CXB42 is identified as a young stellar object, namely a weak-lined T Tauri star exhibiting (to date unexplained) UX Ori-like photometric variability. The optical spectrum of CXB43 contains two (resolved) unidentified double-peaked emission lines. No known scenario, such as an active galactic nucleus or symbiotic binary, can easily explain its characteristics. We additionally classify 20 objects as likely active stars based on optical spectroscopy, their X-ray to optical flux ratios and photometric variability. In four cases we identify the sources as binary stars.

  6. OSO-7 observations of high galactic latitude x-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markert, T.H.; Canizares, C.R.; Clark, G.W.; Li, F.K.; Northridge, P.L.; Sprott, G.F.; Wargo, G.F.

    1976-01-01

    Six hundred days of observations by the MIT X-ray detectors aboard OSO-7 have been analyzed. All-sky maps of X-ray intensity have been constructed from these data. A sample map is displayed. Seven sources with galactic latitude vertical-barb/subi//subi/vertical-bar>10degree, discovered during the mapping process, are reported, and upper limits are set on other high-latitude sources. The OSO-7 results are compared with those of Uhuru and an implication of this comparison, that many of the high-latitude sources may be variable, is discussed

  7. On the contribution of active galactic nuclei to the diffuse X-ray background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1978-01-01

    We show that cosmological evolution has a pronounced effect on the contributions of active galactic nuclei to the diffuse x-ray background. We find the dependence of such contributions on the form and amount of density evolution, on the deceleration parameter, and on the formation epoch. We find in particular that x-ray Seyferts can account for all of the observed 2-10 keV background when the effects of evolution are considered; the required amount of evolution is intermediate between the evolution of quasars and no evolution. (orig.) [de

  8. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  9. X-Ray Emission from Active Galactic Nuclei with Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, G. C.; Mathur, S.; Griffiths, R. E.; Rao, A. R.

    2008-12-01

    We present a systematic X-ray study of eight active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with intermediate-mass black holes (MBH ~ 8-95 × 104 M⊙) based on 12 XMM-Newton observations. The sample includes the two prototype AGNs in this class—NGC 4395 and POX 52 and six other AGNs discovered with the Sloan Digitized Sky Survey. These AGNs show some of the strongest X-ray variability, with the normalized excess variances being the largest and the power density break timescales being the shortest observed among radio-quiet AGNs. The excess-variance-luminosity correlation appears to depend on both the BH mass and the Eddington luminosity ratio. The break timescale-black hole mass relations for AGN with IMBHs are consistent with that observed for massive AGNs. We find that the FWHM of the Hβ/Hα line is uncorrelated with the BH mass, but shows strong anticorrelation with the Eddington luminosity ratio. Four AGNs show clear evidence for soft X-ray excess emission (kTin ~ 150-200 eV). X-ray spectra of three other AGNs are consistent with the presence of the soft excess emission. NGC 4395 with lowest L/LEdd lacks the soft excess emission. Evidently small black mass is not the primary driver of strong soft X-ray excess emission from AGNs. The X-ray spectral properties and optical-to-X-ray spectral energy distributions of these AGNs are similar to those of Seyfert 1 galaxies. The observed X-ray/UV properties of AGNs with IMBHs are consistent with these AGNs being low-mass extensions of more massive AGNs, those with high Eddington luminosity ratio looking more like narrow-line Seyfert 1 s and those with low L/LEdd looking more like broad-line Seyfert 1 galaxies.

  10. Study of minimizing X-ray source region of calcium and phosphorous in hard tissue by X-ray microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Tsuneyoshi; Egawa, Kaoru; Nonaka, Naoko; Takiguchi, Reiji

    1999-01-01

    X-ray microprobe analysis (XMA) is the best method at present to analyze the quantitative concentration of calcium (Ca) or phosphorous (P) in hard tissues. However, the analytic area on intertubular dentin was not larger than the X-ray source region of Ca or P under the usual conditions of the XMA system. In this study, we considered reduction of the X-ray source region. XMA was conducted using a S-2500 CX scanning electron microscope (SEM: Hitachi, Tokyo, Japan) fitted with a Quantum delta IV energy-dispersive X-ray analytical system (EDX: Kevex, San Carlos, USA). We observed changes in X-ray source region with accelerated voltages (ACC. voltage) of SEM, and changes in analytic contents in a sample surface at various tilt angles. Consequently, the analytic area was able to be decreased on a sample surface at a tilt angle of 27.5 deg under a lower ACC. voltage of SEM. Actually, we analyzed Ca and P in the incisor rat dentin surface at the tilt angle 27.5 deg. Analytic portions were intertubular or peritubular dentin on the labial side in an incisor dentin. In this case, the SEM was operated at 7, 10 and 15 kV ACC. voltage with a 0.1 nA probe current. Then, XMAs were conducted for quantitative Ca and P in the intertubular and peritubular dentin on the lingual, proximal, distal, and labial sides in the incisor dentin. Though an ACC. voltage of 7 kV was able to obtain the most exact concentration in the results for intertubular or peritubular dentin, there was no significant difference against measurement values with 10 kV. The Ca content in the peritubular dentin on the labial side was higher than the measured value of peritubular dentin on the lingual side. (author)

  11. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10(13) photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  12. The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) for the ASTRO-H Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Goro; Kokubun, Motohide; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Enoto, Teruaki; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Harayama, Atsushi; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kataoka, Jun; Katsuta, Junichiro; Kawaharada, Madoka; Laurent, Philippe; Lebrun, François; Limousin, Olivier; Makishima, Kazuo; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Mori, Kunishiro; Nakamori, Takeshi; Noda, Hirofumi; Odaka, Hirokazu; Ohno, Masanori; Ohta, Masayuki; Saito, Shinya; Sato, Rie; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Takeda, Shinichiro; Terada, Yukikatsu; Uchiyama, Hideki; Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Watanabe, Shin; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yatsu, Yoichi; Yuasa, Takayuki

    2014-07-01

    The 6th Japanese X-ray satellite, ASTRO-H, is scheduled for launch in 2015. The hard X-ray focusing imaging system will observe astronomical objects with the sensitivity for detecting point sources with a brightness of 1/100,000 times fainter than the Crab nebula at > 10 keV. The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is a focal plane detector 12 m below the hard X-ray telescope (HXT) covering the energy range from 5 to 80 keV. The HXI is composed of a stacked Si/CdTe semiconductor detector module and surrounding BGO scintillators. The latter work as active shields for efficient reduction of background events caused by cosmic-ray particles, cosmic X-ray background, and in-orbit radiation activation. In this paper, we describe the detector system, and present current status of flight model development, and performance of HXI using an engineering model of HXI.

  13. Time-Resolved Hard X-Ray Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneth Moya; Ian McKennaa; Thomas Keenana; Michael Cuneob

    2007-01-01

    Wired array studies are being conducted at the SNL Z accelerator to maximize the x-ray generation for inertial confinement fusion targets and high energy density physics experiments. An integral component of these studies is the characterization of the time-resolved spectral content of the x-rays. Due to potential spatial anisotropy in the emitted radiation, it is also critical to diagnose the time-evolved spectral content in a space-resolved manner. To accomplish these two measurement goals, we developed an x-ray spectrometer using a set of high-speed detectors (silicon PIN diodes) with a collimated field-of-view that converged on a 1-cm-diameter spot at the pinch axis. Spectral discrimination is achieved by placing high Z absorbers in front of these detectors. We built two spectrometers to permit simultaneous different angular views of the emitted radiation. Spectral data have been acquired from recent Z shots for the radial and polar views. UNSPEC1 has been adapted to analyze and unfold the measured data to reconstruct the x-ray spectrum. The unfold operator code, UFO2, is being adapted for a more comprehensive spectral unfolding treatment

  14. Spectral Variability in Hard X-rays and the Evidence for a 13.5 Years ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    A single power law fit in the X-ray and gamma ray energy bands points to a common origin of these photons and the absence of spectral break around 1 MeV as suggested in literature. We have reanalyzed the available data to study the temporal variability of the spectrum in the hard X-ray band. Our analysis reveals that.

  15. Surface roughness-aided hard X-ray emission from carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A clear enhancement in the low to moderately high-energy. X-rays has been noticed. In this report, we present a highly efficient, low-debris hard X-ray source based on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) irradiated by intense, femtosecond laser. In the process we also demonstrate the critical role of surface roughness ...

  16. Hard X-ray dose intensity and spatial distribution in a plasma focus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the present study, X-ray emission dose characteristics from a small Mather-type PF device in various pressures of argon as the operating gas were studied. The PF device was pow- ered by a 12 µF capacitor at 25 kV charging voltage. Time-integrated hard X-ray (HXR) emission was investigated using ...

  17. Surface roughness-aided hard X-ray emission from carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Efficient low debris hard X-ray source based on multiwalled carbon nan- otubes (MWNT) irradiated by intense, femtosecond laser over an intensity range of 1015–. 1017 W cm−2 µm2 is reported. The MWNT targets yield two orders of magnitude higher. X-rays (indicating significant enhancement of laser coupling) ...

  18. Hard X-ray brightening of Ginga 1843+009 seen by INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyder, J.-C.; Chenevez, Jérôme; Fiocchi, M.T.

    2005-01-01

    The transient X-ray pulsar, Ginga 1843+009, appears to be undergoing a hard X-ray outburst brighter than the one reported in May 2003 (ATEL #159). The source has been observed during ISWT observations of the Scutum Arm region with INTEGRAL and was first detected when the source was in the field o...

  19. THE EFFECTS OF X-RAY FEEDBACK FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI ON HOST GALAXY EVOLUTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hambrick, D. Clay; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Johansson, Peter H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodynamic simulations of galaxies with active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have typically employed feedback that is purely local, i.e., an injection of energy to the immediate neighborhood of the black hole (BH). We perform GADGET-2 simulations of massive elliptical galaxies with an additional feedback component: an observationally calibrated X-ray radiation field which emanates from the BH and heats gas out to large radii from the galaxy center. We find that including the heating and radiation pressure associated with this X-ray flux in our simulations enhances the effects which are commonly reported from AGN feedback. This new feedback model is twice as effective as traditional feedback at suppressing star formation, produces three times less star formation in the last 6 Gyr, and modestly lowers the final BH mass (30%). It is also significantly more effective than an X-ray background in reducing the number of satellite galaxies.

  20. AN OSCILLATOR CONFIGURATION FOR FULL REALIZATION OF HARD X-RAY FREE ELECTRON LASER*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.-J.; Kolodziej, T.; Lindberg, R. R.; Shu, D.; Shvyd' ko, Y.; Stoupin, S.; Maxwell, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Fawley, W. M.; Hastings, J.; Huang, Z; Krzywinski, J.; Marcus, G.; Qin, Weilun; Medvedev, N.; Zemella, J.; Blank, V.; Terentyev, S.

    2017-06-01

    An x-ray free electron laser oscillator (XFELO) is feasible by employing an X-ray cavity with Bragg mirrors such as diamond crystals. An XFELO at the 5th harmonic frequency may be implemented at the LCLS II using its 4 GeV superconducting linac, producing stable, fully coherent, high-spectral-purity hard x-rays. In addition, its output can be a coherent seed to the LCLS amplifier for stable, high-power, femto-second x-ray pulses. We summarize the recent progress in various R&D efforts addressing critical issues for realizing an XFELO at LCLS II.

  1. New Spectral Model for Constraining Torus Covering Factors from Broadband X-Ray Spectra of Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloković, M.; Brightman, M.; Harrison, F. A.; Comastri, A.; Ricci, C.; Buchner, J.; Gandhi, P.; Farrah, D.; Stern, D.

    2018-02-01

    The basic unified model of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) invokes an anisotropic obscuring structure, usually referred to as a torus, to explain AGN obscuration as an angle-dependent effect. We present a new grid of X-ray spectral templates based on radiative transfer calculations in neutral gas in an approximately toroidal geometry, appropriate for CCD-resolution X-ray spectra (FWHM ≥ 130 eV). Fitting the templates to broadband X-ray spectra of AGNs provides constraints on two important geometrical parameters of the gas distribution around the supermassive black hole: the average column density and the covering factor. Compared to the currently available spectral templates, our model is more flexible, and capable of providing constraints on the main torus parameters in a wider range of AGNs. We demonstrate the application of this model using hard X-ray spectra from NuSTAR (3–79 keV) for four AGNs covering a variety of classifications: 3C 390.3, NGC 2110, IC 5063, and NGC 7582. This small set of examples was chosen to illustrate the range of possible torus configurations, from disk-like to sphere-like geometries with column densities below, as well as above, the Compton-thick threshold. This diversity of torus properties challenges the simple assumption of a standard geometrically and optically thick toroidal structure commonly invoked in the basic form of the unified model of AGNs. Finding broad consistency between our constraints and those from infrared modeling, we discuss how the approach from the X-ray band complements similar measurements of AGN structures at other wavelengths.

  2. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10 17 W/cm -2 . Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs

  3. Development and characterization of a laser-based hard x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillman, C.

    1996-11-01

    A laser-produced plasma was generated by focusing 100 fs laser pulses, with an energy of 150 mJ, onto metal targets. The laser intensity was expected to reach 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup -2}. Radiation was emitted from the created plasma, with photon energies up to the MeV region. The laser-based X-ray source was optimized, with the purpose of making it a realistic source of hard X-rays (>10 keV). Dedicated equipment was developed for efficient generation and utilization of the hard X-rays. The X-ray source was characterized with respect to its spatial extent and the X-ray yield. Measurements were made of the spectral distribution, by the use of single-photon-counting detectors in different geometries, crystal spectrometers and dose measurements in combination with absorption filters. Ablation of the target material in the laser produced plasma was investigated. Imaging applications have been demonstrated, including ultrafast (picosecond) X-ray imaging, magnification imaging of up to x80, differential imaging in the spectral domain, and imaging of various biological and technical objects. The biological response of ultra-intense X-ray pulses was assessed in cell-culture exposures. The results indicate that the biological response from ultra-intense X-ray exposures is similar to the response with conventional X-ray tubes. 82 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Hard disk drive based microsecond x-ray chopper for characterization of ionization chambers and photodiodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Müller, O., E-mail: o.mueller@uni-wuppertal.de; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Frahm, R. [Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gaußstraße 20, Wuppertal 42119 (Germany)

    2015-03-15

    A fast X-ray chopper capable of producing ms long X-ray pulses with a typical rise time of few μs was realized. It is ideally suited to investigate the temporal response of X-ray detectors with response times of the order of μs to ms, in particular, any kind of ionization chambers and large area photo diodes. The drive mechanism consists of a brushless DC motor and driver electronics from a common hard disk drive, keeping the cost at an absolute minimum. Due to its simple construction and small dimensions, this chopper operates at home lab based X-ray tubes and synchrotron radiation sources as well. The dynamics of the most important detectors used in time resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy, namely, ionization chambers and Passivated Implanted Planar Silicon photodiodes, were investigated in detail. The results emphasize the applicability of this X-ray chopper.

  5. X-ray induced stellar mass loss near active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voit, G.M.; Shull, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of UV and X-ray radiation on stars in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are critically evaluated. Mass loss rates in X-ray-induced winds are evaluated for realistic red giant models, and the effects of the ablation of stellar envelopes by radiation pressure are considered. The importance of X-ray-induced mass loss in the standard quasar model is evaluated and whether it can provide a source of accretion fuel or emission-line clouds is discussed. It is concluded that thermal winds driven by X-ray heating are a minor total supply of mass to AGN, but that thermal plus line-driven winds and stellar ablation may increase the mass loss and improve the chances for supplying a fraction of the necessary mass supply to the central object. It is speculated that when steady winds are inefficient, complex time-dependent processes due to X-ray energy injection deep into a stellar atmosphere could still release significant mass from stars. 49 references

  6. Flares from a new Integral hard X-ray source, IGR J17407-2808, likely associated with the ROSAT source SBM 10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kretschmar, P.; Mereghetti, S.; Hermsen, W.

    2004-01-01

    This new hard X-ray source, IGR J17407-2808, is positionally coincident with a faint ROSAT source listed as no. 10 in the catalogue of sources in the Galactic Center region by Sidoli, Belloni & Mereghetti 2001, A&A 368, 835 and as 2RXP J174040.9-280852 in the ROSAT Source Browser. No other observ...

  7. Observation of bio-fibres with a hard x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youn, Hwa Shik

    2009-01-01

    PLS (Pohang Light Source) hard x-ray microscope is briefly introduced. Zernike phase contrast is evaluated with images of polymer structures with various thicknesses. Images of bio-fibres taken with Zernike phase contrast are shown

  8. Adaptive Lobster-Eye Hard X-Ray Telescope, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA needs for hard X-ray telescopes for starlight detection and wavefront analysis, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop an Adjustable...

  9. Hard X-ray intensity reduction during lower hybrid current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlynar, J.; Stoeckel, J.; Magula, P.

    1993-01-01

    A strong hard X-ray intensity reduction during a standard LHCD at the CASTOR tokamak was studied. From discussion it followed that the magnetic fluctuations level decrease is likely to be responsible for this effect beside the loop voltage decrease. To verify this idea, the connection between the magnetic fluctuation level and the hard X-ray intensity was studied in a nonstandard LHCD regime with a zero loop voltage reduction. These measurements strongly supported the concept that magnetic fluctuations level substantially influences the runaway electrons cross-field transport. Though, more data and a good code for modelling the anomalous transport and hard X-rays production would be of high value. Similar measurements especially for higher RF power should be carried out soon. Besides, the reduction of hard X-rays was observed in the experiments with edge plasma polarization lately; therefore, the magnetic fluctuations level in these experiments should be studied soon. (author) 6 figs., 6 refs

  10. Non-thermal Hard X-Ray Emission from Coma and Several Abell Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, C

    2004-01-01

    We report results of hard X-Ray observations of the clusters Coma, Abell 496, Abell754, Abell 1060, Abell 1367, Abell2256 and Abell3558 using RXTE data from the NASA HEASARC public archive. Specifically we searched for clusters with hard x-ray emission that can be fitted by a power law because this would indicate that the cluster is a source of non-thermal emission. We are assuming the emission mechanism proposed by Vahk Petrosian where the inter cluster space contains clouds of relativistic electrons that by themselves create a magnetic field and emit radio synchrotron radiation. These relativistic electrons Inverse-Compton scatter Microwave Background photons up to hard x-ray energies. The clusters that were found to be sources of non-thermal hard x-rays are Coma, Abell496, Abell754 and Abell 1060

  11. Fluence thresholds for grazing incidence hard x-ray mirrors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aquila, A.; Sobierajski, R.; Ozkan, C.; Hájková, Věra; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Juha, Libor; Störmer, M.; Bajt, S.; Klepka, M.T.; Dlužewski, P.; Morawiec, K.; Ohashi, H.; Koyama, T.; Tono, K.; Inubushi, Y.; Yabashi, M.; Sinn, H.; Tschentscher, T.; Mancuso, A.P.; Gaudin, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 24 (2015), "241905-1"-"241905-5" ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-29772S Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101221 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : XFEL * Free Electron Laser * damage threshold * X-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.142, year: 2015

  12. Hard X-ray identification of η Carinae and steadiness close to periastron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyder, J.-C.; Walter, R.; Rauw, G.

    2010-12-01

    Context. The colliding-wind binary η Carinae exhibits soft X-ray thermal emission that varies strongly around the periastron passage. It has been found to have non-thermal emission, thanks to its detection in hard X-rays using INTEGRAL and Suzaku, and also in γ-rays with AGILE and Fermi. Aims: This paper attempts to definitively identify η Carinae as the source of the hard X-ray emission, to examine how changes in the 2-10 keV band influence changes in the hard X-ray band, and to understand more clearly the mechanisms producing the non-thermal emission using new INTEGRAL observations obtained close to periastron passage. Methods: To strengthen the identification of η Carinae with the hard X-ray source, a long Chandra observation encompassing the INTEGRAL/ISGRI error circle was analysed, and all other soft X-ray sources (including the outer shell of η Carinae itself) were discarded as likely counter-parts. To expand the knowledge of the physical processes governing the X-ray lightcurve, new hard X-ray images of η Carinae were studied close to periastron, and compared to previous observations far from periastron. Results: The INTEGRAL component, when represented by a power law (with a photon index Γ of 1.8), would produce more emission in the Chandra band than observed from any point source in the ISGRI error circle apart from η Carinae, as long as the hydrogen column density to the ISGRI source is lower than NH ≲ 1024 cm-2. Sources with such a high absorption are very rare, thus the hard X-ray emission is very likely to be associated with η Carinae. The eventual contribution of the outer shell to the non-thermal component also remains fairly limited. Close to periastron passage, a 3-σ detection is achieved for the hard X-ray emission of η Carinae, with a flux similar to the average value far from periastron. Conclusions: Assuming a single absorption component for both the thermal and non-thermal sources, this 3-σ detection can be explained with a

  13. Effect of toroidal mirror on spatial coherence of synchrotron hard X-ray beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hua; Yan Shuai; Yan Fen; Mao Chengwen; Liang Dongxun; He Yan; Jiang Sheng; Li Aiguo; Yu Xiaohan

    2012-01-01

    The Gaussian Schell-model source theory is used to describe the hard X-ray micro focusing beamline with an undulator of the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Based on the model and general Huygens-Fresnel principle, propagation of cross-spectral density function in free space is studied. Equivalent source hypothesis is proposed and the effect of toroidal mirror on spatial coherence of the hard X-ray beams is studied. The theoretical results are consistent with the experimental results. Only divergence angles of the incident and outgoing X-rays are considered in the equivalent source hypothesis, hence an easy extension of the hypothesis to other beamline optical elements. (authors)

  14. Hard X-Ray PHA System on the HT-7 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Shiyao; Shi Yuejiang; Wan Baonian; Chen Zhongyong; Hu Liqun

    2006-01-01

    A new hard X-ray pulse-height analysis (PHA) system has been established on HT-7 tokamak for long pulse steady-state operation. This PHA system consists of hard X-ray diagnostics and multi-channel analysers (MCA). The hard X-ray diagnostics consists of a vertical X-ray detector array (CdTe) and a horizontal X-ray detector array (NaI). The hard X-ray diagnostics can provide the profile of power deposition and the distribution function of fast electron during radio frequency (RF) current drive. The MCA system is the electronic part of the PHA system, which has been modularized and linked to PC through LAN. Each module of MCA can connect with 8 X-ray detectors. The embedded Ethernet adapter in the MCA module makes the data communication between PC and MCA very convenient. A computer can control several modules of MCA through certain software and a hub. The RAM in MCA can store 1024 or more spectra for each detector and therefore the PHA system can be applied in the long pulse discharge of several minutes

  15. 360-degree video and X-ray modeling of the Galactic center's inner parsec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Christopher Michael Post; Wang, Daniel; Cuadra, Jorge

    2017-08-01

    360-degree videos, which render an image over all 4pi steradian, provide a unique and immersive way to visualize astrophysical simulations. Video sharing sites such as YouTube allow these videos to be shared with the masses; they can be viewed in their 360° nature on computer screens, with smartphones, or, best of all, in virtual-reality (VR) goggles. We present the first such 360° video of an astrophysical simulation: a hydrodynamics calculation of the Wolf-Rayet stars and their ejected winds in the inner parsec of the Galactic center. Viewed from the perspective of the super-massive black hole (SMBH), the most striking aspect of the video, which renders column density, is the inspiraling and stretching of clumps of WR-wind material as they makes their way towards the SMBH. We will brielfy describe how to make 360° videos and how to publish them online in their desired 360° format. Additionally we discuss computing the thermal X-ray emission from a suite of Galactic-center hydrodynamic simulations that have various SMBH feedback mechanisms, which are compared to Chandra X-ray Visionary Program observations of the region. Over a 2-5” ring centered on Sgr A*, the spectral shape is well matched, indicating that the WR winds are the dominant source of the thermal X-ray emission. Furthermore, the X-ray flux depends on the SMBH feedback due to the feedback's ability to clear out material from the central parsec. A moderate outburst is necessary to explain the current thermal X-ray flux, even though the outburst ended ˜100 yr ago.

  16. Design of grazing-incidence multilayer supermirrors for hard-X-ray reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K. D.; Voutov, P.; Szentgyorgyi, A.

    1995-01-01

    -X-ray reflector and a hard-X-ray telescope) shows that an improved performance can be obtained. A multilayer whose bilayer thicknesses are given by a power law expression is found to provide the best solution; however, it is only slightly better than some of the adapted neutron designs......Extremely broadband grazing-incidence multilayers for hard-X-ray reflection can be obtained by a gradual change of the layer thicknesses down through the structure. Existing approaches for designing similar neutron optics, called supermirrors, are shown to provide respectable performance when...... applied to X-ray multilayers. However, none of these approaches consider the effects of imperfect layer interfaces and absorption in the overlying layers. Adaptations of neutron designs that take these effects into account are presented, and a thorough analysis of two specific applications (a single hard...

  17. Development and performance of the advanced hard x-ray telescope for the balloon experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Takuya; Shibata, Ryo; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Fukaya, Yoshihiro; Naitou, Masataka; Iwahara, Tomonaga; Shimoda, Kenta; Tamura, Keisuke; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Koujun; Yokoi, Shin; Yoshii, Takuma; Watanabe, Naoya; Namba, Yoshiharu

    2006-06-01

    Imaging observation in the hard X-ray band of 10 - 100 keV is one of the important subjects in X-ray astronomy. Though SUMIT balloon-borne experiment, we have developed thin-foil-nested hard X-ray telescope employing depth-graded Pt/C multilayer (multilayer-supermirror). We have improved production process of the replica reflector and telescope optics compared with InFOCμS-2004 telescope. The new telescope was measured at synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8. The image quality and throughtput were estimated to be 2.06 arcmin (half power diameter) and 85 % at 30 keV, respectively. These values were about 24 % and 30 % improvement compared to InFOCμS-2004, respectively. Limiting factors of its performance are also investigated. Based on such an investigation we are now continuously developing hard X-ray telescope for SUMIT 2006 flight.

  18. An Ultradeep Chandra Catalog of X-Ray Point Sources in the Galactic Center Star Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenlin; Li, Zhiyuan; Morris, Mark R.

    2018-04-01

    We present an updated catalog of X-ray point sources in the inner 500″ (∼20 pc) of the Galactic center (GC), where the nuclear star cluster (NSC) stands, based on a total of ∼4.5 Ms of Chandra observations taken from 1999 September to 2013 April. This ultradeep data set offers unprecedented sensitivity for detecting X-ray sources in the GC, down to an intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosity of 1.0 × 1031 erg s‑1. A total of 3619 sources are detected in the 2–8 keV band, among which ∼3500 are probable GC sources and ∼1300 are new identifications. The GC sources collectively account for ∼20% of the total 2–8 keV flux from the inner 250″ region where detection sensitivity is the greatest. Taking advantage of this unprecedented sample of faint X-ray sources that primarily traces the old stellar populations in the NSC, we revisit global source properties, including long-term variability, cumulative spectra, luminosity function, and spatial distribution. Based on the equivalent width and relative strength of the iron lines, we suggest that in addition to the arguably predominant population of magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs), nonmagnetic CVs contribute substantially to the detected sources, especially in the lower-luminosity group. On the other hand, the X-ray sources have a radial distribution closely following the stellar mass distribution in the NSC, but much flatter than that of the known X-ray transients, which are presumably low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) caught in outburst. This, together with the very modest long-term variability of the detected sources, strongly suggests that quiescent LMXBs are a minor (less than a few percent) population.

  19. Recent results from hard x-ray telescope characterization at SPring-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Takuya; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Iwahara, Tomonaga; Kanou, Yasufumi; Makinae, Youta; Sasaya, Shiori; Ohgi, Takuya; Matsuda, Kenji; Sakai, Michito; Niki, Daisuke; Ishida, Yousuke; Yamane, Koudai; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Kunieda, Hideyo; Yamashita, Koujun; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tamura, Keisuke; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Ishida, Manabu; Okajima, Takashi

    2009-08-01

    We have been developing a hard X-ray imaging telescope with Pt/C multilayers for balloon experiments and for ASTRO-H. Calibration of the hard X-ray telescope has been performed at the synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8, to obtain point spread function and effective area for the InFOCuS and SUMIT experiments. Hard X-ray characterization at the SPring-8 beamline BL20B2 has great advantages over those with conventional sources, such as an extremely high flux, a larger beam with less divergence, and a selectable, narrow bandwidth covering the hard X-ray region from 20 to over 100 keV. We have been successful not only in characterizing the telescope but also in establishing the tuning procedure to improve its image quality. The 16m-long experimental hutch has sufficient capability for characterization of the telescope with a long focal length up to 12 m as well as reflectivity and diffraction measurements of multilayer reflectors. Recently we have measured 87 pairs of multilayer mirrors and obtained an angular resolution of 1.5 arcmin (HPD), and reflectivity of Pt/C multilayers designed for ASTRO-H. In this paper, we report recent results of X-ray measurements of our hard X-ray telescope and multilayer mirrors.

  20. Zone Plates for Hard X-Ray FEL Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, D.; Holmberg, A.; Sinn, H.; Vogt, U.

    2011-09-01

    We investigated theoretically the use of zone plates for the focusing of the European X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL). In a finite-element simulation the heat load on zone plates placed in the high intensity x-ray beam was simulated for four different zone plate materials: gold, iridium, tungsten, and CVD diamond. The main result of the calculations is that all zone plates remain below the melting temperature throughout a full XFEL pulse train of 3000 pulses. However, if the zone plate is placed in the direct beam it will experience large and rapid temperature fluctuations on the order of 300 K. The situation is relaxed if the optic is placed behind a monochromator and the fluctuations are reduced to around 20 K. Besides heat load, the maximization of the total efficiency of the complete optical system is an important issue. We calculated the efficiency of different zone plates and monochromator systems and found that the final beam size of the XFEL in combination with its monochromaticity will be important parameters.

  1. Development of Compton X-ray spectrometer for high energy resolution single-shot high-flux hard X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Sadaoki; Ikenouchi, Takahito; Arikawa, Yasunobu; Sakata, Shohei; Zhang, Zhe; Abe, Yuki; Nakai, Mitsuo; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Azechi, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Tetsuo; Miyamoto, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Takemoto, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    Hard X-ray spectroscopy is an essential diagnostics used to understand physical processes that take place in high energy density plasmas produced by intense laser-plasma interactions. A bundle of hard X-ray detectors, of which the responses have different energy thresholds, is used as a conventional single-shot spectrometer for high-flux (>10 13 photons/shot) hard X-rays. However, high energy resolution (Δhv/hv < 0.1) is not achievable with a differential energy threshold (DET) X-ray spectrometer because its energy resolution is limited by energy differences between the response thresholds. Experimental demonstration of a Compton X-ray spectrometer has already been performed for obtaining higher energy resolution than that of DET spectrometers. In this paper, we describe design details of the Compton X-ray spectrometer, especially dependence of energy resolution and absolute response on photon-electron converter design and its background reduction scheme, and also its application to the laser-plasma interaction experiment. The developed spectrometer was used for spectroscopy of bremsstrahlung X-rays generated by intense laser-plasma interactions using a 200 μm thickness SiO 2 converter. The X-ray spectrum obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer is consistent with that obtained with a DET X-ray spectrometer, furthermore higher certainly of a spectral intensity is obtained with the Compton X-ray spectrometer than that with the DET X-ray spectrometer in the photon energy range above 5 MeV.

  2. X-Ray Timing and Spectral Observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550--564 During Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-11

    Soft X-ray transients (SXTs), a sub-class of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), provide a unique opportunity to test General Relativity and to probe fundamental physics under conditions terrestrially unattainable. SXT outbursts are of great interest because they allow the study of LMXBs under a wide range of accretion rates. The majority of known SXTs contain black holes, therefore SXT outbursts are key to understanding accretion physics around black holes and in active galactic nuclei, which are thought to contain supermassive, M {approx} 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 10} M{circle_dot}, where M{circle_dot} is one solar mass, central compact objects. These compact objects are most likely black holes, which exhibit, on a much larger scale, accretion physics similar to that around black holes in SXTs. In this work, the timing and spectral properties of the SXT and microquasar XTE J1550-564 during outburst are studied. Observations made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) are emphasized. USA data show a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing USA flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the USA hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV). Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) were detected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the USA hardness ratio with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram shows counterclockwise cyclical evolution and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  3. A Hard X-Ray Power-Law Spectral Cutoff in Centaurus X-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Tomsick, John A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.

    2015-01-01

    The low-mass X-ray binary Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (hard power-law tail of unknown...... origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1 x 10^(33) erg/s (for D=1kpc), with around 60...... percent in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X...

  4. Development of microperiodic mirrors for hard x-ray phase-contrast imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael; Moldovan, Nicolae

    2010-01-01

    Differential phase-contrast imaging with hard x rays can have important applications in medicine, material sciences, and energy research. Phase-contrast methods based on microperiodic optics, such as shearing interferometry, are particularly attractive because they allow the use of conventional x-ray tubes. To enable shearing interferometry with x rays up to 100 keV, we propose using grazing-incidence microperiodic mirrors. In addition, a simple lithographic method is proposed for the production of the microperiodic x-ray mirrors, based on the difference in grazing-incidence reflectivity between a low-Z substrate and a high-Z film. Using this method, we produced prototype mirrors with 5-100 μm periods and 90 mm active length. Experimental tests with x rays up to 60 keV indicate good microperiodic mirror reflectivity and high-contrast fringe patterns, encouraging further development of the proposed imaging concept.

  5. Analysis of the 1980 November 18 limb flare observed by the hard X-ray imaging spectrometer (HXIS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, P.; Haug, E.; Elwert, G.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray images of the 18 November 1980 limb flare taken by the HXIS instrument aboard SMM were analysed. The hard X-rays originated from three spots on the SW limb of the solar disk with different altitudes and time evolution. The locations of the brightest spots in hard and soft X-rays are compared

  6. Performance of ASTRO-H Hard X-Ray Telescope (HXT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kunieda, Hideyo; Ishida, Manabu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yohsito; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Itoh, Masayuki; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Japanese X-ray Astronomy Satellite, Hitomi (ASTRO-H) carries hard X-ray imaging system, covering the energy band from 5 keV to 80 keV. The hard X-ray imaging system consists of two hard X-ray telescopes (HXT) and two hard X-ray imagers (HXI). The HXT employs tightly-nested, conically-approximated thin foil Wolter-I optics. The mirror surfaces of HXT were coated with PtC depth-graded multilayers. We carried out ground calibrations of HXTs at the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8 BL20B2 in Japan, and found that total effective area of two HXTs was about 350 sq cm at 30 keV, and the half power diameter of HXT was about 1.9. After the launch of Hitomi, Hitomi observed several targets during the initial functional verification of the onboard instruments. The Hitomi software and calibration team (SCT) provided the Hitomis data of G21.5-0.9, a pulsar wind nebula, to the hardware team for the purpose of the instrument calibration. Through the analysis of the in-flight data, we have confirmed that the X-ray performance of HXTs in orbit was consistent with that estimated by the ground calibrations.

  7. Current status of ASTRO-H Hard X-ray Telescopes (HXTs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Kunieda, Hideyo; Furuzawa, Akihiro; Haba, Yoshito; Hayashi, Takayuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Ishida, Manabu; Itoh, Masayuki; Kosaka, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Miyazawa, Takuya; Mori, Hideyuki; Nagano, Hosei; Namba, Yoshiharu; Ogasaka, Yasushi; Ogi, Keiji; Okajima, Takashi; Sugita, Satoshi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Tamura, Keisuke; Tawara, Yuzuru; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yamashita, Koujun; Yamauchi, Shigeo

    2012-09-01

    ASTRO-H is an international X-ray mission of ISAS/JAXA, which will be launched in 2014. One of the main characteristics of ASTRO-H is imaging spectroscopy in the hard X-ray band above 10 keV. ASTRO-H will carry two identical Hard X-ray telescopes (HXTs), whose mirror surfaces are coated with Pt/C depth-graded multilayers to enhance hard X-ray effective area up to 80 keV. HXT was designed based on the telescope on board the SUMIT balloon borne experiment. After feasibility study of the HXT design, the FM design has been deteremined. Mass production of the mirror shells at Nagoya University has been going on since August 2010, and production of mirror shells for HXT-1 was completed in March 2012. After the integation of X-ray mirrors for HXT-1, we measured hard X-ray performance of selected mirror shells for HXT-1 at a synchrotron radiation facility, SPring-8 beamline BL20B2. We will perform environment tests and ground calibarations at SPring-8 for HXT-1. In HXT-2, foil production is going on.

  8. Soft X-ray focusing Telescope aboard AstroSat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, K. P.; Dewangan, G. C.; Chandra, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Soft X-ray focusing Telescope (SXT) is a moderateresolution X-ray imaging spectrometer supplementing the ultraviolet and hard X-ray payloads for broadband studies of cosmic sources with AstroSat. Well suited for observing bright X-ray sources, SXT observations of nearby active galactic nuclei...

  9. Application of an EMCCD Camera for Calibration of Hard X-Ray Telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Pivovaroff, M. J.; Nagarkar, V. V.

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological innovations now make it feasible to construct hard x-ray telescopes for space-based astronomical missions. Focusing optics are capable of improving the sensitivity in the energy range above 10 keV by orders of magnitude compared to previously used instruments. The last decade...... has seen focusing optics developed for balloon experiments [1] and they will soon be implemented in approved space missions such as the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) [2] and ASTRO-H [3]. The full characterization of x-ray optics for astrophysical and solar imaging missions, including...... of the performance for all NuSTAR optics [7]-[9]. Further optimization will enable similar cameras to be improved and used to calibrate x-ray telescopes for future space missions. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features...

  10. Achieving few-femtosecond time-sorting at hard X-ray free-electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmand, M.; Coffee, R.; Bionta, M. R.; Chollet, M.; French, D.; Zhu, D.; Fritz, D. M.; Lemke, H. T.; Medvedev, N.; Ziaja, B.; Toleikis, S.; Cammarata, M.

    2013-03-01

    Recently, few-femtosecond pulses have become available at hard X-ray free-electron lasers. Coupled with the available sub-10 fs optical pulses, investigations into few-femtosecond dynamics are not far off. However, achieving sufficient synchronization between optical lasers and X-ray pulses continues to be challenging. We report a `measure-and-sort' approach, which achieves sub-10 fs root-mean-squared (r.m.s.) error measurement at hard X-ray FELs, far beyond the 100-200 fs r.m.s. jitter limitations. This timing diagnostic, now routinely available at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), is based on ultrafast free-carrier generation in optically transparent materials. Correlation between two independent measurements enables unambiguous demonstration of ~6 fs r.m.s. error in reporting the optical/X-ray delay, with single shot error suggesting the possibility of reaching few-femtosecond resolution.

  11. Spectral and Timing Investigations of Dwarf Novae Selected in Hard X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensen, John; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2000-01-01

    There are 9 dwarf novae (DN) among the 43 cataclysmic variables (accreting white dwarfs in close binary systems) that were detected during the HEAO-1 all-sky X-ray survey (1977-1979). On the other hand, there are roughly one hundred dwarf novae that are closer and/or optically brighter and yet they were not detected as hard X-ray sources. Two of the HEAO-1 DN show evidence for X-ray pulsations that imply strong magnetic fields on the white dwarf surface, and magnetic CVs are known to be strong X-ray sources. However, substantial flux in hard X-rays may be caused by non-magnetic effects, such as an optically thin boundary layer near a massive white dwarf. We proposed RXTE observations to measure plasma temperatures and to search for X-ray pulsations. The observations would distinguish whether these DN belong to one of (rare) magnetic subclasses. For those that do not show pulsations, the observations support efforts to define empirical relations between X-ray temperature, the accretion rate, and the mass of the white dwarf. The latter is determined via optical studies of the dynamics of the binary constituents.

  12. Hard X-ray Microscopy with Elemental, Chemical and Structural Contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroer, C.G.; Boye, P.; Feldkamp, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    We review hard X-ray microscopy techniques with a focus on scanning microscopy with synchrotron radiation. Its strength compared to other microscopies is the large penetration depth of hard x rays in matter that allows one to investigate the interior of an object without destructive sample preparation. In combination with tomography, local information from inside of a specimen can be obtained, even from inside special non-ambient sample environments. Different X-ray analytical techniques can be used to produce contrast, such as X-ray absorption, fluorescence, and diffraction, to yield chemical, elemental, and structural information about the sample, respectively. This makes X-ray microscopy attractive to many fields of science, ranging from physics and chemistry to materials, geo-, and environmental science, biomedicine, and nanotechnology. Our scanning microscope based on nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses has a routine spatial resolution of about 100 nm and supports the contrast mechanisms mentioned above. In combination with coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, the spatial resolution can be improved to the 10 nm range. The current state-of-the-art of this technique is illustrated by several examples, and future prospects of the technique are given. (author)

  13. Impact of a Vertically Polarized Undulator on LCLS Hard X-ray Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The LCLS-II project will install two variable gap, horizontally polarized undulators into the LCLS undulator hall. One undulator is designed to produce soft x-rays spanning an energy range of 200-1250 eV (SXU) while the other is designed for the hard spectral range of 1-25 keV (HXU). The hard x-ray LCLS instruments (X-ray Pump- Probe [XPP], X-ray correlation Spectroscopy [XCS], Coherent X-ray Imaging [CXI], Matter in Extreme Conditions [MEC]) will be repurposed to operate on the HXU line while two new soft x-ray beamlines will be created for the SXU line. An alternate HXU undulator design is being considered that could provide advantages over the present design choice. In particular, the project team is collaborating with Argonne National Laboratory to develop a vertically polarized undulator (VPU). A 1-m prototype VPU device was successfully constructed this year and a full size prototype is in process. A decision to alter the project baseline, which is the construction of a horizontally polarized device, must be made in the coming weeks to not impact the present project schedule. Please note that a change to the soft x-ray undulator is not under discussion at the moment.

  14. Hard x-ray microscopy and tomography at the ALS: Experiments and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.; Howells, M.R.; Feng, J.; Celestree, R.; MacDowell, A.A.; Padmore, H.A.; Chang, C.-H.; Spence, J.

    2000-01-01

    A hard x-ray imaging microscope with a spatial resolution of 0.12 μm was developed and tested using synchrotron radiation. The microscope can be operated in either dark-field or bright-field mode. Phase contrast is employed in the dark-field mode while absorption contrast is used in the bright-field mode. The objective of the x-ray microscope is a phase zone plate fabricated using a x-ray lithographic technique. We describe the hardware of the microscope and present the results obtained from the microscope. Its potential applications will also be discussed

  15. Hard x-ray emission spectroscopy: a powerful tool for the characterization of magnetic semiconductors

    OpenAIRE

    Rovezzi, Mauro; Glatzel, Pieter

    2013-01-01

    This review aims to introduce the x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) and resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) techniques to the materials scientist working with magnetic semiconductors (e.g. semiconductors doped with 3d transition metals) for applications in the field of spin-electronics. We focus our attention on the hard part of the x-ray spectrum (above 3 keV) in order to demonstrate a powerful element- and orbital-selective characterization tool in the study of bulk electronic struct...

  16. ORIGIN OF THE GALACTIC DIFFUSE X-RAY EMISSION: IRON K-SHELL LINE DIAGNOSTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi [Department of Teacher Training and School Education, Nara University of Education, Takabatake-cho, Nara, 630-8528 (Japan); Uchiyama, Hideki [Faculty of Education, Shizuoka University, 836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka, 422-8529 (Japan); Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Koyama, Katsuji [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8502 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shigeo, E-mail: nobukawa@nara-edu.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Nara Women’s University, Kitauoyanishimachi, Nara, 630-8506 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    This paper reports detailed K-shell line profiles of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) of the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE), Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs), non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (non-mCVs), and coronally Active Binaries (ABs). For the study of the origin of the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE, the spectral analysis is focused on equivalent widths of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α  lines. The global spectrum of the GBXE is reproduced by a combination of the mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs spectra. On the other hand, the GRXE spectrum shows significant data excesses at the Fe i-K α and Fe xxv-He α  line energies. This means that additional components other than mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs are required, which have symbiotic phenomena of cold gas and very high-temperature plasma. The GCXE spectrum shows larger excesses than those found in the GRXE spectrum at all the K-shell lines of iron and nickel. Among them the largest ones are the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , Fe xxvi-Ly α , and Fe xxvi-Ly β  lines. Together with the fact that the scale heights of the Fe i-K α , Fe xxv-He α , and Fe xxvi-Ly α lines are similar to that of the central molecular zone (CMZ), the excess components would be related to high-energy activity in the extreme envelopment of the CMZ.

  17. Hard X-ray Emission along the Z Track in GX 17+ 2

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    -ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) on board Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer for Z source GX 17+2, we investigate the evolution of its PCA spectra and HEXTE spectra along a `Z' track on its hardness-intensity diagram. A hard ...

  18. An Ultra-High Pressure Proportional Counter for Hard X-Ray Astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zongnan

    1992-01-01

    This thesis describes the successful development of ultra-high pressure proportional counters for balloon -borne hard X-ray astronomy. The proportional counters were filled with argon/xenon at pressures up to {~}30atm. The properties of proportional counters filled at such pressures have been studied by the author in the laboratory. The spatial response of these counters to X-rays and charged particles, and the energy response to X-rays up to 1MeV have been analysed. Gas gain measurements using the charge collection technique and analysis of the subsequent data show that simple extrapolation from low pressures cannot explain the observed behaviour (e.g. the mobility of positive ions and quenching efficiency) of these counters at high pressures. A hard X-ray telescope consisting of 32 such proportional counters filled at ultra-high pressures is being constructed, details of which are described. The sensitivity of this telescope for both continuum and narrow-line spectra is superb compared to contemporary balloon-and satellite-borne hard X-ray detectors. Together with an imaging phoswich Anger camera, it is scheduled for launch from Alice Springs in November 1992. An anticoincidence system for an X-ray detector, consisting of a combined passive and active shield, has been designed and constructed by the author, and flown on a balloon. The active shield, made of a plastic scintillator, has resulted in an additional reduction of 25% in the background registered at balloon altitudes.

  19. INTEGRAL discovery of a new hard X-ray transient: IGR J17177-3656

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankowski, A.; Ferrigo, C.; Bozzo, E.

    2011-01-01

    :56:42) (J2000) with a 90% confinement radius of 1.5 arcmin, fully consistent with the ISGRI position. The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum (20-150 keV) can be well described by a power-law with photon index 1.8+/-0.3 (chi2/dof=0.5 for 8 dof). The estimated 20-100 keV flux is 3.7e-10 erg/s/cm2. We could not detect any...... in the region of the source was performed between 2011-01-27 08:21 and 2011-01-27 08:30 (exposure time is 548 s), no source was detected in the FOV with a 3 sigma upper limit of 1.5e-12 erg/s/cm2 in the 1-10 keV band (0.05 mCrab), assuming a power-law spectrum with photon index 1.8 and Galactic absorption (NH...... = 1.2e22 cm-2). We encourage multiwavelength observations to investigate the nature of the system, which has the typical characteristics of either an X-ray transient in an initial hard state or a transient highly absorbed source....

  20. An XMM-Newton study of the hard X-ray sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piconcelli, E.; Cappi, M.; Bassani, L.; Di Cocco, G.; Dadina, M.

    2003-12-01

    We report on the spectral properties of a sample of 90 hard X-ray selected serendipitous sources detected in 12 XMM-Newton observations with 1 law modified by Galactic absorption offers an acceptable fit to ~ 65% of the source spectra. This fit yields an average photon index of ≈ 1.55 over the whole sample. We also find that the mean slope of the QSOs in our sample turns out to remain nearly constant ( (≈ 1.8-1.9) between 0 1022 cm-2) is ~ 30%, with little evolution in the range 2 <≈ F2-10˜< 80 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. Interestingly, this value is a factor ~ 2 lower than predicted by the synthesis models of the CXB. This finding, detected for the first time in this survey, therefore suggests that most of the heavily obscured objects which make up the bulk of the CXB will be found at lower fluxes (F2-10< 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1). This mismatch together with other recent observational evidences which contrast with CXB model predictions suggest that one (or more) of the assumptions usually included in these models need to be revised.

