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Sample records for gait-a voxel-based study

  1. Aging effects on cerebral asymmetry: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

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    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Sasaki, Hiroki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on gray and white matter asymmetry. Two hundred twenty-six right-handed normal volunteers aged 21-71 years were included in this study. The effects of aging on gray matter volume asymmetry and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The voxel-based morphometry showed no significant correlation between age and gray matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant correlation between age and white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry. Our results showed no significant effects of aging on either gray matter volume asymmetry or white matter fractional anisotropy asymmetry.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based morphometry study in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: relationships with motor disability

    OpenAIRE

    Thivard, Lionel; Pradat, Pierre‐François; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Lacomblez, Lucette; Dormont, Didier; Chiras, Jacques; Benali, Habib; Meininger, Vincent

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to investigate the extent of cortical and subcortical lesions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using, in combination, voxel based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel based morphometry (VBM). We included 15 patients with definite or probable ALS and 25 healthy volunteers. Patients were assessed using the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R). In patients, reduced fractional anisotropy was found in bilateral corticospinal tra...

  3. Neural Correlates of Communication Skill and Symptom Severity in Autism: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

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    Parks, Lauren K.; Hill, Dina E.; Thoma, Robert J.; Euler, Matthew J.; Lewine, Jeffrey D.; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2009-01-01

    Although many studies have compared the brains of normal controls and individuals with autism, especially older, higher-functioning individuals with autism, little is known of the neural correlates of the vast clinical heterogeneity characteristic of the disorder. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to examine gray matter…

  4. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

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    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  5. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study

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    Zhou Yan, E-mail: clare1475@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lin Fuchun, E-mail: fclin@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Du Yasong, E-mail: yasongdu@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Qin Lingdi, E-mail: flyingfool838@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Zhao Zhimin, E-mail: zmzsky@163.com [Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xu Jianrong, E-mail: xujianr@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, RenJi Hospital, Jiao Tong University Medical School, Shanghai 200127 (China); Lei Hao, E-mail: leihao@wipm.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Background: This study aims to investigate brain gray matter density (GMD) changes in adolescents with Internet addiction (IA) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images. Methods: Eighteen IA adolescents and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls took part in this study. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on the two groups. VBM analysis was used to compare the GMD between the two groups. Results: Compared with healthy controls, IA adolescents had lower GMD in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and left lingual gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in IA adolescents, and this finding may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of IA.

  6. Gray matter abnormalities in Internet addiction: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yan; Lin Fuchun; Du Yasong; Qin Lingdi; Zhao Zhimin; Xu Jianrong; Lei Hao

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study aims to investigate brain gray matter density (GMD) changes in adolescents with Internet addiction (IA) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis on high-resolution T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images. Methods: Eighteen IA adolescents and 15 age- and gender-matched healthy controls took part in this study. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans were performed on the two groups. VBM analysis was used to compare the GMD between the two groups. Results: Compared with healthy controls, IA adolescents had lower GMD in the left anterior cingulate cortex, left posterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and left lingual gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings suggested that brain structural changes were present in IA adolescents, and this finding may provide a new insight into the pathogenesis of IA.

  7. Cerebral asymmetry in patients with schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

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    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the differences in gray- and white-matter asymmetry between schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. Forty-eight right-handed patients with chronic schizophrenia (24 males and 24 females) and 48 right-handed age- and sex-matched healthy controls (24 males and 24 females) were included in this study. The effects of diagnosis on gray-matter volume asymmetry and white-matter fractional anisotropy (FA) asymmetry were evaluated with use of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of FA maps derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), respectively. The mean gray- and white-matter volumes were significantly smaller in the schizophrenia group than in the control group. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM) showed no significant effect of diagnosis on gray-matter volume asymmetry. The voxel-based analysis of DTI also showed no significant effect of diagnosis on white-matter FA asymmetry. Our results of voxel-based analyses showed no significant differences in either gray-matter volume asymmetry or white-matter FA asymmetry between schizophrenia patients and normal subjects. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Alexithymia in healthy young men: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Heinzel, Alexander; Minnerop, Martina; Schäfer, Ralf; Müller, Hans-Wilhelm; Franz, Matthias; Hautzel, Hubertus

    2012-02-01

    Alexithymia is a personality construct predominately associated with an impaired ability to identify and communicate emotions. Functional imaging studies showed that an altered function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may be relevant in alexithymia. In this study we investigated if the altered functional anatomy is related to structural changes (A) in the whole brain and (B) specifically in the ACC by applying a region-of-interest analysis. 33 high- and 31 low-alexithymic right-handed young male subjects (selected by the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, TAS-20) were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on high-resolution 3D magnetic resonance images. The group differences were analyzed by applying voxel-wise comparisons using two-sample t-tests. Moreover regression analyses with regard to the individual TAS-20 sum scores were calculated. Neither the subtraction analyses nor the correlation analyses revealed significant differences between high- and low-alexithymic subjects. Thus, according to our results, the null hypothesis of no structural difference between the groups could not be rejected. The findings cannot be generalized to female subjects. Our results did not reveal morphological differences between high- and low-alexithymic subjects. The functional differences known from imaging studies could not be attributed to underlying anatomical changes. Thus, the personality trait of alexithymia might be associated with fewer morphological abnormalities than previously assumed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neurostructural correlates of two subtypes of specific phobia: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Kevin; Evens, Ricarda; Maslowski, Nina Isabel; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Lueken, Ulrike

    2015-02-28

    The animal and blood-injection-injury (BII) subtypes of specific phobia are both characterized by subjective fear but distinct autonomic reactions to threat. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have related these characteristic responses to shared and non-shared neural underpinnings. However, no comparative structural data are available. This study aims to fill this gap by comparing the two subtypes and also comparing them with a non-phobic control group. Gray and white matter data of 33 snake phobia subjects (SP), 26 dental phobia subjects (DP), and 37 healthy control (HC) subjects were analyzed with voxel-based morphometry. Especially DP differed from HC and SP by showing significantly increased grey matter volumes in widespread areas including the right subgenual anterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left orbitofrontal and left prefrontal (PFC) cortices. In addition, white matter volume was significantly increased in the left PFC in DP compared with SP. These results are in line with functional changes observed in dental phobia and point toward those brain circuits associated with emotional processing and regulation. Future studies should aim to further delineate functional and structural connectivity alterations in specific phobia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The brain and the subjective experience of time. A voxel based symptom-lesion mapping study.

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    Trojano, Luigi; Caccavale, Michelina; De Bellis, Francesco; Crisci, Claudio

    2017-06-30

    The aim of the study was to identify the anatomical bases involved in the subjective experience of time, by means of a voxel based symptom-lesion mapping (VLSM) study on patients with focal brain damage. Thirty-three patients (nineteen with right-hemisphere lesions -RBD, and fourteen with left lesion- LBD) and twenty-eight non-neurological controls (NNC) underwent the semi-structured QUEstionnaire for the Subjective experience of Time (QUEST) requiring retrospective and prospective judgements on self-relevant time intervals. All participants also completed tests to assess general cognitive functioning and two questionnaires to evaluate their emotional state. Both groups of brain-damaged patients achieved significantly different scores from NNC on the time performance, without differences between RBD and LBD. VLSM showed a cluster of voxels located in the right inferior parietal lobule significantly related to errors in the prospective items. The lesion subtraction analysis revealed two different patterns possibly associated with errors in the prospective items (the right inferior parietal cortex, rolandic operculum and posterior middle temporal gyrus) and in the retrospective items (superior middle temporal gyrus, white matter posterior to the insula). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Creativity and borderline personality disorder: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Leutgeb, Verena; Ille, Rottraut; Wabnegger, Albert; Schienle, Anne; Schöggl, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard; Papousek, Ilona; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Fink, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the history, various examples of eminent creative people suffering from mental disorders along with some empirical research reports strengthened the idea of a potential link between creativity and psychopathology. This study investigated different facets of psychometrically determined creativity in 20 females diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) relative to 19 healthy female controls. In addition, group differences in grey matter (GM) were examined. Behavioural findings revealed no significant differences between the BPD group and healthy controls with respect to verbal and figural-graphic creative task performance and creativity-related personality characteristics. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry analyses revealed a distinct pattern of GM reductions in the BPD group (relative to controls) in a network of brain regions closely associated with various cognitive and emotional functions (including the bilateral orbital inferior frontal gyri and the left superior temporal gyrus), partly overlapping with creativity-related brain regions. Correlation analyses moreover revealed that in the BPD group GM reductions in the orbital parts of the inferior and middle frontal gyri were associated with lower levels of creativity. This study provides no indications in favour of the putative link between creativity and psychopathology, as sometimes reported in the literature.

  12. The neuroanatomical basis of panic disorder and social phobia in schizophrenia: a voxel based morphometric study.

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    Marisol Picado

    Full Text Available It is known that there is a high prevalence of certain anxiety disorders among schizophrenic patients, especially panic disorder and social phobia. However, the neural underpinnings of the comorbidity of such anxiety disorders and schizophrenia remain unclear. Our study aims to determine the neuroanatomical basis of the co-occurrence of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia.Voxel-based morphometry was used in order to examine brain structure and to measure between-group differences, comparing magnetic resonance images of 20 anxious patients, 20 schizophrenic patients, 20 schizophrenic patients with comorbid anxiety, and 20 healthy control subjects.Compared to the schizophrenic patients, we observed smaller grey-matter volume (GMV decreases in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and precentral gyrus in the schizophrenic-anxiety group. Additionally, the schizophrenic group showed significantly reduced GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal gyrus and angular/inferior parietal gyrus when compared to the control group.Our findings suggest that the comorbidity of schizophrenia with panic disorder and social phobia might be characterized by specific neuroanatomical and clinical alterations that may be related to maladaptive emotion regulation related to anxiety. Even thought our findings need to be replicated, our study suggests that the identification of neural abnormalities involved in anxiety, schizophrenia and schizophrenia-anxiety may lead to an improved diagnosis and management of these conditions.

  13. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study

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    Ping Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (r = -0.609, P = 0.047 and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale (r = -0.737, P = 0.010. Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  14. Regional brain structural abnormality in ischemic stroke patients: a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Wu, Ping; Zhou, Yu-Mei; Zeng, Fang; Li, Zheng-Jie; Luo, Lu; Li, Yong-Xin; Fan, Wei; Qiu, Li-Hua; Qin, Wei; Chen, Lin; Bai, Lin; Nie, Juan; Zhang, San; Xiong, Yan; Bai, Yu; Yin, Can-Xin; Liang, Fan-Rong

    2016-09-01

    Our previous study used regional homogeneity analysis and found that activity in some brain areas of patients with ischemic stroke changed significantly. In the current study, we examined structural changes in these brain regions by taking structural magnetic resonance imaging scans of 11 ischemic stroke patients and 15 healthy participants, and analyzing the data using voxel-based morphometry. Compared with healthy participants, patients exhibited higher gray matter density in the left inferior occipital gyrus and right anterior white matter tract. In contrast, gray matter density in the right cerebellum, left precentral gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus was less in ischemic stroke patients. The changes of gray matter density in the middle frontal gyrus were negatively associated with the clinical rating scales of the Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment ( r = -0.609, P = 0.047) and the left middle temporal gyrus was negatively correlated with the clinical rating scales of the nervous functional deficiency scale ( r = -0.737, P = 0.010). Our findings can objectively identify the functional abnormality in some brain regions of ischemic stroke patients.

  15. Potential hippocampal region atrophy in diabetes mellitus type 2. A voxel-based morphometry VSRAD study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamiyama, Kazutoshi; Sugihara, Masaki; Wada, Akihiko

    2010-01-01

    Among diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients, the frequency of cognitive dysfunction is higher and the relative risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is approximately twice that of nondiabetics. Cognitive impairment symptoms of AD are induced by limbic system dysfunction, and an early-stage AD brain without dementia has the potential for atrophy in the hippocampal region. In this study, we estimated potential hippocampal region atrophy in DM2 and pursued the association between DM2 and cognitive impairment/AD. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed in 28 diabetics (14 men, 14 women; ages 59-79 years, mean 70.7 years) and 28 sex- and age- matched (±1 year) nondiabetics. Severity of gray matter loss in the hippocampal region and whole brain were investigated. Group analysis was performed using two-tailed unpaired t-test; significance was assumed with less than 1% (P<0.01) of the critical rate. There was a significant difference between diabetics and nondiabetics regarding the severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy. Only diabetics showed a positive correlation for severity of hippocampal region atrophy and whole-brain atrophy (rs=0.69, P<0.0001). Aged DM2 patients have the potential for hippocampal region atrophy, and its dysfunction can be related to the expression of a cognitive impairment that resembles AD. (author)

  16. Structural brain alterations in hemifacial spasm: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

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    Tu, Ye; Yu, Tian; Wei, Yongxu; Sun, Kun; Zhao, Weiguo; Yu, Buwei

    2016-02-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is characterized by involuntary, irregular clonic or tonic movement of muscles innervated by the facial nerve. We evaluated structural reorganization in brain gray matter and white matter and whether neuroplasticity is linked to clinical features in HFS patients. High-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging data were acquired by 3.0 T MRI from 42 patients with HFS and 30 healthy subjects. The severity of the spasm was assessed according to Jankovic disability rating scale. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis were performed to identify regional grey matter volume (GMV) changes and whole-brain microstructural integrity disruption measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD) and radial diffusivity (RD). The VBM analysis showed that patients with HFS reduced GMV in the right inferior parietal lobule and increased GMV in the cerebellar lobule VIII, when compared with healthy subjects. Furthermore, within the HFS disease group, GMV decreased with the disease duration in the right inferior parietal lobule. TBSS did not identify group differences in diffusivity parameters. While no white matter integrity disruption was detected in the brain of patients with HFS, our study identified evident GMV changes in brain areas which were known to be involved in motor control. Our results suggest that HFS, a chronic neurovascular conflict disease, is related to structural reorganization in the brain. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: A voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach

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    Zhang, Wei, E-mail: will.zhang.1111@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, Sichuan Provincial Corps Hospital, Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Leshan 614000 (China); Song, Lingheng, E-mail: songlh1023@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Department of Radiology, No. 324 Hospital of PLA, Chongqing 400020 (China); Yin, Xuntao, E-mail: xuntaoyin@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhang, Jiuquan, E-mail: jiuquanzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Liu, Chen, E-mail: cqliuchen@foxmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjian_811@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Zhou, Daiquan, E-mail: zhoudq77@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Chen, Bing, E-mail: chenbing3@medmail.com.cn [Department of Endocrinology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China); Lii, Haitao, E-mail: haitaolii023@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Southwest Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing 400038 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and methods: High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Conclusion: Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex.

  18. Grey matter abnormalities in untreated hyperthyroidism: A voxel-based morphometry study using the DARTEL approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Song, Lingheng; Yin, Xuntao; Zhang, Jiuquan; Liu, Chen; Wang, Jian; Zhou, Daiquan; Chen, Bing; Lii, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Hyperthyroidism is frequently associated with pronounced neuropsychiatric symptoms such as impulsiveness, irritability, poor concentration, and memory impairments. Functional neuroimaging has revealed changes in cerebral metabolism in hyperthyroidism, but regional changes in cortical morphology associated with specific neurological deficits have not been studied so far. To investigate the pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroid-associated neural dysfunction, we compared grey matter volume (GMV) between adult hyperthyroid patients and matched healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Materials and methods: High resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired by 3T MRI from 51 hyperthyroid patients and 51 controls. VBM analysis was performed using SPM8. Correlations between regional GMV and both serum free thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations and disease duration were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Compared to controls, GM volumes in the bilateral hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, calcarine, lingual gyrus, and left temporal pole were lower and bilateral supplementary motor area GMV higher in hyperthyroid patients. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3) concentration was negatively correlated with the normalized regional volume (NRV) of the left parahippocampal gyrus and serum free thyroxine (FT4) concentration negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus and right parahippocampal gyrus. Disease duration was negatively correlated with the NRV of the left hippocampus, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, and left temporal pole. Conclusion: Hyperthyroid patients exhibited reduced GMV in regions associated with memory, attention, emotion, vision, and motor planning. Negative correlations between GMV and both free TH and disease duration suggest that chronic TH elevation induces abnormalities in the adult cortex

  19. Loss aversion is associated with bilateral insula volume. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markett, S; Heeren, G; Montag, C; Weber, B; Reuter, M

    2016-04-21

    Loss aversion is a decision bias, reflecting a greater sensitivity to losses than to gains in a decision situation. Recent neuroscientific research has shown that mesocorticolimbic structures like ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the ventral striatum constitute a bidirectional neural system that processes gains and losses and exhibits a neural basis of loss aversion. On a functional and structural level, the amygdala and insula also seem to play an important role in the processing of loss averse behavior. By applying voxel-based morphometry to structural brain images in N=41 healthy participants, the current study provides further evidence for the relationship of brain structure and loss aversion. The results show a negative correlation of gray matter volume in bilateral posterior insula as well as left medial frontal gyrus with individual loss aversion. Hence, higher loss aversion is associated with lower gray matter volume in these brain areas. Both structures have been discussed to play important roles in the brain's salience network, where the posterior insula is involved in interoception and the detection of salience. The medial frontal gyrus might impact decision making through its dense connections with the anterior cingulate cortex. A possible explanation for the present finding is that structural differences in these regions alter the processing of losses and salience, possibly biasing decision making towards avoidance of negative outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain correlates of alexithymia in eating disorders: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agata, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; Amianto, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Caglio, Marcella M; Bergui, Mauro; Lavagnino, Luca; Righi, Dorico; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Pinessi, Lorenzo; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-01

    Alexithymia is a personality trait that consists of difficulty in identifying and acknowledging one's own and others' feelings. Recent studies reported that alexithymia is present in both anorexia (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). Brain morphological studies on healthy subjects showed that alexithymia correlates with several brain regions involved in emotions processing. The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomical correlates of alexithymia in AN and BN. We performed a voxel-based morphometry study on 21 patients with AN and 18 with BN. Seventeen healthy subjects were used as a control group. Alexithymia, depression and anxiety were assessed with self-administered questionnaires and correlated to gray matter (GM) density in each group. In BN, alexithymia was correlated with the GM of the parietal lobe, in particular of the right angular gyrus. The correlation was predominantly linked with Difficulty Describing Feelings. In AN, we did not find correlations between GM and alexithymia. In BN, our results support the hypothesis that this trait may represent a relevant pathogenic or maintenance factor that contributes to relational difficulties, present in this pathology. In AN, the lack of correlation between GM volume and alexithymia may be influenced by atrophy in several brain regions that in turn can be, as previously reported, a consequence of caloric restriction. Also, the nature of alexithymia may be different from that of BN and controls and this trait could be secondary to a psychopathologic process specific to AN. © 2015 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2015 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. Juggling revisited - a voxel-based morphometry study with expert jugglers.

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    Gerber, P; Schlaffke, L; Heba, S; Greenlee, M W; Schultz, T; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-07-15

    Juggling is a highly interesting tool to investigate neuroplasticity associated with motor-learning. Several brain-imaging studies have reported changes in regional brain morphology in visual association cortices in individuals learning how to juggle a three-ball cascade. However, to our knowledge there are no studies that investigated expert jugglers, looking for specific features in regional brain morphology related to this highly specialized skill. Using T1-weighted images and voxel-based morphometry we investigated in a cross-sectional study design 16 expert jugglers, able to juggle at least five balls and an age- and gender-matched group of non-jugglers. We hypothesized that expert jugglers would show higher gray matter density in regions involved in visual motion perception and eye-hand coordination. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using SPM8. Age was included in the analyses as covariate of no interest. As compared to controls jugglers displayed several clusters of higher, regional gray matter density in the occipital and parietal lobes including the secondary visual cortex, the hMT+/V5 area bilaterally and the intraparietal sulcus bilaterally. Within the jugglers group we also found a correlation between performance and regional gray matter density in the right hMT+/V5 area. Our study provides evidence that expert jugglers show increased gray matter density in brain regions involved in visual motion perception and eye-hand coordination, i.e. brain areas that have previously been shown to undergo dynamic changes in terms of gray matter increases in subjects learning a basic three-ball cascade. The extent to which transient increases in beginners and the differences in experts and non-experts are based on the same neurobiological correlates remains to be fully elucidated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Brain volumetric abnormalities in patients with anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Caroppo, Paola; D'Agata, Federico; Spalatro, Angela; Lavagnino, Luca; Caglio, Marcella; Righi, Dorico; Bergui, Mauro; Abbate-Daga, Giovanni; Rigardetto, Roberto; Mortara, Paolo; Fassino, Secondo

    2013-09-30

    Recent studies focussing on neuroimaging features of eating disorders have observed that anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by significant grey matter (GM) atrophy in many brain regions, especially in the cerebellum and anterior cingulate cortex. To date, no studies have found GM atrophy in bulimia nervosa (BN) or have directly compared patients with AN and BN. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to characterize brain abnormalities in AN and BN patients, comparing them with each other and with a control group, and correlating brain volume with clinical features. We recruited 17 AN, 13 BN and 14 healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a T1-weighted 3D image. VBM analysis was carried out with the FSL-VBM 4.1 tool. We found no global atrophy, but regional GM reduction in AN with respect to controls and BN in the cerebellum, fusiform area, supplementary motor area, and occipital cortex, and in the caudate in BN compared to AN and controls. Both groups of patients had a volumetric increase bilaterally in somatosensory regions with respect to controls, in areas that are typically involved in the sensory-motor integration of body stimuli and in mental representation of the body image. Our VBM study documented, for the first time in BN patients, the presence of volumetric alterations and replicated previous findings in AN patients. We evidenced morphological differences between AN and BN, demonstrating in the latter atrophy of the caudate nucleus, a region involved in reward mechanisms and processes of self-regulation, perhaps involved in the genesis of the binge-eating behaviors of this disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Regional Grey Matter Structure Differences between Transsexuals and Healthy Controls—A Voxel Based Morphometry Study

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    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R.; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender. PMID:24391851

  4. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Lajos; Kozák, Lajos R; Simon, Viktória; Czobor, Pál; Unoka, Zsolt; Szabó, Ádám; Csukly, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID) refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF) transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM) transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM) obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17) and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females). We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM) structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri). These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  5. Regional grey matter structure differences between transsexuals and healthy controls--a voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Simon

    Full Text Available Gender identity disorder (GID refers to transsexual individuals who feel that their assigned biological gender is incongruent with their gender identity and this cannot be explained by any physical intersex condition. There is growing scientific interest in the last decades in studying the neuroanatomy and brain functions of transsexual individuals to better understand both the neuroanatomical features of transsexualism and the background of gender identity. So far, results are inconclusive but in general, transsexualism has been associated with a distinct neuroanatomical pattern. Studies mainly focused on male to female (MTF transsexuals and there is scarcity of data acquired on female to male (FTM transsexuals. Thus, our aim was to analyze structural MRI data with voxel based morphometry (VBM obtained from both FTM and MTF transsexuals (n = 17 and compare them to the data of 18 age matched healthy control subjects (both males and females. We found differences in the regional grey matter (GM structure of transsexual compared with control subjects, independent from their biological gender, in the cerebellum, the left angular gyrus and in the left inferior parietal lobule. Additionally, our findings showed that in several brain areas, regarding their GM volume, transsexual subjects did not differ significantly from controls sharing their gender identity but were different from those sharing their biological gender (areas in the left and right precentral gyri, the left postcentral gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, precuneus and calcarinus, the right cuneus, the right fusiform, lingual, middle and inferior occipital, and inferior temporal gyri. These results support the notion that structural brain differences exist between transsexual and healthy control subjects and that majority of these structural differences are dependent on the biological gender.

  6. A Voxel-Based Morphometric MRI Study in Young Adults with Borderline Personality Disorder.

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    Xinhu Jin

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence has documented subtle changes in brain morphology and function in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD. However, results of magnetic resonance imaging volumetry in patients with BPD are inconsistent. In addition, few researchers using voxel-based morphometry (VBM have focused on attachment and childhood trauma in BPD. This preliminary study was performed to investigate structural brain changes and their relationships to attachment and childhood trauma in a homogenous sample of young adults with BPD.We examined 34 young adults with BPD and 34 healthy controls (HCs to assess regionally specific differences in gray matter volume (GMV and gray matter concentration (GMC. Multiple regressions between brain volumes measured by VBM and attachment style questionnaire (ASQ and childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ scores were performed.Compared with HCs, subjects with BPD showed significant bilateral increases in GMV in the middle cingulate cortex (MCC/posterior cingulate cortex (PCC/precuneus. GMC did not differ significantly between groups. In multiple regression models, ASQ insecure attachment scores were correlated negatively with GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus in HCs, HCs with more severe insecure attachment showed smaller volumes in precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus, whereas no negative correlations between insecure attachment and GMV in any region were found in BPD group. In addition, CTQ total scores were not correlated with GMV in any region in the two groups respectively.Our findings fit with those of previous reports of larger precuneus GMV in patients with BPD, and suggest that GMV in the precuneus/MCC and middle occipital gyrus is associated inversely with insecure attachment style in HCs. Our finding of increased GMV in the MCC and PCC in patients with BPD compared with HCs has not been reported in previous VBM studies.

  7. Structural neural correlates of multitasking: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Ting; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Wang, Yi; Sui, Yuxiu; Yao, Jingjing; Zhang, Chen-Yuan; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K

    2016-12-01

    Multitasking refers to the ability to organize assorted tasks efficiently in a short period of time, which plays an important role in daily life. However, the structural neural correlates of multitasking performance remain unclear. The present study aimed at exploring the brain regions associated with multitasking performance using global correlation analysis. Twenty-six healthy participants first underwent structural brain scans and then performed the modified Six Element Test, which required participants to attempt six subtasks in 10 min while obeying a specific rule. Voxel-based morphometry of the whole brain was used to detect the structural correlates of multitasking ability. Grey matter volume of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was positively correlated with the overall performance and time monitoring in multitasking. In addition, white matter volume of the anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) was also positively correlated with time monitoring during multitasking. Other related brain regions associated with multitasking included the superior frontal gyrus, the inferior occipital gyrus, the lingual gyrus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. No significant correlation was found between grey matter volume of the prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 10) and multitasking performance. Using a global correlation analysis to examine various aspects of multitasking performance, this study provided new insights into the structural neural correlates of multitasking ability. In particular, the ACC was identified as an important brain region that played both a general and a specific time-monitoring role in multitasking, extending the role of the ACC from lesioned populations to healthy populations. The present findings also support the view that the ATR may influence multitasking performance by affecting time-monitoring abilities. © 2016 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Voxel Based Analysis of Surgical Revascularization for Moyamoya Disease: Pre- and Postoperative SPECT Studies.

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    Yasutaka Fushimi

    Full Text Available Moyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic, progressive, cerebrovascular occlusive disease that causes abnormal enlargement of collateral pathways (moyamoya vessels in the region of the basal ganglia and thalamus. Cerebral revascularization procedures remain the preferred treatment for patients with MMD, improving the compromised cerebral blood flow (CBF. However, voxel based analysis (VBA of revascularization surgery for MMD based on data from pre- and postoperative data has not been established. The latest algorithm called as Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL has been introduced for VBA as the function of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8, and improved registration has been achieved by SPM8 with DARTEL. In this study, VBA was conducted to evaluate pre- and postoperative single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images for MMD by SPM8 with DARTEL algorithm, and the results were compared with those from SPM8 without DARTEL (a conventional method. Thirty-two patients with MMD who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA bypass surgery as the first surgery were included and all patients underwent pre- and postoperative 3D T1-weighted imaging and SPECT. Pre- and postoperative SPECT images were registered to 3D T1-weighted images, then VBA was conducted. Postoperative SPECT showed more statistically increased CBF areas in the bypassed side cerebral hemisphere by using SPM8 with DARTEL (58,989 voxels; P<0.001, and increased ratio of CBF after operation was less than 15%. Meanwhile, postoperative SPECT showed less CBF increased areas by SPM8 without DARTEL. In conclusion, VBA was conducted for patients with MMD, and SPM8 with DARTEL revealed that postoperative SPECT showed statistically significant CBF increases over a relatively large area and with at most 15% increase ratio.

  9. Sports and brain morphology - a voxel-based morphometry study with endurance athletes and martial artists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaffke, L; Lissek, S; Lenz, M; Brüne, M; Juckel, G; Hinrichs, T; Platen, P; Tegenthoff, M; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2014-02-14

    Physical exercises and motor skill learning have been shown to induce changes in regional brain morphology, this has been demonstrated for various activities and tasks. Also individuals with special skills show differences in regional brain morphology. This has been indicated for professional musicians, London taxi drivers, as well as for athletes like dancers, golfers and judokas. However little is known about whether sports with different metabolic profiles (aerobic vs. anaerobic) are associated with different patterns of altered brain morphology. In this cross-sectional study we investigated two groups of high-performance athletes, one group performing sports that are thought to be mainly aerobic, and one group performing sports known to have intermittent phases of anaerobic metabolism. Using high-resolution structural imaging and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), we investigated a group of 26 male athletes consisting of 13 martial artists and 13 endurance athletes as well as a group of non-exercising men (n=13). VBM analyses revealed higher gray matter (GM) volumes in the supplementary motor area/dorsal premotor cortex (BA 6) in both athlete groups as compared to the control group. In addition, endurance athletes showed significantly higher GM volume in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), specifically in the hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus, which was not seen in the martial arts group. Our data suggest that high-performance sports are associated with changes in regional brain morphology in areas implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In addition high-level endurance sports seem to affect MTL structures, areas that have previously been shown to be modulated by aerobic exercise. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Morphometric changes of whole brain in patients with alcohol addiction: a voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jinfeng; Chen Zhiye; Ma Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate morphometric changes of brain in patients with alcohol addiction by voxel-based morphometry. Methods: Fifteen patients with alcohol addiction and 15 health controls were recruited and underwent fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and 3D fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) T 1 -weighted sequences on a 3.0 T MRI system. 3D FSPGR T 1 structure images were normalized, segmented and smoothed, and then underwent voxel-based morphometry. An ANCOVA was applied with age, body mass index (BMI), and education years as covariates because of exact sex match. A statistical threshold of P 0.05). Conclusions: Regional gray and white matter atrophy can be the initial changes in patients with alcohol addiction and the frontal region is a relative specific damaged brain region. VBM has a potential value for the detection of subtle brain atrophy in patients with alcohol addiction. (authors)

  11. Combined brain voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study in idiopathic restless legs syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, G; Manners, D; Vetrugno, R; Tonon, C; Malucelli, E; Plazzi, G; Marconi, S; Pizza, F; Testa, C; Provini, F; Montagna, P; Lodi, R

    2012-07-01

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of abnormalities in the brain of patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI).   Twenty patients and twenty controls were studied. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) and FSL-VBM software tools. For voxel-wise analysis of DTI, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and SPM8 were used.   Applying an appropriate threshold of probability, no significant results were found either in comparison or in correlation analyses.   Our data argue against clear structural or microstructural abnormalities in the brain of patients with idiopathic RLS, suggesting a prevalent role of functional or metabolic impairment. © 2011 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2011 EFNS.

  12. Widespread structural brain changes in OCD: a systematic review of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Chiapponi, Chiara; Girardi, Paolo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    The most widely accepted model of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assumes brain abnormalities in the "affective circuit", mainly consisting of volume reduction in the medial orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and temporolimbic cortices, and tissue expansion in the striatum and thalamus. The advent of whole-brain, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has provided increasing evidence that regions outside the "affective" orbitofronto-striatal circuit are involved in OCD. Nevertheless, potential confounds from the different image analysis methods, as well as other factors, such as patients' medication and comorbidity status, may limit generalization of results. In the present paper, we systematically reviewed the whole-brain VBM literature on OCD by focussing specifically on degree of consistency between studies, extent to which findings have been replicated and interrelation between clinical variables and OCD anatomy, a potentially crucial factor that has been systematically examined only in a limited number of studies. The PubMed database was searched through February 2012. A total of 156 studies were identified; 18 of them fulfilled the inclusion/exclusion criteria and included 511 patients and 504 controls. Results support the notion that the brain alterations responsible for OCD are represented at the network level, and that widespread structural abnormalities may contribute to neurobiological vulnerability to OCD. Apart from defects in regions within the classic "affective" circuit, volume reduction of the cortical source of the dorsolateral (DL) prefronto-striatal "executive" circuit (dorsomedial, DL, ventrolateral and frontopolar prefrontal cortices), and of reciprocally connected regions (temporo-parieto-occipital associative areas) is consistently described in OCD patients. Moreover, increased volume of the internal capsule and reduced frontal and parietal white matter volumes may account for altered anatomical connectivity in fronto-subcortical circuitry

  13. Voxel-based structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study of patients with early onset schizophrenia

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    Suzuki Katsuaki

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation into the whole brain morphology of early onset schizophrenia (EOS to date has been sparse. We studied the regional brain volumes in EOS patients, and the correlations between regional volume measures and symptom severity. Methods A total of 18 EOS patients (onset under 16 years and 18 controls matched for age, gender, parental socioeconomic status, and height were examined. Voxel-based morphometric analysis using the Brain Analysis Morphological Mapping (BAMM software package was employed to explore alterations of the regional grey (GM and white matter (WM volumes in EOS patients. Symptoms were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS. Results EOS patients had significantly reduced GM volume in the left parahippocampal, inferior frontal, and superior temporal gyri, compared with the controls. They also had less WM volume in the left posterior limb of the internal capsule and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The positive symptom score of PANSS (higher values corresponding to more severe symptoms was negatively related to GM volume in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus. The negative symptom score was positively correlated with GM volume in the right thalamus. As for the association with WM volume, the positive symptom score of PANSS was positively related to cerebellar WM (vermis region, and negatively correlated with WM in the brain stem (pons and in the bilateral cerebellum (hemisphere region. Conclusion Our findings of regional volume alterations of GM and WM in EOS patients coincide with those of previous studies of adult onset schizophrenia patients. However, in brain regions that had no overall structural differences between EOS patients and controls (that is, the bilateral posterior cingulate gyrus, the right thalamus, the cerebellum, and the pons, within-subject analysis of EOS patients alone revealed that there were significant associations of the volume in these areas

  14. Contralesional Cortical Structural Reorganization Contributes to Motor Recovery after Sub-Cortical Stroke: A Longitudinal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianxin; Ji, Qiling; Xin, Ruiqiang; Zhang, Dianping; Na, Xu; Peng, Ruchen; Li, Kuncheng

    2016-01-01

    Although changes in brain gray matter after stroke have been identified in some neuroimaging studies, lesion heterogeneity and individual variability make the detection of potential neuronal reorganization difficult. This study attempted to investigate the potential structural cortical reorganization after sub-cortical stroke using a longitudinal voxel-based gray matter volume (GMV) analysis. Eleven right-handed patients with first-onset, subcortical, ischemic infarctions involving the basal ganglia regions underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging in addition to National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and Motricity Index (MI) assessments in the acute (reorganization of the CL "cognitive" cortices might contribute to motor recovery after sub-cortical stroke.

  15. Structural differences in gray matter between glider pilots and non-pilots. A voxel based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosif eAhamed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Glider flying is a unique skill that requires pilots to control an aircraft at high speeds in three dimensions and amidst frequent full body rotations. In the present study we investigated the neural correlates of flying a glider using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The comparison between gray matter densities of 15 glider pilots and a control group of 15 non-pilots exhibited significant gray matter density increases in left ventral premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary eye field. We posit that the identified regions might be associated with cognitive and motor processes related to flying such as joystick control, visuo-vestibular interaction and oculomotor control.

  16. A voxel-based lesion study on facial emotion recognition after penetrating brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Monte, Olga; Solomon, Jeffrey M.; Schintu, Selene; Knutson, Kristine M.; Strenziok, Maren; Pardini, Matteo; Leopold, Anne; Raymont, Vanessa; Grafman, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    The ability to read emotions in the face of another person is an important social skill that can be impaired in subjects with traumatic brain injury (TBI). To determine the brain regions that modulate facial emotion recognition, we conducted a whole-brain analysis using a well-validated facial emotion recognition task and voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) in a large sample of patients with focal penetrating TBIs (pTBIs). Our results revealed that individuals with pTBI performed significantly worse than normal controls in recognizing unpleasant emotions. VLSM mapping results showed that impairment in facial emotion recognition was due to damage in a bilateral fronto-temporo-limbic network, including medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), anterior cingulate cortex, left insula and temporal areas. Beside those common areas, damage to the bilateral and anterior regions of PFC led to impairment in recognizing unpleasant emotions, whereas bilateral posterior PFC and left temporal areas led to impairment in recognizing pleasant emotions. Our findings add empirical evidence that the ability to read pleasant and unpleasant emotions in other people's faces is a complex process involving not only a common network that includes bilateral fronto-temporo-limbic lobes, but also other regions depending on emotional valence. PMID:22496440

  17. The neural substrates of procrastination: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yue; Liu, Peiwei; Guo, Yiqun; Feng, Tingyong

    2018-03-01

    Procrastination is a pervasive phenomenon across different cultures and brings about lots of serious consequences, including performance, subjective well-being, and even public policy. However, little is known about the neural substrates of procrastination. In order to shed light upon this question, we investigated the neuroanatomical substrates of procrastination across two independent samples using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The whole-brain analysis showed procrastination was positively correlated with the graymatter (GM) volume of clusters in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG) and the orbital frontal cortex (OFC), while negatively correlated with the GM volume of clusters in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the middle frontal gyrus (MFG) in sample one (151 participants). We further conducted a verification procedure on another sample (108 participants) using region-of-interest analysis to examine the reliability of these results. Results showed procrastination can be predicted by the GM volume of the OFC and the MFG. The present findings suggest that the MFG and OFC, which are the key regions of self-control and emotion regulation, may play an important role in procrastination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Prehn

    Full Text Available Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema, whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2 which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus. A voxel-based fractional anisotropy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Ohmura, Takehisa; Miyake, Hiroji; Marumoto, Kohei; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using a 3.0 tesla magnetic resonance scanner was used to investigate white matter changes caused by idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) in 10 patients diagnosed by clinical symptoms (gait disturbance, dementia, and/or urinary incontinence) and Evans index >0.3, and compared with findings for 10 age-matched controls (≥60 years). Then, using a computer-automated method, fractional anisotropy (FA) brain maps were generated and finally transformed into the standard space. Voxel-based FA values within two regions of interests (ROIs), the forceps minor and corticospinal tracts, were then separately evaluated. Within each ROI, statistical comparisons of results from the INPH and control groups were performed. In addition, for INPH patients, grading scores for clinical symptoms and FA values were correlated. The forceps minor mean FA value was much smaller for the INPH group (0.504) than for the control group (0.631). The corticospinal tract mean FA value was slightly smaller for the INPH group (0.588) than for the control group (0.632). Additional analyses indicated that lower FA values within the forceps minor tended to be associated with clinical symptoms such as urinary incontinence and gait disturbance. Our findings indicate FA values decreased in the forceps minor of INPH patients. We also found that lower values were associated with severer clinical symptoms, implying that DTI techniques may be developed for more accurate diagnosis. (author)

  20. Neural correlates of post-conventional moral reasoning: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A; Robertson, Diana C

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which moral development is reflected in structural brain architecture remains unknown. To investigate this question, we used voxel-based morphometry and examined the brain structure in a sample of 67 Master of Business Administration (MBA) students. Subjects completed the Defining Issues Test (DIT-2) which measures moral development in terms of cognitive schema preference. Results demonstrate that subjects at the post-conventional level of moral reasoning were characterized by increased gray matter volume in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, compared with subjects at a lower level of moral reasoning. Our findings support an important role for both cognitive and emotional processes in moral reasoning and provide first evidence for individual differences in brain structure according to the stages of moral reasoning first proposed by Kohlberg decades ago.

  1. A voxel-based morphometry study of brain volume changes in patients with neuromyelitis optica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Huang Jing; Ren Zhuoqiong; Ye Jing; Dong Huiqing; Chen Hai; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect changes of regional grey matter and white matter volume in patients of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigate its relationship with clinical variables. Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and structural three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 20 NMO and 20 sex-and age-matched healthy volunteers. The comparison of grey matter and white matter volume between the two groups was analyzed by VBM tools of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Pearson correlation analysis was used to assess correlations between regional volume decrease and disease duration and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores in NMO patients. Results: Compared with normal controls, NMO patients had grey matter atrophy in several cortical regions, such as right inferior frontal gyrus (cluster size 514), left superior temporal gyrus (282), right middle temporal gyrus (229) and right insula (211) (t=3.58-5.11, AlphaSim corrected, P<0.05). White matter atrophy was found in several subcortical regions in NMO patients, such as right precentral and postcentral gyrus (cluster size 457, 110), left middle frontal gyrus (285), and right inferior parietal lobule (231) (t=2.90-4.25, AlphaSim corrected, P<0.05). Grey matter and white matter volume loss were not significantly correlated with clinical duration or EDSS score in NMO. Conclusion: By means of VBM, regional atrophy of grey matter and white matter is found in NMO patients, which may provide evidence for brain structural abnormality in NMO. (authors)

  2. An optimized voxel-based morphometry MRI study of the brain in patients with first episode schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Tang Hehan; Gong Qiyong; Ouyang Luo; Deng Wei; Jiang Lijun; Li Tao

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the structural differences between patients with first episode schizophrenia and normal controls using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study. Methods: High resolution T 1 weighted images were obtained using 3.0 T MR from 13 first-episode, untreated schizophrenia and 13 age, sex, handedness matched normal controls. Images were preprocessed by employing the optimized VBM and two sample t-test was used to detect differences between patients and normal controls with respect to both density and volume of gray matter in the brain. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significant lower gray matter density and gray matter volume generally distributed among bilateral hemispheres, especially in bilateral frontal and temporal lobes. However, no significant increase of gray matter density and gray matter volume was observed in these patients. Conclusions: Optimized voxel-based morphometry study is an automatic and effective method to study psychological diseases such as schizophrenia. Compared with normal controls, patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower gray matter density and gray matter volume across the bilateral hemispheres. (authors)

  3. Generation of postured voxel-based human models for the study of step voltage excited by lightning current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.; Munteanu, I.; Müller, W. F. O.; Weiland, T.

    2011-07-01

    With the development of medical technique and computational electromagnetics, high resolution anatomic human models have already been widely developed and used in computation of electromagnetic fields induced in human body. Although these so called voxel-based human models are powerful tools for research on electromagnetic safety, their unchangeable standing posture makes it impossible to simulate a realistic scenario in which people have a lot of different postures. This paper describes a poser program package which was developed as an improved version of the free-from deformation technique to overcome this problem. It can set rotation angles of different human joints and then deform the original human model to make it have different postures. The original whole-body human model can be deformed smoothly, continuity of internal tissues and organs is maintained and the mass of different tissues and organs can be conserved in a reasonable level. As a typical application of the postured human models, this paper also studies the effect of the step voltage due to a lightning strike on the human body. Two voxel-based human body models with standing and walking posture were developed and integrated into simulation models to compute the current density distribution in the human body shocked by the step voltage. In order to speed up the transient simulation, the reduced c technique was used, leading to a speedup factor of around 20. The error introduced by the reduced c technique is discussed and simulation results are presented in detail.

  4. Patterns of gray matter atrophy in dementia with Lewy bodies: a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Watson, Rosie; O'Brien, John T; Barber, Robert; Blamire, Andrew M

    2012-04-01

    Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a common form of dementia characterized by visual hallucinations, cognitive fluctuation and parkinsonism. We aimed to compare the patterns of gray matter atrophy in DLB with those in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal aging, and to investigate the relationship between atrophy and cognitive measures. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate gray matter (GM) loss in DLB (n = 35; mean age = 78.4; MMSE = 20.3), AD (n = 36; mean age = 78.3; MMSE = 19.5) and similar aged controls (n = 35; mean age = 76.7; MMSE = 29.1). T1 weighted MRI scans were acquired at 3 Tesla from all subjects and analyzed using VBM-DARTEL in SPM8. Cognitive function was assessed using the Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG). We found reduced gray matter in temporal, parietal, occipital, and subcortical structures in DLB when compared to normal controls. The degree of atrophy was less than that observed in AD. There was significantly more medial temporal lobe atrophy in the AD group when compared with DLB. We did not find a correlation between total CAMCOG score and atrophy, but the CAMCOG memory subscale score correlated with temporal lobe atrophy in both the DLB and combined DLB/AD group. DLB is associated with less gray matter atrophy and relative preservation of the medial temporal lobe when compared to AD. Degree of medial temporal atrophy may be a useful imaging biomarker and our results provide support for its inclusion in the revised consensus criteria for DLB.

  5. Right Brodmann area 18 predicts tremor arrest after Vim radiosurgery: a voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Tuleasca, Constantin; Witjas, Tatiana; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Najdenovska, Elena; Verger, Antoine; Girard, Nadine; Champoudry, Jerome; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Levivier, Marc; Guedj, Eric; Régis, Jean

    2018-03-01

    Drug-resistant essential tremor (ET) can benefit from open standard stereotactic procedures, such as deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy. Non-surgical candidates can be offered either high-focused ultrasound (HIFU) or radiosurgery (RS). All procedures aim to target the same thalamic site, the ventro-intermediate nucleus (e.g., Vim). The mechanisms by which tremor stops after Vim RS or HIFU remain unknown. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on pretherapeutic neuroimaging data and assessed which anatomical site would best correlate with tremor arrest 1 year after Vim RS. Fifty-two patients (30 male, 22 female; mean age 71.6 years, range 49-82) with right-sided ET benefited from left unilateral Vim RS in Marseille, France. Targeting was performed in a uniform manner, using 130 Gy and a single 4-mm collimator. Neurological (pretherapeutic and 1 year after) and neuroimaging (baseline) assessments were completed. Tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) at 1 year after Vim RS was included in a statistical parametric mapping analysis of variance (ANOVA) model as a continuous variable with pretherapeutic neuroimaging data. Pretherapeutic gray matter density (GMD) was further correlated with TSTH improvement. No a priori hypothesis was used in the statistical model. The only statistically significant region was right Brodmann area (BA) 18 (visual association area V2, p = 0.05, cluster size K c  = 71). Higher baseline GMD correlated with better TSTH improvement at 1 year after Vim RS (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient = 0.002). Routine baseline structural neuroimaging predicts TSTH improvement 1 year after Vim RS. The relevant anatomical area is the right visual association cortex (BA 18, V2). The question whether visual areas should be included in the targeting remains open.

  6. Neuroanatomical circuitry associated with exploratory eye movement in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Linlin Qiu

    Full Text Available Schizophrenic patients present abnormalities in a variety of eye movement tasks. Exploratory eye movement (EEM dysfunction appears to be particularly specific to schizophrenia. However, the underlying mechanisms of EEM dysfunction in schizophrenia are not clearly understood. To assess the potential neuroanatomical substrates of EEM, we recorded EEM performance and conducted a voxel-based morphometric analysis of gray matter in 33 schizophrenic patients and 29 well matched healthy controls. In schizophrenic patients, decreased responsive search score (RSS and widespread gray matter density (GMD reductions were observed. Moreover, the RSS was positively correlated with GMD in distributed brain regions in schizophrenic patients. Furthermore, in schizophrenic patients, some brain regions with neuroanatomical deficits overlapped with some ones associated with RSS. These brain regions constituted an occipito-tempro-frontal circuitry involved in visual information processing and eye movement control, including the left calcarine cortex [Brodmann area (BA 17], the left cuneus (BA 18, the left superior occipital cortex (BA 18/19, the left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6, the left cerebellum, the right lingual cortex (BA 17/18, the right middle occipital cortex (BA19, the right inferior temporal cortex (BA 37, the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46 and bilateral precentral gyri (BA 6 extending to the frontal eye fields (FEF, BA 8. To our knowledge, we firstly reported empirical evidence that gray matter loss in the occipito-tempro-frontal neuroanatomical circuitry of visual processing system was associated with EEM performance in schizophrenia, which may be helpful for the future effort to reveal the underlying neural mechanisms for EEM disturbances in schizophrenia.

  7. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

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    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  8. Personality traits related to juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: MRI reveals prefrontal abnormalities through a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Filho, Gerardo Maria; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Lin, Katia; Guaranha, Mirian S B; Guilhoto, Laura M F F; da Silva, Henrique Hattori; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Júnior, Henrique Carrete; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca; Yacubian, Elza Márcia T

    2009-06-01

    Studies involving juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) patients have demonstrated an elevated prevalence of cluster B personality disorders (PD) characterized as emotional instability, immaturity, unsteadiness, lack of discipline, and rapid mood changes. We aimed to verify a possible correlation between structural brain abnormalities in magnetic resonance image (MRI) and the PD in JME using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Sixteen JME patients with cluster B PD, 38 JME patients without psychiatric disorders, and 30 healthy controls were submitted to a psychiatric evaluation through SCID I and II and to a MRI scan. Significant reduction in thalami and increase in mesiofrontal and frontobasal regions' volumes were observed mainly in JME patients with PD. Structural alterations of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), involved in regulation of mood reactivity, impulsivity, and social behavior, were also observed. This study supports the hypothesis of frontobasal involvement in the pathophysiology of cluster B PD related to JME.

  9. Gray matter density reduction in the insula in fire survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Chen, Shulin; Xia, Weiwei; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; He, Zhong; Zhang, Zishu; Yan, Lirong; Zhang, Jinli; Hu, Dewen

    2006-01-30

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is an objective whole-brain technique for characterizing regional cerebral volume and tissue concentration differences in structural magnetic resonance images. In the current study, we used VBM to examine possible cerebral gray matter abnormalities in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to fire. The subjects included 12 victims of a fire disaster with PTSD and 12 matched victims of the same fire without PTSD. Magnetic resonance images were obtained on a 1.5-Tesla General Electric scanner at Central South University, and an entire brain volume of 248 contiguous slices was obtained for each subject. Then, gray matter density in patients with PTSD and control groups was compared by using a VBM approach in SPM2. Group analysis was thresholded at Pfire.

  10. Gray Matter Atrophy within the Default Mode Network of Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

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    Chemin Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, studies have demonstrated morphological changes in the brain of fibromyalgia (FMS. We aimed to conduct a coordinate-based meta-analytic research through systemic review on voxel-based morphometry (VBM imaging results to identify consistent gray matter (GM difference between FMS patients and healthy subjects. We performed a comprehensive literature search in PubMed (January 2000–December 2015 and included six VBM publication on FMS. Stereotactic data were extracted from 180 patients of FMS and 123 healthy controls. By means of activation likelihood estimation (ALE technique, regional GM reduction in left medial prefrontal cortex and right dorsal posterior cingulate cortex was identified. Both regions are within the default mode network. In conclusion, the gray matter deficit is related to the both affective and nonaffective components of pain processing. This result also provided the neuroanatomical correlates for emotional and cognitive symptoms in FMS.

  11. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

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    Yu, Bing, E-mail: yubing@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Kong, Fanxing, E-mail: kongfx@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Peng, Miao, E-mail: pengm@sj-hospital.org [Psychological Outpatient Service, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Ma, Hongwei, E-mail: mahongwei1960@hotmail.com [Department of Pediatrics, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna.916@163.com [Department of Radiology, the People' s Hospital of Liaoning Province, Shenyang 110016 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: guoqy@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  12. Assessment of memory/attention impairment in children with primary nocturnal enuresis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Bing; Kong, Fanxing; Peng, Miao; Ma, Hongwei; Liu, Na; Guo, Qiyong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Assessment of memory/attention impairment and related exploration of the gray matter differential MR density variations between children with and without primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) methodology is the aim of the present study. Methods: A total of 75 right-handed PNE children (M/F = 39:36, average age 10.4 ± 1.3 years) and 72 age-matched, right-handed, healthy controls (M/F = 40:32, 10.0 ± 1.2 years) were recruited for the study. First, intelligence tests were performed using the China-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C-WISC) in both PNE and control children. The full intelligence quotient (FIQ), verbal IQ (VIQ), performance IQ (PIQ), and memory/caution (M/C) factor were measured. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was performed using high resolution 3 Tesla T1-weighted MR images, processed using VBM5 in the PNE and control children. Student's t-test or Mann–Whitney U test were performed to analyze the difference in the gray matter density (GMD) between the PNE and control children. Results: The FIQ, VIQ, and PIQ in the PNE group were within the normal range and did not significantly differ from the control group, though the M/C factor was statistically lower in the PNE group. Compared with normal controls, PNE children exhibited lower GMD in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the left cerebellum (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Impairment in memory/attention was detected in PNE children, and the structural abnormalities of the right DLPFC and left cerebellum are likely to be implicated in these deficits.

  13. Regional Gray Matter Volumes Are Related to Concern About Falling in Older People: A Voxel-Based Morphometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuerk, Carola; Zhang, Haobo; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R; Brodaty, Henry; Wen, Wei; Delbaere, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Concern about falling is common in older people. Various related psychological constructs as well as poor balance and slow gait have been associated with decreased gray matter (GM) volume in old age. The current study investigates the association between concern about falling and voxel-wise GM volumes. A total of 281 community-dwelling older people aged 70-90 years underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging. Concern about falling was assessed using Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I). For each participant, voxel-wise GM volumes were generated with voxel-based morphometry and regressed on raw FES-I scores (p brain volume (r = -.212; p ≤ .001), GM volume (r = -.210; p ≤ .001), and white matter volume (r = -.155; p ≤ .001). Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed significant negative associations between FES-I and GM volumes of (i) left cerebellum and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus (voxels-in-cluster = 2,981; p fall risk did not alter these associations. After adjustment for anxiety, only left cerebellum and bilateral inferior occipital gyrus remained negatively associated with FES-I scores (voxels-in-cluster = 2,426; p falling is negatively associated with brain volumes in areas important for emotional control and for motor control, executive functions and visual processing in a large sample of older men and women. Regression analyses suggest that these relationships were primarily accounted for by psychological factors (generalized anxiety and neuroticism) and not by physical fall risk or vision. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Voxel-based morphometry in Alzheimers disease and mild cognitive impairment: Systematic review of studies addressing the frontal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luís Gustavo; Busatto, Geraldo

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a useful approach for investigating neurostructural brain changes in dementia. We systematically reviewed VBM studies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), specifically focusing on grey matter (GM) atrophy in the frontal lobe. Two searches were performed on the Pubmed database. A set of exclusion criteria was applied to ensure the selection of only VBM studies that directly investigated GM volume abnormalities in AD and/or MCI patients compared to cognitively normal controls. From a total of 46 selected articles, 35 VBM studies reported GM volume reductions in the frontal lobe. The frontal subregions, where most of the volume reductions were reported, included the inferior, superior and middle frontal gyri, as well as the anterior cingulate gyrus. We also found studies in which reduced frontal GM was detected in MCI patients who converted to AD. In a minority of studies, correlations between frontal GM volumes and behavioural changes or cognitive deficits in AD patients were investigated, with variable findings. Results of VBM studies indicate that the frontal lobe should be regarded as an important brain area when investigating GM volume deficits in association with AD. Frontal GM loss might not be a feature specific to late AD only. Future VBM studies involving large AD samples are warranted to further investigate correlations between frontal volume deficits and both cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric symptoms.

  15. White matter and schizophrenia: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Enrico; Tatu, Mona Karina; Pignolo, Claudia; Cauda, Franco; Costa, Tommaso; Ando', Agata; Zennaro, Alessandro

    2017-12-30

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) are the most implemented methodologies to detect alterations of both gray and white matter (WM). However, the role of WM in mental disorders is still not well defined. We aimed at clarifying the role of WM disruption in schizophrenia and at identifying the most frequently involved brain networks. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify VBM and DTI studies focusing on WM alterations in patients with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. We selected studies reporting the coordinates of WM reductions and we performed the anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE). Moreover, we labeled the WM bundles with an anatomical atlas and compared VBM and DTI ALE-scores of each significant WM tract. A total of 59 studies were eligible for the meta-analysis. WM alterations were reported in 31 and 34 foci with VBM and DTI methods, respectively. The most occurred WM bundles in both VBM and DTI studies and largely involved in schizophrenia were long projection fibers, callosal and commissural fibers, part of motor descending fibers, and fronto-temporal-limbic pathways. The meta-analysis showed a widespread WM disruption in schizophrenia involving specific cerebral circuits instead of well-defined regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mapping grey matter reductions in schizophrenia: an anatomical likelihood estimation analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

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    Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C

    2009-03-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.