  1. The host galaxies of ultra hard X-ray selected AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Michael J.

    One of the great mysteries surrounding active galactic nuclei (AGN) is their triggering mechanism. Since the discovery that almost all massive galaxies host nuclear supermassive black holes, it has become clear that a trigger mechanism is required to 'turn on' and continue to fuel the central black hole. While it is established that accretion processes are responsible for the energy emitted, the source of the accreting material is still controversial. Furthermore, the energy input from phases of black hole growth is thought to be a key regulator in the formation of galaxies and the establishment of various scaling relations. Theorists often invoke galaxy mergers as the violent mechanism to drive gas into the central regions and ignite luminous quasars, but among more common moderate luminosity AGN, there has been great controversy whether secular processes or mergers dominate AGN fueling. A survey in the ultra hard X-ray band (14--195 keV) is an important new way to answer the fundamental question of AGN fueling. This method is independent of selection effects such as dust extinction and obscuration that plague surveys at other wavelengths because of the ability of the primary continuum to easily pass through large columns of obscuring gas and dust (2 keV) imaging.

  2. CORRELATION OF HARD X-RAY AND WHITE LIGHT EMISSION IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Battaglia, Marina; Kleint, Lucia; Casadei, Diego [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Oliveros, Juan Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A statistical study of the correlation between hard X-ray and white light emission in solar flares is performed in order to search for a link between flare-accelerated electrons and white light formation. We analyze 43 flares spanning GOES classes M and X using observations from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager. We calculate X-ray fluxes at 30 keV and white light fluxes at 6173 Å summed over the hard X-ray flare ribbons with an integration time of 45 s around the peak hard-X ray time. We find a good correlation between hard X-ray fluxes and excess white light fluxes, with a highest correlation coefficient of 0.68 for photons with energy of 30 keV. Assuming the thick target model, a similar correlation is found between the deposited power by flare-accelerated electrons and the white light fluxes. The correlation coefficient is found to be largest for energy deposition by electrons above ∼50 keV. At higher electron energies the correlation decreases gradually while a rapid decrease is seen if the energy provided by low-energy electrons is added. This suggests that flare-accelerated electrons of energy ∼50 keV are the main source for white light production.

  3. X-ray spectra and time variability of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushotzky, R.F.

    1984-02-01

    The X-ray spectra of broad line active galactic nuclei (AGN) of all types (Seyfert I's, NELG's, broadline radio galaxies) are well fit by a power law in the .5 to 100 keV band of man energy slope alpha .68 + or - .15. There is, as yet, no strong evidence for time variability of this slope in a given object. The constraints that this places on simple models of the central energy source are discussed. BL Lac objects have quite different X-ray spectral properties and show pronounced X-ray spectral variability. On time scales longer than 12 hours most radio quiet AGN do not show strong, delta I/I .5, variability. The probability of variability of these AGN seems to be inversely related to their luminosity. However characteristics timescales for variability have not been measured for many objects. This general lack of variability may imply that most AGN are well below the Eddington limit. Radio bright AGN tend to be more variable than radio quiet AGN on long, tau approx 6 month, timescales

  4. High resolution double-sided diffractive optics for hard X-ray microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohacsi, Istvan; Vartiainen, Ismo; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Karvinen, Petri; Guzenko, Vitaliy A; Müller, Elisabeth; Färm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko; Kewish, Cameron M; Somogyi, Andrea; David, Christian

    2015-01-26

    The fabrication of high aspect ratio metallic nanostructures is crucial for the production of efficient diffractive X-ray optics in the hard X-ray range. We present a novel method to increase their structure height via the double-sided patterning of the support membrane. In transmission, the two Fresnel zone plates on the two sides of the substrate will act as a single zone plate with added structure height. The presented double-sided zone plates with 30 nm smallest zone width offer up to 9.9% focusing efficiency at 9 keV, that results in a factor of two improvement over their previously demonstrated single-sided counterparts. The increase in efficiency paves the way to speed up X-ray microscopy measurements and allows the more efficient utilization of the flux in full-field X-ray microscopy.

  5. The X-ray properties of five galactic supernova remnants detected by the Spitzer glimpse survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Moffitt, William P.; Rho, Jeonghee; Heinke, Craig O.

    2014-01-01

    We present a study of the X-ray properties of five Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs)—Kes 17 (G304.6+0.1), G311.5–0.3, G346.6–0.2, CTB 37A (G348.5+0.1), and G348.5–0.0—that were detected in the infrared by Reach et al. in an analysis of data from the Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE) that was conducted by the Spitzer Space Telescope. We present and analyze archival ASCA observations of Kes 17, G311.5–0.3, and G346.6–0.2, archival XMM-Newton observations of Kes 17, CTB 37A, and G348.5–0.0, and an archival Chandra observation of CTB 37A. All of the SNRs are clearly detected in the X-ray except possibly G348.5–0.0. Our study reveals that the four detected SNRs all feature center-filled X-ray morphologies and that the observed emission from these sources is thermal in all cases. We argue that these SNRs should be classified as mixed-morphology SNRs (MM SNRs); our study strengthens the correlation between MM SNRs and SNRs interacting with molecular clouds and suggests that the origin of MM SNRs may be due to the interactions between these SNRs and adjacent clouds. Our ASCA analysis of G311.5–0.3 reveals for the first time X-ray emission from this SNR: the X-ray emission is center-filled within the radio and infrared shells and thermal in nature (kT ∼ 0.98 keV), thus motivating its classification as an MM SNR. We find considerable spectral variations in the properties associated with the plasmas of the other X-ray-detected SNRs, such as a possible overabundance of magnesium in the plasma of Kes 17. Our new results also include the first detailed spatially resolved spectroscopic study of CTB 37A using Chandra as well as a spectroscopic study of the discrete X-ray source CXOU J171428.5–383601, which may be a neutron star associated with CTB 37A. Finally, we also estimate such properties as electron density n e , radiative age t rad and swept-up mass M X for each of the four X-ray-detected SNRs. Each of these values

  6. STUDYING FAINT ULTRA-HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM AGN IN GOALS LIRGS WITH SWIFT/BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Casey, Caitlin M.; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Markwardt, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We present the first analysis of the all-sky Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) ultra-hard X-ray (14-195 keV) data for a targeted list of objects. We find that the BAT data can be studied at three-times-fainter limits than in previous blind detection catalogs based on prior knowledge of source positions and using smaller energy ranges for source detection. We determine the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction in 134 nearby (z IR /L ☉ > 11.8) detected. The BAT AGN classification shows 97% (37/38) agreement with Chandra and XMM-Newton AGN classification using hardness ratios or detection of an iron Kα line. This confirms our statistical analysis and supports the use of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey to study fainter populations of any category of sources in the ultra-hard X-ray band. BAT AGNs in LIRGs tend to show higher column densities with 40% ± 9% showing 14-195 keV/2-10 keV hardness flux ratios suggestive of high or Compton-thick column densities (log N H > 24 cm –2 ), compared to only 12% ± 5% of non-LIRG BAT AGNs. We also find that using specific energy ranges of the BAT detector can yield additional sources over total band detections with 24% (5/21) of detections in LIRGs at 24-35 keV not detected at 14-195 keV.

  7. Method study on spectrum unscrambling of continuous hard X-ray measurement by HPGe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Lin; Tu Jing; Chen Zhihua; Liu Yueheng; Chang Yongfu; Liu Shuhuan

    2007-01-01

    The influence of counts caused by non-photoelectric effect in measured continuous hard X-ray spectrum was corrected. The pure photoelectric spectrum was obtained using the method of improved spectrum stripping technology accompanied by energy respond function of single-energy photon for HPGe detector which had been got in advance, and the real energy spectrum on measurement site was unfolded from the photoelectric spectrum by relative efficiency correction. The reliable method for continuous hard X-ray spectrum scrambling was obtained. (authors)

  8. Bragg concentrators for hard (> 10keV) x-ray astronomy: Status report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Pasqualini, G.

    1997-01-01

    The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg-diffraction tec......The use of focusing telescopes in hard X-ray (E > 10 keV) astronomy will provide better flux sensitivity and imaging performances with respect to the direct-viewing detectors, utilized until now. We present recent results obtained from our group regarding the possible use of Bragg...

  9. Hard X-ray full field microscopy and magnifying microtomography using compound refractive lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Schrör, C; Benner, B; Kuhlmann, M; Tümmler, J; Lengeler, B; Rau, C; Weitkamp, T; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I

    2001-01-01

    For hard X-rays, parabolic compound refractive lenses (PCRLs) are genuine imaging devices like glass lenses for visible light. Based on these new lenses, a hard X-ray full field microscope has been constructed that is ideally suited to image the interior of opaque samples with a minimum of sample preparation. As a result of a large depth of field, CRL micrographs are sharp projection images of most samples. To obtain 3D information about a sample, tomographic techniques are combined with magnified imaging.

  10. Galactic wind X-ray heating of the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiksin, Avery; Khochfar, Sadegh; Paardekooper, Jan-Pieter; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Kohn, Saul

    2017-11-01

    The diffuse soft X-ray emissivity from galactic winds is computed during the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). We consider two analytic models, a pressure-driven wind and a superbubble model, and a 3D cosmological simulation including gas dynamics from the First Billion Years (FiBY) project. The analytic models are normalized to match the diffuse X-ray emissivity of star-forming galaxies in the nearby Universe. The cosmological simulation uses physically motivated star formation and wind prescriptions, and includes radiative transfer corrections. The models and the simulation all are found to produce sufficient heating of the intergalactic medium to be detectable by current and planned radio facilities through 21 cm measurements during the EoR. While the analytic models predict a 21 cm emission signal relative to the cosmic microwave backgroundsets in by ztrans ≃ 8-10, the predicted signal in the FiBY simulation remains in absorption until reionization completes. The 21 cm absorption differential brightness temperature reaches a minimum of ΔT ≃ -130 to -200 mK, depending on model. Allowing for additional heat from high-mass X-ray binaries pushes the transition to emission to ztrans ≃ 10-12, with shallower absorption signatures having a minimum of ΔT ≃ -110 to -140 mK. The 21 cm signal may be a means of distinguishing between the wind models, with the superbubble model favouring earlier reheating. While an early transition to emission may indicate X-ray binaries dominate the reheating, a transition to emission as early as ztrans > 12 would suggest the presence of additional heat sources.

  11. A HARD X-RAY POWER-LAW SPECTRAL CUTOFF IN CENTAURUS X-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Deepto; Nowak, Michael A. [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Fürst, Felix; Harrison, Fiona A.; Rana, Vikram [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Psaltis, Dimitrios [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo; Barret, Didier [Observatoire Midi-Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [Division of Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Kaspi, Victoria M. [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, PQ H3A 2T8 (Canada); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Wik, Daniel R.; Zhang, William W. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wilms, Jörn, E-mail: deepto@mit.edu [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany)

    2014-12-20

    The low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) Cen X-4 is the brightest and closest (<1.2 kpc) quiescent neutron star transient. Previous 0.5-10 keV X-ray observations of Cen X-4 in quiescence identified two spectral components: soft thermal emission from the neutron star atmosphere and a hard power-law tail of unknown origin. We report here on a simultaneous observation of Cen X-4 with NuSTAR (3-79 keV) and XMM-Newton (0.3-10 keV) in 2013 January, providing the first sensitive hard X-ray spectrum of a quiescent neutron star transient. The 0.3-79 keV luminosity was 1.1×10{sup 33} D{sub kpc}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1}, with ≅60% in the thermal component. We clearly detect a cutoff of the hard spectral tail above 10 keV, the first time such a feature has been detected in this source class. We show that thermal Comptonization and synchrotron shock origins for the hard X-ray emission are ruled out on physical grounds. However, the hard X-ray spectrum is well fit by a thermal bremsstrahlung model with kT{sub e} = 18 keV, which can be understood as arising either in a hot layer above the neutron star atmosphere or in a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. The power-law cutoff energy may be set by the degree of Compton cooling of the bremsstrahlung electrons by thermal seed photons from the neutron star surface. Lower thermal luminosities should lead to higher (possibly undetectable) cutoff energies. We compare Cen X-4's behavior with PSR J1023+0038, IGR J18245–2452, and XSS J12270–4859, which have shown transitions between LMXB and radio pulsar modes at a similar X-ray luminosity.

  12. Hard X-ray Emission from the M87 AGN Detected with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ka-Wah; Nemmen, Rodrigo; Irwin, Jimmy; Lin, Dacheng

    2018-01-01

    M87 hosts a 3–6 billion solar mass black hole with a remarkable relativistic jet that has been regularly monitored in radio to TeV bands. However, hard X-ray emission above 10keV expected to primarily come from the jet or the accretion flow had never been detected from its unresolved X-ray core. We report NuSTAR detection up to 40 keV from the the central regions of M87. Together with simultaneous Chandra observations, we have constrained the dominant hard X-ray emission to be from its unresolved X-ray core, presumably in its quiescent state. The core spectrum is well fitted by a power-law. The measured flux density at 40keV is consistent with a jet origin, although emission from the advection-dominated accretion flow cannot be completely ruled out. The detected hard X-ray emission is significantly lower than that predicted by synchrotron self-Compton models introduced to explain emission above a GeV.

  13. MODELING THE THERMAL DIFFUSE SOFT AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION IN M17

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez, P. F.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Esquivel, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Rosado, M. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-248, 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Reyes-Iturbide, J., E-mail: pablo@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: ary@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: esquivel@nucleares.unam.mx, E-mail: margarit@astro.unam.mx [LATO-DCET/Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Rodovia Jorge Amado, km 16, 45662-000 Ilheus, BA (Brazil)

    2013-04-10

    We present numerical models of very young wind driven superbubbles. The parameters chosen for the simulations correspond to the particular case of the M17 nebula, but are appropriate for any young superbubble in which the wind sources have not completely dispersed their parental cloud. From the simulations, we computed the diffuse emission in the soft ([0.5-1.5] keV) and hard ([1.5-5] keV) X-ray bands. The total luminosity in our simulations agrees with the observations of Hyodo et al., about two orders of magnitude below the prediction of the standard model of Weaver et al.. The difference with respect to the standard (adiabatic) model is the inclusion of radiative cooling, which is still important in such young bubbles. We show that for this type of object the diffuse hard X-ray luminosity is significant compared to that of soft X-rays, contributing as much as 10% of the total luminosity, in contrast with more evolved bubbles where the hard X-ray emission is indeed negligible, being at least four orders of magnitude lower than the soft X-ray emission.

  14. Hard X-ray variability of V404 Cygni during the 2015 outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Kajava, J. J. E.; Motta, S. E.; Kuulkers, E.

    2017-06-01

    Aims: Hard X-ray spectra of black hole binaries (BHB) are produced by Comptonization of soft seed photons by hot electrons near the black hole. The slope of the resulting energy spectra is governed by two main parameters: the electron temperature (Te) and optical depth (τ) of the emitting plasma. Given the extreme brightness of V404 Cyg during the 2015 outburst, we aim to constrain the source spectral properties using an unprecedented time resolution in hard X-rays, and to monitor the evolution of Te and τ over the outburst. Methods: We have extracted and analysed 602 X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg obtained by the IBIS/ISGRI instrument on-board INTEGRAL during the 2015 June outburst, using effective integration times ranging between 8 and 176 000 s. We fitted the resulting spectra in the 20-200 keV energy range. Results: We find that while the light curve and soft X-ray spectra of V404 Cyg are remarkably different from those of other BHBs, the spectral evolution of V404 Cyg in hard X-rays and the relations between the spectral parameters are consistent with those observed in other BHBs. We identify a hard branch in which the Te is anti-correlated with the hard X-ray flux, and a soft flaring branch in which the relation reverses. In addition, we find that during long X-ray plateaus detected at intermediate fluxes, the thermal Comptonization models fail to describe the spectra. However, the statistics improve if we allow NH to vary freely in the fits to these spectra. Conclusions: We conclude that the hard branch in V404 Cyg is analogous to the canonical hard state of BHBs. V404 Cyg never seems to enter the canonical soft state, although the soft flaring branch bears resemblance to the BHB intermediate state and ultra-luminous state. The X-ray plateaus are likely the result of absorption by a Compton-thick outflow (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) which reduces the observed flux by a factor of about 10. Variable covering of the central source by this Compton-thick material may be the

  15. High spectral resolution measurements of a solar flare hard X-ray burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, R.P.; Schwartz, R.A.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1987-01-01

    Observations are reported of an intense solar flare hard X-ray burst on June 27, 1980, made with a balloon-borne array of liquid nitrogen-cooled Ge detector which provided unprecedented spectral resolution (no more than 1 keV FWHM). The hard X-ray spectra throughout the impulsive phase burst fitted well to a double power-law form, and emission from an isothermal 0.1-1 billion K plasma can be specifically excluded. The temporal variations of the spectrum indicate that the hard X-ray burst is made up of two superposed components: individual spikes lasting about 3-15 sec, which have a hard spectrum and a break energy of 30-65 keV; and a slowly varying component characterized by a soft spectrum with a constant low-energy slope and a break energy which increases from 25 kev to at least 100 keV through the event. The double power-law shape indicates that DC electric field acceleration, similar to that occurring in the earth's auroral zone, may be the source of the energetic electrons which produce the hard X-ray emission. 39 references

  16. The hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during the transition in November 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, M.; Maurus, H.; Urbach, R.

    1976-01-01

    Some observations are reported of the hard X-ray spectrum of Cyg X-1 during a transition to the high state in November 1975, made with a balloon-borne X-ray detector. The range covered was 25 to 150 keV. The data obtained appeared to confirm the characteristic spectral time variation, and suggested a single power law spectrum from 3 to 80 keV, with an increasing spectral index during the upward transition to the high state. A power spectrum is expected if it is assumed that the universe Compton effect is the basic mechanism that produces the hard X-ray tail of Cyg X-1. Spectral time variation may be caused by a varying intensity of an inner soft photon source within a stable hot cloud. (U.K.)

  17. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  18. The Obscuring Starburst of NGC 6221 and Implications for the Hard X-Ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, N. A.; CidFernandes, R., Jr.; Weaver, K. A.; Heckman, T. M.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present NGC 6221 as a case study of "X-ray-loud composite galaxies," which appear similar to starbursts at optical wavelengths and resemble traditional active galactic nuclei in X-rays. The net optical spectrum of NGC 6221 is properly characterized as a starburst galaxy, but in X-rays, NGC 6221 is similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies, exhibiting a power-law continuum spectrum, a broad Fe K(alpha) line, and continuum variability on timescales of days and years. High-resolution images reveal that the detected active nucleus is relatively weak, not only at optical, but also at near-infrared wavelengths. An obscuring starburst, in which the interstellar gas and dust associated with the starburst conceal the active nucleus, accounts for these peculiar features. We demonstrate quantitatively that obscuration by column density N(sub H) = 10(exp 22)/sq cm combined with relatively weak intrinsic nuclear activity can produce an optical spectrum that is characteristic of the surrounding starburst alone. While optical surveys would not identify the active nuclei that make these galaxies significant X-ray sources, such galaxies may, in fact, be important contributors to the X-ray background.

  19. Moiré method for nanometer instability investigation of scanning hard x-ray microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Ulrich; Köhler, Daniel; Dickmann, Jannis; Rahomäki, Jussi; Parfeniukas, Karolis; Kubsky, Stefan; Alves, Filipe; Langlois, Florent; Engblom, Christer; Stankevič, Tomaš

    2017-05-29

    We present a Moiré method that can be used to investigate positional instabilities in a scanning hard x-ray microscope with nanometer precision. The development of diffraction-limited storage rings offering highly-brilliant synchrotron radiation and improvements of nanofocusing x-ray optics paves the way towards 3D nanotomography with 10 nm resolution or below. However, this trend demands improved designs of x-ray microscope instruments which should offer few-nm beam stabilities with respect to the sample. Our technique can measure the position of optics and sample stage relative to each other in the two directions perpendicular to the beam propagation in a scanning x-ray microscope using simple optical components and visible light. The usefulness of the method was proven by measuring short and long term instabilities of a zone-plate-optics-based prototype microscope. We think it can become an important tool for the characterization of scanning x-ray microscopes, especially prior to experiments with an actual x-ray beam.

  20. Providing Bright-Hard X-ray Beams from a Lower Energy Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, David

    2002-04-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) there had been an increasing demand for more high brightness harder X-ray sources in the 7 to 40 KeV range. In response to that demand, the ALS storage ring was modified in August 2001. Three 1.3 Tesla normal conducting bending magnets were removed and replaced with three 5 Tesla superconducting magnets (Superbends). The radiation produced by these Superbends is an order of magnitude higher in photon brightness and flux at 12 keV than the 1.3 Tesla bends, making them excellent sources of harder x-rays for protein crystallography and other harder x-ray applications. At the same time the Superbends do not compromise the performance of the facility in the UV and Soft X-ray regions of the spectrum. The Superbends will eventually feed 12 new x-ray beam lines greatly enhancing the facility's capacity in the hard x-ray region. The Superbend project is the biggest upgrade to the ALS storage ring since the ring was commissioned in 1993. In this paper we present, a history of the project, details of the magnet, installation, commissioning, and resulting performance of the ALS with Superbends.

  1. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S. M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Farnik, F.; Kundu, M. R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A. V. R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This review discusses the complementary relationship between radio and hard Xray observations of the Sun using primarily results from the era of the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager satellite. A primary focus of joint radio and hard X-ray studies of solar flares uses observations of nonthermal gyrosynchrotron emission at radio wavelengths and bremsstrahlung hard X-rays to study the properties of electrons accelerated in the main flare site, since it is well established that these two emissions show very similar temporal behavior. A quantitative prescription is given for comparing the electron energy distributions derived separately from the two wavelength ranges: this is an important application with the potential for measuring the magnetic field strength in the flaring region, and reveals significant differences between the electrons in different energy ranges. Examples of the use of simultaneous data from the two wavelength ranges to derive physical conditions are then discussed, including the case of microflares, and the comparison of images at radio and hard X-ray wavelengths is presented. There have been puzzling results obtained from observations of solar flares at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths, and the comparison of these results with corresponding hard X-ray data is presented. Finally, the review discusses the association of hard X-ray releases with radio emission at decimeter and meter wavelengths, which is dominated by plasma emission (at lower frequencies) and electron cyclotron maser emission (at higher frequencies), both coherent emission mechanisms that require small numbers of energetic electrons. These comparisons show broad general associations but detailed correspondence remains more elusive.

  2. Active galactic nucleus X-ray variability in the XMM-COSMOS survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Ponti, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Nandra, P. K.; Merloni, A.; Rosario, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hasinger, G.; Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822-1839 (United States); Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Bongiorno, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040, Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Lusso, E.; Steinhardt, C. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Silverman, J.; Schramm, M. [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU) 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Trump, J. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Vignali, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitá di Bologna, viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Kartaltepe, J., E-mail: lanzuisi@noa.gr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2014-02-01

    We used the observations carried out by XMM in the COSMOS field over 3.5 yr to study the long term variability of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) (638 sources) in a wide range of redshifts (0.1 < z < 3.5) and X-ray luminosities (10{sup 41} < L {sub 0.5-10} <10{sup 45.5}). Both a simple statistical method to assess the significance of variability and the Normalized Excess Variance (σ{sub rms}{sup 2}) parameter were used to obtain a quantitative measurement of the variability. Variability is found to be prevalent in most AGNs, whenever we have good statistics to measure it, and no significant differences between type 1 and type 2 AGNs were found. A flat (slope –0.23 ± 0.03) anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity is found when all significantly variable sources are considered together. When divided into three redshift bins, the anti-correlation becomes stronger and evolving with z, with higher redshift AGNs being more variable. We prove, however, that this effect is due to the pre-selection of variable sources: when considering all of the sources with an available σ{sub rms}{sup 2} measurement, the evolution in redshift disappears. For the first time, we were also able to study long term X-ray variability as a function of M {sub BH} and Eddington ratio for a large sample of AGNs spanning a wide range of redshifts. An anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and M {sub BH} is found, with the same slope of anti-correlation between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and X-ray luminosity, suggesting that the latter may be a by-product of the former. No clear correlation is found between σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and the Eddington ratio in our sample. Finally, no correlation is found between the X-ray σ{sub rms}{sup 2} and optical variability.

  3. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION DISK WINDS AS X-RAY ABSORBERS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumura, Keigo; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Behar, Ehud; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    We present the two-dimensional ionization structure of self-similar magnetohydrodynamic winds off accretion disks around and irradiated by a central X-ray point source. On the basis of earlier observational clues and theoretical arguments, we focus our attention on a subset of these winds, namely those with radial density dependence n(r) ∝ 1/r (r is the spherical radial coordinate). We employ the photoionization code XSTAR to compute the ionic abundances of a large number of ions of different elements and then compile their line-of-sight (LOS) absorption columns. We focus our attention on the distribution of the column density of the various ions as a function of the ionization parameter ξ (or equivalently r) and the angle θ. Particular attention is paid to the absorption measure distribution (AMD), namely their hydrogen-equivalent column per logarithmic ξ interval, dN H /dlog ξ, which provides a measure of the winds' radial density profiles. For the chosen density profile n(r) ∝ 1/r, the AMD is found to be independent of ξ, in good agreement with its behavior inferred from the X-ray spectra of several active galactic nuclei (AGNs). For the specific wind structure and X-ray spectrum, we also compute detailed absorption line profiles for a number of ions to obtain their LOS velocities, v ∼ 100-300 km s -1 (at log ξ ∼ 2-3) for Fe XVII and v ∼ 1000-4000 km s -1 (at log ξ ∼ 4-5) for Fe XXV, in good agreement with the observation. Our models describe the X-ray absorption properties of these winds with only two parameters, namely the mass-accretion rate m-dot and the LOS angle θ. The probability of obscuration of the X-ray ionizing source in these winds decreases with increasing m-dot and increases steeply with the LOS inclination angle θ. As such, we concur with previous authors that these wind configurations, viewed globally, incorporate all the requisite properties of the parsec scale 'torii' invoked in AGN unification schemes. We indicate that a

  4. Development of grazing incidence multilayer mirrors for hard X-ray focusing telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Peter H.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Platonov, Yuriy Y.

    1997-01-01

    We are developing depth-graded, multilayer-coated mirrors for astrophysical hard X-ray focusing telescopes. In this paper, we discuss the primary technical challenges associated with the multilayer coatings, and report on progress to date. We have sputtered constant d-spacing and depth-graded W/S...

  5. Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Jimenez-Garate, M.

    2000-01-01

    The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10-200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time...

  6. Spectral Variability in Hard X-rays and the Evidence for a 13.5 Years ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We report the observation of nearest quasar 3C273 made with LASE instrument on November 20th, 1998 as a part of our continuing programme of balloon borne hard X-ray observations in the 20–200 keV band using high sensitivity Large Area Scintillation counter Experiment. Our data clearly show a steep ...

  7. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Hong, JaeSub

    2017-01-01

    We present a catalog of hard X-ray sources in a square-degree region surveyed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in the direction of the Norma spiral arm. This survey has a total exposure time of 1.7 Ms, and the typical and maximum exposure depths are 50 ks and 1 Ms, respectively...

  8. Development of a CZT spectroscopic 3D imager prototype for hard X ray astronomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auricchio, N.; Caroli, E.; Basili, A.

    2013-01-01

    The development of focusing optics based on wide band Laue lenses operating from ∼60 keV up to several hundreds of keV is particularly challenging. This type of hard X-ray or gamma ray optics requires a high performance focal plane detector in order to exploit to the best its intrinsic capabiliti...

  9. Experimental study of hard X-rays emitted from meter-scale positive discharges in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.O. Kochkin (Pavlo); C.V. Nguyen; A. van Deursen (Arie); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate structure and evolution of long positive spark breakdown; and we study at which stage pulses of hard x-rays are emitted. Positive high-voltage pulses of standardized lightning impulse wave form of about 1 MV were applied to about 1 m of ambient air. The discharge evolution

  10. Overview of segmented glass optics development for the Constellation-X hard X-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hailey, C.J; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    We report recent work on segmented glass optics for the Constellation-H hard x-ray telescope. This effort seeks to both improve the figure of the free-standing glass substrates, and to refine a newly-developed mounting technology for the substrates. We discuss metrology on recently characterized...

  11. Hard X-ray dose intensity and spatial distribution in a plasma focus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    type PF device in various pressures of argon as the operating gas were studied. The PF device was powered by a 12 F capacitor at 25 kV charging voltage. Time-integrated hard X-ray (HXR) emission was investigated using thermoluminescence ...

  12. Hard X-ray bursts and DD microfusion neutrons from complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Email: ykur@online.ru; msk@ccr.jussieu.fr. MS received 1 April 2003; accepted 31 July 2003. Abstract. We create the random complex media of high-power density in low-energy nanosecond vacuum discharges. Hard X-ray emission efficiency, generation of energetic ions ( 1 MeV) and neutrons, trapping and releasing of ...

  13. In-flight PSF calibration of the NuSTAR hard X-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Westergaard, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of the point spread function (PSF) calibration of the hard X-ray optics of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Immediately post-launch, NuSTAR has observed bright point sources such as Cyg X-1, Vela X-1, and Her X-1 for the PSF calibration. We use the point source...

  14. Detections of hard X-ray emissions from bright early-type galaxies with ASCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K.; Makishima, K.; Awaki, H.; Canizares, C. R.; Fabian, A. C.; Fukazawa, Y.; Loewenstein, M.; Matsumoto, H.; Mihara, T.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    Five bright elliptical galaxies in the Virgo Cluster, NGC 4365, NGC 4374 (M84), NGC 4406 (M86), NGC 4472 (M49), and NGC 4636, were observed with ASCA. In addition to the extended thermal X-ray emission of temperature kT approximately 1 keV, harder X-rays with color temperature kT greater than or equal to 2 keV were detected from all of them. The 2-10 keV luminosities of this hard component for the five galaxies, integrated within 5 min, are distributed within a relatively narrow range of (1-4) x 10(exp 40) ergs/s. The hard X-ray component is primarily attributed to the integrated emission from discrete X-ray sources. In NGC 4406 and NGC 4374 the data indicate that the hard component is contributed additionally by foreground/background emission from the hot intracluster medium (ICM) of the Virgo Cluster. The hard component of NGC 4472 seems also contributed by the Virgo ICM emission, but in this case there is evidence that the ICM brightness is locally enhanced within approximately 10 min of NGC 4472.

  15. Atomic physics with hard X-rays from high brilliance synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.; Gemmell, D.

    1996-08-01

    A century after the discovery of x rays, the experimental capability for studying atomic structure and dynamics with hard, bright synchrotron radiation is increasing remarkably. Tempting opportunities arise for experiments on many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interaction processes, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. Some of these possibilities are surveyed in general terms

  16. Ultrafast Time-Resolved Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy on a Tabletop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miaja-Avila

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental tools capable of monitoring both atomic and electronic structure on ultrafast (femtosecond to picosecond time scales are needed for investigating photophysical processes fundamental to light harvesting, photocatalysis, energy and data storage, and optical display technologies. Time-resolved hard x-ray (>3  keV spectroscopies have proven valuable for these measurements due to their elemental specificity and sensitivity to geometric and electronic structures. Here, we present the first tabletop apparatus capable of performing time-resolved x-ray emission spectroscopy. The time resolution of the apparatus is better than 6 ps. By combining a compact laser-driven plasma source with a highly efficient array of microcalorimeter x-ray detectors, we are able to observe photoinduced spin changes in an archetypal polypyridyl iron complex [Fe(2,2^{′}-bipyridine_{3}]^{2+} and accurately measure the lifetime of the quintet spin state. Our results demonstrate that ultrafast hard x-ray emission spectroscopy is no longer confined to large facilities and now can be performed in conventional laboratories with 10 times better time resolution than at synchrotrons. Our results are enabled, in part, by a 100- to 1000-fold increase in x-ray collection efficiency compared to current techniques.

  17. X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE NORTHERN GALACTIC CAP SOURCES IN THE 58 MONTH SWIFT/BAT CATALOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevan, Ranjan V.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Shimizu, Thomas T.; Brandt, William N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Nousek, John; Winter, Lisa M.; Baumgartner, Wayne H.

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed X-ray spectral analysis of the non-beamed, hard X-ray selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the northern Galactic cap of the 58 month Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT) catalog, consisting of 100 AGNs with b > 50°. This sky area has excellent potential for further dedicated study due to a wide range of multi-wavelength data that are already available, and we propose it as a low-redshift analog to the 'deep field' observations of AGNs at higher redshifts (e.g., CDFN/S, COSMOS, Lockman Hole). We present distributions of luminosity, absorbing column density, and other key quantities for the catalog. We use a consistent approach to fit new and archival X-ray data gathered from XMM-Newton, Swift/XRT, ASCA, and Swift/BAT. We probe to deeper redshifts than the 9 month BAT catalog ((z) = 0.043 compared to (z) = 0.03 for the 9 month catalog), and uncover a broader absorbing column density distribution. The fraction of obscured (log N H ≥ 22) objects in the sample is ∼60%, and 43%-56% of the sample exhibits 'complex' 0.4-10 keV spectra. We present the properties of iron lines, soft excesses, and ionized absorbers for the subset of objects with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio. We reinforce previous determinations of the X-ray Baldwin (Iwasawa-Taniguchi) effect for iron Kα lines. We also identify two distinct populations of sources; one in which a soft excess is well-detected and another where the soft excess is undetected, suggesting that the process responsible for producing the soft excess is not at work in all AGNs. The fraction of Compton-thick sources (log N H > 24.15) in our sample is ∼9%. We find that 'hidden/buried AGNs' (which may have a geometrically thick torus or emaciated scattering regions) constitute ∼14% of our sample, including seven objects previously not identified as hidden. Compton reflection is found to be important in a large fraction of our sample using joint XMM-Newton+BAT fits ((R) = 2.7 ± 0.75), indicating

  18. Femtosecond response of polyatomic molecules to ultra-intense hard X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, A; Inhester, L; Hanasaki, K; Li, X; Robatjazi, S J; Erk, B; Boll, R; Toyota, K; Hao, Y; Vendrell, O; Bomme, C; Savelyev, E; Rudek, B; Foucar, L; Southworth, S H; Lehmann, C S; Kraessig, B; Marchenko, T; Simon, M; Ueda, K; Ferguson, K R; Bucher, M; Gorkhover, T; Carron, S; Alonso-Mori, R; Koglin, J E; Correa, J; Williams, G J; Boutet, S; Young, L; Bostedt, C; Son, S-K; Santra, R; Rolles, D

    2017-06-01

    X-ray free-electron lasers enable the investigation of the structure and dynamics of diverse systems, including atoms, molecules, nanocrystals and single bioparticles, under extreme conditions. Many imaging applications that target biological systems and complex materials use hard X-ray pulses with extremely high peak intensities (exceeding 10 20 watts per square centimetre). However, fundamental investigations have focused mainly on the individual response of atoms and small molecules using soft X-rays with much lower intensities. Studies with intense X-ray pulses have shown that irradiated atoms reach a very high degree of ionization, owing to multiphoton absorption, which in a heteronuclear molecular system occurs predominantly locally on a heavy atom (provided that the absorption cross-section of the heavy atom is considerably larger than those of its neighbours) and is followed by efficient redistribution of the induced charge. In serial femtosecond crystallography of biological objects-an application of X-ray free-electron lasers that greatly enhances our ability to determine protein structure-the ionization of heavy atoms increases the local radiation damage that is seen in the diffraction patterns of these objects and has been suggested as a way of phasing the diffraction data. On the basis of experiments using either soft or less-intense hard X-rays, it is thought that the induced charge and associated radiation damage of atoms in polyatomic molecules can be inferred from the charge that is induced in an isolated atom under otherwise comparable irradiation conditions. Here we show that the femtosecond response of small polyatomic molecules that contain one heavy atom to ultra-intense (with intensities approaching 10 20 watts per square centimetre), hard (with photon energies of 8.3 kiloelectronvolts) X-ray pulses is qualitatively different: our experimental and modelling results establish that, under these conditions, the ionization of a molecule is

  19. Application of an EMCCD camera for calibration of hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Julia K.; Pivovaro, Michael J.; Craig, William W.

    2012-01-01

    is also able to handle high frame rates. Additionally, thick CsI(Tl) yields high detection effciency for x-rays. In this paper, we discuss the advantages of using an EMCCD to calibrate hard x-ray optics. We will illustrate the promising features of this detector solution using examples of data obtained...... for ground-based calibrations if combined with a scintillating material. This optical coupling of the EMCCD chip to a microcolumnar CsI(Tl) scintillator can be achieved via a fiberoptic taper. Not only does this detector system exhibit low noise and high spatial resolution inherent to CCDs, but the EMCCD...

  20. The hard X-ray emission spectra from accretion columns in intermediate polars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Insu; Vishniac, Ethan T.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the hard (greater than 2 keV) X-ray emission from accretion columns in an intermediate polar system, GK Per, using a simple settling solution. The rate of photon emission per logarithmic energy interval can be fitted with a power law, E(exp -gamma), with gamma approximately 2.0, in agreement with observations. This index is only weakly dependent on the mass accretion rate, dot-M, for dot-M in the range of a few times 10(exp 16-18) g/s. The peak energy of the photon spectra (after photoelectric absorption) is expected to be E(sub p) approximately (5 keV) gamma(exp -1/3) (N(sub H)/10(exp 23)/sq cm)(exp 1/3) where N(sub H) is the hydrogen column density along the line of sight. The observed spectra of GK Per and possibly of V1223 Sgr suggest N(sub H) approximately 10(exp 23)/sq cm. This large N(sub H) may be due to partially ionized preshock column material. Alternatively, we also consider absorption by the cool outer parts of an accretion disk. In this case the photoelectric absorption depth in the disk is a sensitive function of inclination. For GK Per the required inclination is approximately 83 deg. For mass accretion rates larger than a critical rate of approximately 10(exp 18) g/s, X-ray emission from the column accretion is significantly affected by radiation drag. Although the mass accretion rate increases dramatically during outbursts, the observed hard (greater than 2 keV) X-ray luminosity will not rise proportionately. The slope and peak energy of the outburst spectra are only weakly affected. We conclude that the observed X-ray spectra can be explained by this simple analytic solution and that the production of hard X-rays from the accretion shock at the magnetic poles in the intermediate polars is in general agreement with the observations. However, since the X-ray emission and absorption depend on the mass accretion rate in a complicated manner, observed hard X-ray luminosities (greater than 2 keV) are not a good indicator of the mass

  1. Multilayer coating facility for the HEFT hard x-ray telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper-Jensen, Carsten P.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chen, Hubert

    2001-01-01

    A planar magnetron sputtering facility has been established at the Danish Space Research Institute (DSRI) for the production coating of depth graded multilayers on the thermally slumped glass segments which form the basis for the hard X-ray telescope on the HEFT balloon project. The facility...... is capable of coating 20-45 mirrors segments in each run. The coatings are optimized W/Si coatings. The paper describes the facility, the results of the calibration and presents data for the X-ray testing of flight mirrors....

  2. X-ray Resonance in Crystal Cavities--Realization of Fabry-Perot Resonator for Hard X-rays

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, S. -L.; Stetsko, Yu. P.; Tang, M. -T.; Lee, Y. -R.; Sun, W. -H.; Yabashi, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    X-ray back diffraction from monolithic two silicon crystal plates of 25--150 um thick and a 40--150 um gap using synchrotron radiation of energy resolution deltaE=0.36 meV at 14.4388 keV shows clearly resonance fringes inside the energy gap and the total-reflection range for the (12 4 0) reflection. This cavity resonance results from the coherent interaction between the X-ray wavefields generated by the two plates with a gap smaller than the X-ray coherence length. This finding opens up new o...

  3. 13.1 micrometers hard X-ray focusing by a new type monocapillary X-ray optic designed for common laboratory X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuepeng; zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Shang, Hongzhong; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2018-04-01

    A new type of monocapillary X-ray optic, called 'two bounces monocapillary X-ray optics' (TBMXO), is proposed for generating a small focal spot with high power-density gain for micro X-ray analysis, using a common laboratory X-ray source. TBMXO is consists of two parts: an ellipsoidal part and a tapered part. Before experimental testing, the TBMXO was simulated by the ray tracing method in MATLAB. The simulated results predicted that the proposed TBMXO would produce a smaller focal spot with higher power-density gain than the ellipsoidal monocapillary X-ray optic (EMXO). In the experiment, the TBMXO performance was tested by both an optical device and a Cu target X-ray tube with focal spot of 100 μm. The results indicated that the TBMXO had a slope error of 57.6 μrad and a 13.1 μm focal spot and a 1360 gain in power density were obtained.

  4. Hard x-ray measurements of the hot-electron rings in EBT-S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillis, D.L.

    1982-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the hot electron rings in ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) is essential to the bumpy torus concept of plasma production, since the rings provide bulk plasma stability. The hot electrons are produced via electron cyclotron resonant heating using a 28-GHz cw gyrotron, which has operated up to power levels of 200 kW. The parameters of the energetic electron rings are studied via hard x-ray measurement techniques and with diamagnetic pickup coils. The hard x-ray measurements have used collimated NaI(Tl) detectors to determine the electron temperature T/sub e/ and electron density n/sub e/ for the hot electron annulus. Typical values of T/sub e/ are 400 to 500 keV and of n/sub e/ 2 to 5 x 10 11 cm -3 . The total stored energy of a single energetic electron ring as measured by diamagnetic pickup loops approaches approx. 40 J and is in good agreement with that deduced from hard x-ray measurements. By combining the experimental measurements from hard x-rays and the diamagnetic loops, an estimate can be obtained for the volume of a single hot electron ring. The ring volume is determined to be approx. 2.2 litres, and this volume remains approximately constant over the T-mode operating regime. Finally, the power in the electrons scattered out of the ring is measured indirectly by measuring the x-ray radiation produced when those electrons strike the chamber walls. The variation of this radiation with increasing microwave power levels is found to be consistent with classical scattering estimates

  5. Resonant Compton Upscattering Models of Magnetar Hard X-ray Emission and Polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baring, Matthew G.; Wadiasingh, Zorawar; Gonthier, Peter L.; Kust Harding, Alice

    2017-08-01

    Non-thermal quiescent X-ray emission extending between 10 keV and around 150 keV has been seen in about 10 magnetars by RXTE, INTEGRAL, Suzaku and Fermi-GBM. For inner magnetospheric models of such hard X-ray signals, resonant Compton upscattering is anticipated to be the most efficient process for generating the continuum radiation. This is because the scattering becomes resonant at the cyclotron frequency, and the effective cross section exceeds the classical Thomson value by over two orders of magnitude. We present angle-dependent hard X-ray upscattering model spectra for uncooled monoenergetic relativistic electrons injected in inner regions of pulsar magnetospheres. These spectra are integrated over closed field lines and obtained for different observing perspectives. The spectral cut-off energies are critically dependent on the observer viewing angles and electron Lorentz factor. We find that electrons with energies less than around 15 MeV will emit most of their radiation below 250 keV, consistent with the observed turnovers in magnetar hard X-ray tails. Moreover, electrons of higher energy still emit most of the radiation below around 1 MeV, except for quasi-equatorial emission locales for select pulses phases. In such cases, attenuation mechanisms such as pair creation will be prolific, thereby making it difficult to observe signals extending into the Fermi-LAT band. Our spectral computations use new state-of-the-art, spin-dependent formalism for the QED Compton scattering cross section in strong magnetic fields. The emission exhibits strong polarization above around 30 keV that is anticipated to be dependent on pulse phase, thereby defining science agendas for future hard X-ray polarimeters.

  6. The Variable Crab Nebula: Evidence for a Connection Between GeV Flares and Hard X-ray Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E. A.; Cherry, M. L.; Case, G. L.; Finger, M. H.; Jenke, P.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, hard X-ray variations (Wilson-Hodge et al. 2011) and GeV flares (Tavani et al 2011, Abdo et al. 2011) from the Crab Nebula were discovered. Connections between these two phenomena were unclear, in part because the timescales were quite different, with yearly variations in hard X-rays and hourly to daily variations in the GeV flares. The hard X-ray flux from the Crab Nebula has again declined since 2014, much like it did in 2008-2010. During both hard X-ray decline periods, the Fermi LAT detected no GeV flares, suggesting that injection of particles from the GeV flares produces the much slower and weaker hard X-ray variations. The timescale for the particles emitting the GeV flares to lose enough energy to emit synchrotron photons in hard X-rays is consistent with the yearly variations observed in hard X-rays and with the expectation that the timescale for variations slowly increases with decreasing energy. This hypothesis also predicts even slower and weaker variations below 10 keV, consistent with the non-detection of counterparts to the GeV flares by Chandra (Weisskopf et al 2013). We will present a comparison of the observed hard X-ray variations and a simple model of the decay of particles from the GeV flares to test our hypothesis.

  7. An X-ray spectral study of 24 type 1 active galactic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. S.

    1997-04-01

    I present a study of the X-ray spectral properties of a sample containing 24 type 1 active galactic nuclei using the medium spectral resolution of ASCA. The sample consists of 20 radio-quiet objects (18 Seyfert 1 galaxies and two radio-quiet quasars) and four radio-loud objects (three broad-line radio galaxies and one radio-loud quasar). A simple power-law continuum absorbed by Galactic material provides a very poor description of the spectra of most objects. Deviations from the power-law form are interpreted in terms of X-ray reprocessing/absorption processes. In particular, at least half of the objects show K-shell absorption edges of warm oxygen (Ovii and Oviii) characteristic of optically thin, photoionized material along the line of sight to the central engine, the so-called warm absorber. The amount and presence of this absorption are found to depend on either the luminosity or radio properties of the objects: luminous and/or radio-loud objects are found to possess less ionized absorption. This ambiguity exists because the radio-loud objects are also amongst the most luminous of the sample. It is also found that objects with significant optical reddening display deep Ovii edges. The converse is true with two possible exceptions (NGC 3783 and NGC 3516). Coupled with other evidence resulting from detailed study of particular objects, this suggests the existence of dusty warm plasma. A radiatively driven outflow originating from the molecular torus is probably the source of this plasma. Rapid variability of the warm absorber also points to there being another component closer to the central source and probably situated within the broad-line region (BLR). Independent evidence for such an optically thin, highly ionized BLR component comes from detailed optical/UV studies. Spectral features at energies characteristic of cold iron Kalpha emission are common. Such emission is expected to arise from the fluorescence of cold iron in optically thick material when

  8. Broad-band characteristics of seven new hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, F.; de Martino, D.; Mukai, K.; Russell, D. M.; Falanga, M.; Masetti, N.; Ferrigno, C.; Israel, G.

    2017-10-01

    We present timing and spectral analysis of a sample of seven hard X-ray selected cataclysmic variable candidates based on simultaneous X-ray and optical observations collected with XMM-Newton, complemented with Swift/BAT and INTEGRAL /IBIS hard X-ray data and ground-based optical photometry. For six sources, X-ray pulsations are detected for the first time in the range of ˜296-6098 s, identifying them as members of the magnetic class. Swift J0927.7-6945, Swift J0958.0-4208, Swift J1701.3-4304, Swift J2113.5+5422 and possibly PBC J0801.2-4625 are intermediate polars (IPs), while Swift J0706.8+0325 is a short (1.7 h) orbital period polar, the 11th hard X-ray-selected identified so far. X-ray orbital modulation is also observed in Swift J0927.7-6945 (5.2 h) and Swift J2113.5+5422 (4.1 h). Swift J1701.3-4304 is discovered as the longest orbital period (12.8 h) deep eclipsing IP. The spectra of the magnetic systems reveal optically thin multitemperature emission between 0.2 and 60 keV. Energy-dependent spin pulses and the orbital modulation in Swift J0927.7-6945 and Swift J2113.5+5422 are due to intervening local high-density absorbing material (NH ˜ 1022 - 23 cm-2). In Swift J0958.0-4208 and Swift J1701.3-4304, a soft X-ray blackbody (kT ˜ 50 and ˜80 eV) is detected, adding them to the growing group of `soft' IPs. White dwarf masses are determined in the range of ˜ 0.58-1.18 M⊙, indicating massive accreting primaries in five of them. Most sources accrete at rates lower than the expected secular value for their orbital period. Formerly proposed as a long-period (9.4 h) nova-like CV, Swift J0746.3-1608 shows peculiar spectrum and light curves suggesting either an atypical low-luminosity CV or a low-mass X-ray binary.

  9. Possibilities and Challenges of Scanning Hard X-ray Spectro-microscopy Techniques in Material Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Somogyi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Scanning hard X-ray spectro-microscopic imaging opens unprecedented possibilities in the study of inhomogeneous samples at different length-scales. It gives insight into the spatial variation of the major and minor components, impurities and dopants of the sample, and their chemical and electronic states at micro- and nano-meter scales. Measuring, modelling and understanding novel properties of laterally confined structures are now attainable. The large penetration depth of hard X-rays (several keV to several 10 keV beam energy makes the study of layered and buried structures possible also in in situ and in operando conditions. The combination of different X-ray analytical techniques complementary to scanning spectro-microscopy, such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray excited optical luminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS and nano-SIMS, provides access to optical characteristics and strain and stress distributions. Complex sample environments (temperature, pressure, controlled atmosphere/vacuum, chemical environment are also possible and were demonstrated, and allow as well the combination with other analysis techniques (Raman spectroscopy, infrared imaging, mechanical tensile devices, etc. on precisely the very same area of the sample. The use of the coherence properties of X-rays from synchrotron sources is triggering emerging experimental imaging approaches with nanometer lateral resolution. New fast analytical possibilities pave the way towards statistically significant studies at multi- length-scales and three dimensional tomographic investigations. This paper gives an overview of these techniques and their recent achievements in the field of material sciences.

  10. Hybrid setup for micro- and nano-computed tomography in the hard X-ray range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Hanke, Randolf; Last, Arndt; Zabler, Simon

    2017-12-01

    With increasing miniaturization in industry and medical technology, non-destructive testing techniques are an area of ever-increasing importance. In this framework, X-ray microscopy offers an efficient tool for the analysis, understanding, and quality assurance of microscopic samples, in particular as it allows reconstructing three-dimensional data sets of the whole sample's volume via computed tomography (CT). The following article describes a compact X-ray microscope in the hard X-ray regime around 9 keV, based on a highly brilliant liquid-metal-jet source. In comparison to commercially available instruments, it is a hybrid that works in two different modes. The first one is a micro-CT mode without optics, which uses a high-resolution detector to allow scans of samples in the millimeter range with a resolution of 1 μm. The second mode is a microscope, which contains an X-ray optical element to magnify the sample and allows resolving 150 nm features. Changing between the modes is possible without moving the sample. Thus, the instrument represents an important step towards establishing high-resolution laboratory-based multi-mode X-ray microscopy as a standard investigation method.

  11. Communication: The electronic structure of matter probed with a single femtosecond hard x-ray pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szlachetko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Physical, biological, and chemical transformations are initiated by changes in the electronic configuration of the species involved. These electronic changes occur on the timescales of attoseconds (10−18 s to femtoseconds (10−15 s and drive all subsequent electronic reorganization as the system moves to a new equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium state. The ability to detect the dynamics of these electronic changes is crucial for understanding the potential energy surfaces upon which chemical and biological reactions take place. Here, we report on the determination of the electronic structure of matter using a single self-seeded femtosecond x-ray pulse from the Linac Coherent Light Source hard x-ray free electron laser. By measuring the high energy resolution off-resonant spectrum (HEROS, we were able to obtain information about the electronic density of states with a single femtosecond x-ray pulse. We show that the unoccupied electronic states of the scattering atom may be determined on a shot-to-shot basis and that the measured spectral shape is independent of the large intensity fluctuations of the incoming x-ray beam. Moreover, we demonstrate the chemical sensitivity and single-shot capability and limitations of HEROS, which enables the technique to track the electronic structural dynamics in matter on femtosecond time scales, making it an ideal probe technique for time-resolved X-ray experiments.

  12. The MPE X-ray test facility PANTER: Calibration of hard X-ray (15-50 kev) optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, M. J.; Bräuninger, H.; Burkert, W.; Hartner, G. D.; Citterio, O.; Mazzoleni, F.; Pareschi, G.; Spiga, D.; Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Ramsey, B. D.

    2005-12-01

    The Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany, uses its large X-ray beam line facility PANTER for testing X-ray astronomical instrumentation. A number of telescopes, gratings, filters, and detectors, e.g. for astronomical satellite missions like Exosat, ROSAT, Chandra (LETG), BeppoSAX, SOHO (CDS), XMM-Newton, ABRIXAS, Swift (XRT), have been successfully calibrated in the soft X-ray energy range (di Brera (OAB), Milano, Italy, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Cambridge, MA, USA. These optics have been tested at the PANTER facility with a broad energy band beam (up to 50 keV) using the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn flight spare CCD camera with its good intrinsic energy resolution, and also with monochromatic X-rays between C-K (0.277 keV) and Cu-Kα (8.04 keV).

  13. The 3 Megasecond Chandra Campaign on Sgr A*: A Census of X-ray Flaring Activity from the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Joseph; Nowak, Michael; Gammie, Charles F.; Dexter, Jason; Markoff, Sera; Haggard, Daryl; Nayakshin, Sergei; Wang, Q. Daniel; Grosso, N.; Porquet, D.; Tomsick, John; Degenaar, Nathalie; Fragile, P. Christopher; Houck, John C.; Wijnands, Rudy; Miller, Jon M.; Baganoff, Frederick K.

    2014-08-01

    Over the last decade, X-ray observations of Sgr A* have revealed a black hole in a deep sleep, punctuated roughly once per day by brief ares. The extreme X-ray faintness of this supermassive black hole has been a long-standing puzzle in black hole accretion. To study the accretion processes in the Galactic Center, Chandra (in concert with numerous ground- and space-based observatories) undertook a 3 Ms campaign on Sgr A* in 2012. With its excellent observing cadence, sensitivity, and spectral resolution, this Chandra X-ray Visionary Project (XVP) provides an unprecedented opportunity to study the behavior of our closest supermassive black hole. We present a progress report from our ongoing study of X-ray flares, including one of the brightest flares ever seen from Sgr A*. Focusing on the statistics of the flares, the quiescent emission, and the relationship between the X-ray and the infrared, we discuss the physical implications of X-ray variability in the Galactic Center.

  14. Monitoring the hard X-ray sky with SuperAGILE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feroci, M.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Donnarumma, I.; Evangelista, Y.; Lapshov, I.; Lazzarotto, F.; Pacciani, L.; Rapisarda, M.; Soffitta, P.; di Persio, G.; Frutti, M.; Mastropietro, M.; Morelli, E.; Porrovecchio, G.; Rubini, A.; Antonelli, A.; Argan, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Boffelli, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Caraveo, P.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Chen, A. W.; Cocco, V.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Paris, G.; Di Cocco, G.; Fanari, G.; Ferrari, A.; Fiorini, M.; Fornari, F.; Fuschino, F.; Froysland, T.; Galli, M.; Gasparrini, D.; Gianotti, F.; Giommi, P.; Giuliani, A.; Labanti, C.; Liello, F.; Lipari, P.; Longo, F.; Mattaini, E.; Marisaldi, M.; Mauri, A.; Mauri, F.; Mereghetti, S.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Pellizzoni, A.; Perotti, F.; Piano, G.; Picozza, P.; Pilia, M.; Pittori, C.; Pontoni, C.; Preger, B.; Prest, M.; Primavera, R.; Pucella, G.; Rappoldi, A.; Rossi, E.; Sabatini, S.; Santolamazza, P.; Tavani, M.; Stellato, S.; Tamburelli, F.; Traci, A.; Trifoglio, M.; Trois, A.; Vallazza, E.; Vercellone, S.; Verrecchia, F.; Vittorini, V.; Zambra, A.; Zanello, D.; Salotti, L.

    2010-02-01

    Context. SuperAGILE is the hard X-ray monitor of the AGILE gamma ray mission, in orbit since 23 April 2007. It is an imaging experiment based on a set of four independent silicon strip detectors, equipped with one-dimensional coded masks, operating in the nominal energy range 18-60 keV. Aims: The main goal of SuperAGILE is the observation of cosmic sources simultaneously with the main gamma-ray AGILE experiment, the Gamma Ray Imaging Detector (GRID). Given its ~steradian-wide field of view and its ~15 mCrab day-sensitivity, SuperAGILE is also well suited to the long-term monitoring of Galactic compact objects and the detection of bright transients. Methods: The SuperAGILE detector properties and design allow for a 6 arcmin angular resolution in each of the two independent orthogonal projections of the celestial coordinates. Photon by photon data are continuously available by means of experiment telemetry, and are used to derive images and fluxes of individual sources, with integration times depending on the source intensity and position in the field of view. Results: We report on the main scientific results achieved by SuperAGILE over its first two years in orbit, until April 2009. The scientific observations started in mid-July 2007, with the science verification phase, continuing during the complete AGILE Cycle 1 and the first ~half of Cycle 2. Despite the largely non-uniform sky coverage, due to the pointing strategy of the AGILE mission, a few tens of Galactic sources were monitored, sometimes for unprecedently long continuous periods, leading to the detection also of several bursts and outbursts. Approximately one gamma ray burst per month was detected and localized, allowing for prompt multiwavelength observations. A few extragalactic sources in bright states were occasionally detected as well. The light curves of sources measured by SuperAGILE are made publicly available on the web in almost real-time. To enable a proper scientific use of these, we provide

  15. An Einstein survey of the 1 keV soft X-ray background in the Galactic plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, John M.; Caillault, Jean-Pierre

    1994-01-01

    We have analyzed 56 Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) observations within +/- 3 deg of the Galactic plane in order to determine the low-latitude soft X-ray background flux in the 0.56-1.73 keV band. Any detected X-ray point source which fell within our regions of study was removed from the image, enabling us to present maps of the background flux as a function of Galactic latitude along 18 meridians. These maps reveal considerable structure to the background in the Galactic plane on an angular scale of approximately 1 deg. Our results are compared with those of an earlier study of the 1 keV X-ray background along l = 25 deg by Kahn & Caillault. The double-peaked structure they found is not discernible in our results, possibly because of the presence of solar backscattered flux in their data. A model which takes into account contributions to the background by extragalactic and stellar sources, the distribution of both atomic and molecular absorbing material with the Galaxy, the energy dependence of the cross section for absorption of X-rays, and the energy dependence of the detector has been constructed and fitted to these new data to derive constraints on the scale height, temperature, and volume emissivity of the unaccounted-for X-ray-emitting material. The results of this model along l = 25 deg are roughly similar to those of the model of Kahn & Caillault along the same meridian.

  16. WEAK HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM TWO BROAD ABSORPTION LINE QUASARS OBSERVED WITH NuSTAR: COMPTON-THICK ABSORPTION OR INTRINSIC X-RAY WEAKNESS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 525 Davey Lab, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Alexander, D. M.; Hickox, R. [Department of Physics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Harrison, F. A.; Fuerst, F.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Madsen, K. K. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stern, D. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Bauer, F. E. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Christensen, F. E. [DTU Space-National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Comastri, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fabian, A. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Farrah, D. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Matt, G. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Universita degli Studi Roma Tre, via della Vasca Navale 84, I-00146 Roma (Italy); Ogle, P. [IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    We present Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) hard X-ray observations of two X-ray weak broad absorption line (BAL) quasars, PG 1004+130 (radio loud) and PG 1700+518 (radio quiet). Many BAL quasars appear X-ray weak, probably due to absorption by the shielding gas between the nucleus and the accretion-disk wind. The two targets are among the optically brightest BAL quasars, yet they are known to be significantly X-ray weak at rest-frame 2-10 keV (16-120 times fainter than typical quasars). We would expect to obtain Almost-Equal-To 400-600 hard X-ray ({approx}> 10 keV) photons with NuSTAR, provided that these photons are not significantly absorbed (N{sub H} {approx}< 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}). However, both BAL quasars are only detected in the softer NuSTAR bands (e.g., 4-20 keV) but not in its harder bands (e.g., 20-30 keV), suggesting that either the shielding gas is highly Compton-thick or the two targets are intrinsically X-ray weak. We constrain the column densities for both to be N{sub H} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2} if the weak hard X-ray emission is caused by obscuration from the shielding gas. We discuss a few possibilities for how PG 1004+130 could have Compton-thick shielding gas without strong Fe K{alpha} line emission; dilution from jet-linked X-ray emission is one likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place statistical constraints upon the fraction of intrinsically X-ray weak BAL quasars; this fraction is likely 17%-40%.

  17. Design and development of the multilayer optics for the new hard x-ray mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Civitani, M.; Raimondi, L.; Sironi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Negri, B.; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, F.; Borghi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Vernani, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Binda, R.; Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Attinà, P.

    2017-11-01

    The New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) project will be operated by 2017 and is currently undergoing a Phase B study, under the coordination of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The project is being proposed by an international team in the context of the ESA Call CV M3 as a Small Mission program, with a large Italian participation. It is based on 4 hard X-ray optics modules, each formed by 60 evenly spaced multilayer coated Wolter I mirror shells. An extensible bench is used to reach the 10 m focal length. The Wolter I monolithic substrates with multilayer coating are produced in NiCo by electroforming replication. Three of the mirror modules will host in the focal plane a hybrid a detector system (a soft X-ray Si DEPFET array plus a high energy CdTe detector). The detector of the fourth telescope will be a photoelectric polarimeter with imaging capabilities, operating from 2 up to 35 keV. The total on axis effective area of the three telescopes at 1 keV and 30 kev is of 1500 cm2 and 350 cm2 respectively, with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec HEW at 30 keV. In this paper we report on the design and development of the multilayer coated X-ray mirrors based on NiCo shells.

  18. Hard X-ray dosimetry of a plasma focus suitable for industrial radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, P.; Raspa, V.; Di Lorenzo, F.; Clausse, A.; Moreno, C.

    2018-04-01

    Dosimetric measurements of the hard X-ray emission by a small-chamber 4.7 kJ Mather-type plasma focus device capable of producing neat radiographs of metallic objects, were carried out with a set of thermoluminescent detectors TLD 700 (LiF:Mg,Ti). Measurements of the hard X-ray dose dependence with the angular position relative to the electrodes axis, are presented. The source-detector distance was changed in the range from 50 to 100 cm, and the angular positions were explored between ± 70°, relative to the symmetry axis of the electrodes. On-axis measurements show that the X-ray intensity is uniform within a half aperture angle of 6°, in which the source delivers an average dose of (1.5 ± 0.1) mGy/sr per shot. Monte Carlo calculations suggest that the energy of the electron beam responsible for the X-ray emission ranges 100-600 keV.

  19. Bright galactic x-ray binary sources: temporal and spectral studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrtilek, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    The author carried out a detailed analysis of the time-dependent X-ray spectra of five bright binary sources: Cygnus X-2, GX9 + 9, 1820-30 (a globular cluster burst source), Serpens X-1 (also a burster), and Hercules X-1. For Hercules X-1, an unusual, possibly periodic (approx.108 minute) spiking phenomenon was detected during the pre-eclipse and anomalous dip states. Spectra fits suggest a constant intrinsic source spectrum (a flat power law of photon index ..cap alpha.. = 0.93) from 1-20 keV, plus an absorber of varying covering fraction: approx.0% in the high state, approx.50% during the spikes, and approx.90% during the low state. Broadband spectra of the remaining systems are well fitted by either a single thermal bremsstrahlung model with temperatures of approx.4-14 keV or two-component blackbody spectra with temperatures of approx.0.6 keV and approx.2.0 keV. The hard and soft blackbody components imply, respectively, emitting regions of 2-10 km radius (perhaps originating on the neutron star surface) and 15-90 km radius (possibly associated with a surrounding accretion disk). For Cygnus X-2, the x-ray light curve appears to be correlated with the 0.843-day optical period, implying a partial eclipse of the x-ray source. During the high states there are irregular dips of up to 30% in intensity that last for 300-700 seconds.

  20. Theoretical modeling of Comptonized X-ray spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow: Origin of hard excess in ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaki, Takaaki; Mineshige, Shin; Ohsuga, Ken; Kawashima, Tomohisa

    2017-12-01

    X-ray continuum spectra of super-Eddington accretion flow are studied by means of Monte Carlo radiative transfer simulations based on the radiation hydrodynamic simulation data, in which both thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings are taken into account. We compare the calculated spectra of accretion flow around black holes with masses of MBH = 10, 102, 103, and 104 M⊙ for a fixed mass injection rate (from the computational boundary at 103 rs) of 103 LEdd/c2 (with rs, LEdd, and c being the Schwarzschild radius, the Eddington luminosity, and the speed of light, respectively). The soft X-ray spectra exhibit mass dependence in accordance with the standard-disk relation; the maximum surface temperature is scaled as T ∝ M_{ BH}^{ -1/4}. The spectra in the hard X-ray band, by contrast with soft X-ray, look to be quite similar among different models, if we normalize the radiation luminosity by MBH. This reflects that the hard component is created by thermal- and bulk-Compton scatterings of soft photons originating from an accretion flow in the overheated and/or funnel regions, the temperatures of which have no dependence on mass. The hard X-ray spectra can be reproduced by a Wien spectrum with the temperature of T ˜ 3 keV accompanied by a hard excess at photon energy above several keV. The excess spectrum can be fitted well with a power law with a photon index of Γ ˜ 3. This feature is in good agreement with that of the recent NuSTAR observations of ULXs (ultra-luminous X-ray sources).

  1. IGR J17454-2919: a new X-ray transient found by INTEGRAL/JEM-X close to the Galactic Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Brandt, Søren; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The JEM-X twin X-ray monitors on board the INTEGRAL satellite have again detected a new X-ray transient during the latest observation of the Galactic Center region. The new source named IGR J17454-2919 is found less than 24 arcmin from the Galactic Center. The source appears in both JEM-X 3-10 ke...

  2. A practical method to generate brilliant hard x-rays with a tabletop electron storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, H. [Ritsumeikan Univ., Shiga (Japan); Amano, D.; Miyade, H. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tanashi-City (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    With electron storage rings not only synchrotron radiation(SR) but also bremsstrahlung(BS) from a thin target placed in the electron orbit are mechanisms to generate brilliant x-ray beams. The calculated brilliance of BS with a 50 MeV storage ring, which is nearly 10{sup 13} photons/s, mrad{sup 2}, mm{sup 2}, 0.1% band width for 100 keV x-rays, exceeds that of SR from a 1 GeV storage ring. This photon energy spectrum is almost constant and extend up to the electron energy. The reasons for this high brilliance with this new radiation scheme is that the electron beams penetrating the thin target are utilized repeatedly, the narrow angular divergence of BS is determined by the kinematics of relativistic electron as same as SR, and the x-ray source size of the order of 1 {mu}m is determined by the size of thin target instead of electron beam sizes. Continuous injection of electron beam to the storage ring at full energy is the way to keep high and constant beam current. Peak current and repetition rate determine x-ray out put power. Note that the power of x-ray beam is also provided from a RF cavity of the storage ring. In this paper we will report some experimental results and discuss further application on a coherent bremsstrahlung generated from a set of stacked foils placed in the electron orbit of the ring. Resulting from these investigations the photon storage ring which is based on a 50 MeV exact circular electron storage ring could provide wide range of coherent and incoherent radiations from far infrared to hard x-ray in a practical amount of radiation power.

  3. Development of a hard x-ray polarimeter for gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, M. L.; Forrest, D. J.; Macri, J.; Ryan, J. M.; Vestrand, W. T.

    1998-01-01

    We describe recent work on the development of a Compton scatter polarimeter for measuring the polarization of hard X-rays (100-300 keV) from astrophysical sources. Results from measurements with a laboratory prototype are summarized, along with comparisons to Monte Carlo simulations. We also present a new design concept that envisions a complete polarimeter module on the front end of a 5-inch position-sensitive PMT. Although the emphasis of our effort is measuring hard X-ray polarization in solar flares, our design has the advantage that it is sensitive over a rather large FoV (>1 sr), a feature that makes the design especially attractive for γ-ray burst studies

  4. The effect of beam-driven return current instability on solar hard X-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, D.; McQuillan, P.; Brown, J. C.

    The problem of electrostatic wave generation by a return current driven by a small area electron beam during solar hard X-ray bursts is discussed. The marginal stability method is used to solve numerically the electron and ion heating equations for a prescribed beam current evolution. When ion-acoustic waves are considered, the method appears satisfactory and, following an initial phase of Coulomb resistivity in which Te/T sub i rise, predicts a rapid heating of substantial plasma volumes by anomalous ohmic dissipation. This hot plasma emits so much thermal bremsstrahlung that, contrary to previous expectations, the unstable beam-plasma system actually emits more hard X-rays than does the beam in the purely collisional thick target regime relevant to larger injection areas. Inclusion of ion-cyclotron waves results in ion-acoustic wave onset at lower Te/T sub i and a marginal stability treatment yields unphysical results.

  5. A hard x-ray prototype production exposure station at NSLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Milne, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    Exposures conducted at the NSLS R and D beamline (X-27B) for High Aspect Ratio Precision Manufacture have proven sufficiently successful that the authors are constructing a dedicated hard x-ray exposure beamline. The new beamline (X-14B) provides an exposure field ∼ 120 mm wide, three times larger than that of X-27B. The scanner is based on the hydraulic system from the X-27B program. It is optimized for planar exposures and takes advantage of the full 525 mm stroke available. Exposures of multiple substrates and masks will be possible, with the fixturing supporting mounting of substrate holders from other groups (ALS, APS, CAMD, and UW). The function of this beamline is to establish a hard x-ray exposure station where manufacturing scale protocols can be developed and ultimately exploited for production runs

  6. Quantitative analysis of hard X-ray 'footpoint' flares observed by the solar maximum mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, A. L.; Brown, J. C.; Hayward, J.

    1985-01-01

    Amplifier gain and collimator hole size variations across the field of view, amplifier/filter efficiency, variations in effective collimator hole size and angular response with photon energy, dead-time, and hard X-ray plate transmission, are among the factors for which instrumental corrections have to be incorporated to effect reliable correction and deconvolution of images from the SMM satellite's Hard X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (HXIS). Attention is given to the substantial Poisson noise in these energy bands. The maximum entropy deconvolution/correction routine developed for establishing the spatial structure reliably inferrable from HXIS data is presented, together with the results of the application of this routine to the three impulsive flares reported by Duijemian et al. (1982) from April 10, May 21, and November 5, 1980.

  7. Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy of transition-metal oxide thin films and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadati, H.; Fujimori, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful technique to study the electronic structures of transition-metal oxides. •Hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) is a new type of photoemission spectroscopy which can probe bulk states. •HXPES is very suitable for studying oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence. -- Abstract: Photoemission spectroscopy is a powerful experimental technique to study the electronic structures of solids, especially of transition-metal oxides. Recently, hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPES) has emerged as a more relevant experimental technique to obtain clear information about bulk states. Here, we describe how HXPES can be conveniently applied to study the interesting subjects on oxide thin films such as the composition dependence and the film thickness dependence of the electronic structures and the interfacial electronic structure of multilayers

  8. Design parameters of transmission curved crystal spectrometer for hard X-ray diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Feng; Cao Leifeng; Zhou Weimin; Zhao Zongqing; Gu Yuqiu; Yan Yonghong; Wei Lai; Xiao Shali

    2013-01-01

    The high resolving measurement of hard X-ray spectra generated in laser-produced plasma is usually performed using a cylindrically curved crystal spectrometer. In this paper, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation are performed to investigate the dependence of the energy range and resolving power on various design parameters, including crystal bending radius, source to crystal standoff distance, source size, location of the detector, etc. The investigation provides a means to design and develop cylindrically transmission curved crystal spectrometer which is used in hard X-ray diagnostics. The results show that crystal bending radius has a great influence on energy range of spectra and resolving power, and the separation between the spectral lines increases with the distance behind the focal circle faster than the line width, resulting in increased resolving power with distance. (authors)

  9. Resolving the hard X-ray emission of GX 5-1 with INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paizis, A.; Ebisawa, K.; Tikkanen, T.

    2005-01-01

    contamination from the nearby black hole candidate GRS 1758-258 above 20 keV. During our observations, GX 5-1 was mostly found in the horizontal and normal branch of its hardness intensity diagram. A clear hard X-ray emission is observed above similar to 30 keV which exceeds the exponential cut-off spectrum......We present the study of one year of INTEGRAL data on the neutron star low mass X-ray binary GX 5-1. Thanks to the excellent angular resolution and sensitivity of INTEGRAL, we are able to obtain a high quality spectrum of GX 5-1 from similar to 5keV to similar to 100 keV, for the first time without...

  10. Searches for hard X-ray gamma-ray burst afterglows with the BAT on Swift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimm, Hans A.; Ozawa, Hideki; Weidenspointner, Georg; Barbier, Louis M.; Barthelmy, Scott D.; Gehrels, Neil; Parsons, Ann M.; Tueller, Jack; Eftekharzadeh, Ardeshir; Hullinger, Derek D.; Markwardt, Craig; Fenimore, Edward E.; Palmer, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on the Swift gamma ray burst mission will continue to observe the fields of all detected gamma-ray bursts for several days after the prompt emission has faded. Utilizing first event-by-event data, then one minute and later five minute survey accumulations, the BAT will be extremely sensitive to the hard X-ray afterglow known to be associated with many bursts. This data will cover the crucial transition of the afterglow from rapid variability to the smoothly decaying power law in time and will extend observations of the tails of individual bursts to longer time scales than have been achievable so far. Since Swift is sensitive to short duration GRBs, we will also be able to determine whether hard X-ray afterglows are associated with short GRBs. The BAT will provide high resolution spectra of burst afterglows, allowing us to study in detail the time evolution of GRB spectra

  11. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of Galactic Supernova Remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Katsuda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of Galactic supernova remnants (SNRs, based on grating spectrometers onboard XMM-Newton and Chandra, has been revealing a variety of new astrophysical phenomena. Broadened oxygen lines for a northwestern compact knot in SN 1006 clearly show a high oxygen temperature of ~300 keV. The high temperature together with a lower electron temperature (kTe ~ 1 keV can be reasonably interpreted as temperature non-equilibration between electrons and oxygen behind a collisionless shock. An ejecta knot in the Puppis A SNR shows blueshifted line emission by ~ 1500kms-1. The line widths are fairly narrow in contrast to the SN 1006's knot; an upper limit of 0.9 eV is obtained for O VIII Lyα, which translates to an oxygen temperature of kTO < 30 keV. The low temperature suggests that the knot was heated by a reverse shock whose velocity is 4 times slower than that of a forward shock. Anomalous intensity ratios in O VII Heα lines, i.e., a stronger forbidden line than a resonance line, is found in a cloud-shock interaction region in Puppis A. The line ratio can be best explained by the charge-exchange emission that should arise at interfaces between the cold/warm clouds and the hot plasma. There are several other targets for which we plan to analyze high-quality grating data prior to the operation of the soft X-ray spectrometer onboard Astro-H.

  12. Optimization of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hui; Wang, Hua; Mao, Chengwen; Li, Aiguo; He, Yan; Dong, Zhaohui; Zheng, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Detailed designs of a multilayer Laue lens system for a hard x-ray nanoprobe, including flat and wedged types, are presented, to realize nanoscale point focus and high diffraction efficiency simultaneously. The difficulty of movement and alignment for lens, aperture and sample are considered in the optimization process. Considering the practical requirements of future experiments, the features of the beamline and the structural imperfections, the working energy range, the beam vibration and structural errors are estimated and discussed. (paper)

  13. Quadrelliptical reflector based on multilayer structures for the hard X-ray rang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhsakhalyan, A.A.; Akhsakhalyan, A.D.; Kharitonov, A.I.; Kluenkov, E.B.; Murav'ev, V.A.; Salashchenko, N.N.

    2005-01-01

    A method for manufacturing a reflecting system for focussing the radiation of a quasipoint X-ray source in the hard range of wavelengths (λ≤0.2nm) is proposed. The system consists of four identical multilayer mirrors having the form of an elliptical cylinder. Cylinder generatrixes of the adjoining mirrors are mutually perpendicular. The angular aperture of the system is ΔΩ=5.8x10 -4 steradian

  14. Spectroscopic Studies of X-Ray Binary Pulsars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    X-ray spectra of black hole binaries and active galactic nuclei show a non- thermal power law spectra extended over wide energy range toward hard X-rays to γ-rays. In contrast to these X-ray sources, XBPs fundamentally show a power law spectra with photon indices 1–2 with high-energy turnover at relatively low energies.

  15. Note: Experiments in hard x-ray chemistry: in situ production of molecular hydrogen and x-ray induced combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravica, Michael; Bai, Ligang; Park, Changyong; Liu, Yu; Galley, Martin; Robinson, John; Hatchett, David

    2012-03-01

    We have successfully loaded H(2) into a diamond anvil cell at high pressure using the synchrotron x-ray induced decomposition of NH(3)BH(3). In a second set of studies, radiation-assisted release of O(2) from KCLO(3), H(2) release from NH(3)BH(3), and reaction of these gases in a mixture of the reactants to form liquid water using x-rays at ambient conditions was observed. Similar observations were made using a KCLO(3) and NaBH(4) mixture. Depending on reaction conditions, an explosive or far slower reaction producing water was observed.

  16. X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei in the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Suganuma, Makoto; Akiyama, Masayuki; Greene, Jenny E.; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Nagao, Tohru; Noda, Hirofumi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We construct a sample of X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei by combining Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, XMM-Newton, and infrared source catalogs. Fifty-three X-ray sources satisfying i-band magnitude fainter than 23.5 mag and X-ray counts with the EPIC-PN detector larger than 70 are selected from 9.1 deg2, and their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and X-ray spectra are analyzed. Forty-four objects with an X-ray to i-band flux ratio FX/Fi > 10 are classified as extreme X-ray-to-optical flux sources. Spectral energy distributions of 48 among 53 are represented by templates of type 2 AGNs or star-forming galaxies and show the optical signature of stellar emission from host galaxies in the source rest frame. Infrared/optical SEDs indicate a significant contribution of emission from dust to the infrared fluxes, and that the central AGN is dust obscured. The photometric redshifts determined from the SEDs are in the range of 0.6-2.5. The X-ray spectra are fitted by an absorbed power-law model, and the intrinsic absorption column densities are modest (best-fit log NH = 20.5-23.5 cm-2 in most cases). The absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities are in the range of 6 × 1042-2 × 1045 erg s-1. Twenty objects are classified as type 2 quasars based on X-ray luminsosity and NH. The optical faintness is explained by a combination of redshifts (mostly z > 1.0), strong dust extinction, and in part a large ratio of dust/gas.

  17. Machine learning from hard x-ray surveys: applications to magnetic cataclysmic variable studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2009-11-01

    Within this thesis are discussed two main topics of contemporary astrophysics. The first is that of machine learning algorithms for astronomy whilst the second is that of magnetic cataclysmic variables (mCVs). To begin, an overview is given of ISINA: INTEGRAL Scouce Identifiction Network Algorithm. This machine learning algorithm, using random forests, is applied to the IBIS/ISGRI data set in order to ease the production of unbiased future soft gamma-ray source catalogues. The feature extraction process on an initial candidate list is described together with feature merging. Three trainng and testing sets are created in order to deal with the diverse time-scales encountered when dealing with the gamma-ray sky: one dealing with faint persistent source recognition, one dealing with strong persistent sources and a final one dealing with transients. For the latter, a new transient detection technique is introduced and described: the transient matrix. Finally the performance of the network is assessed and discussed using the testing set and some illustrative source examples. ISINA is also compared to the more conventional approach of visual inspection. Next mCVs are discussed, and in particular the properties arising from a hard X-ray selected sample which has proven remarkably efficient in detecting intermediate polars and asynchronous polars, two of the rarest type of cataclysmic variables (CVs). This thesis focuses particularly on the link between hard X-ray properties and spin/orbital periods. To this end, a new sample of these objects is constructed by cross-corelating candidate sources detected in INTEGRAL/IBIS observations against catalogues of known CVs. Also included in the analysis are hard X-ray Observations from Swift/BAT and SUZAKU/HXD in order to make the study more complete. It is found that most hard X-ray detected mCVs have Pspin/Porb<0.1 above the period gap. In this respect, attention is given to the very low number of detected systems in any ban

  18. Starburst Galaxies: Hard X-ray spectra and contribution to the diffuse background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Duane E.

    1993-01-01

    During the period of this grant two main tasks were performed: a determination of a selection criterion for starburst galaxies most likely to emit X-rays, and performance of a pilot study of the X-ray emission from nine such systems. Starburst galaxies may be expected to emit flat-spectrum X-ray at energies above 10 keV resulting from the various remnants of the short-lived massive stars which characterize the starburst. The investigation to determine the optimum sample resulted in a change from an X-ray selected (HEAO-2) sample to infrared selection based on the IRAS catalogue. A much broader sample thereby available for study, and selection could be limited to only the nearest objects and still obtain a reasonably large sample. A sample of 99 of the brightest infrared starburst galaxies was settled on for the X-ray survey. For a set of practical size, this was then reduced to a subset of 53, based on luminosity and nearness. X-ray emission from these objects was individually measured from the UCSD HEAO-1 all-sky survey in four energy bands between 13 keV to 160 keV. This data base consists of about 20 optical disk volumes. Net significance for the result was roughly two sigma, and a very hard spectral shape is indicated for the net spectrum of the surveyed galaxies. With the possibility of detection of the class, it was then felt worthwhile to examine fluxes from these sources in other archival data. This was performed with the HEAO-1 A2 data and the HEAO-2 (EINSTEIN) main archive and slew survey. Positive results were also obtained for the sample, but again at weak significance. With three independent measures of weak X-ray fluxes from nearby starburst galaxies, we wrote a letter to the Astrophysical Journal (enclosed) discussing these results and their likely significance, in particular, for the contribution to the cosmic diffuse x-ray background, perhaps as much as 25 percent.

  19. The first multi-wavelength campaign of AXP 4U 0142+61 from radio to hard X-rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, P.R.; Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Rea, N.; Durant, M.; Stappers, B.; Kaspi, V.M.; Dib, R.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time a quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign has been performed on an Anomalous X-ray Pulsar from the radio to the hard X-ray band. 4U 0142+61 was an INTEGRAL target for 1 Ms in July 2005. During these observations it was also observed in the X-ray band with Swift and RXTE, in

  20. Calibration of the hard x-ray detectors for the FOXSI solar sounding rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athiray, P. S.; Buitrago-Casas, Juan Camilo; Bergstedt, Kendra; Vievering, Juliana; Musset, Sophie; Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Glesener, Lindsay; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Courtade, Sasha; Christe, Steven; Krucker, Säm.; Goetz, Keith; Monson, Steven

    2017-08-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket experiment conducts direct imaging and spectral observation of the Sun in hard X-rays, in the energy range 4 to 20 keV. These high-sensitivity observations are used to study particle acceleration and coronal heating. FOXSI is designed with seven grazing incidence optics modules that focus X-rays onto seven focal plane detectors kept at a 2m distance. FOXSI-1 was flown with seven Double-sided Si Strip Detectors (DSSD), and two of them were replaced with CdTe detectors for FOXSI-2. The upcoming FOXSI-3 flight will carry DSSD and CdTe detectors with upgraded optics for enhanced sensitivity. The detectors are calibrated using various radioactive sources. The detector's spectral response matrix was constructed with diagonal elements using a Gaussian approximation with a spread (sigma) that accounts for the energy resolution of the detector. Spectroscopic studies of past FOXSI flight data suggest that the inclusion of lower energy X-rays could better constrain the spectral modeling to yield a more precise temperature estimation of the hot plasma. This motivates us to carry out an improved calibration to better understand the finer-order effects on the spectral response, especially at lower energies. Here we report our improved calibration of FOXSI detectors using experiments and Monte-Carlo simulations.

  1. Hard X-Ray Emission from Partially Occulted Solar Flares: RHESSI Observations in Two Solar Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, Frederic; Costa, Fatima Rubio da; Petrosian, Vahé [Department of Physics and KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Oka, Mitsuo; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Krucker, Säm [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Liu, Wei [Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, 625 2nd Street, Suite 209, Petaluma, CA 94952 (United States); Glesener, Lindsay, E-mail: feffen@stanford.edu, E-mail: frubio@stanford.edu [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Flares close to the solar limb, where the footpoints are occulted, can reveal the spectrum and structure of the coronal looptop source in X-rays. We aim at studying the properties of the corresponding energetic electrons near their acceleration site, without footpoint contamination. To this end, a statistical study of partially occulted flares observed with Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager is presented here, covering a large part of solar cycles 23 and 24. We perform detailed spectra, imaging, and light curve analyses for 116 flares and include contextual observations from SDO and STEREO when available, providing further insights into flare emission that were previously not accessible. We find that most spectra are fitted well with a thermal component plus a broken power-law, non-thermal component. A thin-target kappa distribution model gives satisfactory fits after the addition of a thermal component. X-ray imaging reveals small spatial separation between the thermal and non-thermal components, except for a few flares with a richer coronal source structure. A comprehensive light curve analysis shows a very good correlation between the derivative of the soft X-ray flux (from GOES ) and the hard X-rays for a substantial number of flares, indicative of the Neupert effect. The results confirm that non-thermal particles are accelerated in the corona and estimated timescales support the validity of a thin-target scenario with similar magnitudes of thermal and non-thermal energy fluxes.

  2. Optimising hard X-ray generation from laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindheimer, C.

    1995-04-01

    The aim of this work is to increase the X-ray yield for a laser produced plasma by optimising the focusing conditions and temporal shape of the laser pulses. The focusing conditions are improved by introducing a control system that secures the laser target surface to exact focus within a range of a few micrometers, allowing continuously high laser intensity for plasma generation. The temporal shape of the laser pulses is changed by introducing a saturable absorber in the laser beam. The laser produces a substantial pre-pulse that heats and expands the target material prior to main pulse arrival. The saturable absorber can increase the main pulse/pre-pulse ratio of the laser pulse up to four orders of magnitude and consequently reduce expansion of the target material before the main pulse. The belief is that an increase in target density at the time of main pulse arrival will change the energy distribution of the X-rays, towards a more efficient X-ray production in the hard X-ray region. This report and the work connected to it, includes the preliminary measurements and results for these improvements. 17 refs

  3. A hard x-ray spectrometer for high angular resolution observations of cosmic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hailey, C.J.; Ziock, K.P.; Harrison, F.; Kahn, S.M.; Liedahl, D.; Lubin, P.M.; Seiffert, M.

    1988-01-01

    LAXRIS (large area x-ray imaging spectrometer) is an experimental, balloon-borne, hard x-ray telescope that consists of a coaligned array of x-ray imaging spectrometer modules capable of obtaining high angular resolution (1--3 arcminutes) with moderate energy resolution in the 20- to 300-keV region. Each spectrometer module consists of a CsI(Na) crystal coupled to a position-sensitive phototube with a crossed-wire, resistive readout. Imaging is provided by a coded aperture mask with a 4-m focal length. The high angular resolution is coupled with rather large area (/approximately/800 cm 2 ) to provide good sensitivity. Results are presented on performance and overall design. Sensitivity estimates are derived from a Monte-Carlo code developed to model the LAXRIS response to background encountered at balloon altitudes. We discuss a variety of observations made feasible by high angular resolution. For instance, spatially resolving the nonthermal x-ray emission from clusters of galaxies is suggested as an ideal program for LAXRIS. 15 refs., 5 figs

  4. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  5. Annealing induced atomic rearrangements on (Ga,In) (N,As) probed by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Fumitaro; Higashi, Kotaro; Fuyuno, Satoshi; Morifuji, Masato; Kondow, Masahiko; Trampert, Achim

    2018-04-13

    We study the effects of annealing on (Ga 0.64 ,In 0.36 ) (N 0.045 ,As 0.955 ) using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. We observed surface oxidation and termination of the N-As bond defects caused by the annealing process. Specifically, we observed a characteristic chemical shift towards lower binding energies in the photoelectron spectra related to In. This phenomenon appears to be caused by the atomic arrangement, which produces increased In-N bond configurations within the matrix, as indicated by the X-ray absorption fine structure measurements. The reduction in the binding energies of group-III In, which occurs concomitantly with the atomic rearrangements of the matrix, causes the differences in the electronic properties of the system before and after annealing.

  6. A Suzaku Study of Ejecta Structure and Origin of Hard X-ray Emission in the Supernova Remnant G156.2+5.7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Katsuda, Satoru; Mori, Koji; Petre, Robert; Yamaguchi, Hiroya

    2012-01-01

    We report an X-ray study of the evolved Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1S6.2+S.7 based on six pointing observations with Suzaku. The remnant's large extent (100' in diameter) allows us to investigate its radial structure in the northwestern and eastern directions from the apparent center. The X-ray spectra. were well fit with a two-component non-equilibrium ionization model representing the swept-up interstellar medium (ISM) and the metal-rich ejecta. We found prominent central concentrations of Si, S and Fe from the ejecta component; the lighter elements of O, Ne and Mg were distributed more uniformly. The temperature of the ISM component suggests a slow shock (610-960 km/s), hence the remnant's age is estimated to be 7,000-15,000 yr, assuming its distance to be approx. 1.1 kpc. G1S6.2+5.7 has also been thought to emit hard, non-thermal X-rays, despite being considerably older than any other such remnant. In response to a recent discovery of a background cluster of galaxies (2XMM J045637.2+522411), we carefully excluded its contribution, and reexamined the origin of the hard X-ray emission. We found that the residual hard X-ray emission is consistent with the expected level of the cosmic X-ray background. Thus, no robust evidence for the non-thermal emission was obtained from G156.2+5.7. These results are consistent with the picture of an evolved SNR.

  7. Accretion flow diagnostics with X-ray spectral timing: the hard state of SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassatella, P.; Uttley, P.; Maccarone, T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent XMM-Newton studies of X-ray variability in the hard states of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) indicate that the variability is generated in the ‘standard’ optically thick accretion disc that is responsible for the multi-colour blackbody emission. The variability originates in the disc as

  8. Hard X-ray polarimetry with Caliste, a high performance CdTe based imaging spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antier, S.; Ferrando, P.; Limousin, O.; Caroli, E.; Curado da Silva, R. M.; Blondel, C.; Chipaux, R.; Honkimaki, V.; Horeau, B.; Laurent, P.; Maia, J. M.; Meuris, A.; Del Sordo, S.; Stephen, J. B.

    2015-06-01

    Since the initial exploration of the X- and soft γ-ray sky in the 60's, high-energy celestial sources have been mainly characterized through imaging, spectroscopy and timing analysis. Despite tremendous progress in the field, the radiation mechanisms at work in sources such as neutrons stars, black holes, and Active Galactic Nuclei are still unclear. The polarization state of the radiation is an observational parameter which brings key additional information about the physical processes in these high energy sources, allowing the discrimination between competing models which may otherwise all be consistent with other types of measurement. This is why most of the projects for the next generation of space missions covering the few tens of keV to the MeV region require a polarization measurement capability. A key element enabling this capability, in this energy range, is a detector system allowing the identification and characterization of Compton interactions as they are the main process at play. The compact hard X-ray imaging spectrometer module, developed in CEA with the generic name of "Caliste" module, is such a detector. In this paper, we present experimental results for two types of Caliste-256 modules, one based on a CdTe crystal, the other one on a CdZnTe crystal, which have been exposed to linearly polarized beams at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). These results, obtained at 200 and 300 keV, demonstrate the capability of these modules to detect Compton events and to give an accurate determination of the polarization parameters (polarization angle and fraction) of the incoming beam. For example, applying an optimized selection to our data set, equivalent to select 90° Compton scattered interactions in the detector plane, we find a modulation factor Q of 0.78 ± 0.06 in the 200-300 keV range. The polarization angle and fraction are derived with accuracies of approximately 1° and 5 % respectively for both CdZnTe and CdTe crystals. The

  9. An X-Ray Spectral and Temporal Model for Clumpy Tori in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Li, Xiaobo

    2015-08-01

    We recently construct an X-ray spectral model for the clumpy torus in an active galactic nucleus (AGN) using Geant4 (Liu, Y., & Li, X. 2014, ApJ, 787, 52; Liu, Y., & Li, X. 2015, MNRAS, 448, L53) and investigate the effect of the clumpiness parameters on the reflection spectra and the strength of the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The volume filling factor of the clouds in the clumpy torus only slightly influences the reflection spectra, however, the total column density and the number of clouds along the line of sight significantly change the shapes and amplitudes of the reflection spectra. The effect of column density is similar to the case of a smooth torus, while a small number of clouds along the line of sight will smooth out the anisotropy of the reflection spectra and the fluorescent line Fe Kα. The smoothing effect is mild in the low column density case (NH=1023 cm-2), whereas it is much more evident in the high column density case (NH=1025 cm-2). Our model provides a quantitative tool for the spectral analysis of the clumpy torus. We have applied it to the NuSTAR spectra of NGC 1068 and found a small number of clouds along the line of sight is preferred. We will also discuss the temporal model for clumpy tori and its application in the reverberation of narrow Fe Kα line.

  10. Polarization and dipole effects in hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pauly, N., E-mail: nipauly@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-rays are unpolarized or linearly polarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A difference of polarization implies a variation in path travelled by the photoelectrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We also point out the influence of the dipole approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use Monte Carlo simulations. - Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPS) using X-rays in the 1.5-15 keV energy range generated by synchrotron sources becomes an increasingly important analysis technique due to its potential for bulk sensitive measurements. However, besides their high energy, another characteristic of photons generated by synchrotron sources is their linear polarization while X-rays from Al K{alpha} or Mg K{alpha} for instance are unpolarized. This difference implies a possible variation in total path travelled by the photoelectrons generated by the X-rays inside the medium and consequently a modification of the resulting spectrum shape. We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions, namely the number of electrons escaping after n inelastic scattering events, for photoelectron with energies of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 keV and originating from Si 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, Au 4d{sub 3/2} and Au 4f{sub 7/2} subshells. Moreover, we point out the influence of the dipole approximation leading to an underestimation of the partial intensity distributions due to the neglect of the forward-backward asymmetry of the angular photoelectron distribution.

  11. Imaging of cochlear tissue with a grating interferometer and hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Shintani-Smith, Stephanie; Fishman, Andrew; David, Christian; Robinson, Ian; Rau, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses an important current development in medical and biological imaging: the possibility of imaging soft tissue at resolutions in the micron range using hard X-rays. Challenging environments, including the cochlea, require the imaging of soft tissue structure surrounded by bone. We demonstrate that cochlear soft tissue structures can be imaged with hard X-ray phase contrast. Furthermore, we show that only a thin slice of the tissue is required to introduce a large phase shift. It is likely that the phase contrast image of the soft tissue structures is sufficient to image the structures even if surrounded by bone. For the present set of experiments, structures with low-absorption contrast have been visualized using in-line phase contrast imaging and a grating interferometer. The experiments have been performed at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratories, a third generation source of synchrotron radiation. The source provides highly coherent X-ray radiation with high-photon flux (>10 12 photons/s) at high-photon energies (5-70 keV). Radiographic and light microscopy images of the gerbil cochlear slice samples were compared. It has been determined that a 20-(micro)m thick tissue slice induces a phase shift between 1/3π and 2/3π.

  12. Scorpius X-1 - Origin of the radio and hard X-ray emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Cheng, C. C.; Tsuruta, S.