  17. Restraint of appetite and reduced regional brain volumes in anorexia nervosa: a voxel-based morphometric study

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    Brooks Samantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI studies of people with anorexia nervosa (AN have shown differences in brain structure. This study aimed to provide preliminary extensions of this data by examining how different levels of appetitive restraint impact on brain volume. Methods Voxel based morphometry (VBM, corrected for total intracranial volume, age, BMI, years of education in 14 women with AN (8 RAN and 6 BPAN and 21 women (HC was performed. Correlations between brain volume and dietary restraint were done using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results Increased right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and reduced right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, left fusiform gyrus, left cerebellum and right posterior cingulate volumes in AN compared to HC. RAN compared to BPAN had reduced left orbitofrontal cortex, right anterior insular cortex, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and left cerebellum. Age negatively correlated with right DLPFC volume in HC but not in AN; dietary restraint and BMI predicted 57% of variance in right DLPFC volume in AN. Conclusions In AN, brain volume differences were found in appetitive, somatosensory and top-down control brain regions. Differences in regional GMV may be linked to levels of appetitive restraint, but whether they are state or trait is unclear. Nevertheless, these discrete brain volume differences provide candidate brain regions for further structural and functional study in people with eating disorders.

  18. A study of diffusion tensor imaging by tissue-specific, smoothing-compensated voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Eun; Chung, Moo K; Lazar, Mariana; DuBray, Molly B; Kim, Jinsuh; Bigler, Erin D; Lainhart, Janet E; Alexander, Andrew L

    2009-02-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) is commonly used for statistical analysis of image data, including the detection of significant signal differences between groups. Typically, images are co-registered and then smoothed with an isotropic Gaussian kernel to compensate for image misregistration, to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), to reduce the number of multiple comparisons, and to apply random field theory. Problems with typical implementations of VBA include poor tissue specificity from image misregistration and smoothing. In this study, we developed a new tissue-specific, smoothing-compensated (T-SPOON) method for the VBA of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data with improved tissue specificity and compensation for image misregistration and smoothing. When compared with conventional VBA methods, the T-SPOON method introduced substantially less errors in the normalized and smoothed DTI maps. Another confound of the conventional DTI-VBA is that it is difficult to differentiate between differences in morphometry and DTI measures that describe tissue microstructure. T-SPOON VBA decreased the effects of differential morphometry in the DTI VBA studies. T-SPOON and conventional VBA were applied to a DTI study of white matter in autism. T-SPOON VBA results were found to be more consistent with region of interest (ROI) measurements in the corpus callosum and temporal lobe regions. The T-SPOON method may be also applicable to other quantitative imaging maps such as T1 or T2 relaxometry, magnetization transfer, or PET tracer maps.

  19. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fengmei; Huo, Yajun; Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Jiang; Zeng, Ling; Chen, Huafu

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM) approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV). The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism) of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  20. Relationship between personality and gray matter volume in healthy young adults: a voxel-based morphometric study.

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    Fengmei Lu

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the neurostructural foundations of the human personality in young adults. High-resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 71 healthy young individuals were processed using voxel-based morphometric (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify the associations between personality traits and gray matter volume (GMV. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised, Short Scale for Chinese was chosen to assess the personality traits. This scale includes four dimensions, namely, extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie. Particularly, we studied on two dimensions (extraversion and neuroticism of Eysenck's personality. Our results showed that extraversion was negatively correlated with GMV of the bilateral amygdala, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, the right middle temporal gyrus, and the left superior frontal gyrus, all of which are involved in emotional and social cognitive processes. These results might suggest an association between extraversion and affective processing. In addition, a positive correlation was detected between neuroticism and GMV of the right cerebellum, a key brain region for negative affect coordination. Meanwhile, a negative association was revealed between GMV of the left superior frontal gyrus and neuroticism. These results may prove that neuroticism is related to several brain regions involved in regulating negative emotions. Based on those findings, we concluded that brain regions involved in social cognition and affective process accounted for modulation and shaping of personality traits among young individuals. Results of this study may serve as a basis for elucidating the anatomical factors of personality.

  1. Structural changes of central white matter tracts in Kennedy's disease - a diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, C C; Konrad, C; Sommer, J; Teismann, I; Schiffbauer, H

    2013-05-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy [Kennedy's disease (KD)] is a rare X-linked neurodegenerative disorder of mainly spinal and bulbar motoneurons. Recent studies suggest a multisystem character of this disease. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize structural changes of gray (GM) and white matter (WM) in the central nervous system. Whole-brain-based voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses were applied to MRI data of eight genetically proven patients with KD and compared with 16 healthy age-matched controls. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis showed not only decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the brainstem, but also widespread changes in central WM tracts, whereas VBM analysis of the WM showed alterations primarily in the brainstem and cerebellum. There were no changes in GM volume. The FA value decrease in the brainstem correlated with the disease duration. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed subtle changes of central WM tract integrity, while GM and WM volume remained unaffected. In our patient sample, KD had more extended effects than previously reported. These changes could either be attributed primarily to neurodegeneration or reflect secondary plastic changes due to atrophy of lower motor neurons and reorganization of cortical structures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kanako; Kirino, Eiji; Tanaka, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME), music hobby (MH), and nonmusic (NM) group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44), left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18), and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  3. Relating inter-individual differences in verbal creative thinking to cerebral structures: an optimal voxel-based morphometry study.

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    Feifei Zhu

    Full Text Available Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs and white matter volumes (WMVs. In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control.

  4. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study of the Brain of University Students Majoring in Music and Nonmusic Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Sato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The brain changes flexibly due to various experiences during the developmental stages of life. Previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies have shown volumetric differences between musicians and nonmusicians in several brain regions including the superior temporal gyrus, sensorimotor areas, and superior parietal cortex. However, the reported brain regions depend on the study and are not necessarily consistent. By VBM, we investigated the effect of musical training on the brain structure by comparing university students majoring in music with those majoring in nonmusic disciplines. All participants were right-handed healthy Japanese females. We divided the nonmusic students into two groups and therefore examined three groups: music expert (ME, music hobby (MH, and nonmusic (NM group. VBM showed that the ME group had the largest gray matter volumes in the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; BA 44, left middle occipital gyrus (BA 18, and bilateral lingual gyrus. These differences are considered to be caused by neuroplasticity during long and continuous musical training periods because the MH group showed intermediate volumes in these regions.

  5. Relating Inter-Individual Differences in Verbal Creative Thinking to Cerebral Structures: An Optimal Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feifei; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Creativity can be defined the capacity of an individual to produce something original and useful. An important measurable component of creativity is divergent thinking. Despite existing studies on creativity-related cerebral structural basis, no study has used a large sample to investigate the relationship between individual verbal creativity and regional gray matter volumes (GMVs) and white matter volumes (WMVs). In the present work, optimal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was employed to identify the structure that correlates verbal creativity (measured by the verbal form of Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking) across the brain in young healthy subjects. Verbal creativity was found to be significantly positively correlated with regional GMV in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which is believed to be responsible for language production and comprehension, new semantic representation, and memory retrieval, and in the right IFG, which may involve inhibitory control and attention switching. A relationship between verbal creativity and regional WMV in the left and right IFG was also observed. Overall, a highly verbal creative individual with superior verbal skills may demonstrate a greater computational efficiency in the brain areas involved in high-level cognitive processes including language production, semantic representation and cognitive control. PMID:24223921

  6. The overlapping brain region accounting for the relationship between procrastination and impulsivity: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peiwei; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-09-30

    Procrastination is a prevalent problematic behavior that brings serious consequences, such as lower levels of health, wealth, and well-being. Previous research has verified that impulsivity is one of the traits most strongly correlated with procrastination. However, little is known about why there is a tight behavioral relationship between them. To address this question, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore the common neural substrates between procrastination and impulsivity. In line with previous findings, the behavioral results showed a strong behavioral correlation between procrastination and impulsivity. Neuroimaging results showed impulsivity and procrastination shared the common neurobiological underpinnings in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) based on the data from 85 participants (sample 1). Furthermore, the mediation analysis revealed that impulsivity mediated the impact of gray matter (GM) volumes of this overlapping region in the DLPFC on procrastination on another independent 84 participants' data (sample 2). In conclusion, the overlapping brain region in the DLPFC would be responsible for the close relationship between procrastination and impulsivity. As a whole, the present study extends our knowledge on procrastination, and provides a novel perspective to explain the tight impulsivity - procrastination relationship. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Structural brain alterations in bipolar disorder II: a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Elisa; Rossi-Espagnet, Maria Camilla; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Comparelli, Anna; Del Casale, Antonio; Carducci, Filippo; Romano, Andrea; Manfredi, Giovanni; Tatarelli, Roberto; Bozzao, Alessandro; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-09-05

    Brain structural changes have been described in bipolar disorder (BP), but usually studies focused on both I and II subtypes indiscriminately and investigated changes in either brain volume or white matter (WM) integrity. We used combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis to track changes in the grey matter (GM) and WM in the brains of patients affected by BPII, as compared to healthy controls. Using VBM and DTI, we scanned 20 DSM-IV-TR BPII patients in their euthymic phase and 21 healthy, age- and gender-matched volunteers with no psychiatric history. VBM showed decreases in GM of BPII patients, compared to controls, which were diffuse in nature and most prominent in the right middle frontal gyrus and in the right superior temporal gurus. DTI showed significant and widespread FA reduction in BPII patients in all major WM tracts, including cortico-cortical association tracts. The small sample size limits the generalisability of our findings. Reduced GM volumes and WM integrity changes in BPII patients are not prominent like those previously reported in bipolar disorder type-I and involve cortical structures and their related association tracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: A voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Singh, Namita; Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad; Khushu, Subash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. Materials and methods: High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. Results: VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Conclusion: Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness

  9. A voxel-based morphometry study of regional gray and white matter correlate of self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShanShan; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Wang, KangCheng; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Self-disclosure is an important performance in human social communication. Generally, an individual is likely to have a good physical and mental health if he is prone to self-disclosure under stressful life events. However, as for now, little is known about the neural structure associated with self-disclosure. Therefore, in this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to explore regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and white matter volume (rWMV) associated with self-disclosure measured by the Jourard Self-disclosure Questionnaire in a large sample of college students. Results showed that individual self-disclosure was significantly and positively associated with rGMV of the left postcentral gyrus, which might be related to strengthen individual's ability of body feeling; while self-disclosure was significantly and negatively associated with rGMV of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which might be involved in increased positive emotion experience seeking (intrinsically rewarding). In addition, individual self-disclosure was also associated with smaller rWMV in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). These findings suggested a biological basis for individual self-disclosure, distributed across different gray and white matter areas of the brain.

  10. Accelerated cerebral white matter development in preterm infants: a voxel-based morphometry study with diffusion tensor MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giménez, Mónica; Miranda, Maria J; Born, A Peter

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven preterm infants were compared to 10 full-term infants at term equivalent age using a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Preterm infants exhibited higher fractional anisotropy values, which may suggest accelerated maturation, in the location of the sagittal...

  11. Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease and Semantic Dementia: An ALE Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapleau, Marianne; Aldebert, Joséphine; Montembeault, Maxime; Brambati, Simona M

    2016-10-04

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and semantic dementia (SD) have distinct episodic memory profiles despite the hippocampal atrophy that characterizes both diseases. The aim of this study was to delineate the pattern of gray matter (GM) atrophy associated with AD and SD as well as any differences in these patterns by pooling together the results of previous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies.Methods/Overview: We conducted a meta-analysis of VBM studies that investigated GM atrophy in AD patients versus controls (CTRLs) and in SD patients versus CTRLs using the activation likelihood estimation (ALE) approach. Our systematic review allowed us to identify 63 VBM studies. The results confirmed that in addition to the classical cortical pattern of atrophy involving posterior medial and lateral regions in AD and the anterior lateral temporal lobes in SD, both AD and SD patients are characterized by bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus. Furthermore, in SD, the hippocampal atrophy was limited to the anterior portion of the hippocampus, while in AD, both the anterior and posterior parts of the hippocampus exhibited atrophy. When we compared the foci identified in the studies that compared AD patients versus CTRLs with those identified in the studies that compared SD patients versus CTRLs, we observed that the atrophy in the posterior hippocampus and precuneus was more severe in AD. These results support theories that propose that the deficits observed in AD result from damage to the episodic memory network, which involves the posterior hippocampus and posterior medial brain regions. However, sparing of the posterior hippocampus in SD could explain the absence of episodic memory deficits in this population.

  12. Comparison of grey matter atrophy between patients with neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis: A voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Jia Xiuqin; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Sun Hui; Liao Zhangyuan; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Previous studies have established regional grey matter (GM) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether there is any regional GM atrophy in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the difference between NMO and MS is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 26 NMO patients, 26 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 26 normal controls. An analysis of covariance model assessed with cluster size inference was used to compare GM volume among three groups. The correlations of GM volume changes with disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and brain T2 lesion volume (LV) were analyzed. Results: GM atrophy was found in NMO patients in several regions of frontal, temporal, parietal lobes and insula (uncorrected, p < 0.001). While extensive GM atrophy was found in RRMS patients, including most cortical regions and the deep grey matter (corrected for multiple comparisons, p < 0.01). Compared with NMO, those with RRMS had significant GM loss in bilateral thalami, caudate, left parahippocampal gyrus, right hippocampus and insula (corrected, p < 0.01). In RRMS group, regional GM loss in right caudate and bilateral thalami were strongly correlated with brain T2LV. Conclusions: Our study found the difference of GM atrophy between NMO and RRMS patients mainly in deep grey matter. The correlational results suggested axonal degeneration from lesions on T2WI may be a key pathogenesis of atrophy in deep grey matter in RRMS.

  13. Grey matter volume in healthy and epileptic beagles using voxel-based morphometry – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Frank

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR images of one dog breed (Beagles were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. T1W images of all dogs were prepared using Amira 6.3.0 for brain extraction, FSL 4.1.8 for registration and SPM12 for realignment. After creation of tissue probability maps of cerebrospinal fluid, grey and white matter from control images to segment all extracted brains, GM templates for each group were constructed to normalize brain images for parametric statistical analysis, which was achieved using SPM12. Results Epileptic Beagles (IE and SE Beagles displayed statistically significant reduced GMV in olfactory bulb, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus and cortex, especially in temporal and occipital lobes. Beagles with IE showed statistically significant decreased GMV in olfactory bulb, cortex of parietal and temporal lobe, hippocampus and cingulate gyrus, Beagles with SE mild statistically significant GMV reduction in temporal lobe (p < 0.05; family- wise error correction. Conclusion These results suggest that, as reported in epileptic humans, focal reduction in GMV also occurs in epileptic dogs. Furthermore, the current study shows that VBM analysis represents an excellent method to detect GMV differences of the brain between a healthy dog group and dogs with epileptic syndrome, when MR images of one breed are used.

  14. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Aghakhanyan

    Full Text Available Angelman syndrome (AS is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM. Principal component analysis (PCA was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS.

  15. Structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls-a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Pei-Chi; Kuan, Yi-Hsuan; Li, Cheng-Ta; Su, Tung-Ping

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the structural correlates of creative thinking in patients with bipolar disorder (BD) to understand the possible neural mechanism of creative thinking in BD. We recruited 59 patients with BD I or BD II (35.3±8.5 y) and 56 age- and sex-matched controls (HCs; 34±7.4 y). Each participant underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging and evaluation of creative thinking, which was assessed using two validated tools: the Chinese version of the Abbreviated Torrance Test for Adults for divergent thinking and the Chinese Word Remote Associates Test for remote association. Voxel-based morphometry was performed using SPM12. In patients with BD, divergent thinking positively correlated with the gray matter volume (GMV) in right medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area [BA] 9), and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the medial prefrontal gyrus (BA 10). In the HCs, divergent thinking negatively correlated with the GMV in left superior frontal gyrus (BA 8) and positively correlated with the GMV in the precuneus and occipital regions, and remote association positively correlated with the GMV in the hippocampus. Patients with BD were receiving various dosages of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizer. These medications may confound the GMV-creative thinking relationship in patients with BD. Our findings indicate that medial prefrontal cortex plays a major and positive role in creative thinking in patients with BD. By contrary, creative thinking involves more diverse structures, and the prefrontal cortex may have an opposite effect in HCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced relative volume in motor and attention regions in developmental coordination disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jess E; Licari, Melissa K; Reid, Siobhan L; Elliott, Catherine; Winsor, Anne M; Bynevelt, Michael; Billington, Jac

    2017-05-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a prevalent childhood movement disorder, impacting the ability to perform movement skills at an age appropriate level. Although differences in grey matter (GM) volumes have been found in related developmental disorders, no such evidence has been linked with DCD to date. This cross-sectional study assessed structural brain differences in children with and without DCD. High-resolution structural images were acquired from 44 children aged 7.8-12 years, including 22 children with DCD (≤16th percentile on MABC-2; no ADHD/ASD), and 22 typically developing controls (≥20th percentile on MABC-2). Structural voxel-based morphology analysis was performed to determine group differences in focal GM volumes. Children with DCD were found to have significant, large, right lateralised reductions in grey matter volume in the medial and middle frontal, and superior frontal gyri compared to controls. The addition of motor proficiency as a covariate explained the between-group GM volume differences, suggesting that GM volumes in motor regions are reflective of the level of motor proficiency. A positive correlation between motor proficiency and relative GM volume was also identified in the left posterior cingulate and precuneus. GM volume reductions in premotor frontal regions may underlie the motor difficulties characteristic of DCD. It is possible that intervention approaches targeting motor planning, attention, and executive functioning processes associated with the regions of reduced GM volume may result in functional improvements in children with DCD. Copyright © 2017 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of visual experience on structural organization of the human brain: A voxel based morphometric study using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi, E-mail: modi_shilpi@yahoo.co.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Bhattacharya, Manisha, E-mail: manishab10@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Singh, Namita, E-mail: namita23m@gmail.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad, E-mail: director@inmas.drdo.in [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi (India)

    2012-10-15

    Objective: To investigate structural reorganization in the brain with differential visual experience using Voxel-Based Morphometry with Diffeomorphic Anatomic Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) approach. Materials and methods: High resolution structural MR images were taken in fifteen normal sighted healthy controls, thirteen totally blind subjects and six partial blind subjects. The analysis was carried out using SPM8 software on MATLAB 7.6.0 platform. Results: VBM study revealed gray matter volume atrophy in the cerebellum and left inferior parietal cortex in total blind subjects and in left inferior parietal cortex, right caudate nucleus, and left primary visual cortex in partial blind subjects as compared to controls. White matter volume loss was found in calcarine gyrus in total blind subjects and Thlamus-somatosensory region in partially blind subjects as compared to controls. Besides, an increase in Gray Matter volume was also found in left middle occipital and middle frontal gyrus and right entorhinal cortex, and an increase in White Matter volume was found in superior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus and right Heschl's gyrus in totally blind subjects as compared to controls. Comparison between total and partial blind subjects revealed a greater Gray Matter volume in left cerebellum of partial blinds and left Brodmann area 18 of total blind subjects. Conclusion: Results suggest that, loss of vision at an early age can induce significant structural reorganization on account of the loss of visual input. These plastic changes are different in early onset of total blindness as compared to partial blindness.

  18. From Cortical and Subcortical Grey Matter Abnormalities to Neurobehavioral Phenotype of Angelman Syndrome: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghakhanyan, Gayane; Bonanni, Paolo; Randazzo, Giovanna; Nappi, Sara; Tessarotto, Federica; De Martin, Lara; Frijia, Francesca; De Marchi, Daniele; De Masi, Francesco; Kuppers, Beate; Lombardo, Francesco; Caramella, Davide; Montanaro, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a rare neurogenetic disorder due to loss of expression of maternal ubiquitin-protein ligase E3A (UBE3A) gene. It is characterized by severe developmental delay, speech impairment, movement or balance disorder and typical behavioral uniqueness. Affected individuals show normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, although mild dysmyelination may be observed. In this study, we adopted a quantitative MRI analysis with voxel-based morphometry (FSL-VBM) method to investigate disease-related changes in the cortical/subcortical grey matter (GM) structures. Since 2006 to 2013 twenty-six AS patients were assessed by our multidisciplinary team. From those, sixteen AS children with confirmed maternal 15q11-q13 deletions (mean age 7.7 ± 3.6 years) and twenty-one age-matched controls were recruited. The developmental delay and motor dysfunction were assessed using Bayley III and Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the clinical and neuropsychological datasets. High-resolution T1-weighted images were acquired and FSL-VBM approach was applied to investigate differences in the local GM volume and to correlate clinical and neuropsychological changes in the regional distribution of GM. We found bilateral GM volume loss in AS compared to control children in the striatum, limbic structures, insular and orbitofrontal cortices. Voxel-wise correlation analysis with the principal components of the PCA output revealed a strong relationship with GM volume in the superior parietal lobule and precuneus on the left hemisphere. The anatomical distribution of cortical/subcortical GM changes plausibly related to several clinical features of the disease and may provide an important morphological underpinning for clinical and neurobehavioral symptoms in children with AS. PMID:27626634

  19. Progressive and widespread brain damage in ALS: MRI voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Joe; Kato, Shigenori; Kaga, Tomotsugu; Ito, Mizuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Sobue, Gen

    2011-01-01

    We investigated 17 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor images (DTI) at baseline and after a six-month follow-up. Compared with 17 healthy controls, ALS patients at baseline showed only minimal white matter volume decreases in the inferior frontal gyrus but marked decreases in the gray matter of several regions, especially in the bilateral paracentral lobule of the premotor cortex. DTI revealed reduced fractional anisotropy in the bilateral corticospinal tracts, insula, ventrolateral premotor cortex, and parietal cortex. Increased mean diffusivity was noted bilaterally in the motor cortex, ventrolateral premotor cortex, insula, hippocampal formation, and temporal gyrus. At the six-month follow-up, ALS patients showed widespread volume decreases in gray matter, and DTI abnormalities extended mainly into the bilateral frontal lobes, while volume changes in the white matter remained minimal but more distinct. Our combined VBM and DTI techniques revealed extra-corticospinal tract neuronal degeneration mainly in the frontotemporal lobe of ALS patients. In particular, follow-up examinations in these patients showed that whole-brain DTI changes occurred predominantly in the regions of brain atrophy. These objective analyses can be used to assess the disease condition of the ALS brain.

  20. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikou, Anastasia K; Kosmidou, Maria; Astrakas, Loukas G; Tzarouchi, Loukia C; Tsianos, Epameinondas; Argyropoulou, Maria I

    2014-10-01

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p tensor imaging detects microstructural brain abnormalities in IBD. • Voxel based morphometry reveals brain atrophy in IBD.

  1. Association between subcortical vascular lesion location and cognition: a voxel-based and tract-based lesion-symptom mapping study. The SMART-MR study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Matthijs Biesbroek

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Lacunar lesions (LLs and white matter lesions (WMLs affect cognition. We assessed whether lesions located in specific white matter tracts were associated with cognitive performance taking into account total lesion burden. METHODS: Within the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease Magnetic Resonance (SMART-MR study, cross-sectional analyses were performed on 516 patients with manifest arterial disease. We applied an assumption-free voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping approach to investigate the relation between LL and WML locations on 1.5 Tesla brain MRI and compound scores of executive functioning, memory and processing speed. Secondly, a multivariable linear regression model was used to relate the regional volume of LLs and WMLs within specific white matter tracts to cognitive functioning. RESULTS: Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping identified several clusters of voxels with a significant correlation between WMLs and executive functioning, mostly located within the superior longitudinal fasciculus and anterior thalamic radiation. In the multivariable linear regression model, a statistically significant association was found between regional LL volume within the superior longitudinal fasciculus and anterior thalamic radiation and executive functioning after adjustment for total LL and WML burden. CONCLUSION: These findings identify the superior longitudinal fasciculus and anterior thalamic radiation as key anatomical structures in executive functioning and emphasize the role of strategically located vascular lesions in vascular cognitive impairment.

  2. Strategies for improving the Voxel-based statistical analysis for animal PET studies: assessment of cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model

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    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Kang, Hye Jin; Im, Ki Chun; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lim, Sang Moo; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In imaging studies of the human brain, voxel-based statistical analysis method was widely used, since these methods were originally developed for the analysis of the human brain data, they are not optimal for the animal brain data. The aim of this study is to optimize the procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of cat FDG PET brain images. A microPET Focus 120 scanner was used. Eight cats underwent FDG PET scans twice before and after inducing the deafness. Only the brain and adjacent regions were extracted from each data set by manual masking. Individual PET image at normal and deaf state was realigned to each other to remove the confounding effects by the different spatial normalization parameters on the results of statistical analyses. Distance between the sampling points on the reference image and kernel size of Gaussian filter applied to the images before estimating the realignment parameters were adjusted to 0.5 mm and 2 mm. Both data was then spatial normalized onto study-specific cat brain template. Spatially normalized PET data were smoothed and voxel-based paired t-test was performed. Cerebral glucose metabolism decreased significantly after the loss of hearing capability in parietal lobes, postcentral gyri, STG, MTG, lTG, and IC at both hemisphere and left SC (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). Cerebral glucose metabolism in deaf cats was found to be significantly higher than in controls in the right cingulate (FDR corrected P < 0.05, k=50). The ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same areas as in the SPM analysis, except for some regions (P < 0.05). Method for the voxel-based analysis of cat brain PET data was optimized for analysis of cat brain PET. This result was also confirmed by ROI analysis. The results obtained demonstrated the high localization accuracy and specificity of the developed method, and were found to be useful for examining cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  3. Brain expansion in patients with type II diabetes following insulin therapy: a preliminary study with longitudinal voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiye; Li, Jinfeng; Sun, Jie; Ma, Lin

    2014-01-01

    We performed a longitudinal analysis based on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to investigate the brain structural and perfusion changes caused by insulin therapy in patients with type II diabetes. High resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo images and flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) images were obtained from 11 patients with type II diabetes before and 1 year after initiation of insulin therapy and 11 normal controls. Brain volume changes were investigated by a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and perfusion changes were evaluated by FAIR imaging between baseline and follow-up data. Significant regional gray matter (GM) expansion located in bilateral frontal, parietal, and left occipital lobes, and regional white matter (WM) expansion was shown in left precentral subcortical WM and right angular subcortical WM after insulin therapy (P Brain hyperperfusion was detected in bilateral frontal cortex, left occipital cortex, and right temporal cortex after insulin therapy (P brain expansion and hyperperfusion were demonstrated 1 year after initiation of insulin therapy, and insulin therapy could contribute to the brain volume gainment in the patients with type II diabetes. Copyright © 2013 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  4. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I.; Kosmidou, Maria; Tsianos, Epameinondas

    2014-01-01

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p < 0.05). TBSS showed decreased axial diffusivity (AD) in the right corticospinal tract and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus in patients compared with controls. A larger number of WMHIs was observed in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with IBD show an increase in WMHIs and GM atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis and ischaemia. Decreased AD in major white matter tracts could be a secondary phenomenon, representing Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  5. Brain involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zikou, Anastasia K.; Astrakas, Loukas G.; Tzarouchi, Loukia C.; Argyropoulou, Maria I. [University of Ioannina, Department of Radiology, Medical School, Ioannina (Greece); Kosmidou, Maria; Tsianos, Epameinondas [University of Ioannina, 1st Department of Internal Medicine (Hepato-Gastroenterology Unit), Medical School, Ioannina (Greece)

    2014-10-15

    To investigate structural brain changes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on 18 IBD patients (aged 45.16 ± 14.71 years) and 20 aged-matched control subjects. The imaging protocol consisted of a sagittal-FLAIR, a T1-weighted high-resolution three-dimensional spoiled gradient-echo sequence, and a multisession spin-echo echo-planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Differences between patients and controls in brain volume and diffusion indices were evaluated using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) methods, respectively. The presence of white-matter hyperintensities (WMHIs) was evaluated on FLAIR images. VBM revealed decreased grey matter (GM) volume in patients in the fusiform and the inferior temporal gyrus bilaterally, the right precentral gyrus, the right supplementary motor area, the right middle frontal gyrus and the left superior parietal gyrus (p < 0.05). TBSS showed decreased axial diffusivity (AD) in the right corticospinal tract and the right superior longitudinal fasciculus in patients compared with controls. A larger number of WMHIs was observed in patients (p < 0.05). Patients with IBD show an increase in WMHIs and GM atrophy, probably related to cerebral vasculitis and ischaemia. Decreased AD in major white matter tracts could be a secondary phenomenon, representing Wallerian degeneration. (orig.)

  6. Entorhinal volume, aerobic fitness, and recognition memory in healthy young adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, Andrew S; Young, Daniel E; Budson, Andrew E; Stern, Chantal E; Schon, Karin

    2016-02-01

    Converging evidence supports the hypothesis effects of aerobic exercise and environmental enrichment are beneficial for cognition, in particular for hippocampus-supported learning and memory. Recent work in humans suggests that exercise training induces changes in hippocampal volume, but it is not known if aerobic exercise and fitness also impact the entorhinal cortex. In animal models, aerobic exercise increases expression of growth factors, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This exercise-enhanced expression of growth hormones may boost synaptic plasticity, and neuronal survival and differentiation, potentially supporting function and structure in brain areas including but not limited to the hippocampus. Here, using voxel based morphometry and a standard graded treadmill test to determine cardio-respiratory fitness (Bruce protocol; ·VO2 max), we examined if entorhinal and hippocampal volumes were associated with cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy young adults (N=33). In addition, we examined if volumes were modulated by recognition memory performance and by serum BDNF, a putative marker of synaptic plasticity. Our results show a positive association between volume in right entorhinal cortex and cardio-respiratory fitness. In addition, average gray matter volume in the entorhinal cortex, bilaterally, was positively associated with memory performance. These data extend prior work on the cerebral effects of aerobic exercise and fitness to the entorhinal cortex in healthy young adults thus providing compelling evidence for a relationship between aerobic fitness and structure of the medial temporal lobe memory system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An optimized voxel-based morphometry study in the evaluation of brain structural abnormalities in anisometropic amblyopia patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shengyuan; Zhang Jing; Zhang Quan; Yin Huiming; Zhang Lihong; Li Wei; Zhang Yunting

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible neural mechanism of anisometropic amblyopia by analysing the whole brain volume changes both in grey matter and white matter using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Twelve anisometropic amblyopia patients and 12 age,gender and handedness matched healthy volunteers underwent 3-dimensional (3D) fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) sequence scanning on 1.5 Tesla MR system. Raw data was processed and analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 5. Results: Compared to healthy controls,the grey matter exhibiting significantly decreased volume in patients included right cuneus, bilateral occipital gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right precuneus,and middle part of right cingulate gyrus (clusters > 10). The grey matter showing increased volume in patients included right cerebellum,right parahippocampal gyrus, left precentral gyrus,and left superior frontal gyrus (clusters > 10). The white matter volume in bilateral optic radiation and internal capsule, especially right optic radiation, decreased significantly in patient group (clusters > 10 ). No white matter showed significantly increased volume in patient group. Conclusion: VBM can be used to investigate the changes of grey matter volume and white matter volume in the whole brain of anisometropic amblyopia children, it provides a method to illustrate the presumed neuro-mechanism from a morphologic point of view. (authors)

  8. Increased gray matter density in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use: a voxel-based morphometric study using DARTEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Thomas; Kleiman, Alexandra; Gouzoulis-Mayfrank, Euphrosyne; Daumann, Jörg; Becker, Benjamin

    2012-07-01

    Alterations in gray matter density as well as cognitive impairments are commonly described in patients with schizophrenia (SCH patients). Both gray matter deficits and cognitive impairments have recently been discussed to represent vulnerability markers of schizophrenia. The counterintuitive finding of better cognitive performance in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis use (SCH+CAN patients) compared to cannabis naïve patients is discussed as a reflection of lower vulnerability for schizophrenia in at least one subgroup of SCH+CAN patients. We hypothesized that SCH+CAN patients would display fewer gray matter deficits compared to SCH patients reflecting their presumed lower vulnerability. We therefore compared gray matter density in 30 first episode SCH+CAN and 24 first episode SCH patients using a fast diffeomorphic registration algorithm (DARTEL) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We found less severe cognitive impairments and middle frontal gray matter deficits in the SCH+CAN patients. In the pooled sample gray matter density was positively associated with cognitive functioning. Results may support the hypothesis of a lower biological vulnerability in at least one subgroup of SCH+CAN patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Global and regional brain volumes normalization in weight-recovered adolescents with anorexia nervosa: preliminary findings of a longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bomba M

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Monica Bomba,1,* Anna Riva,1,* Sabrina Morzenti,2 Marco Grimaldi,3 Francesca Neri,1 Renata Nacinovich1 1Child and Adolescent Mental Health Department, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano-Bicocca, Monza, Italy; 2Medical Physics Department, San Gerardo Hospital, Monza, Italy; 3Department of Radiology, Humanitas Research Hospital, Milan, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The recent literature on anorexia nervosa (AN suggests that functional and structural abnormalities of cortico-limbic areas might play a role in the evolution of the disease. We explored global and regional brain volumes in a cross-sectional and follow-up study on adolescents affected by AN. Eleven adolescents with AN underwent a voxel-based morphometry study at time of diagnosis and immediately after weight recovery. Data were compared to volumes carried out in eight healthy, age and sex matched controls. Subjects with AN showed increased cerebrospinal fluid volumes and decreased white and gray matter volumes, when compared to controls. Moreover, significant regional gray matter decrease in insular cortex and cerebellum was found at time of diagnosis. No regional white matter decrease was found between samples and controls. Correlations between psychological evaluation and insular volumes were explored. After weight recovery gray matter volumes normalized while reduced global white matter volumes persisted. Keywords: anorexia nervosa, adolescent, gray matter, insula, voxel-based morphometry study

  10. Striatal and Extrastriatal Dopamine Transporter Availability in Schizophrenia and Its Clinical Correlates: A Voxel-Based and High-Resolution PET Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiges, Eric; Leroy, Claire; Dubol, Manon; Prat, Marie; Pepin, Audrey; Mabondo, Audrey; de Beaurepaire, Renaud; Beaufils, Béatrice; Korwin, Jean-Pierre; Galinowski, André; D'Albis, Marc-Antoine; Santiago-Ribeiro, Maria-João; Granger, Bernard; Tzavara, Eleni T; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Trichard, Christian

    2017-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating dopamine (DA) function widely support the hypothesis of presynaptic striatal DA hyperactivity in schizophrenia. However, published data on the striatal DA transporter (DAT) appear less consistent with this hypothesis, probably partly due to methodological limitations. Moreover, DAT in extrastriatal regions has been very poorly investigated in the context of schizophrenia. In order to address these issues, we used a high resolution positron emission tomograph and the selective DAT radioligand [11C]PE2I, coupled with a whole brain voxel-based analysis method to investigate DAT availability in striatal but also extra-striatal regions in 21 male chronic schizophrenia patients compared to 30 healthy male controls matched by age. We found higher DAT availability in schizophrenia patients in midbrain, striatal, and limbic regions. DAT availability in amygdala/hippocampus and putamen/pallidum was positively correlated with hallucinations and suspiciousness/persecution, respectively. These results are consistent with an increase of presynaptic DA function in patients with schizophrenia, and support the involvement of both striatal and extrastriatal DA dysfunction in positive psychotic symptoms. The study also highlights the whole brain voxel-based analysis method to explore DA dysfunction in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Grey and white matter changes in children with monocular amblyopia: voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Jiang, Qinying; Guo, Mingxia; Li, Qingji; Cai, Chunquan; Yin, Xiaohui

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the potential morphological alterations of grey and white matter in monocular amblyopic children using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). A total of 20 monocular amblyopic children and 20 age-matched controls were recruited. Whole-brain MRI scans were performed after a series of ophthalmologic exams. The imaging data were processed and two-sample t-tests were employed to identify group differences in grey matter volume (GMV), white matter volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA). After image screening, there were 12 amblyopic participants and 15 normal controls qualified for the VBM analyses. For DTI analysis, 14 amblyopes and 14 controls were included. Compared to the normal controls, reduced GMVs were observed in the left inferior occipital gyrus, the bilateral parahippocampal gyrus and the left supramarginal/postcentral gyrus in the monocular amblyopic group, with the lingual gyrus presenting augmented GMV. Meanwhile, WMVs reduced in the left calcarine, the bilateral inferior frontal and the right precuneus areas, and growth in the WMVs was seen in the right cuneus, right middle occipital and left orbital frontal areas. Diminished FA values in optic radiation and increased FA in the left middle occipital area and right precuneus were detected in amblyopic patients. In monocular amblyopia, cortices related to spatial vision underwent volume loss, which provided neuroanatomical evidence of stereoscopic defects. Additionally, white matter development was also hindered due to visual defects in amblyopes. Growth in the GMVs, WMVs and FA in the occipital lobe and precuneus may reflect a compensation effect by the unaffected eye in monocular amblyopia.

  12. Brain atrophy and neuropsychological outcome after treatment of ruptured anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: a voxel-based morphometric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Paula; Koskenkorva, Paeivi; Vanninen, Ritva [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Koivisto, Timo; Aeikiae, Marja [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio (Finland); Niskanen, Eini [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Physics, Kuopio (Finland); Koenoenen, Mervi [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Radiology, Kuopio (Finland); Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Kuopio (Finland); Haenninen, Tuomo [Kuopio University Hospital and University of Kuopio, Department of Neurology, Kuopio (Finland)

    2009-11-15

    Cognitive impairment after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is frequently detected. Here, we describe the pattern of cerebral (gray matter) atrophy and its clinical relevance after treatment of aSAH caused by a ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) aneurysm. Thirty-seven aSAH patients with ACA aneurysm (17 surgical, 20 endovascular treatment) and a good or moderate clinical outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale V or IV) and 30 controls underwent brain MRI. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was applied to compare the patients and controls. Patients also underwent a detailed neuropsychological assessment. The comparisons between controls and either all patients (n=37) or the subgroup of surgically treated patients (n=17) revealed bilateral cortical atrophy in the frontal lobes, mainly in the basal areas. The brainstem, bilateral thalamic and hypothalamic areas, and ipsilateral caudate nucleus were also involved. Small areas of atrophy were detected in temporal lobes. The hippocampus and parahippocampal gyrus showed atrophy ipsilateral to the surgical approach. In the subgroup of endovascularly treated patients (n = 15), small areas of atrophy were detected in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and in the thalamic region. Twenty patients (54%) showed cognitive deficits in neuropsychological assessment. Group analysis after aSAH and treatment of the ruptured ACA aneurysm revealed gray matter atrophy, principally involving the frontobasal cortical areas and hippocampus ipsilateral to the surgical approach. Areas of reduced gray matter were more pronounced after surgical than endovascular treatment. Together with possible focal cortical infarctions and brain retraction deficits in individual patients, this finding may explain the neuropsychological disturbances commonly detected after treatment of ruptured ACA aneurysms. (orig.)

  13. An optimized voxel-based morphometry study of gray matter abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fei; Lu Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Wu Qizhu; Qiu Lihua; Li Bin; Yang Yanchun; Gong Qiyong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore changes of gray matter volume in patients with obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) in Chinese Han population using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigate its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods: Twenty patients with OCD and 20 age, sex and handedness matched healthy controls were scanned using 3D-T 1 images on a 3.0 T MR system. The high resolution T 1 WI was preprocessed according to the optimized VBM protocol in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5). Two-sample t test was performed to characterize the differences of the gray matter volume (GMV) between the OCD patients and healthy controls, and the correlations between the GMV and symptom severity and cumulative illness duration were examined using Pearson correlation in SPSS 16.0, respectively. Results: Compared to controls, OCD patients demonstrated increased GMV in left thalamus, right thalamus and left cerebellum after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. No areas of significantly decreased GMV was observed in OCD patients in relative to healthy controls. The mean eigenvalue ranged from 0.5782 to 0.889 representing the left thalamus volume of OCD patients was 0.6813±0.0718, and that ranged from 0.5546 to 0.9062 was 0.6869±0.0808 for right thalamus. The mean eigenvalues were positively correlated in bilateral thalamus (r=0.94, P<0.01). Conclusion: Using optimized VBM, the current research indicates that the pathophysiology of OCD is associated with GMV abnormalities not only in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, but also in the cerebellum. (authors)

  14. Surface errors without semantic impairment in acquired dyslexia: a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Jeffrey R; Pillay, Sara B; Humphries, Colin J; Gross, William L; Graves, William W; Book, Diane S

    2016-05-01

    Patients with surface dyslexia have disproportionate difficulty pronouncing irregularly spelled words (e.g. pint), suggesting impaired use of lexical-semantic information to mediate phonological retrieval. Patients with this deficit also make characteristic 'regularization' errors, in which an irregularly spelled word is mispronounced by incorrect application of regular spelling-sound correspondences (e.g. reading plaid as 'played'), indicating over-reliance on sublexical grapheme-phoneme correspondences. We examined the neuroanatomical correlates of this specific error type in 45 patients with left hemisphere chronic stroke. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping showed a strong positive relationship between the rate of regularization errors and damage to the posterior half of the left middle temporal gyrus. Semantic deficits on tests of single-word comprehension were generally mild, and these deficits were not correlated with the rate of regularization errors. Furthermore, the deep occipital-temporal white matter locus associated with these mild semantic deficits was distinct from the lesion site associated with regularization errors. Thus, in contrast to patients with surface dyslexia and semantic impairment from anterior temporal lobe degeneration, surface errors in our patients were not related to a semantic deficit. We propose that these patients have an inability to link intact semantic representations with phonological representations. The data provide novel evidence for a post-semantic mechanism mediating the production of surface errors, and suggest that the posterior middle temporal gyrus may compute an intermediate representation linking semantics with phonology. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Gray and white matter asymmetries in healthy individuals aged 21-29 years: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Sasaki, Hiroki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-10-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The study of structural asymmetries provides important clues to the neuroanatomical basis of lateralized brain functions. Previous studies have demonstrated age-related changes in morphology and diffusion properties of brain tissue. In this study, we simultaneously explored gray and white matter asymmetry using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 109 young healthy individuals (58 females and 51 males). To eliminate the potential confounding effects of aging and handedness, we restricted the study to right-handed subjects aged 21-29 years. VBM and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps derived from DTI revealed a number of gray matter volume asymmetries (including the right frontal and left occipital petalias and leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale) and white matter FA asymmetries (including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum, and corticospinal tract). There was no significant effect of sex on gray and white matter asymmetry. Leftward volume asymmetry of the planum temporale and leftward FA asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus were simultaneously demonstrated. Post hoc analysis showed that the gray matter volume of the planum temporale and FA of the arcuate fasciculus were positively related (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.43; P < 0.0001). The results of our study demonstrate gray and white matter asymmetry in right-handed healthy young adults and suggest that leftward volume asymmetry of the planum temporale and leftward FA asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus may be related. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Grey matter volume differences associated with gender in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villemonteix, Thomas; De Brito, Stéphane A; Slama, Hichem; Kavec, Martin; Balériaux, Danielle; Metens, Thierry; Baijot, Simon; Mary, Alison; Peigneux, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle

    2015-08-01

    Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD) children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms' profiles in ADHD. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Grey matter volume differences associated with gender in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Villemonteix

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Female participants have been underrepresented in previous structural magnetic resonance imaging reports on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. In this study, we used optimized voxel-based morphometry to examine grey matter volumes in a sample of 33 never-medicated children with combined-type ADHD and 27 typically developing (TD children. We found a gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, whereby boys with ADHD exhibited reduced volumes compared with TD boys, while girls with ADHD showed increased volumes when compared with TD girls. Considering the key role played by the ventral ACC in emotional regulation, we discuss the potential contribution of these alterations to gender-specific symptoms’ profiles in ADHD.

  18. Voxel based statistical analysis method for microPET studies to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model: comparison to ROI based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Jung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo; Lim, Sang Moo

    2005-01-01

    Imaging research on the brain of sensory-deprived cats using small animal PET scanner has gained interest since the abundant information about the sensory system of ths animal is available and close examination of the brain is possible due to larger size of its brain than mouse or rat. In this study, we have established the procedures for 3D voxel-based statistical analysis (SPM) of FDG PET image of cat brain, and confirmed using ROI based-method. FDG PET scans of 4 normal and 4 deaf cats were acquired for 30 minutes using microPET R4 scanner. Only the brain cortices were extracted using a masking and threshold method to facilitate spatial normalization. After spatial normalization and smoothing, 3D voxel-wise and ROI based t-test were performed to identify the regions with significant different FDG uptake between the normal and deaf cats. In ROI analysis, 26 ROIs were drawn on both hemispheres, and regional mean pixel value in each ROI was normalized to the global mean of the brain. Cat brains were spatially normalized well onto the target brain due to the removal of background activity. When cerebral glucose metabolism of deaf cats were compared to the normal controls after removing the effects of the global count, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex, head of caudate nucleus, and thalamus in both hemispheres of the deaf cats was significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.01). No area showed a significantly increased metabolism in the deaf cats even in higher significance level (P<0.05). ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same region. This study established and confirmed a method for voxel-based analysis of animal PET data of cat brain, which showed high localization accuracy and specificity and was useful for examining the cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model

  19. Voxel based statistical analysis method for microPET studies to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in cat deafness model: comparison to ROI based method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Su; Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Min Hyun; Lee, Jong Jin; Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Jung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sang Moo [KIRAMS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Imaging research on the brain of sensory-deprived cats using small animal PET scanner has gained interest since the abundant information about the sensory system of ths animal is available and close examination of the brain is possible due to larger size of its brain than mouse or rat. In this study, we have established the procedures for 3D voxel-based statistical analysis (SPM) of FDG PET image of cat brain, and confirmed using ROI based-method. FDG PET scans of 4 normal and 4 deaf cats were acquired for 30 minutes using microPET R4 scanner. Only the brain cortices were extracted using a masking and threshold method to facilitate spatial normalization. After spatial normalization and smoothing, 3D voxel-wise and ROI based t-test were performed to identify the regions with significant different FDG uptake between the normal and deaf cats. In ROI analysis, 26 ROIs were drawn on both hemispheres, and regional mean pixel value in each ROI was normalized to the global mean of the brain. Cat brains were spatially normalized well onto the target brain due to the removal of background activity. When cerebral glucose metabolism of deaf cats were compared to the normal controls after removing the effects of the global count, the glucose metabolism in the auditory cortex, head of caudate nucleus, and thalamus in both hemispheres of the deaf cats was significantly lower than that of the controls (P<0.01). No area showed a significantly increased metabolism in the deaf cats even in higher significance level (P<0.05). ROI analysis also showed significant reduction of glucose metabolism in the same region. This study established and confirmed a method for voxel-based analysis of animal PET data of cat brain, which showed high localization accuracy and specificity and was useful for examining the cerebral glucose metabolism in a cat cortical deafness model.

  20. A combined tract-based spatial statistics and voxel-based morphometry study of the first MRI scan after diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alruwaili, A R; Pannek, K; Coulthard, A; Henderson, R; Kurniawan, N D; McCombe, P

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to compare the cortical and subcortical deep gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of ALS subjects and controls and to compare ALS subjects with (ALScog) and without (ALSnon-cog) cognitive impairment. The study was performed in 30 ALS subjects, and 19 healthy controls. Structural T1- and diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). All DTI measures and GM volume differed significantly between ALS subjects and controls. Compared to controls, greater DTI changes were present in ALScog than ALSnon-cog subjects. GM results showed reduction in the caudate nucleus volume in ALScog subjects compared to ALSnon-cog. and comparing all ALS with controls, there were changes on the right side and in a small region in the left middle frontal gyrus. This combined DTI and VBM study showed changes in motor and extra-motor regions. The DTI changes were more extensive in ALScog than ALSnon-cog subjects. It is likely that the inclusion of ALS subjects with cognitive impairment in previous studies resulted in extra-motor WM abnormalities being reported in ALS subjects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Depressive symptoms and neuroanatomical structures in community-dwelling women: A combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study with tract-based spatial statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi K. Hayakawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Depressive symptoms, even at a subclinical level, have been associated with structural brain abnormalities. However, previous studies have used regions of interest or small sample sizes, limiting the ability to generalize the results. In this study, we examined neuroanatomical structures of both gray matter and white matter associated with depressive symptoms across the whole brain in a large sample. A total of 810 community-dwelling adult participants underwent measurement of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D. The participants were not demented and had no neurological or psychiatric history. To examine the gray and white matter volume, we used structural MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry (VBM; to examine the white matter integrity, we used diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS. In female participants, VBM revealed a negative correlation between bilateral anterior cingulate gray matter volume and the CES-D score. TBSS showed a CES-D-related decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial and mean diffusivity in several white matter regions, including the right anterior cingulum. In male participants, there was no significant correlation between gray or white matter volume or white matter integrity and the CES-D score. Our results indicate that the reduction in gray matter volume and differences in white matter integrity in specific brain regions, including the anterior cingulate, are associated with depressive symptoms in women.

  2. Depressive symptoms and neuroanatomical structures in community-dwelling women: A combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study with tract-based spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yayoi K; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Hayashi, Naoto; Kunimatsu, Akira; Ohtomo, Kuni; Aoki, Shigeki

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms, even at a subclinical level, have been associated with structural brain abnormalities. However, previous studies have used regions of interest or small sample sizes, limiting the ability to generalize the results. In this study, we examined neuroanatomical structures of both gray matter and white matter associated with depressive symptoms across the whole brain in a large sample. A total of 810 community-dwelling adult participants underwent measurement of depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The participants were not demented and had no neurological or psychiatric history. To examine the gray and white matter volume, we used structural MRI scans and voxel-based morphometry (VBM); to examine the white matter integrity, we used diffusion tensor imaging with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). In female participants, VBM revealed a negative correlation between bilateral anterior cingulate gray matter volume and the CES-D score. TBSS showed a CES-D-related decrease in fractional anisotropy and increase in radial and mean diffusivity in several white matter regions, including the right anterior cingulum. In male participants, there was no significant correlation between gray or white matter volume or white matter integrity and the CES-D score. Our results indicate that the reduction in gray matter volume and differences in white matter integrity in specific brain regions, including the anterior cingulate, are associated with depressive symptoms in women.

  3. Examining brain structures associated with the motive to achieve success and the motive to avoid failure: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Dan; Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Chen, Rui; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Qiu, Jiang; Xu, Zhan; Zhang, Qinglin

    2016-01-01

    The motive to achieve success (MAS) and motive to avoid failure (MAF) are two different but classical kinds of achievement motivation. Though many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored functional activation in motivation-related conditions, research has been silent as to the brain structures associated with individual differences in achievement motivation, especially with respect to MAS and MAF. In this study, the voxel-based morphometry method was used to uncover focal differences in brain structures related to MAS and MAF measured by the Mehrabian Achieving Tendency Scale in 353 healthy young Chinese adults. The results showed that the brain structures associated with individual differences in MAS and MAF were distinct. MAS was negatively correlated with regional gray matter volume (rGMV) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)/orbitofrontal cortex while MAF was negatively correlated with rGMV in the mPFC/subgenual cingulate gyrus. After controlling for mutual influences of MAS and MAF scores, MAS scores were found to be related to rGMV in the mPFC/orbitofrontal cortex and another cluster containing the parahippocampal gyrus and precuneus. These results may predict that compared with MAF, the generation process of MAS may be more complex and rational, thus in the real world, perhaps MAS is more beneficial to personal growth and guaranteeing the quality of task performance.

  4. Females and males rely on different cortical regions in Raven's Matrices reasoning capacity: evidence from a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Yang

    Full Text Available Raven's Matrices test (RMT is a non-verbal test designed to assess individuals' ability to reason and solve new problems without relying extensively on declarative knowledge derived from schooling or previous experience. Despite a large number of behavioral studies that demonstrated gender differences in Raven's Matrices reasoning ability, no neural evidence supported this difference. In this study, voxel-based morphometry (VBM was used in an attempt to uncover the gender-specific neural basis of Raven's Matrices reasoning ability as measured by the combined Raven's Matrices test (CRT in 370 healthy young adults. The behavioral results showed no difference between males and females. However, the VBM results showed that the relationship between reasoning ability and regional gray matter volume (rGMV differed between sexes. The association between CRT scores and rGMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (associated with visuospatial ability was significantly greater in males than in females, whereas the reverse was true for the inferior frontal cortex (relating to verbal reasoning ability and the medial frontal cortex (engaged in information binding where the association was greater in females. These findings suggest that males and females use differently structured brains in different ways to achieve similar levels of overall Raven's Matrices reasoning ability.

  5. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming; Chen, Ming-Yuan; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p 100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  6. Word and Number Reading in the Brain: Evidence from a Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Fabrizio; Marangolo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of number transcoding deficits in aphasic subjects suggests there is a strong similarity between language and number domains. However, recent single case studies of subjects who showed a dissociation between word and number word transcoding led us to hypothesize that the two types of stimuli are represented independently in the…

  7. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André

    2015-01-01

    Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent

  8. Grey matter, an endophenotype for schizophrenia? A voxel-based morphometry study in siblings of patients with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, Andre

    Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced

  9. Patterns of Gray Matter Abnormalities in Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: A Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphology Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Bin

    Full Text Available We aimed to identify the consistent regions of gray matter volume (GMV abnormalities in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE, and to study the difference of GMV abnormalities among IGE subsyndromes by applying activation likelihood estimation (ALE meta-analysis.A systematic review of VBM studies on GMV of patients with absence epilepsy (AE, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME, IGE and controls indexed in PubMed and ScienceDirect from January 1999 to June 2016 was conducted. A total of 12 IGE studies, including 7 JME and 3 AE studies, were selected. Meta-analysis was performed on these studies by using the pooled and within-subtypes analysis (www.brainmap.org. Based on the above results, between-subtypes contrast analysis was carried out to detect the abnormal GMV regions common in and unique to each subtype as well.IGE demonstrated significant GMV increase in right ventral lateral nucleus (VL and right medial frontal gyrus, and significant GMV decrease in bilateral pulvinar. For JME, significant GMV increase was seen in right medial frontal gyrus, right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, while significant GMV decrease was found in right pulvinar. In AE, the most significant GMV increase was found in right VL, and slight GMV reduction was seen in right medial dorsal nucleus, right subcallosal gyrus, left caudate and left precuneus. No overlapped and unique regions with significant GMV abnormalities were found between JME and AE.This meta-analysis demonstrated that thalamo-frontal network was a structure with significant GMV abnormality in IGE, and the IGE subsyndromes showed different GMV abnormal regions. These observations may provide instructions on the clinical diagnosis of IGE.

  10. Comparison of gray matter and metabolic reduction in mild Alzheimer's disease using FDG-PET and voxel-based morphometric MR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Sasaki, Hiroki; Kono, Atsushi K.; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Fukuda, Tetsuya [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan)

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate regional differences between morphologic and functional changes in the same patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirty patients with very mild AD (mean age 66.8 years, mean MMSE score 24.0) and 30 age- and sex-matched normal volunteers underwent both{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo (SPGR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Statistical parametric mapping was used to conduct VBM analysis of the morphological data, which were compared voxel by voxel with the results of a similar analysis of the glucose metabolic data. In AD patients, VBM data indicated a significant gray matter volume density decrease in bilateral amygdala/hippocampus complex (p<0.05, corrected), while FDG-PET analysis showed significant glucose metabolic reductions in the posterior cingulate gyri and the right parietal lobule, compared with those in the normal control group. In very mild AD, morphological change occurs in the medial temporal lobes, while in contrast, metabolic changes occur in the posterior cingulate gyri and parietal lobule. (orig.)