    1974-01-01

    The consequences of models for the central radio source and the hard X-ray emitting region in Sco X-1 are examined. The radio emission could result from noncoherent synchrotron radiation, and the X-rays may be produced by bremsstrahlung. It is shown that both these mechanisms require a mass outflow from Sci X-1. The radio source is located at about 30 million km from the center of the star, and its linear dimensions do not exceed 300 million km. The magnetic field in the radio source is on the order of 1 gauss. If the hard X-rays are produced by thermal bremsstrahlung, their source is located between 10,000 and 50,000 km from the center of the star, the temperature is 2 billion K, and the emission measure is 2 times 10 to the 56th power per cu cm. This hot plasma loses energy inward by conduction and outward by supersonic expansion. The rates of energy loss for both of these processes are about 10 to the 36th ergs per sec, comparable to the total luminosity of Sco X-1.

  13. SCO X-1: Origin of the radio and hard X-ray emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaty, R.; Cheng, C. C.; Tsuruta, S.

    1973-01-01

    The consequences of models for the central radio source and the hard X-ray ( 30 keV) emitting region in Sco X-1 are examined. It was found that the radio emission could result from noncoherent synchrotron radiation and that the X-rays may be produced by bremsstrahlung. It is shown that both mechanisms require a mass outflow from Sco X-1. The radio source is located at r approximately 3x10 to the 12th power cm from the center of the star, and its linear dimensions do not exceed 3x10 to the 13th power cm. The magnetic field in the radio source is on the order of 1 gauss. If the hard X-rays are produced by thermal bremsstrahlung, their source is located at 10 to the 9th power approximately r approximately 5x10 to the 9th power cm, the temperature is 2x10 to the 9th power K, and the emission measure is 2x10 to the 56th power/cu cm. This hot plasma loses energy inward by conduction and outward by supersonic expansion. The rates of energy loss for both processes are about 10 to the 36th power erg/s, comparable to the total luminosity of Sco X-1.

  14. Inference of the electron temperature in ICF implosions from the hard X-ray spectral continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Grigory; Landen, O. L.; Svyatsky, D.; Sio, H.; Kabadi, N. V.; Simpson, R. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Shah, R. C.; Joshi, T. R.; Hakel, P.; Weber, T. E.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Thorn, D.; Schneider, M.; Bradley, D.; Kilkenny, J.

    2017-10-01

    The NIF Continuum Spectrometer, scheduled to be first deployed in Fall of 2017, will infer the imploded core electron temperature from the free-free continuum self-emission spectra of photons with energies of 20 to 30 keV. However, this hard X-ray radiation is emitted by the tail of the electron distribution, which likely deviates from Maxwellian and thus obscures interpretation of the data. We investigate resulting modifications to the X-ray spectra. The logarithmic slope of the spectrum from the more realistic, non-thermal tail of the electron distribution is found to decrease more rapidly at higher photon energies, as compared to the perfectly Maxwellian case. Interpreting the spectrum with assumption of Maxwellian electrons enforced is shown to give an electron temperature that is lower than the actual one. Conversely, due to its connection with the non-thermal features in the electron distribution, hard X-ray emission can provide unprecedented information about kinetic processes in the hot DT core. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Dept. of Energy by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  15. The inner-relationship of hard X-ray and EUV bursts during solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emslie, A.G.; Brown, J.C.; Donnelly, R.F.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison is made between the flux-versus-time profile in the EUV band and the thick target electron flux profile as inferred from hard X-rays for a number of moderately large solar flares. This complements Kane and Donnelly's (1971) study of small flares. The hard X-ray data are from ESRO TD-1A and the EUV inferred from SFD observations. Use of a chi 2 minimising method shows that the best overall fit between the profile fine structures obtains for synchronism to < approximately 5 s which is within the timing accuracy. This suggests that neither conduction nor convection is fast enough as the primary mechanism of energy transport into the EUV flare and rather favours heating by the electrons themselves or by some MHD wave process much faster than acoustic waves. The electron power deposited, for a thick target model, is however far greater than the EUV luminosity for any reasonable assumptions about the area and depth over which EUV is emitted. This means that either most of the power deposited is conducted away to the optical flare or that only a fraction < approximately 1-10% of the X-ray emitting electrons are injected downwards. Recent work on Hα flare heating strongly favours the latter alternative - i.e. that electrons are mostly confined in the corona. (Auth.)

  16. SuperHERO: The Next Generation Hard X-Ray HEROES Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Christe, Steven D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Seller, Paul; Shih, Albert Y.; Stuchlik, David W.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Tenant, Allyn F.; hide

    2014-01-01

    SuperHERO is a new high-sensitivity Long Duration Balloon (LDB)-capable, hard-x-ray (20-75 keV) telescope for making novel astrophysics and heliophysics observations. The proposed SuperHERO payload will be developed jointly by the Astrophysics Office at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the Solar Physics Laboratory and Wallops Flight Facility at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. SuperHERO is a follow-on payload to the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon-borne telescope that recently launched from Fort Sumner, NM in September of 2013. The HEROES core instrument is a hard x-ray telescope consisting of x-ray 109 optics configured into 8 modules. Each module is aligned to a matching gas-filled detector at a focal length of 6 m. SuperHERO will make significant improvements to the HEROES payload, including: new solid-state multi-pixel CdTe detectors, additional optics, the Wallops Arc-Second Pointer, alignment monitoring systems and lighter gondola.

  17. Hard X-ray Fourier transform holography from an array of oriented referenced objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Naoto

    2011-07-01

    Hard X-ray Fourier transform holography (HXFTH) is a promising method for imaging nanoscale objects, including biological molecules, with a spatial resolution of a nanometer or better. However, it suffers from low scattering intensities being available for imaging owing to smaller object size and the low scattering cross section inherent in hard X-rays. One technique to overcome the problem would be to use an array of oriented objects, each with its own reference. Here the feasibility of this approach was experimentally tested by recording diffraction patterns from nanofabricated test patterns arranged in a 5 × 5 matrix. At an X-ray energy of 8 keV (λ = 1.55 Å), the image of the original test pattern was clearly restored with 60 s exposure on an imaging plate; the image was still recognizable with a 500 ms exposure on a CCD detector at the BL40XU beamline at SPring-8. The results demonstrate that the use of an array of referenced oriented objects for HXFTH is workable, and that it can be considered as a practical candidate for imaging biological molecules, identical particles of which are available but diffract even more weakly than artificially fabricated test patterns.

  18. Measured reflectance of graded multilayer mirrors designed for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.; Windt, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Future astronomical X-ray telescopes, including the balloon-borne High-Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) and the Constellation-X Hard X-ray Telescope (Con-X HXT) plan to incorporate depth-graded multilayer coatings in order to extend sensitivity into the hard X-ray (10 less than or similar to E less...... than or similar to 80 keV) band. In this paper, we present measurements of the reflectance in the 18-170 keV energy range of a cylindrical prototype nested optic taken at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). The mirror segments, mounted in a single bounce stack, are coated with depth......-graded W/Si multilayers optimized for broadband performance up to 69.5 keV (WK-edge). These designs are ideal for both the HEFT and Con-X HXT applications. We compare the measurements to model calculations to demonstrate that the reflectivity can be well described by the intended power law distribution...

  19. In situ/Operando studies of electrocatalysts using hard X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassalle-Kaiser, Benedikt [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gul, Sheraz [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.; Kern, Jan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.; SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States). Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); Yachandra, Vittal K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.; Yano, Junko [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Molecular Biophysics and Integrated Bioimaging Div.

    2017-05-02

    This review focuses on the use of X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy techniques using hard X-rays to study electrocatalysts under in situ/operando conditions. The importance and the versatility of methods in the study of electrodes in contact with the electrolytes are described, when they are being cycled through the catalytic potentials during the progress of the oxygen-evolution, oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions. The catalytic oxygen evolution reaction is illustrated with examples using three oxides, Co, Ni and Mn, and two sulfides, Mo and Co. These are used as examples for the hydrogen evolution reaction. A bimetallic, bifunctional oxygen evolving and oxygen reducing Ni/Mn oxide is also presented. The various advantages and constraints in the use of these techniques and the future outlook are discussed.

  20. Temporal behaviour of the thermal model of hard X-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackinnon, A. L.

    1985-01-01

    A simple, analytic model is presented of a hot, thermal hard X-ray source, continuously heated, bounded by ion-acoustic conduction fronts, and expanding in a loop. The model is used to investigate the assumption that the 'rise time' of the X-ray emission is approximately given by the loop length divided by the ion-sound speed appropriate to the peak temperature. It is found that a freely-expanding source does not behave in this way; instead, the rise time is symptomatic of the timescale for primary energy release. If the energy release rate does not fall significantly before the source fills the loop, however, then this assumption may be approximately satisfied, if a condition on the temporal behavior of the energy release is satisfied. Finally, some remarks on the relative timing of temperature and emission measure peaks are made, and possible further applications mentioned of the results presented herein.

  1. Femtosecond high-resolution hard X-ray spectroscopy using reflection zone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löchel, Heike; Braig, Christoph; Brzhezinskaya, Maria; Siewert, Frank; Baumgärtel, Peter; Firsov, Alexander; Erko, Alexei

    2015-04-06

    An off-axis total external reflection zone plate is applied to wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in the range from 7.8 keV to 9.0 keV. The resolving power E/ΔE of up to 1.1 × 10(2), demonstrated in a synchrotron proof-of-concept experiment, competes well with existing energy-dispersive instruments in this spectral range. In conjunction with the detection efficiency of (2.2 ± 0.6)%, providing a fairly constant count rate across the 1.2 keV band, the temporal pulse elongation to no more than 1.5 × 10(-15) s opens the door to wide-range, ultra-fast hard X-ray spectroscopy at free-electron lasers (FELs).

  2. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-07-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scattering. The self-seeding scheme with the wake monochromator is extremely compact, and takes almost no cost and time to be implemented. The upgrade proposed in this paper could take place during the commissioning stage of the European XFEL, opening a vast new range of applications from the very beginning of operations.We present feasibility study and examplifications for the SASE2 line of the European XFEL. (orig.)

  3. X-Ray bright active galactic nuclei in massive galaxy clusters - II. The fraction of galaxies hosting active nuclei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehlert, S.; von der Linden, A.; Allen, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    We present a measurement of the fraction of cluster galaxies hosting X-ray bright active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a function of clustercentric distance scaled in units of r500. Our analysis employs high-quality Chandra X-ray and Subaru optical imaging for 42 massive X-ray-selected galaxy cluster...... fields spanning the redshift range 0.2 galaxies from the calculation, we measure a cluster galaxy AGN fraction in the central...... regions of the clusters that is~3 times lower than the field value. This fraction increases with clustercentric distance before becoming consistent with the field at ~2.5r500. Our data exhibit similar radial trends to those observed for star formation and optically selected AGN in cluster member galaxies...

  4. Radio imaging observations of hard x-ray microflares observed by RHESSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, M.; Trottet, G.; Garaimov, V.; Grigis, P.

    We describe the properties of two sets of microflares observed simultaneously by RHESSI (Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) in hard X-rays and by two radio imaging instruments--NoRH (Nobeyama Radio Heliograph) in microwaves (17 GHz) and NRH (Nancay Radio Heliograph) at metric wavelengths. The two sets of events occurred in two different time zones, and as a result we do not have simultaneous imaging data in microwaves and metric wavlengths for the same RHESSI events. We'll discuss four events--two observed by NoRH in microwaves and two observed by NRH in meter waves, along with RHESSI events. The microwave (17 GHz) events occurred in AR 9934 at 03:58 UT May 3, 2002 and at 05:08 UT May 4, 2002. We have detected microwave (17 & 34 GHz) emissions in association with RHESSI microflares in the energy range 3-50 keV. The microwave emission comes from footpoints for higher energies, and from the entire mini or small flaring loop for lower energies. The relative positions of microwaves and hard X-rays are as they should be in normal flares. Sometimes the two sources coincide, at other times the two sources are at opposite ends of the flaring loop. One sees the mini flaring loops clearly in NoRH images. RHESSI maps at the time of maximum X-ray emission during the event of May 3, 2002 clearly show an X-ray loop in the range 3-6 keV and two footpoints of the loop in the 6-12 and 12-25 keV ranges. These footpoints are located above opposite magnetic polarities as seen in overlays of hard X-ray images on the MDI images. The MDI magnetograms taken before the microflares show rapid evolution of the magnetic field, including sometimes the emergence of a new region. The hard X-ray spectrum of microwave associated RHESSI microflares can be fit by a thermal component (EM ˜ 3× 1046 cm-3) at low energies (3-6 keV) and a nonthermal component (with slope -3.2) at higher energies. The two metric events imaged by NRH occurred on August 5 and September 3, 2003, one located on

  5. Scintillation properties and X-ray irradiation hardness of Ce3+-doped Gd2O3-based scintillation glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Liwan; Shao, Chongyun; Zhang, Yu; Liao, Xili; Yang, Qiuhong; Hu, Lili; Chen, Danping

    2016-01-01

    Ce 3+ -doped Gd 2 O 3 -based scintillation glasses are prepared within an air or CO atmosphere. The effects of fluorine, lutetium, barium, and the melting atmosphere on the optical properties, scintillation properties and irradiation hardness are studied. Absorption spectra, luminescence spectra under UV and X-ray excitation, and the X-ray radiation-induced spectra are presented. The results show that the density can be increased by doping with fluorine, lutetium and barium. The luminescence intensity decreases after X-ray irradiation. Because of charge transfer quenching, fluorine and lutetium enhance the UV-excited and X-ray excited luminescence intensity, but barium decreases. Moreover, fluorine and lutetium are advantageous to irradiation hardness while barium is not. In addition, a non-reducing atmosphere provides a higher irradiation hardness than a reducing atmosphere. Fluorine-doped glass is promising to enhance luminescence intensity, promote irradiation hardness, and increase the density.

  6. Uncooled Radiation Hard Large Area SiC X-ray and EUV Detectors and 2D Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to design, fabricate, characterize and commercialize large area, uncooled and radiative hard 4H-SiC EUV ? soft X-ray detectors capable of ultra...

  7. Design of a radiation hard silicon pixel sensor for X-ray science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwandt, Joern

    2014-06-01

    At DESY Hamburg the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) is presently under construction. The EuXFEL has unique properties with respect to X-ray energy, instantaneous intensity, pulse length, coherence and number of pulses/sec. These properties of the EuXFEL pose very demanding requirements for imaging detectors. One of the detector systems which is currently under development to meet these challenges is the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, AGIPD. It is a hybrid pixel-detector system with 1024 x 1024 p + pixels of dimensions 200 μm x 200 μm, made of 16 p + nn + - silicon sensors, each with 10.52 cm x 2.56 cm sensitive area and 500 μm thickness. The particular requirements for the AGIPD are a separation between noise and single photons down to energies of 5 keV, more than 10 4 photons per pixel for a pulse duration of less than 100 fs, negligible pile-up at the EuXFEL repetition rate of 4.5 MHz, operation for X-ray doses up to 1 GGy, good efficiency for X-rays with energies between 5 and 20 keV, and minimal inactive regions at the edges. The main challenge in the sensor design is the required radiation tolerance and high operational voltage, which is required to reduce the so-called plasma effect. This requires a specially optimized sensor. The X-ray radiation damage results in a build-up of oxide charges and interface traps which lead to a reduction of the breakdown voltage, increased leakage current, increased interpixel capacitances and charge losses. Extensive TCAD simulations have been performed to understand the impact of X-ray radiation damage on the detector performance and optimize the sensor design. To take radiation damage into account in the simulation, radiation damage parameters have been determined on MOS capacitors and gate-controlled diodes as function of dose. The optimized sensor design was fabricated by SINTEF. Irradiation tests on test structures and sensors show that the sensor design is radiation hard and performs as

  8. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  9. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; White, Thomas G. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Drakopoulos, Michael [Diamond Light Source, I12 Joint Engineering, Environmental, Processing (JEEP) Beamline, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Rack, Alexander [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble (France); Eakins, Daniel E., E-mail: d.eakins@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-24

    Scintillator performance in time-resolved, hard, indirect detection X-ray studies on the sub-microsecond timescale at synchrotron light sources is reviewed, modelled and examined experimentally. LYSO:Ce is found to be the only commercially available crystal suitable for these experiments. The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits)

  10. Neutron and hard x-ray measurements during pellet deposition in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Schneider, W.; Ramsey, A.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements of neutrons and hard x rays are made with a pair of plastic scintillators during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium TFTR plasmas. Three cases are investigated. During ohmic heating in plasmas with few runaway electrons, the neutron emission does not increase when a pellet is injected, indicating that strong acceleration of the pellet ions does not occur. In ohmic plasmas with low but detectable levels of runaway electrons, an x-ray burst is observed on a detector near the pellet injector as the pellet ablates, while a detector displaced 126 0 toroidally from the injector does not measure a synchronous burst. Reduced pellet penetration correlates with the presence of x-ray emission, suggesting that the origin of the burst is bremsstrahlung from runaway electrons that strike the solid pellet. In deuterium beam-heated discharges, an increase in the d-d neutron emission is observed when the pellet ablates. In this case, the increase is due to fusion reactions between beam ions and the high density neutral and plasma cloud produced by ablation of the pellet; this localized density perturbation equilibrates in about 700 μsec. Analysis of the data indicates that the density propagates without forming a sharp shock front with a rapid initial propagation velocity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10 7 cm/sec) that subsequently decreases to around 3 x 10 6 cm/sec. Modelling suggests that the electron heat flux into the pellet cloud is much less than the classical Spitzer value

  11. Satellite observations of lightning-induced hard X-ray flux enhancements in the conjugate region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Bučík

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary examination of October-December 2002 SONG (SOlar Neutron and Gamma rays data aboard the Russian CORONAS-F (Complex Orbital Near-Earth Observations of the Activity of the Sun low-altitude satellite has revealed many X-ray enhanced emissions (30–500 keV in the slot region (L ~ 2–3 between the Earth's radiation belts. In one case, CORONAS-F data were analyzed when the intense hard X-ray emissions were seen westward of the South Atlantic Anomaly in a rather wide L shell range from 1.7 to 2.6. Enhanced fluxes observed on day 316 (12 November were most likely associated with a Major Severe Weather Outbreak in Eastern USA, producing extensive lightning flashes, as was documented by simultaneous optical observations from space. We propose that whistler mode signals from these lightning discharges cause precipitation of energetic electrons from terrestrial trapped radiation belts, which, in turn, produce atmospheric X-rays in the Southern Hemisphere.

  12. First NuSTAR Limits on Quiet Sun Hard X-Ray Transient Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Andrew J.; Smith, David M.; Glesener, Lindsay

    2017-01-01

    We present the first results of a search for transient hard X-ray (HXR) emission in the quiet solar corona with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) satellite. While NuSTAR was designed as an astrophysics mission, it can observe the Sun above 2 keV with unprecedented sensitivity due...... to its pioneering use of focusing optics. NuSTAR first observed quiet-Sun regions on 2014 November 1, although out-of-view active regions contributed a notable amount of background in the form of single-bounce (unfocused) X-rays. We conducted a search for quiet-Sun transient brightenings on timescales...... as model-independent photon fluxes. The limits in both bands are well below previous HXR microflare detections, though not low enough to detect events of equivalent T and EM as quiet-Sun brightenings seen in soft X-ray observations. We expect future observations during solar minimum to increase the Nu...

  13. Modeling Flare Hard X-ray Emission from Electrons in Contracting Magnetic Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoni, Silvina E.; Allred, Joel C.; Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.; DeVore, C. Richard; Karpen, Judith T.

    2016-05-01

    The mechanism that accelerates particles to the energies required to produce the observed impulsive hard X-ray emission in solar flares is not well understood. It is generally accepted that this emission is produced by a non-thermal beam of electrons that collides with the ambient ions as the beam propagates from the top of a flare loop to its footpoints. Most current models that investigate this transport assume an injected beam with an initial energy spectrum inferred from observed hard X-ray spectra, usually a power law with a low-energy cutoff. In our previous work (Guidoni et al. 2016), we proposed an analytical method to estimate particle energy gain in contracting, large-scale, 2.5-dimensional magnetic islands, based on a kinetic model by Drake et al. (2010). We applied this method to sunward-moving islands formed high in the corona during fast reconnection in a simulated eruptive flare. The overarching purpose of the present work is to test this proposed acceleration model by estimating the hard X-ray flux resulting from its predicted accelerated-particle distribution functions. To do so, we have coupled our model to a unified computational framework that simulates the propagation of an injected beam as it deposits energy and momentum along its way (Allred et al. 2015). This framework includes the effects of radiative transfer and return currents, necessary to estimate flare emission that can be compared directly to observations. We will present preliminary results of the coupling between these models.

  14. Compression between ion and hard x-ray emissions from nitrogen and argon in Mather type plasma focus device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Paghe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, some characteristics of a Mather type Plasma Focus (PF device such as a discharge current, pinch time, ion flux and hard x-ray intensity has been investigated simultaneously in argon and nitrogen gases separately for various operating gas pressures and charging voltages of capacitor bank. It was observed that pinch phenomena was energy and pressure dependent in current sheath as well as ion and hard x-ray emission intensity. Optimum pressure with maximum ion flux and the most intense hard x-ray showed a nearly linear dependence on the charging voltage of the device. Maximum ion flux was estimated in the order of 1018 ions per steradian in both gases. Hard x-ray emission was registered a little after discharge current and Faraday cup (FC signals. Also, optimum pressure for maximum ion flux was not the same as the pressure for intense hard x-rays. Hard x-ray intensity reached its peak at higher pressures

  15. Development and application of cryogenic radiometry with hard X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, Martin

    2008-01-01

    To establish cryogenic radiometry with hard X-ray radiation for photon energies of up to 60 keV, a novel type of cavity absorber had to be developed for the cryogenic radiometer SYRES I, which is deployed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as primary standard detector at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This new type of cavity absorber allows for the complete absorption of hard X-ray radiation in combination with an appropriate sensitivity and an adequate time constant for the measurement of synchrotron radiation at BESSY II. As the process of fabrication of different types of absorbers is very time-consuming, the interaction of hard X-ray radiation with different absorber materials and geometries was studied intensively by using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II with a calibrated energy dispersive detector. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in a cavity absorber with a gold base 550 μm in thickness and a cylindrical shell made of copper 90 μm in thickness to reduce losses caused by fluorescence and scattered radiation. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was then used to calibrate semiconductor photodiodes, which can be used as compact and inexpensive secondary standard detectors, against a cryogenic radiometer, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV with relative uncertainties of less than 0.5 %. Furthermore the spatial homogeneity of the spectral responsivity, the transmittance and the linearity of the photodiodes was investigated. Through a direct comparison of the free-air ionization chamber PK100, a primary detector standard of PTB used in dosimetry, and the cryogenic radiometer SYRES

  16. Phase-matched generation of coherent soft and hard X-rays using IR lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popmintchev, Tenio V.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Bahabad, Alon; Murnane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.

    2013-06-11

    Phase-matched high-order harmonic generation of soft and hard X-rays is accomplished using infrared driving lasers in a high-pressure non-linear medium. The pressure of the non-linear medium is increased to multi-atmospheres and a mid-IR (or higher) laser device provides the driving pulse. Based on this scaling, also a general method for global optimization of the flux of phase-matched high-order harmonic generation at a desired wavelength is designed.

  17. A hard X-ray telescope/concentrator design based on graded period multilayer coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Joensen, K. D.; Gorenstein, P.

    1995-01-01

    V and up to 200 cm2 at 100 keV. The degree of concentration is defined by a focusing factor i.e., the effective area divided by the half power focal area. For the cases studied, this is 400 at 40 keV and 200 at 100 keV for a 2 arcmin imaging resolution. This result is quite insensitive to the specifics....../cm2/s/keV which demonstrates the great potential of this hard X-ray imaging telescope in the energy range up to 100 keV....

  18. In Situ Ptychography of Heterogeneous Catalysts using Hard X-Rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baier, Sina; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad; Scholz, Maria

    2016-01-01

    electron transparent window and allows heating. Two gold-based systems, 50 nm gold particles and nanoporous gold as a relevant catalyst sample, were used for studying the feasibility of the cell. Measurements showing a resolution around 40 nm have been achieved under a flow of synthetic air and during...... heating up to temperatures of 933 K. An elevated temperature exhibited little influence on image quality and resolution. With this study, the potential of in situ hard X-ray ptychography for investigating annealing processes of real catalyst samples is demonstrated. Furthermore, the possibility to use...

  19. The variable hard x-ray emission of NGC 4945 as observed by NUSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puccetti, Simonetta; Comastri, Andrea; Fiore, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    We present a broadband (~0.5-79 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of multiple NuSTAR observations combined with archival Suzaku and Chandra data of NGC 4945, the brightest extragalactic source at 100 keV. We observe hard X-ray (>10 keV) flux and spectral variability, with flux variations of a f...... of a factor of two on timescales of 20 ks. A variable primary continuum dominates the high-energy spectrum (>10 keV) in all states, while the reflected/scattered flux that dominates at E...

  20. Elements for hard X-ray optics produced by cryogenic plasma etching of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miakonkikh, Andrey V.; Rogozhin, Alexander E.; Rudenko, Konstantin V.; Lukichev, Vladimir F.; Yunkin, Vyacheslav A.; Snigirev, Anatoly A.

    2016-12-01

    A number of different hard X-ray optics elements such as refractive lenses, refractive bi-lenses and multilens interferometers, mirror interferometers can be made of Silicon. The optical performance of these elements depends on the quality of refracting and reflecting surfaces. Cryogenic deep anisotropic etching was proposed for fabrication of parabolic planar lenses and mirror interferometers. The investigation of sidewall roughness was done by AFM and by optical interferometry. Geometrical parameters of structures were measured by SEM. It was observed that roughness of inner sidewalls of etched structures does not exceed 3 nm/um (RMS) and deviation from vertical profile was within 30 nm along 20 um depth.

  1. Hard x-ray spectrum emitted by a plasma focus optimized for flash radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, V.; Moreno, C.; Sigaut, L.; Clausse, A.

    2008-10-01

    The effective spectrum of the hard x-ray output of a Mather-type tabletop plasma focus device was determined from attenuation data on metallic samples using commercial radiographic film coupled to a Gd2O2S: Tb phosphor intensifier screen. It was found that the radiation has relevant spectral components in the 40-150 keV range, with a single maximum around 60-80 keV. The radiation output allows for 50 ns resolution, good contrast, introspective imaging of metallic objects even through metallic walls. A numerical estimation of the induced voltage on the focus during the compressional stage is briefly discussed.

  2. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A Fast X-ray Transient in the Galactic Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Rahoui, Farid

    2014-01-01

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8-sigma in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having...

  3. DISCOVERY OF X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G32.8-0.1 WITH SUZAKU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamba, Aya; Sawada, Makoto [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University 5-10-1 Fuchinobe Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Terada, Yukikatsu [Department of Physics, Science, Saitama University, Sakura, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Hewitt, John; Petre, Robert; Angelini, Lorella [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Safi-Harb, Samar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg MB R3T 2N2 (Canada); Zhou, Ping [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Bocchino, Fabrizio [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, I-90134, Palermo (Italy)

    2016-02-10

    We present the first dedicated X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G32.8−0.1 (Kes 78) with Suzaku. X-ray emission from the whole SNR shell has been detected for the first time. The X-ray morphology is well correlated with the emission from the radio shell, while anti-correlated with the molecular cloud found in the SNR field. The X-ray spectrum shows not only conventional low-temperature (kT ∼ 0.6 keV) thermal emission in a non-equilibrium ionization state, but also a very high-temperature (kT ∼ 3.4 keV) component with a very low ionization timescale (∼2.7 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −3} s), or a hard nonthermal component with a photon index Γ ∼ 2.3. The average density of the low-temperature plasma is rather low, of the order of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −2} cm{sup −3}, implying that this SNR is expanding into a low-density cavity. We discuss the X-ray emission of the SNR, also detected in TeV with H.E.S.S., together with multi-wavelength studies of the remnant and other gamma-ray emitting SNRs, such as W28 and RCW 86. Analysis of a time-variable source, 2XMM J185114.3−000004, found in the northern part of the SNR, is also reported for the first time. Rapid time variability and a heavily absorbed hard-X-ray spectrum suggest that this source could be a new supergiant fast X-ray transient.

  4. Discovery of X-Ray Emission from the Galactic Supernova Remnant G32.8-0.1 with Suzaku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamba, Aya; Terada, Yukikatsu; Hewitt, John; Petre, Robert; Angelini, Lorella; Safi-Harb, Samar; Zhou, Ping; Bocchino, Fabrizio; Sawada, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We present the first dedicated X-ray study of the supernova remnant (SNR) G32.8-0.1 (Kes 78) with Suzaku. X-ray emission from the whole SNR shell has been detected for the first time. The X-ray morphology is well correlated with the emission from the radio shell, while anti-correlated with the molecular cloud found in the SNR field. The X-ray spectrum shows not only conventional low-temperature (kT approximately 0.6 kiloelectronvolts) thermal emission in a nonequilibrium ionization state, but also a very high-temperature (approximately 3.4 kiloelectronvolts) component with a very low ionization timescale (approximately 2.7 times 10 (sup 9) per cubic centimeter per second), or a hard nonthermal component with a photon index Gamma approximately equal to 2.3. The average density of the low-temperature plasma is rather low, of the order of 10 (sup -3) - 10 (sup -2) per cubic centimeter, implying that this SNR is expanding into a low-density cavity. We discuss the X-ray emission of the SNR, also detected in teraelectronvolts with H.E.S.S. (High Energy Stereoscopic System), together with multi-wavelength studies of the remnant and other gamma-ray emitting SNRs, such as W28 and RCW 86. Analysis of a time-variable source, 2XMM J185114.3-000004, found in the northern part of the SNR, is also reported for the first time. Rapid time variability and a heavily absorbed hard-X-ray spectrum suggest that this source could be a new supergiant fast X-ray transient.

  5. High resolution hard X-ray photoemission using synchrotron radiation as an essential tool for characterization of thin solid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Takeuchi, A.; Awaji, M.; Makino, H.; Chen, P.P.; Yamamoto, A.; Matsuoka, T.; Miwa, D.; Nishino, Y.; Yamamoto, T.; Yao, T.; Kobayashi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy using undulator X-rays at SPring-8 is quite feasible with both high resolution and high throughput. Here we report an application of hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy to the characterization of electronic and chemical states of thin solid films, for which conventional PES is not applicable. As a typical example, we focus on the problem of the scatter in the reported band-gap values for InN. We show that oxygen incorporation into the InN film strongly modifies the valence and plays a crucial role in the band gap problem. The present results demonstrate the powerful applicability of high resolution photoemission spectroscopy with hard X-rays from a synchrotron source

  6. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Choi, J.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    A nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror pair has been designed, fabricated and tested for achromatic nanofocusing synchrotron hard X-rays. The prototype system achieved a FWHM focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions. The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway

  7. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimchenko, A.; Bikis, C.; Schulz, G.; Zdora, M.-C.; Zanette, I.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Schweighauser, G.; Hench, J.; Hieber, S. E.; Deyhle, H.; Thalmann, P.; Müller, B.

    2017-06-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers (Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology.

  8. Hard X-ray submicrometer tomography of human brain tissue at Diamond Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khimchenko, A; Bikis, C; Schulz, G; Hieber, S E; Deyhle, H; Thalmann, P; Müller, B; Zdora, M-C; Zanette, I; Vila-Comamala, J; Schweighauser, G; Hench, J

    2017-01-01

    There is a lack of the necessary methodology for three-dimensional (3D) investigation of soft tissues with cellular resolution without staining or tissue transformation. Synchrotron radiation based hard X-ray in-line phase contrast tomography using single-distance phase reconstruction (SDPR) provides high spatial resolution and density contrast for the visualization of individual cells using a standard specimen preparation and data reconstruction. In this study, we demonstrate the 3D characterization of a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human cerebellum specimen by SDPR at the Diamond-Manchester Imaging Branchline I13-2 (Diamond Light Source, UK) at pixel sizes down to 0.45 μm. The approach enables visualization of cerebellar layers ( Stratum moleculare and Stratum granulosum ), the 3D characterization of individual cells (Purkinje, stellate and granule cells) and can even resolve some subcellular structures (nucleus and nucleolus of Purkinje cells). The tomographic results are qualitatively compared to hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stained histological sections. We demonstrate the potential benefits of hard X-ray microtomography for the investigations of biological tissues in comparison to conventional histology. (paper)

  9. Multimodal hard x-ray imaging with resolution approaching 10 nm for studies in material science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hanfei; Bouet, Nathalie; Zhou, Juan; Huang, Xiaojing; Nazaretski, Evgeny; Xu, Weihe; Cocco, Alex P.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Chu, Yong S.

    2018-03-01

    We report multimodal scanning hard x-ray imaging with spatial resolution approaching 10 nm and its application to contemporary studies in the field of material science. The high spatial resolution is achieved by focusing hard x-rays with two crossed multilayer Laue lenses and raster-scanning a sample with respect to the nanofocusing optics. Various techniques are used to characterize and verify the achieved focus size and imaging resolution. The multimodal imaging is realized by utilizing simultaneously absorption-, phase-, and fluorescence-contrast mechanisms. The combination of high spatial resolution and multimodal imaging enables a comprehensive study of a sample on a very fine length scale. In this work, the unique multimodal imaging capability was used to investigate a mixed ionic-electronic conducting ceramic-based membrane material employed in solid oxide fuel cells and membrane separations (compound of Ce0.8Gd0.2O2‑x and CoFe2O4) which revealed the existence of an emergent material phase and quantified the chemical complexity at the nanoscale.

  10. Point source detection performance of Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope imaging observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Zhuo-Xi; Li, Yi-Ming; Li, Xiao-Bo; Zhou, Jian-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (HXMT) will perform an all-sky survey in the hard X-ray band as well as deep imaging of a series of small sky regions. We expect various compact objects to be detected in these imaging observations. Point source detection performance of HXMT imaging observation depends not only on the instrument but also on the data analysis method that is applied since images are reconstructed from HXMT observed data with numerical methods. The denoising technique used plays an important part in the HXMT imaging data analysis pipeline along with demodulation and source detection. In this paper we have implemented several methods for denoising HXMT data and evaluated the point source detection performances in terms of sensitivities and location accuracies. The results show that direct demodulation with 1-fold cross-correlation should be the default reconstruction and regularization method, although both sensitivity and location accuracy could be further improved by selecting and tuning numerical methods in data analysis used for HXMT imaging observations. (paper)

  11. Investigation of biomedical inner microstructures with hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Hang [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Zhu Peiping [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Chen Bo [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Liu Bo; Yin Hongxia [Capital University of Medical Sciences, 100054 Beijing (China); Li Enrong [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Liu Yijin [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Wang Junyue [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100864 Beijing (China); Yuan Qingxi; Huang Wanxia; Fang Shouxian [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); Wu Ziyu [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, CAS, 100049 Beijing (China); National Center for NanoScience and Technology, 100080 Beijing (China)], E-mail: wuzy@ihep.ac.cn

    2007-09-21

    Hard X-ray Phase-Contrast Imaging (HX-PCI) is a new and valuable method that may provide information of the inner parts of an opaque object. Previous reports demonstrated its applicability in soft and hard tissue imaging. Here we provide further evidence for improved image quality and the effective capability to distinguish inner microstructures in real biomedical systems such as cochlea. Experiments performed both at the 4W1A beamline of the Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF) and at the Taiwan National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) clearly show details of samples' inner microstructure with a resolution of a few microns. The improved spatial resolution is a relevant achievement for future improved understanding and clinical trials.

  12. A new X-ray transient, IGR J17451-3022, discovered by INTEGRAL/JEM-X near the Galactic Centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chenevez, Jérôme; Vandbaek Kroer, L.; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    The JEM-X twin X-ray monitors on board the INTEGRAL satellite has detected a new X-ray transient during recent observations of the Galactic Centre and Bulge regions. The new source named IGR J17451-3022 has the following coordinates: R.A. = 266.27 Dec. = -30.38 with a 2arcmin 90% confidence radiu...

  13. THE HALO OCCUPATION DISTRIBUTION OF X-RAY-BRIGHT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: A COMPARISON WITH LUMINOUS QUASARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, Jonathan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Chatterjee, Suchetana; Myers, Adam D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82072 (United States); Zheng Zheng [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Hickox, Ryan, E-mail: jonathan.richardson@uchicago.edu, E-mail: schatte1@uwyo.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    We perform halo occupation distribution (HOD) modeling of the projected two-point correlation function (2PCF) of high-redshift (z {approx} 1.2) X-ray-bright active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the XMM-COSMOS field measured by Allevato et al. The HOD parameterization is based on low-luminosity AGNs in cosmological simulations. At the median redshift of z {approx} 1.2, we derive a median mass of 1.02{sub -0.23}{sup +0.21} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} h{sup -1} M{sub sun} for halos hosting central AGNs and an upper limit of {approx}10% on the AGN satellite fraction. Our modeling results indicate (at the 2.5{sigma} level) that X-ray AGNs reside in more massive halos compared to more bolometrically luminous, optically selected quasars at similar redshift. The modeling also yields constraints on the duty cycle of the X-ray AGN, and we find that at z {approx} 1.2 the average duration of the X-ray AGN phase is two orders of magnitude longer than that of the quasar phase. Our inferred mean occupation function of X-ray AGNs is similar to recent empirical measurements with a group catalog and suggests that AGN halo occupancy increases with increasing halo mass. We project the XMM-COSMOS 2PCF measurements to forecast the required survey parameters needed in future AGN clustering studies to enable higher precision HOD constraints and determinations of key physical parameters like the satellite fraction and duty cycle. We find that N {sup 2}/A {approx} 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} deg{sup -2} (with N the number of AGNs in a survey area of A deg{sup 2}) is sufficient to constrain the HOD parameters at the 10% level, which is easily achievable by upcoming and proposed X-ray surveys.

  14. CO-ANALYSIS OF SOLAR MICROWAVE AND HARD X-RAY SPECTRAL EVOLUTIONS. I. IN TWO FREQUENCY OR ENERGY RANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwu; Huang Guangli; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Solar microwave and hard X-ray spectral evolutions are co-analyzed in the 2000 June 10 and 2002 April 10 flares, and are simultaneously observed by the Owens-Valley Solar Array in the microwave band and by Yohkoh/Hard X-ray Telescope or RHESSI in the hard X-ray band, with multiple subpeaks in their light curves. The microwave and hard X-ray spectra are fitted by a power law in two frequency ranges of the optical thin part and two photon energy ranges, respectively. Similar to an earlier event in Shao and Huang, the well-known soft-hard-soft pattern of the lower energy range changed to the hard-soft-hard (HSH) pattern of the higher energy range during the spectral evolution of each subpeak in both hard X-ray flares. This energy dependence is actually supported by a positive correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower energy range, while it becomes an anti-correlation in the higher energy range. Regarding microwave data, the HSH pattern appears in the spectral evolution of each subpeak in the lower frequency range, which is somewhat similar to Huang and Nakajima. However, it returns back to the well-known pattern of soft-hard-harder for the overall spectral evolution in the higher frequency range of both events. This frequency dependence is confirmed by an anti-correlation between the overall light curves and spectral evolution in the lower frequency range, but it becomes a positive correlation in the higher frequency range. The possible mechanisms are discussed, respectively, for reasons why hard X-ray and microwave spectral evolutions have different patterns in different energy and frequency intervals.

  15. First flight of SMASH, the SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Amir; Laurent, Glenn Thomas; Shoffner, Michael; Higuera Caubilla, David; Meurisse, Jeremie; Smith, Kelly; Shih, Albert Y.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; DeForest, Craig; Mansour, Nagi N.; Hathaway, David H.

    2016-05-01

    The SwRI Miniature Assembly for Solar Hard X-rays (SMASH) was successfully flown from Antarctica in January (19-30) 2016, as a piggy-back instrument on the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) high altitude balloon payload. SMASH is a technological demonstration of a new miniaturized hard X-ray (HXR) detector for use on CubeSats and other small spacecraft, including the proposed CubeSat Imaging X-ray Solar Spectrometer (CubIXSS).HXRs are the observational signatures of energetic processes on the Sun, including plasma heating and particle acceleration. One of the goals of CubIXSS will be to address the question of how plasma is heated during solar flares, including the relationship between thermal plasma and non-thermal particles. SMASH demonstrated the space-borne application of the commercial off-the-shelf Amptek X123-CdTe, a miniature cadmium telluride photon-counting HXR spectrometer. The CdTe detector has a physical area of 25 mm^2 and 1 mm fully-depleted thickness, with a ~100 micron Be window; with on-board thermoelectric cooling and pulse pile-up rejection, it is sensitive to solar photons from ~5 to ~100 keV with ~0.5-1.0 keV FWHM resolution. Photons are accumulated into histogram spectra with customizable energy binning and integration time. With modest resource requirements (~1/8 U, ~200 g, ~2.5 W) and low cost (~$10K), the X123-CdTe is an attractive solution for HXR measurements from budget- and resource-limited platforms such as CubeSats. SMASH flew two identical X123-CdTe detectors for redundancy and increased collecting area; the supporting electronics (power, CPU) were largely build-to-print using the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSat design.We review the SMASH mission, design, and detector performance during the 12-day Antarctic flight. We present current progress on our data analysis of observed solar flares, and discuss future applications of the space-qualified X123-CdTe detector, including the CubIXSS mission

  16. Design and optimization of multilayer coatings for hard x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Adrian; Bruni, Ricardo J.; Byun, Kyung Wha; Christensen, Finn E.; Gorenstein, Paul; Romaine, Suzanne E.

    1999-11-01

    We present the results from a systematic study of several different material combinations for multilayer coatings on flat silicon and fused silica substrates. To obtain high reflectivity in a broad energy bandpass for hard X-rays (greater than 10 keV), a graded d-spacing multilayer structure must satisfy a set of conditions, e.g., low surface and interface roughness/diffuseness, good layer thickness uniformity, low residual stresses, etc. The coating process must be stable and accurately controlled over long deposition times, and allow good reproducibility from one run to another. The deposition method used was DC magnetron sputtering at low argon pressures (1.5 to 3.5 mT). The materials selected for the reflector/spacer pair were W/Si, W/C, Ni/C, and Pt/C. The initial work consisted in calibrating the deposition rate and optimizing the process parameters (argon backpressure, target to substrate distance, and cathode current). The main characterization methods used were: Atomic Force Microscopy in tapping mode, stylus profilometry, and specular X-ray reflectivity. In the next stage of the study, constant and graded d-spacing multilayers were deposited on Si and float glass substrates, with the design structure based on a computer modeling of the X-ray reflectivity dependence with grazing angle and energy. A specular reflectivity scan was performed for each sample at 8.05 keV (and also at higher energies for some samples) and was fitted using the IMD software. Cross-sectional TEM was performed on a limited number of samples to offer additional information. The analyses completed for W/Si, W/C, Pt/C, and Ni/C show for the best samples good uniformity and high reflectivity at 8.05 keV. The work in progress for Cu/Si and Mo/Si will be presented at the conference and will conclude this study of candidate materials and optimized designs for hard X-ray multilayer optics.

  17. Analysis of hard X-ray emission from selected very high energy {gamma}-ray sources observed with INTEGRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Agnes Irene Dorothee

    2009-11-13

    A few years ago, the era of very high energy {gamma}-ray astronomy started, when the latest generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) like H.E.S.S. began to operate and to resolve the sources of TeV emission. Identifications via multi-wavelength studies reveal that the detected sources are supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei, but also pulsar wind nebulae and a few binaries. One widely discussed open question is, how these sources are able to accelerate particles to such high energies. The understanding of the underlying particle distribution, the acceleration processes taking place, and the knowledge of the radiation processes which produce the observed emission, is, therefore, of crucial interest. Observations in the hard X-ray domain can be a key to get information on these particle distributions and processes. Important for this thesis are the TeV and the hard X-ray range. The two instruments, H.E.S.S. and INTEGRAL, whose data were used, are, therefore, described in detail. The main part of this thesis is focused on the X-ray binary system LS 5039/RX J1826.2-1450. It was observed in several energy ranges. The nature of the compact object is still not known, and it was proposed either to be a microquasar system or a non-accreting pulsar system. The observed TeV emission is modulated with the orbital cycle. Several explanations for this variability have been discussed in recent years. The observations with INTEGRAL presented in this thesis have provided new information to solve this question. Therefore, a search for a detection in the hard X-ray range and for its orbital dependence was worthwhile. Since LS 5039 is a faint source and the sky region where it is located is crowded, a very careful, non-standard handling of the INTEGRAL data was necessary, and a cross-checking with other analysis methods was essential to provide reliable results. We found that LS 5039 is emitting in the hard X-ray energy range. A flux rate and an upper

  18. Analysis of hard X-ray emission from selected very high energy γ-ray sources observed with INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Agnes Irene Dorothee

    2009-01-01

    A few years ago, the era of very high energy γ-ray astronomy started, when the latest generation of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT) like H.E.S.S. began to operate and to resolve the sources of TeV emission. Identifications via multi-wavelength studies reveal that the detected sources are supernova remnants and active galactic nuclei, but also pulsar wind nebulae and a few binaries. One widely discussed open question is, how these sources are able to accelerate particles to such high energies. The understanding of the underlying particle distribution, the acceleration processes taking place, and the knowledge of the radiation processes which produce the observed emission, is, therefore, of crucial interest. Observations in the hard X-ray domain can be a key to get information on these particle distributions and processes. Important for this thesis are the TeV and the hard X-ray range. The two instruments, H.E.S.S. and INTEGRAL, whose data were used, are, therefore, described in detail. The main part of this thesis is focused on the X-ray binary system LS 5039/RX J1826.2-1450. It was observed in several energy ranges. The nature of the compact object is still not known, and it was proposed either to be a microquasar system or a non-accreting pulsar system. The observed TeV emission is modulated with the orbital cycle. Several explanations for this variability have been discussed in recent years. The observations with INTEGRAL presented in this thesis have provided new information to solve this question. Therefore, a search for a detection in the hard X-ray range and for its orbital dependence was worthwhile. Since LS 5039 is a faint source and the sky region where it is located is crowded, a very careful, non-standard handling of the INTEGRAL data was necessary, and a cross-checking with other analysis methods was essential to provide reliable results. We found that LS 5039 is emitting in the hard X-ray energy range. A flux rate and an upper flux

  19. Growth, structure, and performance of depth-graded W/Si multilayers for hard x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Windt, D.L.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W.W.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the development of depth-graded W/Si multilayer films prepared by magnetron sputtering for use as broad-band reflective coatings for hard x-ray optics. We have used specular and nonspecular x-ray reflectance analysis to characterize the interface imperfections in both periodic and depth......), and somewhat larger interface widths (i.e., sigma=0.35-0.4 nm) for structures grown at higher Ar pressures, higher background pressures, or with larger target-to-substrate distances. We find no variation in interface widths with magnetron power. Nonspecular x-ray reflectance analysis and TEM suggest....... X-ray reflectance analysis was also used to measure the variation in the W and Si deposition rates with bilayer thickness: we find that the W and Si layer thicknesses are nonlinear with the deposition times, and we discuss possible mechanisms responsible for this nonlinearity. Finally, hard x...

  20. Improvement of density resolution in short-pulse hard x-ray radiographic imaging using detector stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borm, B.; Gärtner, F.; Khaghani, D. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Neumayer, P. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate that stacking several imaging plates (IPs) constitutes an easy method to increase hard x-ray detection efficiency. Used to record x-ray radiographic images produced by an intense-laser driven hard x-ray backlighter source, the IP stacks resulted in a significant improvement of the radiograph density resolution. We attribute this to the higher quantum efficiency of the combined detectors, leading to a reduced photon noise. Electron-photon transport simulations of the interaction processes in the detector reproduce the observed contrast improvement. Increasing the detection efficiency to enhance radiographic imaging capabilities is equally effective as increasing the x-ray source yield, e.g., by a larger drive laser energy.

  1. Photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Zhu, Diling; Kroll, Thomas; Chollet, Mathieu; Feng, Yiping; Glownia, James M.; Kern, Jan; Lemke, Henrik T.; Nordlund, Dennis; Robert, Aymeric; Sikorski, Marcin; Song, Sanghoon; Weng, Tsu-Chien; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    A description of hard X-ray photon-in photon-out spectroscopy techniques for X-ray free electron laser applications is given. A discussion of the instrumentation suitable for taking full advantage of these new sources and a description of recent measurements performed and related examples are also presented. X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) have opened unprecedented possibilities to study the structure and dynamics of matter at an atomic level and ultra-fast timescale. Many of the techniques routinely used at storage ring facilities are being adapted for experiments conducted at FELs. In order to take full advantage of these new sources several challenges have to be overcome. They are related to the very different source characteristics and its resulting impact on sample delivery, X-ray optics, X-ray detection and data acquisition. Here it is described how photon-in photon-out hard X-ray spectroscopy techniques can be applied to study the electronic structure and its dynamics of transition metal systems with ultra-bright and ultra-short FEL X-ray pulses. In particular, some of the experimental details that are different compared with synchrotron-based setups are discussed and illustrated by recent measurements performed at the Linac Coherent Light Source

  2. Theoretical analysis of hard x-ray generation by nonperturbative interaction of ultrashort light pulses with a metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannick Weisshaupt

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of intense femtosecond pulses with metals allows for generating ultrashort hard x-rays. In contrast to plasma theories, tunneling from the target into vacuum is introduced as electron generation step, followed by vacuum acceleration in the laser field and re-entrance into the target to generate characteristic x-rays and Bremsstrahlung. For negligible space charge in vacuum, the Kα flux is proportional to the incident intensity and the wavelength squared, suggesting a strong enhancement of the x-ray flux by mid-infrared driving pulses. This prediction is in quantitative agreement with experiments on femtosecond Cu Kα generation.

  3. Theoretical analysis of hard x-ray generation by nonperturbative interaction of ultrashort light pulses with a metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaupt, Jannick; Juvé, Vincent; Holtz, Marcel; Woerner, Michael; Elsaesser, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of intense femtosecond pulses with metals allows for generating ultrashort hard x-rays. In contrast to plasma theories, tunneling from the target into vacuum is introduced as electron generation step, followed by vacuum acceleration in the laser field and re-entrance into the target to generate characteristic x-rays and Bremsstrahlung. For negligible space charge in vacuum, the Kα flux is proportional to the incident intensity and the wavelength squared, suggesting a strong enhancement of the x-ray flux by mid-infrared driving pulses. This prediction is in quantitative agreement with experiments on femtosecond Cu Kα generation.

  4. Neutron and hard x-ray measurements during pellet deposition in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidbrink, W.W.; Milora, S.L.; Schmidt, G.L.; Schneider, W.; Ramsey, A.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements of neutrons and hard x rays are made with a pair of plastic scintillators during injection of deuterium pellets into deuterium TFTR plasmas. Three cases are investigated. During ohmic heating in plasmas with few runaway electrons, the neutron emission does not increase when a pellet is injected, indicating that strong acceleration of the pellet ions does not occur. In ohmic plasmas with low but detectable levels of runaway electrons, an x-ray burst is observed on a detector near the pellet injector as the pellet ablates, while a detector displaced 126/sup 0/ toroidally from the injector does not measure a synchronous burst. Reduced pellet penetration correlates with the presence of x-ray emission, suggesting that the origin of the burst is bremsstrahlung from runaway electrons that strike the solid pellet. In deuterium beam-heated discharges, an increase in the d-d neutron emission is observed when the pellet ablates. In this case, the increase is due to fusion reactions between beam ions and the high density neutral and plasma cloud produced by ablation of the pellet; this localized density perturbation equilibrates in about 700 ..mu..sec. Analysis of the data indicates that the density propagates without forming a sharp shock front with a rapid initial propagation velocity (greater than or equal to 2 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sec) that subsequently decreases to around 3 x 10/sup 6/ cm/sec. Modelling suggests that the electron heat flux into the pellet cloud is much less than the classical Spitzer value.

  5. On the sensitivity of hard X-ray spectroscopies to the chemical state of Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordage, Amélie; Pápai, Mátyás; Sas, Norbert S; Szlachetko, Jakub; Nachtegaal, Maarten; Vankó, György

    2013-07-14

    The sensitivity of the 1s X-ray emission and high-energy-resolution fluorescence-detected X-ray absorption spectroscopies (XES and HERFD-XAS) to resolve the variations in the chemical state (electronic structure and local coordination) of Br has been investigated for a selected set of compounds including NaBrO3, NH4Br and C2H4Br2 (1,2-dibromoethane). For the Br K-edge XAS, employing the HERFD mode significantly increases the energy resolution, which demonstrates that with a crystal spectrometer used as a detector the absorption technique becomes a more powerful analytical tool. In the case of XES, the experimental results as well as the density functional theory (DFT) modeling both show that the chemical sensitivity of the main 1s diagram emission lines (Kα1,2 and Kβ1,3) is rather limited. However, the valence-to-core (Kβ2) region of XES displays significant shape and intensity variations, as expected for transitions having the same final states as those of photoemission spectroscopy. The spectra are in good agreement with the molecular orbital description delivered by DFT calculations. Calculations for an extended series of Br compounds confirm that valence-to-core XES can serve as a probe for chemical analysis, and, being a hard X-ray photon-in/photon-out technique, it is particularly well-suited for in situ investigations of molecular transformations, even on the ultrafast time scales down to femtosecond time resolution.

  6. CdTe Focal Plane Detector for Hard X-Ray Focusing Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seller, Paul; Wilson, Matthew D.; Veale, Matthew C.; Schneider, Andreas; Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Inglis, Andrew; Panessa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The demand for higher resolution x-ray optics (a few arcseconds or better) in the areas of astrophysics and solar science has, in turn, driven the development of complementary detectors. These detectors should have fine pixels, necessary to appropriately oversample the optics at a given focal length, and an energy response also matched to that of the optics. Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have developed a 3-side buttable, 20 millimeter x 20 millimeter CdTe-based detector with 250 micrometer square pixels (80 x 80 pixels) which achieves 1 kiloelectronvolt FWHM (Full-Width Half-Maximum) @ 60 kiloelectronvolts and gives full spectroscopy between 5 kiloelectronvolts and 200 kiloelectronvolts. An added advantage of these detectors is that they have a full-frame readout rate of 10 kilohertz. Working with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and Marshall Space Flight Center, 4 of these 1 millimeter-thick CdTe detectors are tiled into a 2 x 2 array for use at the focal plane of a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope, and a similar configuration could be suitable for astrophysics and solar space-based missions. This effort encompasses the fabrication and testing of flight-suitable front-end electronics and calibration of the assembled detector arrays. We explain the operation of the pixelated ASIC readout and measurements, front-end electronics development, preliminary X-ray imaging and spectral performance, and plans for full calibration of the detector assemblies. Work done in conjunction with the NASA Centers is funded through the NASA Science Mission Directorate Astrophysics Research and Analysis Program.

  7. Hard x-ray to low energy gamma ray spectrum of the Crab Nebula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The spectrum of the Crab Nebula has been determined in the energy range 10 keV to 5 MeV from the data of the UCSD/MIT Hard-X-ray and Low Energy Gamma Ray Experiment on the first High Energy Astronomy Observatory, HEAO-1. The x-ray to γ-ray portion of the continuous emission from the Crab is indicative of the electron spectrum, its transport through the nebula, and the physical conditions near the shocked interface between the nebular region and the wind which is the physical link between the nebula and the pulsar, NP0532. The power-law dependence of the spectrum found in the lower-energy decade of this observation (10 to 100 keV) is not continued without modification to higher energies. Evidence for this has been accumulating from previous observations in the γ-ray ranges of 1-10 MeV and above 35 MeV. The observations on which this dissertation is based further characterize the spectral change in the 100 keV to 1 MeV region. These observations provide a crucial connection between the x-ray and γ-ray spectrum of the non-pulsed emission of the Crab Nebula. The continuity of this spectrum suggests that the emission mechanism responsible for the non-pulsed γ-rays observed above 35 MeV is of the same origin as the emission at lower energies, i.e. that of synchrotron radiation in the magnetic field of the nebula

  8. High-Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A with the XMM-Newton RGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shinya; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Konami, Saori; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We present high-resolution X-ray spectra of cloud-shock interaction regions in the eastern and northern rims of the Galactic supernova remnant Puppis A, using the Reflection Grating Spectrometer onboard the XMM-Newton satellite. A number of emission lines including K(alpha) triplets of He-like N, O , and Ne are clearly resolved for the first time. Intensity ratios of forbidden to resonance lines in the triplets are found to be higher than predictions by thermal emission models having plausible plasma parameters. The anomalous line ratios cannot be reproduced by effects of resonance scattering, recombination, or inner-shell ionization processes, but could be explained by charge-exchange emission that should arise at interfaces between the cold/warm clouds and the hot plasma. Our observations thus provide observational support for charge-exchange X-ray emission in supernova remnants.

  9. Carbon-based Fresnel optics for hard x-ray astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braig, Christoph; Zizak, Ivo

    2018-03-10

    We investigate the potential of large-scale diffractive-refractive normal-incidence transmission lenses for the development of space-based hard x-ray telescopes with an angular resolution in the range of (10 -6 -10 -3 )  arcsec over a field of view that is restricted by the available detector size. Coherently stepped achromatic lenses with diameters up to 5 m for compact apertures and 13 m in the case of segmentation provide an access to spectrally resolved imaging within keV-wide bands around the design energy between 10 and 30 keV. Within an integration time of 10 6   s, a photon-limited 5σ sensitivity down to (10 -9 -10 -7 )  s -1  cm -2  keV -1 can be achieved depending on the specific design. An appropriate fabrication strategy, feasible nowadays with micro-optical technologies, is considered and relies on the availability of high-purity carbon or polymer membranes. X-ray fluorescence measurements of various commercially available carbon-based materials prove for most of them the existence of a virtually negligible contamination by critical trace elements such as transition metals on the ppm level.

  10. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of a Sub-A Class Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesener, Lindsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis (United States); Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley (United States); Hannah, Iain G. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Grefenstette, Brian W. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena (United States); White, Stephen M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque (United States); Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics and Department of Physics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz (United States)

    2017-08-20

    We report a Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array ( NuSTAR ) observation of a solar microflare, SOL2015-09-01T04. Although it was too faint to be observed by the GOES X-ray Sensor, we estimate the event to be an A0.1 class flare in brightness. This microflare, with only ∼5 counts s{sup −1} detector{sup −1} observed by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager ( RHESSI ), is fainter than any hard X-ray (HXR) flare in the existing literature. The microflare occurred during a solar pointing by the highly sensitive NuSTAR astrophysical observatory, which used its direct focusing optics to produce detailed HXR microflare spectra and images. The microflare exhibits HXR properties commonly observed in larger flares, including a fast rise and more gradual decay, earlier peak time with higher energy, spatial dimensions similar to the RHESSI microflares, and a high-energy excess beyond an isothermal spectral component during the impulsive phase. The microflare is small in emission measure, temperature, and energy, though not in physical size; observations are consistent with an origin via the interaction of at least two magnetic loops. We estimate the increase in thermal energy at the time of the microflare to be 2.4 × 10{sup 27} erg. The observation suggests that flares do indeed scale down to extremely small energies and retain what we customarily think of as “flare-like” properties.

  11. NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of the Jovian magnetosphere during Juno perijove and apojove intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, W.; Mori, K.; Hailey, C. J.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Grefenstette, B.; Jackman, C. M.; Hord, B. J.; Ray, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first focusing hard X-ray telescope operating in the 3-79 keV band with sub-arcminute angular resolution (18" FWHM). For the first time, NuSTAR provides sufficient sensitivity to detect/resolve hard X-ray emission from Jupiter above 10 keV, since the in-situ Ulysses observation failed to detect X-ray emission in the 27-48 keV band [Hurley et al. 1993]. The initial, exploratory NuSTAR observation of Jupiter was performed in February 2015 with 100 ksec exposure. NuSTAR detected hard X-ray emission (E > 10 keV) from the south polar region at a marginally significance of 3 sigma level [Mori et al. 2016, AAS meeting poster]. This hard X-ray emission is likely an extension of the non-thermal bremsstrahlung component detected up to 7 keV by XMM-Newton [Branduardi-Raymont et al. 2007]. The Ulysses non-detection suggests there should be a spectral cutoff between 7 and 27 keV. Most intriguingly, the NuSTAR detection of hard X-ray emission from the south aurora is in contrast to the 2003 XMM-Newton observations where soft X-ray emission below 8 keV was seen from both the north and south poles [Gladstone et al. 2002]. Given the marginal, but tantalizing, hard X-ray detection of the southern Jovian aurora, a series of NuSTAR observations with total exposure of nearly half a million seconds were approved in the NuSTAR GO and DDT program. These NuSTAR observations coincided with one Juno apojove (in June 2017) and three perijoves (in May, July and September 2017), also joining the multi-wavelength campaigns of observing Jupiter coordinating with Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray telescope (below 10 keV) and HST. We will present NuSTAR imaging, spectral and timing analysis of Jupiter. NuSTAR imaging analysis will map hard X-ray emission in comparison with soft X-ray and UV images. In addition to investigating any distinctions between the soft and hard X-ray morphology of the Jovian aurorae, we will probe whether hard X-ray

  12. Swift/BAT Detects Increase in Hard X-ray Emission from the Ultra-compact X-ray Binary 4U 1543-624

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlam, Renee; Miller, Jon M.; Miller-Jones, James; Reynolds, Mark

    2017-08-01

    The Swift/BAT detected an increase in hard X-ray emission (15-50 keV) coming from the ultra-compact X-ray binary 4U 1543-624 around 2017 August 9. The MAXI daily monitoring also shows a gradual increase in 2.0-20.0 keV X-ray intensity as of 2017 August 19. Swift/XRT ToO monitoring of the source was triggered and shows an increase in unabsorbed flux to 1.06E-9 ergs/cm2/s in the 0.3-10.0 keV energy band as of 2017 August 26. ATCA performed ToO observations for approximately 4 hours in the 5.5 GHz and 9.0 GHz bands while the antennas were in the 1.5A array configuration from 11:25-16:09 UTC on 2017 August 23. The source was not detected in either band.

  13. The Nustar Extragalactic Surveys: The Number Counts of Active Galactic Nuclei and the Resolved Fraction of the Cosmic X-Ray Background

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, F. A.; Aird, J.; Civano, F.

    2016-01-01

    We present the 3–8 keV and 8–24 keV number counts of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the NuclearSpectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) extragalactic surveys. NuSTAR has now resolved 33%–39% of the X-raybackground in the 8–24 keV band, directly identifying AGNs with obscuring columns up...... to ~1025 cm-2. In the softer 3–8 keV band the number counts are in general agreement with those measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra over the flux range 5 x 10-15 ≤ S(3–8 keV)/erg s-1 cm-2 ≤10-12 probed by NuSTAR. In the hard 8–24 keV band NuSTAR probes fluxes over the range 2 x 10-14 ≤ S(8–24 keV)/erg s-1...... cm-2 ≤ 10-12, a factor ∼100 fainter than previous measurements. The 8–24 keV number counts match predictions from AGN populationsynthesis models, directly confirming the existence of a population of obscured and/or hard X-ray sources inferredfrom the shape of the integrated cosmic X-ray background...

  14. Study of adsorption states for lubricant molecule using hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikenaga, E.; Kobata, M.; Kim, J.J.; Wakabayashi, A.; Nishino, Y.; Tamasaku, K.; Sakane, Y.; Ishikawa, T.; Komiya, S.; Kobayashi, K.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption states for lubricant molecules have been investigated using hard X-ray (hν = 7.95 keV) photoemission spectroscopy (HX-PES). This method has the advantage for the organic molecules to be able to measure damage few. Being aware of the fact that P atoms exist only in cyclotriphosphazene base, we measured the take-off angle dependence of the P1s spectra. Each spectrum consists from two peaks, that is, substrate NiP peak and cyclotriphosphazene P peak. The cyclotriphosphazene P peak rapidly disappears with increasing take-off angle. We have also measured C1s spectra. Combining these experimental results, we have found that the adsorption state of cyclotriphosphazene end group is undergoing

  15. Hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray telescope designs for future astrophysics missions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Desiree Della Monica; Christensen, Finn Erland; Pivovaroff, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    theoretical reflectivities for candidate multilayer material combinations up to 400 keV including effects of incoherent scatter has given an experimental base for extending this type of designs to the soft λ-ray range. At the same time, the calibration of the in-flight performance of the NuSTAR mission has......We present several concept designs of hard X-ray/soft λ-ray focusing telescopes for future astrophysics missions. The designs are based on depth graded multilayer coatings. These have been successfully employed on the NuSTAR mission for energies up to 80 keV. Recent advances in demonstrating...... given a solid understanding and modelling of the relevant effects influencing the performance, including optical constants, roughness, scatter, non-uniformities and figure error. This allows for a realistic extension for designs going to much higher energies. Similarly, both thin slumped glass...

  16. Fresnel zone plate with apodized aperture for hard X-ray Gaussian beam optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio; Itabashi, Seiichi; Oda, Masatoshi

    2017-05-01

    Fresnel zone plates with apodized apertures [apodization FZPs (A-FZPs)] have been developed to realise Gaussian beam optics in the hard X-ray region. The designed zone depth of A-FZPs gradually decreases from the center to peripheral regions. Such a zone structure forms a Gaussian-like smooth-shouldered aperture function which optically behaves as an apodization filter and produces a Gaussian-like focusing spot profile. Optical properties of two types of A-FZP, i.e. a circular type and a one-dimensional type, have been evaluated by using a microbeam knife-edge scan test, and have been carefully compared with those of normal FZP optics. Advantages of using A-FZPs are introduced.

  17. NuSTAR hard x-ray optics design and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, J. E.; An, H.; Blaedel, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a NASA satellite mission scheduled for launch in 2011. Using focusing optics with multilayer coating for enhanced reflectivity of hard X-rays (6-79 keV), NuSTAR will provide a combination of clarity, sensitivity and spectral resolution...... surpassing the largest observatories in this band by orders of magnitude. This advance will allow NuSTAR to test theories of how heavy elements are born, discover collapsed stars and black holes on all scales and explore the most extreme physical environments. We will present an overview of the NuSTAR optics...... design and production process and detail the optics performance....

  18. Hard X-ray PhotoEmission Spectroscopy of strongly correlated systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaccione, Giancarlo; Offi, Francesco; Sacchi, Maurizio; Torelli, Piero

    2008-06-01

    Hard X-ray PhotoEmission Spectroscopy (HAXPES) is a new tool for the study of bulk electronic properties of solids using synchrotron radiation. We review recent achievements of HAXPES, with particular reference to the VOLPE project, showing that high energy resolution and bulk sensitivity can be obtained at kinetic energies of 6-8 keV. We present also the results of recent studies on strongly correlated materials, such as vanadium sesquioxide and bilayered manganites, revealing the presence of different screening properties in the bulk with respect to the surface. We discuss the relevant experimental features of the metal-insulator transition in these materials. To cite this article: G. Panaccione et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  19. High Precision Grids for Neutron, Hard X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jonathan W. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Fourier telescopes permit observations over a very broad band of energy. They generally include synthetic spatial filtering structures, known as multilayer grids or grid pairs consisting of alternate layers of absorbing and transparent materials depending on whether neutrons or photons are being imaged. For hard x-rays and gamma rays high (absorbing) and low (transparent) atomic number elements, termed high-Z and low-Z materials may be used. Fabrication of these multilayer grid structures is not without its difficulties. Herein the alternate layers of the higher material and the lower material are inserted in a polyhedron, transparent to photons of interest, through an open face of the polyhedron. The inserted layers are then uniformly compressed to form a multilayer grid.

  20. Hard X-ray texture measurements with an on-line image plate detector

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislak, L; Tschentscher, T; Klein, H; Bunge, H J

    2001-01-01

    An instrument for diffraction texture measurements in polycrystalline bulk materials using hard X-ray photons from the wiggler beamline BW5 at HASYLAB is described. High-energy photons in the 100 keV regime enable high penetration power in medium-to-high Z materials and the use of Laue diffraction geometry in combination with a two-dimensional area detector allows fast and convenient data collection. Determination of quantitative, high-resolution pole figures with a better angular resolution of 0.1 deg. is attained by the instrument. Profile analysis of the diffraction pattern parameters for each (h k l)-reflection thus provides, in addition to texture data, information about other microstructural quantities, e.g. lattice strain.

  1. Depth-resolved X-ray residual stress analysis in PVD (Ti, Cr) N hard coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Genzel, C

    2003-01-01

    Physical vapour deposition (PVD) of thin hard coatings on TiN basis is usually performed at rather low temperatures (T sub D < 500 C) far from thermal equilibrium, which leads to high intrinsic residual stresses in the growing film. In contrast to the extrinsic thermal residual stresses which can easily be estimated from the difference of the coefficients of thermal expansion between the substrate and the coating, a theoretical prediction of the intrinsic residual stresses is difficult, because their amount as well as their distribution within the film depend in a very complex way on the deposition kinetics. By the example of strongly fibre-textured PVD (Ti, Cr)N coatings which have been prepared under defined variation of the deposition parameters in order to adjust the residual stress distribution within the coatings, the paper compares different X-ray diffraction techniques with respect to their applicability for detecting residual stresses which are non-uniform over the coating thickness. (orig.)

  2. The PoGO+ Ballon-Borne Hard X-ray Polarimetry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Mette; Kiss, Mózsi; Mikhalev, Victor; Pearce, Mark; Takahashi, Hiromitsu

    2018-03-01

    The PoGO mission, including the PoGOLite Pathfinder and PoGO+, aims to provide polarimetric measurements of the Crab system and Cygnus X-1 in the hard X-ray band. Measurements are conducted from a stabilized balloon-borne platform, launched on a 1 million cubic meter balloon from the Esrange Space Center in Sweden to an altitude of approximately 40 km. Several flights have been conducted, resulting in two independent measurements of the Crab polarization and one of Cygnus X-1. Here, a review of the PoGO mission is presented, including a description of the payload and the flight campaigns, and a discussion of some of the scientific results obtained to date.

  3. Suprathermal electron studies in the TCV tokamak: Design of a tomographic hard-x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnesin, S.; Coda, S.; Decker, J.; Peysson, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating and electron cyclotron current drive, disruptive events, and sawtooth activity are all known to produce suprathermal electrons in fusion devices, motivating increasingly detailed studies of the generation and dynamics of this suprathermal population. Measurements have been performed in the past years in the tokamak a configuration variable (TCV) tokamak using a single pinhole hard-x-ray (HXR) camera and electron-cyclotron-emission radiometers, leading, in particular, to the identification of the crucial role of spatial transport in the physics of ECCD. The observation of a poloidal asymmetry in the emitted suprathermal bremsstrahlung radiation motivates the design of a proposed new tomographic HXR spectrometer reported in this paper. The design, which is based on a compact modified Soller collimator concept, is being aided by simulations of tomographic reconstruction. Quantitative criteria have been developed to optimize the design for the greatly variable shapes and positions of TCV plasmas.

  4. Tunable hard X-ray spectrometer utilizing asymmetric planes of a quartz transmission crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seely, John F.; Feldman, Uri; Henins, Albert

    2016-01-01

    A Cauchois type hard x-ray spectrometer was developed that utilizes the (301) diffraction planes at an asymmetric angle of 23.51° to the normal to the surface of a cylindrically curved quartz transmission crystal. The energy coverage is tunable by rotating the crystal and the detector arm, and spectra were recorded in the 8 keV to 20 keV range with greater than 2000 resolving power. The high resolution results from low aberrations enabled by the nearly perpendicular angle of the diffracted rays with the back surface of the crystal. By using other asymmetric planes of the same crystal and rotating to selected angles, the spectrometer can operate with high resolution up to 50 keV.

  5. The First Focused Hard X-Ray Images of the Sun With NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grefenstette, Brian W.; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the the first campaign of dedicated solar observations undertaken by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) hard X-ray (HXR) telescope. Designed as an astrophysics mission, NuSTAR nonetheless has the capability of directly imaging the Sun at HXR energies (>3 ke......V) with an increase in sensitivity of at least two magnitude compared to current non-focusing telescopes. In this paper we describe the scientific areas where NuSTAR will make major improvements on existing solar measurements. We report on the techniques used to observe the Sun with NuSTAR, their limitations......, and full-disk HXR images of the Sun....

  6. Full-field hard x-ray microscopy with interdigitated silicon lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simons, Hugh; Stöhr, Frederik; Michael-Lindhard, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Full-field x-ray microscopy using x-ray objectives has become a mainstay of the biological and materials sciences. However, the inefficiency of existing objectives at x-ray energies above 15 keV has limited the technique to weakly absorbing or two-dimensional (2D) samples. Here, we show that sign...

  7. The NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Survey of the Norma Arm Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornasini, Francesca M.; Tomsick, John A.; Hong, JaeSub

    2017-01-01

    brightest sources were previously identified as a low-mass X-ray binary, high-mass X-ray binary, and pulsar wind nebula. Based on their X-ray properties and multiwavelength counterparts, we identify the likely nature of the other sources as two colliding wind binaries, three pulsar wind nebulae, a black...

  8. An Investigation into the Elementary Temporal Structure of Solar Flare Hard X-Ray Bursts Using BATSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    The research performed under this contract is part of an on-going investigation to explore the finest time-resolution hard X-ray data available on solar flares. Since 1991, the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) aboard the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory has provided almost continual monitoring of the Sun in the hard X-ray and gamma-ray region of the spectrum. BATSE provides for the first time a temporal resolution in the data comparable to the timescales on which flare particle energization occurs. Under this contract, we have employed an important but under-utilized BATSE data type, the Time-To-Spill (TTS) data, to address the question of how fine a temporal structure exists in flare hard X-ray emission. By establishing the extent to which 'energy release fragments,' or characteristic (recurrent) time structures, are building blocks of flare emission, it is possible to place constraints on particle acceleration theories.

  9. Focusing properties of hard x-ray photon sieves: three-parameter apodization window and waveguide effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Jia, Jia

    2009-10-01

    In this Letter, a three-parameter modified Kaiser apodization window is used to modulate the pinhole density on each ring of hard x-ray photon sieves, analyzing the guided-wave propagation inside the photon sieves' nanostructure. Theoretical analysis reveals that the waveguide effect can suppress the emergence of the high-order diffraction effect; the additional parameter of the modified Kaiser window function gives rise to new degrees of freedom for manipulating the FWHM and signal-to-noise ratio. Metal nanostructure thickness has no influence on the FWHM. Hard x-ray photon sieves with 90 degrees phase shift (not 180 degrees phase shift) can provide the best signal-to-noise ratio, which relaxes the nanofabrication constraints somewhat. Our work provides a robust way to design hard x-ray photon sieves.

  10. On the origin of optical microvariability and X-ray flickering in active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.K.; Wiita, P.J.

    1990-12-01

    We suggest that non-stationary spiral shocks can produce X-ray flickering and optical microvariability. We show this by detailed non-axisymmetric numerical simulation of accretion disks in a binary system. We show that non-axisymmetric features appear and disappear in time scales of order of few local orbital periods near the inner edge of the disk and shorter than the orbital periods at a large distance. The former type may explain the X-ray flickering and the later type, the optical microvariability. (author). 5 refs, 1 fig

  11. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of bulk and thin films of Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozina, Xeniya

    2012-03-26

    X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) is one of the most universal and powerful tools for investigation of chemical states and electronic structures of materials. The application of hard X-rays increases the inelastic mean free path of the emitted electrons within the solid and thus makes hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) a bulk sensitive probe for solid state research and especially a very effective nondestructive technique to study buried layers. This thesis focuses on the investigation of multilayer structures, used in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), by a number of techniques applying HAXPES. MTJs are the most important components of novel nanoscale devices employed in spintronics. The investigation and deep understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the high performance of such devices and properties of employed magnetic materials that are, in turn, defined by their electronic structure becomes feasible applying HAXPES. Thus the process of B diffusion in CoFeB-based MTJs was investigated with respect to the annealing temperature and its influence on the changes in the electronic structure of CoFeB electrodes that clarify the behaviour and huge TMR ratio values obtained in such devices. These results are presented in chapter 6. The results of investigation of the changes in the valence states of buried off-stoichiometric Co{sub 2}MnSi electrodes were investigated with respect to the Mn content {alpha} and its influence on the observed TMR ratio are described in chapter 7. Magnetoelectronic properties such as exchange splitting in ferromagnetic materials as well as the macroscopic magnetic ordering can be studied by magnetic circular dichroism in photoemission (MCDAD). It is characterized by the appearance of an asymmetry in the photoemission spectra taken either from the magnetized sample with the reversal of the photon helicity or by reversal of magnetization direction of the sample when the photon helicity direction is fixed. Though

  12. The Future of X-ray Spectroscopy of Galactic Black Hole Binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    There are four major X-ray satellites currently in operation (RXTE, Chandra, XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL), with two more shortly to follow (Astro E II, Swift), and several very ambitious observatories in various stages of planning (Constellation-X, MAXIM, XEUS). This very rich period of X-ray observation is leading to great advances in our understanding of the accretion flow onto the black hole, although we are quickly learning (or perhaps better put, remembering) exactly how complicated this flow can be. This review was meant to assess future prospects for X-ray spectroscopy of black hole binaries; however, I first look backward to the observations and theories that helped us arrive at our current 'paradigm'. I then discuss current and near-future spectroscopic studies, which increasingly (and very fruitfully) treat X-ray spectroscopy as part of a larger, intimately connected picture along with radio, optical, and gamma-ray spectroscopy. Equally importantly, and in large part thanks to the success of RXTE, there is now a strong realization that spectral-temporal correlations, even across wavelength bands, are crucial to our understanding of the physics of these systems. Going forward, we are well-poised to continue to advance our knowledge via X-ray spectroscopy, both with existing satellites that have a long lifetime ahead of them (Chandra, XMM-Newton, INTEGRAL), and with the next generation of instruments. If there is any 'hole' in this bright future, it is the potential loss of RXTE, with no designated follow-up mission. Studies of multi-wavelength spectral-temporal correlations will become more difficult due to the loss of two important attributes of RXTE: its fast timing capabilities and its extremely flexible scheduling which has made many of these studies possible

  13. XMM-Newton Survey of Local O VII Absorption Lines in the Spectra of Galactic X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yang; Fang, Taotao; Ma, Renyi

    2018-04-01

    The detection of highly ionized metal absorption lines in the X-ray spectra of the Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs) implies the distribution of hot gas along the sightline toward the background sources. However, the origin of this hot gas is still unclear: it can arise in the hot interstellar medium (ISM), or is intrinsic to the XRBs. In this paper, we present an XMM-Newton survey of the O VII absorption lines in the spectra of Galactic XRBs. A total of 33 XRBs were selected, with 29 low-mass XRBs and 4 high-mass XRBs. At a more than 3σ threshold, O VII absorption line was detected in 16 targets, among which 4 were newly discovered in this work. The average line equivalent width is centered around ∼20 mÅ. Additionally, we do not find strong correlations between the O VII EWs and the Galactic neutral absorption N H, the Galactic coordinates, or the distance of background targets. Such non-correlation may suggest contamination of the circumstellar material, or a lack of constraints on the line Doppler-b parameter. We also find that regardless of the direction of the XRBs, the O VII absorption lines are always detected when the flux of the background XRBs reaches a certain level, suggesting a uniform distribution of this hot gas. We estimate a ratio of 0.004–0.4 between the hot and neutral phases of the ISM. This is the second paper in the series following Fang et al. (2015), in which we focused on the local O VII absorption lines detected in the background AGN spectra. Detailed modeling of the hot ISM distribution will be investigated in a future paper.

  14. Modelling properties of hard x-rays generated by the interaction between relativistic electrons and very intense laser beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, Alexandru

    2009-01-01

    In a previous paper we presented a calculation model for high harmonic generation by relativistic Thomson scattering of the electromagnetic radiation by free electrons. In this paper we present a similar model for the calculation of the energies of hard x-rays (20- 200 keV) resulted from the interaction between relativistic electrons (20-100 MeV) and very intense laser beams. Starting from the relativistic equations of motion of an electron in the electromagnetic field we show that the Lienard-Wiechert equation leads to electromagnetic waves whose frequencies are in the domain of hard x-rays. When the relativistic parameter of the laser beam is greater than unity, the model predicts the existence of harmonics of the above frequencies. Our theoretical values are in good agreement with experimental values of the x-ray energies from the literature and predict accurately their angular distribution.

  15. INTEGRAL hard X-ray detection of HMXB GX 304-1 and H1417-624

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousakis, A.; Beckmann, V.; Bianchin, V.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the first detection of the Be star HMXBs GX 304-1 and H1417-624 above 20 keV with the IBIS/ISGRI X-ray imager on board INTEGRAL. From 2008-06-24 to 2008-07-09, INTEGRAL performed monitoring observations of the Galactic plane around l=305 degrees for a total exposure time of 352 ksec....

  16. X-ray polarization fluctuations induced by cloud eclipses in active galactic nuclei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marin, Frederic; Dovčiak, Michal

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 573, January (2015), A60/1-A60/8 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LD12010 Grant - others:EU(XE) COST action MP1104 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : galaxies: Seyfert * polarization * radiative transfer * relativistic processes * scattering * X-rays: general Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  17. Long-term X-ray Observations of Galactic Superluminal Sources with GRANAT/WATCH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sazonov, S.Y.; Sunyaev, R.; Lund, Niels

    1996-01-01

    The authors present X-ray time histories for the radio-jet sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40 observed by the GRANAT/WATCH all-sky monitor at 8-20 keV. GRS 1915+105 is extremely variable on the time scales of months to years. The analysis of a 3-year data set gives no evidence for periodicity...

  18. Ambient Pressure Hard X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for Functional Material Systems as Fuel Cells under Working Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yasumasa; Uruga, Tomoya; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro; Yokoyama, Toshihiko

    2018-03-20

    Heterogeneous interfaces play important roles in a variety of functional material systems and technologies, such as catalysis, batteries, and devices. A fundamental understanding of efficient functions at interfaces under realistic conditions is crucial for sophisticated designs of useful material systems and novel devices. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is one of the most promising and common methods to investigate such material systems. Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is usually conducted under high vacuum because of the requirement of electron detection with the precise measurement of kinetic energies, extensive efforts have been devoted to the measurements in gaseous environments. Very recently, we have succeeded in measuring X-ray photoelectron spectra under real ambient atmosphere (10 5 Pa), using synchrotron radiation hard X-rays with the photon energy of 8 keV and the windowless electron spectrometer system. In this Account, the novel useful technique of real ambient pressure hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is reviewed. As examples of (near) ambient pressure hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, hydrogen storage of Pd nanoparticles is at first investigated by recording Pd 3d and valence band spectra under hydrogen atmosphere. The Pd 3d and valence band spectra are found to change rather abruptly depending on the hydrogen pressure, demonstrating a behavior like phase transformation. Subsequently, as a main topic in this Account, we describe investigations of the electronic states of platinum nanoparticles on the cathode electrocatalyst in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) under the voltage operating conditions using the near ambient pressure hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic system. The Pt 4f and 3d X-ray photoelectron spectra of the cathode Pt/C catalysts clearly show that the oxidized Pt species is at most divalent and the tetravalent Pt species does not exist on the Pt nanoparticles even at the positive cathode-anode voltage

  19. Primeval gas clouds and the low-energy X-ray background. [galactic cluster formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E. M.

    1977-01-01

    A model for the appearance of the all-sky low-energy X-ray background on a fine angular scale is presented which is based on primeval hot gas clouds associated with the formation of clusters of galaxies according to the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (1972) model. It is noted that the background could have both granular and diffuse components if it is due to such gas clouds. The observed appearance of the granular component is predicted along with the observable characteristics of collapsing protoclusters. The effects of distant X-ray-emitting QSOs, radio galaxies, and normal galaxies on the observations are considered, and these sources are shown not to interfere with the possibility of observing the protoclusters. It is concluded that if sufficient heating occurred in an intracluster medium within some clusters of galaxies at the protocluster epoch, the ensemble properties of protoclusters could be observed with an X-ray telescope, and the time at which protoclusters formed could perhaps be estimated.

  20. EX56a study of extended X-ray emission around isolated galaxies EX56b identification and spectra of bright X-ray sources at high galactic latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    The EXOSAT observations confirmed the identification and extended nature of PKS 2345-35. It gave a good 2 to 10 keV X-ray spectrum and a detailed spatial profile indicating asymmetry of the structure. In the high galactic latitidue investigation, the BL Lac object identified with the HEAO-1 source 1430+423 was detected, and the first X-ray spectrum was obtained. Several simulataneous observations of H0323+022 were obtained over a broad range of electromagnetic spectrum. Studies of luminous active galactic nuclei have given significant information on the spectrum of the quasar PKS 0558-504. In a study of Southern sky cataclysmic variables, the EXOSAT was used to determine the X-ray spectrum and search for periodicities in two objects. Studies of complete identifications have revealed that X-ray sources in two high galactic latitude fields are stars, and therefore are to be excluded from the Piccinotti extragalactic sample. Only one Piccinotti source remains to be identified.

  1. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, A.H.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E.

    1997-01-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale

  2. Ultrashort hard x-ray pulses generated by 90 degrees Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, A.H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Schoenlein, R.W.; Glover, T.E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Ultrashort x-ray pulses permit observation of fast structural dynamics in a variety of condensed matter systems. The authors have generated 300 femtosecond, 30 keV x-ray pulses by 90 degrees Thomson scattering between femtosecond laser pulses and relativistic electrons. The x-ray and laser pulses are synchronized on a femtosecond time scale, an important prerequisite for ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy. Analysis of the x-ray beam properties also allows for electron bunch characterization on a femtosecond time scale.

  3. SUPERMODEL ANALYSIS OF THE HARD X-RAY EXCESS IN THE COMA CLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fusco-Femiano, R.; Orlandini, M.; Bonamente, M.; Lapi, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Supermodel (SM) provides an accurate description of the thermal contribution by the hot intracluster plasma which is crucial for the analysis of the hard excess. In this paper, the thermal emissivity in the Coma cluster is derived starting from the intracluster gas temperature and density profiles obtained by the SM analysis of X-ray observables: the XMM-Newton temperature profile and the ROSAT brightness distribution. The SM analysis of the BeppoSAX/Phoswich Detector System (PDS) hard X-ray (HXR) spectrum confirms our previous results, namely, an excess at the confidence level (c.l.) of ∼4.8σ and a nonthermal (NT) flux of (1.30 ± 0.40) x 10 -11 erg cm -2 erg cm -1 in the energy range 20-80 keV. A recent joint XMM-Newton/Suzaku analysis reports an upper limit of ∼6 x 10 -12 erg cm -2 erg cm -1 in the energy range 20-80 keV for the NT flux with an average gas temperature of 8.45 ± 0.06 keV and an excess of NT radiation at a c.l. above 4σ, without including systematic effects, for an average XMM-Newton temperature of 8.2 keV in the Suzaku/HXD-PIN FOV, in agreement with our earlier PDS analysis. Here we present a further evidence of the compatibility between the Suzaku and BeppoSAX spectra, obtained by our SM analysis of the PDS data, when the smaller size of the HXD-PIN FOV and the two different average temperatures derived by XMM-Newton and by the joint XMM-Newton/Suzaku analysis are taken into account. The consistency of the PDS and HXD-PIN spectra reaffirms the presence of an NT component in the HXR spectrum of the Coma cluster. The SM analysis of the PDS data reports an excess at c.l. above 4σ also for the higher average temperature of 8.45 keV thanks to the PDS FOV being considerably greater than the HXD-PIN FOV.

  4. POLAR - novel hard X-ray polarimeter for Gamma Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdas, Wojtek

    Our present knowledge of the Gamma Ray Bursts GRBs - the most powerful explosions in the universe after the Big Bang - links them with a birth of the black holes and localize at cosmological distances. There is also a strong evidence relating some of them with Supernovae and thus with gravitational waves. Despite of such significant role of GRBs only little is known about their mechanisms and progenitors. Existing theories still have troubles describing bursts prompt emissions while predictions of the photon polarization show large divergences. On the observational side there are just few isolated measurements of the hard X-ray polarization affected by large experimental uncertainties. Nevertheless, it became clear that determining the GRB polarization could be an ultimate step for understanding their genuine nature. To participate in this task we propose POLAR - novel instrument for hard X-ray and low energy gamma ray polarimetry. The instrument goal is to perform highly precise polarization studies from a very large number of GRBs. Measurements of the linear polarization in the GRB prompt emission at photon energies from 5 keV to 500 keV will be carried out using continuous observations of the sky. Our calculations showed that for several bursts per year the experimental precision will reach a 1 sigma level of 3 per cent. For the strongest events it will be possible to study polarization as a function of energy achieving much more detailed view of the emitting system structure. POLAR uses a uniform array of 1600 weakly shielded plastic detectors coupled with the new multi-anode photo-multipliers. The polarization measurement is based on Compton scattering and relies on detection of fast coincidences between plastic scintillator bars. The total mass (28 kg) and power requirements (30 W) are very moderate. POLAR has relatively small dimensions and it was designed to be not only non-intrusive but also highly adaptable. The qualification model is currently under

  5. Design of the data management system for hard X-ray modulation telescope based on real-time Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Tao; Zhang Zhi

    2004-01-01

    Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope is an electronic subsystem, the data management system for capturing the data of the telescope, then managing and transferring them. The data management system also deals with the communication with the satellite. Because of these functions, it needs highly steady quality and good real-time performance. This paper describes the design of the system. (authors)

  6. The effects of the cathode array on emitted hard x-ray from a small plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piriaei, D.; Mahabadi, T. D.; Javadi, S.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2017-08-01

    In this study, the effects of the cathode array variations on emitted hard x-rays from a small Mather type plasma focus device (450 J) were investigated. The gradual elimination of the cathode rods inside the cathode array of the device lowered the quality and quantity of the emitted hard x-rays at different pressure values of argon gas. We theorized that the variations of the cathode array were able to change some discharge parameters that could vary the number of the energetic runaway electrons generated during the pinch phase which were responsible for the created features of the emitted hard x-rays. On the other hand, we hypothesized that the removal of the cathode rods could influence the current sheath dynamics during all the phases of a shot including its average axial velocity which was demonstrated by using two axial magnetic probes. We also theorized that cathode rod omission from the cathode array could also increase the initial inductance and the impedance of the system, and the impurities inside the plasma during the pinch phase which could lead to the growth of the instabilities. Moreover, by using the wavelet technique and studying the Mirnov signals, it was shown that the decrease of the cathode rod number increased the plasma magnetic field fluctuations or instabilities (MHD activities) that adversely affected the pinch quality, and reduced the emitted hard x-rays.

  7. 6 MeV storage ring dedicated to hard X-ray imaging and far-infrared ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The tabletop storage ring, 6 MeV MIRRORCLE, is dedicated to hard X-ray imaging as well as far-infrared (FIR) spectroscopy. ... Synchrotron Light Life Science (SLLS) Center, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga, 525-8577, Japan; Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Rajshahi, ...

  8. Transition radiation in metal-metal multilayer nanostructures as a medical source of hard x-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokrovsky, A. L.; Kaplan, A. E.; Shkolnikov, P. L.

    2006-01-01

    We show that a periodic metal-metal multilayer nanostructure can serve as an efficient source of hard x-ray transition radiation. Our research effort is aimed at developing an x-ray source for medical applications, which is based on using low-energy relativistic electrons. The approach toward choosing radiator-spacer couples for the generation of hard x-ray resonant transition radiation by few-MeV electrons traversing solid multilayer structures for the energies of interest to medicine (30-50 keV) changes dramatically compared with that for soft x-ray radiation. We show that one of the main factors in achieving the required resonant line is the absence of the contrast of the refractive indices between the spacer and the radiator at the far wings of the radiation line; for that purpose, the optimal spacer, as a rule, should have a higher atomic number than the radiator. Having experimental goals in mind, we have considered also the unwanted effects due to bremsstrahlung radiation, absorption and scattering of radiated photons, detector-related issues, and inhibited coherence of transition radiation due to random deviation of spacing between the layers. Choosing as a model example a Mo-Ag radiator-spacer pair of materials, we demonstrate that the x-ray transition radiation line can be well resolved with the use of spatial and frequency filtering

  9. The NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys: The Number Counts Of Active Galactic Nuclei And The Resolved Fraction Of The Cosmic X-ray Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, F. A.; Aird, J.; Civano, F.; Lansbury, G.; Mullaney, J. R.; Ballentyne, D. R.; Alexander, D. M.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Barret, D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present the 3-8 kiloelectronvolts and 8-24 kiloelectronvolts number counts of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) identified in the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) extragalactic surveys. NuSTAR has now resolved 33 percent -39 percent of the X-ray background in the 8-24 kiloelectronvolts band, directly identifying AGNs with obscuring columns up to approximately 10 (exp 25) per square centimeter. In the softer 3-8 kiloelectronvolts band the number counts are in general agreement with those measured by XMM-Newton and Chandra over the flux range 5 times 10 (exp -15) less than or approximately equal to S (3-8 kiloelectronvolts) divided by ergs per second per square centimeter less than or approximately equal to 10 (exp -12) probed by NuSTAR. In the hard 8-24 kiloelectronvolts band NuSTAR probes fluxes over the range 2 times 10 (exp -14) less than or approximately equal to S (8-24 kiloelectronvolts) divided by ergs per second per square centimeter less than or approximately equal to 10 (exp -12), a factor approximately 100 times fainter than previous measurements. The 8-24 kiloelectronvolts number counts match predictions from AGN population synthesis models, directly confirming the existence of a population of obscured and/or hard X-ray sources inferred from the shape of the integrated cosmic X-ray background. The measured NuSTAR counts lie significantly above simple extrapolation with a Euclidian slope to low flux of the Swift/BAT15-55 kiloelectronvolts number counts measured at higher fluxes (S (15-55 kiloelectronvolts) less than or approximately equal to 10 (exp -11) ergs per second per square centimeter), reflecting the evolution of the AGN population between the Swift/BAT local (redshift is less than 0.1) sample and NuSTAR's redshift approximately equal to 1 sample. CXB (Cosmic X-ray Background) synthesis models, which account for AGN evolution, lie above the Swift/BAT measurements, suggesting that they do not fully capture the evolution of obscured

  10. LAMBDA 2M GaAs—A multi-megapixel hard X-ray detector for synchrotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennicard, D.; Smoljanin, S.; Pithan, F.; Sarajlic, M.; Rothkirch, A.; Yu, Y.; Liermann, H. P.; Morgenroth, W.; Winkler, B.; Jenei, Z.; Stawitz, H.; Becker, J.; Graafsma, H.

    2018-01-01

    Synchrotrons can provide very intense and focused X-ray beams, which can be used to study the structure of matter down to the atomic scale. In many experiments, the quality of the results depends strongly on detector performance; in particular, experiments studying dynamics of samples require fast, sensitive X-ray detectors. "LAMBDA" is a photon-counting hybrid pixel detector system for experiments at synchrotrons, based on the Medipix3 readout chip. Its main features are a combination of comparatively small pixel size (55 μm), high readout speed at up to 2000 frames per second with no time gap between images, a large tileable module design, and compatibility with high-Z sensors for efficient detection of higher X-ray energies. A large LAMBDA system for hard X-ray detection has been built using Cr-compensated GaAs as a sensor material. The system is composed of 6 GaAs tiles, each of 768 by 512 pixels, giving a system with approximately 2 megapixels and an area of 8.5 by 8.5 cm2. While the sensor uniformity of GaAs is not as high as that of silicon, its behaviour is stable over time, and it is possible to correct nonuniformities effectively by postprocessing of images. By using multiple 10 Gigabit Ethernet data links, the system can be read out at the full speed of 2000 frames per second. The system has been used in hard X-ray diffraction experiments studying the structure of samples under extreme pressure in diamond anvil cells. These experiments can provide insight into geological processes. Thanks to the combination of high speed readout, large area and high sensitivity to hard X-rays, it is possible to obtain previously unattainable information in these experiments about atomic-scale structure on a millisecond timescale during rapid changes of pressure or temperature.