  11. Comparison of grey matter and metabolic reductions in frontotemporal dementia using FDG-PET and voxel-based morphometric MR studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki; Kono, Atsushi K. [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Neuroimaging Research, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in the same patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using statistical parametric mapping and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirteen FTD patients (mean age, 64.9 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.7), 20 sex-matched Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (mean age, 65.0 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.5), and 20 normal volunteers (mean age, 65.2 years old; mean MMSE score, 29.0) underwent both [{sup 18}F]FDG positron emission tomography and three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo MRI. Statistical parametric mapping was used to conduct a VBM analysis of the morphologic data, which were compared voxel by voxel with the results of a similar analysis of glucose metabolic data. FTD patients showed decreased grey matter volume and decreased glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and anterior temporal lobe. In addition, there was a clear asymmetry in grey matter volume in FTD patients by the VBM analysis while the glucose metabolic data showed little asymmetry. In AD patients, glucose metabolic reduction occurred in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and parietal lobules while grey matter density decreased the least in the same patients. In FTD, metabolic and morphologic changes occur in the bilateral frontal lobe and temporal lobe with a limited asymmetry whereas there was considerable discordance in the AD group. (orig.)

  12. Grey and white matter volumes either in treatment-naïve or hormone-treated transgender women: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spizzirri, Giancarlo; Duran, Fábio Luis Souza; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany Moukbel; Serpa, Mauricio Henriques; Cavallet, Mikael; Pereira, Carla Maria Abreu; Santos, Pedro Paim; Squarzoni, Paula; da Costa, Naomi Antunes; Busatto, Geraldo F; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar

    2018-01-15

    Many previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have documented sex differences in brain morphology, but the patterns of sexual brain differences in transgender women - male sex assigned at birth - with a diagnosis of gender dysphoria (TW) have been rarely investigated to date. We acquired T1-weighted MRI data for the following four (n = 80) groups: treatment-naïve TW (TNTW), TW treated with cross-sex hormones for at least one year (TTW), cisgender men, and cisgender women (cisgender individuals as controls). Differences in whole-brain and regional white matter volume and grey matter volume (GMV) were assessed using voxel-based morphometry. We found lower global brain volumes and regional GMVs in a large portion of the posterior-superior frontal cortex in the cisgender women group than in the TTW and cisgender men groups. Additionally, both transgender groups exhibited lower bilateral insular GMVs than the cisgender women group. Our results highlight differences in the insula in both transgender groups; such differences may be characteristic of TW. Furthermore, these alterations in the insula could be related to the neural network of body perception and reflect the distress that accompanies gender dysphoria.

  13. Brainstem dysfunction in patients with late-onset Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Min Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been a few reports of patients who developed Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS in the second decades of their life. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate electroclinical presentation in patients with late-onset LGS. In addition, we evaluated structural abnormalities of the brain, which may give some clue about the common pathogenic pathway in LGS. Materials and Methods: We enrolled the patients with late-onset LGS. We collected electroclinical characteristics of the patients and evaluated structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry (VBM and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS analysis. Results: The three subjects were diagnosed with late-onset LGS. The patients have no mental retardation and normal background activities on electroencephalography (EEG, and they had generalized paroxysmal fast activities on EEG, especially during sleep. The TBSS analysis revealed that fractional anisotropy values in the patients were significantly reduced in the white matter of brainstem compared with normal controls. However, VBM analysis did not show any significant difference between the patients and normal controls. Conclusions: Patients with late-onset LGS have different clinical and EEG characteristics from those with early-onset LGS. In addition, we demonstrated that brainstem dysfunction might contribute to the pathogenesis of late-onset LGS.

  14. Brain reserve capacity in frontotemporal dementia: a voxel-based {sup 18}F-FDG PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perneczky, Robert; Diehl-Schmid, Janine; Kurz, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Muenchen (Germany); Drzezga, Alexander [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Nuklearmedizinische Klinik, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The association of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose utilisation (rCMRglc) and years of schooling has been extensively studied in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results suggest that brain reserve capacity (BRC) allows patients with more years of schooling to cope better with AD pathology. The objective of this study was to provide initial evidence for BRC in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Twenty-nine patients with FTD and 16 healthy age- and education-matched controls underwent PET imaging of the brain with {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose. A group comparison of rCMRglc was conducted between patients and controls and the output was saved as region of interest (ROI). A linear regression analysis with education as the independent and rCMRglc as the dependent variable, adjusted for age, gender and total score on the CERAD neuropsychological battery, was conducted in SPM2 over the pre-assigned ROI. Patients showed a reduced rCMRglc in almost the entire prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex as compared with controls (p < 0.05 corrected for multiple comparisons). The regression analysis revealed a significant negative association between years of schooling and rCMRglc in the bilateral inferior frontal cortex (p < 0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), which was independent of demographic variables and cognitive performance level. There was a strong negative correlation of rCMRglc and education (r = -0.45). The study provides initial evidence for BRC in FTD. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in educational level affect BRC by partially mediating the relationship between neurodegeneration and the clinical manifestation of FTD. (orig.)

  15. Study of the voxel-based specific regional analysis system for Alzheimer's disease imaging sequence after magnetic resonance apparatus replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukagoshi, Yuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Yasui, Gou; Abe, Yuuji; Maemura, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masaki; Yamaji, Yuugo; Mihara, Ban

    2012-01-01

    In our institute, an MR apparatus, MAGNETOM VISION (Siemens) was replaced by ECHELON Vega (HITACHI). Z-score data acquired by MPRAGE (VISION) was compared with those by radio frequency-spoiled steady-state acquisition with rewinded gradient echo (RSSG) and gradient echo inversion recovery (GEIR) (ECHELON). For this study, ten normal volunteers were recruited and their data ware obtained within two months using both apparatuses. In addition, the difference of the contrasts of the images of these apparatuses was compared. There was a significant difference between Z-scores of MPRAGE and RSSG while there was no difference between MPRAGE and GEIR. As for the contrast, data of MPRAGE were similar to those of GEIR. To compare Z-scores acquired with MAGNTOM VISION (Siemens), it seems appropriate to use GEIR in ECHELON Vega. (author)

  16. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  17. Early Gray-Matter and White-Matter Concentration in Infancy Predict Later Language Skills: A Whole Brain Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Dilara Deniz; Richards, Todd; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain scans were obtained from 19 infants at 7 months. Expressive and receptive language performance was assessed at 12 months. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) identified brain regions where gray-matter and white-matter concentrations at 7 months correlated significantly with children's language scores at 12 months.…

  18. Topographic deformation patterns of knee cartilage after exercises with high knee flexion: an in vivo 3D MRI study using voxel-based analysis at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horng, Annie; Stockinger, M.; Notohamiprodjo, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Raya, J.G. [New York University Langone Medical Center, Center for Biomedical Imaging, New York, NY (United States); Pietschmann, M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Munich (Germany); Hoehne-Hueckstaedt, U.; Glitsch, U.; Ellegast, R. [Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA), Sankt Augustin (Germany); Hering, K.G. [Miner' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dortmund (Germany); Glaser, C. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); RZM Zentrum, Munich (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    To implement a novel voxel-based technique to identify statistically significant local cartilage deformation and analyze in-vivo topographic knee cartilage deformation patterns using a voxel-based thickness map approach for high-flexion postures. Sagittal 3T 3D-T1w-FLASH-WE-sequences of 10 healthy knees were acquired before and immediately after loading (kneeling/squatting/heel sitting/knee bends). After cartilage segmentation, 3D-reconstruction and 3D-registration, colour-coded deformation maps were generated by voxel-based subtraction of loaded from unloaded datasets to visualize cartilage thickness changes in all knee compartments. Compression areas were found bifocal at the peripheral medial/caudolateral patella, both posterior femoral condyles and both anterior/central tibiae. Local cartilage thickening were found adjacent to the compression areas. Significant local strain ranged from +13 to -15 %. Changes were most pronounced after squatting, least after knee bends. Shape and location of deformation areas varied slightly with the loading paradigm, but followed a similar pattern consistent between different individuals. Voxel-based deformation maps identify individual in-vivo load-specific and posture-associated strain distribution in the articular cartilage. The data facilitate understanding individual knee loading properties and contribute to improve biomechanical 3 models. They lay a base to investigate the relationship between cartilage degeneration patterns in common osteoarthritis and areas at risk of cartilage wear due to mechanical loading in work-related activities. (orig.)

  19. How reliable are gray matter disruptions in specific reading disability across multiple countries and languages? Insights from a large-scale voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Altarelli, Irene; Monzalvo Lopez, Ana Karla; van Ermingen-Marbach, Muna; Grande, Marion; Grabowska, Anna; Heim, Stefan; Ramus, Franck

    2015-05-01

    The neural basis of specific reading disability (SRD) remains only partly understood. A dozen studies have used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate gray matter volume (GMV) differences between SRD and control children, however, recent meta-analyses suggest that few regions are consistent across studies. We used data collected across three countries (France, Poland, and Germany) with the aim of both increasing sample size (236 SRD and controls) to obtain a clearer picture of group differences, and of further assessing the consistency of the findings across languages. VBM analysis reveals a significant group difference in a single cluster in the left thalamus. Furthermore, we observe correlations between reading accuracy and GMV in the left supramarginal gyrus and in the left cerebellum, in controls only. Most strikingly, we fail to replicate all the group differences in GMV reported in previous studies, despite the superior statistical power. The main limitation of this study is the heterogeneity of the sample drawn from different countries (i.e., speaking languages with varying orthographic transparencies) and selected based on different assessment batteries. Nevertheless, analyses within each country support the conclusions of the cross-linguistic analysis. Explanations for the discrepancy between the present and previous studies may include: (1) the limited suitability of VBM to reveal the subtle brain disruptions underlying SRD; (2) insufficient correction for multiple statistical tests and flexibility in data analysis, and (3) publication bias in favor of positive results. Thus the study echoes widespread concerns about the risk of false-positive results inherent to small-scale VBM studies. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Särkämö, Teppo; Ripollés, Pablo; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Autti, Taina; Silvennoinen, Heli M; Salli, Eero; Laitinen, Sari; Forsblom, Anita; Soinila, Seppo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis utilizing cost function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural magnetic resonance imaging data of the patients (n = 49) who either listened to their favorite music [music group (MG), n = 16] or verbal material [audio book group (ABG), n = 18] or did not receive any listening material [control group (CG), n = 15] during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant gray matter volume (GMV) increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG), right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral/subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC) and right ventral striatum (VS)] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the MG than in the ABG and in the CG. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioral recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  1. Structural changes induced by daily music listening in the recovering brain after middle cerebral artery stroke: a voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teppo eSärkämö

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Music is a highly complex and versatile stimulus for the brain that engages many temporal, frontal, parietal, cerebellar, and subcortical areas involved in auditory, cognitive, emotional, and motor processing. Regular musical activities have been shown to effectively enhance the structure and function of many brain areas, making music a potential tool also in neurological rehabilitation. In our previous randomized controlled study, we found that listening to music on a daily basis can improve cognitive recovery and improve mood after an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA stroke. Extending this study, a voxel-based morphometry (VBM analysis utilizing cost-function masking was performed on the acute and 6-month post-stroke stage structural MRI data of the patients (n = 49 who either listened to their favourite music (music group, n = 16 or verbal material (audio book group, n = 18 or did not receive any listening material (control group, n = 15 during the 6-month recovery period. Although all groups showed significant grey matter volume (GMV increases from the acute to the 6-month stage, there was a specific network of frontal areas [left and right superior frontal gyrus (SFG, right medial SFG] and limbic areas [left ventral / subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (SACC and right ventral striatum (VS] in patients with left hemisphere damage in which the GMV increases were larger in the music group than in the audio book and control groups. Moreover, the GM reorganization in the frontal areas correlated with enhanced recovery of verbal memory, focused attention, and language skills, whereas the GM reorganization in the SACC correlated with reduced negative mood. This study adds on previous results, showing that music listening after stroke not only enhances behavioural recovery, but also induces fine-grained neuroanatomical changes in the recovering brain.

  2. Speech repetition as a window on the neurobiology of auditory-motor integration for speech: A voxel-based lesion symptom mapping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalsky, Corianne; Poppa, Tasha; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Anderson, Steven W; Damasio, Hanna; Love, Tracy; Hickok, Gregory

    2015-05-01

    For more than a century, speech repetition has been used as an assay for gauging the integrity of the auditory-motor pathway in aphasia, thought classically to involve a linkage between Wernicke's area and Broca's area via the arcuate fasciculus. During the last decade, evidence primarily from functional imaging in healthy individuals has refined this picture both computationally and anatomically, suggesting the existence of a cortical hub located at the parietal-temporal boundary (area Spt) that functions to integrate auditory and motor speech networks for both repetition and spontaneous speech production. While functional imaging research can pinpoint the regions activated in repetition/auditory-motor integration, lesion-based studies are needed to infer causal involvement. Previous lesion studies of repetition have yielded mixed results with respect to Spt's critical involvement in speech repetition. The present study used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) to investigate the neuroanatomy of repetition of both real words and non-words in a sample of 47 patients with focal left hemisphere brain damage. VLSMs identified a large voxel cluster spanning gray and white matter in the left temporal-parietal junction, including area Spt, where damage was significantly related to poor non-word repetition. Repetition of real words implicated a very similar dorsal network including area Spt. Cortical regions including Spt were implicated in repetition performance even when white matter damage was factored out. In addition, removing variance associated with speech perception abilities did not alter the overall lesion pattern for either task. Together with past functional imaging work, our results suggest that area Spt is integral in both word and non-word repetition, that its contribution is above and beyond that made by white matter pathways, and is not driven by perceptual processes alone. These findings are highly consistent with the claim that Spt is an area of

  3. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The core domains of social anxiety disorder (SAD, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD, panic disorder (PD with and without agoraphobia (GA, and specific phobia (SP are cognitive and physical symptoms that are related to the experience of fear and anxiety. It remains unclear whether these highly comorbid conditions that constitute the anxiety disorder subgroups of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders--Fifth Edition (DSM-5 represent distinct disorders or alternative presentations of a single underlying pathology. METHODS: A systematic search of voxel-based morphometry (VBM studies of SAD, GAD, PD, GA, and SP was performed with an effect-size signed differential mapping (ES-SDM meta-analysis to estimate the clusters of significant gray matter differences between patients and controls. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Reductions in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus gray matter volumes (GMVs were noted in patients with anxiety disorders when potential confounders, such as comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD, age, and antidepressant use were controlled for. We also demonstrated increased GMVs in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC in comorbid depression-anxiety (CDA, drug-naïve and adult patients. Furthermore, we identified a reduced left middle temporal gyrus and right precentral gyrus in anxiety patients without comorbid MDD. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a reduced volume of the right ventral anterior cingulate gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus is common in anxiety disorders and is independent of comorbid depression, medication use, and age. This generic effect supports the notion that the four types of anxiety disorders have a clear degree of overlap that may reflect shared etiological mechanisms. The results are consistent with neuroanatomical DLPFC models of physiological responses, such as worry and

  4. White and gray matter abnormalities in idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder: a diffusion-tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Iranzo, Alex; Gschliesser, Viola; Seppi, Klaus; Santamaria, Joan; Tolosa, Eduardo; Högl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner

    2011-02-01

    We applied diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM), a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 26 patients with iRBD (mean disease duration, 9.2 ± 6.4 years) and 14 age-matched healthy control subjects. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was applied to objectively identify focal changes of MRI parameters throughout the entire brain volume. SPM localized significant decreases of FA in the tegmentum of the midbrain and rostral pons and increases of MD within the pontine reticular formation overlapping with a cluster of decreased FA in the midbrain (p < 0.001). VBM revealed increases of gray matter densities in both hippocampi of iRBD patients (p < 0.001). The observed changes in the pontomesencephalic brainstem localized 2 areas harboring key neuronal circuits believed to be involved in the regulation of REM sleep and overlap with areas of structural brainstem damage causing symptomatic RBD in humans. Bilateral increases in gray matter density of the hippocampus suggest functional neuronal reorganization in this brain area in iRBD. This study indicates that DTI detects distinct structural brainstem tissue abnormalities in iRBD in the regions where REM is modulated. Further studies should explore the relationship between MRI pathology and the risk of patients with iRBD of developing alpha-synuclein-related neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease. Copyright © 2010 American Neurological Association.

  5. Structural brain alteration in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia with chemotherapy treatment: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Liwei; Su, Lianzi; Xu, Jiajia; Xiang, Li; Wang, Longsheng; Zhai, Zhimin; Zheng, Suisheng

    2017-03-01

    To assess structural brain changes in survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with chemotherapy treatment by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). 28 ALL patients (mean age: 40.71±8.58years, years since diagnosis: 7-38) and 20 age-matched control subjects (mean age: 42.95±6.39years) selected in this study with 3D T1 and diffusion tensor imaging acquired on a 3.0T Siemens MRI scanner. The ALL group had a history of chemotherapy treatment and off-therapy at least for 3years was enrolled. VBM and TBSS analysis were performed to detect regional grey matter (GM) volume changes and white matter (WM) alternation measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD). VBM revealed decreased GM volume in ALL patients in lingual gyrus, left occipital middle gyrus, left temporal middle gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, left parietal inferior gyrus, left precentral gyrus, left frontal superior gyrus and increased GM volume in right caudate and frontal lobe. WM integrity changes measured by TBSS which showed decreased FA and AD in several WM regions, and increased MD and RD in ALL patients with chemotherapy treatment. Our results indicate that ALL patients had smaller GM volume and WM integrity changes in several regions. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of chemotherapy treatment in ALL patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Braber, Anouk; van 't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C; Veltman, Dick J; Thompson, Paul M; de Geus, Eco J C

    2011-11-15

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures remains to be established. White matter structures were analyzed in 140 subjects with both diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. We studied 20 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCS) to detect the effects of environmental risk factors for obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptomatology. Furthermore, we compared 28 monozygotic twin pairs concordant for low OCS scores with 23 twin pairs concordant for high OCS scores to detect the effects of genetic risk factors for OC symptomatology. Discordant pair analysis showed that the environmental risk was associated with an increase in dorsolateral-prefrontal white matter. Analysis of concordant pairs showed that the genetic risk was associated with a decrease in inferior frontal white matter. Various white matter tracts showed opposite effects of environmental and genetic risk factors (e.g., right medial frontal, left parietal, and right middle temporal), illustrating the need for designs that separate these classes of risk factors. Different white matter regions were affected by environmental and genetic risk factors for OC symptomatology, but both classes of risk factors might, in aggregate, create an imbalance between the indirect loop of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical network (to the dorsolateral-prefrontal region)-important for inhibition and switching between behaviors-and the direct loop (involving the inferior frontal region) that contributes to the initiation and continuation of behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation-induced changes in normal-appearing gray matter in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study

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    Lv, Xiao-Fei; Zheng, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Li-Zhi; Zhang, You-Ming [State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China); Chen, Ming-Yuan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Department of Medical Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-05-15

    Evidence is accumulating that temporal lobe radiation necrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) after radiotherapy (RT) could involve gray matter (GM). The purpose of the study was to assess the radiation-induced GM volume differences between NPC patients who had and had not received RT and the effect of time after RT on GM volume differences in those patients who had received RT. We used magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to assess differences in GM volume between 30 NPC patients with normal-appearing whole-brain GM after RT and 15 control patients with newly diagnosed but not yet medically treated NPC. Correlation analyses were used to investigate the relationship between GM volume changes and time after RT. Patients who had received RT had GM volume decreases in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right inferior parietal lobule (p < 0.001, uncorrected, cluster size >100 voxels). Moreover, the correlation analysis indicated that regional GM volume loss in the left superior temporal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and right fusiform gyrus were negatively related to the mean dose to the ipsilateral temporal lobe, respectively. These results indicate that GM volume deficits in bilateral temporal lobes in patients who had received RT might be radiation-induced. Our findings might provide new insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced structural damage in normal-appearing brain tissue. Yet this is an exploratory study, whose findings should therefore be taken with caution. (orig.)

  8. The polymorphism of YWHAE, a gene encoding 14-3-3epsilon, and brain morphology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikio Kido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: YWHAE is a possible susceptibility gene for schizophrenia that encodes 14-3-3epsilon, a Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1-interacting molecule, but the effect of variation in its genotype on brain morphology remains largely unknown. METHODS: In this voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study, we conducted whole-brain analyses regarding the effects of YWHAE single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs (rs28365859, rs11655548, and rs9393 and DISC1 SNP (rs821616 on gray matter volume in a Japanese sample of 72 schizophrenia patients and 86 healthy controls. On the basis of a previous animal study, we also examined the effect of rs28365859 genotype specifically on hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Whole-brain analyses showed no significant genotype effect of these SNPs on gray matter volume in all subjects, but we found significant genotype-by-diagnosis interaction for rs28365859 in the left insula and right putamen. The protective C allele carriers of rs28365859 had a significantly larger left insula than the G homozygotes only for schizophrenia patients, while the controls with G allele homozygosity had a significantly larger right putamen than the C allele carriers. The C allele carriers had a larger right hippocampus than the G allele homozygotes in schizophrenia patients, but not in healthy controls. No significant interaction was found between rs28365859 and DISC1 SNP on gray matter volume. CONCLUSIONS: These different effects of the YWHAE (rs28365859 genotype on brain morphology in schizophrenia and healthy controls suggest that variation in its genotype might be, at least partly, related to the abnormal neurodevelopment, including in the limbic regions, reported in schizophrenia. Our results also suggest its specific role among YWHAE SNPs in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  9. White matter microstructure in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Frederick; Campbell, Linda E; Azuma, Rayna; Daly, Eileen; Bloemen, Oswald J N; Barker, Gareth J; Chitnis, Xavier; Jones, Derek K; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Kieran C; Murphy, Declan G M

    2010-06-01

    Young people with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) are at substantial risk for developing psychosis and have significant differences in white matter (WM) volume. However, there are few in vivo studies of both WM microstructural integrity (as measured using Diffusion Tensor (DT)-MRI) and WM volume in the same individual. We used DT-MRI and structural MRI (sMRI) with voxel based morphometry (VBM) to compare, respectively, the fractional anisotropy (FA) and WM volume of 11 children and adolescents with 22q11DS and 12 controls. Also, within 22q11DS we related differences in WM to severity of schizotypy, and polymorphism of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene. People with 22q11DS had significantly lower FA in inter-hemispheric and brainstem and frontal, parietal and temporal lobe regions after covarying for IQ. Significant WM volumetric increases were found in the internal capsule, anterior brainstem and frontal and occipital lobes. There was a significant negative correlation between increased schizotypy scores and reduced WM FA in the right posterior limb of internal capsule and the right body and left splenium of corpus callosum. Finally, the Val allele of COMT was associated with a significant reduction in both FA and volume of WM in the frontal lobes, cingulum and corpus callosum. Young people with 22q11DS have significant differences in both WM microstructure and volume. Also, there is preliminary evidence that within 22q11DS, some regional differences in FA are associated with allelic variation in COMT and may perhaps also be associated with schizotypy.

  10. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarela, Carina; Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions.

  11. Regional gray matter correlates of memory for emotion-laden words in middle-aged and older adults: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joutsa, Juho; Laine, Matti; Parkkola, Riitta; Rinne, Juha O.; Karrasch, Mira

    2017-01-01

    Emotional content is known to enhance memory in a content-dependent manner in healthy populations. In middle-aged and older adults, a reduced preference for negative material, or even an enhanced preference for positive material has been observed. This preference seems to be modulated by the emotional arousal that the material evokes. The neuroanatomical basis for emotional memory processes is, however, not well understood in middle-aged and older healthy people. Previous research on local gray matter correlates of emotional memory in older populations has mainly been conducted with patients suffering from various neurodegenerative diseases. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine regional gray matter correlates of immediate free recall and recognition memory of intentionally encoded positive, negative, and emotionally neutral words using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a sample of 50-to-79-year-old cognitively intact normal adults. The behavioral analyses yielded a positivity bias in recognition memory, but not in immediate free recall. No associations with memory performance emerged from the region-of-interest (ROI) analyses using amygdalar and hippocampal volumes. Controlling for total intracranial volume, age, and gender, the whole-brain VBM analyses showed statistically significant associations between immediate free recall of negative words and volumes in various frontal regions, between immediate free recall of positive words and cerebellar volume, and between recognition memory of positive words and primary visual cortex volume. The findings indicate that the neural areas subserving memory for emotion-laden information encompass posterior brain areas, including the cerebellum, and that memory for emotion-laden information may be driven by cognitive control functions. PMID:28771634

  12. Cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit abnormalities in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A voxel-based morphometric and fMRI study of the whole brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wenxin; Zhu, Qifeng; Gong, Xiangyang; Zhu, Cheng; Wang, Yiquan; Chen, Shulin

    2016-10-15

    The primary aim of this study was to identify structural and functional abnormalities in the brains of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients. Another aim was to assess the effect of serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on brain structure of OCD patients. All subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and resting functional MRI (fMRI). High-resolution three-dimensional images were processed using the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. The final analysis included 18 OCD patients and 16 healthy controls. In the OCD patients there was a decrease in gray matter volume in the bilateral cingulate cortex and bilateral striatum. In some cortical structures including the cerebellar anterior lobe, left orbital frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, precentral gyrus, and postcentral gyrus, there was an increase in gray matter volume. On fMRI the OCD patients had overactivation of the right cerebellum and right parietal lobe and reduced activation of the left cingulate gyrus, putamen, and caudate nucleus. Eleven OCD patients who improved during 12 weeks of drug treatment with sertraline hydrochloride had a significant increase in gray matter volume in several brain structures but no significant differences were found on resting fMRI. The results indicated a consistent trend between structural and functional images. Higher cortical structures showed increased gray matter volume and increased activation as did the cerebellum whereas subcortical structures showed decreased gray matter volume and decreased activation. And brain structure improvement consisted with symptom improvement after SSRIs treatment in OCD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of creative achievement with cognitive flexibility by a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qunlin; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Haijiang; Lei, Qiao; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2014-11-15

    Although researchers generally concur that creativity involves the production of novel and useful products, the neural basis of creativity remains elusive due to the complexity of the cognitive processes involved. Recent studies have shown that highly creative individuals displayed more cognitive flexibility. However, direct evidence supporting the relationship between creativity and cognitive flexibility has rarely been investigated using both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques. We used a combined voxel-based morphometry and resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) analysis to investigate the relationship between individual creativity ability assessed by the creative achievement questionnaire (CAQ), and regional gray matter volume (GMV), as well as intrinsic functional connectivity. Results showed that CAQ scores negatively correlated with GMV in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the bilateral dorsal ACC (dACC) extending to supplementary motor area, but positively correlated with GMV in the bilateral superior frontal gyrus and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Further functional connectivity analysis revealed that higher creative achievement was inversely associated with the strength of rsFC between the dACC and medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), right middle frontal gyrus, and left orbito-frontal insula. Moreover, the association between the dACC-mSFG connectivity and CAQ scores was mediated by cognitive flexibility, assessed by a task-switching paradigm. These findings indicate that individual differences in creative achievement are associated with both brain structure and corresponding intrinsic functional connectivity involved in cognitive flexibility and deliberate creative processing. Furthermore, dACC-mSFG connectivity may affect creative achievement through its impact on cognitive flexibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Numerical transcoding proficiency in 10-year-old schoolchildren is associated with grey-matter interindividual differences: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie eLubin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  15. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  16. Anti-basal ganglia antibodies and Tourette's syndrome: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study in an adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, D; Draganski, B; Cavanna, A; Church, A; Defazio, G; Robertson, M M; Frackowiak, R S J; Giovannoni, G; Critchley, H D

    2008-07-01

    Anti-basal ganglia antibodies (ABGAs) have been suggested to be a hallmark of autoimmunity in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS), possibly related to prior exposure to streptococcal infection. In order to detect whether the presence of ABGAs was associated with subtle structural changes in GTS, whole-brain analysis using independent sets of T(1) and diffusion tensor imaging MRI-based methods were performed on 22 adults with GTS with (n = 9) and without (n = 13) detectable ABGAs in the serum. Voxel-based morphometry analysis failed to detect any significant difference in grey matter density between ABGA-positive and ABGA-negative groups in caudate nuclei, putamina, thalami and frontal lobes. These results suggest that ABGA synthesis is not related to structural changes in grey and white matter (detectable with these methods) within frontostriatal circuits.

  17. Cerebral and cerebellar gray matter reduction in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Liu Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Shan Baoci, E-mail: shanbc@ihep.ac.cn [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng1955@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate cerebral and cerebellar gray matter abnormalities in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Materials and methods: We examined the structural difference in regional gray matter density (GMD) between 22 first-episode MDD patients and 30 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls by optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based on magnetic resonance imaging. Results: Compared with healthy controls, MDD patients showed decreased GMD in the right medial and left lateral orbitofrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), bilateral temporal pole, right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral anterior insular cortex, left parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum. In addition, in MDD patients, there was a negative correlation between GMD values of the right DLPFC and the score of the depression rating scale. Conclusions: Our findings provided additional support for the involvement of limbic-cortical circuits in the pathophysiology of MDD and preliminary evidence that a defect involving the cerebellum may also be implicated.

  18. Combining voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmbeck, Jan T; Brassen, Stefanie; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-04-03

    The present study combined optimized voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging to detect age-related brain changes. We compared grey matter density maps (grey matter voxel-based morphometry) and white matter fractional anisotropy maps (diffusion tensor imaging-voxel-based morphometry) between two groups of 17 younger and 17 older women. Older women exhibited reduced white matter fractional anisotropy as well as decreased grey matter density most prominently in the frontal, limbic, parietal and temporal lobes. A discriminant analysis identified four frontal and limbic grey and white matter areas that separated the two groups most effectively. We conclude that grey matter voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based morphometry are well suited for the detection of age-related changes and their combination provides high accuracy when detecting the neural correlates of aging.

  19. [Voxel-Based Morphometry in Autism Spectrum Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasue, Hidenori

    2017-05-01

    Autism spectrum disorder shows deficits in social communication and interaction including nonverbal communicative behaviors (e.g., eye contact, gestures, voice prosody, and facial expressions) and restricted and repetitive behaviors as its core symptoms. These core symptoms are emerged as an atypical behavioral development in toddlers with the disorder. Atypical neural development is considered to be a neural underpinning of such behaviorally atypical development. A number of studies using voxel-based morphometry have already been conducted to compare regional brain volumes between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development. Furthermore, more than ten papers employing meta-analyses of the comparisons using voxel based morphometry between individuals with autism spectrum disorder and those with typical development have already been published. The current review paper adds some brief discussions about potential factors contributing to the inconsistency observed in the previous findings such as difficulty in controlling the confounding effects of different developmental phases among study participants.

  20. Investigation of mindfulness meditation practitioners with voxel-based morphometry

    OpenAIRE

    Hölzel, Britta K.; Ott, Ulrich; Gard, Tim; Hempel, Hannes; Weygandt, Martin; Morgen, Katrin; Vaitl, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Mindfulness meditators practice the non-judgmental observation of the ongoing stream of internal experiences as they arise. Using voxel-based morphometry, this study investigated MRI brain images of 20 mindfulness (Vipassana) meditators (mean practice 8.6 years; 2 h daily) and compared the regional gray matter concentration to that of non-meditators matched for sex, age, education and handedness. Meditators were predicted to show greater gray matter concentration in regions that are typically...

  1. The neuroanatomy of subthreshold depressive symptoms in Huntington's disease: a combined diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprengelmeyer, R; Orth, M; Müller, H-P; Wolf, R C; Grön, G; Depping, M S; Kassubek, J; Justo, D; Rees, E M; Haider, S; Cole, J H; Hobbs, N Z; Roos, R A C; Dürr, A; Tabrizi, S J; Süssmuth, S D; Landwehrmeyer, G B

    2014-07-01

    Depressive symptoms are prominent psychopathological features of Huntington's disease (HD), making a negative impact on social functioning and well-being. We compared the frequencies of a history of depression, previous suicide attempts and current subthreshold depression between 61 early-stage HD participants and 40 matched controls. The HD group was then split based on the overall HD group's median Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-depression score into a group of 30 non-depressed participants (mean 0.8, s.d. = 0.7) and a group of 31 participants with subthreshold depressive symptoms (mean 7.3, s.d. = 3.5) to explore the neuroanatomy underlying subthreshold depressive symptoms in HD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Frequencies of history of depression, previous suicide attempts or current subthreshold depressive symptoms were higher in HD than in controls. The severity of current depressive symptoms was also higher in HD, but not associated with the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden. Compared with the non-depressed HD group DTI revealed lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the frontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula and cerebellum of the HD group with subthreshold depressive symptoms. In contrast, VBM measures were similar in both HD groups. A history of depression, the severity of HD motor signs or disease burden did not correlate with FA values of these regions. Current subthreshold depressive symptoms in early HD are associated with microstructural changes - without concomitant brain volume loss - in brain regions known to be involved in major depressive disorder, but not those typically associated with HD pathology.

  2. Voxel-based morphometry: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scarpazza C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cristina Scarpazza,1,2 Maria Stefania De Simone,3 1Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, UK; 2Department of General Psychology, University of Padua, Padua, 3Laboratory of Clinical and Behavioural Neurology, IRCCS Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy Abstract: Voxel-based morphometry (VBM is a widely used automated technique for the analysis of neuroanatomical images. This work, which reviews important VBM clinical findings of the last few years, is divided into two main sections. After briefly introducing VBM methodology, in the first part, VBM findings on neurological and psychiatric diseases have been discussed separately. The reported studies were divided into studies that examine the diagnostic value of VBM results and their usefulness for the differential diagnosis between two disorders; studies investigating the potential of VBM for the diagnosis in an early stage of the illness, and studies that examine the utility of VBM for predicting the transition from prodromal phase to full-blown disease. In the second part, this review focuses on the most recent findings on the single-case approach. This analysis is useful for promoting the translational impact of VBM results in clinical practice, where clinicians need to make inferences at the level of the individual patient. Finally, within the single-case approach, a paragraph is dedicated to the potential forensic applications of VBM. Indeed, if used to support and integrate results obtained with classical forensic evaluations, VBM may provide objective data that could be used to reduce controversy in forensic psychiatric evaluations of mental insanity. In this second part, particular emphasis is given to the problem of results interpretation, which should be based mainly on the presence of anatomoclinical correlation. The review finishes with a provocative note reporting an interesting result of a single-case VBM

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging of nigral degeneration in Parkinson's disease: A region-of-interest and voxel-based study at 3 T and systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Stefan T; Abaei, Maryam; Gontu, Vamsi; Morgan, Paul S; Bajaj, Nin; Auer, Dorothee P

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing interest in developing a reliable, affordable and accessible disease biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD) to facilitate disease modifying PD-trials. Imaging biomarkers using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can describe parameters such as fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD) or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). These parameters, when measured in the substantia nigra (SN), have not only shown promising but also varying and controversial results. To clarify the potential diagnostic value of nigral DTI in PD and its dependency on selection of region-of-interest, we undertook a high resolution DTI study at 3 T. 59 subjects (32 PD patients, 27 age and sex matched healthy controls) were analysed using manual outlining of SN and substructures, and voxel-based analysis (VBA). We also performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to estimate the effect size (DES) of disease related nigral DTI changes. We found a regional increase in nigral mean diffusivity in PD (mean ± SD, PD 0.80 ± 0.10 vs. controls 0.73 ± 0.06 · 10(- 3) mm(2)/s, p = 0.002), but no difference using a voxel based approach. No significant disease effect was seen using meta-analysis of nigral MD changes (10 studies, DES = + 0.26, p = 0.17, I(2) = 30%). None of the nigral regional or voxel based analyses of this study showed altered fractional anisotropy. Meta-analysis of 11 studies on nigral FA changes revealed a significant PD induced FA decrease. There was, however, a very large variation in results (I(2) = 86%) comparing all studies. After exclusion of five studies with unusual high values of nigral FA in the control group, an acceptable heterogeneity was reached, but there was non-significant disease effect (DES = - 0.5, p = 0.22, I(2) = 28%). The small PD related nigral MD changes in conjunction with the negative findings on VBA and meta-analysis limit the usefulness of nigral MD

  4. Voxel-Based LIDAR Analysis and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea T.

    One of the greatest recent changes in the field of remote sensing is the addition of high-quality Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instruments. In particular, the past few decades have been greatly beneficial to these systems because of increases in data collection speed and accuracy, as well as a reduction in the costs of components. These improvements allow modern airborne instruments to resolve sub-meter details, making them ideal for a wide variety of applications. Because LIDAR uses active illumination to capture 3D information, its output is fundamentally different from other modalities. Despite this difference, LIDAR datasets are often processed using methods appropriate for 2D images and that do not take advantage of its primary virtue of 3-dimensional data. It is this problem we explore by using volumetric voxel modeling. Voxel-based analysis has been used in many applications, especially medical imaging, but rarely in traditional remote sensing. In part this is because the memory requirements are substantial when handling large areas, but with modern computing and storage this is no longer a significant impediment. Our reason for using voxels to model scenes from LIDAR data is that there are several advantages over standard triangle-based models, including better handling of overlapping surfaces and complex shapes. We show how incorporating system position information from early in the LIDAR point cloud generation process allows radiometrically-correct transmission and other novel voxel properties to be recovered. This voxelization technique is validated on simulated data using the Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) software, a first-principles based ray-tracer developed at the Rochester Institute of Technology. Voxel-based modeling of LIDAR can be useful on its own, but we believe its primary advantage is when applied to problems where simpler surface-based 3D models conflict with the requirement of realistic geometry. To

  5. Voxel-based model construction from colored tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loureiro, Eduardo Cesar de Miranda

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a new approach in the construction of voxel-based phantoms that was implemented to simplify the segmentation process of organs and tissues reducing the time used in this procedure. The segmentation process is performed by painting tomographic images and attributing a different color for each organ or tissue. A voxel-based head and neck phantom was built using this new approach. The way as the data are stored allows an increasing in the performance of the radiation transport code. The program that calculates the radiation transport also works with image files. This capability allows image reconstruction showing isodose areas, under several points of view, increasing the information to the user. Virtual X-ray photographs can also be obtained allowing that studies could be accomplished looking for the radiographic techniques optimization assessing, at the same time, the doses in organs and tissues. The accuracy of the program here presented, called MCvoxEL, that implements this new approach, was tested by comparison to results from two modern and well-supported Monte Carlo codes. Dose conversion factors for parallel X-ray exposure were also calculated. (author)

  6. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Ji-Woo; Sohn, Jin-Hun

    2018-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM) volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD. PMID:29636704

  7. White matter microstructure in 22q11 deletion syndrome: a pilot diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry study of children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundram, Frederick; Campbell, Linda E.; Azuma, Rayna; Daly, Eileen; Bloemen, Oswald J. N.; Barker, Gareth J.; Chitnis, Xavier; Jones, Derek K.; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Murphy, Kieran C.; Murphy, Declan G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Young people with 22q11 Deletion Syndrome (22q11DS) are at substantial risk for developing psychosis and have significant differences in white matter (WM) volume. However, there are few in vivo studies of both WM microstructural integrity (as measured using Diffusion Tensor (DT)-MRI) and WM volume

  8. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Braber, Anouk; van 't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cath, Danielle C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Thompson, Paul M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures remains to be

  9. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Braber, A.; van t Ent, D.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cath, D.C.; Veltman, D.J.; Thompson, P.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures

  10. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21–45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. PMID:26306927

  11. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21-45 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215 normal and healthy participants between the ages of 21-45 years were acquired. Changes in gray matter were assessed using voxel-based morphometry and gray matter volumetric analysis. The results showed significant decrease in gray matter volume between the youngest and oldest groups in the following brain regions: frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Grey matter loss in the frontal lobe was among the most widespread of all brain regions across the comparison groups that showed significant age-related changes in grey matter for both males and females. This work provides a unique pattern of age-related decline of normal and healthy adult males and females that can aid in the future development of a unified model of normal brain aging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Common and distinct neural correlates of emotional processing in Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder: A voxel-based meta-analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvecchio, Giuseppe; Frangou, Sophia; Fossati, Philippe; Boyer, Patrice; Brambilla, Paolo; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Olivier; Hietala, Jarmo; Lawrie, Stephen M.; Martinot, Jean-Luc; McIntosh, Andrew M.; Meisenzahl, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have consistently shown functional brain abnormalities in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). However, the extent to which these two disorders are associated with similar or distinct neural changes remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing BD and MDD patients to healthy participants using facial affect processing paradigms. Relevant spatial coordinates from twenty original studies were subjected to quantitative Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analyses based on 168 BD and 189 MDD patients and 344 healthy controls. We identified common and distinct patterns of neural engagement for BD and MDD within the facial affect processing network. Both disorders were associated with increased engagement of limbic regions. Diagnosis-specific differences were observed in cortical, thalamic and striatal regions. Decreased ventro-lateral prefrontal cortical engagement was associated with BD while relative hypo-activation of the sensorimotor cortices was seen in MDD. Increased responsiveness in the thalamus and basal ganglia were associated with BD. These findings were modulated by stimulus valence. These data suggest that whereas limbic over-activation is reported consistently in patients with mood disorders, future research should consider the relevance of a wider network of regions in formulating conceptual models of BD and MDD. (authors)

  13. Grey and white matter volumes either in treatment-naïve or hormone-treated transgender women: a voxel-based morphometry study

    OpenAIRE

    Spizzirri, Giancarlo; Duran, Fábio Luis Souza; Chaim-Avancini, Tiffany Moukbel; Serpa, Mauricio Henriques; Cavallet, Mikael; Pereira, Carla Maria Abreu; Santos, Pedro Paim; Squarzoni, Paula; da Costa, Naomi Antunes; Busatto, Geraldo F.; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar

    2018-01-01

    Many previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have documented sex differences in brain morphology, but the patterns of sexual brain differences in transgender women – male sex assigned at birth – with a diagnosis of gender dysphoria (TW) have been rarely investigated to date. We acquired T1-weighted MRI data for the following four (n = 80) groups: treatment-naïve TW (TNTW), TW treated with cross-sex hormones for at least one year (TTW), cisgender men, and cisgender women (cisgender i...

  14. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging of the optic pathway in primary open-angle glaucoma: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikou, A K; Kitsos, G; Tzarouchi, L C; Astrakas, L; Alexiou, G A; Argyropoulou, M I

    2012-01-01

    Neuropathologic studies in experimental and human glaucoma have demonstrated degenerative changes in the optic pathway. The purpose of this study was to assess the optic pathway in POAG by using VBM and DTI. Eighteen patients 57.05 ± 11.38 years of age with POAG of 8.30 ± 5.14 years' duration and 18 control subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including quantification of the RNFLT by using Stratus OCT 3, and brain imaging. The imaging protocol consisted of a T1-weighted high-resolution 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence and a multisection spin-echo- planar diffusion-weighted sequence. Data preprocessing and analysis were performed by using Matlab 7.0 and SPM 5. Left temporal and right nasal RNFLTs were significantly thinner than right temporal and left nasal RNFLTs. In patients, VBM revealed a significant reduction in the left visual cortex volume, the left lateral geniculate nucleus, and the intracranial part of the ONs and the chiasma. In addition, a significant decrease of FA was observed in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the longitudinal and inferior frontal fasciculi, the putamen, the caudate nucleus, the anterior and posterior thalamic radiations, and the anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule of the left hemisphere (P < .05). Neurodegenerative changes of the optic pathway and several brain areas associated with the visual system can be observed by using VBM and DTI in patients with POAG, suggesting that glaucoma is a complex neurologic disease.

  15. Brain gray matter alterations and associated demographic profiles in adults with autism spectrum disorder: A meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xun; Si, Tianjing; Gong, Qiyong; Qiu, Lihua; Jia, Zhiyun; Zhou, Mi; Zhao, Youjin; Hu, Xinyu; Wu, Min; Zhu, Hongyan

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that children with autism spectrum disorder are accompanied by specific anatomical alterations. However, the anatomical abnormalities in adults with autism spectrum disorder are poorly understood. This study was aimed to identify the neuroanatomical substrates underlying the pathophysiology of adults with autism spectrum disorder. We also investigated the relationship between neuroanatomical alterations and clinical and demographic characteristics. A total of 13 datasets were enrolled, of which 12 studies compared whole-brain differences of 382 adult patients with autism and 393 healthy control subjects. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantitatively estimate regional gray matter volume abnormalities in individuals with autism using the effect-size signed differential mapping. The voxel-wise meta-analysis revealed that relative to controls, adults with autism spectrum disorder had significantly increased gray matter volume in the middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus, and reduced gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex and cerebellum. Variations in gray matter volume were significantly associated with the mean age and mean total IQ score of the patients, as well as with the percentage of male patients with autism. These findings confirmed that the neuroanatomical alterations in the fronto-temporal cortices, limbic system and cerebellum in adult individuals with autism were different from the children and young adolescent's autism. The effects of demographic characteristics on the brain morphological changes allow us to further clarify the neurobiological mechanisms and developmental trajectory in adult population with autism spectrum disorder. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2016.

  16. Analytical modeling and feasibility study of a multi-GPU cloud-based server (MGCS) framework for non-voxel-based dose calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J; Min, Y; Kupelian, P; Low, D A; Santhanam, A

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a multi-GPU cloud-based server (MGCS) framework is presented for dose calculations, exploring the feasibility of remote computing power for parallelization and acceleration of computationally and time intensive radiotherapy tasks in moving toward online adaptive therapies. An analytical model was developed to estimate theoretical MGCS performance acceleration and intelligently determine workload distribution. Numerical studies were performed with a computing setup of 14 GPUs distributed over 4 servers interconnected by a 1 Gigabits per second (Gbps) network. Inter-process communication methods were optimized to facilitate resource distribution and minimize data transfers over the server interconnect. The analytically predicted computation time predicted matched experimentally observations within 1-5 %. MGCS performance approached a theoretical limit of acceleration proportional to the number of GPUs utilized when computational tasks far outweighed memory operations. The MGCS implementation reproduced ground-truth dose computations with negligible differences, by distributing the work among several processes and implemented optimization strategies. The results showed that a cloud-based computation engine was a feasible solution for enabling clinics to make use of fast dose calculations for advanced treatment planning and adaptive radiotherapy. The cloud-based system was able to exceed the performance of a local machine even for optimized calculations, and provided significant acceleration for computationally intensive tasks. Such a framework can provide access to advanced technology and computational methods to many clinics, providing an avenue for standardization across institutions without the requirements of purchasing, maintaining, and continually updating hardware.

  17. Diffusion tensor studies and voxel-based morphometry of the temporal lobe to determine the cognitive prognosis in cases of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment: Do white matter changes precede gray matter changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taoka, Toshiaki; Yasuno, Fumihiko; Morikawa, Masayuki; Inoue, Makoto; Kiuchi, Kuniaki; Kitamura, Soichiro; Matsuoka, Kiwamu; Kishimoto, Toshifumi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Naganawa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters for determining the prognosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We also analyzed the correlation among DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and results of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE). The subjects of this prospective study were patients with AD and mild cognitive impairment. We performed annual follow-ups with DTI, VBM, and MMSE for 2 or 3 years. On DTI, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the uncinate fascicles were measured. VBM was performed to provide a z-score for the parahippocampal gyrus. The correlations among these factors were evaluated in the same period and the next period of the follow-up study. For evaluation of the same period, both DTI parameters and z-scores showed statistically significant correlations with the MMSE score. Also for evaluation of the next period, both DTI parameters and z-scores showed statistically significant correlations with the MMSE score of the next period. We observed a statistically significant correlation between the ADC value of the uncinate fascicles and the z-score of the next period. Diffusion tensor parameters (ADC and FA) of the uncinate fascicles correlated well with cognitive function in the next year and seemed to be feasible for use as biomarkers for predicting the progression of AD. In addition, the white matter changes observed in the ADC seemed to precede changes in the gray matter volume of the parahippocampal gyrus that were represented by z-scores of VBM.

  18. Altered Gray Matter Volume and Resting-State Connectivity in Individuals With Internet Gaming Disorder: A Voxel-Based Morphometry and Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Woo Seok

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies on the characteristics of individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD have been accumulating due to growing concerns regarding the psychological and social problems associated with Internet use. However, relatively little is known about the brain characteristics underlying IGD, such as the associated functional connectivity and structure. The aim of this study was to investigate alterations in gray matter (GM volume and functional connectivity during resting state in individuals with IGD using voxel-based morphometry and a resting-state connectivity analysis. The participants included 20 individuals with IGD and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Resting-state functional and structural images were acquired for all participants using 3 T magnetic resonance imaging. We also measured the severity of IGD and impulsivity using psychological scales. The results show that IGD severity was positively correlated with GM volume in the left caudate (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons, and negatively associated with functional connectivity between the left caudate and the right middle frontal gyrus (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons. This study demonstrates that IGD is associated with neuroanatomical changes in the right middle frontal cortex and the left caudate. These are important brain regions for reward and cognitive control processes, and structural and functional abnormalities in these regions have been reported for other addictions, such as substance abuse and pathological gambling. The findings suggest that structural deficits and resting-state functional impairments in the frontostriatal network may be associated with IGD and provide new insights into the underlying neural mechanisms of IGD.

  19. Voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based diffusion tensor analysis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiye; Ma Lin; Lou Xin; Wang Yan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate gray matter volume, white matter volume and FA value changes in amyatrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based diffusion tensor analysis (VBDTA). Methods: Thirty-nine definite or probable ALS patients diagnosed by El Escorial standard and 39 healthy controls were recruited and underwent conventional MR scans and the neuropsychological evaluation. The 3D FSPGR T 1 WI and DTI data were collected on GE Medical 3.0 T MRI system. The 3DT 1 structural images were normalized, segmented and smoothed, and then VBM analysis was performed. DTI data were acquired from 76 healthy controls, and FA map template was made. FA maps generated from the DTI data of ALS patients and healthy controls were normalized to the FA map template for voxel-based analysis. ANCOVA was applied, controlling with age and total intracranial volume for VBM and age for VBDDTA. A statistical threshold of P<0.01 (uncorrected) and cluster level of more than continuous 20 voxels determined significance. Results: Statistical results showed no significant difference in the global volumes of gray matter and white matter, total intracranial volumes and gray matter fraction between ALS patients and healthy controls, but the white matter fraction of ALS patients (0.29 ± 0.02) was significantly less than that of healthy controls (0.30 ± 0.02) statistically (P=0.003). There was significant reduction of gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri and precentral gyri, right middle frontal gyrus, right middle and inferior temporal gyrus, left superior occipital gyrus and cuneus and left insula in ALS patients when compared with healthy controls; and the regional reduction of white matter volumes in ALS patients mainly located in genu of corpus callosum, bilateral medial frontal gyri, paracentral lobule and insula, right superior and middle frontal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus. VBDTA showed decrease in FA values in bilateral

  20. Association between the scores of the Japanese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and whole-brain structure in patients with chronic schizophrenia: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidese, Shinsuke; Ota, Miho; Matsuo, Junko; Ishida, Ikki; Hiraishi, Moeko; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) is a concise tool designed to evaluate cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. We examined the possible association between BACS scores and whole-brain structure, as observed using magnetic resonance imaging with a relatively large sample. The study sample comprised 116 patients with schizophrenia (mean age, 39.3 ± 11.1 years; 66 men) and 118 healthy controls (HC; mean age, 40.0 ± 13.6 years; 58 men) who completed the Japanese version of the BACS (BACS-J). All participants were of Japanese ethnicity. The magnetic resonance imaging volume and diffusion tensor imaging data were processed with voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics, respectively. There were significant reductions in the regional gray matter volumes and white matter fractional anisotropy values in patients with schizophrenia compared to HC. For the gray matter areas, the working memory score had a significant positive correlation with the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortices volumes in the patients. For the white matter areas, the motor speed score had a significant positive correlation with fractional anisotropy values in the corpus callosum, internal capsule, superior corona radiata, and superior longitudinal fasciculus in the patients. However, there was no significant correlation among either the gray or white matter areas in the HC. Our results suggest that among the BACS-J measures, the working memory and motor speed scores are associated with several structural alterations in the brains of patients with schizophrenia. © 2017 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2017 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  1. ALFF Value in Right Parahippocampal Gyrus Acts as a Potential Marker Monitoring Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Progression: a Neuropsychological, Voxel-Based Morphometry, and Resting-State Functional MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenjia; Fu, Xiaoling; Cui, Fang; Yang, Fei; Ren, Yuting; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Xiaolan; Chen, Zhaohui; Ling, Li; Huang, Xusheng

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze cognitive impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four participants matched for age, sex, and educational background were enrolled as the sporadic ALS group (n = 22) and the control group (n = 22). All participants completed comprehensive neuropsychological tests, including the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), the Stroop Color-Word Interference Test (SCWT), the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), and the Frontal Assessment Battery. The participants underwent a series of 3.0 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Resting-state functional MRI (Rs-fMRI) using the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was performed. Three-dimensional T1-weighted anatomical images obtained by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to conduct correlation analyses and group comparisons with the demographic and neuropsychological characteristics. The results indicated that the decreased gray matter (GM) volume in the bilateral precentral gyri and increased ALFF values in the right parahippocampal gyrus, left inferior temporal gyrus, left anterior cingulate gyrus, right superior frontal gyrus, and left middle occipital gyrus were identified in the sporadic ALS group. The increased ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus was positively correlated with ALS progression rate. The ALS patients exhibited poor performances on cognitive and executive tests, which were significantly or marginally significantly correlated with the ALFF values in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the frontal, temporal, and parahippocampal cortices. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence of an extramotor involvement and suggest that the ALFF value in the right parahippocampal gyrus could represent a potential marker to monitor disease progression.

  2. Anatomical specificity of vascular endothelial growth factor expression in glioblastomas: a voxel-based mapping analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Xing [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Capital Medical University, Department of Neuropathology, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai; Ma, Jun; Li, Shaowu [Capital Medical University, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Shuai [Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Departments of Neurosurgery, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Beijing (China); Liu, Yong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Brainnetome Center, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Beijing (China); Beijing Academy of Critical Illness in Brain, Department of Clinical Oncology, Beijing (China)

    2016-01-15

    The expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a common genetic alteration in malignant gliomas and contributes to the angiogenesis of tumors. This study aimed to investigate the anatomical specificity of VEGF expression levels in glioblastomas using voxel-based neuroimaging analysis. Clinical information, MR scans, and immunohistochemistry stains of 209 patients with glioblastomas were reviewed. All tumor lesions were segmented manually and subsequently registered to standard brain space. Voxel-based regression analysis was performed to correlate the brain regions of tumor involvement with the level of VEGF expression. Brain regions identified as significantly associated with high or low VEGF expression were preserved following permutation correction. High VEGF expression was detected in 123 (58.9 %) of the 209 patients. Voxel-based statistical analysis demonstrated that high VEGF expression was more likely in tumors located in the left frontal lobe and the right caudate and low VEGF expression was more likely in tumors that occurred in the posterior region of the right lateral ventricle. Voxel-based neuroimaging analysis revealed the anatomic specificity of VEGF expression in glioblastoma, which may further our understanding of genetic heterogeneity during tumor origination. This finding provides primary theoretical support for potential future application of customized antiangiogenic therapy. (orig.)