  11. Astronomy and astrophysics of galactic X-ray binaries: from the nature of the X-ray sources to the physics of accretion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jerome

    2010-01-01

    In this HDR (Accreditation to supervise research) report, the author proposes an overview of his research works in the field of accretion of X-ray binaries. After a presentation of X-ray binaries, neutron stars and black holes, micro-quasars, and of the main issues regarding X-ray binaries, the author presents and comments his activities in X-ray astronomy and gamma-ray astronomy (the INTEGRAL observatory, the discovery of new sources of X and gamma radiation, studies of new sources at different wavelengths). The second part addresses the understanding of source accretion: phenomenological studies in astronomy, relationships between accretion and ejection. The third part presents and comments several studies of the physics of phenomena related to matter accretion and ejection. (author) [fr

  12. Discovery of Hard Nonthermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission from the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Méndez, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of nonthermal pulsed X-ray/soft gamma-ray emission up to ~150 keV from the anomalous 11.8 s X-ray pulsar AXP 1E 1841-045 located near the center of supernova remnant Kes 73 using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array and High Energy X-Ray Timing

  13. Infrared emission from four Be stars optical counterparts of galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary results of our infrared observations from 2.3 up to 10 and 20 microns of the Be-X-ray stars X Per, γ Cas and HDE 245770, indicate the presence of an ionized circumstellar disk with an electron density law of the type nsub(e) proportional to rsup(-3.5). X Per and γ Cas show besides, variable infrared excess at 10μ suggesting variability in the stellar wind. LS I+65 0 010 presents an anomalous infrared energy distribution for a Be star. (Auth.)

  14. Experimental study on hard X-rays emitted from metre-scale negative discharges in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.O. Kochkin (Pavlo); A. van Deursen (Arie); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe investigate the development of metre long negative discharges and focus on their x-ray emissions. We describe appearance, timing and spatial distribution of the x-rays. They appear in bursts of nanosecond duration mostly in the cathode area. The spectrum can be characterized by an

  15. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Buechler, Cynthia Eileen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lewellen, IV, John W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marksteiner, Quinn R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  16. Quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohn, V. G.; Argunova, T. S.; Je, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    Peculiarities of quantitative hard x-ray phase contrast imaging of micropipes in SiC are discussed. The micropipe is assumed as a hollow cylinder with an elliptical cross section. The major and minor diameters can be restored using the least square fitting procedure by comparing the experimental data, i.e. the profile across the micropipe axis, with those calculated based on phase contrast theory. It is shown that one projection image gives an information which does not allow a complete determination of the elliptical cross section, if an orientation of micropipe is not known. Another problem is a weak accuracy in estimating the diameters, partly because of using pink synchrotron radiation, which is necessary because a monochromatic beam intensity is not sufficient to reveal the weak contrast from a very small object. The general problems of accuracy in estimating the two diameters using the least square procedure are discussed. Two experimental examples are considered to demonstrate small as well as modest accuracies in estimating the diameters

  17. SOLPOL: A Solar Polarimeter for Hard X-Rays and Gamma-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    Th goal of this project was to continue the development of a hard X-ray polarimeter for studying solar flares. In earlier work (funded by a previous SR&T grant), we had already achieved several goals, including the following: 1) development of a means of producing a polarized radiation source in the lab that could be used for prototype development; 2) demonstrated the basic Compton scatter polarimeter concept using a simple laboratory setup; 3) used the laboratory results to verify our Monte Carlo simulations; and 4) investigated various detector technologies that could be incorporated into the polarimeter design. For the current one-year program, we wanted to fabricate and test a laboratory science model based on our SOLPOL (Solar Polarimeter) design. The long-term goal of this effort is to develop and test a prototype design that could be used to study flare emissions from either a balloon- or space-borne platform. The current program has achieved its goal of fabricating and testing a science model of the SOLPOL design, although additional testing of the design (and detailed comparison with Monte Carlo simulations) is still desired. This one-year program was extended by six months (no-cost extension) to cover the summer of 1999, when undergraduate student support was available to complete some of the laboratory testing.

  18. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-03-01

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion since many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Aangstrom FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with the energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in sub-Aangstrom regime. As an option for generation of brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  19. Risetime discrimination applied to pressurized Xe gas proportional counter for hard x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Doi, Kosei

    1978-01-01

    A high pressure Xe proportional counter has been developed for hard X-ray observation. This counter has better energy-resolving power than a NaI scintillation counter, and the realization of large area is relatively easy. This counter is constructed with a cylindrical aluminum tube, and this tube can be used at 40 atmospheric pressure. The detection efficiency curves were obtained in relation to gas pressure. It is necessary to reduce impurities in the Xe gas to increase the energy-resolving power of the counter. The increase of gas pressure made the resolving power worse. The characteristics of the counter were stable for at least a few months. The wave form discrimination was applied to reduce the background signals such as pulses caused by charged particles and gamma-ray. This method has been used for normal pressure counter, and in the present study, it was applied for the high pressure counter. It was found that the discrimination method was able to be applied to this case. (Kato, T.)

  20. Prospects for CW and LP operation of the European XFEL in hard X-ray regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, R.; Schneidmiller, E.A., E-mail: evgeny.schneidmiller@desy.de; Sekutowicz, J.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2014-12-21

    The European XFEL will operate nominally at 17.5 GeV in SP (short pulse) mode with 0.65 ms long bunch train and 10 Hz repetition rate. A possible upgrade of the linac to CW (continuous wave) or LP (long pulse) modes with a corresponding reduction of electron beam energy is under discussion for many years. Recent successes in the dedicated R and D program allow to forecast a technical feasibility of such an upgrade in the foreseeable future. One of the challenges is to provide sub-Ångström FEL operation in CW and LP modes. In this paper we perform a preliminary analysis of a possible operation of the European XFEL in the hard X-ray regime in CW and LP modes with electron energies of 7 GeV and 10 GeV, respectively. We consider lasing in the baseline XFEL undulator as well as in a new undulator with a reduced period. We show that, with reasonable requirements on electron beam quality, lasing on the fundamental will be possible in the sub-Ångström regime. As an option for generating brilliant photon beams at short wavelengths we also consider harmonic lasing that has recently attracted a significant attention.

  1. SuperHERO: Design of a New Hard X-Ray Focusing Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Elsner, Ronald; Ramsey, Brian; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Tennant, Allyn; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Kiranmayee, Kilaru; Swartz, Douglas; Seller, Paul; hide

    2015-01-01

    SuperHERO is a hard x-ray (20-75 keV) balloon-borne telescope, currently in its proposal phase, that will utilize high angular-resolution grazing-incidence optics, coupled to novel CdTe multi-pixel, fine-pitch (250 micrometers) detectors. The high-resolution electroformed-nickel, grazing-incidence optics were developed at MSFC, and the detectors were developed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, and are being readied for flight at GSFC. SuperHERO will use two active pointing systems; one for carrying out astronomical observations and another for solar observations during the same flight. The telescope will reside on a light-weight, carbon-composite structure that will integrate the Wallops Arc Second Pointer into its frame, for arcsecond or better pointing. This configuration will allow for Long Duration Balloon flights that can last up to 4 weeks. This next generation design, which is based on the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) and HERO to Explore the Sun (HEROES) payloads, will be discussed, with emphasis on the core telescope components.

  2. The PoGO+ view on Crab off-pulse hard X-ray polarisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Florén, H.-G.; Friis, M.; Jackson, M.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Mizuno, T.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, N.; Pearce, M.

    2018-02-01

    The linear polarisation fraction and angle of the hard X-ray emission from the Crab provide unique insight into high energy radiation mechanisms, complementing the usual imaging, timing and spectroscopic approaches. Results have recently been presented by two missions operating in partially overlapping energy bands, PoGO+ (18-160 keV) and AstroSat CZTI (100-380 keV). We previously reported PoGO+ results on the polarisation parameters integrated across the light-curve and for the entire nebula-dominated off-pulse region. We now introduce finer phase binning, in light of the AstroSat CZTI claim that the polarisation fraction varies across the off-pulse region. Since both missions are operating in a regime where errors on the reconstructed polarisation parameters are non-Gaussian, we adopt a Bayesian approach to compare results from each mission. We find no statistically significant variation in off-pulse polarisation parameters, neither when considering the mission data separately nor when they are combined. This supports expectations from standard high-energy emission models.

  3. The hard X-ray response of epitaxial GaAs detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, A; Kraft, S; Peacock, A; Nenonen, S; Andersson, H

    2000-01-01

    We report on hard X-ray measurements with two epitaxial GaAs detectors of active areas 2.22 mm sup 2 and thicknesses 40 and 400 mu m at the ESRF and HASYLAB synchrotron research facilities. The detectors were fabricated using high-purity material and in spite of an order of magnitude difference in depletion depths, they were found to have comparable performances with energy resolutions at -45 deg. C of approx 1 keV fwhm at 7 keV rising to approx 2 keV fwhm at 200 keV and noise floors in the range 1-1.5 keV. At energies <30 keV, the energy resolution was dominated by leakage current and electromagnetic pick-up, while at the highest energies measured, the resolutions approach the expected Fano limit (e.g., approx 1 keV near 200 keV). Both detectors are remarkably linear, with average rms non-linearities of 0.2% over the energy range 10-60 keV, which, taken in conjunction with Monte-Carlo results indicate that charge collection efficiencies must be in excess of 98%. This is consistent with material science me...

  4. The First Focused Hard X-Ray Images of the Sun with NuSTAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grefenstette, Brian W.; Glesener, Lindsay; Kruckner, Sam; Hudson, Hugh; Hannah, Iain G.; Smith, David M.; Vogel, Julia K.; White, Stephen M.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Marsh, Andrew J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from the first campaign of dedicated solar observations undertaken by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) hard X-ray (HXR) telescope. Designed as an astrophysics mission, NuSTAR nonetheless has the capability of directly imaging the Sun at HXR energies (3 keV) with an increase in sensitivity of at least two magnitude compared to current non-focusing telescopes. In this paper we describe the scientific areas where NuSTAR will make major improvements on existing solar measurements. We report on the techniques used to observe the Sun with NuSTAR, their limitations and complications, and the procedures developed to optimize solar data quality derived from our experience with the initial solar observations. These first observations are briefly described, including the measurement of the Fe K-shell lines in a decaying X-class flare, HXR emission from high in the solar corona, and full-disk HXR images of the Sun.

  5. Ultra-precise characterization of LCLS hard X-ray focusing mirrors by high resolution slope measuring deflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, Frank; Buchheim, Jana; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J; Montanez, Paul A; Krzywinski, Jacek; Signorato, Riccardo

    2012-02-13

    We present recent results on the inspection of a first diffraction-limited hard X-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror pair for the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). The full KB system - mirrors and holders - was under inspection by use of high resolution slope measuring deflectometry. The tests confirmed that KB mirrors of 350mm aperture length characterized by an outstanding residual figure error of mirrors. Additional measurements show the clamping of the mirrors to be a critical step for the final - shape preserving installation of such outstanding optics.

  6. NuSTAR detection of 4s Hard X-ray Lags from the Accreting Pulsar GS 0834-430

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bachetti, Matteo; Miyasaka, Hiromasa; Harrison, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834􀀀430 during its 2012 outburst. The source is detected between 3 – 79 keV with high statistical significance, and we were able to perform very accurate spectral and timing analysis. The phase-averaged spectrum i...... significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low-energies (Emechanisms that might produce such lags. We find the most likely explanation for this eect to be a complex beam geometry....

  7. Sub-second pulsations simultaneously observed at microwaves and hard X-rays in a solar burst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takakura, T.; Degaonkar, S.S.; Nitta, N.; Ohki, N.

    1982-11-01

    Sub-second time structures have been found in the emissions during solar bursts in mm-waves and, independently, in hard X-rays. However, simultaneous observations of such fast time structure in mm radio and X-ray ranges has not been available so far. Accordingly, coordinated observations of solar bursts in November 1981 with a high time resolution of a few milliseconds were planned. The hard X-rays (30-40 KeV were observed with hard X-ray monitor (HXM) aboard the Hinotori Satellite with a time resolution of 7.81 ms and the radio emissions were observed on the ground with 45ft dish at Itapetinga Radio Observatory with a high time resolution (1 ms) and high sensitivities at 22 GHz and 44 GHz, supplemented by a patrol observation at 7 GHz with time resolution of 100 ms. The pulsations repeated with a period of about 300 ms. The physical implication of the good correlation is not clear at this stage, but it may give a clue to the understanding of the high energy phenomena occuring during the solar flares. (Author) [pt

  8. Three-dimensional visualization of magnetic domain structure with strong uniaxial anisotropy via scanning hard X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Motohiro; Kim, Kab-Jin; Kim, Sanghoon; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Tono, Takayuki; Yamada, Kihiro T.; Taniguchi, Takuya; Mizuno, Hayato; Oda, Kent; Ishibashi, Mio; Hirata, Yuushou; Li, Tian; Tsukamoto, Arata; Chiba, Daichi; Ono, Teruo

    2018-03-01

    An X-ray tomographic technique was developed to investigate the internal magnetic domain structure in a micrometer-sized ferromagnetic sample. The technique is based on a scanning hard X-ray nanoprobe using X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD). From transmission XMCD images at the Gd L3 edge as a function of the sample rotation angle, the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of a single component of the magnetic vector in a GdFeCo microdisc was reconstructed with a spatial resolution of 360 nm, using a modified algebraic reconstruction algorithm. The method is applicable to practical magnetic materials and can be extended to 3D visualization of the magnetic domain formation process under external magnetic fields.

  9. Forcing Cesium into Higher Oxidation States Using Useful hard x-ray Induced Chemistry under High Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sneed, D.; Pravica, M.; Kim, E.; Chen, N.; Park, C.; White, M.

    2017-10-01

    This paper discusses our attempt to synthesize higher oxidation forms of cesium fluoride by pressurizing cesium fluoride in a fluorine-rich environment created via the x-ray decomposition of potassium tetrafluoroborate. This was done in order to confirm recent theoretical predictions of higher oxidation forms of CsFn. We discuss the development of a technique to produce molecular fluorine in situ via useful hard x-ray photochemistry, and the attempt to utilize this technique to form higher oxidation states of cesium fluoride. In order to verify the formation of the novel stoichiometric species of CsFn. X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) centered on the cesium K-edge was performed to probe the oxidation state of cesium as well as the local molecular coordination around Cs.

  10. Hard-X-Ray Phase-Difference Microscopy Using a Fresnel Zone Plate and a Transmission Grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashiro, W.; Takeda, Y.; Momose, A.; Takeuchi, A.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Novel hard x-ray phase imaging microscopy that simply uses an objective and a transmission grating is described. The microscope generated an image that exhibited twin features of a sample with an opposite phase contrast having a separation of a specific distance. Furthermore, the twin features were processed to generate an image mapping the x-ray phase shift through a simple algorithm. The presence of the grating did not degrade the spatial resolution of the microscope. The sensitivity of our microscope to light elements was about 2 orders of magnitude higher than that of the absorption contrast microscope that was attained by simply removing the grating. Our method is attractive for easily appending a quantitative phase-sensitive mode to normal x-ray microscopies, and it has potentially broad applications in biology and material sciences.

  11. Characterization of temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses with single-shot interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taito Osaka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Temporal coherence is one of the most fundamental characteristics of light, connecting to spectral information through the Fourier transform relationship between time and frequency. Interferometers with a variable path-length difference (PLD between the two branches have widely been employed to characterize temporal coherence properties for broad spectral regimes. Hard X-ray interferometers reported previously, however, have strict limitations in their operational photon energies, due to the specific optical layouts utilized to satisfy the stringent requirement for extreme stability of the PLD at sub-ångström scales. The work presented here characterizes the temporal coherence of hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL pulses by capturing single-shot interferograms. Since the stability requirement is drastically relieved with this approach, it was possible to build a versatile hard X-ray interferometer composed of six separate optical elements to cover a wide photon energy range from 6.5 to 11.5 keV while providing a large variable delay time of up to 47 ps at 10 keV. A high visibility of up to 0.55 was observed at a photon energy of 10 keV. The visibility measurement as a function of time delay reveals a mean coherence time of 5.9 ± 0.7 fs, which agrees with that expected from the single-shot spectral information. This is the first result of characterizing the temporal coherence of XFEL pulses in the hard X-ray regime and is an important milestone towards ultra-high energy resolutions at micro-electronvolt levels in time-domain X-ray spectroscopy, which will open up new opportunities for revealing dynamic properties in diverse systems on timescales from femtoseconds to nanoseconds, associated with fluctuations from ångström to nanometre spatial scales.

  12. NuSTAR Hard X-Ray Observation of the Gamma-Ray Binary Candidate HESS J1832–093

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, E. V.; Hailey, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a hard X-ray observation of the TeV gamma-ray binary candidate HESS J1832−093, which is coincident with the supernova remnant G22.7−0.2, using the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array. Non-thermal X-ray emission from XMMU J183245−0921539, the X-ray source associated with HESS J1832......−093, is detected up to ~30 keV and is well-described by an absorbed power-law model with a best-fit photon index . A re-analysis of archival Chandra and XMM-Newton data finds that the long-term X-ray flux increase of XMMU J183245−0921539 is (90% C.L.), much less than previously reported. A search for a pulsar spin...... period or binary orbit modulation yields no significant signal to a pulse fraction limit of in the range 4 ms  ks. No red noise is detected in the FFT power spectrum to suggest active accretion from a binary system. While further evidence is required, we argue that the X-ray and gamma-ray properties...

  13. Study of hard X-ray dose enhancement effects for some kinds of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Guo Hong Xia; Chen Yu Sheng; Zhou Hui; He Chao Hui; Xie Ya Ning; Huang Yu Ying; He Wei; Hu Tian Dou

    2002-01-01

    Experimental results of X-ray dose enhancement effects are given for CMOS4069 and floating gate ROMs irradiated in Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility and in cobalt source. Shift of threshold voltage vs. total dose for CMOS4069 and the errors vs. total dose for 28f256 and 29c256 have been tested on line and the equivalent relation of total dose damage under the same accumulated dose is provided comparing the response of devices irradiated by X-ray and gamma-ray source. These results can be provided for X-ray radiation hardening technology as an effective evaluation data

  14. Transition of an X-ray binary to the hard ultraluminous state in the blue compact dwarf galaxy VII Zw 403

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorby, M.; Kaaret, P.; Feng, H.

    2015-04-01

    We examine the X-ray spectra of VII Zw 403, a nearby low-metallicity blue compact dwarf (BCD) galaxy. The galaxy has been observed to contain an X-ray source, likely a high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB), with a luminosity of 1.3-23 × 1038 erg s-1 in the 0.3-8 keV energy range. A new Suzaku observation shows a transition to a luminosity of 1.7 × 1040 erg s-1 [0.3-8 keV], higher by a factor of 7-130. The spectra from the high-flux state are hard, best described by a disc plus Comptonization model, and exhibit curvature at energies above 5 keV. This is consistent with many high-quality ultraluminous X-ray source spectra which have been interpreted as stellar mass black holes accreting at super-Eddington rates. However, this lies in contrast to another HMXB in a low-metallicity BCD, I Zw 18, that exhibits a soft spectrum at high flux, similar to Galactic black hole binaries and has been interpreted as a possible intermediate-mass black hole. Determining the spectral properties of HMXBs in BCDs has important implications for models of the Epoch of Reionization. It is thought that the main component of X-ray heating in the early Universe was dominated by HMXBs within the first galaxies. Early galaxies were small, metal-deficient, star-forming galaxies with large H I mass fractions - properties shared by local BCDs we see today. Understanding the spectral evolution of HMXBs in early Universe analogue galaxies, such as BCDs, is an important step in estimating their contribution to the heating of the intergalactic medium during the Epoch of Reionization. The strong contrast between the properties of the only two spectroscopically studied HMXBs within BCDs motivates further study on larger samples of HMXBs in low-metallicity environments in order to properly estimate the X-ray heating in the early Universe.

  15. Development of Small-Pixel CZT Detectors for Future High-Resolution Hard X-ray Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilicke, Matthias

    Owing to recent breakthroughs in grazing incidence mirror technology, next-generation hard X-ray telescopes will achieve angular resolutions of between 5 and 10 arc seconds - about an order of magnitude better than that of the NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope. As a consequence, the next generation of hard X-ray telescopes will require pixelated hard X- ray detectors with pixels on a grid with a lattice constant of between 120 and 240 um. Additional detector requirements include a low energy threshold of less than 5 keV and an energy resolution of less than 1 keV. The science drivers for a high angular-resolution hard X-ray mission include studies and measurements of black hole spins, the cosmic evolution of super-massive black holes, AGN feedback, and the behavior of matter at very high densities. We propose a R&D research program to develop, optimize and study the performance of 100-200 um pixel pitch CdTe and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors of 1-2 mm thickness. Our program aims at a comparison of the performance achieved with CdTe and CZT detectors, and the optimization of the pixel, steering grid, and guard ring anode patterns. Although these studies will use existing ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits), our program also includes modest funds for the development of an ultra-low noise ASIC with a 2-D grid of readout pads that can be directly bonded to the 100-200 um pixel pitch CdTe and CZT detectors. The team includes the Washington University group (Prof. M. Beilicke and Co-I Prof. H.S.W. Krawczynski et al.), and co-investigator G. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Washington University group has a 10 year track record of innovative CZT detector R&D sponsored by the NASA Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis (APRA) program. The accomplishments to date include the development of CZT detectors with pixel pitches between 350 um and 2.5 mm for the ProtoExist, EXIST, and X-Calibur hard X-ray missions with some of the best

  16. High Efficiency Semiconductor Arrays for Hard X-Ray Imaging, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The next generation of wide-field survey instruments with improved angular and energy resolution for research into astrophysical transient X-ray phenomena is...

  17. Laboratory Calibration of X-ray Velocimeters for Radiation Driven Winds and Outflows Surrounding X-ray Binaries and Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Graf, A.; Hell, N.; Liedahl, D.; Magee, E. W.; Träbert, E.; Beilmann, C.; Bernitt, S.; Crespo-Lopez-Urritiua, J.; Eberle, S.; Kubicek, K.; Mäckel, V.; Rudolph, J.; Steinbrügge, R.; Ullrich, J.; Kelley, R. L.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Porter, F. S.; Rasmussen, A.; Simon, M.; Epp, S.

    2011-09-01

    High resolution measurements of X-ray absorption and fluorescence by radiation driven winds and outflows surrounding X-ray binaries and AGN provide a powerful means for measuring wind velocities. The accuracy of these X-ray velocimeters is limited by the accuracy of atomic data. For example, in the case of the high mass X-ray binary Vela X-1 the uncertainty in the calculated transition wavelengths of the K alpha lines produced by photoionization and photoexcitation of Si L-shell ions is comparable to the likely Doppler shifts, making it impossible to determine a reliable velocity. Similar problems also exist in the case of absorption of X-rays by M-shell Fe ions, which produces in some AGN the so-called unresolved transition array across the 15-17 angstrom band. In this case, there is a 15-45 milliangstrom variation among different wavelength calculations. The uncertainty in the calculations makes it impossible to reliably determine the true velocity structure of the outflow, and in turn, prevents a reliable determination of the mass-loss rate of the AGN. We present results of a recent series of laboratory experiments conducted using an electron beam ion trap coupled with the LCLS X-ray free electron laser and the BESSY-II synchrotron and designed to calibrate the velocimeters provided by high resolution instruments on Chandra and XMM-Newton. We also present results of resonant photoexcitation measurements of the transition wavelength of an Fe XVI satellite line 'coincident' with the 2p-3d Fe XVII line 3D at 15.26 angstroms. This line has never been resolved using emission spectroscopy and its measurement confirms the intensity of line 3D is sensitive to the relative abundance of Fe XVI and XVII and thus temperature. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of DOE under contract DE-AC53-07NA27344 and supported by NASA's APRA program.

  18. Hard X-ray activity of IGR J17473-2721

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuulkers, E.; Shaw, S.; Beckmann, V.

    2008-01-01

    Persistent X-ray activity has been reported by Swift/XRT (ATel #1459) and RXTE/PCA (ATel #1460) from the transient IGR J17473-2721 (= XTE J1747-274; ATels #467, #498) after the detection of an X-ray burst by SuperAGILE (ATel #1445). We report the detection of persistent activity at 18-100 keV wit...

  19. Hard X-Ray Flare Source Sizes Measured with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Pernak, Rick L.

    2009-01-01

    Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) observations of 18 double hard X-ray sources seen at energies above 25 keV are analyzed to determine the spatial extent of the most compact structures evident in each case. The following four image reconstruction algorithms were used: Clean, Pixon, and two routines using visibilities maximum entropy and forward fit (VFF). All have been adapted for this study to optimize their ability to provide reliable estimates of the sizes of the more compact sources. The source fluxes, sizes, and morphologies obtained with each method are cross-correlated and the similarities and disagreements are discussed. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the major axes of the sources with assumed elliptical Gaussian shapes are generally well correlated between the four image reconstruction routines and vary between the RHESSI resolution limit of approximately 2" up to approximately 20" with most below 10". The FWHM of the minor axes are generally at or just above the RHESSI limit and hence should be considered as unresolved in most cases. The orientation angles of the elliptical sources are also well correlated. These results suggest that the elongated sources are generally aligned along a flare ribbon with the minor axis perpendicular to the ribbon. This is verified for the one flare in our list with coincident Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images. There is evidence for significant extra flux in many of the flares in addition to the two identified compact sources, thus rendering the VFF assumption of just two Gaussians inadequate. A more realistic approximation in many cases would be of two line sources with unresolved widths. Recommendations are given for optimizing the RHESSI imaging reconstruction process to ensure that the finest possible details of the source morphology become evident and that reliable estimates can be made of the source dimensions.

  20. ELECTRON ENERGY PARTITION IN THE ABOVE-THE-LOOPTOP SOLAR HARD X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Mitsuo; Krucker, Säm; Hudson, Hugh S.; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Solar flares produce non-thermal electrons with energies up to tens of MeVs. To understand the origin of energetic electrons, coronal hard X-ray (HXR) sources, in particular above-the-looptop sources, have been studied extensively. However, it still remains unclear how energies are partitioned between thermal and non-thermal electrons within the above-the-looptop source. Here we show that the kappa distribution, when compared to conventional spectral models, can better characterize the above-the-looptop HXRs (≳15 keV) observed in four different cases. The widely used conventional model (i.e., the combined thermal plus power-law distribution) can also fit the data, but it returns unreasonable parameter values due to a non-physical sharp lower-energy cutoff E c . In two cases, extreme-ultraviolet data were available from SDO/AIA and the kappa distribution was still consistent with the analysis of differential emission measure. Based on the kappa distribution model, we found that the 2012 July 19 flare showed the largest non-thermal fraction of electron energies about 50%, suggesting equipartition of energies. Considering the results of particle-in-cell simulations, as well as density estimates of the four cases studied, we propose a scenario in which electron acceleration is achieved primarily by collisionless magnetic reconnection, but the electron energy partition in the above-the-looptop source depends on the source density. In low-density above-the-looptop regions (few times 10 9  cm –3 ), the enhanced non-thermal tail can remain and a prominent HXR source is created, whereas in higher-densities (>10 10  cm –3 ), the non-thermal tail is suppressed or thermalized by Coulomb collisions

  1. Real-time algorithms for JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, A., E-mail: anaf@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, R.C.; Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Kiptily, V. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Correia, C.M.B.A. [Centro de Instrumentação, Dept. de Física, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Gonçalves, B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • Real-time tools and mechanisms are required for data handling and machine control. • A new DAQ system, ATCA based, with embedded FPGAs, was installed at JET. • Different real-time algorithms were developed for FPGAs and MARTe application. • MARTe provides the interface to CODAS and to the JET real-time network. • The new DAQ system is capable to process and deliver data in real-time. - Abstract: The steady state operation with high energy content foreseen for future generation of fusion devices will necessarily demand dedicated real-time tools and mechanisms for data handling and machine control. Consequently, the real-time systems for those devices should be carefully selected and their capabilities previously established. The Joint European Torus (JET) is undertaking an enhancement program, which includes tests of relevant real-time tools for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), a key experiment for future fusion devices. In these enhancements a new Data AcQuisition (DAQ) system is included, with real-time processing capabilities, for the JET hard X-ray and gamma-ray profile monitor. The DAQ system is composed of dedicated digitizer modules with embedded Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) devices. The interface between the DAQ system, the JET control and data acquisition system and the JET real-time data network is provided by the Multithreaded Application Real-Time executor (MARTe). This paper describes the real-time algorithms, developed for both digitizers’ FPGAs and MARTe application, capable of meeting the DAQ real-time requirements. The new DAQ system, including the embedded real-time features, was commissioned during the 2012 experiments. Results achieved with these real-time algorithms during experiments are presented.

  2. HARD X-RAY EMISSION DURING FLARES AND PHOTOSPHERIC FIELD CHANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtseva, O.; Petrie, G. J. D.; Pevtsov, A. A.; Martínez-Oliveros, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    We study the correlation between abrupt permanent changes of magnetic field during X-class flares observed by the Global Oscillation Network Group and Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instruments, and the hard X-ray (HXR) emission observed by RHESSI, to relate the photospheric field changes to the coronal restructuring and investigate the origin of the field changes. We find that spatially the early RHESSI emission corresponds well to locations of the strong field changes. The field changes occur predominantly in the regions of strong magnetic field near the polarity inversion line (PIL). The later RHESSI emission does not correspond to significant field changes as the flare footpoints are moving away from the PIL. Most of the field changes start before or around the start time of the detectable HXR signal, and they end at about the same time or later than the detectable HXR flare emission. Some of the field changes propagate with speed close to that of the HXR footpoint at a later phase of the flare. The propagation of the field changes often takes place after the strongest peak in the HXR signal when the footpoints start moving away from the PIL, i.e., the field changes follow the same trajectory as the HXR footpoint, but at an earlier time. Thus, the field changes and HXR emission are spatio-temporally related but not co-spatial nor simultaneous. We also find that in the strongest X-class flares the amplitudes of the field changes peak a few minutes earlier than the peak of the HXR signal. We briefly discuss this observed time delay in terms of the formation of current sheets during eruptions

  3. OBSERVATION OF A QUASIPERIODIC PULSATION IN HARD X-RAY, RADIO, AND EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVELENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Cho, Kyung-Suk [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon, 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Nakariakov, Valery M., E-mail: pankaj@kasi.re.kr [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of a quasiperiodic pulsation (QPP) observed in the hard X-ray (HXR), radio, and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) channels during an M1.9 flare that occurred on 2011 September 23–24. The nonthermal HXR emission in 25–50 keV observed by RHESSI shows five distinct impulsive peaks of decaying amplitude with a period of about 3 minutes. A similar QPP was observed in the microwave emission recorded by the Nobeyama Radioheliograph and Polarimeter in the 2, 3.75, 9.4, and 17 GHz channels. Interestingly, the 3-minute QPP was also observed in the metric and decimetric radio frequencies (25–180, 245, 610 MHz) as repetitive type III bursts. Multiwavelength observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory /Atmospheric Image Assembly, Hinode /SOT, and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory /SECCHI suggest a fan-spine topology at the eruption site, associated with the formation of a quasi-circular ribbon during the flare. A small filament was observed below the fan loops before the flare onset. The filament rose slowly and interacted with the ambient field. This behavior was followed by an untwisting motion of the filament. Two different structures of the filament showed an approximately 3-minute periodic alternate rotation in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions. The 3-minute QPP was found to highly correlate with 3-minute oscillations in a nearby sunspot. We suggest that the periodic reconnection (modulated either by a sunspot slow-mode wave or by an untwisting filament) at a magnetic null point most likely causes the repetitive particle acceleration, generating the QPP observed in HXR, microwave, and type III radio bursts.

  4. The Height of a White-Light Flare and its Hard X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Juan-Carlos Martinez; Hudson, Hugh S.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Kriucker, Saem; Lin, R. P.; Lindsey, Charles; Couvidat, Sebastien; Schou, Jesper; Thompson, W. T.

    2012-01-01

    We describe observations of a white-light (WL) flare (SOL2011-02-24T07:35:00, M3.5) close to the limb of the Sun, from which we obtain estimates of the heights of the optical continuum sources and those of the associated hard X-ray (HXR) sources. For this purpose, we use HXR images from the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Spectroscopic Imager and optical images at 6173 Ang. from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.We find that the centroids of the impulsive-phase emissions in WL and HXRs (30 -80 keV) match closely in central distance (angular displacement from Sun center), within uncertainties of order 0".2. This directly implies a common source height for these radiations, strengthening the connection between visible flare continuum formation and the accelerated electrons. We also estimate the absolute heights of these emissions as vertical distances from Sun center. Such a direct estimation has not been done previously, to our knowledge. Using a simultaneous 195 Ang. image from the Solar-Terrestrial RElations Observatory spacecraft to identify the heliographic coordinates of the flare footpoints, we determine mean heights above the photosphere (as normally defined; tau = 1 at 5000 Ang.) of 305 +/- 170 km and 195 +/- 70 km, respectively, for the centroids of the HXR and WL footpoint sources of the flare. These heights are unexpectedly low in the atmosphere, and are consistent with the expected locations of tau = 1 for the 6173 Ang and the approx 40 keV photons observed, respectively.

  5. X-Ray Absorption with Transmission X-Ray Microscopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, F.M.F.

    2016-01-01

    In this section we focus on the use of transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) to measure the XAS spectra. In the last decade a range of soft X-ray and hard X-ray TXM microscopes have been developed, allowing the measurement of XAS spectra with 10–100 nm resolution. In the hard X-ray range the TXM

  6. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the Hard X- Ray Spectrum of Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, F.; Muller, C.; Madsen, K. K.; Lanz, L.; Rivers, E.; Brightman, M.; Arevalo, P.; Balokovic, M.; Beuchert, T.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations spanning 3-78 keV of the nearest radio galaxy, Centaurus A (Cen A). The accretion geometry around the central engine in Cen A is still debated, and we investigate possible configurations using detailed X-ray spectral modeling. NuSTAR imaged the central region of Cen A with subarcminute resolution at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time, but found no evidence for an extended source or other off-nuclear point sources. The XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra agree well and can be described with an absorbed power law with a photon index Gamma = 1.8150 +/- 0.005 and a fluorescent Fe Kaline in good agreement with literature values. The spectrum is greater than 1 MeV. A thermal Comptonization continuum describes the data well, with parameters that agree with values measured by INTEGRAL, in particular an electron temperature kTe between approximately 100-300 keV and seed photon input temperatures between 5 and 50 eV. We do not find evidence for reflection or a broad iron line and put stringent upper limits of R is less than 0.01 on the reflection fraction and accretion disk illumination. We use archival Chandra data to estimate the contribution from diffuse emission, extra-nuclear point sources, and the outer X-ray jet to the observed NuSTAR and XMM-Newton X-ray spectra and find the contribution to be negligible. We discuss different scenarios for the physical origin of the observed hard X-ray spectrum and conclude that the inner disk is replaced by an advection-dominated accretion flow or that the X-rays are dominated by synchrotron self-Compton emission from the inner regions of the radio jet or a combination thereof.

  7. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the Hard X-Ray Spectrum of Centaurus A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, F.; Müller, C.; Madsen, K. K.; Lanz, L.; Rivers, E.; Brightman, M.; Arevalo, P.; Baloković, M.; Beuchert, T.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Dauser, T.; Farrah, D.; Graefe, C.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Kadler, M.; King, A.; Krauß, F.; Madejski, G.; Matt, G.; Marinucci, A.; Markowitz, A.; Ogle, P.; Ojha, R.; Rothschild, R.; Stern, D.; Walton, D. J.; Wilms, J.; Zhang, W.

    2016-03-01

    We present simultaneous XMM-Newton and Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations spanning 3-78 keV of the nearest radio galaxy, Centaurus A (Cen A). The accretion geometry around the central engine in Cen A is still debated, and we investigate possible configurations using detailed X-ray spectral modeling. NuSTAR imaged the central region of Cen A with subarcminute resolution at X-ray energies above 10 keV for the first time, but found no evidence for an extended source or other off-nuclear point sources. The XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectra agree well and can be described with an absorbed power law with a photon index Γ = 1.815 ± 0.005 and a fluorescent {Fe} {{K}}α line in good agreement with literature values. The spectrum does not require a high-energy exponential rollover, with a constraint of Efold > 1 MeV. A thermal Comptonization continuum describes the data well, with parameters that agree with values measured by INTEGRAL, in particular an electron temperature kTe between ≈100-300 keV and seed photon input temperatures between 5 and 50 eV. We do not find evidence for reflection or a broad iron line and put stringent upper limits of R nuclear point sources, and the outer X-ray jet to the observed NuSTAR and XMM-Newton X-ray spectra and find the contribution to be negligible. We discuss different scenarios for the physical origin of the observed hard X-ray spectrum and conclude that the inner disk is replaced by an advection-dominated accretion flow or that the X-rays are dominated by synchrotron self-Compton emission from the inner regions of the radio jet or a combination thereof.

  8. Design and development of position sensitive detector for hard x-ray using SiPM and new generation scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, S. K.; Naik, Amisha P.; N. P. S., Mithun; Vadawale, S. V.; Tiwari, Neeraj K.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Nagrani, N.; Madhavi, S.; Ladiya, T.; Patel, A. R.; Shanmugam, M.; Adalja, H. L.; Patel, V. R.; Ubale, G. P.

    2017-08-01

    There is growing interest in high-energy astrophysics community for the development of sensitive instruments in the hard X-ray energy extending to few hundred keV. This requires position sensitive detector modules with high efficiency in the hard X-ray energy range. Here, we present development of a detector module, which consists of 25 mm x 25 mm CeBr3 scintillation detector, read out by a custom designed two dimensional array of Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM). Readout of common cathode of SiPMs provides the spectral measurement whereas the readout of individual SiPM anodes provides measurement of interaction position in the crystal. Preliminary results for spectral and position measurements with the detector module are presented here.

  9. Hard X-Ray Emission from Sh 2-104: A NuSTAR Search for Gamma-Ray Counterparts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotthelf, E. V.; Mori, K.; Aliu, E.

    2016-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of Sh 2–104, a compact H ii region containing several young massive stellar clusters (YMSCs). We have detected distinct hard X-ray sources coincident with localized VERITAS TeV emission recently resolved from the giant gamma-ray complex MGRO J2019...... with extragalactic objects. The combined XMM-Newton and NuSTAR spectrum of 3XMM J201744.7+365045 is well-fit to an absorbed power-law model with cm−2 and a photon index . Based on possible long-term flux variation and the lack of detected pulsations (≤43% modulation), this object is likely a background active...

  10. Spiral photon sieves apodized by digital prolate spheroidal window for the generation of hard-x-ray vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Changqing; Zhu, Xiaoli; Shi, Lina; Liu, Ming

    2010-06-01

    We extend the work of photon sieves to spiral photon sieves (SPSs) for the generation of a hard-x-ray vortex. A robust digital prolate spheroidal window, which has an optimal energy concentration at low frequencies, was used to adjust the number of pinholes on each ring of the SPS. It was demonstrated that an SPS has better spatial resolution and lower background than a spiral zone plate using the specified smallest structures condition. The intensity at the center of the dark core is difficult to damp to true zero, primarily owing to current limitations of high-aspect-ratio metal nanostructures. The diameter of the dark core increases as the charge value increases. However, the FWHM of the doughnut-shaped ring and background will also increase. Our results pave the way toward the design of high-performance SPSs for the generation of a hard-x-ray vortex.

  11. Mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard X-ray focusing in twenty-nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Deming; Liu, Jie; Gleber, Sophie C.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Lai, Barry; Maser, Jorg M.; Roehrig, Christian; Wojcik, Michael J.; Vogt, Franz Stefan

    2017-04-04

    An enhanced mechanical design of multiple zone plates precision alignment apparatus for hard x-ray focusing in a twenty-nanometer scale is provided. The precision alignment apparatus includes a zone plate alignment base frame; a plurality of zone plates; and a plurality of zone plate holders, each said zone plate holder for mounting and aligning a respective zone plate for hard x-ray focusing. At least one respective positioning stage drives and positions each respective zone plate holder. Each respective positioning stage is mounted on the zone plate alignment base frame. A respective linkage component connects each respective positioning stage and the respective zone plate holder. The zone plate alignment base frame, each zone plate holder and each linkage component is formed of a selected material for providing thermal expansion stability and positioning stability for the precision alignment apparatus.

  12. The Properties of the Galactic Hot Gaseous Halo from X-Ray Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunyang; Bregman, Joel N.

    2018-01-01

    The extended hot X-ray emitting gaseous halo of the Milky Way has an optical depth ∼1 for the dominant emission lines of O VII and O VIII, which are used to infer the halo properties. To improve on halo gas properties, we treat optical depth effects with a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model, which leads to slightly steeper density profiles (β ~ 0.5) than if optical depths effects were ignored. For the preferred model where the halo is rotating on cylinders at 180 km s-1, independent fits to both lines lead to identical results, where the core radius is 2.5 kpc and the turbulent component of the Doppler-b parameter is 100–120 km s-1 the turbulent pressure is 20% of the thermal pressure. The fit is improved when emission from a disk is included, with a radial scale length of 3 kpc (assumed) and a fitted vertical scale height of approximately 1.3 kpc. The disk component is a minor mass constituent and has low optical depth, except at low latitudes. The gaseous mass is 3–4×1010 M⊙ within 250 kpc, similar to our previous determinations and significantly lower than the mass of the missing baryons, which is 1.7× 10^11 M⊙.

  13. X-ray holography

    CERN Document Server

    Faigel, G; Belakhovsky, M; Marchesini, S; Bortel, G

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples.

  14. X-ray holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faigel, G.; Tegze, M.; Belakhovsky, M.; Marchesini, S.; Bortel, G.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade holographic methods using hard X-rays were developed. They are able to resolve atomic distances, and can give the 3D arrangement of atoms around a selected element. Therefore, hard X-ray holography has potential applications in chemistry, biology and physics. In this article we give a general description of these methods and discuss the developments in the experimental technique. The capabilities of hard X-ray holography are demonstrated by examples

  15. Unification of Active Galactic Nuclei at X-rays and soft gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This HDR (accreditation to supervise research) report contains presentations of teaching activities in stellar astrophysics and extragalactic astronomy and cosmology, of student supervision activities in different academic places, and of various publications and participations to conferences and meetings. After a brief text highlighting the relevance and originality of his research works, the author proposes a large overview of his research works which dealt with different aspects of active galactic nuclei and related issues. Future projects are evoked. The report also contains numerous publications (press articles, conference proceedings, and so on)

  16. The Structure and Dynamics of An Active Galactic Nucleus Torus : CO Line Predictions for ALMA from Three-dimensional Hydrodynamical Simulations with X-ray-driven Chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez Beaupuits, J.P.; Wada, K.; Spaans, M.

    2011-01-01

    Several attempts have been made to model the mass distribution and dynamical evolution of the circumnuclear gas in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, chemical evolution is not included in detail in three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamic simulations. The X-ray radiation from the AGN can drive the

  17. Hard X-ray Emission along the Z Track in GX 17+2 GQ Ding∗ & CP ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the hard X-ray emission flux and the radio flux are highest on the HB, then fade away along the Z track on their HIDs, and, finally, become lowest on the flaring branch. (FB) (Penninx et al. 1988; Di Salvo et al. 2000, 2002; Lin et al. 2009; Ding et al. 2003, 2011; Migliari et al. 2007; Fender et al. 2007). It is noted that in the past ...

  18. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by RXTE Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, G.; Zycki, P.; Done, C.; Valinia, A.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Turek, B.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Se.yfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV, implying an optical depth of the absorber to electron scattering of a few; its absorption column is probably the largest which still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with Solar abundances implies a column of 4.5(sup 0.4, sub -0.4) x 10(exp 24) /sq cm. Using a a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on time scales shorter than the light travel time through it. The rapid (with a time scale of approximately a day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 we observed with the RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Limits on the amount of scattered flux require that the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle < 10 deg. This is only marginally consistent with the recent determinations of the obscuring column in hard X-rays, where only a quarter of Seyfert 2s have columns which are optically thick, and presents a problem in accounting for the Cosmic X-ray Background primarily with AGN possessing the geometry as that inferred by us. The small solid angle of the obscuring material, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 6) solar mass) from megamaser measurements. allows a robust determination of the source luminosity, which in turn implies that the source radiates at approximately 10% of the Eddington limit.

  19. Effects of Interstellar Dust Scattering on the X-ray Eclipses of the LMXB AX J1745.6-2901 in the Galactic Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chichuan; Ponti, Gabriele; Haberl, Frank; Smith, Randall; Valencic, Lynne

    2018-04-01

    AX J1745.6-2901 is an eclipsing low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) in the Galactic Centre (GC). It shows significant X-ray excess emission during the eclipse phase, and its eclipse light curve shows an asymmetric shape. We use archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations to study the origin of these peculiar X-ray eclipsing phenomena. We find that the shape of the observed X-ray eclipse light curves depends on both photon energy and the shape of the source extraction region, and also shows differences between the two instruments. By performing detailed simulations for the time-dependent X-ray dust scattering halo, as well as directly modelling the observed eclipse and non-eclipse halo profiles of AX J1745.6-2901, we obtained solid evidence that its peculiar eclipse phenomena are indeed caused by the X-ray dust scattering in multiple foreground dust layers along the line-of-sight (LOS). The apparent dependence on the instruments is caused by different instrumental point-spread-functions. Our results can be used to assess the influence of dust scattering in other eclipsing X-ray sources, and raise the importance of considering the timing effects of dust scattering halo when studying the variability of other X-ray sources in the GC, such as Sgr A⋆. Moreover, our study of halo eclipse reinforces the existence of a dust layer local to AX J1745.6-2901 as reported by Jin et al. (2017), as well as identifying another dust layer within a few hundred parsecs to Earth, containing up to several tens of percent LOS dust, which is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds in the Solar neighbourhood. The remaining LOS dust is likely to be associated with the molecular clouds located in the Galactic disk in-between.

  20. From Storage Rings to Free Electron Lasers for Hard X-Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuhn, H

    2004-01-09

    The intensity of X-ray sources has increased at a rapid rate since the late 1960s by 10 orders of magnitude and more through the use of synchrotron radiation produced by bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. Three generations of radiation sources have been identified depending on amplitude and quality of the radiation provided. While user facilities of the third generation were being constructed a new concept of radiation generating devices was being developed that offers an even larger increase in peak and average brightness than had been achieved till then. The new concept of the X-ray Free Electron Laser based on the principle of Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission will be the basis of fourth generation X-ray source user facilities of this century. The paper will start with a brief history of the development of x-ray sources, discuss some of the differences between storage ring and free electron laser based approaches, and close with an update of the present development of x-ray free electron laser user facilities.

  1. A hard X-ray study of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 with NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukherjee, E. S.; Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present the results from coordinated X-ray observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source NGC 5204 X-1 performed by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array and XMM-Newton in early 2013. These observations provide the first detection of NGC 5204 X-1 above 10 keV, extending the broadband...

  2. A hard x-ray split-and-delay unit for the HED instrument at the European XFEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roling, Sebastian; Kärcher, Victor; Samoylova, Liubov; Appel, Karen; Braun, Stefan; Gawlitza, Peter; Siewert, Frank; Zastrau, Ulf; Rollnik, Matthias; Wahlert, Frank; Zacharias, Helmut

    2017-06-01

    For the High Energy Density Instrument (HED) at the European XFEL a hard x-ray split-and-delay unit (SDU) is built covering photon energies in the range between 5 keV and 24 keV. This SDU enables time-resolved x-ray pump / x-ray probe experiments as well as sequential diffractive imaging on a femtosecond to picosecond time scale. The set-up is based on wavefront splitting that has successfully been implemented at an autocorrelator at FLASH. The x-ray FEL pulses will be split by a sharp edge of a silicon mirror coated with Mo/B4C and W/B4C multilayers. Both partial beams then pass variable delay lines. For different photon energies the angle of incidence onto the multilayer mirrors is adjusted in order to match the Bragg condition. Hence, maximum delays between +/- 1 ps at 24 keV and up to +/- 23 ps at 5 keV will be possible. Time-dependent wave-optics simulations are performed with Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) software. The XFEL radiation is simulated using the output of the time-dependent SASE code FAST. For the simulations diffraction on the edge of the beam-splitter as well as height and slope errors of all eight mirror surfaces are taken into account. The impact of these effects on the ability to focus the beam by means of compound refractive lenses (CRL) is analyzed.

  3. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A Fast X-ray Transient in the Galactic Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Rahoui, Farid

    2014-01-01

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8-sigma in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having...... for between ~0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-IR imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power-law with a photon index of Gamma = 4.1(+1.5)(-1.0) (90% confidence errors......-2, and 1.7(+1.7)(-0.9)e23 cm-2, for the power-law, blackbody, and bremsstrahlung models, respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which...

  4. Generation of stable subfemtosecond hard x-ray pulses with optimized nonlinear bunch compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senlin Huang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a simple scheme that leverages existing x-ray free-electron laser hardware to produce stable single-spike, subfemtosecond x-ray pulses. By optimizing a high-harmonic radio-frequency linearizer to achieve nonlinear compression of a low-charge (20 pC electron beam, we obtain a sharp current profile possessing a few-femtosecond full width at half maximum temporal duration. A reverse undulator taper is applied to enable lasing only within the current spike, where longitudinal space charge forces induce an electron beam time-energy chirp. Simulations based on the Linac Coherent Light Source parameters show that stable single-spike x-ray pulses with a duration less than 200 attoseconds can be obtained.

  5. Finite thickness effect of a zone plate on focusing hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial resolution and focusing efficiency are two important properties of a zone plate in x-ray focusing applications. A general expression of the zone plate equation describing its zone registration is derived from the interference of spherical waves emited from two mutually coherent point sources. An analytical expression of the focusing efficiency in terms of the zone plate thickness and x-ray refractive indices of the zones is also derived. Validity condition for using this expression is considered. Thickness required for obtaining adequate focusing efficiency is calculated as a function of x-ray energy for several representative materials. The spatial resolution of a finite thickness zone plate is worse than that of an infinetly thin zone plate. which is approximately equal to the smallest zone width of the zone plate. The effect of the finite thickness on the spatial resolution is considered

  6. Defect-Assisted Hard-X-Ray Microscopy with Capillary Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korecki, Paweł; Sowa, Katarzyna M; Jany, Benedykt R; Krok, Franciszek

    2016-06-10

    Polycapillary x-ray focusing devices are built from hundreds of thousands of bent microcapillaries that are stacked into hexagonal arrays. We show that intrinsic point defects of the optics (e.g., missing or larger capillaries) lead to the formation of multiple x-ray images of an object positioned in the focal plane. These images can be recorded in parallel, and can provide spatial resolution that is limited by the defect size and not by the focal spot size. In a proof-of-principle experiment, we demonstrate submicron resolution, which has not yet been achieved with polycapillary focusing optics. Tailored optics with a controlled distribution of "defects" could be used for multimodal nanoscale x-ray imaging with laboratory setups.

  7. Image quality improvement in a hard X-ray projection microscope using total reflection mirror optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Hidekazu; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Yamamura, Kazuya; Kubota, Akihisa; Matsuyama, Satoshi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Ueno, Kazumasa; Endo, Katsuyoshi; Nishino, Yoshinori; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Mori, Yuzo

    2004-07-01

    A new figure correction method has been applied in order to fabricate an elliptical mirror to realize a one-dimensionally diverging X-ray beam having high image quality. Mutual relations between figure errors and intensity uniformities of diverging X-ray beams have also been investigated using a wave-optical simulator and indicate that figure errors in relatively short spatial wavelength ranges lead to high-contrast interference fringes. By using a microstitching interferometer and elastic emission machining, figure correction of an elliptical mirror with a lateral resolution close to 0.1 mm was carried out. A one-dimensional diverging X-ray obtained using the fabricated mirror was observed at SPring-8 and evaluated to have a sufficiently flat intensity distribution.

  8. THE ORIGIN OF THE PUZZLING HARD X-RAY EMISSION OF γ CASSIOPEIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motch, Christian [Observatoire Astronomique, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, UMR 7550, 11 rue de l’Université, F-67000 Strasbourg (France); Oliveira, Raimundo Lopes de [Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Departamento de Física, Av. Marechal Rondon s/n, 49100-000 São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Smith, Myron A., E-mail: christian.motch@unistra.fr [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-20

    Massive B and Be stars produce X-rays from shocks in high-velocity winds with temperatures of a few million degrees and maximum X-ray luminosities of ≈10{sup 31} erg s{sup −1}. Surprisingly, a sub-group of early Be stars exhibits ≥20 times hotter X-ray temperatures and ≥10 times higher X-ray luminosities than normal. This group of Be stars, dubbed γ-Cas analogs, contains about 10 known objects. The origin of this bizarre behavior has been extensively debated in the past decades. Two mechanisms have been put forward: accretion of circumstellar disk matter onto an orbiting white dwarf, or magnetic field interaction between the star and the circumstellar disk. We show here that the X-ray and optical emissions of the prototype of the class, γ-Cas, are very well correlated on year timescales with no significant time delay. Since the expected migration time from internal disk regions that emit most of the optical flux to the orbit of the companion star is several years, the simultaneity of the high energy and optical flux variations indicates that X-ray emission arises from close to the star. The systematic lack of magnetic field detection reported in recent spectro-polarimetric surveys of Be stars is consistent with the absence of strong magnetic wind braking in these fast spinning stars but place strong constraints on the possible origin of the magnetic field. We propose that in γ-Cas, the magnetic field emerges from equatorially condensed subsurface convecting layers, the thickness of which steeply increases with rotation rate, and that γ-Cas and its analogs are the most massive and closest to critical rotation Be stars.

  9. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A fast X-ray transient in the galactic plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J.; Rahoui, Farid; Assef, Roberto J.; Bauer, Franz E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Grindlay, Jonathan; Harrison, Fiona A.; Natalucci, Lorenzo; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8σ in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a constant NuSTAR count rate over a period of 40 ks and is also detected simultaneously by Swift at lower significance. The source is not significantly detected by NuSTAR, Swift, or Chandra in the days before or weeks after the discovery of the transient, indicating that the strong X-ray activity lasted between ∼0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-infrared imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power law with a photon index of Γ=4.1 −1.0 +1.5 (90% confidence errors), a blackbody with kT = 1.2 ± 0.3 keV, or a Bremsstrahlung model with kT=3.0 −1.2 +2.1 keV. The reduced-χ 2 values for the three models are not significantly different, ranging from 1.23 to 1.44 for 8 degrees of freedom. The spectrum is strongly absorbed with N H =(2.8 −1.4 +2.3 )×10 23 cm –2 , (9 −7 +15 )×10 22 cm –2 , and (1.7 −0.9 +1.7 )×10 23 cm –2 , for the power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung models, respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which would indicate an X-ray luminosity >10 34 erg s –1 . Although we do not reach a definitive determination of the nature of NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, we suggest that it may be an unusually bright active binary or a magnetar.

  10. NuSTAR J163433-4738.7: A fast X-ray transient in the galactic plane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Fornasini, Francesca M.; Krivonos, Roman [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Gotthelf, Eric V.; Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Assef, Roberto J. [Núcleo de Astronomía de la Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontifica Universidad Católica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Grindlay, Jonathan [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Natalucci, Lorenzo [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, INAF-IAPS, via del Fosso del Cavaliere, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W., E-mail: jtomsick@ssl.berkeley.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-04-10

    During hard X-ray observations of the Norma spiral arm region by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) in 2013 February, a new transient source, NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, was detected at a significance level of 8σ in the 3-10 keV bandpass. The source is consistent with having a constant NuSTAR count rate over a period of 40 ks and is also detected simultaneously by Swift at lower significance. The source is not significantly detected by NuSTAR, Swift, or Chandra in the days before or weeks after the discovery of the transient, indicating that the strong X-ray activity lasted between ∼0.5 and 1.5 days. Near-infrared imaging observations were carried out before and after the X-ray activity, but we are not able to identify the counterpart. The combined NuSTAR and Swift energy spectrum is consistent with a power law with a photon index of Γ=4.1{sub −1.0}{sup +1.5} (90% confidence errors), a blackbody with kT = 1.2 ± 0.3 keV, or a Bremsstrahlung model with kT=3.0{sub −1.2}{sup +2.1} keV. The reduced-χ{sup 2} values for the three models are not significantly different, ranging from 1.23 to 1.44 for 8 degrees of freedom. The spectrum is strongly absorbed with N{sub H}=(2.8{sub −1.4}{sup +2.3})×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, (9{sub −7}{sup +15})×10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, and (1.7{sub −0.9}{sup +1.7})×10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, for the power-law, blackbody, and Bremsstrahlung models, respectively. Although the high column density could be due to material local to the source, it is consistent with absorption from interstellar material along the line of sight at a distance of 11 kpc, which would indicate an X-ray luminosity >10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1}. Although we do not reach a definitive determination of the nature of NuSTAR J163433-4738.7, we suggest that it may be an unusually bright active binary or a magnetar.

  11. Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph Observations of the Galactic Center: Quantifying the Extreme Ultraviolet/Soft X-ray Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Janet P.

    2018-04-01

    It has long been shown that the extreme ultraviolet spectrum of the ionizing stars of H II regions can be estimated by comparing the observed line emission to detailed models. In the Galactic Center (GC), however, previous observations have shown that the ionizing spectral energy distribution (SED) of the local photon field is strange, producing both very low excitation ionized gas (indicative of ionization by late O stars) and also widespread diffuse emission from atoms too highly ionized to be found in normal H II regions. This paper describes the analysis of all GC spectra taken by Spitzer's Infrared Spectrograph and downloaded from the Spitzer Heritage Archive. In it, H II region densities and abundances are described, and serendipitously discovered candidate planetary nebulae, compact shocks, and candidate young stellar objects are tabulated. Models were computed with Cloudy, using SEDs from Starburst99 plus additional X-rays, and compared to the observed mid-infrared forbidden and recombination lines. The ages inferred from the model fits do not agree with recent proposed star formation sequences (star formation in the GC occurring along streams of gas with density enhancements caused by close encounters with the black hole, Sgr A*), with Sgr B1, Sgr C, and the Arches Cluster being all about the same age, around 4.5 Myr old, with similar X-ray requirements. The fits for the Quintuplet Cluster appear to give a younger age, but that could be caused by higher-energy photons from shocks from stellar winds or from a supernova.

  12. CdZnTe Image Detectors for Hard-X-Ray Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. M. Hubert; Cook, Walter R.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Lin, Jiao Y. Y.; Mao, Peter H.; Schindler, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Arrays of CdZnTe photodetectors and associated electronic circuitry have been built and tested in a continuing effort to develop focal-plane image sensor systems for hard-x-ray telescopes. Each array contains 24 by 44 pixels at a pitch of 498 m. The detector designs are optimized to obtain low power demand with high spectral resolution in the photon- energy range of 5 to 100 keV. More precisely, each detector array is a hybrid of a CdZnTe photodetector array and an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) containing an array of amplifiers in the same pixel pattern as that of the detectors. The array is fabricated on a single crystal of CdZnTe having dimensions of 23.6 by 12.9 by 2 mm. The detector-array cathode is a monolithic platinum contact. On the anode plane, the contact metal is patterned into the aforementioned pixel array, surrounded by a guard ring that is 1 mm wide on three sides and is 0.1 mm wide on the fourth side so that two such detector arrays can be placed side-by-side to form a roughly square sensor area with minimal dead area between them. Figure 1 shows two anode patterns. One pattern features larger pixel anode contacts, with a 30-m gap between them. The other pattern features smaller pixel anode contacts plus a contact for a shaping electrode in the form of a grid that separates all the pixels. In operation, the grid is held at a potential intermediate between the cathode and anode potentials to steer electric charges toward the anode in order to reduce the loss of charges in the inter-anode gaps. The CdZnTe photodetector array is mechanically and electrically connected to the ASIC (see Figure 2), either by use of indium bump bonds or by use of conductive epoxy bumps on the CdZnTe array joined to gold bumps on the ASIC. Hence, the output of each pixel detector is fed to its own amplifier chain.

  13. A Hard X-Ray Study of the Normal Star-Forming Galaxy M83 with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yukita, M.; Hornschemeier, A. E.; Lehmer, B. D.

    2016-01-01

    , including a previously discovered ultraluminous X-ray source, are detected in our NuSTAR observations. The X-ray hardnesses and luminosities of the majority of the point sources are consistent with hard X-ray sources resolved in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. We infer that the hard X-ray emission is most...... XLF in NGC 253, which is consistent with previous measurements by Chandra at softer X-ray energies. The NuSTAR integrated galaxy spectrum of M83 drops quickly above 10 keV, which is also seen in the starburst galaxies NGC 253, NGC 3310, and NGC 3256. The NuSTAR observations constrain any active...

  14. Monitoring of the hardness of heat-treated aluminum alloy sheets with x-ray position sensitive proportional counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muto, Nobuyuki; Nosetani, Tadashi (Sumitomo Light Metal Industries Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1983-04-01

    It is desirable to measure continuously the hardness of materials in operation and quality control in softening process such as continuous annealing furnaces. In X-ray hardness measurement as one of the continuous hardness measuring methods, it is not required to bring a sensor in contact with or in the vicinity of a material to be measured, and it has an advantage of making nondestructive measurement. It is especially important for aluminum alloy sheets, of which the surface quality is regarded as essential, that the measurement without contact is feasible. It is the fundamental of the accurate X-ray hardness measurement to detect exactly the profile of diffraction beam. For the material always running such as the case of continuous annealing furnaces, the shortening of the time for measurement and the simplification of the adjustment of sensor position were investigated, by using a position sensitive proportional counter. By this method, it is expected that the accuracy is improved since the amount of information is more. The method of experiment and the experimental results are reported. In the case of A 5052 sheets, the measurement can be made with the accuracy of +- 4 Vickers hardness.

  15. New developments for the investigation of hard X-rays emitted by peeling adhesive tapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, D; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D; Lühmann, B; Keite-Telgenbüscher, K; Frahm, R

    2013-05-01

    We realized an advanced apparatus for the investigation of emitted X-rays produced by peeling adhesive tape rolls under vacuum conditions. Two stepper motors can unwind and rewind a tape roll, and an additional roller with an optical encoder provides measurement and control of the tape speed. This way reproducible and consecutive experiments are feasible without having to change the tape or break the vacuum. The dependence of the X-ray emission on tape speed, gas pressure, type of adhesive tape, and detector angle has been investigated. The resulting spectra are continuous and span an X-ray energy range of typically 2-60 keV with high intensity. Furthermore, the new apparatus allows the in situ metalization of adhesive tape rolls by a gold sputter source. A significantly increased X-ray emission was observed for adhesive tapes with a metal coating. Thin metal foils have been placed between the tape and the detector, different K- and L-absorption edges could be measured. A considerable enhancement of the emission was achieved under the influence of the magnetic field of an NdFeB permanent magnet.

  16. Hard X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 during the Active Phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    We identify these components with those arising from the synchrotron self compton and the high energy power-law tail ... ous multiwavelength monitoring of the source. These observations indicate a complex ... energy X-ray band, is believed to arise in the synchrotron self compton (SSC) emis- sion from the highly relativistic ...

  17. Hard X-ray bursts and DD microfusion neutrons from complex ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    explosive centres, or 'ectons' [4]). These ensembles emitting X-rays are created by an in- tense energy deposition into the cold solid density, very low volume dusty 'target' specially nucleated and collected at interelectrode space (clusters, grains, microparticles of differ- ent size from anode material). The main anomalous ...

  18. Design of MiSolFA Hard X-Ray Imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastufka, Erica; Casadei, Diego

    2017-08-01

    Advances in the study of coronal electron-accelerating regions have so far been limited by the dynamic range of X-ray instruments. A quick and economical alternative to desirable focusing optics technology is stereo observation. The micro-satellite MiSolFA (Micro Solar-Flare Apparatus) is designed both as a stand-alone X-ray imaging spectrometer and a complement to the Spectrometer/Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) mission. These instruments will be the first pair of cross-calibrated X-ray imaging spectrometers to look at solar flares from very different points of view. MiSolFA will achieve indirect imaging between 10 and 60 keV and provide spectroscopy up to 100 keV, equipped with grids producing moiré patterns in a similar way to STIX. New manufacturing techniques produce gold gratings on a graphite or silicon substrate, with periods ranging from 15 to 225 micrometers, separated by a distance of 15.47 cm, to achieve a spatial resolutions from 10" to 60" (as compared to RHESSI's separation of 150 cm and 1" resolution). We present the progress of the imager design, the performance of the first prototypes, and reach out to the community for further scientific objectives to consider in optimizing the final design.

  19. The Relationship Between Solar Radio and Hard X-ray Emission

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    White, S.M.; Benz, A. O.; Christe, S.; Fárník, František; Kundu, M.R.; Mann, G.; Ning, Z.; Raulin, J.-P.; Silva-Valio, A.V.R.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Vilmer, N.; Warmuth, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 159, 1-4 (2011), s. 225-261 ISSN 0038-6308 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Sun * radio radiation * X-rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.611, year: 2011

  20. Hard X-Ray Phase-Contrast Imaging for Medical Applications - Physicist's Dream or Radiologist's Mainstream?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S. W.; Gureyev, T. E.; Mayo, S. C.; Nesterets, Ya. I.; Pogany, A.; Stevenson, A. W.; Paganin, D. M.

    2007-01-01

    We briefly review currently practiced methods of X-ray phase contrast imaging and consider some of their relative features, especially in regard to applicability to clinical medical studies. Various related technological issues and promising future areas of development are also briefly discussed

  1. Fast spectral fitting of hard X-ray bremsstrahlung from truncated power-law electron spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brown, J. C.; Kašparová, Jana; Massone, A.M.; Piana, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 486, č. 3 (2008), s. 1023-1029 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/06/P135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : sun flares * X-rays * gamma rays Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.153, year: 2008

  2. High resolution hard x-ray microscope on a second generation synchrotron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yangchao; Li Wenjie; Chen Jie; Liu Longhua; Liu Gang; Tian Jinping; Xiong Ying; Tkachuk, Andrei; Gelb, Jeff; Hsu, George; Yun Wenbing

    2008-01-01

    A full-field, transmission x-ray microscope (TXM) operating in the energy range of 7-11 keV has been installed at the U7A beamline at the National Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, a second generation synchrotron source operating at 0.8 GeV. Although the photon flux at sample position in the operating energy range is significantly low due to its relatively large emittance, the TXM can get high quality x-ray images with a spatial resolution down to 50 nm with acceptable exposure time. This TXM operates in either absorption or Zernike phase contrast mode with similar resolution. This TXM is a powerful analytical tool for a wide range of scientific areas, especially studies on nanoscale phenomena and structural imaging in biology, materials science, and environmental science. We present here the property of the x-ray source, beamline design, and the operation and key optical components of the x-ray TXM. Plans to improve the throughput of the TXM will be discussed.

  3. New developments for the investigation of hard X-rays emitted by peeling adhesive tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, D.; Lützenkirchen-Hecht, D.; Lühmann, B.; Keite-Telgenbüscher, K.; Frahm, R.

    2013-05-01

    We realized an advanced apparatus for the investigation of emitted X-rays produced by peeling adhesive tape rolls under vacuum conditions. Two stepper motors can unwind and rewind a tape roll, and an additional roller with an optical encoder provides measurement and control of the tape speed. This way reproducible and consecutive experiments are feasible without having to change the tape or break the vacuum. The dependence of the X-ray emission on tape speed, gas pressure, type of adhesive tape, and detector angle has been investigated. The resulting spectra are continuous and span an X-ray energy range of typically 2-60 keV with high intensity. Furthermore, the new apparatus allows the in situ metalization of adhesive tape rolls by a gold sputter source. A significantly increased X-ray emission was observed for adhesive tapes with a metal coating. Thin metal foils have been placed between the tape and the detector, different K- and L-absorption edges could be measured. A considerable enhancement of the emission was achieved under the influence of the magnetic field of an NdFeB permanent magnet.

  4. Surface roughness-aided hard X-ray emission from carbon nanotubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MWNT) irradiated by intense, femtosecond laser over an intensity range of 1015 –1017 W cm−2 2 is reported. The MWNT targets yield two orders of magnitude higher X-rays (indicating significant enhancement of laser coupling) and three ...

  5. NuSTAR detection of 4s Hard X-ray Lags from the Accreting Pulsar GS 0834-430

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bachetti Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The NuSTAR hard X-ray telescope observed the transient Be/X-ray binary GS 0834–430 during its 2012 outburst. The source is detected between 3 – 79 keV with high statistical significance, and we were able to perform very accurate spectral and timing analysis. The phase-averaged spectrum is consistent with that observed in many other magnetized accreting pulsars. We fail to detect cyclotron resonance scattering features in either phase-averaged nor phase-resolved spectra that would allow us to constrain the pulsar’s magnetic field. We detect a pulse period of ~ 12:29 s in all energy bands. The pulse profile can be modeled with a double Gaussian and shows a strong and smooth hard lag of up to 0.3 cycles in phase, or about 4s between the pulse at ~ 3 and ≳ 30 keV. This is the first report of such a strong lag in high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB pulsars. Previously reported lags have been significantly smaller in phase and restricted to low-energies (E<10 keV. We investigate the possible mechanisms that might produce such lags. We find the most likely explanation for this effect to be a complex beam geometry.

  6. High-resolution hard x-ray spectroscopy of high-temperature plasmas using an array of quantum microcalorimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel B; Gu, Ming F; Brown, Greg V; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Porter, F Scott; Kilbourne, Caroline A; Kelley, Richard L

    2008-10-01

    Quantum microcalorimeters show promise in being able to fully resolve x-ray spectra from heavy highly charged ions, such as would be found in hot plasmas with temperatures in excess of 50 keV. Quantum microcalorimeter arrays are able to achieve this as they have a high-resolving power and good effective quantum efficiency for hard x-ray photons up to 60 keV. To demonstrate this, we present a measurement using an array of thin HgTe quantum microcalorimeters to measure the K-shell spectrum of hydrogenlike through carbonlike praseodymium (Z=57). With this device we are able to attain a resolving power, E/DeltaE, of 1000 at a photon energy of 37 keV.

  7. SN 2010jl: Optical to Hard X-ray Observations Reveal an Explosion Embedded In a Ten Solar Mass Cocoon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ofek, Eran O.; Zoglauer, Andreas; Boggs, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the interaction of the SN ejecta with a large amount of circumstellar matter (CSM). However, quantitative estimates of the CSM mass around such SNe are missing when the CSM material is optically thick. Specifically, current estimators are sensitive to uncer......Some supernovae (SNe) may be powered by the interaction of the SN ejecta with a large amount of circumstellar matter (CSM). However, quantitative estimates of the CSM mass around such SNe are missing when the CSM material is optically thick. Specifically, current estimators are sensitive...... to uncertainties regarding the CSM density profile and the ejecta velocity. Here we outline a method to measure the mass of the optically thick CSM around such SNe. We present new visible-light and X-ray observations of SN 2010jl (PTF 10aaxf), including the first detection of an SN in the hard X-ray band using Nu...

  8. A hard X-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, L.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; Ilinski, P.; Legnini, D.; Maser, J.; Rodrigues, W.

    1999-01-01

    A hard x-ray scanning microprobe based on zone plate optics and undulator radiation, in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV, has reached a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 microm (v) x 0.6 microm (h), and a photon flux of 4 x 10 9 photons/sec/0.01%BW. Using a slit 44 meters upstream to create a virtual source, a circular beam spot of 0.15 microm in diameter can be obtained with a photon flux of one order of magnitude less. During fluorescence mapping of trace elements in a single human ovarian cell, the microprobe exhibited an imaging sensitivity for Pt (L a line) of 80 attograms/microm 2 for a count rate of 10 counts per second. The x-ray microprobe has been used to map crystallographic strain and multiquantum well thickness in micro-optoelectronic devices produced with the selective area growth technique

  9. X-RAY EJECTA KINEMATICS OF THE GALACTIC CORE-COLLAPSE SUPERNOVA REMNANT G292.0+1.8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalerao, Jayant; Park, Sangwook [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, P.O. Box 19059, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Dewey, Daniel [MIT Kavli Institute, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Hughes, John P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Mori, Koji [Department of Applied Physics, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuen Kibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Lee, Jae-Joon, E-mail: jayant.bhalerao@mavs.uta.edu [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-10

    We report on the results from the analysis of our 114 ks Chandra High Energy Transmision Grating Spectrometer observation of the Galactic core-collapse supernova remnant G292.0+1.8. To probe the three-dimensional structure of the clumpy X-ray emitting ejecta material in this remnant, we measured Doppler shifts in emission lines from metal-rich ejecta knots projected at different radial distances from the expansion center. We estimate radial velocities of ejecta knots in the range of –2300 ≲ v{sub r}  ≲ 1400 km s{sup –1}. The distribution of ejecta knots in velocity versus projected-radius space suggests an expanding ejecta shell with a projected angular thickness of ∼90'' (corresponding to ∼3 pc at d = 6 kpc). Based on this geometrical distribution of the ejecta knots, we estimate the location of the reverse shock approximately at the distance of ∼4 pc from the center of the supernova remnant, putting it in close proximity to the outer boundary of the radio pulsar wind nebula. Based on our observed remnant dynamics and the standard explosion energy of 10{sup 51} erg, we estimate the total ejecta mass to be ≲8 M {sub ☉}, and we propose an upper limit of ≲35 M {sub ☉} on the progenitor's mass.

  10. Discovery of X-Ray-Emitting O-Ne-Mg-Rich Ejecta in the Galactic Supernova Remnant Puppis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Park, Sangwook; Mori, Koji; Tsunemi, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery of X-ray-emitting O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta in the middle-aged Galactic O-rich supernova remnant Puppis A with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We use line ratios to identify a low-ionization filament running parallel to the northeastern edge of the remnant that requires super-solar abundances, particularly for O, Ne, and Mg, which we interpret to be from O-Ne-Mg-rich ejecta. Abundance ratios of Ne/O, Mg/O, and Fe/O are measured to be [approx]2, [approx]2, and <0.3 times the solar values. Our spatially resolved spectral analysis from the northeastern rim to the western rim otherwise reveals sub-solar abundances consistent with those in the interstellar medium. The filament is coincident with several optically emitting O-rich knots with high velocities. If these are physically related, the filament would be a peculiar fragment of ejecta. On the other hand, the morphology of the filament suggests that it may trace ejecta heated by a shock reflected strongly off the dense ambient clouds near the northeastern rim.

  11. Synchrotron hard X-ray imaging of shock-compressed metal powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E.; Chapman, David J.; Collinson, Mark A.; Jones, David R.; Music, Jasmina; Stafford, Samuel J. P.; Tear, Gareth R.; White, Thomas G.; Winters, John B. R.; Drakopoulos, Michael; Eakins, Daniel E.

    2015-06-01

    This poster will present the application of a new, high-energy (50 to 250 keV) synchrotron X-ray radiography technique to the study of shock-compressed granular materials. Following plate-impact loading, transmission radiography was used to quantitatively observe the compaction and release processes in a range of high-Z metal powders (e.g. Fe, Ni, Cu). By comparing the predictions of 3D numerical models initialized from X-ray tomograms-captured prior to loading-with experimental results, this research represents a new approach to refining mesoscopic compaction models. The authors gratefully acknowledge the ongoing support of Imperial College London, EPSRC, STFC and the Diamond Light Source, and AWE Plc.

  12. Hard X-ray nanofocusing using adaptive focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takumi; Nakamori, Hiroki; Kimura, Takashi; Sano, Yasuhisa; Kohmura, Yoshiki; Tamasaku, Kenji; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Yamauchi, Kazuto; Matsuyama, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    An adaptive Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing optics based on piezoelectric deformable mirrors was constructed at SPring-8 and its focusing performance characteristics were demonstrated. By adjusting the voltages applied to the deformable mirrors, the shape errors (compared to a target elliptical shape) were finely corrected on the basis of the mirror shape determined using the pencil-beam method, which is a type of at-wavelength figure metrology in the X-ray region. The mirror shapes were controlled with a peak-to-valley height accuracy of 2.5 nm. A focused beam with an intensity profile having a full width at half maximum of 110 × 65 nm (V × H) was achieved at an X-ray energy of 10 keV.

  13. Development of hard X-ray dark-field microscope using full-field optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hidekazu; Azuma, Hiroaki; Shimomura, Sho; Tsuji, Takuya; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We develop a dark-field X-ray microscope using full-field optics based on a synchrotron beamline. Our setup consists of a condenser system and a microscope objective with an angular acceptance larger than that of the condenser. The condenser system is moved downstream from its regular position such that the focus of the condenser is behind the objective. The dark-field microscope optics are configured by excluding the converging beam from the condenser at the focal point. The image properties of the system are evaluated by observing and calculating a Siemens star test chart with 10 keV X-rays. Our setup allows easy switching to bright-field imaging. (author)

  14. Lighthouses, Light Sources, and Kinoform Hard X-Ray Optics (428th Brookhaven Lecture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutterodt-Evans, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    BNL's planned National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is designed to be a world-leading light source facility, promising advances in nanoscience, energy, biology, and materials research. In designing and developing this new facility, breakthrough research is a must to ensure that appropriate tools are available for the new science that will be studied. At BNL, a team of researchers has overcome a major x-ray focusing obstacle to allow the study of molecules, atoms, and advanced materials at the nanoscale, which is on the order of billionths of a meter. Their innovative method uses a type of refractive lens called a kinoform lens -- similar to the kind found in lighthouses -- in order to focus the x-rays down to the extremely small spots needed for a sharp image at small dimensions.

  15. A new hard X-ray source discovered by INTEGRAL: IGR J16442-554

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozzo, E.; Ferrigno, C.; Chenevez, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    . The IBIS/ISGRI spectrum in the 20-100 keV energy range is well described by a power-law with photon index 2.2+/-0.5. The 20-100 keV flux is 1.2e-10 erg/cm^2/s. The light curve exhibits pronounced variability on a few hours time scale. We did not find any previously known X-ray source in the Simbad database...

  16. Hard X-ray Spectrum of Mkn 421 during the Active Phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging Solutions)

    4 value of 1.2 per dof Lampton et al (1976). The estimated luminosity of the source in 20–200 band is 7 × 1042–1043 ( D. M pc). 2 ergs s−1. The spectral data presented above corresponds to an active X-ray phase of the source. The long term behaviour of the source as seen in the ASM light curve on- board RXTE is shown ...

  17. Parallel beam microradiography of dental hard tissue using synchrotron radiation and X-ray image magnification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, S.; Chow, L.C.; Brown, W.E.; Dobbyn, R.C.; Kuriyama, M.

    1984-01-01

    A novel technique utilizing a highly parallel beam of monochromatic synchrotron radiation combined with X-ray image magnification has been used to obtain microradiographs of caries lesions in relatively thick tooth sections. Preliminary results reveal structural features not previously reported. This technique holds the promise of allowing one to follow the structural changes accompanying the formation, destruction and chemical repair of mineralized tissue in real time. (orig.)

  18. Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with a microfocus source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, A. W.; Gao, D.; Pogany, A.; Wilkins, S. W.; Gureyev, T. E.

    1999-01-01

    Since Roentgen's discovery of X rays in 1895 the vast majority of radiographs have been collected and interpreted on the basis of absorption contrast and geometrical (ray) optics. In recent years the possibility of utilizing phase-contrast effects has received considerable attention, much of this activity stemming from the possibility of producing X-ray beams of suitably high coherence at synchrotron sources (1). A description of a phase-contrast imaging (PCI) technique which utilizes a laboratory-based microfocus X-ray source to achieve the required spatial coherence, and does not rely on there being a high degree of chromatic coherence, will be described (2). The method employs a relatively large object-to-image distance to allow wave interference (Fresnel diffraction) to occur and manifest itself as contrast formation in the intensity distribution recorded at the image plane. PCI is particularly relevant to the nondestructive characterization of materials and this will be demonstrated by way of some examples. A theoretical description of image structure in terms of the Kirchhoff formulation will be used to elucidate some of the important features of the technique. These include the ability to provide improved information from weakly-absorbing features of an object; edge enhancement; inherent magnification; improved signal-to-noise. Another aspect of PCI which will be discussed is phase-(and absorption-) retrieval (3), whereby images can be used to obtain quantitative physical information about the sample structure

  19. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  20. The Causal Connection Between Disc and Power-Law Variability in Hard State Black Hole X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, P.; Wilkinson, T.; Cassatella, P.; Wilms, J.; Pottschimdt, K.; Hanke, M.; Boeck, M.

    2010-01-01

    We use the XMM-Newton EPIC-pn instrument in timing mode to extend spectral time-lag studies of hard state black hole X-ray binaries into the soft X-ray band. \\Ve show that variations of the disc blackbody emission substantially lead variations in the power-law emission, by tenths of a second on variability time-scales of seconds or longer. The large lags cannot be explained by Compton scattering but are consistent with time-delays due to viscous propagation of mass accretion fluctuations in the disc. However, on time-scales less than a second the disc lags the power-law variations by a few ms, consistent with the disc variations being dominated by X-ray heating by the power-law, with the short lag corresponding to the light-travel time between the power-law emitting region and the disc. Our results indicate that instabilities in the accretion disc are responsible for continuum variability on time-scales of seconds or longer and probably also on shorter time-scales.

  1. Radial profiles of hard X-ray emission during steady state current drive in the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Takabatake, Y.; Jotaki, E.; Moriyama, S.; Nagao, A.; Nakamura, K.; Hiraki, N.; Itoh, S.

    1990-01-01

    The hard X-ray emission from the TRIAM-1M tokamak plasma during steady state lower hybrid current drive with a discharge duration of a few minutes was measured with sodium iodide scintillation spectrometers. The radial profiles of the X-ray emission were also measured and indicate that, in the low density regime (n e =(1-3)x10 12 cm -3 ), the current carrying high energy electrons are mainly in the inner region of the plasma column and their radial profile remains unchanged during current drive. On the other hand, high density discharges (n e =(3-6)x10 12 cm -3 ) are always accompanied by an abrupt drop of the plasma current, and the X-ray emission profile changes from peaked to broad. This change can be attributed to the conditions of wave accessibility. As the electron density increases, the accessibility of the plasma to lower hybrid waves with low values of the parallel wave number n parallel is significantly reduced and high energy electrons resonating with the waves are produced at the plasma periphery. Interaction of these electrons with the limiters causes an increase of the electron density in this region; waves with low n parallel then become completely excluded from the inner part of the plasma column. This interpretation is supported by measurements of the density profile and impurity radiation, and has been confirmed in an investigation of discharges with additional gas puffing. (author). 17 refs, 21 figs

  2. INTEGRAL detects Swift J1910.2-0546 (= MAXI J1910-057) in the hard X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodaghee, A.; Bozzo, E.; Tomsick, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    The black hole candidate Swift J1910.2-0546 (= MAXI J1910-057), which was reported to be transitioning to the hard state (ATels #4273, #4295), was in the field of view of INTEGRAL's hard X-ray imager ISGRI during observations of the Scutum/Sagittarius region performed from 2012 August 20 at 23.......2-0546 is detected up to ~200 keV. Fitting this spectrum (9.1 ks of effective exposure time) with a power-law model yields a photon index of 1.8+/-0.3 (at 90% confidence) for a reduced chi^2/d.o.f.=1.0/9; adding an exponential cutoff does not improve the fit. The observed 20--100-keV flux is 1.5e-9 ergs/cm^2/s....... The detection of Swift J1910.2-0546 at these energies confirms that the source is in the hard state. Although it was outside the field of view of INTEGRAL's X-ray monitor JEM-X during this observation, further INTEGRAL observations in the direction of Swift J1910.2-0546 are planned for the next few weeks. Light...

  3. Experimental demonstration of a single-spike hard-X-ray free-electron laser starting from noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, A.; MacArthur, J.; Emma, P.; Guetg, M.; Field, C.

    2017-01-01

    In this letter, we report the experimental demonstration of single-spike hard-X-ray free-electron laser pulses starting from noise with multi-eV bandwidth. Here, this is accomplished by shaping a low-charge electron beam with a slotted emittance spoiler and by adjusting the transport optics to optimize the beam-shaping accuracy. Based on elementary free-electron laser scaling laws, we estimate the pulse duration to be less than 1 fs full-width at half-maximum.

  4. Development and application of cryogenic radiometry with hard X-rays; Entwicklung und Anwendung der Kryoradiometrie mit harter Roentgenstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerlach, Martin

    2008-06-06

    To establish cryogenic radiometry with hard X-ray radiation for photon energies of up to 60 keV, a novel type of cavity absorber had to be developed for the cryogenic radiometer SYRES I, which is deployed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) as primary standard detector at the electron storage ring BESSY II. This new type of cavity absorber allows for the complete absorption of hard X-ray radiation in combination with an appropriate sensitivity and an adequate time constant for the measurement of synchrotron radiation at BESSY II. As the process of fabrication of different types of absorbers is very time-consuming, the interaction of hard X-ray radiation with different absorber materials and geometries was studied intensively by using the Monte Carlo simulation code Geant4. The accuracy of the simulations was verified comparing them to scattering experiments performed at a wavelength shifter beamline at BESSY II with a calibrated energy dispersive detector. It was shown that Geant4 describes the photo-effect, including fluorescence as well as Compton- and Rayleigh scattering, with high accuracy. The simulations and experiments resulted in a cavity absorber with a gold base 550 {mu}m in thickness and a cylindrical shell made of copper 90 {mu}m in thickness to reduce losses caused by fluorescence and scattered radiation. Monochromatized synchrotron radiation of high spectral purity was then used to calibrate semiconductor photodiodes, which can be used as compact and inexpensive secondary standard detectors, against a cryogenic radiometer, covering the entire photon energy range of three beamlines from 50 eV to 60 keV with relative uncertainties of less than 0.5 %. Furthermore the spatial homogeneity of the spectral responsivity, the transmittance and the linearity of the photodiodes was investigated. Through a direct comparison of the free-air ionization chamber PK100, a primary detector standard of PTB used in dosimetry, and the cryogenic radiometer

  5. Evidence for two hard X-ray components in double power-law fits to the 1980 June 7 flare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dean F.; Orwig, Larry E.

    1988-01-01

    The June 7, 1980 flare at 0312 UT was analyzed with double power-law fits on the basis of SMM hard X-ray burst spectrometer data. The flare is found to consist of seven peaks of characteristic time scale of about 8 sec followed by seven valleys which may contain significant peak components because of overlap. It is suggested that the possibility of thermal spectra for the peaks is unlikely. An investigation of the double power-law parameters through the third and fourth peaks revealed a hysteresis effect in the fourth peak. The present results have been interpreted in terms of a trap plus precipitation model.

  6. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton Observations of the Hard X-Ray Spectrum of Centaurus A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fürst, F.; Müller, C.; Madsen, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    with an absorbed power-law witha photon index Γ = 1.815 ± 0.005 and a fluorescent Fe Kα line in good agreement with literature values.The spectrum does not require a high-energy exponential rollover, with a constraint of Efold > 1 MeV. Athermal Comptonization continuum describes the data well, with parameters......-ray spectrum, and conclude that the inner disk is replaced by an advection-dominatedaccretion flow or that the hard X-rays are dominated by synchrotron self-Compton emission fromthe inner regions of the radio jet or a combination thereof....

  7. Bremsstrahlung Hard X-Rays Produced By Solar Flare Electrons Escaping a High-Temperature Thermal Source

    OpenAIRE

    Nocera, Luigi; Skrynnikov, Yuryi; Somov, Boris

    1988-01-01

    We study the kinetics of energetic electrons escaping from a hot thermal source (T_0=100 keV) along a homogeneous magnetic field and colliding with ambient particles in what is meant to mimic the impulsive phase of a solar flare. We solve analytically the 3-D stationary Fokker-Planck equation and show that collisions create anisotropy in an even almost isotropic boundary distribution of electrons. We finally compute the spectrum and polarization of Bremsstrahlung hard X-rays and show that the...

  8. New solar broad-band hard X-ray spectrometer: first results

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fárník, František; Garcia, H.; Karlický, Marian

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 2 (2001), s. 357-372 ISSN 0038-0938 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/1726; GA AV ČR IAA3003003; GA AV ČR IBS1003006; GA AV ČR KSK2043105; GA AV ČR IAA303108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1003909 Keywords : X-ray * spectrometer * solar flare * radio emission Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 2.103, year: 2001

  9. Evaluating scintillator performance in time-resolved hard X-ray studies at synchrotron light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Michael E; Chapman, David J; White, Thomas G; Drakopoulos, Michael; Rack, Alexander; Eakins, Daniel E

    2016-05-01

    The short pulse duration, small effective source size and high flux of synchrotron radiation is ideally suited for probing a wide range of transient deformation processes in materials under extreme conditions. In this paper, the challenges of high-resolution time-resolved indirect X-ray detection are reviewed in the context of dynamic synchrotron experiments. In particular, the discussion is targeted at two-dimensional integrating detector methods, such as those focused on dynamic radiography and diffraction experiments. The response of a scintillator to periodic synchrotron X-ray excitation is modelled and validated against experimental data collected at the Diamond Light Source (DLS) and European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). An upper bound on the dynamic range accessible in a time-resolved experiment for a given bunch separation is calculated for a range of scintillators. New bunch structures are suggested for DLS and ESRF using the highest-performing commercially available crystal LYSO:Ce, allowing time-resolved experiments with an interframe time of 189 ns and a maximum dynamic range of 98 (6.6 bits).

  10. Weak hard X-ray emission from two broad absorption line quasars observed with NuSTAR: Compton-thick absorption or intrinsic X-ray weakness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, B.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexander, D. M.

    2013-01-01

    likely explanation. We also discuss the intrinsic X-ray weakness scenario based on a coronal-quenching model relevant to the shielding gas and disk wind of BAL quasars. Motivated by our NuSTAR results, we perform a Chandra stacking analysis with the Large Bright Quasar Survey BAL quasar sample and place...

  11. Nonlinear approaches for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region for hard X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidoiu, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The development of highly coherent X-ray sources offers new possibilities to image biological structures at different scales exploiting the refraction of X-rays. The coherence properties of the third-generation synchrotron radiation sources enables efficient implementations of phase contrast techniques. One of the first measurements of the intensity variations due to phase contrast has been reported in 1995 at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Phase imaging coupled to tomography acquisition allows three dimensional imaging with an increased sensitivity compared to absorption CT. This technique is particularly attractive to image samples with low absorption constituents. Phase contrast has many applications, ranging from material science, paleontology, bone research to medicine and biology. Several methods to achieve X-ray phase contrast have been proposed during the last years. In propagation based phase contrast, the measurements are made at different sample-to-detector distances. While the intensity data can be acquired and recorded, the phase information of the signal has to be 'retrieved' from the modulus data only. Phase retrieval is thus an ill-posed nonlinear problem and regularization techniques including a priori knowledge are necessary to obtain stable solutions. Several phase recovery methods have been developed in recent years. These approaches generally formulate the phase retrieval problem as a linear one. Nonlinear treatments have not been much investigated. The main purpose of this work was to propose and evaluate new algorithms, in particularly taking into account the nonlinearity of the direct problem. In the first part of this work, we present a Landweber type nonlinear iterative scheme to solve the propagation based phase retrieval problem. This approach uses the analytic expression of the Frechet derivative of the phase-intensity relationship and of its adjoint, which are presented in detail. We also study the effect of

  12. Deformation and stress in PMMA during hard X-ray exposure for deep lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moldovan, N.

    1999-01-01

    The availability of high-energy, high-flux, collimated synchrotrons radiation has extended the application of deep X-ray lithography (DXRL) to thickness values of the PMMA resist of several millimeters. Some of the most severe limitations come from plastic deformation, stress, and cracks induced in PMMA during exposure and development. We have observed and characterized these phenomena quantitatively. Profilometry measurements revealed that the PMMA is subjected either to local shrinkage or to expansion, while compression and expansion evolve over time. Due to material loss and crosslinking, the material undergoes a shrinkage, while the radiation-induced decomposition generates gases expanding the polymer matrix. The overall dynamics of the material microrelief and stress during and after the exposure depend on the balance between compaction and outgassing. These depend in turn on the exposure conditions (spectrum; dose, dose rate, seaming, temperature), post-exposure storage conditions, PMMA material properties and thickness, and also on the size and geometry of the exposed patterns

  13. Hard X-ray Fluorescence Measurements of Heteroepitaxial Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Jacob N.; Miara, Lincoln J.; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Kaspar, Tiffany C.; Gopalan, Srikanth; Pal, Uday B.; Woicik, Joseph C.; Basu, Soumendra N.; Ludwig, Karl F.

    2012-12-01

    Commonly, SOFCs are operated at high temperatures (above 800°C). At these temperatures expensive housing is needed to contain an operating stack as well as coatings to contain the oxidation of the metallic interconnects. Lowering the temperature of an operating device would allow for more conventional materials to be used, thus lowering overall cost. Understanding the surface chemical states of cations in the surface of the SOFC cathode is vital to designing a system that will perform well at lower temperatures. The samples studied were grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). 20% strontium doped lanthanum manganite (LSM-20) was grown on YSZ and NGO (neodymium gallate). The films on YSZ have a fiber texture. LSM-20 on NGO is heteroepitaxial. Lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (LSCF-6428) films were grown on LAO and YSZ with a GDC barrier layer. Total X-ray Reflection Fluorescence (TXRF) was used to depth profile the samples. In a typical experiment, the angle of the incident beam is varied though the critical angle. Below the critical angle, the x-ray decays as an evanescent wave and will only penetrate the top few nanometers. TXRF experiments done on LSM films have suggested strontium segregates to the surface and form strontium enriched nanoparticles (1). It should be pointed out that past studies have focused on 30% strontium A-site doping, but this project uses 20% strontium doped lanthanum manganite. XANES and EXAFS data were taken as a function of incoming angle to probe composition as a function of depth. XANES spectra can be difficult to analyze fully. For other materials density functional theory calculations compared to near edge measurements have been a good way to understand the 3d valence electrons (2).

  14. Studying Microquasars with X-Ray Polarimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Matt

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Microquasars are Galactic black hole systems in which matter is transferred from a donor star and accretes onto a black hole of, typically, 10–20 solar masses. The presence of an accretion disk and a relativistic jet made them a scaled down analogue of quasars—thence their name. Microquasars feature prominently in the scientific goals of X-ray polarimeters, because a number of open questions, which are discussed in this paper, can potentially be answered: the geometry of the hot corona believed to be responsible for the hard X-ray emission; the role of the jet; the spin of the black hole.

  15. Diverse application platform for hard X-ray diffraction in SACLA (DAPHNIS): application to serial protein crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tono, Kensuke, E-mail: tono@spring8.or.jp [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5198 (Japan); Nango, Eriko; Sugahara, Michihiro; Song, Changyong; Park, Jaehyun; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Rie [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5148 (Japan); Joti, Yasumasa; Kameshima, Takashi [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5198 (Japan); Ono, Shun; Hatsui, Takaki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5148 (Japan); Mizohata, Eiichi [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Suzuki, Mamoru [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5148 (Japan); Osaka University, 3-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Shimamura, Tatsuro; Tanaka, Yoshiki [Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Iwata, So [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5148 (Japan); Kyoto University, Yoshidakonoe-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Yabashi, Makina [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun 679-5148 (Japan)

    2015-04-16

    An experimental platform for serial femtosecond crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser and its applications at SACLA are described. An experimental system for serial femtosecond crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has been developed. It basically consists of a sample chamber, fluid injectors and a two-dimensional detector. The chamber and the injectors are operated under helium atmosphere at 1 atm. The ambient pressure operation facilitates applications to fluid samples. Three kinds of injectors are employed to feed randomly oriented crystals in aqueous solution or highly viscous fluid. Experiments on lysozyme crystals were performed by using the 10 keV XFEL of the SPring-8 Angstrom Compact free-electron LAser (SACLA). The structure of model protein lysozyme from 1 µm crystals at a resolution of 2.4 Å was obtained.