  3. Voxel-based frog phantom for internal dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinase, Sakae

    2008-01-01

    A voxel-based frog phantom has been developed for radiation protection of the environment. The voxel-based frog phantom was applied to evaluating self-absorbed fractions (self-AFs), which are defined as the fraction of energy emitted by a radiation source that is absorbed within the source organ. The self-AFs were evaluated for both photons and electrons in the spleen, kidneys, and liver using Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, self-S values (μGy/MBq·s) for 18 F and 90 Y in the organs were calculated using the results of the self-AFs. Consequently, the voxel-based frog phantom was found to be useful for the organ dose evaluations, which have not been proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It was also confirmed that the self-AFs and self-S values are largely dependent on the mass of the source organ. (author)

  4. DTI Analysis of Presbycusis Using Voxel-Based Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, W; Li, M; Gao, F; Zhang, X; Shi, L; Yu, L; Zhao, B; Chen, W; Wang, G; Wang, X

    2016-07-14

    Presbycusis is the most common sensory deficit in the aging population. A recent study reported using a DTI-based tractography technique to identify a lack of integrity in a portion of the auditory pathway in patients with presbycusis. The aim of our study was to investigate the white matter pathology of patients with presbycusis by using a voxel-based analysis that is highly sensitive to local intensity changes in DTI data. Fifteen patients with presbycusis and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were scanned on a 3T scanner. Fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were obtained from the DTI data. Intergroup statistics were implemented on these measurements, which were transformed to Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates by using a nonrigid image registration method called large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Increased axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity and decreased fractional anisotropy were found near the right-side hearing-related areas in patients with presbycusis. Increased radial diffusivity and mean diffusivity were also found near a language-related area (Broca area) in patients with presbycusis. Our findings could be important for exploring reliable imaging evidence of presbycusis and could complement an ROI-based approach. © 2016 American Society of Neuroradiology.

  5. Voxel-based morphometry in autopsy proven PSP and CBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Keith A; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Dickson, Dennis W; Boeve, Bradley F; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Parisi, Joseph E; Jack, Clifford R

    2008-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the patterns of grey and white matter atrophy on MRI in autopsy confirmed progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and to determine whether the patterns vary depending on the clinical syndrome. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare patterns of atrophy in 13 PSP and 11 CBD subjects and 24 controls. PSP and CBD subjects were also subdivided into those with a dominant dementia or extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects showed brainstem atrophy with involvement of the cortex and underlying white matter. Frontoparietal grey and subcortical grey matter atrophy occurred in CBD. When subdivided, PSP subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome had more brainstem atrophy and less cortical atrophy than CBD subjects with an extrapyramidal syndrome. PSP subjects with a dementia syndrome had more subcortical white matter atrophy than CBD subjects with a dementia syndrome. These results show regional differences between PSP and CBD that are useful in predicting the underlying pathology, and help to shed light on the in vivo distribution of regional atrophy in PSP and CBD.

  6. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiqun [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Guo Xiaojuan [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Qi Zhigang [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China); Yao Li [College of Information Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); National Key Laboratory for Cognitive Neuroscience and Learning, Beijing Normal University, 100875, Beijing (China); Li Kuncheng, E-mail: likuncheng@xwh.ccmu.edu.c [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, 100053, Beijing (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  7. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqun; Guo Xiaojuan; Qi Zhigang; Yao Li; Li Kuncheng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Materials and methods: We studied 14 patients with MCI and 14 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The data were collected on a 3T MR system and analyzed by SPM2 to generate white matter volume maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MCI prominently including the bilateral temporal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, the bilateral superior and medial frontal gyrus and right parietal angular gyrus. White matter reduction was more prominent in anterior regions than that in posterior regions. Conclusion: Whole-brain white matter reduction in MCI patients detected with VBM has special distribution which is in line with the white matter pathology of MCI.

  8. Micromechanical analysis of nanocomposites using 3D voxel based material model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2012-01-01

    A computational study on the effect of nanocomposite structures on the elastic properties is carried out with the use of the 3D voxel based model of materials and the combined Voigt–Reuss method. A hierarchical voxel based model of a material reinforced by an array of exfoliated and intercalated...... nanoclay platelets surrounded by interphase layers is developed. With this model, the elastic properties of the interphase layer are estimated using the inverse analysis. The effects of aspect ratio, intercalation and orientation of nanoparticles on the elastic properties of the nanocomposites are analyzed....... For modeling the damage in nanocomposites with intercalated structures, “four phase” model is suggested, in which the strength of “intrastack interphase” is lower than that of “outer” interphase around the nanoplatelets. Analyzing the effect of nanoreinforcement in the matrix on the failure probability...

  9. Motor and extra-motor gray matter integrity may underlie neurophysiologic parameters of motor function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a combined voxel-based morphometry and transcranial stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Velonakis, Georgios; Rentzos, Michail; Zambelis, Thomas; Zouvelou, Vasiliki; Xirou, Sophia; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Karandreas, Nikolaos

    2018-02-07

    The association between gray matter (GM) density and neurophysiologic changes is still unclear in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We evaluated the relationship between GM density and motor system integrity combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in ALS. We included 17 ALS patients and 22 healthy controls (HC) who underwent 3D-T1-weighted imaging. Among the ALS group, we applied left motor cortex single-pulse TMS. We used whole-brain VBM comparing ALS and HC in GM density. We also conducted regression analysis to examine correlations between GM density and the following TMS parameters: motor evoked potential (MEP)/M ratio and central motor conduction time (CMCT). We found significantly decreased GM density in ALS patients in several frontal, temporal, parietal/occipital and cerebellar regions (p motor area (negative association). CMCT was associated with GM density in (a) inferior frontal gyrus and middle cingulated gyrus (positive association) and (b) superior parietal lobule; cuneus and cerebellum (negative association). Our findings support a significant interaction between motor and extra-motor structural and functional changes and highlight that motor and extra-motor GM integrity may underlie TMS parameters of motor function in ALS patients.

  10. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamboer, P.; Scholte, H.S.; Vorst, H.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in

  11. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  12. Mapping cortical degeneration in ALS with magnetization transfer ratio and voxel-based morphometry.

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    Mirco Cosottini

    Full Text Available Pathological and imaging data indicate that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a multisystem disease involving several cerebral cortical areas. Advanced quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques enable to explore in vivo the volume and microstructure of the cerebral cortex in ALS. We studied with a combined voxel-based morphometry (VBM and magnetization transfer (MT imaging approach the capability of MRI to identify the cortical areas affected by neurodegeneration in ALS patients. Eighteen ALS patients and 18 age-matched healthy controls were examined on a 1.5T scanner using a high-resolution 3D T1 weighted spoiled gradient recalled sequence with and without MT saturation pulse. A voxel-based analysis (VBA was adopted in order to automatically compute the regional atrophy and MT ratio (MTr changes of the entire cerebral cortex. By using a multimodal image analysis MTr was adjusted for local gray matter (GM atrophy to investigate if MTr changes can be independent of atrophy of the cerebral cortex. VBA revealed several clusters of combined GM atrophy and MTr decrease in motor-related areas and extra-motor frontotemporal cortex. The multimodal image analysis identified areas of isolated MTr decrease in premotor and extra-motor frontotemporal areas. VBM and MTr are capable to detect the distribution of neurodegenerative alterations in the cortical GM of ALS patients, supporting the hypothesis of a multi-systemic involvement in ALS. MT imaging changes exist beyond volume loss in frontotemporal cortices.

  13. Behavioral changes in early ALS correlate with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Masashi; Senda, Jo; Ishihara, Tetsuro; Niimi, Yoshiki; Kawai, Yoshinari; Atsuta, Naoki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Naganawa, Shinji; Sobue, Gen

    2011-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multisystem disorder with impairment of frontotemporal functions such as cognition and behavior, but the behavioral changes associated with ALS are not well defined. Twenty-one consecutive patients with sporadic ALS and 21 control subjects participated in the study. The Frontal System Behavior Scale (FrSBe) was used to assess behavioral change. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor images (DTI) were performed to explore the associations of brain degeneration with behavior. All patients were evaluated before the notification of ALS. FrSBe scores of ALS patients before notification were significantly increased compared to those of control subjects. Moreover, the FrSBe Apathy score of ALS patients significantly changed from pre- to post-illness (P<0.001). The severity of apathy was significantly correlated with atrophy in the prefrontal cortex, especially in the orbitofrontal (P=0.006) and dorsolateral prefrontal (P=0.006) cortices in VBM, and in the right frontal gyrus (P<0.001) in DTI. ALS patients exhibited apathy during the early course of the illness, the severity of which was significantly associated with frontal lobe involvement. These findings support the view that a continuum exits between ALS and frontotemporal dementia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Voxel-based morphometry predicts shifts in dendritic spine density and morphology with auditory fear conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer Jr, O. P.; Hurt, R. C.; Gutman, D. A.; Keilholz, S. D.; Gourley, S. L.; Ressler, K. J.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging has provided compelling data about the brain. Yet the underlying mechanisms of many neuroimaging techniques have not been elucidated. Here we report a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study of Thy1-YFP mice following auditory fear conditioning complemented by confocal microscopy analysis of cortical thickness, neuronal morphometric features and nuclei size/density. Significant VBM results included the nuclei of the amygdala, the insula and the auditory cortex. There were no significant VBM changes in a control brain area. Focusing on the auditory cortex, confocal analysis showed that fear conditioning led to a significantly increased density of shorter and wider dendritic spines, while there were no spine differences in the control area. Of all the morphology metrics studied, the spine density was the only one to show significant correlation with the VBM signal. These data demonstrate that learning-induced structural changes detected by VBM may be partially explained by increases in dendritic spine density. PMID:26151911

  15. A voxel-based morphometric magnetic resonance imaging study of the brain detects age-related gray matter volume changes in healthy subjects of 21–45 years old

    OpenAIRE

    Bourisly, Ali K; El-Beltagi, Ahmed; Cherian, Jigi; Gejo, Grace; Al-Jazzaf, Abrar; Ismail, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Previous and more recent work of analyzing structural changes in the brain suggest that certain brain regions such as the frontal lobe are among the brain regions profoundly affected by the aging process across males and females. Also, a unified model of structural changes in a normally aging brain is still lacking. The present study investigated age-related structural brain changes in gray matter from young to early middle-age adulthood for males and females. Magnetic resonance images of 215...

  16. Gray Matter Alterations in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Identified by Voxel Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Larry J.; Biederman, Joseph; Liang, Lichen; Valera, Eve M.; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Brown, Ariel; Kaiser, Jonathan; Spencer, Thomas; Faraone, Stephen V.; Makris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Background Gray and white matter volume deficits have been reported in many structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, there is a paucity of structural MRI studies of adults with ADHD. This study used voxel based morphometry and applied an a priori region of interest approach based on our previous work, as well as from well-developed neuroanatomical theories of ADHD. Methods Seventy-four adults with DSM-IV ADHD and 54 healthy control subjects comparable on age, sex, race, handedness, IQ, reading achievement, frequency of learning disabilities, and whole brain volume had an MRI on a 1.5T Siemens scanner. A priori region of interest hypotheses focused on reduced volumes in ADHD in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, putamen, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellum. Analyses were carried out by FSL-VBM 1.1. Results Relative to control subjects, ADHD adults had significantly smaller gray matter volumes in parts of six of these regions at p ≤ .01, whereas parts of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior parietal lobule were significantly larger in ADHD at this threshold. However, a number of other regions were smaller and larger in ADHD (especially fronto-orbital cortex) at this threshold. Only the caudate remained significantly smaller at the family-wise error rate. Conclusions Adults with ADHD have subtle volume reductions in the caudate and possibly other brain regions involved in attention and executive control supporting frontostriatal models of ADHD. Modest group brain volume differences are discussed in the context of the nature of the samples studied and voxel based morphometry methodology. PMID:21183160

  17. Brain structural changes in cynomolgus monkeys administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonseok S Jeong

    Full Text Available In animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP is one of the most widely used agents that damages the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. However, brain structural changes in response to MPTP remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate in vivo longitudinal changes in gray matter (GM volume and white matter (WM microstructure in primate models administered with MPTP. In six cynomolgus monkeys, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI scans were acquired 7 times over 32 weeks, and assessments of motor symptoms were conducted over 15 months, before and after the MPTP injection. Changes in GM volume and WM microstructure were estimated on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the trajectories of these structural changes. GM volume initially increased after the MPTP injection and gradually decreased in the striatum, midbrain, and other dopaminergic areas. The cerebellar volume temporarily decreased and returned to its baseline level. The rate of midbrain volume increase was positively correlated with the increase rate of motor symptom severity (Spearman rho = 0.93, p = 0.008. Mean, axial, and radial diffusivity in the striatum and frontal areas demonstrated initial increases and subsequent decreases. The current multi-modal imaging study of MPTP-administered monkeys revealed widespread and dynamic structural changes not only in the nigrostriatal pathway but also in other cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar areas. Our findings may suggest the need to further investigate the roles of inflammatory reactions and glial activation as potential underlying mechanisms of these structural changes.

  18. Brain structural changes in cynomolgus monkeys administered with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonseok S; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Jieun E; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung; Namgung, Eun; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Kim, Bom Sahn; Yang, Sejung; Im, Jooyeon J; Jeon, Saerom; Kang, Ilhyang; Ma, Jiyoung; Chung, Yong-An; Lim, Soo Mee

    2018-01-01

    In animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) is one of the most widely used agents that damages the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. However, brain structural changes in response to MPTP remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate in vivo longitudinal changes in gray matter (GM) volume and white matter (WM) microstructure in primate models administered with MPTP. In six cynomolgus monkeys, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans were acquired 7 times over 32 weeks, and assessments of motor symptoms were conducted over 15 months, before and after the MPTP injection. Changes in GM volume and WM microstructure were estimated on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Mixed-effects regression models were used to examine the trajectories of these structural changes. GM volume initially increased after the MPTP injection and gradually decreased in the striatum, midbrain, and other dopaminergic areas. The cerebellar volume temporarily decreased and returned to its baseline level. The rate of midbrain volume increase was positively correlated with the increase rate of motor symptom severity (Spearman rho = 0.93, p = 0.008). Mean, axial, and radial diffusivity in the striatum and frontal areas demonstrated initial increases and subsequent decreases. The current multi-modal imaging study of MPTP-administered monkeys revealed widespread and dynamic structural changes not only in the nigrostriatal pathway but also in other cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar areas. Our findings may suggest the need to further investigate the roles of inflammatory reactions and glial activation as potential underlying mechanisms of these structural changes.

  19. White matter impairments in autism, evidence from voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiaoyan; Tang, Tianyu; Hong, Shanshan; Hang, Yueyue; Zou, Bing; Li, Huiguo; Zhou, Zhenyu; Ruan, Zongcai; Lu, Zuhong; Tao, Guotai; Liu, Yijun

    2009-04-10

    This study explored white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with high functioning autism (HFA). Twelve male children with HFA and ten matched typically developing children underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well three-dimensional T1-weighted MRI for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We found a significant decrease of the white matter density in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and right anterior cingulate and a significant increase in the right frontal lobe, left parietal lobe and left cingulate gyrus in the HFA group compared with the control group. The HFA group also had decreased FA in the frontal lobe and left temporal lobe. By combining DT-MRI FA and MRI volumetric analyses based on the VBM model, the results showed consistent white matter abnormalities in a group of Chinese children with HFA.

  20. Reduction in left supplementary motor area grey matter in adult female fibromyalgia sufferers with marked fatigue and without affective disorder: a pilot controlled 3-T magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, B K; Agour, M; Gunatilake, K Dr; Fernando, K Ac; Gurusinghe, A I; Treasaden, I H

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that structural grey matter brain changes might occur in the chronic intractable pain disorder fibromyalgia when this is associated with marked fatigue in the absence of a DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) diagnosis of affective disorder. High-resolution 3-T cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired in 10 female, right-handed, non-smoking, white Caucasian subjects: five patients with fibromyalgia associated with marked fatigue and five age-matched healthy women. Voxel-wise generalized linear modelling of the processed neuroanatomical data using permutation-based non-parametric testing, forming clusters at t > 2.3 and testing clusters for significance at P fibromyalgia and marked fatigue in the left supplementary motor area. This brain region plays an important role in cognitive or executive control and in the translation of painful cognition; these functions are impaired in fibromyalgia associated with marked fatigue.

  1. Schizotypy and brain structure : a voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Modinos, G.; Mechelli, A.; Ormel, J.; Groenewold, N. A.; Aleman, A.; McGuire, P. K.

    Background. Schizotypy is conceptualized as a subclinical manifestation of the same underlying biological factors that give rise to schizophrenia and other schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Individuals with psychometric schizotypy (PS) experience subthreshold psychotic signs and can be

  2. A voxel-based finite element model for the prediction of bladder deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Bel, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: A finite element (FE) bladder model was previously developed to predict bladder deformation caused by bladder filling change. However, two factors prevent a wide application of FE models: (1) the labor required to construct a FE model with high quality mesh and (2) long computation time needed to construct the FE model and solve the FE equations. In this work, we address these issues by constructing a low-resolution voxel-based FE bladder model directly from the binary segmentation images and compare the accuracy and computational efficiency of the voxel-based model used to simulate bladder deformation with those of a classical FE model with a tetrahedral mesh. Methods: For ten healthy volunteers, a series of MRI scans of the pelvic region was recorded at regular intervals of 10 min over 1 h. For this series of scans, the bladder volume gradually increased while rectal volume remained constant. All pelvic structures were defined from a reference image for each volunteer, including bladder wall, small bowel, prostate (male), uterus (female), rectum, pelvic bone, spine, and the rest of the body. Four separate FE models were constructed from these structures: one with a tetrahedral mesh (used in previous study), one with a uniform hexahedral mesh, one with a nonuniform hexahedral mesh, and one with a low-resolution nonuniform hexahedral mesh. Appropriate material properties were assigned to all structures and uniform pressure was applied to the inner bladder wall to simulate bladder deformation from urine inflow. Performance of the hexahedral meshes was evaluated against the performance of the standard tetrahedral mesh by comparing the accuracy of bladder shape prediction and computational efficiency. Results: FE model with a hexahedral mesh can be quickly and automatically constructed. No substantial differences were observed between the simulation results of the tetrahedral mesh and hexahedral meshes (<1% difference in mean dice similarity coefficient to

  3. Voxel-based 3D MRI analysis helps to detect subtle forms of subcortical band heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Wellmer, Jörg; Staack, Anke Maren; Altenmüller, Dirk-Matthias; Urbach, Horst; Kröll, Judith

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the potential diagnostic value of a novel magnetic resonance image (MRI) postprocessing technique in subtle forms of subcortical band heterotopia (SBH). The method was introduced to improve the visualization of blurred gray-white matter junctions associated with focal cortical dysplasia but was found to be applicable also to SBH. In the voxel-based MRI analysis presented here, T1-weighted MRI volume data sets are normalized and segmented using standard algorithms of SPM5. The distribution of gray and white matter is analyzed on a voxelwise basis and compared with a normal database of 150 controls. Based on this analysis, a three-dimensional feature map is created that highlights brain areas if their signal intensities fall within the range between normal gray and white matter and differ from the normal database in this respect. The method was applied to the MRI data of 378 patients with focal epilepsy in three different epilepsy centers. SBH was diagnosed in seven patients with five of them showing subtle forms of SBH that had gone unrecognized in conventional visual analysis of MRI and were only detected by MRI postprocessing. In contrast to distinct double cortex syndrome, these patients had partial double cortex with SBH mostly confined to posterior brain regions. The results of this study suggest that a considerable part of cases with SBH might remain unrecognized by conventional MRI. Voxel-based MRI analysis may help to identify subtle forms and appears to be a valuable additional diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with cryptogenic epilepsy.

  4. Voxel Based Morphometry Alterations in Mal de Debarquement Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hee Cha

    Full Text Available Mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS is a disorder of chronic self-motion perception that occurs though entrainment to rhythmic background motion, such as from sea voyage, and involves the perception of low-frequency rocking that can last for months or years. The neural basis of this persistent sensory perception abnormality is not well understood.We investigated grey matter volume differences underlying persistent MdDS by performing voxel-based morphometry on whole brain and pre-specified ROIs in 28 individuals with MdDS and comparing them to 18 age, sex, and handedness matched controls.MdDS participants exhibited greater grey matter volume in the left inferior parietal lobule, right inferior occipital gyrus (area V3v, right temporal pole, bilateral cerebellar hemispheric lobules VIII/IX and left lobule VIIa/VIIb. Grey matter volumes were lower in bilateral inferior frontal, orbitofrontal, pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC and left superior medial gyri (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. In ROI analyses, there were no volume differences in the middle occipital gyrus (region of V5/MT or parietal operculum 2 (region of the parietoinsular vestibular cortex. Illness duration was positively related to grey matter volume in bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI, right posterior insula, superior parietal lobule, left middle occipital gyrus (V5/MT, bilateral postcentral gyrus, anterior cerebellum, and left cerebellar hemisphere and vermian lobule IX. In contrast, illness duration was negatively related to volume in pgACC, posterior middle cingulate gyrus (MCC, left middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-DLPFC, and right cerebellar hemispheric lobule VIIIb (t = 3.0, p<0.005uncorr. The most significant differences were decreased volume in the pgACC and increased volume in the left IFG/AI with longer illness duration (qFDRcorr <0.05. Concurrent medication use did not correlate with these findings or have a relationship with

  5. Age and gender effects on normal regional cerebral blood flow studied using two different voxel-based statistical analyses; Effets de l'age et du genre sur la perfusion cerebrale regionale etudiee par deux methodes d'analyse statistique voxel-par-voxel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirson, A.S.; George, J.; Krug, B.; Vander Borght, T. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); Van Laere, K. [Leuven Univ. Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Div. (Belgium); Jamart, J. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Dept. de Biostatistiques, Cliniques Universitaires de Mont-Godinne, Yvoir (Belgium); D' Asseler, Y. [Ghent Univ., Medical Signal and Image Processing Dept. (MEDISIP), Faculty of applied sciences (Belgium); Minoshima, S. [Washington Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Seattle (United States)

    2009-10-15

    Fully automated analysis programs have been applied more and more to aid for the reading of regional cerebral blood flow SPECT study. They are increasingly based on the comparison of the patient study with a normal database. In this study, we evaluate the ability of Three-Dimensional Stereotactic Surface Projection (3 D-S.S.P.) to isolate effects of age and gender in a previously studied normal population. The results were also compared with those obtained using Statistical Parametric Mapping (S.P.M.99). Methods Eighty-nine {sup 99m}Tc-E.C.D.-SPECT studies performed in carefully screened healthy volunteers (46 females, 43 males; age 20 - 81 years) were analysed using 3 D-S.S.P.. A multivariate analysis based on the general linear model was performed with regions as intra-subject factor, gender as inter-subject factor and age as co-variate. Results Both age and gender had a significant interaction effect with regional tracer uptake. An age-related decline (p < 0.001) was found in the anterior cingulate gyrus, left frontal association cortex and left insula. Bilateral occipital association and left primary visual cortical uptake showed a significant relative increase with age (p < 0.001). Concerning the gender effect, women showed higher uptake (p < 0.01) in the parietal and right sensorimotor cortices. An age by gender interaction (p < 0.01) was only found in the left medial frontal cortex. The results were consistent with those obtained with S.P.M.99. Conclusion 3 D-S.S.P. analysis of normal r.C.B.F. variability is consistent with the literature and other automated voxel-based techniques, which highlight the effects of both age and gender. (authors)

  6. A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analysis of asymptomatic Parkinson's disease-related G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thaler, A.; Artzi, M.; Mirelman, A.; Jacob, Y.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Nuenen, B.F.L. van; Gurevich, T.; Orr-Urtreger, A.; Marder, K.; Bressman, S.; Bloem, B.R.; Hendler, T.; Giladi, N.; Bashat, D. Ben; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease have reduced gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy in both cortical and sub-cortical structures, yet changes in the pre-motor phase of the disease are unknown. METHODS: A comprehensive imaging study using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion

  7. A voxel based comparative analysis using magnetization transfer imaging and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangalore Sandhya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP tissue damage occurs in specific cortical and subcortical regions. Voxel based analysis using T1-weighted images depict quantitative gray matter (GM atrophy changes. Magnetization transfer (MT imaging depicts qualitative changes in the brain parenchyma. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether MT imaging could indicate abnormalities in PSP. Settings and Design: A total of 10 patients with PSP (9 men and 1 woman and 8 controls (5 men and 3 women were studied with T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and 3DMT imaging. Voxel based analysis of T1-weighted MRI was performed to investigate brain atrophy while MT was used to study qualitative abnormalities in the brain tissue. We used SPM8 to investigate group differences (with two sample t-test using the GM and white matter (WM segmented data. Results: T1-weighted imaging and MT are equally sensitive to detect changes in GM and WM in PSP. Magnetization transfer ratio images and magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition of gradient echo revealed extensive bilateral volume and qualitative changes in the orbitofrontal, prefrontal cortex and limbic lobe and sub cortical GM. The prefrontal structures involved were the rectal gyrus, medial, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG and middle frontal gyrus (MFG. The anterior cingulate, cingulate gyrus and lingual gyrus of limbic lobe and subcortical structures such as caudate, thalamus, insula and claustrum were also involved. Cerebellar involvement mainly of anterior lobe was also noted. Conclusions: The findings suggest that voxel based MT imaging permits a whole brain unbiased investigation of central nervous system structural integrity in PSP.

  8. Repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol does not lead to increased signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images - a voxel-based whole brain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Soenke; Kromrey, Marie-Luise [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); University Hospital, Carl Gustav Carus University Dresden, Institute for Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Grothe, Matthias [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Neurology, Greifswald (Germany); Domin, Martin [University Medicine Greifswald, Functional Imaging Unit, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol. Using the ''Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra'' (DARTEL) normalisation process, tissue templates for grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were calculated, as were GM-CSF and WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis was used to calculate the signal intensity for each voxel in each data set. Paired t-test was applied to test differences to baseline MRI for significance. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis demonstrated no significant changes in signal intensity of grey and white matter after up to five gadobutrol administrations. There was no significant change in GM-CSF and grey WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis did not demonstrate increased signal intensity of GM and WM on unenhanced T1-weighted images after repeated gadobutrol administration. The molecular structure of gadolinium-based contrast agent preparations may be an essential factor causing SI increase on unenhanced T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  9. Skeletal dosimetry in a voxel-based rat phantom for internal exposures to photons and electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianwu; Han, Dao; Liu, Yang; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Qian

    2010-05-01

    The skeleton makes a significant contribution to the whole body absorbed dose evaluation of rats, since the bone marrow and bone surface in the skeleton express high radiosensitivity and are considered to be important dose-limiting tissues. The bone marrow can be categorized as red bone marrow (RBM) and yellow bone marrow (YBM). It is important to investigate the bone marrow in skeletal dosimetry. Cryosectional color images of the skeleton of a 156 g rat were segmented into mineral bone (including cortical bone and trabecular bone), RBM, and YBM. These three tissue types were identified at 40 different bone sites and integrated into a previously developed voxel-based rat computational phantom. Photon and electron skeletal absorbed fractions were then calculated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) for mineral bone, RBM, and YBM at the 40 different bone sites were established for monoenergetic photon and electron sources placed in 18 organs and seven bone sites. Discrete photon energy was varied from 0.01 to 5.0 MeV in 21 discrete steps, while 21 discrete electron energies were studied, from 0.1 to 10.0 MeV. The trends and values found were consistent with the results of other researchers [M. G. Stabin, T. E. Peterson, G. E. Holburn, and M. A. Emmons, "Voxel-based mouse and rat models for internal dose calculations," J. Nucl. Med. 47, 655-659 (2006)]. S-factors for the radionuclides 169Er, 143Pr, 89Sr, 32P, and 90Y, located in 18 organs and seven bone sites for the skeleton, were calculated and are provided in detail. For internal dose calculations, the AF data reveal that the mineral bone in the rat skeletal system is responsible for significant attenuation of gamma rays, especially at low energies. The photon SAF curves of RBM show that, for photon energies greater than 0.6 MeV, there is an increase in secondary photons emitted from the mineral bone as photon energy increases. The SAF values calculated in

  10. Skeletal dosimetry in a voxel-based rat phantom for internal exposures to photons and electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Tianwu; Han Dao; Liu Yang; Sun Wenjuan; Liu Qian [Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics, Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Purpose: The skeleton makes a significant contribution to the whole body absorbed dose evaluation of rats, since the bone marrow and bone surface in the skeleton express high radiosensitivity and are considered to be important dose-limiting tissues. The bone marrow can be categorized as red bone marrow (RBM) and yellow bone marrow (YBM). It is important to investigate the bone marrow in skeletal dosimetry. Methods: Cryosectional color images of the skeleton of a 156 g rat were segmented into mineral bone (including cortical bone and trabecular bone), RBM, and YBM. These three tissue types were identified at 40 different bone sites and integrated into a previously developed voxel-based rat computational phantom. Photon and electron skeletal absorbed fractions were then calculated using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. Results: Absorbed fraction (AF) and specific absorbed fraction (SAF) for mineral bone, RBM, and YBM at the 40 different bone sites were established for monoenergetic photon and electron sources placed in 18 organs and seven bone sites. Discrete photon energy was varied from 0.01 to 5.0 MeV in 21 discrete steps, while 21 discrete electron energies were studied, from 0.1 to 10.0 MeV. The trends and values found were consistent with the results of other researchers [M. G. Stabin, T. E. Peterson, G. E. Holburn, and M. A. Emmons, ''Voxel-based mouse and rat models for internal dose calculations,'' J. Nucl. Med. 47, 655-659 (2006)]. S-factors for the radionuclides {sup 169}Er, {sup 143}Pr, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 32}P, and {sup 90}Y, located in 18 organs and seven bone sites for the skeleton, were calculated and are provided in detail. Conclusions: For internal dose calculations, the AF data reveal that the mineral bone in the rat skeletal system is responsible for significant attenuation of gamma rays, especially at low energies. The photon SAF curves of RBM show that, for photon energies greater than 0.6 MeV, there is an increase in secondary

  11. A voxel-based multiscale model to simulate the radiation response of hypoxic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, I; Peschke, P; Karger, C P

    2015-01-01

    found to be significantly more important for reoxygenation than angiogenesis or decreased oxygen consumption due to an increased fraction of dead cells. In the studied HNSSC-case, the TCD50 values (dose at 50% TCP) decreased from 71.0 Gy under hypoxic to 53.6 Gy under the oxic condition. The results obtained with the developed multiscale model are in accordance with expectations based on radiobiological principles and clinical experience. As the model is voxel-based, radiological imaging methods may help to provide the required 3D-characterization of the tumor prior to irradiation. For clinical application, the model has to be further validated with experimental and clinical data. If this is achieved, the model may be used to optimize fractionation schedules and dose distributions for the treatment of hypoxic tumors.

  12. Investigating structural brain changes of dehydration using voxel-based morphometry.

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    Daniel-Paolo Streitbürger

    Full Text Available Dehydration can affect the volume of brain structures, which might imply a confound in volumetric and morphometric studies of normal or diseased brain. Six young, healthy volunteers were repeatedly investigated using three-dimensional T(1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during states of normal hydration, hyperhydration, and dehydration to assess volume changes in gray matter (GM, white matter (WM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF. The datasets were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM, a widely used voxel-wise statistical analysis tool, FreeSurfer, a fully automated volumetric segmentation measure, and SIENAr a longitudinal brain-change detection algorithm. A significant decrease of GM and WM volume associated with dehydration was found in various brain regions, most prominently, in temporal and sub-gyral parietal areas, in the left inferior orbito-frontal region, and in the extra-nuclear region. Moreover, we found consistent increases in CSF, that is, an expansion of the ventricular system affecting both lateral ventricles, the third, and the fourth ventricle. Similar degrees of shrinkage in WM volume and increase of the ventricular system have been reported in studies of mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease during disease progression. Based on these findings, a potential confound in GM and WM or ventricular volume studies due to the subjects' hydration state cannot be excluded and should be appropriately addressed in morphometric studies of the brain.

  13. Voxel-based morphometry with templates and validation in a mouse model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawiak, Stephen J; Wood, Nigel I; Williams, Guy B; Morton, A Jennifer; Carpenter, T Adrian

    2013-11-01

    Despite widespread application to human imaging, voxel-based morphometry (VBM), where images are compared following grey matter (GM) segmentation, is seldom used in mice. Here VBM is performed for the R6/2 model of Huntington's disease, a progressive neurological disorder. This article discusses issues in translating the methods to mice and shows that its statistical basis is sound in mice as it is in human studies. Whole brain images from live transgenic and control mice are segmented into GM maps after processing and compared to produce statistical parametric maps of likely differences. To assess whether false positives were likely to occur, a large cohort of ex vivo magnetic resonance brain images were sampled with permutation testing. Differences were seen particularly in the striatum and cortex, in line with studies performed ex vivo and as seen in human patients. In validation, the rate of false positives is as expected and these have no discernible distribution through the brain. The study shows that VBM successfully detects differences in the Huntington's disease mouse brain. The method is rapid compared to manual delineation and reliable. The templates created here for the mouse brain are freely released for other users in addition to an open-source software toolbox for performing mouse VBM. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional Gray Matter Density Associated with Cognitive Reflectivity–Impulsivity: Evidence from Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Hanihara, Mayu; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    When faced with a problem or choice, humans can use two different strategies: “cognitive reflectivity,” which involves slow responses and fewer mistakes, or “cognitive impulsivity,” which comprises of quick responses and more mistakes. Different individuals use these two strategies differently. To our knowledge, no study has directly investigated the brain regions involved in reflectivity–impulsivity; therefore, this study focused on associations between these cognitive strategies and the gray matter structure of several brain regions. In order to accomplish this, we enrolled 776 healthy, right-handed individuals (432 men and 344 women; 20.7 ± 1.8 years) and used voxel-based morphometry with administration of a cognitive reflectivity–impulsivity questionnaire. We found that high cognitive reflectivity was associated with greater regional gray matter density in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding suggests that this area plays an important role in defining an individual’s trait associated with reflectivity and impulsivity. PMID:25803809

  15. VIDA: a voxel-based dosimetry method for targeted radionuclide therapy using Geant4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Susan D; Dewaraja, Yuni K; Abramson, Richard G; Stabin, Michael G

    2015-02-01

    We have developed the Voxel-Based Internal Dosimetry Application (VIDA) to provide patient-specific dosimetry in targeted radionuclide therapy performing Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport with the Geant4 toolkit. The code generates voxel-level dose rate maps using anatomical and physiological data taken from individual patients. Voxel level dose rate curves are then fit and integrated to yield a spatial map of radiation absorbed dose. In this article, we present validation studies using established dosimetry results, including self-dose factors (DFs) from the OLINDA/EXM program for uniform activity in unit density spheres and organ self- and cross-organ DFs in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) reference adult phantom. The comparison with reference data demonstrated agreement within 5% for self-DFs to spheres and reference phantom source organs for four common radionuclides used in targeted therapy ((131)I, (90)Y, (111)In, (177)Lu). Agreement within 9% was achieved for cross-organ DFs. We also present dose estimates to normal tissues and tumors from studies of two non-Hodgkin Lymphoma patients treated by (131)I radioimmunotherapy, with comparison to results generated independently with another dosimetry code. A relative difference of 12% or less was found between methods for mean absorbed tumor doses accounting for tumor regression.

  16. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators’ brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM. To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls, where meditators have been practicing close to twenty years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentate, entorhinal cortex, subiculum as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri- hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators – perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity.

  17. The effect of template selection on diffusion tensor voxel-based analysis results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Sage, Caroline A; Emsell, Louise; Veraart, Jelle; Sijbers, Jan; Sunaert, Stefan; Parizel, Paul M

    2011-03-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly being used to study white matter (WM) degeneration in patients with psychiatric and neurological disorders. In order to compare diffusion measures across subjects in an automated way, voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods were introduced. In VBA, all DTI data are transformed to a template, after which the diffusion measures of control subjects and patients are compared quantitatively in each voxel. Although VBA has many advantages compared to other post-processing approaches, such as region of interest analysis or tractography, VBA results need to be interpreted cautiously, since it has been demonstrated that they depend on the different parameter settings that are applied in the VBA processing pipeline. In this paper, we examine the effect of the template selection on the VBA results of DTI data. We hypothesized that the choice of template to which all data are transformed would also affect the VBA results. To this end, simulated DTI data sets as well as DTI data from control subjects and multiple sclerosis patients were aligned to (i) a population-specific DTI template, (ii) a subject-based DTI atlas in MNI space, and (iii) the ICBM-81 DTI atlas. Our results suggest that the highest sensitivity and specificity to detect WM abnormalities in a VBA setting was achieved using the population-specific DTI atlas, presumably due to the better spatial image alignment to this template. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An enhanced voxel-based morphometry method to investigate structural changes: application to Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingfeng; Messé, Arnaud; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pélégrini-Issac, Mélanie; Benali, Habib

    2010-03-01

    When characterizing regional cerebral gray matter differences in structural magnetic resonance images (sMRI) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM), one faces a known drawback of VBM, namely that histogram unequalization in the intensity images introduces false-positive results. To overcome this limitation, we propose to improve VBM by a new approach (called eVBM for enhanced VBM) that takes the histogram distribution of the sMRI into account by adding a histogram equalization step within the VBM procedure. Combining this technique with two most widely used VBM software packages (FSL and SPM), we studied GM variability in a group of 62 patients with Alzheimer's disease compared to 73 age-matched elderly controls. The results show that eVBM can reduce the number of false-positive differences in gray matter concentration. Because it takes advantage of the properties of VBM while improving sMRI histogram distribution at the same time, the proposed method is a powerful approach for analyzing gray matter differences in sMRI and may be of value in the investigation of sMRI gray and white matter abnormalities in a variety of brain diseases.

  19. Voxel-Based Morphometry ALE meta-analysis of Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magana, Omar; Laird, Robert

    2012-03-01

    A meta-analysis was performed independently to view the changes in gray matter (GM) on patients with Bipolar disorder (BP). The meta-analysis was conducted on a Talairach Space using GingerALE to determine the voxels and their permutation. In order to achieve the data acquisition, published experiments and similar research studies were uploaded onto the online Voxel-Based Morphometry database (VBM). By doing so, coordinates of activation locations were extracted from Bipolar disorder related journals utilizing Sleuth. Once the coordinates of given experiments were selected and imported to GingerALE, a Gaussian was performed on all foci points to create the concentration points of GM on BP patients. The results included volume reductions and variations of GM between Normal Healthy controls and Patients with Bipolar disorder. A significant amount of GM clusters were obtained in Normal Healthy controls over BP patients on the right precentral gyrus, right anterior cingulate, and the left inferior frontal gyrus. In future research, more published journals could be uploaded onto the database and another VBM meta-analysis could be performed including more activation coordinates or a variation of age groups.

  20. Regional White Matter Decreases in Alzheimer's Disease Using Optimized Voxel-Based Morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuyu Li; Fang Pu; Feng Shi; Sheng Xie; Yinhua Wang; Tianzi Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Background: Most studies that attempt to clarify structural abnormalities related to functional disconnection in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have focused on exploring pathological changes in cortical gray matter. However, white matter fibers connecting these cerebral areas may also be abnormal. Purpose: To investigate the regional changes of white matter volume in patients with AD compared to healthy subjects. Material and Methods: White matter volume changes in whole-brain magnetic resonance images acquired from 19 patients with AD and 20 healthy subjects (control group) were observed using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method. In addition, the corpus callosum (CC) of AD patients and the control group was investigated further by outlining manually the boundary of the CC on a midsagittal slice. Each area of the CC was then corrected by dividing each subject's intracranial area in the midsagittal plane. Results: Compared with the control group, AD patients showed significantly reduced white matter volumes in the posterior part of the CC and the temporal lobe in the left and right hemispheres. Moreover, the voxel showing peak statistical difference in the posterior of the CC was left sided. The five subdivisions of the CC were also significantly smaller among the AD patients relative to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that these abnormalities in white matter regions may contribute to the functional disconnections in AD

  1. Parallel Solutions for Voxel-Based Simulations of Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele D’Agostino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing awareness of the pivotal role of noise in biochemical processes and of the effect of molecular crowding on the dynamics of biochemical systems. This necessity has given rise to a strong need for suitable and sophisticated algorithms for the simulation of biological phenomena taking into account both spatial effects and noise. However, the high computational effort characterizing simulation approaches, coupled with the necessity to simulate the models several times to achieve statistically relevant information on the model behaviours, makes such kind of algorithms very time-consuming for studying real systems. So far, different parallelization approaches have been deployed to reduce the computational time required to simulate the temporal dynamics of biochemical systems using stochastic algorithms. In this work we discuss these aspects for the spatial TAU-leaping in crowded compartments (STAUCC simulator, a voxel-based method for the stochastic simulation of reaction-diffusion processes which relies on the Sτ-DPP algorithm. In particular we present how the characteristics of the algorithm can be exploited for an effective parallelization on the present heterogeneous HPC architectures.

  2. Voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor indices in the brain in patients with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaiyuan; Yu Chunshui; Zhang Yujin; Wu Xiaoli; Zhu Chaozhe; Chan Piu; Li Kuncheng

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the abnormal diffusion in cerebral white matter and its relationship with the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) through diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Materials and methods: Diffusion tensor imaging of the cerebrum was performed in 25 patients with Parkinson's disease and 25 control subjects matched for age and sex. Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) between these two groups were studied by voxel-based analysis of the DTI data. Correlations between diffusion indices and the olfactory function in PD patients were evaluated using the multiple regression model after controlling for the duration of the disease, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Sale (UPDRS), and age. Results: The damaged white and gray matter showed decreased FA or increased MD, localized bilaterally in the cerebellar and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, in PD patients there was a positive correlation between FA values in the white matter of the left cerebellum and the thresholds of olfactory identification (TOI) and a negative correlation between MD values in the white matter of right cerebellum and the TOI. Conclusion: In patients with PD, there was disruption in the cerebellar white matter which may play an important role in the olfactory dysfunction in patients with Parkinson's disease.

  3. Focal retrograde amnesia: voxel-based morphometry findings in a case without MRI lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Sehm

    Full Text Available Focal retrograde amnesia (FRA is a rare neurocognitive disorder presenting with an isolated loss of retrograde memory. In the absence of detectable brain lesions, a differentiation of FRA from psychogenic causes is difficult. Here we report a case study of persisting FRA after an epileptic seizure. A thorough neuropsychological assessment confirmed severe retrograde memory deficits while anterograde memory abilities were completely normal. Neurological and psychiatric examination were unremarkable and high-resolution MRI showed no neuroradiologically apparent lesion. However, voxel-based morphometry (VBM-comparing the MRI to an education-, age-and sex-matched control group (n = 20 disclosed distinct gray matter decreases in left temporopolar cortex and a region between right posterior parahippocampal and lingual cortex. Although the results of VBM-based comparisons between a single case and a healthy control group are generally susceptible to differences unrelated to the specific symptoms of the case, we believe that our data suggest a causal role of the cortical areas detected since the retrograde memory deficit is the preeminent neuropsychological difference between patient and controls. This was paralleled by grey matter differences in central nodes of the retrograde memory network. We therefore suggest that these subtle alterations represent structural correlates of the focal retrograde amnesia in our patient. Beyond the implications for the diagnosis and etiology of FRA, our results advocate the use of VBM in conditions that do not show abnormalities in clinical radiological assessment, but show distinct neuropsychological deficits.

  4. An enhanced voxel-based morphometry method to investigate structural changes: application to Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xingfeng; Messe, Arnaud; Marrelec, Guillaume; Pelegrini-Issac, Melanie; Benali, Habib

    2010-01-01

    When characterizing regional cerebral gray matter differences in structural magnetic resonance images (sMRI) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM), one faces a known drawback of VBM, namely that histogram unequalization in the intensity images introduces false-positive results. To overcome this limitation, we propose to improve VBM by a new approach (called eVBM for enhanced VBM) that takes the histogram distribution of the sMRI into account by adding a histogram equalization step within the VBM procedure. Combining this technique with two most widely used VBM software packages (FSL and SPM), we studied GM variability in a group of 62 patients with Alzheimer's disease compared to 73 age-matched elderly controls. The results show that eVBM can reduce the number of false-positive differences in gray matter concentration. Because it takes advantage of the properties of VBM while improving sMRI histogram distribution at the same time, the proposed method is a powerful approach for analyzing gray matter differences in sMRI and may be of value in the investigation of sMRI gray and white matter abnormalities in a variety of brain diseases. (orig.)

  5. Voxel-based morphometry in women with borderline personality disorder with and without comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Niedtfeld

    Full Text Available Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD showed reduced volume of amygdala and hippocampus, but similar findings are evident in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Applying voxel-based morphometry (VBM in a larger cohort of patients with BPD, we sought to extend earlier findings of volume abnormalities in limbic regions and to evaluate the influence of co-occurring PTSD in BPD patients. We used voxel-based morphometry to study gray matter volume (GMV in 60 healthy controls (HC and 60 patients with BPD. Subgroup analyses on 53 patients concerning the role of co-occurring PTSD were conducted. Additionally, regression analyses were calculated to assess the relation between borderline symptom severity as well as dissociative experiences and GMV. Differences in local GMV between patients with BPD and HC were observed in the amygdale and hippocampus as well as in the fusiform and cingulate gyrus. Co-occurring PTSD was accompanied by increased GMV in the superior temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Independent of co-occurring PTSD, severity of BPD symptoms predicted smaller GMV in the amygdala and dorsal ACC. Dissociation was positively related to GMV in the middle temporal gyrus. We could replicate earlier findings of diminished limbic GMV in patients with BPD and additionally show that patients with co-morbid PTSD feature increased GMV in prefrontal regions associated with cognitive control.

  6. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier; Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de

    2015-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  7. Metabolic patterns in prion diseases: an FDG PET voxel-based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Elena; Dominguez-Prado, Ines; Jesus Ribelles, Maria; Arbizu, Javier [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Nuclear Medicine Department, Pamplona (Spain); Riverol, Mario; Ortega-Cubero, Sara; Rosario Luquin, Maria; Castro, Purificacion de [Clinica Universidad de Navarra, Neurology Department, Pamplona (Spain)

    2015-09-15

    Clinical diagnosis of human prion diseases can be challenging since symptoms are common to other disorders associated with rapidly progressive dementia. In this context, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) might be a useful complementary tool. The aim of this study was to determine the metabolic pattern in human prion diseases, particularly sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), the new variant of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). We retrospectively studied 17 patients with a definitive, probable or possible prion disease who underwent FDG PET in our institution. Of these patients, 12 were diagnosed as sCJD (9 definitive, 2 probable and 1 possible), 1 was diagnosed as definitive vCJD and 4 were diagnosed as definitive FFI. The hypometabolic pattern of each individual and comparisons across the groups of subjects (control subjects, sCJD and FFI) were evaluated using a voxel-based analysis. The sCJD group exhibited a pattern of hypometabolism that affected both subcortical (bilateral caudate, thalamus) and cortical (frontal cortex) structures, while the FFI group only presented a slight hypometabolism in the thalamus. Individual analysis demonstrated a considerable variability of metabolic patterns among patients, with the thalamus and basal ganglia the most frequently affected areas, combined in some cases with frontal and temporal hypometabolism. Patients with a prion disease exhibit a characteristic pattern of brain metabolism presentation in FDG PET imaging. Consequently, in patients with rapidly progressive cognitive impairment, the detection of these patterns in the FDG PET study could orient the diagnosis to a prion disease. (orig.)

  8. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping of stroke lesions underlying somatosensory deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Kessner, Simon S.; Cheng, Bastian; Bönstrup, Marlene; Schulz, Robert; Hummel, Friedhelm C.; De Bruyn, Nele; Peeters, Andre; Van Pesch, Vincent; Duprez, Thierry; Sunaert, Stefan; Schrooten, Maarten; Feys, Hilde; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz; Thijs, Vincent; Verheyden, Geert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between stroke lesion location and the resulting somatosensory deficit. We studied exteroceptive and proprioceptive somatosensory symptoms and stroke lesions in 38 patients with first-ever acute stroke. The Erasmus modified Nottingham Sensory Assessment was used to clinically evaluate somatosensory functioning in the arm and hand within the first week after stroke onset. Additionally, more objective measures such as the perceptual threshold of touch and somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded. Non-parametric voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping was performed to investigate lesion contribution to different somatosensory deficits in the upper limb. Additionally, structural connectivity of brain areas that demonstrated the strongest association with somatosensory symptoms was determined, using probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion tensor imaging data from a healthy age-matched sample. Voxels with a significant association to somatosensory deficits were clustered in two core brain regions: the central parietal white matter, also referred to as the sensory component of the superior thalamic radiation, and the parietal operculum close to the insular cortex, representing the secondary somatosensory cortex. Our objective recordings confirmed findings from clinical assessments. Probabilistic tracking connected the first region to thalamus, internal capsule, brain stem, postcentral gyrus, cerebellum, and frontal pathways, while the second region demonstrated structural connections to thalamus, insular and primary somatosensory cortex. This study reveals that stroke lesions in the sensory fibers of the superior thalamocortical radiation and the parietal operculum are significantly associated with multiple exteroceptive and proprioceptive deficits in the arm and hand. PMID:26900565

  9. Voxel-based morphometry analyses of in-vivo MRI in the aging mouse lemur primate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen John Sawiak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral atrophy is one of the most widely brain alterations associated to aging. A clear relationship has been established between age-associated cognitive impairments and cerebral atrophy. The mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus is a small primate used as a model of age-related neurodegenerative processes. It is the first nonhuman primate in which cerebral atrophy has been correlated with cognitive deficits. Previous studies of cerebral atrophy in this model were based on time consuming manual delineation or measurement of selected brain regions from magnetic resonance images (MRI. These measures could not be used to analyse regions that cannot be easily outlined such as the nucleus basalis of Meynert or the subiculum. In humans, morphometric assessment of structural changes with age is generally performed with automated procedures such as voxel-based morphometry (VBM. The objective of our work was to perform user-independent assessment of age-related morphological changes in the whole brain of large mouse lemur populations thanks to VBM. The study was based on the SPMMouse toolbox of SPM 8 and involved thirty mouse lemurs aged from 1.9 to 11.3 years. The automatic method revealed for the first time atrophy in regions where manual delineation is prohibitive (nucleus basalis of Meynert, subiculum, prepiriform cortex, Brodmann areas 13-16, hypothalamus, putamen, thalamus, corpus callosum. Some of these regions are described as particularly sensitive to age-associated alterations in humans. The method revealed also age-associated atrophy in cortical regions (cingulate, occipital, parietal, nucleus septalis, and the caudate. Manual measures performed in some of these regions were in good agreement with results from automatic measures. The templates generated in this study as well as the toolbox for SPM8 can be downloaded. These tools will be valuable for future evaluation of various treatments that are tested to modulate cerebral aging in lemurs.

  10. Voxel based morphometry of FLAIR MRI in children with intractable focal epilepsy: Implications for surgical intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riney, Catherine J.; Chong, William K.; Clark, Chris A.; Cross, J. Helen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in particular fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR), has transformed the delineation of structural brain pathology associated with focal epilepsy. However, to date there is no literature on voxel based morphometry (VBM) of FLAIR in children with epilepsy. The aim of this study was to explore the role of visual and VBM assessment of FLAIR in pre-operative investigation of children with intractable focal epilepsy. Methods: Children with intractable epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and children with intractable cryptogenic focal epilepsy (CFE) were investigated. FLAIR and T1-weighted MRI were acquired on a 1.5T MRI scanner (Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). VBM was performed using SPM5 (Wellcome Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, London). Results: Eight children with FCD (M = 5, age 7.9–17.3 years) and 14 children with CFE (M = 8, 7.8–16.8 years) were enrolled. VBM of FLAIR detected 7/8 (88%) of FCD whilst VBM of T1-weighted MRI detected only 3/8 (38%) FCD. VBM of FLAIR detected abnormality in 4/14 children with CFE, in 2/14 (14%) the abnormality was concordant with other data on the epileptogenic zone and with visible abnormality on repeat visual inspection of MR data. VBM of T1-weighed MRI detected abnormality in 2/14 children with CFE, none of which correlated with visible abnormality. Discussion: This study highlights the important role that FLAIR imaging has in the pre-operative assessment of children with intractable epilepsy. VBM of FLAIR may provide important information allowing selection of children with intractable CFE who are likely to benefit from further neuroradiological or neurophysiological evaluation.

  11. Structural abnormalities in childhood absence epilepsy: voxel-based analysis using diffusion tensor imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Qiu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE is a common syndrome of idiopathic generalized epilepsy. However, little is known about the brain structural changes in this type of epilepsy, especially in the default mode network (DMN regions. This study aims at using the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI technique to quantify structural abnormalities of DMN nodes in CAE patients. Method: DTI data were acquired in 14 CAE patients (aged 8.64±2.59 years, 7 females and 7 males and 16 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. The data were analyzed using voxel-based analysis (VBA and statistically compared between patients and controls. Pearson correlation was explored between altered DTI metrics and clinical parameters. The difference of brain volumes between patients and controls were also tested using unpaired t-test. Results: Patients showed significant increase of mean diffusivity (MD and radial diffusivity (RD in left medial prefrontal cortex, and decrease of fractional anisotropy (FA in left precuneus and axial diffusivity (AD in both left medial prefrontal cortex and precuneus. In correlation analysis, MD value from left medial prefrontal cortex was positively associated with duration of epilepsy. Neither the disease duration nor the seizure frequency showed significant correlation with FA values. Between-group comparison of brain volumes got no significant difference. Conclusion: The findings indicate that structural impairments exist in DMN regions in children suffering from absence epilepsy and MD values positively correlate with epilepsy duration. This may contribute to understanding the pathological mechanisms of chronic neurological deficits and promote the development of new therapies for this disorder.

  12. Cross-sectional and longitudinal voxel-based grey matter asymmetries in Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Minkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can be genetically confirmed with certainty decades before clinical onset. This allows the investigation of functional and structural changes in HD many years prior to disease onset, which may reveal important mechanistic insights into brain function, structure and organization in general. While regional atrophy is present at early stages of HD, it is still unclear if both hemispheres are equally affected by neurodegeneration and how the extent of asymmetry affects domain-specific functional decline. Here, we used whole-brain voxel-based analysis to investigate cross-sectional and longitudinal hemispheric asymmetries in grey matter (GM volume in 56 manifest HD (mHD, 83 pre-manifest HD (preHD, and 80 healthy controls (HC. Furthermore, a regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between neuroanatomical asymmetries and decline in motor and cognitive measures across the disease spectrum. The cross-sectional analysis showed striatal leftward-biased GM atrophy in mHD, but not in preHD, relative to HC. Longitudinally, no net 36-month change in GM asymmetries was found in any of the groups. In the regression analysis, HD-related decline in quantitative-motor (Q-Motor performance was linked to lower GM volume in the left superior parietal cortex. These findings suggest a stronger disease effect targeting the left hemisphere, especially in those with declining motor performance. This effect did not change over a period of three years and may indicate a compensatory role of the right hemisphere in line with recent functional imaging studies.

  13. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional intelligence: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

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    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions and the ability to use the gathered information to guide one's thinking and action. EI is thought to be important for social life making it a popular subject of research. However, despite the existence of previous functional imaging studies on EI, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and EI has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a questionnaire (Emotional Intelligence Scale) to measure EI to identify the gray matter correlates of each factor of individual EI (Intrapersonal factor, Interpersonal factor, Situation Management factor). We found significant negative relationships between the Intrapersonal factor and regional gray matter density (rGMD) (1-a) in an anatomical cluster that included the right anterior insula, (1-b) in the right cerebellum, (1-c) in an anatomical cluster that extends from the cuneus to the precuneus, (1-d) and in an anatomical cluster that extends from the medial prefrontal cortex to the left lateral fronto-polar cortex. We also found significant positive correlations between the Interpersonal factor and rGMD in the right superior temporal sulcus, and significant negative correlations between the Situation Management factor and rGMD in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that each factor of EI in healthy young people is related to the specific brain regions known to be involved in the networks of social cognition and self-related recognition, and in the somatic marker circuitry. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis.

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    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-09-15

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities.

  15. Brain structure in post-traumatic stress disorder: A voxel-based morphometry analysis

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    Tan, Liwen; Zhang, Li; Qi, Rongfeng; Lu, Guangming; Li, Lingjiang; Liu, Jun; Li, Weihui

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the difference in brain structure in 12 mine disaster survivors with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder, 7 cases of improved post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 14 controls who experienced the same mine disaster but did not suffer post-traumatic stress disorder, using the voxel-based morphometry method. The correlation between differences in brain structure and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms was also investigated. Results showed that the gray matter volume was the highest in the trauma control group, followed by the symptoms-improved group, and the lowest in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the symptoms-improved group, the gray matter volume in the lingual gyrus of the right occipital lobe was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the right middle occipital gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus was reduced in the symptoms-improved group. Compared with the trauma control group, the gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule and right superior frontal gyrus was reduced in the chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group. The gray matter volume in the left superior parietal lobule was significantly positively correlated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory subscale score in the symptoms-improved group and chronic post-traumatic stress disorder group (r = 0.477, P = 0.039). Our findings indicate that (1) chronic post-traumatic stress disorder patients have gray matter structural damage in the prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe, (2) after post-traumatic stress, the disorder symptoms are improved and gray matter structural damage is reduced, but cannot recover to the trauma-control level, and (3) the superior parietal lobule is possibly associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Post-traumatic stress disorder patients exhibit gray matter abnormalities. PMID:25206550

  16. Active brain changes after initiating fingolimod therapy in multiple sclerosis patients using individual voxel-based analyses for diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Joe; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Endo, Kuniyuki; Yasui, Keizo; Hawsegawa, Yasuhiro; Yoneyama, Noritaka; Tsuboi, Takashi; Hara, Kazuhiro; Ito, Mizuki; Atsuta, Naoki; Epifanio, Bagarinao; Katsuno, Masahisa; Naganawa, Shinji; Sobue, Gen

    2016-12-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor images (DTI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) can sensitively detect occult tissue damage that underlies pathological changes in the brain. In the present study, both at the start of fingolimod and post-four months clinical remission, we assessed four patients with MS who were evaluated with VBA of DTI, VBM, and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR). DTI images for all four patients showed widespread areas of increased mean diffusivity (MD) and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) that were beyond the high-intensity signal areas across images. After four months of continuous fingolimod therapy, DTI abnormalities progressed; in particular, MD was significantly increased, while brain volume and high-intensity signals were unchanged. These findings suggest that VBA of DTI (e.g., MD) may help assess MS demyelination as neuroinflammatory conditions, even though clinical manifestations of MS appear to be in complete remission during fingolimod.

  17. Accuracy and reproducibility of voxel based superimposition of cone beam computed tomography models on the anterior cranial base and the zygomatic arches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Rania M; Maal, Thomas J J; Breuning, K Hero; Bergé, Stefaan J; Mostafa, Yehya A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2011-02-09

    Superimposition of serial Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans has become a valuable tool for three dimensional (3D) assessment of treatment effects and stability. Voxel based image registration is a newly developed semi-automated technique for superimposition and comparison of two CBCT scans. The accuracy and reproducibility of CBCT superimposition on the anterior cranial base or the zygomatic arches using voxel based image registration was tested in this study. 16 pairs of 3D CBCT models were constructed from pre and post treatment CBCT scans of 16 adult dysgnathic patients. Each pair was registered on the anterior cranial base three times and on the left zygomatic arch twice. Following each superimposition, the mean absolute distances between the 2 models were calculated at 4 regions: anterior cranial base, forehead, left and right zygomatic arches. The mean distances between the models ranged from 0.2 to 0.37 mm (SD 0.08-0.16) for the anterior cranial base registration and from 0.2 to 0.45 mm (SD 0.09-0.27) for the zygomatic arch registration. The mean differences between the two registration zones ranged between 0.12 to 0.19 mm at the 4 regions. Voxel based image registration on both zones could be considered as an accurate and a reproducible method for CBCT superimposition. The left zygomatic arch could be used as a stable structure for the superimposition of smaller field of view CBCT scans where the anterior cranial base is not visible.

  18. Permutation and parametric tests for effect sizes in voxel-based morphometry of gray matter volume in brain structural MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, David A; Mikhael, Shadia; Job, Dominic E; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Laidlaw, David H; Bastin, Mark E

    2015-12-01

    Permutation testing has been widely implemented in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) tools. However, this type of non-parametric inference has yet to be thoroughly compared with traditional parametric inference in VBM studies of brain structure. Here we compare both types of inference and investigate what influence the number of permutations in permutation testing has on results in an exemplar study of how gray matter proportion changes with age in a group of working age adults. High resolution T1-weighted volume scans were acquired from 80 healthy adults aged 25-64years. Using a validated VBM procedure and voxel-based permutation testing for Pearson product-moment coefficient, the effect sizes of changes in gray matter proportion with age were assessed using traditional parametric and permutation testing inference with 100, 500, 1000, 5000, 10000 and 20000 permutations. The statistical significance was set at Pparametric inference (N=3221voxels). Permutation testing with 10000 (N=6251voxels) and 20000 (N=6233voxels) permutations produced clusters that were generally consistent with each other. However, with 1000 permutations there were approximately 20% more statistically significant voxels (N=7117voxels) than with ≥10000 permutations. Permutation testing inference may provide a more sensitive method than traditional parametric inference for identifying age-related differences in gray matter proportion. Based on the results reported here, at least 10000 permutations should be used in future univariate VBM studies investigating age related changes in gray matter to avoid potential false findings. Additional studies using permutation testing in large imaging databanks are required to address the impact of model complexity, multivariate analysis, number of observations, sampling bias and data quality on the accuracy with which subtle differences in brain structure associated with normal aging can be identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Voxel-based lesion analysis of brain regions underlying reading and writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Juliana V; Kacinik, Natalie; Ludy, Carl; Paulraj, Selvi; Moncrief, Amber; Piai, Vitória; Curran, Brian; Turken, And; Herron, Tim; Dronkers, Nina F

    2018-03-20

    The neural basis of reading and writing has been a source of inquiry as well as controversy in the neuroscience literature. Reading has been associated with both left posterior ventral temporal zones (termed the "visual word form area") as well as more dorsal zones, primarily in left parietal cortex. Writing has also been associated with left parietal cortex, as well as left sensorimotor cortex and prefrontal regions. Typically, the neural basis of reading and writing are examined in separate studies and/or rely on single case studies exhibiting specific deficits. Functional neuroimaging studies of reading and writing typically identify a large number of activated regions but do not necessarily identify the core, critical hubs. Last, due to constraints on the functional imaging environment, many previous studies have been limited to measuring the brain activity associated with single-word reading and writing, rather than sentence-level processing. In the current study, the brain correlates of reading and writing at both the single- and sentence-level were studied in a large sample of 111 individuals with a history of chronic stroke using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). VLSM provides a whole-brain, voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis of the role of distinct regions in a particular behavior by comparing performance of individuals with and without a lesion at every voxel. Rather than comparing individual cases or small groups with particular behavioral dissociations in reading and writing, VLSM allowed us to analyze data from a large, well-characterized sample of stroke patients exhibiting a wide range of reading and writing impairments. The VLSM analyses revealed that reading was associated with a critical left inferior temporo-occipital focus, while writing was primarily associated with the left supramarginal gyrus. Separate VLSM analyses of single-word versus sentence-level reading showed that sentence-level reading was uniquely associated with anterior

  20. Voxel-based MRI intensitometry reveals extent of cerebral white matter pathology in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

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    Viktor Hartung

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is characterized by progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging have shown great potential in capturing a common white matter pathology. However the sensitivity is variable and diffusion tensor imaging is not yet applicable to the routine clinical environment. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM has revealed grey matter changes in ALS, but the bias-reducing algorithms inherent to traditional VBM are not optimized for the assessment of the white matter changes. We have developed a novel approach to white matter analysis, namely voxel-based intensitometry (VBI. High resolution T1-weighted MRI was acquired at 1.5 Tesla in 30 ALS patients and 37 age-matched healthy controls. VBI analysis at the group level revealed widespread white matter intensity increases in the corticospinal tracts, corpus callosum, sub-central, frontal and occipital white matter tracts and cerebellum. VBI results correlated with disease severity (ALSFRS-R and patterns of cerebral involvement differed between bulbar- and limb-onset. VBI would be easily translatable to the routine clinical environment, and once optimized for individual analysis offers significant biomarker potential in ALS.

  1. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Mandow, Anthony; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2017-03-15

    Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN) method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM), Gaussian processes (GP), and Gaussian mixture models (GMM). A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl). Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  2. Voxel-Based Neighborhood for Spatial Shape Pattern Classification of Lidar Point Clouds with Supervised Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Plaza-Leiva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Improving the effectiveness of spatial shape features classification from 3D lidar data is very relevant because it is largely used as a fundamental step towards higher level scene understanding challenges of autonomous vehicles and terrestrial robots. In this sense, computing neighborhood for points in dense scans becomes a costly process for both training and classification. This paper proposes a new general framework for implementing and comparing different supervised learning classifiers with a simple voxel-based neighborhood computation where points in each non-overlapping voxel in a regular grid are assigned to the same class by considering features within a support region defined by the voxel itself. The contribution provides offline training and online classification procedures as well as five alternative feature vector definitions based on principal component analysis for scatter, tubular and planar shapes. Moreover, the feasibility of this approach is evaluated by implementing a neural network (NN method previously proposed by the authors as well as three other supervised learning classifiers found in scene processing methods: support vector machines (SVM, Gaussian processes (GP, and Gaussian mixture models (GMM. A comparative performance analysis is presented using real point clouds from both natural and urban environments and two different 3D rangefinders (a tilting Hokuyo UTM-30LX and a Riegl. Classification performance metrics and processing time measurements confirm the benefits of the NN classifier and the feasibility of voxel-based neighborhood.

  3. Effect of body weight support variation on muscle activities during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Shahid; Jamwal, Prashant K; Ghayesh, Mergen H

    2017-05-01

    While body weight support (BWS) intonation is vital during conventional gait training of neurologically challenged subjects, it is important to evaluate its effect during robot assisted gait training. In the present research we have studied the effect of BWS intonation on muscle activities during robotic gait training using dynamic simulations. Two dimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed conjointly with another 2-D model of a robotic orthosis capable of actuating hip, knee and ankle joints simultaneously. The musculoskeletal model consists of eight major muscle groups namely; soleus (SOL), gastrocnemius (GAS), tibialis anterior (TA), hamstrings (HAM), vasti (VAS), gluteus maximus (GLU), uniarticular hip flexors (iliopsoas, IP), and Rectus Femoris (RF). BWS was provided at levels of 0, 20, 40 and 60% during the simulations. In order to obtain a feasible set of muscle activities during subsequent gait cycles, an inverse dynamics algorithm along with a quadratic minimization algorithm was implemented. The dynamic parameters of the robot assisted human gait such as joint angle trajectories, ground contact force (GCF), human limb joint torques and robot induced torques at different levels of BWS were derived. The patterns of muscle activities at variable BWS were derived and analysed. For most part of the gait cycle (GC) the muscle activation patterns are quite similar for all levels of BWS as is apparent from the mean of muscle activities for the complete GC. Effect of BWS variation during robot assisted gait on muscle activities was studied by developing dynamic simulation. It is expected that the proposed dynamic simulation approach will provide important inferences and information about the muscle function variations consequent upon a change in BWS during robot assisted gait. This information shall be quite important while investigating the influence of BWS intonation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robotic gait training.

  4. Sensorimotor control of gait: A novel approach for the study of the interplay of visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eFrost

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor control theories propose that the central nervous system exploits expected sensory consequences generated by motor commands for movement planning, as well as online sensory feedback for comparison with expected sensory feedback for monitoring and correcting, if needed, ongoing motor output. In our study, we tested this theoretical framework by quantifying the functional role of expected versus actual proprioceptive feedback for planning and regulation of gait in humans. We addressed this question by using a novel methodological approach to deliver fast perturbations of the walking surface stiffness, in conjunction with a virtual reality system that provided visual feedback of upcoming changes of surface stiffness. In the predictable experimental condition, we asked subjects to learn associating visual feedback of changes in floor stiffness (sand patch during locomotion to quantify kinematic and kinetic changes in gait. In the unpredictable experimental condition, we perturbed floor stiffness at unpredictable instances during the gait to characterize the gait-phase dependent strategies in recovering the locomotor cycle. For the unpredictable conditions, visual feedback of changes in floor stiffness was absent or inconsistent with tactile and proprioceptive feedback. The investigation of these perturbation-induced effects on legs kinematics revealed that visual feedback of upcoming changes in floor stiffness allows for both early (preparatory and late (post-perturbation changes in leg kinematics. However, when proprioceptive feedback is not available, the early responses do not occur while the late responses are preserved although in a, slightly attenuated form. The methods proposed and the preliminary results of this study open new directions for the investigation of the relative role of visual, tactile, and proprioceptive feedback on gait control, with potential implications for designing novel robot-assisted gait rehabilitation

  5. Voxel-based analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in AD and non-AD degenerative dementia using statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zugui; Gao Shuo; Zhang Benshu; Ma Aijun; Cai Li; Li Dacheng; Li Yansheng; Liu Lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It is know that Alzheimer's disease (AD) and non-AD degenerative dementia have some clinical features in common. The aim of this study was to investigate the specific patterns of regional, cerebral glucose metabolism of AD and non-AD degenerative dementia patients, using a voxel-based 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET study. Methods: Twenty-three AD patients and 24 non-AD degenerative dementia patients including 9 Parkinson's disease with dementia(PDD), 7 frontal-temporal dementia (FTD), 8 dementia of Lewy bodies (DLB) patients, and 40 normal controls (NC)were included in the study. To evaluate the relative cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc), 18 F-FDG PET imaging was performed in all subjects. Subsequently, statistical comparison of PET data with NC was performed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Results: The AD-associated FDG imaging pattern typically presented as focal cortical hypometabolism in bilateral parietotemporal association cortes and(or) frontal lobe and the posterior cingulate gyms. As compared with the comparative NC, FTD group demonstrated significant regional reductions in rCMRglc in bilateral frontal, parietal lobes, the cingulate gyri, insulae, left precuneus, and the subcortical structures (including right putamen, right medial dorsal nucleus and ventral anterior nucleus). The PDD group showed regional reductions in rCMRglc in bilateral frontal cortexes, parietotemporal association cortexes, and the subcortical structures (including left caudate, right putamen, the dorsomedial thalamus, lateral posterior nucleus, and pulvinar). By the voxel-by-voxel comparison between the DLB group and NC group, regional reductions in rCMRglc included bilateral occipital cortexes, precuneuses, frontal and parietal lobes, left anterior cingulate gyms, right superior temporal cortex, and the subcortical structures including putamen, caudate, lateral posterior nucleus, and pulvinar. Conclusions: The rCMRglc was found to be different

  6. Brain structural abnormalities in behavior therapy-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder revealed by voxel-based morphometry

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    Hashimoto N

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nobuhiko Hashimoto,1 Shutaro Nakaaki,2 Akiko Kawaguchi,1 Junko Sato,1 Harumasa Kasai,3 Takashi Nakamae,4 Jin Narumoto,4 Jun Miyata,5 Toshi A Furukawa,6,7 Masaru Mimura2 1Department of Psychiatry and Cognitive-Behavioral Medicine, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, Japan; 2Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Central Radiology, Nagoya City University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan; 5Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan; 6Department of Health Promotion and Human Behavior, 7Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine/School of Public Health, Kyoto, Japan Background: Although several functional imaging studies have demonstrated that behavior therapy (BT modifies the neural circuits involved in the pathogenesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, the structural abnormalities underlying BT-resistant OCD remain unknown. Methods: In this study, we examined the existence of regional structural abnormalities in both the gray matter and the white matter of patients with OCD at baseline using voxel-based morphometry in responders (n=24 and nonresponders (n=15 to subsequent BT. Three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed before the completion of 12 weeks of BT. Results: Relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller gray matter volumes in the right ventromedial prefrontal cortex, the right orbitofrontal cortex, the right precentral gyrus, and the left anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, relative to the responders, the nonresponders exhibited significantly smaller white matter volumes in the left cingulate bundle and the left superior frontal white matter. Conclusion: These results suggest that the brain

  7. Automated voxel-based 3D cortical thickness measurement in a combined Lagrangian–Eulerian PDE approach using partial volume maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Oscar; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Zuluaga, Maria A.; Fripp, Jurgen; Salvado, Olivier; Ourselin, Sébastien

    2010-01-01

    Accurate cortical thickness estimation is important for the study of many neurodegenerative diseases. Many approaches have been previously proposed, which can be broadly categorised as mesh-based and voxel-based. While the mesh-based approaches can potentially achieve subvoxel resolution, they usually lack the computational efficiency needed for clinical applications and large database studies. In contrast, voxel-based approaches, are computationally efficient, but lack accuracy. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel voxel-based method based upon the Laplacian definition of thickness that is both accurate and computationally efficient. A framework was developed to estimate and integrate the partial volume information within the thickness estimation process. Firstly, in a Lagrangian step, the boundaries are initialized using the partial volume information. Subsequently, in an Eulerian step, a pair of partial differential equations are solved on the remaining voxels to finally compute the thickness. Using partial volume information significantly improved the accuracy of the thickness estimation on synthetic phantoms, and improved reproducibility on real data. Significant differences in the hippocampus and temporal lobe between healthy controls (NC), mild cognitive impaired (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients were found on clinical data from the ADNI database. We compared our method in terms of precision, computational speed and statistical power against the Eulerian approach. With a slight increase in computation time, accuracy and precision were greatly improved. Power analysis demonstrated the ability of our method to yield statistically significant results when comparing AD and NC. Overall, with our method the number of samples is reduced by 25% to find significant differences between the two groups. PMID:19648050

  8. Internal dose evaluations of frog and mouse voxel-based models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinase, Sakae

    2011-01-01

    For protection of the environment, absorbed fractions (AFs), which are defined as the fraction of energy emitted by a radiation source that is absorbed within the target tissue, organ, or organism, were evaluated using the frog and mouse voxel-based models. The sources were assumed to be monoenergetic in the photo/electron energy range from 10 keV to 4 MeV. The radiation transport was simulated using the Monte Carlo method. Consequently, it was confirmed that the AFs for organ self-absorption are dependent on the masses of the source/target organs. The AFs for organ self-absorption were also found to be subject to the geometric effect such as size and shape of source/target. (author)

  9. Brain morphometric biomarkers distinguishing unipolar and bipolar depression. A voxel-based morphometry-pattern classification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlich, Ronny; Almeida, Jorge J R; Grotegerd, Dominik; Opel, Nils; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Phillips, Mary L; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-11-01

    The structural abnormalities in the brain that accurately differentiate unipolar depression (UD) and bipolar depression (BD) remain unidentified. First, to investigate and compare morphometric changes in UD and BD, and to replicate the findings at 2 independent neuroimaging sites; second, to differentiate UD and BD using multivariate pattern classification techniques. In a 2-center cross-sectional study, structural gray matter data were obtained at 2 independent sites (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Münster, Germany) using 3-T magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare local gray and white matter volumes, and a novel pattern classification approach was used to discriminate between UD and BD, while training the classifier at one imaging site and testing in an independent sample at the other site. The Pittsburgh sample of participants was recruited from the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic at the University of Pittsburgh from 2008 to 2012. The Münster sample was recruited from the Department of Psychiatry at the University of Münster from 2010 to 2012. Equally divided between the 2 sites were 58 currently depressed patients with bipolar I disorder, 58 age- and sex-matched unipolar depressed patients, and 58 matched healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to detect structural differences between groups. Morphometric analyses were applied using voxel-based morphometry. Pattern classification techniques were used for a multivariate approach. At both sites, individuals with BD showed reduced gray matter volumes in the hippocampal formation and the amygdala relative to individuals with UD (Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates x = -22, y = -1, z = 20; k = 1938 voxels; t = 4.75), whereas individuals with UD showed reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with individuals with BD (Montreal Neurological Institute coordinates x = -8, y = 32, z = 3; k

  10. Accuracy and reproducibility of voxel based superimposition of cone beam computed tomography models on the anterior cranial base and the zygomatic arches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M Nada

    Full Text Available Superimposition of serial Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT scans has become a valuable tool for three dimensional (3D assessment of treatment effects and stability. Voxel based image registration is a newly developed semi-automated technique for superimposition and comparison of two CBCT scans. The accuracy and reproducibility of CBCT superimposition on the anterior cranial base or the zygomatic arches using voxel based image registration was tested in this study. 16 pairs of 3D CBCT models were constructed from pre and post treatment CBCT scans of 16 adult dysgnathic patients. Each pair was registered on the anterior cranial base three times and on the left zygomatic arch twice. Following each superimposition, the mean absolute distances between the 2 models were calculated at 4 regions: anterior cranial base, forehead, left and right zygomatic arches. The mean distances between the models ranged from 0.2 to 0.37 mm (SD 0.08-0.16 for the anterior cranial base registration and from 0.2 to 0.45 mm (SD 0.09-0.27 for the zygomatic arch registration. The mean differences between the two registration zones ranged between 0.12 to 0.19 mm at the 4 regions. Voxel based image registration on both zones could be considered as an accurate and a reproducible method for CBCT superimposition. The left zygomatic arch could be used as a stable structure for the superimposition of smaller field of view CBCT scans where the anterior cranial base is not visible.

  11. Gray matter changes in right superior temporal gyrus in criminal psychopaths. Evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Jürgen L; Gänssbauer, Susanne; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Weber, Tatjana; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Hajak, Göran

    2008-08-30

    "Psychopathy" according to the PCL-R describes a specific subgroup of antisocial personality disorder with a high risk for criminal relapses. Lesion and imaging studies point towards frontal or temporal brain regions connected with disturbed social behavior, antisocial personality disorder (APD) and psychopathy. Morphologically, some studies described a reduced prefrontal brain volume, whereas others reported on temporal lobe atrophy. To further investigate whether participants with psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised Version (PCL-R) show abnormalities in brain structure, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate region-specific changes in gray matter in 17 forensic male inpatients with high PCL-R scores (PCL-R>28) and 17 male control subjects with low PCL-R scores (PCLright superior temporal gyrus. This is the first study to show that psychopathy is associated with a decrease in gray matter in both frontal and temporal brain regions, in particular in the right superior temporal gyrus, supporting the hypothesis that a disturbed frontotemporal network is critically involved in the pathogenesis of psychopathy.

  12. Voxel-based analyses of gray/white matter volume and diffusion tensor data in major depression. Presidential award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2008-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have revealed that frontolimbic dysfunction may contribute to the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder. We used voxel-based analysis to simultaneously elucidate regional changes in gray/white matter volume, mean diffusivity (MD), and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the central nervous system of patients with unipolar major depression. We studied 21 right-handed patients and 42 age- and gender-matched right-handed normal subjects without central nervous system disorders. All image processing and statistical analyses were performed using SPM5 software. Local areas showing significant gray matter volume reduction in depressive patients compared with normal controls were observed in the right parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, bilateral middle frontal gyri, bilateral anterior cingulate cortices, left parietal and occipital lobes, and right superior temporal gyrus. Local areas showing increased mean diffusivity in depressive patients were observed in the bilateral parahippocampal gyri, hippocampus, pons, cerebellum, left frontal and temporal lobes, and right frontal lobe. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups for fractional anisotropy and white matter volume in the entire brain. Although there was no local area in which FA and MD were significantly correlated with disease severity, FA tended to correlate negatively with depression days (total accumulated days in depressive state) in the right anterior cingulate and the left frontal white matter (FDR-corrected P=0.055 for both areas). These results suggest that the frontolimbic neural circuit may play an important role in the neuropathology of patients with major depression. (author)

  13. Volumetric reduction of the corpus callosum in Alzheimer's disease in vivo as assessed with voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Tiffany M; Duran, Fábio L S; Uchida, Ricardo R; Périco, Cintia A M; de Castro, Claudio C; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2007-01-15

    Several recent magnetic resonance imaging studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect regional gray matter volume abnormalities in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, investigations of corpus callosum (CC) abnormalities in AD using this automated methodology have been scarce, and no VBM study investigated correlations between regional CC atrophy and cognitive measurements in AD subjects at mild disease stages. We used VBM to compare the topography of CC volume differences between 14 AD subjects (MMSE 14-25) and 14 healthy volunteers. Images were acquired using a 1.5-Telsa scanner, and were spatially normalized and segmented using optimized VBM. Statistical comparisons were performed using the general linear model. Significant CC atrophy was detected in the antero-superior portion of the splenium, the isthmus, the anterior and posterior portions of the CC body, and the rostral portion of the genu. Voxels showing peak statistical difference were all left-sided (P<0.001, uncorrected for multiple comparisons). A cluster of significant positive correlation with MMSE scores was seen on the left anterior CC body. Our results confirm previous findings of diffuse volumetric CC reductions early in the course of AD, and warrant further evaluation of the relevance of atrophic changes in anterior CC portions to the cognitive impairments that characterize the disorder.

  14. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B.; Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S.; Graham, Andrew; Hodges, John R.

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  15. Dyslexia and voxel-based morphometry: correlations between five behavioural measures of dyslexia and gray and white matter volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamboer, Peter; Scholte, H Steven; Vorst, Harrie C M

    2015-10-01

    In voxel-based morphometry studies of dyslexia, the relation between causal theories of dyslexia and gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume alterations is still under debate. Some alterations are consistently reported, but others failed to reach significance. We investigated GM alterations in a large sample of Dutch students (37 dyslexics and 57 non-dyslexics) with two analyses: group differences in local GM and total GM and WM volume and correlations between GM and WM volumes and five behavioural measures. We found no significant group differences after corrections for multiple comparisons although total WM volume was lower in the group of dyslexics when age was partialled out. We presented an overview of uncorrected clusters of voxels (p  200) with reduced or increased GM volume. We found four significant correlations between factors of dyslexia representing various behavioural measures and the clusters found in the first analysis. In the whole sample, a factor related to performances in spelling correlated negatively with GM volume in the left posterior cerebellum. Within the group of dyslexics, a factor related to performances in Dutch-English rhyme words correlated positively with GM volume in the left and right caudate nucleus and negatively with increased total WM volume. Most of our findings were in accordance with previous reports. A relatively new finding was the involvement of the caudate nucleus. We confirmed the multiple cognitive nature of dyslexia and suggested that experience greatly influences anatomical alterations depending on various subtypes of dyslexia, especially in a student sample.

  16. Reproducibility of myelin water fraction analysis: a comparison of region of interest and voxel-based analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Sandra M; Laule, Cornelia; Vavasour, Irene M; Kolind, Shannon H; Mädler, Burkhard; Tam, Roger; Traboulsee, Anthony L; Lee, Jimmy; Li, David K B; MacKay, Alex L

    2009-10-01

    This study compared region of interest (ROI) and voxel-based analysis (VBA) methods to determine the optimal method of myelin water fraction (MWF) analysis. Twenty healthy controls were scanned twice using a multi-echo T(2) relaxation sequence and ROIs were drawn in white and grey matter. MWF was defined as the fractional signal from 15 to 40 ms in the T(2) distribution. For ROI analysis, the mean intensity of voxels within an ROI was fit using non-negative least squares. For VBA, MWF was obtained for each voxel and the mean and median values within an ROI were calculated. There was a slightly higher correlation between Scan 1 and 2 for the VBA method (R(2)=0.98) relative to the ROI method (R(2)=0.95), and the VBA mean square difference between scans was 300% lower, indicating VBA was the most consistent between scans. For the VBA method, mean MWF was found to be more reproducible than median MWF. As the VBA method is more reproducible and gives more options for visualization and analysis of MWF, it is recommended over the ROI method of MWF analysis.

  17. Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy with Frontal Executive Dysfunction is Associated with Reduced Gray Matter Volume by Voxel-based Morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Sreeja H; Raghavan, Sheelakumari; Mathew, Mrudula; Gopalan, Geetha M; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Sarma, Sankara; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2017-01-01

    Frontal executive dysfunction (FED) and abnormalities in volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been described in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). We aimed to compare JME patients with and without FED by group analysis of voxel-based morphometric (VBM) estimates of brain volume in MRI. We studied frontal executive functions in patients with JME and analyzed the possible association of FED with their demographic, clinical, and electrographic characteristics. We aimed to do group analysis of the VBM MRI brain data to compare the gray matter (GM) volumes of JME patients with and without FED. We recruited 34 patients (20 women) with JME (mean age 23.7 ± 4.58 years) from the epilepsy outpatient services. FED was detected in twenty patients (58.8%). Group analysis of VBM MRI brain showed significant ( P < 0.001) reduction in GM volume in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (left Brodmann area [BA] 10, 46, 9, Z-score 3.36, 2.91, 2.03, respectively, and right BA 10 and BA 45, Z-score 2.98 and 3.36, respectively), left insula (BA 13, Z-score 2.14), temporal lobe (BA 38, Z-score 2.76), in the subgroup of JME with FED. JME with FED has an anatomical correlate in the form of reduced GM volume in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  18. Comparison of diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry to detect white matter damage in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Bora; Shim, Yong-S; Hong, Yun-Jeong; Koo, Bang-Bon; Kim, Yong-Duk; Lee, Kee-Ook; Yang, Dong-Won

    2011-03-15

    Regional atrophy of gray matter (GM) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well known; however, the relationship between macroscopic and microscopic changes of cerebral white matter (WM) is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of GM, WM atrophy, and microscopic WM changes in the same individuals with AD. All subjects (10AD and 15 healthy controls [HC]) underwent a MRI scanning at 1.5 T, including a 3-dimensional volumetric scan and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We performed statistical parametric mapping (SPM) with DTI to evaluate the patterns of the microscopic WM changes, as well as voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for GM and WM volume changes between patients with AD and HC. GM atrophy was detected, mainly in posterior regions, and WM atrophy was similarly distributed, but less involved on VBM analysis. Unlike WM atrophy on VBM analysis, microscopic WM changes were shown in the medial frontal, orbitofrontal, splenium of the corpus callosum, and cingulum on DTI analysis with SPM. We demonstrated that the pattern of macroscopic WM atrophy was similar to GM atrophy, while microscopic WM changes had a different pattern and distribution. Our findings suggest that WM atrophy may preferentially reflect the secondary changes of GM atrophy, while microscopic WM changes start earlier in frontal areas before GM and WM atrophy can be detected macroscopically. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Marie Bas-Hoogendam

    2017-01-01

    An international multi-center mega-analysis on the largest database of SAD structural T1-weighted 3T MRI scans to date was performed to compare GM volume of SAD-patients (n = 174 and healthy control (HC-participants (n = 213 using voxel-based morphometry. A hypothesis-driven region of interest (ROI approach was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety symptoms. No SAD-related differences in GM volume were present in the other ROIs. Thereby, the results of this mega-analysis suggest a role for the dorsal striatum in SAD, but previously reported SAD-related changes in GM in the amygdala, hippocampus, precuneus, prefrontal cortex and parietal regions were not replicated. Our findings emphasize the importance of large sample imaging studies and the need for meta-analyses like those performed by the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA Consortium.

  20. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Changyong; Wu, Suqin; Wang, Xiaoming; Hu, Andong; Wang, Qianxin; Zhang, Kefei

    2017-06-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV). In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm) is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD) to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models - GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTmN - using different data sources in 2014 - the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  1. A new voxel-based model for the determination of atmospheric weighted mean temperature in GPS atmospheric sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Global Positioning System (GPS is a powerful atmospheric observing system for determining precipitable water vapour (PWV. In the detection of PWV using GPS, the atmospheric weighted mean temperature (Tm is a crucial parameter for the conversion of zenith tropospheric delay (ZTD to PWV since the quality of PWV is affected by the accuracy of Tm. In this study, an improved voxel-based Tm model, named GWMT-D, was developed using global reanalysis data over a 4-year period from 2010 to 2013 provided by the United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP. The performance of GWMT-D was assessed against three existing empirical Tm models – GTm-III, GWMT-IV, and GTm_N – using different data sources in 2014 – the NCEP reanalysis data, surface Tm data provided by Global Geodetic Observing System and radiosonde measurements. The results show that the new GWMT-D model outperforms all the other three models with a root-mean-square error of less than 5.0 K at different altitudes over the globe. The new GWMT-D model can provide a practical alternative Tm determination method in real-time GPS-PWV remote sensing systems.

  2. Development of an MRI rating scale for multiple brain regions: comparison with volumetrics and with voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, R.R.; Williams, Guy B. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Scahill, Victoria L.; Graham, Kim S. [Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Graham, Andrew [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Hodges, John R. [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Cardiff University, MRC Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit, Cambridge and Wales Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience, School of Psychology, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute, Cognitive Neurology, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2009-08-15

    We aimed to devise a rating method for key frontal and temporal brain regions validated against quantitative volumetric methods and applicable to a range of dementia syndromes. Four standardised coronal MR images from 36 subjects encompassing controls and cases with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) were used. After initial pilot studies, 15 regions produced good intra- and inter-rater reliability. We then validated the ratings against manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and compared ratings across the subject groups. Validation against both manual volumetry (for both frontal and temporal lobes), and against whole brain VBM, showed good correlation with visual ratings for the majority of the brain regions. Comparison of rating scores across disease groups showed involvement of the anterior fusiform gyrus, anterior hippocampus and temporal pole in semantic dementia, while anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal regions were involved in behavioural variant FTD. This simple visual rating can be used as an alternative to highly technical methods of quantification, and may be superior when dealing with single cases or small groups. (orig.)

  3. A Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Giuseppe; Monti, Serena; D'Avino, Vittoria; Conson, Manuel; Liuzzi, Raffaele; Pressello, Maria Cristina; Donato, Vittorio; Deasy, Joseph O; Quarantelli, Mario; Pacelli, Roberto; Cella, Laura

    2016-09-01

    To apply a voxel-based (VB) approach aimed at exploring local dose differences associated with late radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). An interinstitutional database of 98 patients who were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with postchemotherapy supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy was analyzed in the study. Eighteen patients experienced late RILD, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system. Each patient's computed tomographic (CT) scan was normalized to a single reference case anatomy (common coordinate system, CCS) through a log-diffeomorphic approach. The obtained deformation fields were used to map the dose of each patient into the CCS. The coregistration robustness and the dose mapping accuracy were evaluated by geometric and dose scores. Two different statistical mapping schemes for nonparametric multiple permutation inference on dose maps were applied, and the corresponding Paccounting for the multiple comparison problem in dose-response modeling, and applied it to a cohort of HL survivors to explore a local dose-RILD relationship in the lungs. Patients with RILD received a significantly greater dose in parenchymal regions where low doses (∼6 Gy) were delivered. Interestingly, the relation between differences in the high-dose range and RILD seems to lack a clear spatial signature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et Pathologie du Mouvement, Marseille (France); CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); Ceccaldi, Mathieu [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neurologie et de Neuropsychologie, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, UMR Inserm 1106, Institut de Neurosciences des Systemes, Marseille (France); Girard, Nadine [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service de Neuroradiologie diagnostique et interventionnelle, Marseille (France); Mundler, Olivier [APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France); Guedj, Eric [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ, Institut de Neurosciences de la Timone, Marseille (France); APHM, Hopital de la Timone, Service Central de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Marseille (France); Aix-Marseille Univ, CERIMED, Marseille (France)

    2012-11-15

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  5. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Girard, Nadine; Mundler, Olivier; Guedj, Eric

    2012-11-01

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [(123)I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  6. Voxel-based analysis of whole-brain effects of age and gender on dopamine transporter SPECT imaging in healthy subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusebio, Alexandre; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Ceccaldi, Mathieu; Girard, Nadine; Mundler, Olivier; Guedj, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown age- and gender-related differences in striatal dopamine transporter (DaT) binding. These studies were based on a striatal region on interest approach that may have underestimated these effects and could not evaluate extrastriatal regions. Our aim was to determine the effects at the voxel level of age and gender on whole-brain DaT distribution using [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT in healthy subjects. We performed a whole-brain [ 123 I]FP-CIT SPECT voxel-based analysis using SPM8 and a standardized normalization template (p < 0.05, corrected using the false discovery rate method) in 51 healthy subjects aged from 21 to 79 years. We found an age-related DaT binding decrease in the striatum, anterior cingulate/medial frontal cortices and insulo-opercular cortices. Also DaT binding ratios were higher in women than men in the striatum and opercular cortices. This study showed both striatal and extrastriatal age-related and gender-related differences in DaT binding in healthy subjects using a whole-brain voxel-based non-a priori approach. These differences highlight the need for careful age and gender matching in DaT analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders. (orig.)

  7. Voxel-based clustered imaging by multiparameter diffusion tensor images for glioma grading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inano, Rika; Oishi, Naoya; Kunieda, Takeharu; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Yamao, Yukihiro; Shibata, Sumiya; Kikuchi, Takayuki; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Miyamoto, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common intra-axial primary brain tumour; therefore, predicting glioma grade would influence therapeutic strategies. Although several methods based on single or multiple parameters from diagnostic images exist, a definitive method for pre-operatively determining glioma grade remains unknown. We aimed to develop an unsupervised method using multiple parameters from pre-operative diffusion tensor images for obtaining a clustered image that could enable visual grading of gliomas. Fourteen patients with low-grade gliomas and 19 with high-grade gliomas underwent diffusion tensor imaging and three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before tumour resection. Seven features including diffusion-weighted imaging, fractional anisotropy, first eigenvalue, second eigenvalue, third eigenvalue, mean diffusivity and raw T2 signal with no diffusion weighting, were extracted as multiple parameters from diffusion tensor imaging. We developed a two-level clustering approach for a self-organizing map followed by the K-means algorithm to enable unsupervised clustering of a large number of input vectors with the seven features for the whole brain. The vectors were grouped by the self-organizing map as protoclusters, which were classified into the smaller number of clusters by K-means to make a voxel-based diffusion tensor-based clustered image. Furthermore, we also determined if the diffusion tensor-based clustered image was really helpful for predicting pre-operative glioma grade in a supervised manner. The ratio of each class in the diffusion tensor-based clustered images was calculated from the regions of interest manually traced on the diffusion tensor imaging space, and the common logarithmic ratio scales were calculated. We then applied support vector machine as a classifier for distinguishing between low- and high-grade gliomas. Consequently, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic

  8. Voxel-based model construction from colored tomographic images; Construcao de simuladores baseados em elementos de volume a partir de imagens tomograficas coloridas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, Eduardo Cesar de Miranda

    2002-07-01

    This work presents a new approach in the construction of voxel-based phantoms that was implemented to simplify the segmentation process of organs and tissues reducing the time used in this procedure. The segmentation process is performed by painting tomographic images and attributing a different color for each organ or tissue. A voxel-based head and neck phantom was built using this new approach. The way as the data are stored allows an increasing in the performance of the radiation transport code. The program that calculates the radiation transport also works with image files. This capability allows image reconstruction showing isodose areas, under several points of view, increasing the information to the user. Virtual X-ray photographs can also be obtained allowing that studies could be accomplished looking for the radiographic techniques optimization assessing, at the same time, the doses in organs and tissues. The accuracy of the program here presented, called MCvoxEL, that implements this new approach, was tested by comparison to results from two modern and well-supported Monte Carlo codes. Dose conversion factors for parallel X-ray exposure were also calculated. (author)

  9. [A voxel-based morphometric analysis of brain gray matter in online game addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-bo; Qian, Ruo-bing; Fu, Xian-ming; Lin, Bin; Ji, Xue-bing; Niu, Chao-shi; Wang, Ye-han

    2012-12-04

    To explore the possible brain mechanism of online game addiction (OGA) in terms of brain morphology through voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analysis. Seventeen subjects with OGA and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC group) were recruited from Department of Psychology at our hospital during February-December 2011. The internet addiction scale (IAS) was used to measure the degree of OGA tendency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to acquire 3-dimensional T1-weighted images. And FSL 4.1 software was employed to confirm regional gray matter volume changes. For the regions where OGA subjects showed significantly different gray matter volumes from the controls, the gray matter volumes of these areas were extracted, averaged and regressed against the scores of IAS. The OGA group had lower gray matter volume in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral insula (INS), left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left supplementary motor area (SMA). Gray matter volumes of left OFC and bilateral INS showed a negative correlation with the scores of IAS (r = -0.65, r = -0.78, P online game addicts and they may be correlated with the occurrence and maintenance of OGA.

  10. Voxel-based morphometry findings in Alzheimer's disease: neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability correlations - preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano de Gois Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The role of structural brain changes and their correlations with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in Alzheimer's disease are still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To establish whether structural changes in grey matter volume in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease are associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability METHODS: Nineteen Alzheimer's disease patients (9 females; total mean age =75.2 y old +4.7; total mean education level =8.5 y +4.9 underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI examination and voxel-based morphometry analysis. T1-weighted images were spatially normalized and segmented. Grey matter images were smoothed and analyzed using a multiple regression design. The results were corrected for multiple comparisons. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to evaluate the neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire and Disability Assessment for Dementia were used for functional evaluation RESULTS: A significant negative correlation was found between the bilateral middle frontal gyri, left inferior temporal gyrus, right orbitofrontal gyrus, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores. A negative correlation was found between bilateral middle temporal gyri, left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform gyri, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. There was a positive correlation between the right amygdala, bilateral fusiform gyri, right anterior insula, left inferior and middle temporal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus, and Disability Assessment for Dementia scores CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease patients could be mainly due to frontal structural abnormalities, whereas disability could be associated with reductions in temporal structures.

  11. Voxel-based morphometry findings in Alzheimer's disease: neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability correlations - preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Luciano de Gois; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Oliveira, Maira Okada de; Flor, Yoná Mayara Ribeiro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo; Brucki, Sonia Maria Dozzi

    2011-01-01

    The role of structural brain changes and their correlations with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability in Alzheimer's disease are still poorly understood. To establish whether structural changes in grey matter volume in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease are associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms and disability Nineteen Alzheimer's disease patients (9 females; total mean age =75.2 y old +4.7; total mean education level =8.5 y +4.9) underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination and voxel-based morphometry analysis. T1-weighted images were spatially normalized and segmented. Grey matter images were smoothed and analyzed using a multiple regression design. The results were corrected for multiple comparisons. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory was used to evaluate the neuropsychiatric symptoms, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire and Disability Assessment for Dementia were used for functional evaluation A significant negative correlation was found between the bilateral middle frontal gyri, left inferior temporal gyrus, right orbitofrontal gyrus, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores. A negative correlation was found between bilateral middle temporal gyri, left hippocampus, bilateral fusiform gyri, and the Functional Activities Questionnaire. There was a positive correlation between the right amygdala, bilateral fusiform gyri, right anterior insula, left inferior and middle temporal gyri, right superior temporal gyrus, and Disability Assessment for Dementia scores The results suggest that the neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease patients could be mainly due to frontal structural abnormalities, whereas disability could be associated with reductions in temporal structures.

  12. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiye [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China); Li, Lin [Department of Geriatric Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Sun, Jie [Department of Endocrinology, PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Ma, Lin, E-mail: cjr.malin@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, PLA General Hospital, 28 Fuxing Road, Beijing 100853 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  13. Voxel-based morphometry in the parkinson variant of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanping; Wang Han; Li Zhou; Feng Feng

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess patterns of the gray and white matter atrophy in patients with multiple system atrophy-P (MSA-P) variant of whole brain compared with normal controls. Methods: Three dimensional fast spoiled gradient echo (3D-FSPGR) T 1 WI of whole brain were obtained from 13 patients with probable MSA-P and 14 age-matched normal controls. The volume of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of MSA-P patients and normal controls was analyzed with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 8. Results: Compared with the controls, the MSA-P patients showed decreased gray matter and white matter in broad areas. Gray matter loss mainly symmetrically distributed in bilateral supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (DPCC), medial frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, cerebellum cortex, eta Unilateral involvement of cortices mainly located in right primary motor cortex, somatosensory association cortex (SAC), and left ventral anterior cingulate cortex (VACC). There was white matter loss in bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral precuneus, bilateral sub-gyrus of frontal lobe, left superior temporal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, right orbitofrontal area, right sub- gyrus of temporal lobe, etc. Conclusion: VBM method is an automatic and comprehensive volumetry method and can objectively detect the difference of the whole brain structure in patients with probable MSA- P comparing with normal controls. (authors)

  14. Mapping the brain in type II diabetes: Voxel-based morphometry using DARTEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhiye; Li, Lin; Sun, Jie; Ma, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the pattern of brain volume changes of the brain in patients with type II diabetes mellitus using voxel-based morphometry. Material and methods: Institutional ethics approval and informed consent were obtained. VBM based on the high resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MRI images was obtained from 16 type II diabetes patients (mean age 61.2 years) and 16 normal controls (mean age 59.6 years). All images were spatially preprocessed using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) algorithm, and the DARTEL templates were made from 100 normal subjects. Statistical parametric mapping was generated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results: An atrophy pattern of gray matter was seen in type II diabetes patients compared with controls that involved the right superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, right precentral gyrus, and left rolandic operculum region. The loss of white matter volume in type II diabetes mellitus was observed in right temporal lobe and left inferior frontal triangle region. ROI analysis revealed that the gray and white matter volume of right temporal lobe were significant lower in type II diabetes mellitus than that in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This work demonstrated that type II diabetes mellitus patients mainly exhibited gray and white matter atrophy in right temporal lobe, and this finding supported that type II diabetes mellitus could lead to subtle diabetic brain structural changes in patients without dementia or macrovascular complications.

  15. Voxel-based Monte Carlo simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottigli, U.; Brunetti, A.; Golosio, B.; Oliva, P.; Stumbo, S.; Vincze, L.; Randaccio, P.; Bleuet, P.; Simionovici, A.; Somogyi, A.

    2004-01-01

    A Monte Carlo code for the simulation of X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments in heterogeneous samples is presented. The energy spectrum, polarization and profile of the incident beam can be defined so that X-ray tube systems as well as synchrotron sources can be simulated. The sample is modeled as a 3D regular grid. The chemical composition and density is given at each point of the grid. Photoelectric absorption, fluorescent emission, elastic and inelastic scattering are included in the simulation. The core of the simulation is a fast routine for the calculation of the path lengths of the photon trajectory intersections with the grid voxels. The voxel representation is particularly useful for samples that cannot be well described by a small set of polyhedra. This is the case of most naturally occurring samples. In such cases, voxel-based simulations are much less expensive in terms of computational cost than simulations on a polygonal representation. The efficient scheme used for calculating the path lengths in the voxels and the use of variance reduction techniques make the code suitable for the detailed simulation of complex experiments on generic samples in a relatively short time. Examples of applications to X-ray imaging and spectroscopy experiments are discussed

  16. Analysis of voxel-based rCBF in patients with olivopontocerebellar atrophy of multiple system atrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Young Jin; Kang, Do Young; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Sang Ho; Kim, Jae Woo

    2004-01-01

    Olivopontocerebellar Atrophy (OPCA) is one phenotype of multiple system atrophy (MSA) and is characterized neuropathologically by neuronal degeneration in the inferior olives, pons and cerebellar cortex. The diagnosis of OPCA requires clinical evaluation to exclude other diseases. And it's usually supported by atrophy of the cerebellum and brainstem visualized on CT or MRI. But there are some reports that the disease can occur without demonstrable atrophy in these anatomic studies. There are only a few reports about perfusion SPECT imaging in patients with OPCA. The aim of this study was to describe voxel-based rCBF of OPCA in comparison of healthy volunteers. We studied 5 patients with OPCA (1 men, 4 women: age 50.4±9.6y) and age matched 13 healthy volunteers (4 men, 9 women: age 54.9±6.6y). All subjects injected 20mCi of Tc-99m HMPAO and scanning was initiated 20 min after injection. Images were analyzed using SPM (SPM99) with Matlab 5.3. On visual analysis, in 3 patients with OPCA, SPECT image showed significant hypoperfusion in the cerebellum. In another 2 patients, diffuse hypoperfusion was found in the both cerebro-cerebellar hemispheres, untypical perfusion pattern in OPCA. So there is existed limitation to diagnosis by only visual analysis. On SPM analysis, in OPCA patients significantly decreased perfusion was present in culmen, tonsil, tuber in Lt. cerebellum and declive, tonsil, pyramid and inf. Semi-lunar lobule in Rt. cerebellum, Rt. inf. frontal gyrus and Rt. temporal lobe (p<0.001, uncorrected). We also performed individual analysis with SPM. Two of 5 patients have additional hypoperfusion brain lesions. In one patient, decreased perfusion found in Lt. temporal, both occipital lobe, Lt. parahippocampal gyrus. In another patient, decreased perfusion found in both frontal and parietal lobe. This study is one of a few trials analysis with SPM for OPCA. We defined the specific location of decreased perfusion in patients with OPCA

  17. Voxel-based registration of simulated and real patient CBCT data for accurate dental implant pose estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, António H. J.; Queirós, Sandro; Morais, Pedro; Rodrigues, Nuno F.; Correia, André Ricardo; Fernandes, Valter; Pinho, A. C. M.; Fonseca, Jaime C.; Vilaça, João. L.

    2015-03-01

    The success of dental implant-supported prosthesis is directly linked to the accuracy obtained during implant's pose estimation (position and orientation). Although traditional impression techniques and recent digital acquisition methods are acceptably accurate, a simultaneously fast, accurate and operator-independent methodology is still lacking. Hereto, an image-based framework is proposed to estimate the patient-specific implant's pose using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and prior knowledge of implanted model. The pose estimation is accomplished in a threestep approach: (1) a region-of-interest is extracted from the CBCT data using 2 operator-defined points at the implant's main axis; (2) a simulated CBCT volume of the known implanted model is generated through Feldkamp-Davis-Kress reconstruction and coarsely aligned to the defined axis; and (3) a voxel-based rigid registration is performed to optimally align both patient and simulated CBCT data, extracting the implant's pose from the optimal transformation. Three experiments were performed to evaluate the framework: (1) an in silico study using 48 implants distributed through 12 tridimensional synthetic mandibular models; (2) an in vitro study using an artificial mandible with 2 dental implants acquired with an i-CAT system; and (3) two clinical case studies. The results shown positional errors of 67+/-34μm and 108μm, and angular misfits of 0.15+/-0.08° and 1.4°, for experiment 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, in experiment 3, visual assessment of clinical data results shown a coherent alignment of the reference implant. Overall, a novel image-based framework for implants' pose estimation from CBCT data was proposed, showing accurate results in agreement with dental prosthesis modelling requirements.

  18. Auras and clinical features in temporal lobe epilepsy: a new approach on the basis of voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Teresa Castilho Garcia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; da Silva, Henrique Hattori; Caboclo, Luis Otávio Sales Ferreira; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2010-05-01

    MRI investigations in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) have demonstrated structural abnormalities extending beyond ipsilateral hippocampus which may be studied through voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We investigated brain morphology related to clinical features in patients with refractory TLE with MTS using VBM. One hundred patients with unilateral TLE with MTS (59 left) and 30 controls were enrolled. VBM5 was employed to analyze (1) hemispheric damage, (2) influence of initial precipitating injury (IPI): 23 patients with febrile seizures and 19 with status epilepticus, and (3) types of auras classified as: mesial, including psychic auras (19 patients); anterior mesio-lateral, as autonomic symptoms, specially epigastric auras (27 patients) and neocortical, which included auditory, vertiginous, somatosensory and visual auras (16 patients). (1) Left TLE patients presented more widespread gray matter volume (GMV) reductions affecting ipsilateral hippocampus, temporal neocortex, insula and also left uncus, precentral gyrus, thalamus, parietal lobule, cuneus and bilateral cingulum. (2) Febrile seizures group presented ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus, neocortical temporal, frontal and occipital cortices, insula and cingulum. Status epilepticus group presented more widespread GMV reductions involving temporal and extratemporal lobes. (3) Patients with mesial auras showed significant ipsilateral GMV reductions in hippocampus and amygdala, particularly right TLE group, who presented greater extension of GMV reduction in the entorhinal cortex. Significant reductions in hippocampus, amygdala and insula were seen in patients with anterior mesio-lateral auras. This study evaluated a large number of TLE-MTS patients showing structural damage extending beyond hippocampus, and different types of IPI associated with the extension of brain damage. Subtypes of auras are related to different clusters of areas of GMV reductions in

  19. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based assessment of gray matter loss in medial temporal lobe epilepsy; comparison with FDG PET

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    Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Gun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones.

  20. Structural MRI in frontotemporal dementia: comparisons between hippocampal volumetry, tensor-based morphometry and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Ruiz, Miguel Ángel; Hartikainen, Päivi; Koikkalainen, Juha; Wolz, Robin; Julkunen, Valtteri; Niskanen, Eini; Herukka, Sanna-Kaisa; Kivipelto, Miia; Vanninen, Ritva; Rueckert, Daniel; Liu, Yawu; Lötjönen, Jyrki; Soininen, Hilkka

    2012-01-01

    MRI is an important clinical tool for diagnosing dementia-like diseases such as Frontemporal Dementia (FTD). However there is a need to develop more accurate and standardized MRI analysis methods. To compare FTD with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) with three automatic MRI analysis methods - Hippocampal Volumetry (HV), Tensor-based Morphometry (TBM) and Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM), in specific regions of interest in order to determine the highest classification accuracy. Thirty-seven patients with FTD, 46 patients with AD, 26 control subjects, 16 patients with progressive MCI (PMCI) and 48 patients with stable MCI (SMCI) were examined with HV, TBM for shape change, and VBM for gray matter density. We calculated the Correct Classification Rate (CCR), sensitivity (SS) and specificity (SP) between the study groups. We found unequivocal results differentiating controls from FTD with HV (hippocampus left side) (CCR = 0.83; SS = 0.84; SP = 0.80), with TBM (hippocampus and amygdala (CCR = 0.80/SS = 0.71/SP = 0.94), and with VBM (all the regions studied, especially in lateral ventricle frontal horn, central part and occipital horn) (CCR = 0.87/SS = 0.81/SP = 0.96). VBM achieved the highest accuracy in differentiating AD and FTD (CCR = 0.72/SS = 0.67/SP = 0.76), particularly in lateral ventricle (frontal horn, central part and occipital horn) (CCR = 0.73), whereas TBM in superior frontal gyrus also achieved a high accuracy (CCR = 0.71/SS = 0.68/SP = 0.73). TBM resulted in low accuracy (CCR = 0.62) in the differentiation of AD from FTD using all regions of interest, with similar results for HV (CCR = 0.55). Hippocampal atrophy is present not only in AD but also in FTD. Of the methods used, VBM achieved the highest accuracy in its ability to differentiate between FTD and AD.

  1. Structural MRI in frontotemporal dementia: comparisons between hippocampal volumetry, tensor-based morphometry and voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Muñoz-Ruiz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MRI is an important clinical tool for diagnosing dementia-like diseases such as Frontemporal Dementia (FTD. However there is a need to develop more accurate and standardized MRI analysis methods. OBJECTIVE: To compare FTD with Alzheimer's Disease (AD and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI with three automatic MRI analysis methods - Hippocampal Volumetry (HV, Tensor-based Morphometry (TBM and Voxel-based Morphometry (VBM, in specific regions of interest in order to determine the highest classification accuracy. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with FTD, 46 patients with AD, 26 control subjects, 16 patients with progressive MCI (PMCI and 48 patients with stable MCI (SMCI were examined with HV, TBM for shape change, and VBM for gray matter density. We calculated the Correct Classification Rate (CCR, sensitivity (SS and specificity (SP between the study groups. RESULTS: We found unequivocal results differentiating controls from FTD with HV (hippocampus left side (CCR = 0.83; SS = 0.84; SP = 0.80, with TBM (hippocampus and amygdala (CCR = 0.80/SS = 0.71/SP = 0.94, and with VBM (all the regions studied, especially in lateral ventricle frontal horn, central part and occipital horn (CCR = 0.87/SS = 0.81/SP = 0.96. VBM achieved the highest accuracy in differentiating AD and FTD (CCR = 0.72/SS = 0.67/SP = 0.76, particularly in lateral ventricle (frontal horn, central part and occipital horn (CCR = 0.73, whereas TBM in superior frontal gyrus also achieved a high accuracy (CCR = 0.71/SS = 0.68/SP = 0.73. TBM resulted in low accuracy (CCR = 0.62 in the differentiation of AD from FTD using all regions of interest, with similar results for HV (CCR = 0.55. CONCLUSION: Hippocampal atrophy is present not only in AD but also in FTD. Of the methods used, VBM achieved the highest accuracy in its ability to differentiate between FTD and AD.

  2. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) based assessment of gray matter loss in medial temporal lobe epilepsy; comparison with FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hye Jin; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Sang Gun; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2004-01-01

    The aims of this study were to find brain regions in which gray matter volume was reduced and to show the capability of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for lateralizing epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The findings were compared with fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). MR T1-weighted images of 12 left mTLE and 11 right mTLE patients were compared with those of 37 normal controls. Images were transformed to standard MNI space and averaged in order to create study-specific brain template. Each image was normalized to this local template and brain tissues were segmented. Modulation VBM analysis was performed in order to observe gray matter volume change. Gray matter was smoothed with a Gaussian kernel. After these preprocessing, statistical analysis was performed using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). FDG PET images were compared with those of 22 normal controls using SPM. Gray matter volume was significantly reduced in the left amygdala and hippocampus in left mTLE. In addition, volume of cerebellum, anterior cingulate, and fusiform gyrus in both sides and left insula was reduced. In right mTLE, volume was reduced significantly in right hippocampus. In contrast, FDG uptake was decreased in broad areas of left or right temporal lobes in left TLE and right TLE, respectively. Gray matter loss was found in the ipsilateral hippocampus by modulation VBM analysis in medial temporal lobe epilepsy. This VBM analysis might be useful in lateralizing the epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy, while SPM analysis of FDG PET disclosed hypometabolic epileptogenic zones

  3. Fully automated treatment planning for head and neck radiotherapy using a voxel-based dose prediction and dose mimicking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Welch, Mattea; McNiven, Andrea; Jaffray, David A.; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-08-01

    Recent works in automated radiotherapy treatment planning have used machine learning based on historical treatment plans to infer the spatial dose distribution for a novel patient directly from the planning image. We present a probabilistic, atlas-based approach which predicts the dose for novel patients using a set of automatically selected most similar patients (atlases). The output is a spatial dose objective, which specifies the desired dose-per-voxel, and therefore replaces the need to specify and tune dose-volume objectives. Voxel-based dose mimicking optimization then converts the predicted dose distribution to a complete treatment plan with dose calculation using a collapsed cone convolution dose engine. In this study, we investigated automated planning for right-sided oropharaynx head and neck patients treated with IMRT and VMAT. We compare four versions of our dose prediction pipeline using a database of 54 training and 12 independent testing patients by evaluating 14 clinical dose evaluation criteria. Our preliminary results are promising and demonstrate that automated methods can generate comparable dose distributions to clinical. Overall, automated plans achieved an average of 0.6% higher dose for target coverage evaluation criteria, and 2.4% lower dose at the organs at risk criteria levels evaluated compared with clinical. There was no statistically significant difference detected in high-dose conformity between automated and clinical plans as measured by the conformation number. Automated plans achieved nine more unique criteria than clinical across the 12 patients tested and automated plans scored a significantly higher dose at the evaluation limit for two high-risk target coverage criteria and a significantly lower dose in one critical organ maximum dose. The novel dose prediction method with dose mimicking can generate complete treatment plans in 12-13 min without user interaction. It is a promising approach for fully automated treatment

  4. A Voxel-Based Approach to Explore Local Dose Differences Associated With Radiation-Induced Lung Damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palma, Giuseppe [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Monti, Serena [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); D' Avino, Vittoria [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Conson, Manuel [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Liuzzi, Raffaele [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pressello, Maria Cristina [Department of Health Physics, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Donato, Vittorio [Department of Radiation Oncology, S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital, Rome (Italy); Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Quarantelli, Mario [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Pacelli, Roberto [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Federico II University School of Medicine, Naples (Italy); Cella, Laura, E-mail: laura.cella@cnr.it [Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, National Research Council, Naples (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: To apply a voxel-based (VB) approach aimed at exploring local dose differences associated with late radiation-induced lung damage (RILD). Methods and Materials: An interinstitutional database of 98 patients who were Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors treated with postchemotherapy supradiaphragmatic radiation therapy was analyzed in the study. Eighteen patients experienced late RILD, classified according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scoring system. Each patient's computed tomographic (CT) scan was normalized to a single reference case anatomy (common coordinate system, CCS) through a log-diffeomorphic approach. The obtained deformation fields were used to map the dose of each patient into the CCS. The coregistration robustness and the dose mapping accuracy were evaluated by geometric and dose scores. Two different statistical mapping schemes for nonparametric multiple permutation inference on dose maps were applied, and the corresponding P<.05 significance lung subregions were generated. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC)-based test was performed on the mean dose extracted from each subregion. Results: The coregistration process resulted in a geometrically robust and accurate dose warping. A significantly higher dose was consistently delivered to RILD patients in voxel clusters near the peripheral medial-basal portion of the lungs. The area under the ROC curves (AUC) from the mean dose of the voxel clusters was higher than the corresponding AUC derived from the total lung mean dose. Conclusions: We implemented a framework including a robust registration process and a VB approach accounting for the multiple comparison problem in dose-response modeling, and applied it to a cohort of HL survivors to explore a local dose–RILD relationship in the lungs. Patients with RILD received a significantly greater dose in parenchymal regions where low doses (∼6 Gy) were delivered. Interestingly, the relation between differences in the high

  5. Structural brain abnormalities in women with subclinical depression, as revealed by voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yayoi K; Sasaki, Hiroki; Takao, Hidemasa; Mori, Harushi; Hayashi, Naoto; Kunimatsu, Akira; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2013-01-25

    Brain structural changes accompany major depressive disorder, but whether subclinical depression is accompanied by similar changes in brain volume and white matter integrity is unknown. By using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of the gray matter and tract-specific analysis based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of the white matter, we explored the extent to which abnormalities could be identified in specific brain structures of healthy adults with subclinical depression. The subjects were 21 community-dwelling adults with subclinical depression, as measured by their Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) scores. They were not demented and had no neurological or psychiatric history. We collected brain magnetic resonance images of the patients and of 21 matched control subjects, and we used VBM to analyze the differences in regional gray matter volume between the two groups. Moreover, we examined the white matter integrity by using tract-specific analysis based on the gray matter volume changes revealed by VBM. VBM revealed that the volumes of both anterior cingulate gyri and the right rectal gyrus were smaller in subclinically depressed women than in control women. Calculation of DTI measures in the anterior cingulum bundle revealed a positive correlation between CES-D scale score and radial diffusivity in the right anterior cingulum in subclinically depressed women. The small sample size limits the stability of the reported findings. Gray matter volume reduction and white matter integrity change in specific frontal brain regions may be associated with depressive symptoms in women, even at a subclinical level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Approach to voxel-based carbon stock quanticiation using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunji; Piao, Dongfan; Lee, Jongyeol; Lee, Woo-Kyun; Yoon, Mihae; Moon, Jooyeon

    2016-04-01

    Forest is an important means to adapt climate change as the only carbon sink recognized by the international community (KFS 2009). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 5th Assessment Report (AR5), Agriculture, Forestry, and Other Land Use (AFOLU) sectors including forestry contributed 24% of total anthropogenic emissions in 2010 (IPCC 2014; Tubiello et al. 2015). While all sectors excluding AFOLU have increased Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, land use sectors including forestry remains similar level as before due to decreasing deforestation and increasing reforestation. In earlier researches, optical imagery has been applied for analysis (Jakubowski et al. 2013). Optical imagery collects spectral information in 2D. It is difficult to effectively quantify forest stocks, especially in dense forest (Cui et al. 2012). To detect individual trees information from remotely sensed data, Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has been used (Hyyppäet al. 2001; Persson et al. 2002; Chen et al. 2006). Moreover, LiDAR has the ability to actively acquire vertical tree information such as tree height using geo-registered 3D points (Kwak et al. 2007). In general, however, geo-register 3D point was used with a raster format which contains only 2D information by missing all the 3D data. Therefore, this research aimed to use the volumetric pixel (referred as "voxel") approach using LiDAR data in tropical rainforest, Brunei. By comparing the parameters derived from voxel based LiDAR data and field measured data, we examined the relationships between them for the quantification of forest carbon. This study expects to be more helpful to take advantage of the strategic application of climate change adaption.

  7. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Brain Volumes Changes of Postmenopausal Women Revealed by Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Zhang

    Full Text Available The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI provides an opportunity to evaluate how menopausal hormone therapy (HT affects the structure of older women's brains. Our earlier work based on region of interest (ROI analysis demonstrated potential structural changes underlying adverse effects of HT on cognition. However, the ROI-based analysis is limited in statistical power and precision, and cannot provide fine-grained mapping of whole-brain changes.We aimed to identify local structural differences between HT and placebo groups from WHIMS-MRI in a whole-brain refined level, by using a novel method, named Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA. ODVBA is a recently proposed imaging pattern analysis approach for group comparisons utilizing a spatially adaptive analysis scheme to accurately locate areas of group differences, thereby providing superior sensitivity and specificity to detect the structural brain changes over conventional methods.Women assigned to HT treatments had significant Gray Matter (GM losses compared to the placebo groups in the anterior cingulate and the adjacent medial frontal gyrus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which persisted after multiple comparison corrections. There were no regions where HT was significantly associated with larger volumes compared to placebo, although a trend of marginal significance was found in the posterior cingulate cortical area. The CEE-Alone and CEE+MPA groups, although compared with different placebo controls, demonstrated similar effects according to the spatial patterns of structural changes.HT had adverse effects on GM volumes and risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. These findings advanced our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of HT effects.

  8. Voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy in post-stroke apathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-ran Yang

    Full Text Available To explore the structural basis of post-stroke apathy by using voxel-based analysis (VBA of fractional anisotropy (FA maps.We enrolled 54 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke during convalescence, and divided them into apathy (n = 31 and non-apathy (n = 23 groups. We obtained magnetic resonance images of their brains, including T1, T2 and DTI sequences. Age, sex, education level, Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD scores, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE scores, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores, and infarct locations for the two groups were compared. Finally, to investigate the structural basis of post-stroke apathy, VBA of FA maps was performed in which we included the variables that a univariate analysis determined had P-values less than 0.20 as covariates.HAMD (P = 0.01 and MMSE (P<0.01 scores differed significantly between the apathy and non-apathy groups. After controlling for age, education level, HAMD scores, and MMSE scores, significant FA reduction was detected in four clusters with peak voxels at the genu of the corpus callosum (X = -16, Y = 30, Z = 8, left anterior corona radiata (-22, 30, 10, splenium of the corpus callosum (-24, -56, 18, and right inferior frontal gyrus white matter (52, 24, 18, after family-wise error correction for multiple comparisons.Post-stroke apathy is related to depression and cognitive decline. Damage to the genu of the corpus callosum, left anterior corona radiata, splenium of the corpus callosum, and white matter in the right inferior frontal gyrus may lead to apathy after ischemic stroke.

  9. Voxel-Based Spatial Filtering Method for Canopy Height Retrieval from Airborne Single-Photon Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Airborne single-photon lidar (SPL is a new technology that holds considerable potential for forest structure and carbon monitoring at large spatial scales because it acquires 3D measurements of vegetation faster and more efficiently than conventional lidar instruments. However, SPL instruments use green wavelength (532 nm lasers, which are sensitive to background solar noise, and therefore SPL point clouds require more elaborate noise filtering than other lidar instruments to determine canopy heights, particularly in daytime acquisitions. Histogram-based aggregation is a commonly used approach for removing noise from photon counting lidar data, but it reduces the resolution of the dataset. Here we present an alternate voxel-based spatial filtering method that filters noise points efficiently while largely preserving the spatial integrity of SPL data. We develop and test our algorithms on an experimental SPL dataset acquired over Garrett County in Maryland, USA. We then compare canopy attributes retrieved using our new algorithm with those obtained from the conventional histogram binning approach. Our results show that canopy heights derived using the new algorithm have a strong agreement with field-measured heights (r2 = 0.69, bias = 0.42 m, RMSE = 4.85 m and discrete return lidar heights (r2 = 0.94, bias = 1.07 m, RMSE = 2.42 m. Results are consistently better than height accuracies from the histogram method (field data: r2 = 0.59, bias = 0.00 m, RMSE = 6.25 m; DRL: r2 = 0.78, bias = −0.06 m and RMSE = 4.88 m. Furthermore, we find that the spatial-filtering method retains fine-scale canopy structure detail and has lower errors over steep slopes. We therefore believe that automated spatial filtering algorithms such as the one presented here can support large-scale, canopy structure mapping from airborne SPL data.

  10. Voxel-based statistical analysis of cerebral glucose metabolism in the rat cortical deafness model by 3D reconstruction of brain from autoradiographic images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Park, Kwang Suk [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul (Korea); Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Seoul (Korea); Lee, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 28 Yungun-Dong, Chongno-Ku, Seoul (Korea)

    2005-06-01

    Animal models of cortical deafness are essential for investigation of the cerebral glucose metabolism in congenital or prelingual deafness. Autoradiographic imaging is mainly used to assess the cerebral glucose metabolism in rodents. In this study, procedures for the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis of autoradiographic data were established to enable investigations of the within-modal and cross-modal plasticity through entire areas of the brain of sensory-deprived animals without lumping together heterogeneous subregions within each brain structure into a large region of interest. Thirteen 2-[1-{sup 14}C]-deoxy-D-glucose autoradiographic images were acquired from six deaf and seven age-matched normal rats (age 6-10 weeks). The deafness was induced by surgical ablation. For the 3D voxel-based statistical analysis, brain slices were extracted semiautomatically from the autoradiographic images, which contained the coronal sections of the brain, and were stacked into 3D volume data. Using principal axes matching and mutual information maximization algorithms, the adjacent coronal sections were co-registered using a rigid body transformation, and all sections were realigned to the first section. A study-specific template was composed and the realigned images were spatially normalized onto the template. Following count normalization, voxel-wise t tests were performed to reveal the areas with significant differences in cerebral glucose metabolism between the deaf and the control rats. Continuous and clear edges were detected in each image after registration between the coronal sections, and the internal and external landmarks extracted from the spatially normalized images were well matched, demonstrating the reliability of the spatial processing procedures. Voxel-wise t tests showed that the glucose metabolism in the bilateral auditory cortices of the deaf rats was significantly (P<0.001) lower than that in the controls. There was no significantly reduced metabolism in

  11. Voxel-Based Correlation between Coregistered Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography and Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Subjects with Suspected Alzheimer Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallin, L.; Axelsson, R.; Wahlund, L.O.; Oeksengard, A.R.; Svensson, L.; Juhlin, P.; Wiberg, M. Kristoffersen; Frank, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Current diagnosis of Alzheimer disease is made by clinical, neuropsychologic, and neuroimaging assessments. Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could be valuable in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer disease, as well as in assessing prognosis. Purpose: To compare SPECT and MRI in a cohort of patients examined for suspected dementia, including patients with no objective cognitive impairment (control group), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Material and Methods: 24 patients, eight with AD, 10 with MCI, and six controls, were investigated with SPECT using 99m Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO, Ceretec; GE Healthcare Ltd., Little Chalsont UK) and dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) with a contrast-enhancing gadobutrol formula (Gadovist; Bayer Schering Pharma, Berlin, Germany). Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR images was calculated. Region-of-interest (ROI) analyses were then performed in 24 different brain areas using brain registration and analysis of SPECT studies (BRASS; Nuclear Diagnostics AB, Stockholm (SE)) on both SPECT and DSC-MRI. Results: Voxel-based correlation between coregistered SPECT and DSC-MR showed a high correlation, with a mean correlation coefficient of 0.94. ROI analyses of 24 regions showed significant differences between the control group and AD patients in 10 regions using SPECT and five regions in DSC-MR. Conclusion: SPECT remains superior to DSC-MRI in differentiating normal from pathological perfusion, and DSC-MRI could not replace SPECT in the diagnosis of patients with Alzheimer disease

  12. Volume changes of whole brain gray matter in pediatric patients with Tourette syndrome: evidence from voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yue; Peng Yun; Gao Peiyi; Nie Binbin; Lu Chuankai; Zhang Liping; Ji Zhiying; Yin Guangheng; Yu Tong; Shan Baoci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the related abnormalities of gray matter in pediatric patients with Tourette syndrome (TS) by using the optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Three dimensional T 1 WI was acquired in 31 TS children (28 boys, 3 girts, mean age 8 years, range 4-15 years) and 50 age- and sex-matched controls on a 1.5 Tesla Philips scanner. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using a version of VBM 2 in SPM 2. The whole brain gray matter volume was compared between the study and control group by using t-test. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used for analyzing the correlation between the change of grey matter volume within each brain region (mm 3 ) and YGTSS score and course of disease of TS patients. Statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS 13.0. Results: Using VBM, significant increases in gray matter volumes in left superior parietal lobule, right cerebellar hemisphere and left parahippocampal gyrus were detected in TS patients, and the volume changes were 4059, 2126 and 84 mm 3 (t=3.93, 3.71, 3.58, P<0.05) respectively. Compared to the control group, decreased grey matter volumes were found in medulla and left pons, and the volume changes were 213 and 117 mm 3 (t=3.53, 3.48, P<0.05)respectively. Tic severity was not correlated with any volume changes of gray matter in brain (P>0.05, a small volume correction, KE ≥ 10 voxel). Tic course was negatively correlated with the gray matter volume of left parahippocampal gyrus (Beta =-0.391, P=0.039). Conclusions: Using VBM technique, the gray matter abnormalities can be revealed in TS patients without obvious lesions on conventional MR imaging. The increasing volume of temporal and parietal lobes and cerebellar may be an adaptive anatomical change in response to experiential demand. The gray matter volume of the parahippocampal gyrus may be used as one potential objective index for evaluating the prognosis of TS. (authors)

  13. White Matter Abnormalities in Early-Onset Schizophrenia: A Voxel-Based Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumra, Sanjiv; Ashtari, Manzar; Cervellione, Kelly L.; Henderson, Inika; Kester, Hana; Roofeh, David; Wu, Jinghui; Clarke, Tana; Thaden, Emily; Kane, John M.; Rhinewine, Joseph; Lencz, Todd; Diamond, Alan; Ardekani, Babak A.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate abnormalities in the structural integrity of brain white matter as suggested by diffusion tensor imaging in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (onset of psychosis by age 18). Method: Twenty-six patients with schizophrenia and 34 age- and gender-matched healthy volunteers received diffusion tensor imaging and…

  14. A voxel-based morphometry study comparing problem gamblers, alcohol abusers, and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Holst, R.J.; de Ruiter, M.B.; van den Brink, W.; Veltman, D.J.; Goudriaan, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with smaller grey matter volumes in cortical and subcortical brain regions which are related to cognitive impairments often found in these disorders. Similar cognitive impairments have been found in patients suffering from problem gambling

  15. Neural Correlates of Post-Conventional Moral Reasoning: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    OpenAIRE

    Prehn, Kristin; Korczykowski, Marc; Rao, Hengyi; Fang, Zhuo; Detre, John A.; Robertson, Diana C.

    2015-01-01

    Going back to Kohlberg, moral development research affirms that people progress through different stages of moral reasoning as cognitive abilities mature. Individuals at a lower level of moral reasoning judge moral issues mainly based on self-interest (personal interests schema) or based on adherence to laws and rules (maintaining norms schema), whereas individuals at the post-conventional level judge moral issues based on deeper principles and shared ideals. However, the extent to which mora...

  16. Relationship between aging and T1relaxation time in deep gray matter: A voxel-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, Gosuke; Okada, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tsutomu; Murata, Katsutoshi; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-09-01

    To investigate age-related changes in T 1 relaxation time in deep gray matter structures in healthy volunteers using magnetization-prepared 2 rapid acquisition gradient echoes (MP2RAGE). In all, 70 healthy volunteers (aged 20-76, mean age 42.6 years) were scanned at 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A MP2RAGE sequence was employed to quantify T 1 relaxation times. After the spatial normalization of T 1 maps with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using the exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm, voxel-based regression analysis was conducted. In addition, linear and quadratic regression analyses of regions of interest (ROIs) were also performed. With aging, voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant T 1 value decreases in the ventral-inferior putamen, nucleus accumbens, and amygdala, whereas T 1 values significantly increased in the thalamus and white matter as well (P VBA result. T 1 values in the thalamus (P < 0.0001), substantia nigra (P = 0.0003), and globus pallidus (P < 0.0001) had a best fit to quadratic curves, with the minimum T 1 values observed between 30 and 50 years of age. Age-related changes in T 1 relaxation time vary by location in deep gray matter. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 2 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:724-731. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  17. Voxel-based analysis of Alzheimer's disease PET imaging using a triplet of radiotracers: PIB, FDDNP, and FDG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jonghan; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Seog Ju; Kim, So-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Kim, Young-Bo

    2010-08-15

    Beta amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and impaired glucose metabolism are among the most prevalent pathological characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, separate visualization of these three AD-related pathologies in living humans has not been conducted. Here, we show that positron emission tomography (PET) imaging using the three radiotracers (11)C-Pittsburgh compound B (PIB), 2-(1-{6-[(2-(18)F-fluoroethyl)(methyl)amino]-2-naphthyl}ethylidene) malononitrile (FDDNP), and 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG), in the same subjects, with and without AD, can provide valuable information on the pathological patterns of the distribution of tracers for amyloid plaque, neurofibrillary tangle, and glucose hypometabolism in AD. Voxel-based analysis of PIB-PET in patients with AD compared with normal control subjects showed that patients with AD have highly significant PIB retention in brain regions known to have high amyloid plaque deposition (e.g., frontal, parietal, temporal, and posterior cingulate/precuneus cortices). In contrast, voxel-based analysis of FDDNP-PET showed significantly high FDDNP binding in some brain regions known to have high tangle accumulation in patients with AD compared with age-matched normal subjects (e.g., entorhinal cortex, inferior temporal gyrus, and secondary visual cortex). In addition, because FDDNP binds both plaques and tangles but PIB binds plaques specifically, we examined subtracted PET data (FDDNP minus PIB) acquired from the same patients with AD using an SPM analysis. We found that the hippocampal formation was the most significant brain region in the voxel mapping of FDDNP minus PIB in the same patients with AD. Voxel-based analysis of FDG-PET in the same subjects revealed that brain regions with glucose hypometabolism in patients with AD overlap with regions of high PIB binding. In conclusion, PET imaging using these three radiotracers in the same subjects may contribute toward developing and testing disease

  18. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmund, Jens Morgenthaler; Kjer, Hans Martin; Van Leemput, Koen

    2014-01-01

    including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT...... receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation...... significantly better than the threshold and Bayesian segmentation methods (excluding spatial information). All methods agreed significantly better with CT than a reference water MRI comparison. The mean dosimetric deviation for photons and protons compared to the CT was about 2% and highest in the gradient dose...

  19. Voxel-based comparison of whole brain gray matter of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease with normal aging volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Sheng; Wu Hongkun; Xiao Jiangxi; Wang Yinhua; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect gray matter abnormalities of whole brain in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Thirteen patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and sixteen normal aging volunteers underwent 3D SPGR scanning. For every subject, data was transferred to PC to be normalized, segmented and smoothed using SPM99. Non-dependent samples T-tests were conducted to compare gray matter' density voxel to voxel between the two groups. Results Significant reductions in gray matter density were found in the bilateral hippocampi and nucleus amygdalae, bilateral insulae, bilateral medial thalami, bilateral rectus gyri, right superior temporal gyms, right caudate nucleus, fight prefrontal lobe, right basal forebrain and portions of right occipital lobe. Conclusion: VBM reveals significant gray matter' reductions of numeral cortices in mild Alzheimer's disease. It can be a useful method to evaluate the anatomical changes in the progress of the disease. (authors)

  20. Comparison of classification methods for voxel-based prediction of acute ischemic stroke outcome following intra-arterial intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Anthony J.; Siemonsen, Susanne; Flottmann, Fabian; Fiehler, Jens; Forkert, Nils D.

    2017-03-01

    Voxel-based tissue outcome prediction in acute ischemic stroke patients is highly relevant for both clinical routine and research. Previous research has shown that features extracted from baseline multi-parametric MRI datasets have a high predictive value and can be used for the training of classifiers, which can generate tissue outcome predictions for both intravenous and conservative treatments. However, with the recent advent and popularization of intra-arterial thrombectomy treatment, novel research specifically addressing the utility of predictive classi- fiers for thrombectomy intervention is necessary for a holistic understanding of current stroke treatment options. The aim of this work was to develop three clinically viable tissue outcome prediction models using approximate nearest-neighbor, generalized linear model, and random decision forest approaches and to evaluate the accuracy of predicting tissue outcome after intra-arterial treatment. Therefore, the three machine learning models were trained, evaluated, and compared using datasets of 42 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with intra-arterial thrombectomy. Classifier training utilized eight voxel-based features extracted from baseline MRI datasets and five global features. Evaluation of classifier-based predictions was performed via comparison to the known tissue outcome, which was determined in follow-up imaging, using the Dice coefficient and leave-on-patient-out cross validation. The random decision forest prediction model led to the best tissue outcome predictions with a mean Dice coefficient of 0.37. The approximate nearest-neighbor and generalized linear model performed equally suboptimally with average Dice coefficients of 0.28 and 0.27 respectively, suggesting that both non-linearity and machine learning are desirable properties of a classifier well-suited to the intra-arterial tissue outcome prediction problem.

  1. Gray and white matter alterations in early HIV-infected patients: Combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Liu, Zhenyu; Liu, Jiaojiao; Tang, Zhenchao; Li, Hongjun; Tian, Jie

    2016-06-01

    To investigate both the gray matter (GM) and whiter matter (WM) alterations in a homogeneous cohort of early HIV-infected patients by combining voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Twenty-six HIV and 26 control subjects enrolled in this study with 3D T1 and diffusion-tensor imaging acquired on a 3.0T Siemens scanner. Group differences in regional GM were assessed using VBM analysis, while differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and relative anisotropy (RD) of WM were evaluated using TBSS analysis. After that, interactions between GM changes and white matter alterations were investigated by using a correlation analysis. The HIV-infected patients displayed decreased GM volume, mainly located in the bilateral frontal cortices, bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, and left supplementary motor area (P 0.05). Our results indicate that structural brain alterations occurred early in HIV-infected patients. The current study may shed further light on the potential brain effects of HIV. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016;43:1474-1483. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia: The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tol, Marie-José; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base in morphological abnormalities. Structurally, AVHs have been frequently linked to abnormal morphology of the superior temporal gyrus (STG), but only a few studies investigated the relation of hallucination presence with both whole-brain gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) morphometry. Using a unified voxel-based morphometry-DARTEL approach, we investigated correlates of AVH presence in 51 schizophrenia patients (20 non-hallucinating [SZ -], 31 hallucinating [SZ +]), and included 51 age and sex matched healthy participants. Effects are reported at p gyrus, and higher WM volume of the left postcentral and superior parietal lobule than controls. Finally, volume of the putamen was lower in SZ + compared to SZ -. No effects on corpus callosum morphometry were observed. Delusion severity, general positive and negative symptomatology illness duration, and medication status could not explain the results. Results suggest that STG GM abnormalities underlie the general susceptibility to experience psychotic symptoms and that additional abnormalities in a network of medial temporal, ventrolateral, putaminal, and parietal regions related to verbal memory and speech production may specifically increase the likelihood of experiencing AVH. Future studies should clarify the meaning of morphometry abnormalities for functional interregional communication.

  3. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis of regional grey and white matter volume abnormalities within the speech production network of children who stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Deryk S.; Gracco, Vincent L.; Brettschneider, Jane; Kroll, Robert M.; De Nil, Luc F.

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that neuroanatomical differences exist between adults who stutter and their fluently speaking peers. Specifically, adults who stutter have been found to have more grey matter volume (GMV) in speech relevant regions including inferior frontal gyrus, insula and superior temporal gyrus (Beal et al., 2007; Song et al., 2007). Despite stuttering having its onset in childhood only one study has investigated the neuroanatomical differences between children who do and do not stutter. Chang et al. (2008) reported children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and middle temporal gyrus relative to fluently speaking children. Thus it appears that children who stutter present with unique neuroanatomical abnormalities as compared to those of adults who stutter. In order to better understand the neuroanatomical correlates of stuttering earlier in its development, near the time of onset, we used voxel-based morphometry to examine volumetric differences between 11 children who stutter and 11 fluent children. Children who stutter had less GMV in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left putamen but more GMV in right Rolandic operculum and superior temporal gyrus relative to fluent children. Children who stutter also had less white matter volume bilaterally in the forceps minor of the corpus callosum. We discuss our findings of widespread anatomic abnormalities throughout the cortical network for speech motor control within the context of the speech motor skill limitations identified in people who stutter (Namasivayam and van Lieshout, 2008; Smits-Bandstra et al., 2006). PMID:23140891

  4. A comparison of gray and white matter density in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies using voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji E; Park, Bosuk; Song, Sook K; Sohn, Young H; Park, Hae-Jeong; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2010-01-15

    Despite clinical and neuropsychological similarities between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), recent studies have demonstrated that structural and pathological changes are more severe in DLB than in PDD. We used voxel-based morphometry using a 3-T MRI scanner to compare gray and white matter densities in 20 patients with probable PDD and 18 patients with probable DLB, who had similar overall severity of dementia and similar demographic characteristics. The gray matter density was significantly decreased in the left occipital, parietal, and striatal areas in patients with DLB compared with patients with PDD. The white matter density was significantly decreased in bilateral occipital and left occipito-parietal areas in patients with DLB compared with those with PDD. The degree of white and gray matter atrophy was similar in patients with DLB; in contrast, there was markedly less atrophy in the white matter than in the gray matter in patients with PDD. On analyzing the change of WM density relative to that of GM density in patients with DLB compared to those with PDD, the area of WM atrophy in the occipital areas was more extensive than that of GM atrophy. Our data demonstrate that atrophy of both gray and white matter was more severe in patients with DLB and that white matter atrophy relative to gray matter atrophy was less severe in patients with PDD. These data may reflect a difference in the underlying nature of PDD and DLB.

  5. Structural changes in Parkinson's disease. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses based on 123I-MIBG uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Somehara, Ryo; Kamei, Ryotaro; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may exhibit symptoms of sympathetic dysfunction that can be measured using 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. We investigated the relationship between microstructural brain changes and 123 I-MIBG uptake in patients with PD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses. This retrospective study included 24 patients with PD who underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy. They were divided into two groups: 12 MIBG-positive and 12 MIBG-negative cases (10 men and 14 women; age range: 60-81 years, corrected for gender and age). The heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio was calculated on anterior planar 123 I-MIBG images obtained 4 h post-injection. VBM and DTI were performed to detect structural differences between these two groups. Patients with low H/M ratio had significantly reduced brain volume at the right inferior frontal gyrus (uncorrected p < 0.0001, K > 90). Patients with low H/M ratios also exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy than those with high H/M ratios (p < 0.05) at the left anterior thalamic radiation, the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the left uncinate fasciculus. VBM and DTI may reveal microstructural changes related to the degree of 123 I-MIBG uptake in patients with PD. (orig.)

  6. A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analysis of asymptomatic Parkinson's disease-related G2019S LRRK2 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Avner; Artzi, Moran; Mirelman, Anat; Jacob, Yael; Helmich, Rick C; van Nuenen, Bart F L; Gurevich, Tanya; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Marder, Karen; Bressman, Susan; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Hendler, Talma; Giladi, Nir; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2014-05-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease have reduced gray matter volume and fractional anisotropy in both cortical and sub-cortical structures, yet changes in the pre-motor phase of the disease are unknown. A comprehensive imaging study using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging tract-based spatial statistics analysis was performed on 64 Ashkenazi Jewish asymptomatic first degree relatives of patients with Parkinson's disease (30 mutation carriers), who carry the G2019S mutation in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene. No between-group differences in gray matter volume could be noted in either whole-brain or volume-of-interest analysis. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis did not identify group differences in white matter areas, and volume-of-interest analysis identified no differences in diffusivity parameters in Parkinson's disease-related structures. G2019S carriers do not manifest changes in gray matter volume or diffusivity parameters in Parkinson's disease-related structures prior to the appearance of motor symptoms. © 2014 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  7. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor MR imaging of the brain in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, L; Preibisch, C; Hattingen, E; Bartels, M; Lehrnbecher, T; Dewitz, R; Zanella, F; Good, C; Lanfermann, H; DuMesnil, R; Kieslich, M

    2008-11-01

    The aims of this study were to detect morphological changes in neuroanatomical components in adult survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) can be used to detect subtle structural changes in brain morphology and via analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) can non-invasively probe white matter (WM) integrity. We used VBM and DTI to examine 20 long-term survivors of ALL and 21 healthy matched controls. Ten ALL survivors received chemotherapy and irradiation; ten survivors received chemotherapy alone during childhood. Imaging was performed on a 3.0-T MRI. For VBM, group comparisons of segmented T1-weighted grey matter (GM) and WM images from controls and ALL survivors were performed separately for patients who received chemotherapy alone and who received chemotherapy and irradiation. For DTI, FA in WM was compared for the same groups. Survivors of childhood ALL who underwent cranial irradiation during childhood had smaller WM volumes and reduced GM concentration within the caudate nucleus and thalamus. The FA in WM was reduced in adult survivors of ALL but the effect was more severe after combined treatment with irradiation and chemotherapy. Our results indicate that DTI and VBM can reveal persistent long-term WM and caudate changes in children after ALL treatment, even without T2 changes in conventional imaging.

  8. The efficacy of a voxel-based morphometry on the analysis of imaging in schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakeda, Shingo; Korogi, Yukunori

    2010-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) done by means of MRI have provided new insights into the neuroanatomical basis for subjects with several conditions. Recently, VBM has been applied to investigate not only regional volumetric changes but also voxel-wise maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aim of this article is to review the recent work using VBM technique in particular focusing on schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In patients with schizophrenia, VBM approach detects the structural brain abnormalities that appear normal on conventional MRI. Moreover, this technique also has the potential to emerge as a useful clinical tool for early detection and monitoring of disease progression and treatment response in patients with schizophrenia or AD/MCI. In TLE, VBM approach may help elucidate some unresolved important research questions such as how recurrent temporal lobe seizures affect hippocampal and extrahippocampal morphology. Thus, in the future, large cohort studies to monitor whole brain changes on a VBM basis will lead to a further understanding of the neuropathology of several conditions. (orig.)

  9. Structural changes in Parkinson's disease: voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses based on 123I-MIBG uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Somehara, Ryo; Kamei, Ryotaro; Baba, Shingo; Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may exhibit symptoms of sympathetic dysfunction that can be measured using 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. We investigated the relationship between microstructural brain changes and 123 I-MIBG uptake in patients with PD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses. This retrospective study included 24 patients with PD who underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy. They were divided into two groups: 12 MIBG-positive and 12 MIBG-negative cases (10 men and 14 women; age range: 60-81 years, corrected for gender and age). The heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio was calculated on anterior planar 123 I-MIBG images obtained 4 h post-injection. VBM and DTI were performed to detect structural differences between these two groups. Patients with low H/M ratio had significantly reduced brain volume at the right inferior frontal gyrus (uncorrected p  90). Patients with low H/M ratios also exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy than those with high H/M ratios (p based morphometry can detect grey matter changes in Parkinson's disease. • Diffusion tensor imaging can detect white matter changes in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Structural changes in Parkinson's disease. Voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging analyses based on {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Kazufumi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Togao, Osamu; Yamashita, Koji; Somehara, Ryo; Kamei, Ryotaro; Baba, Shingo; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamaguchi, Hiroo; Kira, Jun-ichi [Kyushu University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may exhibit symptoms of sympathetic dysfunction that can be measured using {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) myocardial scintigraphy. We investigated the relationship between microstructural brain changes and {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake in patients with PD using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analyses. This retrospective study included 24 patients with PD who underwent 3 T magnetic resonance imaging and {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy. They were divided into two groups: 12 MIBG-positive and 12 MIBG-negative cases (10 men and 14 women; age range: 60-81 years, corrected for gender and age). The heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio was calculated on anterior planar {sup 123}I-MIBG images obtained 4 h post-injection. VBM and DTI were performed to detect structural differences between these two groups. Patients with low H/M ratio had significantly reduced brain volume at the right inferior frontal gyrus (uncorrected p < 0.0001, K > 90). Patients with low H/M ratios also exhibited significantly lower fractional anisotropy than those with high H/M ratios (p < 0.05) at the left anterior thalamic radiation, the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus, and the left uncinate fasciculus. VBM and DTI may reveal microstructural changes related to the degree of {sup 123}I-MIBG uptake in patients with PD. (orig.)

  11. A Voxel-Based Method for Automated Identification and Morphological Parameters Estimation of Individual Street Trees from Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As an important component of urban vegetation, street trees play an important role in maintenance of environmental quality, aesthetic beauty of urban landscape, and social service for inhabitants. Acquiring accurate and up-to-date inventory information for street trees is required for urban horticultural planning, and municipal urban forest management. This paper presents a new Voxel-based Marked Neighborhood Searching (VMNS method for efficiently identifying street trees and deriving their morphological parameters from Mobile Laser Scanning (MLS point cloud data. The VMNS method consists of six technical components: voxelization, calculating values of voxels, searching and marking neighborhoods, extracting potential trees, deriving morphological parameters, and eliminating pole-like objects other than trees. The method is validated and evaluated through two case studies. The evaluation results show that the completeness and correctness of our method for street tree detection are over 98%. The derived morphological parameters, including tree height, crown diameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, and crown base height (CBH, are in a good agreement with the field measurements. Our method provides an effective tool for extracting various morphological parameters for individual street trees from MLS point cloud data.

  12. Accuracy and reproducibility of voxel based superimposition of cone beam computed tomography models on the anterior cranial base and the zygomatic arches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nada, R.M.; Maal, T.J.J.; Breuning, K.H.; Berge, S.J.; Mostafa, Y.A.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Superimposition of serial Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) scans has become a valuable tool for three dimensional (3D) assessment of treatment effects and stability. Voxel based image registration is a newly developed semi-automated technique for superimposition and comparison of two CBCT scans.

  13. A voxel-based investigation for MRI-only radiotherapy of the brain using ultra short echo times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmund, Jens M.; Kjer, Hans M.; Van Leemput, Koen; Hansen, Rasmus H.; Andersen, Jon AL; Andreasen, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Radiotherapy (RT) based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the only modality, so-called MRI-only RT, would remove the systematic registration error between MR and computed tomography (CT), and provide co-registered MRI for assessment of treatment response and adaptive RT. Electron densities, however, need to be assigned to the MRI images for dose calculation and patient setup based on digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Here, we investigate the geometric and dosimetric performance for a number of popular voxel-based methods to generate a so-called pseudo CT (pCT). Five patients receiving cranial irradiation, each containing a co-registered MRI and CT scan, were included. An ultra short echo time MRI sequence for bone visualization was used. Six methods were investigated for three popular types of voxel-based approaches; (1) threshold-based segmentation, (2) Bayesian segmentation and (3) statistical regression. Each approach contained two methods. Approach 1 used bulk density assignment of MRI voxels into air, soft tissue and bone based on logical masks and the transverse relaxation time T2 of the bone. Approach 2 used similar bulk density assignments with Bayesian statistics including or excluding additional spatial information. Approach 3 used a statistical regression correlating MRI voxels with their corresponding CT voxels. A similar photon and proton treatment plan was generated for a target positioned between the nasal cavity and the brainstem for all patients. The CT agreement with the pCT of each method was quantified and compared with the other methods geometrically and dosimetrically using both a number of reported metrics and introducing some novel metrics. The best geometrical agreement with CT was obtained with the statistical regression methods which performed significantly better than the threshold and Bayesian segmentation methods (excluding spatial information). All methods agreed significantly better with CT than a reference water MRI

  14. Multimodal Voxel-Based Meta-Analysis of White Matter Abnormalities in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radua, J.; Grau, M.; van den Heuvel, O.A.; Thiebaut de Schotten, M.; Stein, D.J.; Canales-Rodriguez, E.J.; Catani, M.; Mataix-Cols, D.

    2014-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities have long been suspected in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but the available evidence has been inconsistent. We conducted the first multimodal meta-analysis of WM volume (WMV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) studies in OCD. All voxel-wise studies comparing WMV or

  15. Neuroimaging support for discrete neural correlates of basic emotions: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vytal, Katherine; Hamann, Stephan

    2010-12-01

    What is the basic structure of emotional experience and how is it represented in the human brain? One highly influential theory, discrete basic emotions, proposes a limited set of basic emotions such as happiness and fear, which are characterized by unique physiological and neural profiles. Although many studies using diverse methods have linked particular brain structures with specific basic emotions, evidence from individual neuroimaging studies and from neuroimaging meta-analyses has been inconclusive regarding whether basic emotions are associated with both consistent and discriminable regional brain activations. We revisited this question, using activation likelihood estimation (ALE), which allows spatially sensitive, voxelwise statistical comparison of results from multiple studies. In addition, we examined substantially more studies than previous meta-analyses. The ALE meta-analysis yielded results consistent with basic emotion theory. Each of the emotions examined (fear, anger, disgust, sadness, and happiness) was characterized by consistent neural correlates across studies, as defined by reliable correlations with regional brain activations. In addition, the activation patterns associated with each emotion were discrete (discriminable from the other emotions in pairwise contrasts) and overlapped substantially with structure-function correspondences identified using other approaches, providing converging evidence that discrete basic emotions have consistent and discriminable neural correlates. Complementing prior studies that have demonstrated neural correlates for the affective dimensions of arousal and valence, the current meta-analysis results indicate that the key elements of basic emotion views are reflected in neural correlates identified by neuroimaging studies.

  16. Identification of changes in kinematics and electromyographic parameters during dual-task gait: a comparative study between young and elderly female subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Zamfolini Hallal

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction : Falls during gait are one of the leading causes of death and injuries in elderly adults. Objective : This study aimed to compare the performance of young (YG and elderly (EG adults during dual-task gait (using a traffic light simulator according to kinematics and electromyographic parameters. Materials and methods : 17 young and 18 elderly physically fit female subjects participated in this study. The volunteers walked on a treadmill under two different conditions: normal gait (M1 and dual-task gait (M2. We recorded EMG signals from the rectus femoris (RF, vastus medialis (VM, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris (BF, tibialis anterior (TA, gastrocnemius lateralis (GL and soleus (SO. The following kinematic data were obtained: step length, step time and self-selected velocity. Data analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's, Mann-Whitney, T-student tests and T-student for independent samples. The level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Results : For both groups, there was greater muscle activation of the RF, VM, VL, BF and SO during M2 than during M1. The YG showed lower muscle activation of the RF, VM, BF and SO during M2 when compared to EG. The EG had smaller step length than the YG. The step length values detected during M1 were higher than the ones collected during M2. During M2, the YG showed higher step time compared to the EG. Elderly subjects walked at a lower self-selected velocity than young subjects. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that dual-task gait modify the neuromuscular behavior in elderly subjects, increasing the risk of falls.

  17. Comparison of the International Committee of the Red Cross foot with the solid ankle cushion heel foot during gait: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcot, Katia; Sagawa, Yoshimasa; Lacraz, Alain; Lenoir, Jean; Assal, Mathieu; Armand, Stéphane

    2013-08-01

    To compare the well-recognized solid ankle cushion heel (SACH) foot with the prosthetic foot developed by the International Committee of the Red Cross (CR Equipements SACH) during gait. Double-blind study was conducted to compare the influence on the biomechanics of gait of the CR Equipements SACH foot and the SACH foot. University hospital research center. Participants with unilateral transtibial amputation (N=15) were included. Three-dimensional motion analysis system and 2 forceplates were used to capture body motion and ground reaction forces during gait at a self-selected speed and at 1.2m/s. Nonparametric Wilcoxon matched-pairs tests were used to compare the 2 prosthetic feet with respect to their spatiotemporal (gait velocity, stride length, and percentage of stance phase), kinematic (range and peak angles of the pelvis, hip, knee, and ankle), and kinetic (peak moment and power of the hip, knee, and ankle) parameters. Compared with the SACH foot, the CR Equipements SACH foot demonstrated a significantly greater stance phase symmetry ratio (SACH: 94% vs CR Equipements SACH: 97%), a more extensive ankle range of motion in the sagittal plane (SACH: 7° vs CR Equipements SACH: 12°), a greater maximal dorsiflexion angle during the terminal stance phase (SACH: 10° vs CR Equipements SACH: 13°), and a higher ankle power (SACH: .31W/kg vs CR Equipements SACH: .40W/kg). No significant difference was found for the examined knee, hip, and pelvis parameters. The CR Equipements SACH foot provides more symmetry and improves ankle kinematics and kinetics in the sagittal plane compared with the SACH foot. This study suggests that individuals using the CR Equipements SACH foot improve their gait biomechanics compared when using the SACH foot. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of treadmill training with partial body weight support and the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation method on hemiparetic gait: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, T; Britto, H; Oliveira, D; Silva, E; Galvão, E; Lindquist, A

    2013-08-01

    Gait disturbance is common after stroke; however, there is no consensus regarding the optimal therapeutic rehabilitation of hemiparetic gait. To compare the effects of the treadmill training with partial body-weight support (TPBWS) and Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) method on gait of subjects with chronic stroke. Randomized clinical trial, comparing two experimental groups (comparative study). Laboratory for Human Movement Analysis of UFRN. Twenty-three subjects, with a mean age of 56.7±8.0 years and a mean time since the onset of the stroke of 27.7±20.3 months, able to walk with personal assistance or assistive devices. Two experimental groups underwent gait training based on PNF method (N.=11) or using the TPBWS (N.=12), for twelve sessions. Evaluation of motor function (using the STREAM and motor FIM), and kinematic gait analysis were carried out before and after the interventions. Increases in the STREAM scores (F=49.189, P<0.001) and in motor FIM scores (F=7.093, P=0.016), as well as improvement in symmetry ratio-swing time of the paretic leg/swing time of non-paretic leg--(F=7.729, P=0.012), were observed for both groups. Speed, stride length and double-support time showed no change after training. Differences between groups were observed only for the maximum ankle dorsiflexion over the swing phase (F=6.046, P=0.024), which showed an increase for the PNF group. Other angular parameters remain unchanged. Improvement in motor function and in gait symmetry was observed for both groups, suggesting similarity of interventions. However, the sample size should be carefully considered in generalizing the results to other populations. The results showed some equivalence between these two approaches with regard to motor recovery, functionality and temporal symmetry of hemiparetic gait, suggesting that the cost-effectiveness of each treatment may have a important role in this choice.

  19. Investigation of the alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation with the optimal voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xinyu; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang Yuanzhe; Jiang Xuexiang; Jin Chunhua; Bai Zhenhua; Yi Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect brain structural difference between children with unexplained mental retardation and children with typically normal development. Methods: The high-resolution magnetic MR imaging were obtained from 21 children with unexplained mental retardation and 30 age-matched control children without intellectual disabilities. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures were applied to compare differences of gray matter volume between the two groups. The total and regional gray matter volume were compared between the two groups with independent t test. Meanwhile, correlation was conducted to analyze the relationship between the total gray matter volume and intelligence quotient (IQ) with partial correlation test. Results: The total gray matter volume was significantly increased in the mental retardation children (1.012±0.079) × 10 6 mm 3 ] in relative to the controls [(0.956±0.059)×10 6 mm 3 , t=-2.80, P 0.05). Conclusions: VBM would detect the gray matter abnormalities that were not founded in routine MR scanning. The increase of gray matter volume in the frontal-thalamus network might indicate the delayed maturation of the brain development. This might be one of the causations of' mental retardation in children. (authors)

  20. Assessing the clinical outcome of Vim radiosurgery with voxel-based morphometry: visual areas are linked with tremor arrest!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuleasca, Constantin; Witjas, Tatiana; Najdenovska, Elena; Verger, Antoine; Girard, Nadine; Champoudry, Jerome; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Van de Ville, Dimitri; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach; Levivier, Marc; Guedj, Eric; Régis, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Radiosurgery (RS) is an alternative to open standard stereotactic procedures (deep-brain stimulation or radiofrequency thalamotomy) for drug-resistant essential tremor (ET), aiming at the same target (ventro-intermediate nucleus, Vim). We investigated the Vim RS outcome using voxel-based morphometry by evaluating the interaction between clinical response and time. Thirty-eight patients with right-sided ET benefited from left unilateral Vim RS. Targeting was performed using 130 Gy and a single 4-mm collimator. Neurological and neuroimaging assessment was completed at baseline and 1 year. Clinical responders were considered those with at least 50% improvement in tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH). Interaction between clinical response and time showed the left temporal pole and occipital cortex (Brodmann area 19, including V4, V5 and the parahippocampal place area) as statistically significant. A decrease in gray matter density (GMD) 1 year after Vim RS correlated with higher TSTH improvement (Spearman = 0.01) for both anatomical areas. Higher baseline GMD within the left temporal pole correlated with better TSTH improvement (Spearman = 0.004). Statistically significant structural changes in the relationship to clinical response after Vim RS are present in remote areas, advocating a distant neurobiological effect. The former regions are mainly involved in locomotor monitoring toward the local and distant environment, suggesting the recruiting requirement in targeting of the specific visuomotor networks.

  1. Association between lesion location and language function in adult glioma using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Pia; Leu, Kevin; Harris, Robert J; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Lai, Albert; Nghiemphu, Phioanh L; Pope, Whitney B; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Ellingson, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Management of language difficulties is an important aspect of clinical care for glioma patients, and accurately identifying the possible language deficits in patients based on lesion location would be beneficial to clinicians. To that end, we examined the relationship between lesion presence and language performance on tests of receptive language and expressive language using a highly specific voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) approach in glioma patients. 98 adults with primary glioma, who were pre-surgical candidates, were administered seven neurocognitive tests within the domains of receptive language and expressive language. The association between language performance and lesion presence was examined using VLSM. Statistical parametric maps were created for each test, and composite maps for both receptive language and expressive language were created to display the significant voxels common to all tests within these language domains. We identified clusters of voxels with a significant relationship between lesion presence and language performance. All tasks were associated with several white matter pathways. The receptive language tasks were additionally all associated with regions primarily within the lateral temporal lobe and medial temporal lobe. In contrast, the expressive language tasks shared little overlap, despite each task being independently associated with large anatomic areas. Our findings identify the key anatomic structures involved in language functioning in adult glioma patients using an innovative lesion analysis technique and suggest that expressive language abilities may be more task-dependent and distributed than receptive language abilities.

  2. Neural bases of antisocial behavior: a voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yuta; Inokuchi, Ryota; Nakao, Tomohiro; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2014-08-01

    Individuals with antisocial behavior place a great physical and economic burden on society. Deficits in emotional processing have been recognized as a fundamental cause of antisocial behavior. Emerging evidence also highlights a significant contribution of attention allocation deficits to such behavior. A comprehensive literature search identified 12 studies that were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, which compared 291 individuals with antisocial problems and 247 controls. Signed Differential Mapping revealed that compared with controls, gray matter volume (GMV) in subjects with antisocial behavior was reduced in the right lentiform nucleus (P antisocial behavior. Previous studies have suggested an FPC role in attention allocation during emotional processing. Therefore, GMV deviations in this area may constitute a neural basis of deficits in attention allocation linked with antisocial behavior. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Voxel-based measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy in layered tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwayama, Masatsugu

    2018-03-01

    We quantitatively investigated the measurement sensitivity of spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) across six tissue models: cerebral tissue, a small animal brain, the forehead of a fetus, an adult brain, forearm muscle, and thigh muscle. The optical path length in the voxel of the model was analyzed using Monte Carlo simulations. It was found that the measurement sensitivity can be represented as the product of the change in the absorption coefficient and the difference in optical path length in two states with different source-detector distances. The results clarified the sensitivity ratio between the surface layer and the deep layer at each source-detector distance for each model and identified changes in the deep measurement area when one of the detectors was close to the light source. A comparison was made with the results from continuous-wave spectroscopy. The study also identified measurement challenges that arise when the surface layer is inhomogeneous. Findings on the measurement sensitivity of SRS at each voxel and in each layer can support the correct interpretation of measured values when near-infrared oximetry or functional near-infrared spectroscopy is used to investigate different tissue structures. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  4. Bilateral effects of unilateral cerebellar lesions as detected by voxel based morphometry and diffusion imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giusy Olivito

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the importance of cerebellar processing for cortical functions has been acknowledged and consensus was reached on the strict functional and structural cortico-cerebellar interrelations. From an anatomical point of view strictly contralateral interconnections link the cerebellum to the cerebral cortex mainly through the middle and superior cerebellar peduncle. Diffusion MRI (dMRI based tractography has already been applied to address cortico-cerebellar-cortical loops in healthy subjects and to detect diffusivity alteration patterns in patients with neurodegenerative pathologies of the cerebellum. In the present study we used dMRI-based tractography to determine the degree and pattern of pathological changes of cerebellar white matter microstructure in patients with focal cerebellar lesions. Diffusion imaging and high-resolution volumes were obtained in patients with left cerebellar lesions and in normal controls. Middle cerebellar peduncles and superior cerebellar peduncles were reconstructed by multi fiber diffusion tractography. From each tract, measures of microscopic damage were assessed, and despite the presence of unilateral lesions, bilateral diffusivity differences in white matter tracts were found comparing patients with normal controls. Consistently, bilateral alterations were also evidenced in specific brain regions linked to the cerebellum and involved in higher-level functions. This could be in line with the evidence that in the presence of unilateral cerebellar lesions, different cognitive functions can be affected and they are not strictly linked to the side of the cerebellar lesion.

  5. Voxel-based comparison of brain glucose metabolism between patients with Cushing's disease and healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms are common in patients with Cushing's disease (CD owing to elevated levels of glucocorticoids. Molecular neuroimaging methods may help to detect changes in the brain of patients with CD. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of brain metabolism and its association with serum cortisol level in CD. We compared brain metabolism, as measured using [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET, between 92 patients with CD and 118 normal subjects on a voxel-wise basis. Pearson correlation was performed to evaluate the association between cerebral FDG uptake and serum cortisol level in patients with CD. We demonstrated that certain brain regions in patients with CD showed significantly increased FDG uptake, including the basal ganglia, anteromedial temporal lobe, thalamus, precentral cortex, and cerebellum. The clusters that demonstrated significantly decreased uptake were mainly located in the medial and lateral frontal cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule, medial occipital cortex, and insular cortex. The metabolic rate of the majority of these regions was found to be significantly correlated with the serum cortisol level. Our findings may help to explain the underlying mechanisms of cognitive impairment and psychiatric symptoms in patients exposed to excessive glucocorticoids and evaluate the efficacy of treatments during follow-up.

  6. Analyzing functional, structural, and anatomical correlation of hemispheric language lateralization in healthy subjects using functional MRI, diffusion tensor imaging, and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jija S; Kumari, Sheela R; Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Thomas, Bejoy; Radhkrishnan, Ashalatha; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of diffusion fiber tractography (DFT) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for lateralizing language in comparison with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to noninvasively assess hemispheric language lateralization in normal healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the concordance of language lateralization obtained by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and VBM to fMRI, and thus to see whether there exists an anatomical correlate for language lateralization result obtained using fMRI. This is an advanced neuroimaging study conducted in normal healthy volunteers. Fifty-seven normal healthy subjects (39 males and 18 females; age range: 15-40 years) underwent language fMRI and 30 underwent direction DTI. fMRI language laterality index (LI), fiber tract asymmetry index (AI), and tract-based statistics of dorsal and ventral language pathways were calculated. The combined results were correlated with VBM-based volumetry of Heschl's gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), and insula for lateralization of language function. A linear regression analysis was done to study the correlation between fMRI, DTI, and VBM measurements. A good agreement was found between language fMRI LI and fiber tract AI, more specifically for arcuate fasciculus (ArcF) and inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The study demonstrated significant correlations (P based statistics, and PT and HG volumetry for determining language lateralization. A strong one-to-one correlation between fMRI, laterality index, DTI tractography measures, and VBM-based volumetry measures for determining language lateralization exists.

  7. In vivo quantitative whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging analysis of APP/PS1 transgenic mice using voxel-based and atlas-based methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Mu-Wei; Oishi, Kenichi; Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Zhu, Wen-Zhen; Lei, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been applied to characterize the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a mouse model, although little is known about whether these features are structure specific. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) and atlas-based analysis (ABA) are good complementary tools for whole-brain DTI analysis. The purpose of this study was to identify the spatial localization of disease-related pathology in an AD mouse model. VBA and ABA quantification were used for the whole-brain DTI analysis of nine APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Multiple scalar measurements, including fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR), were investigated to capture the various types of pathology. The accuracy of the image transformation applied for VBA and ABA was evaluated by comparing manual and atlas-based structure delineation using kappa statistics. Following the MR examination, the brains of the animals were analyzed for microscopy. Extensive anatomical alterations were identified in APP/PS1 mice, in both the gray matter areas (neocortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, claustrum, amygdala, and piriform cortex) and the white matter areas (corpus callosum/external capsule, cingulum, septum, internal capsule, fimbria, and optic tract), evidenced by an increase in FA or DA, or both, compared to WT mice (p 0.05). The histopathological changes in the gray matter areas were confirmed by microscopy studies. DTI did, however, demonstrate significant changes in white matter areas, where the difference was not apparent by qualitative observation of a single-slice histological specimen. This study demonstrated the structure-specific nature of pathological changes in APP/PS1 mouse, and also showed the feasibility of applying whole-brain analysis methods to the investigation of an AD mouse model. (orig.)

  8. Common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume alteration in major depression and bipolar disorder: evidence from voxel-based meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, T; Radua, J; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Abe, O; Adams, T M; Amico, F; Cheng, Y; Cole, J H; de Azevedo Marques Périco, C; Dickstein, D P; Farrow, T F D; Frodl, T; Wagner, G; Gotlib, I H; Gruber, O; Ham, B J; Job, D E; Kempton, M J; Kim, M J; Koolschijn, P C M P; Malhi, G S; Mataix-Cols, D; McIntosh, A M; Nugent, A C; O'Brien, J T; Pezzoli, S; Phillips, M L; Sachdev, P S; Salvadore, G; Selvaraj, S; Stanfield, A C; Thomas, A J; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J A; Veltman, D J; Young, A H; Fu, C H; Cleare, A J; Arnone, D

    2017-10-01

    Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore, the extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to the nature of these changes. We report a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in MDD and BD. We identified studies published up to January 2015 that compared grey matter in MDD (50 data sets including 4101 individuals) and BD (36 data sets including 2407 individuals) using whole-brain VBM. We used statistical maps from the studies included where available and reported peak coordinates otherwise. Group comparisons and conjunction analyses identified regions in which the disorders showed common and distinct patterns of volumetric alteration. Both disorders were associated with lower grey-matter volume relative to healthy individuals in a number of areas. Conjunction analysis showed smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula. Group comparisons indicated that findings of smaller grey-matter volumes relative to controls in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus, along with cerebellar, temporal and parietal regions were more substantial in major depression. These results suggest that MDD and BD are characterised by both common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume changes. This combination of differences and similarities has the potential to inform the development of diagnostic biomarkers for these conditions.

  9. Temporal epilepsy lesions may be detected by the voxel-based quantitative analysis of brain FDG-PET images using an original block-matching normalization software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoine; Yagdigul, Yalcin; Van Der Gucht, Axel; Poussier, Sylvain; Guedj, Eric; Maillard, Louis; Malandain, Grégoire; Hossu, Gabriela; Fay, Renaud; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2016-05-01

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) provides useful voxel-by-voxel analyses of brain images from (18)F-fluorodesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) after an initial step of spatial normalization through an anatomical template model. In the setting of the preoperative workup of patients with temporal epilepsy, this study aimed at assessing a block-matching (BM) normalization method, where most transformations are computed through small blocks, a principle that minimizes artefacts and overcomes additional image-filtering. Brain FDG-PET images from 31 patients with well-characterised temporal lobe epilepsy and among whom 22 had common mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were retrospectively analysed using both BM and conventional SPM normalization methods and with PET images from age-adjusted controls. Different threshold p values corrected for cluster volume were considered (0.01, 0.005, and 0.001). The use of BM provided equivalent values to those of SPM with regard to the overall volumes of temporal and extra-temporal hypometabolism, as well as similar sensitivity for detecting the involved temporal lobe, reaching 87 and 94 % for SPM and BM, respectively, at a threshold p value of 0.01. However, the ability to more accurately localize brain lesions within the mesial portion of the temporal lobe was a little higher with BM than with SPM with respective sensitivities reaching 78 % for BM and 45 % for SPM (p < 0.05). BM normalization compares well with conventional SPM for the voxel-based quantitative analysis of the FDG-PET images from temporal epilepsy patients. Further studies in different population are needed to determine whether BM is truly an accurate alternative to SPM in this setting.

  10. Methods for the computation of templates from quantitative magnetic susceptibility maps (QSM): Toward improved atlas- and voxel-based analyses (VBA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanspach, Jannis; Dwyer, Michael G; Bergsland, Niels P; Feng, Xiang; Hagemeier, Jesper; Bertolino, Nicola; Polak, Paul; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Zivadinov, Robert; Schweser, Ferdinand

    2017-11-01

    To develop and assess a method for the creation of templates for voxel-based analysis (VBA) and atlas-based approaches using quantitative magnetic susceptibility mapping (QSM). We studied four strategies for the creation of magnetic susceptibility brain templates, derived as successive extensions of the conventional template generation (CONV) based on only T 1 -weighted (T 1 w) images. One method that used only T 1 w images involved a minor improvement of CONV (U-CONV). One method used only magnetic susceptibility maps as input for template generation (DIRECT), and the other two used a linear combination of susceptibility and T 1 w images (HYBRID) and an algorithm that directly used both image modalities (MULTI), respectively. The strategies were evaluated in a group of N = 10 healthy human subjects and semiquantitatively assessed by three experienced raters. Template quality was compared statistically via worth estimates (WEs) obtained with a log-linear Bradley-Terry model. The overall quality of the templates was better for strategies including both susceptibility and T 1 w contrast (MULTI: WE = 0.62; HYBRID: WE = 0.21), but the best method depended on the anatomical region of interest. While methods using only one modality resulted in lower WEs, lowest overall WEs were obtained when only T 1 w images were used (DIRECT: WE = 0.12; U-CONV: WE = 0.05). Template generation strategies that employ only magnetic susceptibility contrast or both magnetic susceptibility and T 1 w contrast produce templates with the highest quality. The optimal approach depends on the anatomical structures of interest. The established approach of using only T 1 w images (CONV) results in reduced image quality compared to all other approaches studied. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1474-1484. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. Magnetization transfer imaging identifies basal ganglia abnormalities in adult ADHD that are invisible to conventional T1 weighted voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Sethi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In childhood, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is reliably associated with reduced volume of the striatum. In contrast, striatal abnormalities are infrequently detected in voxel-based morphometry (VBM neuroimaging studies of adults with ADHD. This discrepancy has been suggested to reflect normalisation of striatal morphology with age and prolonged treatment of symptoms. If so, this would indicate that while striatal abnormalities are linked to symptom expression in childhood, they cannot explain the persistence of these symptoms in adulthood. However, this may not be case. Instead, we hypothesized that the lack of evidence for striatal abnormalities in adult ADHD may reflect poor sensitivity of typical (T1-weighted neuroimaging to detect subcortical differences. To address this, we acquired both magnetisation transfer (MT saturation maps optimised for subcortical contrast, and conventional T1-weighted images in 30 adults with ADHD and 30 age, IQ, gender and handedness-matched controls. Using VBM of both datasets, we demonstrate volumetric reductions within the left ventral striatum on MT that are not observed on identically pre-processed T1-weighted images from the same participants. Nevertheless, both techniques reported similar sensitivity to cortical abnormalities in the right inferior parietal lobe. Additionally, we show that differences in striatal iron may potentially explain this reduced sensitivity of T1-weighted images in adults. Together, these findings indicate that prior VBM studies reporting no abnormalities in striatal volume in adult ADHD might have been compromised by the methodological insensitivity of T1-weighted VBM to subcortical differences, and that structural abnormalities of the striatum in ADHD do indeed persist into adulthood.

  12. Reproducibility of automated simplified voxel-based analysis of PET amyloid ligand [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake using 30-min scanning data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aalto, Sargo [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Aabo Akademi University, Department of Psychology, Turku (Finland); University of Turku, Turku PET Centre, P.O. Box 52, Turku (Finland); Scheinin, Noora M.; Naagren, Kjell; Rinne, Juha O. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Kemppainen, Nina M. [University of Turku and Turku University Hospital, Turku PET Centre, Turku (Finland); Turku University Hospital, Department of Neurology, Turku (Finland); Kailajaervi, Marita [University of Turku, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research Services Turku (CRST), Turku (Finland); GE Healthcare, Turku Imanet, Turku (Finland); Leinonen, Mika [4-Pharma Ltd, Turku (Finland); Scheinin, Mika [University of Turku, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Research Services Turku (CRST), Turku (Finland)

    2009-10-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with {sup 11}C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ([{sup 11}C]PIB) enables the quantitation of {beta}-amyloid accumulation in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-based image analysis techniques conducted in a standard brain space provide an objective, rapid and fully automated method to analyze [{sup 11}C]PIB PET data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both region- and voxel-level reproducibility of automated and simplified [{sup 11}C]PIB quantitation when using only 30 min of imaging data. Six AD patients and four healthy controls were scanned twice with an average interval of 6 weeks. To evaluate the feasibility of short scanning (convenient for AD patients), [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake was quantitated using 30 min of imaging data (60 to 90 min after tracer injection) for region-to-cerebellum ratio calculations. To evaluate the reproducibility, a test-retest design was used to derive absolute variability (VAR) estimates and intraclass correlation coefficients at both region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel level. The reproducibility both at the region level (VAR 0.9-5.5%) and at the voxel level (VAR 4.2-6.4%) was good to excellent. Based on the variability estimates obtained, power calculations indicated that 90% power to obtain statistically significant difference can be achieved using a sample size of five subjects per group when a 15% change from baseline (increase or decrease) in [{sup 11}C]PIB accumulation in the frontal cortex is anticipated in one group compared to no change in another group. Our results showed that an automated analysis method based on an efficient scanning protocol provides reproducible results for [{sup 11}C]PIB uptake and appears suitable for PET studies aiming at the quantitation of amyloid accumulation in the brain of AD patients for the evaluation of progression and treatment effects. (orig.)

  13. Reproducibility of automated simplified voxel-based analysis of PET amyloid ligand [11C]PIB uptake using 30-min scanning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aalto, Sargo; Scheinin, Noora M.; Naagren, Kjell; Rinne, Juha O.; Kemppainen, Nina M.; Kailajaervi, Marita; Leinonen, Mika; Scheinin, Mika

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with 11 C-labelled Pittsburgh compound B ([ 11 C]PIB) enables the quantitation of β-amyloid accumulation in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Voxel-based image analysis techniques conducted in a standard brain space provide an objective, rapid and fully automated method to analyze [ 11 C]PIB PET data. The purpose of this study was to evaluate both region- and voxel-level reproducibility of automated and simplified [ 11 C]PIB quantitation when using only 30 min of imaging data. Six AD patients and four healthy controls were scanned twice with an average interval of 6 weeks. To evaluate the feasibility of short scanning (convenient for AD patients), [ 11 C]PIB uptake was quantitated using 30 min of imaging data (60 to 90 min after tracer injection) for region-to-cerebellum ratio calculations. To evaluate the reproducibility, a test-retest design was used to derive absolute variability (VAR) estimates and intraclass correlation coefficients at both region-of-interest (ROI) and voxel level. The reproducibility both at the region level (VAR 0.9-5.5%) and at the voxel level (VAR 4.2-6.4%) was good to excellent. Based on the variability estimates obtained, power calculations indicated that 90% power to obtain statistically significant difference can be achieved using a sample size of five subjects per group when a 15% change from baseline (increase or decrease) in [ 11 C]PIB accumulation in the frontal cortex is anticipated in one group compared to no change in another group. Our results showed that an automated analysis method based on an efficient scanning protocol provides reproducible results for [ 11 C]PIB uptake and appears suitable for PET studies aiming at the quantitation of amyloid accumulation in the brain of AD patients for the evaluation of progression and treatment effects. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of low-contrast detectability between two CT reconstruction algorithms using voxel-based 3D printed textured phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Justin; Ba, Alexandre; Bochud, François; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-12-01

    To use novel voxel-based 3D printed textured phantoms in order to compare low-contrast detectability between two reconstruction algorithms, FBP (filtered-backprojection) and SAFIRE (sinogram affirmed iterative reconstruction) and determine what impact background texture (i.e., anatomical noise) has on estimating the dose reduction potential of SAFIRE. Liver volumes were segmented from 23 abdominal CT cases. The volumes were characterized in terms of texture features from gray-level co-occurrence and run-length matrices. Using a 3D clustered lumpy background (CLB) model, a fitting technique based on a genetic optimization algorithm was used to find CLB textures that were reflective of the liver textures, accounting for CT system factors of spatial blurring and noise. With the modeled background texture as a guide, four cylindrical phantoms (Textures A-C and uniform, 165 mm in diameter, and 30 mm height) were designed, each containing 20 low-contrast spherical signals (6 mm diameter at nominal contrast levels of ∼3.2, 5.2, 7.2, 10, and 14 HU with four repeats per signal). The phantoms were voxelized and input into a commercial multimaterial 3D printer (Object Connex 350), with custom software for voxel-based printing (using principles of digital dithering). Images of the textured phantoms and a corresponding uniform phantom were acquired at six radiation dose levels (SOMATOM Flash, Siemens Healthcare) and observer model detection performance (detectability index of a multislice channelized Hotelling observer) was estimated for each condition (5 contrasts × 6 doses × 2 reconstructions × 4 backgrounds = 240 total conditions). A multivariate generalized regression analysis was performed (linear terms, no interactions, random error term, log link function) to assess whether dose, reconstruction algorithm, signal contrast, and background type have statistically significant effects on detectability. Also, fitted curves of detectability (averaged across contrast levels

  15. Exploring trees in three dimensions: VoxR, a novel voxel-based R package dedicated to analysing the complex arrangement of tree crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecigne, Bastien; Delagrange, Sylvain; Messier, Christian

    2017-09-07

    Interest in tree form assessments using the terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) has increased in recent years. Yet many existing methods are limited to small-sized trees, principally due to noise and occlusion phenomena. In this paper, a novel voxel-based program that is dedicated to the analyses of large tree structures is presented. The method is based on the assumption that architectural trait variations (i.e. branching angle, bifurcation ratio, biomass allocation, etc.) influence the way a tree explores space. This method uses the concept of space exploration that considers a voxel as a portion of space explored by the tree. Once the TLS scene is voxelized, the program provides tools that extract qualitative (geometrical) and quantitative (volumetric) metrics. These tools measure (1) voxel dispersion in three dimensions (3-D), (2) projections of the voxel cloud in 2-D and (3) multi-temporal changes within a single tree crown. To test algorithm capabilities of measuring larger tree architectural traits, two application studies were conducted using point clouds that were either generated by a tree growth simulation model, thereby allowing algorithm application in a perfectly controlled environment, or acquired in the field with a TLS device. The space exploration concept makes it possible to take advantage of the volumetric nature of voxels to compensate for occlusion. The hypothesis that large-sized voxels can be used to reduce occlusion in the original point cloud was tested, as well as the consequences of voxel size on quantification of tree volume and on precision of derived metrics. Results show that space exploration is well adapted to highlight architectural differences among trees. They also suggest that large-sized voxels are efficient for occlusion compensation at the expense of metrics precision in some cases. The best resolution to choose depending on the research objectives and quality of the TLS scan is discussed.

  16. Detecting damaged regions of cerebral white matter in the subacute phase after carbon monoxide poisoning using voxel-based analysis with diffusion tensor imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Shunrou; Nishimoto, Hideaki; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Beppu, Takaaki; Sanjo, Katsumi; Koeda, Atsuhiko; Mori, Kiyoshi; Kudo, Kohsuke; Sasaki, Makoto

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to detect the main regions of cerebral white matter (CWM) showing damage in the subacute phase for CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms using voxel-based analysis (VBA) with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Subjects comprised 22 adult CO-poisoned patients and 16 age-matched healthy volunteers as controls. Patients were classified into patients with transient acute symptoms only (group A) and patients with chronic neurological symptoms (group S). In all patients, DTI covering the whole brain was performed with a 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging system at 2 weeks after CO exposure. As procedures for VBA, all fractional anisotropy (FA) maps obtained from DTI were spatially normalized, and FA values for all voxels in the whole CWM on normalized FA maps were statistically compared among the two patient groups and controls. Voxels with significant differences in FA were detected at various regions in comparisons between groups S and A and between group S and controls. In these comparisons, more voxels were detected in deep CWM, including the centrum semiovale, than in other regions. A few voxels were detected between group A and controls. Absolute FA values in the centrum semiovale were significantly lower in group S than in group A or controls. VBA demonstrated that CO-poisoned patients with chronic neurological symptoms had already suffered damage to various CWM regions in the subacute phase. In these regions, the centrum semiovale was suggested to be the main region damaged in the subacute phase after CO inhalation. (orig.)

  17. Gender-specific neuroanatomical basis of behavioral inhibition/approach systems (BIS/BAS) in a large sample of young adults: a voxel-based morphometric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yadan; Qiao, Lei; Sun, Jiangzhou; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Wenfu; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin; Shi, Huiying

    2014-11-01

    The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and the behavioral activation system (BAS) are two fundamental motivational systems which are not only responsible for affective states, behavior and personality, but also related to predispositions for various forms of psychopathology. A wide range of previous studies revealed sex differences in both BIS/BAS and affective disorders (e.g., anxiety disorder) and externalizing disorders (e.g., addictive and impulsive behaviors), and a close link might exist between them. It remains to be clarified, however, whether the relationships between neuroanatomical characteristics and BIS/BAS exhibit sex differences. To investigate, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to examine sex differences in the correlations between regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and scores on the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scale in a large sample of healthy young adults (n=353). Results showed that females displayed a negative correlation between BIS sensitivity and rGMV in the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), as well as positive correlations between BAS sensitivity and rGMV in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), whereas males showed the opposite pattern. These findings suggest that the brain regions associated with processing of negative emotions (PHG) and reward-related information (vmPFC and IPL) may contribute to sex-related differences in rGMV correlates of BIS and BAS, respectively. The present findings demonstrated the evidence of sex-linked neuroanatomical background of BIS and BAS among non-clinical subjects and might encourage future research into the gender-specific relationships between BIS/BAS and related affective disorders and externalizing disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection of voxel size and photon number in voxel-based Monte Carlo method: criteria and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Chen, Bin; Ran, Wei Yu; Wang, Guo Xiang; Wu, Wen Juan

    2015-09-01

    The voxel-based Monte Carlo method (VMC) is now a gold standard in the simulation of light propagation in turbid media. For complex tissue structures, however, the computational cost will be higher when small voxels are used to improve smoothness of tissue interface and a large number of photons are used to obtain accurate results. To reduce computational cost, criteria were proposed to determine the voxel size and photon number in 3-dimensional VMC simulations with acceptable accuracy and computation time. The selection of the voxel size can be expressed as a function of tissue geometry and optical properties. The photon number should be at least 5 times the total voxel number. These criteria are further applied in developing a photon ray splitting scheme of local grid refinement technique to reduce computational cost of a nonuniform tissue structure with significantly varying optical properties. In the proposed technique, a nonuniform refined grid system is used, where fine grids are used for the tissue with high absorption and complex geometry, and coarse grids are used for the other part. In this technique, the total photon number is selected based on the voxel size of the coarse grid. Furthermore, the photon-splitting scheme is developed to satisfy the statistical accuracy requirement for the dense grid area. Result shows that local grid refinement technique photon ray splitting scheme can accelerate the computation by 7.6 times (reduce time consumption from 17.5 to 2.3 h) in the simulation of laser light energy deposition in skin tissue that contains port wine stain lesions.

  19. Larger mid-dorsolateral prefrontal gray matter volume in young binge drinkers revealed by voxel-based morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Doallo

    Full Text Available Binge drinking or heavy episodic drinking is a high prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption among young people in several countries. Despite increasing evidence that binge drinking is associated with impairments in executive aspects of working memory (i.e. self-ordered working memory, processes known to depend on the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9, less is known about the impact of binge drinking on prefrontal gray matter integrity. Here, we investigated the effects of binge drinking on gray matter volume of mid- dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in youths. We used voxel-based morphometry on the structural magnetic resonance images of subjects reporting a persistent (at least three years binge drinking pattern of alcohol use (n = 11; age 22.43 ± 1.03 and control subjects (n = 21; age 22.18 ± 1.08 to measure differences in gray matter volume between both groups. In a region of interest analysis of the mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, after co-varying for age and gender, we observed significantly larger gray matter volume in the left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann areas 46 and 9 in binge drinkers in comparison with control subjects. Furthermore, there was a significant positive correlation between left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Self-Ordered Pointing Test (SOPT total errors score in binge drinkers. The left mid-dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume also correlated with the quantity and speed of alcohol intake. These findings indicate that a repeated exposure to alcohol -that does not meet criteria for alcohol dependence- throughout post-adolescent years and young adulthood is linked with structural anomalies in mid-dorsolateral prefrontal regions critically involved in executive aspects of working memory.

  20. Detection of changes in cerebrospinal fluid space in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus using voxel-based morphometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Fumio; Asada, Takashi [University of Tsukuba, Clinical Neuroscience, Medical Sciences for Control of Pathological Process, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan); Sasaki, Makoto; Kudo, Kohsuke [Iwate Medical University, Advanced Medical Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Takahashi, Satoshi; Narumi, Shinsuke; Terayama, Yasuo [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurology, Morioka (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    We attempted to detect alterations in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). We obtained sagittal volume images of the entire head by three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and compared the regional distribution of CSF in 12 patients with iNPH, 14 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and 17 healthy individuals using VBM with automatically extracted CSF objects. VBM demonstrated significant widening at the lateral ventricles and Sylvian fissures and narrowing of the CSF space at the high convexity/midline areas in iNPH patients, compared to the AD patients and healthy controls (p<0.05, after correction with a false-discovery rate). In addition, the ratio of the CSF volume in the lateral ventricle/Sylvian fissure area to that in the high convexity/midline area in iNPH patients (3.9{+-}1.2) was remarkably greater than that in AD patients (1.2{+-}0.3) and controls (0.9{+-}0.3; one-way ANOVA, p <0.001; post hoc Tukey's test, p < 0.001); we could discriminate iNPH patients from those in the other two groups without any overlap, when using a cutoff level of 1.9. VBM using CSF objects can be used to delineate the characteristic alteration of the CSF space in iNPH patients, which has been evaluated by visual interpretation. (orig.)

  1. Voxel-based morphometry reveals increased gray matter density in Broca's area in male symphony orchestra musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluming, Vanessa; Barrick, Thomas; Howard, Matthew; Cezayirli, Enis; Mayes, Andrew; Roberts, Neil

    2002-11-01

    Broca's area is a major neuroanatomical substrate for spoken language and various musically relevant abilities, including visuospatial and audiospatial localization. Sight reading is a musician-specific visuospatial analysis task, and spatial ability is known to be amenable to training effects. Musicians have been reported to perform significantly better than nonmusicians on spatial ability tests, which is supported by our findings with the Benton judgement of line orientation (JOL) test (P musicians. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and stereological analyses were applied to high-resolution 3D MR images in male orchestral musicians (n = 26) and sex, handedness, and IQ-matched nonmusicians (n = 26). The wide age range (26 to 66 years) of volunteers permitted a secondary analysis of age-related effects. VBM with small volume correction (SVC) revealed a significant (P = 0.002) region of increased gray matter in Broca's area in the left inferior frontal gyrus in musicians. We observed significant age-related volume reductions in cerebral hemispheres, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex subfields bilaterally and gray matter density in the left inferior frontal gyrus in controls but not musicians; a positive correlation between JOL test score and age in musicians but not controls; a positive correlation between years of playing and the volume of gray matter in a significant region identified by VBM in under-50-year-old musicians. We suggest that orchestral musical performance promotes use-dependent retention, and possibly expansion, of gray matter involving Broca's area and that this provides further support for shared neural substrates underpinning expressive output in music and language.

  2. Database of normal human cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT. I. Comparison between I-123-IMP, Tc-99m-HMPAO, and Tc-99m-ECD as referred with O-15 labeled water PET and voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Inoue, Kentaro; Goto, Ryoi

    2006-01-01

    Three accumulative tracers, iodine-123-labeled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (I-123-IMP), technetium-99m-labeled hexamethylpropyleneamineoxime (Tc-99m-HMPAO), and technetium-99m-labeled ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m-ECD) are widely used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) in single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In the present study, normal regional distribution of CBF measured with three different SPECT tracers was entered into a database and compared with regional distribution of CBF measured by positron emission tomography (PET) with H 2 15 O. The regional distribution of tissue fractions of gray matter determined by voxel-based morphometry was also compared with SPECT and PET CBF distributions. SPECT studies with I-123-IMP, Tc-99m-HMPAO, and Tc-99m-ECD were performed on 11, 20, and 17 healthy subjects, respectively. PET studies were performed on II healthy subjects. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies for voxel-based morphometry were performed on 43 of the 48 subjects who underwent SPECT study. All SPECT, PET, and MR images were transformed into the standard brain format with the SPM2 system. The voxel values of each SPECT and PET image were globally normalized to 50 ml/100 ml/min. Gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid images were segmented and extracted from all transformed MR images by applying voxel-based morphometry methods with the SPM2 system. Regional distribution of all three SPECT tracers differed from that of H 2 15 O in the pons, midbrain, thalamus, putamen, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, temporal cortex, and occipital cortex. No significant correlations were observed between the tissue fraction of gray matter and CBF with any tracer. Differences in regional distribution of SPECT tracers were considered to be caused mainly by differences in the mechanism of retention of tracers in the brain. Regional distribution of CBF was independent of regional distribution of gray matter fractions, and

  3. Localization of Epileptogenic Zones using Partical Volume Corrected FDG Uptake on FDG PET and Voxel Based Morphometry on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Ho Young; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Univ. of Seoul National, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Partial volume corrected (PVC) FDG uptake yields information about regional metabolic level void of volume change, and voxel based morphometry (VBM) yields objective information regarding gray matter concentration. We investigated the roles of PVC PET and VBM to localize epileptogenic zones in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) and non-lesional neocortical epilepsy. As a control group for PVC, 40 normal volunteers without history of neurologic or psychiatric diseases underwent FDG PET and MRI. Seventeen mTLE patients (M: F=7: 10, age=309 y) and nine neocortical epilepsy patients (M: F=6: 3, age=246, lateral temporal: 5, frontal: 3, occipital: 1) confirmed by surgery or epilepsy board meeting were enrolled. Standard VBM analysis was performed using individual MRI images compared with those of age-matched controls. For PVC, FDG PET was co-registered with its own MRI. PVC PET was obtained by dividing spillover-corrected PET by smoothed gray matter image pixel by pixel. SPAM was applied as a mask of volume of interest (VOI) to calculate gyral FDG uptake on PVC-FDG PET. Hippocampus, amygdala, superior, middle, inferior temporal gyrus and parahippocampal gyrus were the gyral SPAM VOIs in mTLE. Globally normalized PVC-FDG counts were compared with those of age-matched controls in mTLE and neocortical epilepsy patients. In mTlE, PVC-FDG PET correctly localized epileptogenic zones with the accuracy of 76% (13/17) in hippocampus and 82% (14/17) in any of six regions. VBM correctly localized 59% (10/17) in mTLE. In neocortical epilepsy, PVC-FDG PET localized epileptogenic zones in 44%, and VBM in 33%, Using VBM and PVC-FDG PET altogether, epileptogenic zones were localized in 66% (6/9). In mTLE, gyral PVC FDG uptake of temporal lobes was useful in localizing epileptogenic zones by demonstrating partial volume-void FDG concentration. In non-lesional cryptogenic neocortical epilepsy, combination of PVC-FDG PET and VBM is recommended to localize epileptogenic zones.

  4. In vivo quantitative whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging analysis of APP/PS1 transgenic mice using voxel-based and atlas-based methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Yuan-Yuan [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Mu-Wei; Oishi, Kenichi [The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhang, Shun; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Ling-Yun; Zhu, Wen-Zhen [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Wuhan (China); Lei, Hao [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan Center for Magnetic Resonance, State Key Laboratory of Magnetic Resonance and Atomic and Molecular Physics, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Wuhan (China)

    2013-08-15

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been applied to characterize the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a mouse model, although little is known about whether these features are structure specific. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) and atlas-based analysis (ABA) are good complementary tools for whole-brain DTI analysis. The purpose of this study was to identify the spatial localization of disease-related pathology in an AD mouse model. VBA and ABA quantification were used for the whole-brain DTI analysis of nine APP/PS1 mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Multiple scalar measurements, including fractional anisotropy (FA), trace, axial diffusivity (DA), and radial diffusivity (DR), were investigated to capture the various types of pathology. The accuracy of the image transformation applied for VBA and ABA was evaluated by comparing manual and atlas-based structure delineation using kappa statistics. Following the MR examination, the brains of the animals were analyzed for microscopy. Extensive anatomical alterations were identified in APP/PS1 mice, in both the gray matter areas (neocortex, hippocampus, caudate putamen, thalamus, hypothalamus, claustrum, amygdala, and piriform cortex) and the white matter areas (corpus callosum/external capsule, cingulum, septum, internal capsule, fimbria, and optic tract), evidenced by an increase in FA or DA, or both, compared to WT mice (p < 0.05, corrected). The average kappa value between manual and atlas-based structure delineation was approximately 0.8, and there was no significant difference between APP/PS1 and WT mice (p > 0.05). The histopathological changes in the gray matter areas were confirmed by microscopy studies. DTI did, however, demonstrate significant changes in white matter areas, where the difference was not apparent by qualitative observation of a single-slice histological specimen. This study demonstrated the structure-specific nature of pathological changes in APP/PS1 mouse, and also showed the

  5. When the Single Matters more than the Group (II): Addressing the Problem of High False Positive Rates in Single Case Voxel Based Morphometry Using Non-parametric Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpazza, Cristina; Nichols, Thomas E; Seramondi, Donato; Maumet, Camille; Sartori, Giuseppe; Mechelli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of studies have used Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) to compare a single patient with a psychiatric or neurological condition of interest against a group of healthy controls. However, the validity of this approach critically relies on the assumption that the single patient is drawn from a hypothetical population with a normal distribution and variance equal to that of the control group. In a previous investigation, we demonstrated that family-wise false positive error rate (i.e., the proportion of statistical comparisons yielding at least one false positive) in single case VBM are much higher than expected (Scarpazza et al., 2013). Here, we examine whether the use of non-parametric statistics, which does not rely on the assumptions of normal distribution and equal variance, would enable the investigation of single subjects with good control of false positive risk. We empirically estimated false positive rates (FPRs) in single case non-parametric VBM, by performing 400 statistical comparisons between a single disease-free individual and a group of 100 disease-free controls. The impact of smoothing (4, 8, and 12 mm) and type of pre-processing (Modulated, Unmodulated) was also examined, as these factors have been found to influence FPRs in previous investigations using parametric statistics. The 400 statistical comparisons were repeated using two independent, freely available data sets in order to maximize the generalizability of the results. We found that the family-wise error rate was 5% for increases and 3.6% for decreases in one data set; and 5.6% for increases and 6.3% for decreases in the other data set (5% nominal). Further, these results were not dependent on the level of smoothing and modulation. Therefore, the present study provides empirical evidence that single case VBM studies with non-parametric statistics are not susceptible to high false positive rates. The critical implication of this finding is that VBM can be used

  6. A whole-brain gray and white matter analysis in children with 45XO karyotype Turner syndrome: voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Qiuling; Zhang Zhixin; Cheng Pangui; Xie Sheng; Liu Xiwei; Pan Hui; Li Kang; Zhang Jiaying; Gong Gaolang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To detect the structural changes of cerebral gray and white matter in children of monosomy Turner syndrome (TS) by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Nine children 45XO karyotype TS and 20 age-matched control girls were recruited in this study. Wechsler intelligence scale for children was used to obtain their intelligence quotients (IQ). High-resolution magnetic MR imaging was performed in TS children and control girls to collect the whole brain structural data. The data were analyzed by VBM based on SPM 8 to compare the volume of gray and white matter between the TS children and normal controls by using covariance analysis. Results: The IQ of TS children was 81 ± 13, and the IQ of the controls was 109 ± 16. Statistical analysis revealed significant difference of IQ between the two groups (t = -4.70, P < 0.05). Compared with normal controls, TS children showed significantly decreased volume (numbers of voxel in clusters were 631, 525, 520, t = 3.95, 3.50, 3.36, P < 0.05, FWE-corrected) in the gray matter of the right superior parietal lobule, postcentral gyrus, precuneus lobule, calcarine, cuneus cortices, as well as the left middle and inferior occipital lobe. However, the volume of the bilateral supplemental motor area and the medial superior frontal lobes, the right middle cingulum, the left superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri were increased in the TS children compared to the controls. The left fusiform, the left parahippocampus, the left hippocampus and the left cerebellum were also enlarged in TS children (numbers of voxel in clusters were 2082, 974, 1708, 588, 579, t = 5.45, 4.59, 4.40, 4.29, 3.55, P < 0.05, FWE-corrected). White matter regions in the left postcentral gyrus and inferior parietal lobule showed significantly reduced volume (voxel number 957, t = 5.85, P < 0.05, FWE-corrected). Conclusion: Children with monosomy TS show abnormal gray and white matter volumes in some brain regions, which may be involved in the

  7. Structural abnormalities in early Tourette syndrome children: a combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu

    Full Text Available Tourette Syndrome (TS is characterized with chronic motor and vocal tics beginning in childhood. Abnormality of both gray (GM and white matter (WM has been observed in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and sensory-motor cortex of adult TS patient. It is not clear if these morphological changes are also present in TS children and if there are any microstructural changes of WM. To understand the developmental cause of such changes, we investigated volumetric changes of GM and WM using VBM and microstructural changes of WM using DTI, and correlated these changes with tic severity and duration. T1 images and Diffusion Tensor Images (DTI from 21 TS children were compared with 20 age and gender matched health control children using a 1.5T Philips scanner. All of the 21 TS children met the DSM-IV-TR criteria. T1 images were analyzed using DARTEL-VBM in conjunction with statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis was performed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS. Brain volume changes were found in left superior temporal gyrus, left and right paracentral gyrus, right precuneous cortex, right pre- and post-central gyrus, left temporal occipital fusiform cortex, right frontal pole, and left lingual gyrus. Significant axial diffusivity (AD and mean diffusivity (MD increases were found in anterior thalamic radiation, right cingulum bundle projecting to the cingulate gurus and forceps minor. Decreases in white matter volume (WMV in the right frontal pole were inversely related with tic severity (YGTSS, and increases in AD and MD were positively correlated with tic severity and duration, respectively. These changes in TS children can be interpreted as signs of neural plasticity in response to the experiential demand. Our findings may suggest that the morphological and microstructural measurements from structural MRI and DTI can potentially be used as a biomarker of the pathophysiologic pattern of early TS children.

  8. Autism attenuates sex differences in brain structure: a combined voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacher, F D; Minati, L; Baron-Cohen, S; Lombardo, M V; Lai, M-C; Gray, M A; Harrison, N A; Critchley, H D

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed that autism spectrums condition may represent a form of extreme male brain (EMB), a notion supported by psychometric, behavioral, and endocrine evidence. Yet, limited data are presently available evaluating this hypothesis in terms of neuroanatomy. Here, we investigated sex-related anatomic features in adults with AS, a "pure" form of autism not involving major developmental delay. Males and females with AS and healthy controls (n = 28 and 30, respectively) were recruited. Structural MR imaging was performed to measure overall gray and white matter volume and to assess regional effects by means of VBM. DTI was used to investigate the integrity of the main white matter tracts. Significant interactions were found between sex and diagnosis in total white matter volume, regional gray matter volume in the right parietal operculum, and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the body of the CC, cingulum, and CR. Post hoc comparisons indicated that the typical sexual dimorphism found in controls, whereby males have larger FA and total white matter volume, was absent or attenuated in participants with AS. Our results point to a fundamental role of the factors that underlie sex-specific brain differentiation in the etiology of autism.

  9. Mapping brain morphological and functional conversion patterns in amnestic MCI: a voxel-based MRI and FDG-PET study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morbelli, Silvia [University of Genoa, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Genoa (Italy); Piccardo, Arnoldo; Villavecchia, Giampiero [Galliera Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy); Dessi, Barbara; Brugnolo, Andrea; Rodriguez, Guido; Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Neurosciences, Ophthalmology and Genetics, Genoa (Italy); Piccini, Alessandra [Cell Biology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Genoa (Italy); Caroli, Anna [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy); Mario Negri Institute, Medical Imaging Unit, Biomedical Engineering Department, Bergamo (Italy); Frisoni, Giovanni [LENITEM - Laboratory of Epidemiology Neuroimaging and Telemedicine, Brescia (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    To reveal the morphological and functional substrates of memory impairment and conversion to Alzheimer disease (AD) from the stage of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Brain MRI and FDG-PET were performed in 20 patients with aMCI and 12 controls at baseline. During a mean follow-up of about 2 years, 9 patients developed AD (converters), and 11 did not (nonconverters). All images were processed with SPM2. FDG-PET and segmented grey matter (GM) images were compared in: (1) converters versus controls, (2) nonconverters versus controls, and (3) converters versus nonconverters. As compared to controls, converters showed lower GM density in the left parahippocampal gyrus and both thalami, and hypometabolism in the precuneus, posterior cingulate and superior parietal lobule in the left hemisphere. Hypometabolism was found in nonconverters as compared to controls in the left precuneus and posterior cingulated gyrus. As compared to nonconverters, converters showed significant hypometabolism in the left middle and superior temporal gyri. The discordant topography between atrophy and hypometabolism reported in AD is already present at the aMCI stage. Posterior cingulate-precuneus hypometabolism seemed to be an early sign of memory deficit, whereas hypometabolism in the left temporal cortex marked the conversion to AD. (orig.)

  10. Voxel-based lesion symptom mapping analysis of depressive mood in patients with isolated cerebellar stroke: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Young Kim, MD

    2017-01-01

    Voxel-wise subtraction and χ (Ayerbe et al., 2014 analyses indicated that damage to the left posterior cerebellar hemisphere was associated with depression. Significant correlations were also found between the severity of depressive symptoms and lesions in lobules VI, VIIb, VIII, Crus I, and Crus II of the left cerebellar hemisphere (Pcorrected = 0.045. Our results suggest that damage to the left posterior cerebellum is associated with increased depressive mood severity in patients with isolated cerebellar stroke.

  11. MR diffusion tensor imaging voxel-based analysis of whole brain white matter in patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yadi; Feng Xiaoyuan; He Huijin; Ding Ding; Tang Weijun; Zhao Qianhua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the microstructural integrity of white matter (WM) in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) using voxel-based analysis (VBA), and investigate the relationship between WM abnormalities and gray matter (GM) atrophy. Methods: Thirty-three cases with aMCI, 32 cases with mild AD and 31 normal aging volunteers as control subjects were scanned on a 3.0 T MR system using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled (3DSPGR) sequences. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps and morphological images were preprocessed by SPM5 and voxel-based comparisons between the 2 patient groups and the control group were performed by t test. Results: Relative to the control group, patients with aMCI showed significantly reduced FA value in bilateral frontal, temporal and left occipital WM, left anterior part of cingulum, left inferior parietal lobule, and the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the right lateral ventricle (k ≥ 20 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced FA value was found in bilateral hippocampal, inferior parietal lobular, frontal, temporal, and occipital WM, bilateral corpus callosum, anterior part of cingulums, the WM adjacent to the triangular part of the bilateral lateral ventricles, left temporal stem, left thalamus, right precuneus (k ≥ 20 voxels). Significantly reduced GM volume was found in left hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, lingual gyrus and superior temporal gyrus, bilateral insulae and middle temporal gyri in aMCI group when compared with control group (k ≥ 50 voxels). In mild AD, significantly reduced GM volume was found in bilateral hippocampi, parahippocampal gyri, amygdalae, thalami, temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital cortex (k ≥ 50 voxels). The pattern of areas with reduced FA differs from that of the GM volumetric reduction. No areas with significantly reduced FA was detected in aMCI compared with mild AD. There was no significant

  12. A voxel-based technique to estimate volume and volumetric error of terrestrial photogrammetry-derived digital terrain models (DTM) of topographic depressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, Balázs; Raveloson, Andrea; Rasztovits, Sascha; Molnár, Gábor; Dorninger, Peter

    2013-04-01

    It is a common task in geoscience to determine the volume of a topographic depression (e.g., a valley, a crater, a gully, etc.) based on a digital terrain model (DTM). In case of DTMs based on laser scanned data this task can be fulfilled with a relatively high accuracy. However, if the DTM is generated using terrestrial photogrammetric methods, the limitations of the technology often makes geodetically inaccurate/biased models at forested or purely visible areas or if the landform has an ill-posed geometry (e.g. it is elongated). In these cases the inaccuracies may hamper the generation of a proper DTM. On the other hand if we are interested rather in the determination of the volume of the feature with a certain accuracy or we intend to carry out an order of magnitude volumetric estimation, a DTM having larger inaccuracies is tolerable. In this case the volume calculation can be still done by setting realistic assumptions about the errors of the DTM. In our approach two DTMs are generated to create top and bottom envelope surfaces that confine the "true" but unknown DTM. The varying accuracy of the photogrammetric DTM is considered via the varying deviation of these two surfaces: at problematic corners of the feature the deviation of the two surfaces will be larger, whereas at well-renderable domains the deviation of the surfaces remain minimal. Since such topographic depressions may have a complicated geometry, the error-prone areas may complicate the geometry of the aforementioned envelopes even more. The proper calculation of the volume may turn to be difficult. To reduce this difficulty, a voxel-based approach is used. The volumetric error is calculated based on the gridded envelopes using an appropriate voxel resolution. The method is applied for gully features termed lavakas existing in large numbers in Madagascar. These landforms are typically characterised by a complex shape, steep walls, they are often elongated, and have internal crests. All these

  13. A comparative analysis of cognitive profiles and white-matter alterations using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging between patients with Parkinson's disease dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji E; Park, Hae-Jeong; Park, BoSuk; Song, Sook K; Sohn, Young H; Lee, Jong Doo; Lee, Phil Hyu

    2010-03-01

    Despite clinical and neuropsychological similarities between Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), recent studies have demonstrated that structural and pathological changes are more severe in DLB than in PDD. 19 patients with probable PDD and 18 patients with probable DLB who had a similar overall severity of dementia and demographic characteristics were examined by a standardised neuropsychological test and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The patients with DLB performed significantly worse in visual recognition memory, semantic fluency and ideomotor praxis than those with PDD (pmatter. In patients with DLB, the pattern of FA reduction was similar to that of patients with PDD; however, white-matter abnormalities were more severe and extended into bilateral insular, bilateral posterior cingular and bilateral visual association regions. In a direct comparison between PDD and DLB, the FA value in patients with DLB was significantly decreased in bilateral posterior temporal, posterior cingular and bilateral visual association fibres extending into occipital areas. Despite global similarities in cognitive performance and white-matter pathology between DLB and PDD patients, those with DLB had more severely impaired frontal and temporal area-associated cognitive subsets, and more severe white-matter pathology in temporal and visual association fibres. These data suggest that differences in the underlying nature of PDD and DLB may exist with global similarities in their cognitive performance and white-matter pathology.

  14. The efficacy of a voxel-based morphometry on the analysis of imaging in schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease/mild cognitive impairment: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakeda, Shingo; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) done by means of MRI have provided new insights into the neuroanatomical basis for subjects with several conditions. Recently, VBM has been applied to investigate not only regional volumetric changes but also voxel-wise maps of fractional anisotropy (FA) computed from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). The aim of this article is to review the recent work using VBM technique in particular focusing on schizophrenia, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and Alzheimer's disease (AD)/mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In patients with schizophrenia, VBM approach detects the structural brain abnormalities that appear normal on conventional MRI. Moreover, this technique also has the potential to emerge as a useful clinical tool for early detection and monitoring of disease progression and treatment response in patients with schizophrenia or AD/MCI. In TLE, VBM approach may help elucidate some unresolved important research questions such as how recurrent temporal lobe seizures affect hippocampal and extrahippocampal morphology. Thus, in the future, large cohort studies to monitor whole brain changes on a VBM basis will lead to a further understanding of the neuropathology of several conditions. (orig.)

  15. NMDA receptor antagonism by repetitive MK801 administration induces schizophrenia-like structural changes in the rat brain as revealed by voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Wang, X; Gao, Y; Lin, F; Song, T; Zou, Y; Xu, L; Lei, H

    2016-05-13

    Animal models of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonism have been widely used for schizophrenia research. Less is known whether these models are associated with macroscopic brain structural changes that resemble those in clinical schizophrenia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure brain structural changes in rats subjected to repeated administration of MK801 in a regimen (daily dose of 0.2mg/kg for 14 consecutive days) known to be able to induce schizophrenia-like cognitive impairments. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed significant gray matter (GM) atrophy in the hippocampus, ventral striatum (vStr) and cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) demonstrated microstructural impairments in the corpus callosum (cc). Histopathological results corroborated the MRI findings. Treatment-induced behavioral abnormalities were not measured such that correlation between the brain structural changes observed and schizophrenia-like behaviors could not be established. Chronic MK801 administration induces MRI-observable brain structural changes that are comparable to those observed in schizophrenia patients, supporting the notion that NMDAR hypofunction contributes to the pathology of schizophrenia. Imaging-derived brain structural changes in animal models of NMDAR antagonism may be useful measurements for studying the effects of treatments and interventions targeting schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Multicenter Voxel-Based Morphometry Mega-Analysis of Structural Brain Scans in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, S.J.; Alonso, P.; Schweren, L.; Mataix-Cols, D.; Lochner, C.; Menchon, J.M.; Stein, D.J.; Fouche, J.P.; Soriano-Mas, C.; Sato, J.R.; Hoexter, M.Q.; Denys, D.; Nakamae, T.; Nishida, S.; Kwon, J.S.; Jang, J.H.; Busatto, G.F.; Cardoner, N.; Cath, D.C.; Fukui, K.; Jung, W.H.; Kim, S.N.; Miguel, E.C.; Narumoto, J.; Phillips, M.L.; Pujol, J.; Remijnse, P.L.; Sakai, Y.; Shin, N.Y.; Yamada, K.; Veltman, D.J.; van den Heuvel, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Results from structural neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been only partially consistent. The authors sought to assess regional gray and white matter volume differences between large samples of OCD patients and healthy comparison subjects and their relation

  17. Psychopathy as a disorder of the moral brain: fronto-temporo-limbic grey matter reductions demonstrated by voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Hare, Robert D; Bramati, Ivanei E; Garrido, Griselda J; Azevedo Ignácio, Fátima; Tovar-Moll, Fernanda; Moll, Jorge

    2008-04-15

    Major advances have been made in the understanding of the neurobiology of psychopathy in the past years, yet the distribution and extent of neuroanatomical abnormalities underlying the disorder are still poorly known. It is also unclear if different dimensions of the construct of psychopathy (e.g., emotional callousness, antisocial behavior) correspond to structural abnormalities in distinct regions of the brain. We tested the following hypotheses: (1) psychopathy is related to grey matter reductions in regions of the brain that underlie moral conduct and (2) the severity of psychopathy is related to the degree of structural abnormalities. Optimized voxel-based morphometry and the screening version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL: SV) were employed to investigate a matched sample of 15 community psychiatric patients with high PCL: SV scores, and 15 healthy normal volunteers. The analyses controlled for total grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volumes. Grey matter reductions were observed in the frontopolar, orbitofrontal and anterior temporal cortices, superior temporal sulcus region, and insula of the patients. The degree of structural abnormalities was significantly related to the interpersonal/affective dimension of psychopathy. The pattern of grey matter reductions in patients with high psychopathy scores comprised a distributed fronto-temporal network which plays a critical role in moral sensibility and behavior.

  18. Linear and curvilinear correlations of brain gray matter volume and density with age using voxel-based morphometry with the Akaike information criterion in 291 healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Thyreau, Benjamin; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Wu, Kai; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-08-01

    We examined linear and curvilinear correlations of gray matter volume and density in cortical and subcortical gray matter with age using magnetic resonance images (MRI) in a large number of healthy children. We applied voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region-of-interest (ROI) analyses with the Akaike information criterion (AIC), which was used to determine the best-fit model by selecting which predictor terms should be included. We collected data on brain structural MRI in 291 healthy children aged 5-18 years. Structural MRI data were segmented and normalized using a custom template by applying the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using exponentiated lie algebra (DARTEL) procedure. Next, we analyzed the correlations of gray matter volume and density with age in VBM with AIC by estimating linear, quadratic, and cubic polynomial functions. Several regions such as the prefrontal cortex, the precentral gyrus, and cerebellum showed significant linear or curvilinear correlations between gray matter volume and age on an increasing trajectory, and between gray matter density and age on a decreasing trajectory in VBM and ROI analyses with AIC. Because the trajectory of gray matter volume and density with age suggests the progress of brain maturation, our results may contribute to clarifying brain maturation in healthy children from the viewpoint of brain structure. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Drawing on the right side of the brain: a voxel-based morphometry analysis of observational drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Rebecca; McManus, I Chris; Brunswick, Nicola; Rankin, Qona; Riley, Howard; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-08-01

    Structural brain differences in relation to expertise have been demonstrated in a number of domains including visual perception, spatial navigation, complex motor skills and musical ability. However no studies have assessed the structural differences associated with representational skills in visual art. As training artists are inclined to be a heterogeneous group in terms of their subject matter and chosen media, it was of interest to investigate whether there would be any consistent changes in neural structure in response to increasing representational drawing skill. In the current study a cohort of 44 graduate and post-graduate art students and non-art students completed drawing tasks. Scores on these tasks were then correlated with the regional grey and white matter volume in cortical and subcortical structures. An increase in grey matter density in the left anterior cerebellum and the right medial frontal gyrus was observed in relation to observational drawing ability, whereas artistic training (art students vs. non-art students) was correlated with increased grey matter density in the right precuneus. This suggests that observational drawing ability relates to changes in structures pertaining to fine motor control and procedural memory, and that artistic training in addition is associated with enhancement of structures pertaining to visual imagery. The findings corroborate the findings of small-scale fMRI studies and provide insights into the properties of the developing artistic brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MO-F-BRA-04: Voxel-Based Statistical Analysis of Deformable Image Registration Error via a Finite Element Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Lu, M; Kim, J; Glide-Hurst, C; Chetty, I; Zhong, H

    2012-06-01

    Purpose Clinical implementation of adaptive treatment planning is limited by the lack of quantitative tools to assess deformable image registration errors (R-ERR). The purpose of this study was to develop a method, using finite element modeling (FEM), to estimate registration errors based on mechanical changes resulting from them. Methods An experimental platform to quantify the correlation between registration errors and their mechanical consequences was developed as follows: diaphragm deformation was simulated on the CT images in patients with lung cancer using a finite element method (FEM). The simulated displacement vector fields (F-DVF) were used to warp each CT image to generate a FEM image. B-Spline based (Elastix) registrations were performed from reference to FEM images to generate a registration DVF (R-DVF). The F- DVF was subtracted from R-DVF. The magnitude of the difference vector was defined as the registration error, which is a consequence of mechanically unbalanced energy (UE), computed using 'in-house-developed' FEM software. A nonlinear regression model was used based on imaging voxel data and the analysis considered clustered voxel data within images. Results A regression model analysis showed that UE was significantly correlated with registration error, DVF and the product of registration error and DVF respectively with R̂2=0.73 (R=0.854). The association was verified independently using 40 tracked landmarks. A linear function between the means of UE values and R- DVF*R-ERR has been established. The mean registration error (N=8) was 0.9 mm. 85.4% of voxels fit this model within one standard deviation. Conclusions An encouraging relationship between UE and registration error has been found. These experimental results suggest the feasibility of UE as a valuable tool for evaluating registration errors, thus supporting 4D and adaptive radiotherapy. The research was supported by NIH/NCI R01CA140341. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in

  1. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Bora; Yang, Dong-Won; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo; Chung, Yong-An

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  2. Voxel-based analysis of Tc-99 m ECD brain perfusion SPECT in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Bora [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Dong-Won [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: neuroman@catholic.ac.kr; Shim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Sung-Woo [Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Kook-Jin; O, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Sohn, Hyung-Sun; Chung, Soo-Kyo [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Yong-An [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); East-West Research Institute of Translational Medicine (EWTM), Incheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Incheon 403-720 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: nm@catholic.ac.kr

    2009-07-15

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a reversible dementia characterized by gait disturbance, incontinence and dementia. This study investigates the neuropsychological characteristics and changes of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with iNPH. Ten patients who met the criteria of probable iNPH and 13 normal control subjects were evaluated. The general cognitive function and detailed neuropsychological functions were measured by K-MMSE and comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Tc-99m-ethyl cysteinate dimmer (Tc-99m-ECD) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed to measure the rCBF and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and statistical probabilistic brain anatomic map (SPAM) was applied to the objective analysis of SPECT data. On the neuropsychological examination, all the patients showed abnormality in memory, psychomotor speed and frontal executive function. SPM analysis of SPECT images revealed that rCBF in bilateral thalami, right prefrontal area, bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate gyri, right caudate nucleus, and left parahippocampal gyrus was significantly decreased in patients with iNPH compared to normal controls (uncorrected P<0.005). In SPAM analysis, rCBF reduction was observed in bilateral prefrontal area, anterior, posterior cingulate gyri and caudate nuclei. We have found that rCBF changes occurred predominantly in prefrontal and subcortical areas, the changes were associated with frontal subcortical circuit, and the affected frontal subcortical circuit may contribute to the cognitive decline seen in the iNPH patients. The reduction of rCBF and clinical cognitive impairment are closely connected in patients with iNPH.

  3. Divergent brain changes in two audiogenic rat strains: A voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging comparison of the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yichien; Rodriguez, Olga C; Albanese, Chris; Santos, Victor Rodrigues; Cortes de Oliveira, José Antônio; Donatti, Ana Luiza Ferreira; Fernandes, Artur; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; N'Gouemo, Prosper; Forcelli, Patrick A

    2018-03-01

    Acoustically evoked seizures (e.g., audiogenic seizures or AGS) are common in models of inherited epilepsy and occur in a variety of species including rat, mouse, and hamster. Two models that have been particularly well studied are the genetically epilepsy prone rat (GEPR-3) and the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR) strains. Acute and repeated AGS, as well as comorbid conditions, displays a close phenotypic overlap in these models. Whether these similarities arise from convergent or divergent structural changes in the brain remains unknown. Here, we examined the brain structure of Sprague Dawley (SD) and Wistar (WIS) rats, and quantified changes in the GEPR-3 and WAR, respectively. Brains from adult, male rats of each strain (n=8-10 per group) were collected, fixed, and embedded in agar and imaged using a 7 tesla Bruker MRI. Post-acquisition analysis included voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and manual volumetric tracing. In the VBM analysis, GEPR-3 displayed volumetric changes in brainstem structures known to be engaged by AGS (e.g., superior and inferior colliculus, periaqueductal grey) and in forebrain structures (e.g., striatum, septum, nucleus accumbens). WAR displayed volumetric changes in superior colliculus, and a broader set of limbic regions (e.g., hippocampus, amygdala/piriform cortex). The only area of significant overlap in the two strains was the midline cerebellum: both GEPR-3 and WAR showed decreased volume compared to their control strains. In the DTI analysis, GEPR-3 displayed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in the corpus callosum, posterior commissure and commissure of the inferior colliculus (IC). WAR displayed increased FA only in the commissure of IC. These data provide a biological basis for further comparative and mechanistic studies in the GEPR-3 and WAR models, as well as provide additional insight into commonalities in the pathways underlying AGS susceptibility and behavioral comorbidity. Copyright © 2017

  4. Discrimination of dementia with Lewy bodies from Alzheimer's disease using voxel-based morphometry of white matter by statistical parametric mapping 8 plus diffeomorphic anatomic registration through exponentiated Lie algebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatsuka, Tomoya; Imabayashi, Etsuko; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Inaoka, Tsutomu; Terada, Hitoshi

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify brain atrophy specific for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and to evaluate the discriminatory performance of this specific atrophy between DLB and Alzheimer's disease (AD). We retrospectively reviewed 60 DLB and 30 AD patients who had undergone 3D T1-weighted MRI. We randomly divided the DLB patients into two equal groups (A and B). First, we obtained a target volume of interest (VOI) for DLB-specific atrophy using correlation analysis of the percentage rate of significant whole white matter (WM) atrophy calculated using the Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD) based on statistical parametric mapping 8 (SPM8) plus diffeomorphic anatomic registration through exponentiated Lie algebra, with segmented WM images in group A. We then evaluated the usefulness of this target VOI for discriminating the remaining 30 DLB patients in group B from the 30 AD patients. Z score values in this target VOI obtained from VSRAD were used as the determinant in receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Specific target VOIs for DLB were determined in the right-side dominant dorsal midbrain, right-side dominant dorsal pons, and bilateral cerebellum. ROC analysis revealed that the target VOI limited to the midbrain exhibited the highest area under the ROC curves of 0.75. DLB patients showed specific atrophy in the midbrain, pons, and cerebellum. Midbrain atrophy demonstrated the highest power for discriminating DLB and AD. This approach may be useful for determining the contributions of DLB and AD pathologies to the dementia syndrome.

  5. Gray matter and white matter changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with or without cognitive impairment: A combined voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial statistics whole-brain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christidi, Foteini; Karavasilis, Efstratios; Riederer, Franz; Zalonis, Ioannis; Ferentinos, Panagiotis; Velonakis, Georgios; Xirou, Sophia; Rentzos, Michalis; Argiropoulos, Georgios; Zouvelou, Vasiliki; Zambelis, Thomas; Athanasakos, Athanasios; Toulas, Panagiotis; Vadikolias, Konstantinos; Efstathopoulos, Efstathios; Kollias, Spyros; Karandreas, Nikolaos; Kelekis, Nikolaos; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2018-04-01

    The phenotypic heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) implies that patients show structural changes within but also beyond the motor cortex and corticospinal tract and furthermore outside the frontal lobes, even if frank dementia is not detected. The aim of the present study was to investigate both gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in non-demented amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients with or without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor and ALS-plus, respectively). Nineteen ALS-motor, 31 ALS-plus and 25 healthy controls (HC) underwent 3D-T1-weighted and 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3 T MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry and tract-based spatial-statistics analysis were performed to examine GM volume (GMV) changes and WM differences in fractional anisotropy (FA), axial and radial diffusivity (AD, RD, respectively). Compared to HC, ALS-motor patients showed decreased GMV in frontal and cerebellar areas and increased GMV in right supplementary motor area, while ALS-plus patients showed diffuse GMV reduction in primary motor cortex bilaterally, frontotemporal areas, cerebellum and basal ganglia. ALS-motor patients had increased GMV in left precuneus compared to ALS-plus patients. We also found decreased FA and increased RD in the corticospinal tract bilaterally, the corpus callosum and extra-motor tracts in ALS-motor patients, and decreased FA and increased AD and RD in motor and several WM tracts in ALS-plus patients, compared to HC. Multimodal neuroimaging confirms motor and extra-motor GM and WM abnormalities in non-demented cognitively-impaired ALS patients (ALS-plus) and identifies early extra-motor brain pathology in ALS patients without cognitive impairment (ALS-motor).

  6. Voxel-based dual-time 18F-FDG parametric imaging for rectal cancer: differentiation of residual tumor from postchemoradiotherapy changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Yoon, Hai-jeon; Kim, Tae Sung; Oh, Jae Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong

    2013-01-01

    Introduction 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) has been used for evaluation of the response of rectal cancer to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT), but differentiating residual tumor from post-treatment changes remains a problem. We propose a voxel-based dual-time 18F-FDG PET parametric imaging technique for the evaluation of residual rectal cancer after CRT. Materials and methods Eighty-six patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent neoadjuvant CRT between March 2009 and February 2011 were selected retrospectively. Standard 60-min postinjection PET/CT scans followed by 90-min delayed images were coregistered by rigid-body transformation. A dual-time parametric image was generated, which divided delayed standardized uptake value (SUV) by 60-min SUV on a voxel-by-voxel basis. Maximum delayed-to-standard SUV ratios (DSR) measured on the parametric images as well as the percentage of SUV decrease from pre-CRT to post-CRT scans (pre/post-CRT response index) were obtained for each tumor and correlated with pathologic response classified by the Dworak tumor regression grade (TRG). Results With respect to the false-positive lesions in the nine post-CRT patients with false-positive standard 18F-FDG scans in case groups who responded to therapy (TRG 3 or 4 tumors), eight were undetectable on dual-time parametric images (Pparametric imaging technique for evaluation of post-CRT rectal cancer holds promise for differentiating residual tumor from treatment-related nonspecific 18F-FDG uptake. PMID:24128896

  7. Self-regulation therapy increases frontal gray matter in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: evaluation by voxel-based morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra W. Soh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder show executive function (EF deficits, particularly in self-regulation skills, and abnormalities in brain regions critical for these skills. None of the validated EF interventions for these children has been evaluated with regards to impacts on brain structure. Twenty-nine children with FASD were assigned to either an immediate-treatment (TX or delayed-treatment control group (DTC. Nineteen typically developing children served as healthy controls (CT. All received a structural MRI scan and baseline neuropsychological testing, following which the TX group underwent 12 weekly 1.5-hour sessions of the Alert Program for Self-Regulation®. After treatment or a period of ~14 weeks, all received a repeat scan and post-intervention testing. Whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses using voxel-based morphometry evaluated group differences and changes over time in gray matter (GM. Exploratory analyses revealed significant group changes: (1 At baseline, combined TX and DTC groups demonstrated global GM reductions compared with the CT group. (2 Region-of-interest analysis using a frontal mask, comparing post-intervention to pre-intervention results, showed significantly increased GM in the left middle frontal gyrus (BA10, right frontal pole (BA11, and right anterior cingulate (BA32 in the TX group. Similar results were not found in the DTC or CT groups. (3 At post-intervention, both TX and CT groups showed larger GM volumes than the DTC group in the left superior frontal gyrus (BA9, which was smaller in the FASD group at baseline. These results suggested that Alert led to improvements in post-intervention testing of self-regulation skills and typical brain development in treated children.

  8. Neuroanatomical differences in brain areas implicated in perceptual and other core features of autism revealed by cortical thickness analysis and voxel-based morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Krista L; Samson, Fabienne; Evans, Alan C; Mottron, Laurent

    2010-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a complex neurodevelopmental variant thought to affect 1 in 166 [Fombonne (2003): J Autism Dev Disord 33:365-382]. Individuals with autism demonstrate atypical social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors, but can also present enhanced abilities, particularly in auditory and visual perception and nonverbal reasoning. Structural brain differences have been reported in autism, in terms of increased total brain volume (particularly in young children with autism), and regional gray/white matter differences in both adults and children with autism, but the reports are inconsistent [Amaral et al. (2008): Trends Neurosci 31:137-145]. These inconsistencies may be due to differences in diagnostic/inclusion criteria, and age and Intelligence Quotient of participants. Here, for the first time, we used two complementary magnetic resonance imaging techniques, cortical thickness analyses, and voxel-based morphometry (VBM), to investigate the neuroanatomical differences between a homogenous group of young adults with autism of average intelligence but delayed or atypical language development (often referred to as "high-functioning autism"), relative to a closely matched group of typically developing controls. The cortical thickness and VBM techniques both revealed regional structural brain differences (mostly in terms of gray matter increases) in brain areas implicated in social cognition, communication, and repetitive behaviors, and thus in each of the core atypical features of autism. Gray matter increases were also found in auditory and visual primary and associative perceptual areas. We interpret these results as the first structural brain correlates of atypical auditory and visual perception in autism, in support of the enhanced perceptual functioning model [Mottron et al. (2006): J Autism Dev Disord 36:27-43]. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...

  10. Grey matter volume in the cerebellum is related to the processing of grammatical rules in a second language: a structural voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Johnstone, Tom; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-02-01

    The experience of learning and using a second language (L2) has been shown to affect the grey matter (GM) structure of the brain. Importantly, GM density in several cortical and subcortical areas has been shown to be related to performance in L2 tasks. Here, we show that bilingualism can lead to increased GM volume in the cerebellum, a structure that has been related to the processing of grammatical rules. Additionally, the cerebellar GM volume of highly proficient L2 speakers is correlated to their performance in a task tapping on grammatical processing in an L2, demonstrating the importance of the cerebellum for the establishment and use of grammatical rules in an L2.

  11. Brain and behaviour in children with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome: a volumetric and voxel-based morphometry MRI study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2006-01-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of

  12. Brain and Behavior in Children with 22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: A Volumetric and Voxel-Based Morphometry MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linda E.; Daly, Eileen; Toal, Fiona; Stevens, Angela; Azuma, Rayna; Catani, Marco; Ng, Virginia; Van Amelsvoort, Therese; Chitnis, Xavier; Cutter, William; Murphy, Declan G. M.; Murphy, Kieran C.

    2006-01-01

    In people with velo-cardio-facial syndrome [or 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22qDS)], a single interstitial deletion of chromosome 22q11.2 causes a wide spectrum of cognitive deficits ranging from global learning difficulties to specific cognitive deficits. People with 22qDS are also at high risk of developing attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  13. Six-Minute Walking Distance Correlated with Memory and Brain Volume in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyuma Makizako

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: High fitness levels play an important role in maintaining memory function and delaying the progression of structural brain changes in older people at risk of developing dementia. However, it is unclear which specific regions of the brain volume are associated with exercise capacity. We investigated whether exercise capacity, determined by a 6-min walking distance (6MWD, is associated with measures of logical and visual memory and where gray matter regions correlate with exercise capacity in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Ninety-one community-dwelling older adults with MCI completed a 6-min walking test, structural magnetic resonance imaging scanning, and memory tests. The Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised Logical Memory and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Tests were used to assess logical and visual memory, respectively. Results: The logical and visual memory tests were positively correlated with the 6MWD (p Conclusions: These results suggest that a better 6MWD performance may be related to better memory function and the maintenance of gray matter volume in older adults with MCI.

  14. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  15. Utility of real-time prospective motion correction (PROMO) for segmentation of cerebral cortex on 3D T1-weighted imaging: Voxel-based morphometry analysis for uncooperative patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igata, Natsuki; Kakeda, Shingo; Watanabe, Keita; Narimatsu, Hidekuni; Ide, Satoru; Korogi, Yukunori; Nozaki, Atsushi; Rettmann, Dan; Abe, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    To assess the utility of the motion correction method with prospective motion correction (PROMO) in a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for 'uncooperative' patient populations. High-resolution 3D T1-weighted imaging both with and without PROMO were performed in 33 uncooperative patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 11) or dementia (n = 22). We compared the grey matter (GM) volumes and cortical thickness between the scans with and without PROMO. For the mean total GM volume with the VBM analysis, the scan without PROMO showed a significantly smaller volume than that with PROMO (p < 0.05), which was caused by segmentation problems due to motion during acquisition. The whole-brain VBM analysis showed significant GM volume reductions in some regions in the scans without PROMO (familywise error corrected p < 0.05). In the cortical thickness analysis, the scans without PROMO also showed decreased cortical thickness compared to the scan with PROMO (p < 0.05). Our results with the uncooperative patients indicate that the use of PROMO can reduce misclassification during segmentation of the VBM analyses, although it may not prevent GM volume reduction. (orig.)

  16. Utility of real-time prospective motion correction (PROMO) for segmentation of cerebral cortex on 3D T1-weighted imaging: Voxel-based morphometry analysis for uncooperative patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igata, Natsuki; Kakeda, Shingo; Watanabe, Keita; Narimatsu, Hidekuni; Ide, Satoru; Korogi, Yukunori [University of Occupational and Environmental Health School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kitakyushu (Japan); Nozaki, Atsushi [MR Applications and Workflow Asia Pacific GE Healthcare Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Rettmann, Dan [MR Applications and Workflow GE Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States); Abe, Osamu [University of Tokyo, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    To assess the utility of the motion correction method with prospective motion correction (PROMO) in a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for 'uncooperative' patient populations. High-resolution 3D T1-weighted imaging both with and without PROMO were performed in 33 uncooperative patients with Parkinson's disease (n = 11) or dementia (n = 22). We compared the grey matter (GM) volumes and cortical thickness between the scans with and without PROMO. For the mean total GM volume with the VBM analysis, the scan without PROMO showed a significantly smaller volume than that with PROMO (p < 0.05), which was caused by segmentation problems due to motion during acquisition. The whole-brain VBM analysis showed significant GM volume reductions in some regions in the scans without PROMO (familywise error corrected p < 0.05). In the cortical thickness analysis, the scans without PROMO also showed decreased cortical thickness compared to the scan with PROMO (p < 0.05). Our results with the uncooperative patients indicate that the use of PROMO can reduce misclassification during segmentation of the VBM analyses, although it may not prevent GM volume reduction. (orig.)

  17. Multiparametric voxel-based analyses of standardized uptake values and apparent diffusion coefficients of soft-tissue tumours with a positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance system: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagiyama, Koji; Kamei, Ryotaro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Watanabe, Yuji; Kawanami, Satoshi [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Hong, Sungtak [Philips Electronics Japan, Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan); Matsumoto, Yoshihiro [Kyushu University, Departmant of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-12-15

    To investigate the usefulness of voxel-based analysis of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for evaluating soft-tissue tumour malignancy with a PET/MR system. Thirty-five subjects with either ten low/intermediate-grade tumours or 25 high-grade tumours were prospectively enrolled. Zoomed diffusion-weighted and fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG)-PET images were acquired along with fat-suppressed T2-weighted images (FST2WIs). Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn on FST2WIs including the tumour in all slices. ROIs were pasted onto PET and ADC-maps to measure SUVs and ADCs within tumour ROIs. Tumour volume, SUVmax, ADCminimum, the heterogeneity and the correlation coefficients of SUV and ADC were recorded. The parameters of high- and low/intermediate-grade groups were compared, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was also performed. The mean correlation coefficient for SUV and ADC in high-grade sarcomas was lower than that of low/intermediate-grade tumours (-0.41 ± 0.25 vs. -0.08 ± 0.34, P < 0.01). Other parameters did not differ significantly. ROC analysis demonstrated that correlation coefficient showed the best diagnostic performance for differentiating the two groups (AUC 0.79, sensitivity 96.0%, specificity 60%, accuracy 85.7%). SUV and ADC determined via PET/MR may be useful for differentiating between high-grade and low/intermediate-grade soft tissue tumours. (orig.)

  18. A voxel-based analysis of cerebral perfusion with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD brain SPECT in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Hee Joung; Chang, Jin Woo; Kim, Chan Hyung; Lee, Hong Shick; Min, Sung Kil; Chung, Sang Sup [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    Many neuroimaging studies, especially metabolic imaging with PET, showed a specific frontal-subcortical brain circuit connecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, elements of basal ganglia and thalamus is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite consistent metabolic alteration on PET, blood flow studies with SPECT were inconsistent and various cortical and subcortical structures showed abnormal perfusion patterns. In this study, brain SPECT images of seven patients with OCD were evaluated with a sophisticated method of statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients with severe, primary OCD (6 males and 1 female) with mean age of 25.4 4.7 yrs (20-32 yrs) were studied. The SPECT data of the patients were compared with those of healthy subjects and patients with drug nave schizophrenia using SPM. The SPM parameters were p value of 0.001 with Z value of 3.09 (higher threshold ) or p value of 0.005 with Z value 2.58 (lower threshold). On a higher threshold (p<0.01),five of the seven patients showed hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex, however, hyperperfusion within OFC or caudate nucleus was seen in only one patient. On a lower threshold (p<0.005), hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was seen in all patients, and followed by thalamus (n=5), lentiform nucleus (n=4), caudate nucleus (n=3), and OFC (n=3). Perfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was also increased in OCD compared with drug nave schizophrenia. Anterior cingulate cortex appears to be an important anatomical structure in the pathogenesis of OCD symptoms. Brain SPECT using a sophisticated analysis method of SPM is useful for the diagnosis of OCD and differentiation from schizophrenia.

  19. A voxel-based analysis of cerebral perfusion with 99mTc-ECD brain SPECT in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Lee, Jong Doo; Kim, Hee Joung; Chang, Jin Woo; Kim, Chan Hyung; Lee, Hong Shick; Min, Sung Kil; Chung, Sang Sup

    2000-01-01

    Many neuroimaging studies, especially metabolic imaging with PET, showed a specific frontal-subcortical brain circuit connecting the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, elements of basal ganglia and thalamus is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Despite consistent metabolic alteration on PET, blood flow studies with SPECT were inconsistent and various cortical and subcortical structures showed abnormal perfusion patterns. In this study, brain SPECT images of seven patients with OCD were evaluated with a sophisticated method of statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Seven patients with severe, primary OCD (6 males and 1 female) with mean age of 25.4 4.7 yrs (20-32 yrs) were studied. The SPECT data of the patients were compared with those of healthy subjects and patients with drug nave schizophrenia using SPM. The SPM parameters were p value of 0.001 with Z value of 3.09 (higher threshold ) or p value of 0.005 with Z value 2.58 (lower threshold). On a higher threshold (p<0.01),five of the seven patients showed hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex, however, hyperperfusion within OFC or caudate nucleus was seen in only one patient. On a lower threshold (p<0.005), hyperperfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was seen in all patients, and followed by thalamus (n=5), lentiform nucleus (n=4), caudate nucleus (n=3), and OFC (n=3). Perfusion within the anterior cingulate cortex was also increased in OCD compared with drug nave schizophrenia. Anterior cingulate cortex appears to be an important anatomical structure in the pathogenesis of OCD symptoms. Brain SPECT using a sophisticated analysis method of SPM is useful for the diagnosis of OCD and differentiation from schizophrenia

  20. A 3-Dimensional Approach for Analysis in Orthognathic Surgery-Using Free Software for Voxel-Based Alignment and Semiautomatic Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokbro, Kasper; Thygesen, Torben

    2018-01-01

    the manual reidentification error. This study evaluated the repeatability of surgical outcome measurements using the semiautomatic approach. Furthermore, a step-by-step guide is provided to enable researchers and clinicians to perform the 3D analysis by themselves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Evaluating surgical...... outcome consists of 2 parts. First, the scans are aligned at the anterior cranial base. Second, a semiautomatic approach is used to place 3 dental reference points at exactly the same sites of the pre- and postoperative maxilla. Because the maxilla is repositioned during surgery but otherwise unaltered...... the reference points on the postoperative scan, the hard palate is used as a mutual maxillary reference structure. A reproducibility test was performed in 10 participants by analyzing the difference between repeated measurements. RESULTS: Repeated linear measurements differed by less than 0.1 mm along all 3...

  1. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valotassiou, V.; Papatriantafyllou, J.; Sifakis, N.; Karageorgiou, C.; Tsougos, I.; Tzavara, C.; Zerva, C.; Georgoulias, P.

    2009-05-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (pareas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  2. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, University Hospital of Larissa, Larissa (Greece); Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C [Neurology Dpt, General Hospital ' G. Gennimatas' , Athens (Greece); Sifakis, N; Zerva, C [Nuclear Medicine Dpt, ' Alexandra' University Hospital, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: vanvalot@yahoo.gr

    2009-05-15

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76{+-}6.51 years, education 11.81{+-}4.25 years, MMSE 16.69{+-}9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25{+-}10.48 years, education 10{+-}4.6 years, MMSE 12.5{+-}3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  3. Age-dependent organ and effective dose coefficients for external photons: a comparison of stylized and voxel-based paediatric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choonik; Lee, Choonsik; Bolch, Wesley E

    2006-01-01

    This present study investigates the anatomical realism of conventional stylized models of children by comparing organ dose conversion coefficients for the ORNL paediatric phantom series with those determined in the UF (University of Florida) voxel paediatric phantoms. The latter includes whole-body models of a 9 month male, 4 year female, 8 year female, 11 year male and a 14 year male. Of these phantoms, the 1 year, 5 year and 10 year ORNL phantoms, and 9 month male, 4 year female and 11 year male UF voxel phantoms were selected for side-by-side comparisons under idealized external photon irradiation. Organ absorbed dose per unit air kerma (Gy/Gy) for various radiosensitive organs and tissues were calculated for monoenergetic photons over the energy range of 15 keV to 10 MeV and for six irradiation geometries: anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right lateral (RLAT), left lateral (LLAT), rotational (ROT) and isotropic (ISO). Differences in organ dose conversion coefficients for the gonads, bone marrow, colon, lung and stomach, to which prominent tissue weighting factors are assigned, were depicted and analysed. Two major causes of observed differences were suggested: differences in organ shape and position and the differences in tissue shielding by overlying tissue regions within the phantoms. Significant discrepancies caused by anatomical differences between the two types of phantoms are also reported for several organs, and in particular, the thyroid and urinary bladder. The results of this study suggest that the paediatric series of ORNL phantoms also have less realistic internal organ and body anatomy and that dose conversion coefficients from these stylized phantoms should be re-evaluated using paediatric voxel phantoms

  4. Evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Brodmann areas in Frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease using automated 3-D voxel based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valotassiou, V; Tsougos, I; Tzavara, C; Georgoulias, P; Papatriantafyllou, J; Karageorgiou, C; Sifakis, N; Zerva, C

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Brain perfusion studies with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been applied in demented patients to provide better discrimination between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim. To assess the perfusion of specific Brodmann (Br) areas of the brain cortex in FTD and AD patients, using NeuroGam processing program to provide 3D voxel-by-voxel cerebral SPECT analysis. Material and methods. We studied 34 consecutive patients. We used the established criteria for the diagnosis of dementia and the specific established criteria for the diagnosis of FTD and AD. All the patients had a neuropsychological evaluation with a battery of tests including the mini-mental state examination (MMSE).Twenty-six patients (16 males, 10 females, mean age 68.76±6.51 years, education 11.81±4.25 years, MMSE 16.69±9.89) received the diagnosis of FTD and 8 patients (all females, mean age 71.25±10.48 years, education 10±4.6 years, MMSE 12.5±3.89) the diagnosis of AD. All the patients underwent a brain SPECT. We applied the NeuroGam Software for the evaluation of brain perfusion in specific Br areas in the left (L) and right (R) hemispheres. Results. Statistically significant hypoperfusion in FTD compared to AD patients, was found in the following Br areas: 11L (p<0.0001), 11R, 20L, 20R, 32L, 38L, 38R, 44L (p<0.001), 32R, 36L, 36R, 45L, 45R, 47R (p<0.01), 9L, 21L, 39R, 44R, 46R, 47L (p<0.05). On the contrary, AD patients presented significant (p<0.05) hypoperfusion in 7R and 39R Br areas. Conclusion. NeuroGam processing program of brain perfusion SPECT could result in enhanced accuracy for the differential diagnosis between AD and FTD patients.

  5. Voxel-based quantitative analysis of brain images from ¹⁸F-FDG PET with a block-matching algorithm for spatial normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Person, Christophe; Louis-Dorr, Valérie; Poussier, Sylvain; Commowick, Olivier; Malandain, Grégoire; Maillard, Louis; Wolf, Didier; Gillet, Nicolas; Roch, Véronique; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves

    2012-03-01

    Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) is widely used for the quantitative analysis of brain images from ¹⁸F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). SPM requires an initial step of spatial normalization to align all images to a standard anatomic model (the template), but this may lead to image distortion and artifacts, especially in cases of marked brain abnormalities. This study aimed at assessing a block-matching (BM) normalization algorithm, where most transformations are not directly computed on the overall brain volume but through small blocks, a principle that is likely to minimize artifacts. Large and/or small hypometabolic areas were artificially simulated in initially normal FDG PET images to compare the results provided by statistical tests computed after either SPM or BM normalization. Results were enhanced by BM, compared with SPM, with regard to (i) errors in the estimation of large defects volumes (about 2-fold lower) because of a lower image distortion, and (ii) rates of false-positive foci when numerous or extended abnormalities were simulated. These observations were strengthened by analyses of FDG PET examinations from epileptic patients. Results obtained with the BM normalization of brain FDG PET appear more precise and robust than with SPM normalization, especially in cases of numerous or extended abnormalities.

  6. Pattern of cerebral hyperperfusion in Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment using voxel-based analysis of 3D arterial spin-labeling imaging: initial experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding B

    2014-03-01

    .Conclusion: Our results indicated that ASL provided useful perfusion information in AD disease and may be used as an appealing alternative for further pathologic and neuropsychological studies, especially of compensatory mechanisms for cerebral hypoperfusion.Keyword: Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment, perfusion image, arterial spin labeling

  7. SU-F-BRB-10: A Statistical Voxel Based Normal Organ Dose Prediction Model for Coplanar and Non-Coplanar Prostate Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, A; Yu, V; Nguyen, D; Woods, K; Low, D; Sheng, K [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Knowledge learned from previous plans can be used to guide future treatment planning. Existing knowledge-based treatment planning methods study the correlation between organ geometry and dose volume histogram (DVH), which is a lossy representation of the complete dose distribution. A statistical voxel dose learning (SVDL) model was developed that includes the complete dose volume information. Its accuracy of predicting volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and non-coplanar 4π radiotherapy was quantified. SVDL provided more isotropic dose gradients and may improve knowledge-based planning. Methods: 12 prostate SBRT patients originally treated using two full-arc VMAT techniques were re-planned with 4π using 20 intensity-modulated non-coplanar fields to a prescription dose of 40 Gy. The bladder and rectum voxels were binned based on their distances to the PTV. The dose distribution in each bin was resampled by convolving to a Gaussian kernel, resulting in 1000 data points in each bin that predicted the statistical dose information of a voxel with unknown dose in a new patient without triaging information that may be collectively important to a particular patient. We used this method to predict the DVHs, mean and max doses in a leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV) test and compared its performance against lossy estimators including mean, median, mode, Poisson and Rayleigh of the voxelized dose distributions. Results: SVDL predicted the bladder and rectum doses more accurately than other estimators, giving mean percentile errors ranging from 13.35–19.46%, 4.81–19.47%, 22.49–28.69%, 23.35–30.5%, 21.05–53.93% for predicting mean, max dose, V20, V35, and V40 respectively, to OARs in both planning techniques. The prediction errors were generally lower for 4π than VMAT. Conclusion: By employing all dose volume information in the SVDL model, the OAR doses were more accurately predicted. 4π plans are better suited for knowledge-based planning than

  8. The effect of chemotherapy on rat brain PET: preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Su; Kim, Il Han; Yu, A Ram; Park, Ji Ae; Woo, Sang Keun; Kim, Jong Guk; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Kim, Byeong Il; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo; Kim, Hee Joung; Kim, Kyeong Min

    2010-01-01

    Chemotherapy was widely used for the therapy of cancer patients. When chemotherapy was performed, transient cognitive memory problem was occurred. This cognitive problem in brain was called as chemobrain. In this study, we have developed rat model for chemobrain. Cerebral glucose metabolism after chemotherapy was assessed using animal PET and voxel based statistical analysis method

  9. A deformation-based morphometry study of patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borghammer, P; Østergaard, Karen; Cumming, P

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Previous volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) utilized primarily voxel-based morphometry (VBM), and investigated mostly patients with moderate- to late-stage disease. We now use deformation-based morphometry (DBM), a method...

  10. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    -distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto...

  11. Postured voxel-based human models for electromagnetic dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Soichi

    2008-12-01

    High-resolution anatomically realistic whole-body voxel models have recently been developed for electromagnetic dosimetry. However, the posture of most models is similar to the standing one, which strongly limits electromagnetic dosimetry when simulating a realistic exposure scenario. In this paper, we present the development of postured models based on anatomically realistic voxel models with standing posture. Voxel models of the Japanese adult male and female were used as the original upright standing models. The Japanese models were composed of 2 mm cubic voxels, each of which was segmented into 51 different tissue types. We developed several different types of posture models using a novel posture transformation method. These posture models were smoothly transformed, while the continuity of the internal tissues and organs was maintained. In this paper, we also present our calculations of the whole-body averaged specific absorption rates (SARs) of sitting male and female models exposed to electromagnetic plane waves at very high (VHF) and ultra high frequency (UHF) bands.

  12. Rapid Assemblers for Voxel-Based VLSI Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-12

    actuators; thermal waxes are widely used as actuators in automobile thermostats and hot water tank pressure relief valves. The wax undergoes a...Home 3D printer to serve as the assemble chassis for this printer. We modified the existing Fab@Home chassis by adding two additional motor drives

  13. Powered robotic exoskeletons in post-stroke rehabilitation of gait: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Dennis R; Eng, Janice J

    2016-06-08

    Powered robotic exoskeletons are a potential intervention for gait rehabilitation in stroke to enable repetitive walking practice to maximize neural recovery. As this is a relatively new technology for stroke, a scoping review can help guide current research and propose recommendations for advancing the research development. The aim of this scoping review was to map the current literature surrounding the use of robotic exoskeletons for gait rehabilitation in adults post-stroke. Five databases (Pubmed, OVID MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials) were searched for articles from inception to October 2015. Reference lists of included articles were reviewed to identify additional studies. Articles were included if they utilized a robotic exoskeleton as a gait training intervention for adult stroke survivors and reported walking outcome measures. Of 441 records identified, 11 studies, all published within the last five years, involving 216 participants met the inclusion criteria. The study designs ranged from pre-post clinical studies (n = 7) to controlled trials (n = 4); five of the studies utilized a robotic exoskeleton device unilaterally, while six used a bilateral design. Participants ranged from sub-acute (6 months) stroke. Training periods ranged from single-session to 8-week interventions. Main walking outcome measures were gait speed, Timed Up and Go, 6-min Walk Test, and the Functional Ambulation Category. Meaningful improvement with exoskeleton-based gait training was more apparent in sub-acute stroke compared to chronic stroke. Two of the four controlled trials showed no greater improvement in any walking outcomes compared to a control group in chronic stroke. In conclusion, clinical trials demonstrate that powered robotic exoskeletons can be used safely as a gait training intervention for stroke. Preliminary findings suggest that exoskeletal gait training is equivalent to traditional therapy for chronic stroke

  14. Arnold Chiari I malformation with tip-toe gait: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Gi Hoon; Kim, Ghi Chan; Jeong, Ho Joong; Sim, Young-Joo; Park, Yong Seok

    2013-03-01

    The Arnold-Chiari type I malformation has many symptoms such as headache, neck pain, gait impairment, abnormal movements or postures. But a few cases reported association of specific symptom including headache, neck pain, vertigo or ataxia. We report a case of 12 year-old boy presenting with tip-toe gait. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of brain and spine revealed underlying Arnold-Chiari type I malformation. This case shows that it is need for central nervous system evaluation in patients with changes of lower extremities tone.

  15. Inflammation, Depression, and Slow Gait: A High Mortality Phenotype in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick J; Roose, Steven P; Zhang, Jun; Wall, Melanie; Rutherford, Bret R; Ayonayon, Hilsa N; Butters, Meryl A; Harris, Tamara; Newman, Anne B; Satterfield, Suzanne; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation, slow gait, and depression individually are associated with mortality, yet little is known about the trajectories of these measures, their interrelationships, or their collective impact on mortality. Longitudinal latent class analysis was used to evaluate trajectories of depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression ≥ 10), slow gait (inflammation (interleukin 6 > 3.2 pg/mL) using data from the Health Aging and Body Composition Study. Logistic regression was used to identify their associations with mortality. For each outcome, low-probability (n inflammation = 1,656, n slow gait = 1,471, n depression = 1,458), increasing-probability (n inflammation = 847, n slow gait = 880, n depression = 1,062), and consistently high-probability (n inflammation = 572, n slow gait = 724, n depression = 555) trajectories were identified, with 22% of all participants classified as having increasing or consistently high-probability trajectories on inflammation, slow gait, and depression (meaning probability of impairment on each outcome increased from low to moderate/high or remained high over 10 years). Trajectories of slow gait were associated with inflammation (r = .40, p inflammation were independently associated with mortality (p inflammation and slow gait (n = 247) have an adjusted-morality rate of 85.2%, greater than all other classification permutations. Comprehensive assessment of older adults is warranted for the development of treatment strategies targeting a high-mortality risk phenotype consisting of inflammation, depression, and slow gait speed. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The effects of an ankle foot orthosis on cerebral palsy gait: A multiple regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Sangeux, Morgan; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was twofold. Firstly, to develop a multiple regression normalization (MR) strategy to decorrelate physical properties and walking speed from spatiotemporal gait data in healthy children; and secondly, to use this MR approach to identify the effect of a solid ankle foot orthosis (AFO) on gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spatiotemporal gait data during self-selected walking were obtained from 51 children with diplegic CP and 34 aged-matched healthy controls. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations (DS) and a MR approach. Stride length, stance time, swing time, and double support time were significantly different between children with CP and healthy controls using DS (pchildren with CP walked with and without an AFO. Normalizing gait data using DS demonstrated significant differences in cadence and step time in children with CP when wearing an AFO compared to the controls (pchildren with CP with and without an AFO, except double support time. After MR normalization, spatiotemporal parameters in children wearing an AFO became closer to those of the controls, except for double support time. The MR approach presented will assist in evaluating the effectiveness of conservative interventions such as AFOs in children with CP, as well as in surgery, and may be useful in gait classification using machine learning.

  17. Are power calculations useful? A multicentre neuroimaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Suckling, John; Henty, Julian; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Jezzard, Peter; Barnes, Anna; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ooi, Cinly; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Williams, Steven C; Murphy, Declan GM; Bullmore, Edward

    2014-01-01

    There are now many reports of imaging experiments with small cohorts of typical participants that precede large-scale, often multicentre studies of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Data from these calibration experiments are sufficient to make estimates of statistical power and predictions of sample size and minimum observable effect sizes. In this technical note, we suggest how previously reported voxel-based power calculations can support decision making in the design, execution and ...

  18. Subjects with hip osteoarthritis show distinctive patterns of trunk movements during gait-a body-fixed-sensor based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin; Wagenmakers, Robert; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2012-01-01

    Background: Compensatory trunk movements during gait, such as a Duchenne limp, are observed frequently in subjects with osteoarthritis of the hip, yet angular trunk movements are seldom included in clinical gait assessments. Hence, the objective of this study was to quantify compensatory trunk

  19. Interactions of sex and aging on spatiotemporal metrics in non-pathological gait: a descriptive meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimenko, Rebecca; Goodyear, Charles; Bruening, Dustin

    2015-09-01

    Individual studies examining aging-related changes in gait offer conflicting information on differences between male and female spatiotemporal metrics over the course of a mature lifetime. Furthermore, these studies do not often account for a known difference in size between men and women, and thus may reach conclusions based upon size rather than sex differences. To examine the influences of sex, height, and age on spatiotemporal metrics during non-pathological gait over the course of adult aging. Potentially relevant articles were identified from PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar using the key words 'gait,' 'walk', 'gender,' 'sex,' 'female,' 'male,' 'gait speed,' 'step length,' and 'cadence.' (1) article could be obtained in English, (2) contained information about non-pathological subjects, (3) analyzed kinematics of walking, (4) provided female and male data, (5) average female/male age difference not more than 5 years, (6) reported a measure of variance and number of subjects, and (7) no known retractions associated with the publication. Non-dimensional gait speed analysis suggests that gait speed differences between men and women may be an artifact of size rather than sex. In both raw and dimensionless data, this analysis indicates that men may take longer step lengths than women, and women may have a higher cadence than men. This analysis also identified a possible increase in many metrics between 20 and 40 years of age, before decreasing around the fifth decade of life. Future studies should examine these trends across the entire lifespan. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with and without freezing of gait: a comparative analysis of vascular lesions using brain MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M J; Cabello, J P; Pastor, C; Muñoz-Torrero, J J; Carrasco, S; Ibañez, R; Vaamonde, J

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) is one of the most disabling and enigmatic symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Vascular lesions, observed in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, may produce or exacerbate this symptom. The study includes 22 patients with Parkinson's disease subjects, 12 with freezing of gait and 10 without. All patients underwent an MRI scan and any vascular lesions were analysed using the modified Fazekas scale. Patients with FOG scored higher on the modified Fazekas scale than the rest of the group. Although the two groups contained the same percentage of patients with vascular lesions (50% in both groups), lesion load was higher in the group of patients with FOG. Vascular lesions in the periventricular area and deep white matter seem to be the most involved in the development of FOG. Vascular lesions may contribute to the onset or worsening of FOG in patients with PD. This study suggests that cerebral vascular disease should be considered in patients with FOG. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Voxel-based discriminant map classification on brain ventricles for Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingnan; de Haan, Gerard; Unay, Devrim; Soldea, Octavian; Ekin, Ahmet

    2009-02-01

    One major hallmark of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the loss of neurons in the brain. In many cases, medical experts use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to qualitatively measure the neuronal loss by the shrinkage or enlargement of the structures-of-interest. Brain ventricle is one of the popular choices. It is easily detectable in clinical MR images due to the high contrast of the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) with the rest of the parenchyma. Moreover, atrophy in any periventricular structure will directly lead to ventricle enlargement. For quantitative analysis, volume is the common choice. However, volume is a gross measure and it cannot capture the entire complexity of the anatomical shape. Since most existing shape descriptors are complex and difficult-to-reproduce, more straightforward and robust ways to extract ventricle shape features are preferred in the diagnosis. In this paper, a novel ventricle shape based classification method for Alzheimer's disease has been proposed. Training process is carried out to generate two probability maps for two training classes: healthy controls (HC) and AD patients. By subtracting the HC probability map from the AD probability map, we get a 3D ventricle discriminant map. Then a matching coefficient has been calculated between each training subject and the discriminant map. An adjustable cut-off point of the matching coefficients has been drawn for the two classes. Generally, the higher the cut-off point that has been drawn, the higher specificity can be achieved. However, it will result in relatively lower sensitivity and vice versa. The benchmarked results against volume based classification show that the area under the ROC curves for our proposed method is as high as 0.86 compared with only 0.71 for volume based classification method.

  3. Localizing Age-Related Changes in Brain Structure Using Voxel-Based Morphometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Hua Mu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We report the dynamic anatomical sequence of human cortical gray matter development from late childhood to young adults using VBM and ROI-based methods. Method. The structural MRI of 91 normal individuals ranging in age from 6 to 26 years was obtained and the GMV for each region was measured. Results. Our results showed that the earliest loss of GMV occurred in left olfactory, right precuneus, caudate, left putamen, pallidum, and left middle temporal gyrus. In addition, the trajectory of maturational and aging showed a linear decline in GMV on both cortical lobes and subcortical regions. The most loss of gray matter was observed in the parietal lobe and basal ganglia, whereas the less loss occurred in the temporal lobe and hippocampus, especially in the left middle temporal pole, which showed no decline until 26 years old. Moreover, the volumes of GM, WM, and CSF were also assessed for linear age effects, showing a significant linear decline in GM with age and a significant linear increase in both WM and CSF with age. Interpretation. Overall, our findings lend support to previous findings of the normal brain development of regional cortex, and they may help in understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  4. Electromagnetic Characterization of Advanced Composites by Voxel-Based Inverse Methods, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The nondestructive characterization of advanced composites, such as carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (cfrp), by electromagnetic means is well established. What is...

  5. Voxel-based dose prediction with multi-patient atlas selection for automated radiotherapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Chris; Purdie, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Automating the radiotherapy treatment planning process is a technically challenging problem. The majority of automated approaches have focused on customizing and inferring dose volume objectives to be used in plan optimization. In this work we outline a multi-patient atlas-based dose prediction approach that learns to predict the dose-per-voxel for a novel patient directly from the computed tomography planning scan without the requirement of specifying any objectives. Our method learns to automatically select the most effective atlases for a novel patient, and then map the dose from those atlases onto the novel patient. We extend our previous work to include a conditional random field for the optimization of a joint distribution prior that matches the complementary goals of an accurately spatially distributed dose distribution while still adhering to the desired dose volume histograms. The resulting distribution can then be used for inverse-planning with a new spatial dose objective, or to create typical dose volume objectives for the canonical optimization pipeline. We investigated six treatment sites (633 patients for training and 113 patients for testing) and evaluated the mean absolute difference in all DVHs for the clinical and predicted dose distribution. The results on average are favorable in comparison to our previous approach (1.91 versus 2.57). Comparing our method with and without atlas-selection further validates that atlas-selection improved dose prediction on average in whole breast (0.64 versus 1.59), prostate (2.13 versus 4.07), and rectum (1.46 versus 3.29) while it is less important in breast cavity (0.79 versus 0.92) and lung (1.33 versus 1.27) for which there is high conformity and minimal dose shaping. In CNS brain, atlas-selection has the potential to be impactful (3.65 versus 5.09), but selecting the ideal atlas is the most challenging.

  6. MRI features can predict EGFR expression in lower grade gliomas: A voxel-based radiomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Liu, Xing; Xu, Kaibin; Qian, Zenghui; Wang, Kai; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2018-01-01

    To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression level in lower grade gliomas using radiomic analysis. 270 lower grade glioma patients with known EGFR expression status were randomly assigned into training (n=200) and validation (n=70) sets, and were subjected to feature extraction. Using a logistic regression model, a signature of MRI features was identified to be predictive of the EGFR expression level in lower grade gliomas in the training set, and the accuracy of prediction was assessed in the validation set. A signature of 41 MRI features achieved accuracies of 82.5% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90) in the training set and 90.0% (AUC = 0.95) in the validation set. This radiomic signature consisted of 25 first-order statistics or related wavelet features (including range, standard deviation, uniformity, variance), one shape and size-based feature (spherical disproportion), and 15 textural features or related wavelet features (including sum variance, sum entropy, run percentage). A radiomic signature allowing for the prediction of the EGFR expression level in patients with lower grade glioma was identified, suggesting that using tumour-derived radiological features for predicting genomic information is feasible. • EGFR expression status is an important biomarker for gliomas. • EGFR in lower grade gliomas could be predicted using radiogenomic analysis. • A logistic regression model is an efficient approach for analysing radiomic features.

  7. Primary progressive aphasia patients evaluated using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel based volumetry-preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Pascotto de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available There are individuals who have a progressive language deficit without presenting cognitive deficits in other areas. One of the diseases related to this presentation is primary progressive aphasia (PPA. OBJECTIVE: Identify by means of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and measurements of cortical volume, brain areas that lead to dysphasia when presenting signs of impaired connectivity or reduced volume. METHOD: Four patients with PPA were evaluated using DTI, and measurements of cortical volumes in temporal areas. These patients were compared with two normal volunteers. RESULTS: There is a trend to a difference in the number and volume of related fibers between control group and patients with PPA. Comparing cortical volumes in temporal areas between groups yielded a trend to a smaller volume in PPA patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with PPA have a trend to impairment in cortical and subcortical levels regarding relevant areas.

  8. Automated Coarse Registration of Point Clouds in 3d Urban Scenes Using Voxel Based Plane Constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Boerner, R.; Yao, W.; Hoegner, L.; Stilla, U.

    2017-09-01

    For obtaining a full coverage of 3D scans in a large-scale urban area, the registration between point clouds acquired via terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) is normally mandatory. However, due to the complex urban environment, the automatic registration of different scans is still a challenging problem. In this work, we propose an automatic marker free method for fast and coarse registration between point clouds using the geometric constrains of planar patches under a voxel structure. Our proposed method consists of four major steps: the voxelization of the point cloud, the approximation of planar patches, the matching of corresponding patches, and the estimation of transformation parameters. In the voxelization step, the point cloud of each scan is organized with a 3D voxel structure, by which the entire point cloud is partitioned into small individual patches. In the following step, we represent points of each voxel with the approximated plane function, and select those patches resembling planar surfaces. Afterwards, for matching the corresponding patches, a RANSAC-based strategy is applied. Among all the planar patches of a scan, we randomly select a planar patches set of three planar surfaces, in order to build a coordinate frame via their normal vectors and their intersection points. The transformation parameters between scans are calculated from these two coordinate frames. The planar patches set with its transformation parameters owning the largest number of coplanar patches are identified as the optimal candidate set for estimating the correct transformation parameters. The experimental results using TLS datasets of different scenes reveal that our proposed method can be both effective and efficient for the coarse registration task. Especially, for the fast orientation between scans, our proposed method can achieve a registration error of less than around 2 degrees using the testing datasets, and much more efficient than the classical baseline methods.

  9. MRI features can predict EGFR expression in lower grade gliomas. A voxel-based radiomic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yiming; Liu, Xing; Qian, Zenghui; Fan, Xing; Li, Shaowu; Jiang, Tao [Capital Medical University, Beijing Neurosurgical Institute, Beijing (China); Xu, Kaibin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation, Beijing (China); Wang, Kai [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Wang, Yinyan [Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing (China); Beijing Tiantan Hospital, Capital Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Beijing (China)

    2018-01-15

    To identify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features associated with epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression level in lower grade gliomas using radiomic analysis. 270 lower grade glioma patients with known EGFR expression status were randomly assigned into training (n=200) and validation (n=70) sets, and were subjected to feature extraction. Using a logistic regression model, a signature of MRI features was identified to be predictive of the EGFR expression level in lower grade gliomas in the training set, and the accuracy of prediction was assessed in the validation set. A signature of 41 MRI features achieved accuracies of 82.5% (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.90) in the training set and 90.0% (AUC = 0.95) in the validation set. This radiomic signature consisted of 25 first-order statistics or related wavelet features (including range, standard deviation, uniformity, variance), one shape and size-based feature (spherical disproportion), and 15 textural features or related wavelet features (including sum variance, sum entropy, run percentage). A radiomic signature allowing for the prediction of the EGFR expression level in patients with lower grade glioma was identified, suggesting that using tumour-derived radiological features for predicting genomic information is feasible. (orig.)

  10. Are power calculations useful? A multicentre neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, John; Henty, Julian; Ecker, Christine; Deoni, Sean C; Lombardo, Michael V; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Jezzard, Peter; Barnes, Anna; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Ooi, Cinly; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Williams, Steven C; Murphy, Declan G M; Bullmore, Edward

    2014-08-01

    There are now many reports of imaging experiments with small cohorts of typical participants that precede large-scale, often multicentre studies of psychiatric and neurological disorders. Data from these calibration experiments are sufficient to make estimates of statistical power and predictions of sample size and minimum observable effect sizes. In this technical note, we suggest how previously reported voxel-based power calculations can support decision making in the design, execution and analysis of cross-sectional multicentre imaging studies. The choice of MRI acquisition sequence, distribution of recruitment across acquisition centres, and changes to the registration method applied during data analysis are considered as examples. The consequences of modification are explored in quantitative terms by assessing the impact on sample size for a fixed effect size and detectable effect size for a fixed sample size. The calibration experiment dataset used for illustration was a precursor to the now complete Medical Research Council Autism Imaging Multicentre Study (MRC-AIMS). Validation of the voxel-based power calculations is made by comparing the predicted values from the calibration experiment with those observed in MRC-AIMS. The effect of non-linear mappings during image registration to a standard stereotactic space on the prediction is explored with reference to the amount of local deformation. In summary, power calculations offer a validated, quantitative means of making informed choices on important factors that influence the outcome of studies that consume significant resources. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. White matter integrity alterations in young healthy adults reporting childhood trauma: A diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Wei, Zhaoguo; Gao, Weijia; Wu, Weiwei; Liao, Mei; Zhang, Yan; Li, Weihui; Li, Zexuan; Li, Lingjiang

    2013-12-01

    To date, insufficient studies have focused on the relationship between childhood trauma and white matter integrity changes in healthy subjects. The aim of the present study was to explore the potential effects of childhood trauma on white matter microstructural changes by using voxel-based diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine alterations in fractional anisotropy (FA) values in a group of young healthy adults. A total of 21 healthy adults with a history of childhood trauma exposures and 21 age- and sex-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited in the present study. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to assess five aspects of childhood trauma exposures. DTI data were obtained on a Philips 3.0-Tesla scanner. Voxel-based analysis was conducted to compare white matter FA values between groups. Adults with self-reported childhood trauma experiences showed decreased white matter FA values in the genu and body of the corpus callosum and the left occipital fusiform gyrus (p 100). There was no significant difference in FA values between individuals with single and multiple childhood trauma exposures at the defined threshold. Our findings suggest that childhood trauma is associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the white matter in adulthood. These effects are still evident even in the absence of current psychiatric or medical symptoms, which may represent the vulnerability for developing mental disorders after childhood trauma experiences.

  12. Neural Correlates of Stroop Performance in Alzheimer’s Disease: A FDG-PET Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je-Yeon Yun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Stroop test is commonly applied in elderly subjects for the evaluation of cognitive impairment related to Alzheimer’s disease (AD and related disorders. This study aimed to investigate the functional neural correlates of the Stroop performance in AD. Methods: In 136 probable AD patients and 54 cognitively normal elderly, a [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan and Stroop Color Word Test (SCWT were performed. The correlations between the Stroop effect, which was measured by 6 different scoring methods, and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc were explored using a region-of-interest (ROI approach and voxel-based analysis. Results: Among 6 Stroop interference measures, only 2 scores, including the SCWT color-word (CW score, were significantly correlated with rCMglc of the dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate ROIs. Voxel-based analysis revealed significant positive correlations between SCWT CW scores and rCMglc in the inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus. Such correlations remained significant only in the less severe AD group. Conclusion: In AD patients, the Stroop effect depends on the functional integrity of the prefrontal cortices. Some parietotemporal regions also appear to be responsible for the Stroop effect in AD individuals.

  13. The effects of Bobath-based trunk exercises on trunk control, functional capacity, balance, and gait: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılınç, Muhammed; Avcu, Fatma; Onursal, Ozge; Ayvat, Ender; Savcun Demirci, Cevher; Aksu Yildirim, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Bobath-based individually designed trunk exercises on trunk control, upper and lower extremity function, and walking and balance in stroke patients. The main aim of treatment was to eliminate individual trunk impairments during various patient functions. The study was planned as an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial. A total of 22 patients volunteered to participate in the study. Trunk function, functional capacity, and gait were assessed with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement (STREAM), and a 10-m walking test, respectively. The Berg Balance Test (BBT), functional reach (FR), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests were used to evaluate balance. After the initial assessment, the patients were divided randomly into two groups, the study group (12 patients) and the control group (10 patients). The mean age of the patients in the study group was 55.91 years (duration of stroke 58.66 months) and that of the control group was 54.00 years (duration of stroke 67.20 months). Individual training programs were determined for the patients in the study group, taking into consideration their evaluation results; and strengthening, stretching, range of motion, and mat exercises were determined for the control group according to their functional level. The participants in both groups were taken into the physiotherapy program for 12 weeks, 3 days a week for 1 hour a day. In group analyses, both groups showed improvement in STREAM, TIS, and TUG tests. Only the study group produced significant gains in the BBT, FR, and 10 m walking tests (P 0.05). Individually developed exercise programs in the Bobath concept improve trunk performance, balance, and walking ability in stroke patients more than do conventional exercises.

  14. Atlasing the frontal lobe connections and their variability due to age and education: a spherical deconvolution tractography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojkova, K; Volle, E; Urbanski, M; Humbert, F; Dell'Acqua, F; Thiebaut de Schotten, M

    2016-04-01

    In neuroscience, there is a growing consensus that higher cognitive functions may be supported by distributed networks involving different cerebral regions, rather than by single brain areas. Communication within these networks is mediated by white matter tracts and is particularly prominent in the frontal lobes for the control and integration of information. However, the detailed mapping of frontal connections remains incomplete, albeit crucial to an increased understanding of these cognitive functions. Based on 47 high-resolution diffusion-weighted imaging datasets (age range 22-71 years), we built a statistical normative atlas of the frontal lobe connections in stereotaxic space, using state-of-the-art spherical deconvolution tractography. We dissected 55 tracts including U-shaped fibers. We further characterized these tracts by measuring their correlation with age and education level. We reported age-related differences in the microstructural organization of several, specific frontal fiber tracts, but found no correlation with education level. Future voxel-based analyses, such as voxel-based morphometry or tract-based spatial statistics studies, may benefit from our atlas by identifying the tracts and networks involved in frontal functions. Our atlas will also build the capacity of clinicians to further understand the mechanisms involved in brain recovery and plasticity, as well as assist clinicians in the diagnosis of disconnection or abnormality within specific tracts of individual patients with various brain diseases.

  15. How to measure responses of the knee to lateral perturbations during gait? A proof-of-principle for quantification of knee instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Noort, Josien C; Sloot, Lizeth H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M; Harlaar, Jaap

    2017-08-16

    Knee instability is a major problem in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury or knee osteoarthritis. A valid and clinically meaningful measure for functional knee instability is lacking. The concept of the gait sensitivity norm, the normalized perturbation response of a walking system to external perturbations, could be a sensible way to quantify knee instability. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of this concept for measurement of knee responses, using controlled external perturbations during walking in healthy subjects. Nine young healthy participants walked on a treadmill, while three dimensional kinematics were measured. Sudden lateral translations of the treadmill were applied at five different intensities during stance. Right knee kinematic responses and spatio-temporal parameters were tracked for the perturbed stride and following four cycles, to calculate perturbation response and gait sensitivity norm values (i.e. response/perturbation) in various ways. The perturbation response values in terms of knee flexion and abduction increased with perturbation intensity and decreased with an increased number of steps after perturbation. For flexion and ab/adduction during midswing, the gait sensitivity norm values were shown to be constant over perturbation intensities, demonstrating the potential of the gait sensitivity norm as a robust measure of knee responses to perturbations. These results show the feasibility of using the gait sensitivity norm concept for certain gait indicators based on kinematics of the knee, as a measure of responses during perturbed gait. The current findings in healthy subjects could serve as reference-data to quantify pathological knee instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural grey matter changes in the substantia innominata in Alzheimer's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies: a DARTEL-VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colloby, Sean J; Elder, Greg J; Rabee, Riham; O'Brien, John T; Taylor, John-Paul

    2017-06-01

    Several cholinergic nuclei, and in particular the nucleus basalis of Meynert, are localised to the substantia innominata in the basal forebrain. These nuclei provide major cholinergic innervation to the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and have an essential role in cognitive function. The aim of this study was to investigate volumetric grey matter (GM) changes in the substantia innominata from structural T1 images in Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and healthy older participants using voxel-based morphometry. Participants (41 DLB, 47 AD and 39 controls) underwent 3 T T1 magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive assessments. Voxel-based morphometry analysis used SPM8 with a substantia innominata brain mask to define the subspace for voxel GM analyses. Group differences, and selected behavioural and clinical correlates, were assessed. Compared with that in controls, bilateral GM loss in the substantia innominata was apparent in both AD and DLB. Relative to controls, significant bilateral GM loss in the substantia innominata was observed in DLB and AD. In DLB, significant associations were also observed between substantia innominata GM volume loss, and the levels of cognitive impairment and severity of cognitive fluctuations. Relative to that controls, atrophy of the substantia innominata was apparent in DLB and AD, and is associated with specific clinical manifestations in DLB. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. VERTICAL VEGETATION STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND HYDRAULIC ROUGHNESS DETERMINATION USING DENSE ALS POINT CLOUD DATA - A