  16. A Next-Generation Hard X-Ray Nanoprobe Beamline for In Situ Studies of Energy Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maser, Jörg; Lai, Barry; Buonassisi, Tonio; Cai, Zhonghou; Chen, Si; Finney, Lydia; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Preissner, Curt; Roehrig, Chris; Rose, Volker; Shu, Deming; Vine, David; Vogt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is developing a suite of new X-ray beamlines to study materials and devices across many length scales and under real conditions. One of the flagship beamlines of the APS upgrade is the In Situ Nanoprobe (ISN) beamline, which will provide in situ and operando characterization of advanced energy materials and devices under varying temperatures, gas ambients, and applied fields, at previously unavailable spatial resolution and throughput. Examples of materials systems include inorganic and organic photovoltaic systems, advanced battery systems, fuel cell components, nanoelectronic devices, advanced building materials and other scientifically and technologically relevant systems. To characterize these systems at very high spatial resolution and trace sensitivity, the ISN will use both nanofocusing mirrors and diffractive optics to achieve spots sizes as small as 20 nm. Nanofocusing mirrors in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry will provide several orders of magnitude increase in photon flux at a spatial resolution of 50 nm. Diffractive optics such as zone plates and/or multilayer Laue lenses will provide a highest spatial resolution of 20 nm. Coherent diffraction methods will be used to study even small specimen features with sub-10 nm relevant length scale. A high-throughput data acquisition system will be employed to significantly increase operations efficiency and usability of the instrument. The ISN will provide full spectroscopy capabilities to study the chemical state of most materials in the periodic table, and enable X-ray fluorescence tomography. In situ electrical characterization will enable operando studies of energy and electronic devices such as photovoltaic systems and batteries. We describe the optical concept for the ISN beamline, the technical design, and the approach for enabling a broad variety of in situ studies. We furthermore discuss the application of hard X-ray microscopy to study defects in multi-crystalline solar cells, one

  17. Performance of a prototype CdZnTe detector module for hard x-ray astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavis, Kimberly R.; Dowkontt, Paul F.; Duttweiler, Fred; Epstein, John W.; Hink, Paul L.; Huszar, George L.; Kalemci, Emrah; Leblanc, Philippe C.; Matteson, James L.; Pelling, Michael R.; Rothschild, Richard E.; Stephan, Edwin A.; Tumer, Tumay O.; Visser, Gerald J.

    2000-12-01

    Our collaboration is characterizing a prototype detector module designed for high energy X-ray astrophysics research covering the 20 - 250 keV energy range. The module consists of a three dimensional position sensitive CdZnTe detector, 25 mm X 25 mm X 2 mm, with 1 mm pitch crossed strip electrodes, an interleaved steering electrode, and an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for individual electrode readout. The newly developed readout system is compact, lightweight, has low power consumption and will lead to reduced system electronic noise. The detector is surrounded by a plastic anti-coincidence system for charged particles, and passive shielding that has been optimized based on results from two previous balloon flights. The first balloon flight test of the new detector module is scheduled for Fall 2000. In addition to our continuing balloon studies, we are investigating proton radiation damage effects and present preliminary results. After proton irradiation, the energy resolution is not significantly degraded, calibration photopeaks are down shifted by less than 10% in energy, and the depth of interaction dependence is nearly eliminated.

  18. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies of hard coatings formed by titanium on 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, M.R.; Kothari, D.C.; Rangwala, A.A.; Lal, K.B.; Prabhawalkar, P.D.; Raole, P.M.

    1986-01-01

    Titanium ions are implanted (at 30 keV) in 304 stainless steel to a dose of 1.8x10 17 ions cm -2 using 15 μA cm -2 and 5 μA cm -2 beam current densities for specimens 2 and 3 respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements are performed at different temperatures. The microhardness of implanted and unimplanted specimens is also measured. In specimen 2 the microhardness does not increase significantly and XPS measurements give evidence of carburized surface alloy formation. At 250 0 C TiO 2 is detected on the surface and it migrates into the bulk phase above 350 0 C. In specimen 3 the XPS measurements exhibit an absence of iron owing to the radiation-induced segregation of titanium on the surface. This specimen shows an increase in microhardness. The XPS measurements reveal a layer of (TiC x -C) on the surface which is suggested to be responsible for the increase in microhardness. Upon heating, TiC x is seen to move into the bulk phase and the carbon concentration is increased. These changes occurring at higher temperatures are suggested as having an effect on the wear-resistant properties of titanium-implanted 304 stainless steel. (orig.)

  19. A comparison of classical histology to anatomy revealed by hard x-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Claus-Peter; Tan, Xiaodong; Young, Hunter; Stock, Stuart; Robinson, Alan; Byskosh, Orest; Zheng, Jing; Soriano, Carmen; Xiao, Xianghui; Whitlon, Donna

    2016-10-01

    Many diseases trigger morphological changes in affected tissue. Today, classical histology is still the "gold standard" used to study and describe those changes. Classical histology, however, is time consuming and requires chemical tissue manipulations that can result in significant tissue distortions. It is sometimes difficult to separate tissue-processing artifacts from changes caused by the disease process. We show that synchrotron X-ray phase-contrast micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) can be used to examine non-embedded, hydrated tissue at a resolution comparable to that obtained with classical histology. The data analysis from stacks of reconstructed micro-CT images is more flexible and faster than when using the classical, physically embedded sections that are by necessity fixed in a particular orientation. We show that in a three-dimensional (3D) structure with meticulous structural details such as the cochlea and the kidney, micro-CT is more flexible, faster and more convenient for morphological studies and disease diagnoses.

  20. Measurement of the Hard X-ray emission spectrum from MST

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, R.; den Hartog, D. J.; Forest, C. B.; Tabora, J.; Peysson, Y.; Delpech, L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2000-10-01

    Diagnosing the radial profile of fast electrons in the RFP can contribute to the understanding of fast electron production and transport, and for diagnosing RF power deposition profiles during upcoming experiments using lower hybrid and electron Bernstein waves. Initial measurements using a single channel Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) X-ray detector (8kEv->200keV) have shown substantial emmission between 10 and 40 keV in standard and improved confinement plasmas. The measured spectra will be compared to predictions from CQL3D, a Fokker-Planck code that computes the electron distribution function in the presence of an inductive electric field and rf power. Data from the detectors are digitized directly rather than using electronic pulse height discrimination and counting. This allows for: a) better energy resolution b) dynamic time resolution c) better pile-up detection d) windowed time binning triggered on discrete plasma events. Binning data triggered upon similar plasma events such as sawteeth allows us to build up fast time resolution energy spectra over these events. Spatial resolution will be achieved in a new 16 channel system currently under design. This work has been funded by the DOE.

  1. Long-term Optical Activity of the Hard X-ray Flaring Star DG CVn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2017-04-01

    DG CVn is a young late-type star which displayed an X-ray and optical superflare in 2014. This paper presents an analysis of the long-term activity of this object in the optical band. I used the photographic data from DASCH (Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard). These measurements from the years 1895-1989 cover the blue spectral region. CCD V-band ASAS data were used for several UV Cet-type stars to place the activity of DG CVn in the context of flaring stars. I show that three large brightenings (flares) of DG CVn by more than 1 mag were detected on the DASCH plates. The character of the long-term activity (regarding the histogram of brightness) of DG CVn is compatible with those of flaring stars UV Cet and V371 Ori. The flares brighter than ˜ 0.4 mag represent less than 1 percent of the observed data in all three objects

  2. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on the GALAXIES beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Céolin, D.; Ablett, J.M.; Prieur, D.; Moreno, T. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Rueff, J.-P. [Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7614, FR-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Marchenko, T.; Journel, L.; Guillemin, R.; Pilette, B.; Marin, T. [Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7614, FR-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Simon, M., E-mail: marc.simon@upmc.fr [Synchrotron SOLEIL, l’Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin, FR-91192 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Laboratoire de Chimie Physique-Matière et Rayonnement, Université Pierre et Marie Curie and CNRS UMR7614, FR-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We developed a new HAXPES endstation at the French synchrotron facility SOLEIL. ► The setup is operational for both solid state and gas phase experiments. ► Beamline performances allow working in the Auger Raman conditions. ► Beamline flux compensates for ionization cross section decrease at high photon energy. ► Spectrometer compensates for ionization cross section decrease at high photon energy. -- Abstract: We report on the newly operational HAXPES endstation located on the GALAXIES beamline of the SOLEIL French synchrotron facility. The photon energy provided by the beamline covers the 2.4–12 keV range, and electrons of kinetic energy up to 12 keV can be analyzed. The HAXPES station is comprised of a UHV analysis chamber designed for investigating both solid samples and gases for the first time at high kinetic energy, and a fully equipped preparation chamber. We present the first results of X-ray photoemission and photoabsorption collected with this setup.

  3. Microwave imaging of a solar limb flare - Comparison of spectra and spatial geometry with hard X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmahl, E. J.; Kundu, M. R.; Dennis, B. R.

    1985-01-01

    A solar limb flare was mapped using the Very Large Array (VLA) together with hard X-ray (HXR) spectral and spatial observations of the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Microwave flux records from 2.8 to 19.6 GHz were instrumental in determining the burst spectrum, which has a maximum at 10 GHz. The flux spectrum and area of the burst sources were used to determine the number of electrons producing gyrosynchrotron emission, magnetic field strength, and the energy distribution of gyrosynchrotron-emitting electrons. Applying the thick target model to the HXR spectrum, the number of high energy electrons responsible for the X-ray bursts was found to be 10 to the 36th, and the electron energy distribution was approximately E exp -5, significantly different from the parameters derived from the microwave observations. The HXR imaging observations exhibit some similiarities in size and structure o the first two burst sources mapped with the VLA. However, during the initial burst, the HXR source was single and lower in the corona than the double 6 cm source. The observations are explained in terms of a single loop with an isotropic high-energy electron distribution which produced the microwaves, and a larger beamed component which produced the HXR at the feet of the loop.

  4. Calibration and performance studies of the balloon-borne hard X-ray polarimeter PoGO+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, M.; Friis, M.; Jackson, M.; Kawano, T.; Kiss, M.; Mikhalev, V.; Ohashi, N.; Stana, T.; Takahashi, H.; Pearce, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polarimetric observations of celestial sources in the hard X-ray band stand to provide new information on emission mechanisms and source geometries. PoGO+ is a Compton scattering polarimeter (20-150 keV) optimised for the observation of the Crab (pulsar and wind nebula) and Cygnus X-1 (black hole binary), from a stratospheric balloon-borne platform launched from the Esrange Space Centre in summer 2016. Prior to flight, the response of the polarimeter has been studied with polarised and unpolarised X-rays allowing a Geant4-based simulation model to be validated. The expected modulation factor for Crab observations is found to be MCrab = (41.75 ± 0.85) % , resulting in an expected Minimum Detectable Polarisation (MDP) of 7.3% for a 7 day flight. This will allow a measurement of the Crab polarisation parameters with at least 5 σ statistical significance assuming a polarisation fraction ∼ 20 % - a significant improvement over the PoGOLite Pathfinder mission which flew in 2013 and from which the PoGO+ design is developed.

  5. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, system for analysis at the liquid vacuum interface, is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel 500 µm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra indicate a presence of Fe(III) in the complex in water, with an octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities. Using portable microfludic reactors provides a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  6. THE ROLE OF KELVIN–HELMHOLTZ INSTABILITY FOR PRODUCING LOOP-TOP HARD X-RAY SOURCES IN SOLAR FLARES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xia; Yuan, Ding; Xia, Chun; Doorsselaere, Tom Van; Keppens, Rony [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-12-10

    We propose a model for the formation of loop-top hard X-ray (HXR) sources in solar flares through the inverse Compton mechanism, scattering the surrounding soft X-ray (SXR) photons to higher energy HXR photons. We simulate the consequences of a flare-driven energy deposit in the upper chromosphere in the impulsive phase of single loop flares. The consequent chromosphere evaporation flows from both footpoints reach speeds up to hundreds of kilometers per second, and we demonstrate how this triggers Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) in the loop top, under mildly asymmetric conditions, or more toward the loop flank for strongly asymmetric cases. The KHI vortices further fragment the magnetic topology into multiple magnetic islands and current sheets, and the hot plasma within leads to a bright loop-top SXR source region. We argue that the magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that appears at the loop apex could be an efficient accelerator of non-thermal particles, which the island structures can trap at the loop-top. These accelerated non-thermal particles can upscatter the surrounding thermal SXR photons emitted by the extremely hot evaporated plasma to HXR photons.

  7. A hard x-ray scanning microprobe for fluorescence imaging and microdiffraction at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, L.; Lai, B.; Yun, W.; Ilinski, P.; Legnini, D.; Maser, J.; Rodrigues, W.

    1999-11-02

    A hard x-ray scanning microprobe based on zone plate optics and undulator radiation, in the energy region from 6 to 20 keV, has reached a focal spot size (FWHM) of 0.15 {micro}m (v) x 0.6 {micro}m (h), and a photon flux of 4 x 10{sup 9} photons/sec/0.01%BW. Using a slit 44 meters upstream to create a virtual source, a circular beam spot of 0.15 {micro}m in diameter can be obtained with a photon flux of one order of magnitude less. During fluorescence mapping of trace elements in a single human ovarian cell, the microprobe exhibited an imaging sensitivity for Pt (L{sub a} line) of 80 attograms/{micro}m{sup 2} for a count rate of 10 counts per second. The x-ray microprobe has been used to map crystallographic strain and multiquantum well thickness in micro-optoelectronic devices produced with the selective area growth technique.

  8. Enabling liquid solvent structure analysis using hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a transferrable microfluidic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jian; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Yu, Xiao-Ying

    2018-04-11

    In this paper, a vacuum compatible microfluidic device, System for Analysis at the Liquid Vacuum Interface (SALVI), is integrated to hard x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to obtain the local structure of K3[Fe(CN)6] in aqueous solutions with three concentrations of 0.5 M, 0.05 M, and 0.005 M. The solutions were sealed in a microchannel of 500 μm wide and 300 µm deep in a portable microfluidic device. The Fe K-edge x-ray absorption spectra show that the complex in water is Fe(III). The complex is present with octahedral geometry coordinated with 6 C atoms in the first shell with a distance of ~1.92 Å and 6 N atoms in the second shell with a distance of ~3.10 Å. Varying the concentration has no observable influence on the structure of K3[Fe(CN)6]. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using microfluidic based liquid cells in large synchrotron facilities and it is a viable approach to enable multifaceted measurements of liquids in the future.

  9. Development and production of hard X-ray multilayer optics for HEFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, J.E; Christensen, Finn Erland; Chonko, J.

    2002-01-01

    The High Energy Focusing Telescope (HEFT) will observe a wide range of objects including young supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, and galaxy clusters at energies between 20 and 70 keV. Large collecting areas are achieved by tightly nesting layers of grazing incidence mirrors in a conic...... approximation Wolter-I design. The segmented mirrors that form these layers are made of thermally formed glass substrates coated with depth-graded multilayer films for enhanced reflectivity. The mirrors are assembled using an over-constraint method that forces the overall shape of the nominally cylindrical...

  10. NuSTAR Observations of the Compton-Thick Active Galactic Nucleus and Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Candidate in NGC 5643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annuar, A.; Gandhi, P.; Alexander, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    We present two Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) observations of the local Seyfert 2 active galactic nucleus (AGN) and an ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidate in NGC 5643. Together with archival data from Chandra, XMM-Newton, and Swift-BAT, we perform a high-quality broadband...... spectral analysis of the AGN over two decades in energy (∼ 0.5-100 keV). Previous X-ray observations suggested that the AGN is obscured by a Compton-thick (CT) column of obscuring gas along our line of sight. However, the lack of high-quality greater than or similar to 10 keV observations, together......-ray luminosity variations in the 3-8 keV band from 2003 to 2014, our results further strengthen the ULX classification of NGC 5643 X-1....

  11. The XMM large scale structure survey: optical vs. X-ray classifications of active galactic nuclei and the unified scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcet, O.; Gandhi, P.; Gosset, E.; Sprimont, P. G.; Surdej, J.; Borkowski, V.; Tajer, M.; Pacaud, F.; Pierre, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Maccagni, D.; Page, M. J.; Carrera, F. J.; Tedds, J. A.; Mateos, S.; Krumpe, M.; Contini, T.; Corral, A.; Ebrero, J.; Gavignaud, I.; Schwope, A.; Le Fèvre, O.; Polletta, M.; Rosen, S.; Lonsdale, C.; Watson, M.; Borczyk, W.; Vaisanen, P.

    2007-11-01

    Aims:Our goal is to characterize AGN populations by comparing their X-ray and optical classifications within the framework of the standard orientation-based unified scheme. Methods: We present a sample of 99 spectroscopically identified (R ≤ 22 mag) X-ray selected point sources in the XMM-LSS survey which are significantly detected (≥3σ) in the [ 2-10] keV band with fluxes between 8 × 10-15 and 8 × 10-14 erg s-1 cm-2, and which have more than 80 counts. We have compared their X-ray and optical classifications. To this end, we performed an X-ray spectral analysis for all of these 99 X-ray sources in order to assess whether they are intrinsically absorbed or not. The X-ray classification is based on the measured intrinsic column density. The optical classification is based on the measured FWHM of the permitted emission lines, the absence of broad lines being due to obscuration within the framework of the standard AGN unified scheme. Results: Introducing the fourfold point correlation coefficient r, we find a mild correlation between the X-ray and the optical classifications (r = 0.28), as up to 32 X-ray sources out of 99 have differing X-ray and optical classifications: on one hand, 10% of the type 1 sources (7/32) present broad emission lines in their optical spectra and strong absorption (N{H}int ≥ 1022 cm-2) in the X-rays. These objects are highly luminous AGN lying at high redshift and thus dilution effects by the host galaxy light are totally ruled out, their discrepant nature being an intrinsic property instead. Their X-ray luminosities and redshifts distributions are consistent with those of the unabsorbed X-ray sources with broad emission lines (L{2-10} 4 × 1044 erg s-1; z 1.9). On the other hand, 25/32 are moderate luminosity (L{2-10} ≤ 5 × 1043 erg s-1) AGN, which are both unabsorbed in the X-rays and only present narrow emission lines in their optical spectra. Based on their line ratios in the optical, the majority of them have an optical

  12. Calibration of the Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) at a polarized hard X-ray beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloser, P.F.; Legere, J.S.; McConnell, M.L.; Macri, J.R.; Bancroft, C.M.; Connor, T.P.; Ryan, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Gamma-RAy Polarimeter Experiment (GRAPE) is a concept for an astronomical hard X-ray Compton polarimeter operating in the 50-500 keV energy band. The instrument has been optimized for wide-field polarization measurements of transient outbursts from energetic astrophysical objects such as gamma-ray bursts and solar flares. The GRAPE instrument is composed of identical modules, each of which consists of an array of scintillator elements read out by a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT). Incident photons Compton scatter in plastic scintillator elements and are subsequently absorbed in inorganic scintillator elements; a net polarization signal is revealed by a characteristic asymmetry in the azimuthal scattering angles. We have constructed a prototype GRAPE module containing a single CsI(Na) calorimeter element, at the center of the MAPMT, surrounded by 60 plastic elements. The prototype has been combined with custom readout electronics and software to create a complete 'engineering model' of the GRAPE instrument. This engineering model has been calibrated using a nearly 100% polarized hard X-ray beam at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. We find modulation factors of 0.46±0.06 and 0.48±0.03 at 69.5 and 129.5 keV, respectively, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. In this paper we present details of the beam test, data analysis, and simulations, and discuss the implications of our results for the further development of the GRAPE concept.

  13. Phase-contrast x-ray tomography for soft and hard condensed matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    Phase-Contrast Tomography (PCT) is becoming an important technique for nondestructive, in-situ characterization of soft and hard condensed matter. This thesis sheds light on our progress in developing novel tomographic reconstruction algorithms in combination with in-situ experimental approaches

  14. Sigma observation of the pulsar OAO 1657 - 415: Precise localization at hard X-ray energy and discovery of spin-down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mereghetti, S.; Mandrou, P.; Natalucci, L.; Ballet, J.; Lambert, A.

    1991-01-01

    The region of sky containing the 38 s X-ray pulsar OAO 1657 - 415 has been observed on March 1990 with Sigma, an imaging gamma-ray telescope exploiting the coded mask technique. This observation has yielded an accurate (about arcminute-scale) localization for OAO 1657 - 415 at hard X-ray energy, confirming its association with a previously suggested soft X-ray candidate. A timing analysis of the 40-120 keV data has revealed for the first time a spin-down episode in OAO 1657 - 415, implying that an important change in the accretion torque experienced by this X-ray pulsar must have recently occurred. 18 refs

  15. Scanning hard X-ray microscope with tantalum phase zone plate at the Hyogo-BL (BL24XU) of SPring-8

    CERN Document Server

    Kagoshima, Y; Ibuki, T; Yokoyama, Y; Hashida, T; Yokoyama, K; Takeda, S; Urakawa, M; Miyamoto, N; Tsusaka, Y; Matsui, J; Aino, M

    2001-01-01

    A scanning hard X-ray microscope using a phase zone plate made of tantalum as its X-ray focusing device is in operation at the Hyogo-BL (BL24XU) of SPring-8. The X-ray microbeam has a size of 0.8 mu mx0.7 mu m at the photon energy of 10 keV, which can make visible structures as fine as 250-nm line-and-space pattern. The photon flux density at the sample position is approx 2x10 sup 9 phs/s/mu m sup 2 and the gain of the phase zone plate is approx 3000. The minimum detection limits irradiated by the microbeam are evaluated to be around 10 ppm for some trace elements contained in standard reference materials of glass matrices. X-ray images obtained so far demonstrate a high feasibility of the microscope.

  16. MEASUREMENT OF LOW ENERGY DETECTION EFFICIENCY OF A PLASTIC SCINTILLATOR: IMPLICATIONS ON THE LOWER ENERGY LIMIT AND SENSITIVITY OF A HARD X-RAY FOCAL PLANE COMPTON POLARIMETER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, T.; Vadawale, S. V.; Shanmugam, M.; Goyal, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    The polarization measurements in X-rays offer a unique opportunity for the study of physical processes under the extreme conditions prevalent at compact X-ray sources, including gravitation, magnetic field, and temperature. Unfortunately, there has been no real progress in observational X-ray polarimetry thus far. Although photoelectron tracking-based X-ray polarimeters provide realistic prospects of polarimetric observations, they are effective in the soft X-rays only. With the advent of hard X-ray optics, it has become possible to design sensitive X-ray polarimeters in hard X-rays based on Compton scattering. An important point that should be carefully considered for the Compton polarimeters is the lower energy threshold of the active scatterer, which typically consists of a plastic scintillator due to its lowest effective atomic number. Therefore, an accurate understanding of the plastic scintillators energy threshold is essential to make a realistic estimate of the energy range and sensitivity of any Compton polarimeter. In this context, we set up an experiment to investigate the plastic scintillators behavior for very low energy deposition events. The experiment involves the detection of Compton scattered photons from a long, thin, plastic scintillator (a similar configuration as the eventual Compton polarimeter) by a high resolution CdTe detector at different scattering angles. We find that it is possible to detect energy deposition well below 1 keV, though with decreasing efficiency. We present detailed semianalytical modeling of our experimental setup and discuss the results in the context of the energy range and sensitivity of the Compton polarimeter involving plastic scintillators

  17. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-07-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  18. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  19. Characterization of free-standing InAs quantum membranes by standing wave hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, G.; Nemšák, S.; Kuo, C.-T.; Gehlmann, M.; Conlon, C.; Keqi, A.; Rattanachata, A.; Karslıoǧlu, O.; Mueller, J.; Sethian, J.; Bluhm, H.; Rault, J. E.; Rueff, J. P.; Fang, H.; Javey, A.; Fadley, C. S.

    2018-05-01

    Free-standing nanoribbons of InAs quantum membranes (QMs) transferred onto a (Si/Mo) multilayer mirror substrate are characterized by hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HXPS) and by standing-wave HXPS (SW-HXPS). Information on the chemical composition and on the chemical states of the elements within the nanoribbons was obtained by HXPS and on the quantitative depth profiles by SW-HXPS. By comparing the experimental SW-HXPS rocking curves to x-ray optical calculations, the chemical depth profile of the InAs(QM) and its interfaces were quantitatively derived with ångström precision. We determined that (i) the exposure to air induced the formation of an InAsO4 layer on top of the stoichiometric InAs(QM); (ii) the top interface between the air-side InAsO4 and the InAs(QM) is not sharp, indicating that interdiffusion occurs between these two layers; (iii) the bottom interface between the InAs(QM) and the native oxide SiO2 on top of the (Si/Mo) substrate is abrupt. In addition, the valence band offset (VBO) between the InAs(QM) and the SiO2/(Si/Mo) substrate was determined by HXPS. The value of VBO = 0.2 ± 0.04 eV is in good agreement with literature results obtained by electrical characterization, giving a clear indication of the formation of a well-defined and abrupt InAs/SiO2 heterojunction. We have demonstrated that HXPS and SW-HXPS are non-destructive, powerful methods for characterizing interfaces and for providing chemical depth profiles of nanostructures, quantum membranes, and 2D layered materials.

  20. The NuSTAR  Extragalactic Surveys: X-Ray Spectroscopic Analysis of the Bright Hard-band Selected Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappacosta, L.; Comastri, A.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Fiore, F.; Aird, J.; Del Moro, A.; Lansbury, G. B.; Lanzuisi, G.; Goulding, A.; Mullaney, J. R.; Stern, D.; Ajello, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Farrah, D.; Harrison, F. A.; Gandhi, P.; Lanz, L.; Masini, A.; Marchesi, S.; Ricci, C.; Treister, E.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss the spectral analysis of a sample of 63 active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected above a limiting flux of S(8{--}24 {keV})=7× {10}-14 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 {{cm}}-2 in the multi-tiered NuSTAR extragalactic survey program. The sources span a redshift range z=0{--}2.1 (median =0.58). The spectral analysis is performed over the broad 0.5–24 keV energy range, combining NuSTAR with Chandra and/or XMM-Newton data and employing empirical and physically motivated models. This constitutes the largest sample of AGN selected at > 10 {keV} to be homogeneously spectrally analyzed at these flux levels. We study the distribution of spectral parameters such as photon index, column density ({N}{{H}}), reflection parameter ({\\boldsymbol{R}}), and 10–40 keV luminosity ({L}{{X}}). Heavily obscured ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 23) and Compton-thick (CT; {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]≥slant 24) AGN constitute ∼25% (15–17 sources) and ∼2–3% (1–2 sources) of the sample, respectively. The observed {N}{{H}} distribution agrees fairly well with predictions of cosmic X-ray background population-synthesis models (CXBPSM). We estimate the intrinsic fraction of AGN as a function of {N}{{H}}, accounting for the bias against obscured AGN in a flux-selected sample. The fraction of CT AGN relative to {log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=20{--}24 AGN is poorly constrained, formally in the range 2–56% (90% upper limit of 66%). We derived a fraction (f abs) of obscured AGN ({log}[{N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2]=22{--}24) as a function of {L}{{X}} in agreement with CXBPSM and previous z< 1 X-ray determinations. Furthermore, f abs at z=0.1{--}0.5 and {log}({L}{{x}}/{erg} {{{s}}}-1)≈ 43.6{--}44.3 agrees with observational measurements/trends obtained over larger redshift intervals. We report a significant anti-correlation of R with {L}{{X}} (confirmed by our companion paper on stacked spectra) with considerable scatter around the median R values.

  1. On The Design For A Versatile Imaging And Hard X-ray Beamline At the Australian Synchrotron: Implementation of In-Line Phase-Contrast Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.W.; Lewis, R.A.; Siu, K.K.-W.; Nesterets, Y.; Mayo, S.C.; Parry, D.J.; Stevenson, A.W.; Garrett, R.F.; Nugent, K.A.

    2004-01-01

    We outline key design features for a versatile imaging and hard X-ray beamline for operation at the Australian Synchrotron. Special attention is paid to the implementation of in-line phase-contrast imaging using both the plane-wave and spherical-wave cases

  2. Multiwavelength study of quiescent states of MRK 421 with unprecedented hard x-ray coverage provided by NuSTAR in 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baloković, M.; Paneque, D.; Madejski, G.

    2016-01-01

    . NuSTAR yielded previously unattainable sensitivity in the 3-79 keV range, revealing that the spectrum softens when the source is dimmer until the X-ray spectral shape saturates into a steep τ≈3 power law, with no evidence for an exponential cutoff or additional hard components up to ∼80 ke...

  3. Observation of Ortho-III correlations by neutron and hard x-ray scattering in an untwinned YBa2Cu3O6.77 single crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleger, P.; Casalta, H.; Hadfield, R.

    1995-01-01

    We present measurements of Ortho-III phase correlations in an untwinned single crystal of YBa2Cu3O6.77 by neutron scattering and the novel method of hard (95 keV) X-ray scattering. The Ortho-III ordering is essentially two-dimensional, exhibiting Lorentzian peak shapes in the a-b plane. At room...

  4. Study of electron beams within ISTTOK tokamak by means of a multi-channel Cherenkov detector; their correlation with hard X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakubowski, L., E-mail: Lech.Jakubowski@ipj.gov.p [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Malinowski, K.; Sadowski, M.J.; Zebrowski, J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Plyusnin, V.V. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Rabinski, M. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P. [Association Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Jakubowski, M.J. [Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2010-11-11

    The paper describes experimental studies of electron beams emitted from a plasma torus within the ISTTOK tokamak, which were performed by means of a new four-channel detector of the Cherenkov type. A range of electron energy was estimated. There were also measured hard X-rays, and their correlation with the fast run-away electron beams was investigated experimentally.

  5. Hard x-ray photoemission and density functional theory study of the internal electric field in SrTiO3/LaAlO3 oxide heterostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooten, E.; Zhong, Zhicheng; Molegraaf, Hajo; Eerkes, P.D.; de Jong, S.; Massee, F.; van Heumen, E.; Kruize, Michelle; Wenderich, Sander; Kleibeuker, J.E.; Gorgoi, M.; Hilgenkamp, Johannes W.M.; Brinkman, Alexander; Huijben, Mark; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.; Blank, David H.A.; Koster, Gertjan; Kelly, Paul J.; Golden, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of the electronic structure of the archetypal oxide heterointerface system LaAlO3 on SrTiO3 is presented. High-resolution, hard x-ray photoemission is used to uncover the occupation of Ti 3d states and the relative energetic alignment—and hence

  6. Simultaneous optical/X-ray study of GS 1354-64 (=BW Cir) during hard outburst: evidence for optical cyclo-synchrotron emission from the hot accretion flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahari, Mayukh; Gandhi, Poshak; Charles, Philip A.; Kotze, Marissa M.; Altamirano, Diego; Misra, Ranjeev

    2017-07-01

    We present results from simultaneous optical [South African Large Telescope (SALT)] and X-ray (Swift and INTEGRAL) observations of GS 1354-64/BW Cir during the 2015 hard state outburst. During the rising phase, optical/X-ray time series shows a strong anti-correlation with X-ray photons lagging optical. Optical and X-ray power spectra show quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at a frequency of ˜18 mHz with a confidence level of at least 99 per cent. Simultaneous fitting of Swift/XRT and INTEGRAL spectra in the range 0.5-1000.0 keV shows non-thermal, power-law-dominated (>90 per cent) spectra with a hard power-law index of 1.48 ± 0.03, inner disc temperature of 0.12 ± 0.01 keV and an inner disc radius of ˜3000 km. All evidence is consistent with cyclo-synchrotron radiation in a non-thermal, hot electron cloud extending to ˜100 Schwarzschild radii being a major physical process for the origin of optical photons. At outburst peak about one month later, when the X-ray flux rises and the optical drops, the apparent features in the optical/X-ray correlation vanish and the optical auto correlation widens. Although ˜0.19 Hz QPO is observed from the X-ray power spectra, the optical variability is dominated by the broad-band noise, and the inner disc temperature increases. These results support a change in the dominant optical emission source between outburst rise and peak, consistent with a weakening of hot flow as the disc moves in.

  7. The man behind the curtain: X-rays drive the UV through NIR variability in the 2013 active galactic nucleus outburst in NGC 2617

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shappee, B. J.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; De Rosa, G.; Mathur, S.; Zu, Y.; Peterson, B. M.; Pogge, R. W.; Jencson, J.; Holoien, T.W-S.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Adams, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Prieto, J. L. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Komossa, S. [Max-Planck Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Im, M. [CEOU/Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Szczygieł, D. M. [Warsaw University Astronomical Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warsaw (Poland); Brimacombe, J. [Coral Towers Observatory, Cairns, Queensland A-4870 (Australia); Campillay, A., E-mail: shappee@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Colina El Pino, Casilla 601 (Chile); and others

    2014-06-10

    After the All-Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae discovered a significant brightening of the inner region of NGC 2617, we began a ∼70 day photometric and spectroscopic monitoring campaign from the X-ray through near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. We report that NGC 2617 went through a dramatic outburst, during which its X-ray flux increased by over an order of magnitude followed by an increase of its optical/ultraviolet (UV) continuum flux by almost an order of magnitude. NGC 2617, classified as a Seyfert 1.8 galaxy in 2003, is now a Seyfert 1 due to the appearance of broad optical emission lines and a continuum blue bump. Such 'changing look active galactic nuclei (AGNs)' are rare and provide us with important insights about AGN physics. Based on the Hβ line width and the radius-luminosity relation, we estimate the mass of central black hole (BH) to be (4 ± 1) × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}. When we cross-correlate the light curves, we find that the disk emission lags the X-rays, with the lag becoming longer as we move from the UV (2-3 days) to the NIR (6-9 days). Also, the NIR is more heavily temporally smoothed than the UV. This can largely be explained by a simple model of a thermally emitting thin disk around a BH of the estimated mass that is illuminated by the observed, variable X-ray fluxes.

  8. First hard X-ray detection of the non-thermal emission around the Arches cluster: morphology and spectral studies with NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krivonos, Roman A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-01-01

    and spectrum. The spatial distribution of the hard X-ray emission is found to be consistent with the broad region around the cluster where the 6.4 keV line is observed. The interpretation of the hard X-ray emission within the context of the X-ray reflection model puts a strong constraint on the luminosity......The Arches cluster is a young, densely packed massive star cluster in our Galaxy that shows a high level of star formation activity. The nature of the extended non-thermal X-ray emission around the cluster remains unclear. The observed bright Fe Ku line emission at 6.4 keV from material...... that is neutral or in a low ionization state can be produced either by X-ray photoionization or by cosmic-ray particle bombardment or both. In this paper, we report on the first detection of the extended emission around the Arches cluster above 10 keV with the NuSTAR mission, and present results on its morphology...

  9. An accelerator scenario for a hard X-ray free electron laser combined with high energy electron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Tao; Li, Yiding; Yang, Guojun; Pang, Jian; Li, Yuhui; Li, Peng; Pflueger, Joachim; He, Xiaozhong; Lu, Yaxin; Wang, Ke; Long, Jidong; Zhang, Linwen; Wu, Qiang

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the dynamic response of the material and the physical mechanism of fluid dynamics, an accelerator scenario which can be applied to both hard X-ray free electron laser and high energy electron radiography is proposed. This accelerator is mainly composed of a 12 GeV linac, an undulator branch and an eRad beamline. In order to characterize a sample’s dynamic behavior in situ and real-time with XFEL and eRad simultaneously, the linac should be capable of accelerating the two kinds of beam within the same operation mode. Combining in-vacuum and tapering techniques, the undulator branch can produce more than 1011 photons per pulse in 0.1% bandwidth at 42 keV. Finally, an eRad amplifying beamline with 1:10 ratio is proposed as an important complementary tool for the wider view field and density identification ability. Supported by China Academy of Engineering Physics (2014A0402016) and Institute of Fluid Physics (SFZ20140201)

  10. Experimental Study of Current Discharge Behavior and Hard X-ray Anisotropy by APF Plasma Focus Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Attaran, M.

    2009-03-01

    Amirkabir (APF) is a new Mather-type plasma focus device (16 kV, 36 μf, and 115 nH). In this work we present some experimental results as variation of discharge current signal respect to applied voltage at the optimum pressure, focusing time of plasma versus gas pressure, and variations of current discharge with different insulator sleeve dimensions. As we prospected optimum pressure tending to increase as we tried to higher voltage levels. The time taken by the current sheath to lift-off the insulator surface and therefore quality of pinched plasma depends on the length of the insulator sleeve. The results show that the insulator diameter can influence on pinch quality. Behavior of hard X-ray (HXR) signals with the pressure and also anisotropy of HXR investigated by the use of two scintillation detectors. The distribution of HXR intensity shows a large anisotropy with a maximum intensity between 22.5° and 45° and also between -22.5° and -67.5°.

  11. In situ chemical state analysis of buried polymer/metal adhesive interface by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, Kenichi; Kakubo, Takashi; Shimizu, Katsunori; Amino, Naoya; Mase, Kazuhiko; Ikenaga, Eiji; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Kinoshita, Toyohiko; Oji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Chemical state analysis of the buried rubber/brass interface is conducted by HAXPES. • Ultrathin rubber films are prepared on the brass surface by two methods. • A high density of Cu 2 S is found on the rubber side of the buried adhesive layer. • The chemical states of the buried and exposed interfaces are compared. - Abstract: Chemical state analysis of adhesive interfaces is important to understand an adhesion mechanism between two different materials. Although photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is an ideal tool for such an analysis, the adhesive interfaces must be exposed to the surface because PES is essentially a surface sensitive technique. However, an in situ observation is possible by hard X-ray PES (HAXPES) owing to its large probing depth. In the present study, HAXPES is applied to investigate the adhesive interface between rubber and brass without exposing the interface. It is demonstrated that copper sulfides formed at the buried rubber/brass interface are distinguished from S-containing species in the rubber overlayer. The chemical state of the buried interface is compared with that of the “exposed” interface prepared by so-called a filter-paper method

  12. Magnetometry of buried layers—Linear magnetic dichroism and spin detection in angular resolved hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloskovskii, Andrei; Stryganyuk, Gregory; Fecher, Gerhard H.; Felser, Claudia; Thiess, Sebastian; Schulz-Ritter, Heiko; Drube, Wolfgang; Berner, Götz; Sing, Michael; Claessen, Ralph; Yamamoto, Masafumi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Newly commissioned HAXPES instrument at P09 beamline of the PETRA III ring at DESY. ► We report HAXPES studies on buried magnetic nanolayers in a multi-layer sample. ► Linear magnetic dichroism of photoelectrons from buried CoFe–Ir 78 Mn 22 layers. ► Spin-resolved HAXPES measurements on buried magnetic multilayers using Mott detector. - Abstract: The electronic properties of buried magnetic nano-layers were studied using the linear magnetic dichroism in the angular distribution of photoemitted Fe, Co, and Mn 2p electrons from a CoFe–Ir 78 Mn 22 multi-layered sample. The buried layers were probed using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, HAXPES, at the undulator beamline P09 of the 3rd generation storage ring PETRA III. The results demonstrate that this magnetometry technique can be used as a sensitive element specific probe for magnetic properties suitable for application to buried ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic magnetic materials and multilayered spintronics devices. Using the same instrument, spin-resolved Fe 2p HAXPES spectra were obtained from the buried layer with good signal quality.

  13. Runaway electron studies with hard x-ray and microwave diagnostics in the FT-2 lower hybrid current drive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevelev, A. E.; Khilkevitch, E. M.; Lashkul, S. I.; Rozhdestvensky, V. V.; Pandya, S. P.; Plyusnin, V. V.; Altukhov, A. B.; Kouprienko, D. V.; Chugunov, I. N.; Doinikov, D. N.; Esipov, L. A.; Gin, D. B.; Iliasova, M. V.; Naidenov, V. O.; Polunovsky, I. A.; Sidorov, A. V.; Kiptily, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    Studies of the super-thermal and runaway electron behavior in ohmic and lower hybrid current drive FT-2 tokamak plasmas have been carried out using information obtained from measurements of hard x-ray spectra and non-thermal microwave radiation intensity at the frequency of 10 GHz and in the range of (53 ÷ 78) GHz. A gamma-ray spectrometer based on a scintillation detector with a LaBr3(Ce) crystal was used, which provides measurements at counting rates up to 107 s-1. Reconstruction of the energy distribution of RE interacting with the poloidal limiter of the tokamak chamber was made with application of the DeGaSum code. Super-thermal electrons accelerated up to 2 MeV by the LH waves at the high-frequency pumping of the plasma with low density ≤ft ~ 2  ×  1013 cm-3 and then up to 7 MeV by vortex electric field have been found. Experimental analysis of the runaway electron beam generation and evolution of their energy distribution in the FT-2 plasmas is presented in the article and compared with the numerical calculation of the maximum energy gained by runaway electrons for given plasma parameters. In addition, possible mechanisms for limiting the maximum energy gained by the runaway electrons are also calculated and described for a FT-2 plasma discharge.

  14. Hard-X-ray emission lines from the decay of 44Ti in the remnant of supernova 1987A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, S A; Lutovinov, A A; Tsygankov, S S; Winkler, C

    2012-10-18

    It is assumed that the radioactive decay of (44)Ti powers the infrared, optical and ultraviolet emission of supernova remnants after the complete decay of (56)Co and (57)Co (the isotopes that dominated the energy balance during the first three to four years after the explosion) until the beginning of active interaction of the ejecta with the surrounding matter. Simulations show that the initial mass of (44)Ti synthesized in core-collapse supernovae is (0.02-2.5) × 10(-4) solar masses (M circled dot). Hard X-rays and γ-rays from the decay of this (44)Ti have been unambiguously observed from Cassiopeia A only, leading to the suggestion that values of the initial mass of (44)Ti near the upper bound of the predictions occur only in exceptional cases. For the remnant of supernova 1987A, an upper limit to the initial mass of (44)Ti of supernova 1987A in the narrow band containing two direct-escape lines of (44)Ti at 67.9 and 78.4 keV. The measured line fluxes imply that this decay provided sufficient energy to power the remnant at late times. We estimate that the initial mass of (44)Ti was (3.1 ± 0.8) × 10(-4), which is near the upper bound of theoretical predictions.

  15. Development of hard X-ray spectrometer with high time resolution on the J-TEXT tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T.K.; Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: zychen@hust.edu.cn; Huang, D.W.; Tong, R.H.; Yan, W.; Wang, S.Y.; Dai, A.J.; Wang, X.L.

    2017-06-01

    A hard X-ray (HXR) spectrometer has been developed to study the runaway electrons during the sawtooth activities and during the runaway current plateau phase on the J-TEXT tokamak. The spectrometer system contains four NaI scintillator detectors and a multi-channel analyzer (MCA) with 0.5 ms time resolution. The dedicated peak detection circuit embedded in the MCA provides a pulse height analysis at count rate up to 1.2 million counts per second (Mcps), which is the key to reach the high time resolution. The accuracy and reliability of the system have been verified by comparing with the hardware integrator of HXR flux. The temporal evolution of HXR flux in different energy ranges can be obtained with high time resolution by this dedicated HXR spectrometer. The response of runaway electron transport with different energy during the sawtooth activities can be studied. The energy evolution of runaway electrons during the plateau phase of runaway current can be obtained. - Highlights: • A HXR spectrometer with high time resolution has been developed on J-TEXT tokamak. • The response of REs transport during the sawtooth activities can be investigated. • The energy evolution of REs following the disruptions can be monitored.

  16. A hard X-ray study of a manganese-terpyridine catalyst in a chromium-based Metal Organic Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, Alexandra V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Hydrogen produced from water splitting is a promising source of clean energy. However, a robust catalyst is necessary to carry out the water oxidation step of water splitting. In this study, the catalyst studied was [(terpy)Mn(μ-O)2Mn(terpy)]3+ (MnTD) synthesized in the Metal Organic Framework (MOF) MIL-101(Cr), and the method used for analysis was hard X-ray powder diffraction. The diffraction data was used to detect the presence of MOF in different catalytic stages, and lattice parameters were assigned to the samples containing MOF. Fourier maps were constructed with GSAS II to determine the contents of the MOF as preliminary studies suggested that MnTD may not be present. Results showed that MOF is present before catalysis occurs but disappears by the time 45 minutes of catalysis has ensued. Changes in the MOF’s lattice parameters and location of electron density in the Fourier maps suggest attractions between the MOF and catalyst that may lead to MOF degradation. Fourier maps also revealed limited, if any, amounts of MnTD, even before catalysis occurred. Molecular manganese oxide may be the source of the high rate of water oxidation catalysis in the studied system.

  17. Comparison of three types of XPAD3.2/CdTe single chip hybrids for hard X-ray applications in material science and biomedical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buton, C.; Dawiec, A.; Graber-Bolis, J.; Arnaud, K.; Bérar, J. F.; Blanc, N.; Boudet, N.; Clémens, J. C.; Debarbieux, F.; Delpierre, P.; Dinkespiler, B.; Gastaldi, T.; Hustache, S.; Morel, C.; Pangaud, P.; Perez-Ponce, H.; Vigeolas, E.

    2014-09-01

    The CHIPSPECT consortium aims at building a large multi-modules CdTe based photon counting detector for hard X-ray applications. For this purpose, we tested nine XPAD3.2 single chip hybrids in various configurations (i.e. Ohmic vs. Schottky contacts or electrons vs. holes collection mode) in order to select the most performing and best suited configuration for our experimental requirements. Measurements have been done using both X-ray synchrotron beams and 241Am source. Preliminary results on the image quality, calibration, stability, homogeneity and linearity of the different types of detectors are presented.

  18. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... testing. Reflectivity measurements at 8 keV on ERAFs with and without multilayer coatings show a 4.4 to 4.8 A root mean square (rms) microroughness for correlation lengths less than or equal to 15 mum. To reduce the dominant contribution of mirror assembly and large-scale distortion in the overall...

  19. Monte Carlo simulation on hard X-ray dose produced in interaction between high intensity laser and solid target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bo; Qiu Rui; Li Junli; Zhang Hui

    2014-01-01

    The X-ray dose produced in the interaction between high intensity laser and solid target was studied by simulation using Monte Carlo code. Compared with experimental results, the calculation model was verified. The calculation model was used to study the effect on X-ray dose with different electron temperatures, target materials (including Au, Cu and PE) and thicknesses. The results indicate that the X-ray dose is mainly determined by the electron temperature, and will be affected by the target parameters. X-ray dose of Au is about 1.2 times that of Cu, and is about 5 times that of PE (polyethylene). In addition, compared with other target thickness, when target thickness is the mean range of electron in the target, X-ray dose is relatively large. These results will provide references on evaluating the ionizing radiation dose for laser devices. (authors)

  20. Element Specific Versus Integral Structural and Magnetic Properties of Co:ZnO and Gd:GaN Probed with Hard X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ney

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS are envisioned as sources of spin-polarized carriers for future semiconductor devices which simultaneously utilize spin and charge of the carriers. The hope of discovering a DMS with ferromagnetic order up to room temperature still motivates research on suitable DMS materials. Two candidate wide-band gap DMS are Gd:GaN and Co:ZnO. We have used hard X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS and in particular X-ray linear dichroism (XLD and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD to study both DMS materials with element specificity and compare these findings with results from integral SQUID magnetometry as well as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR.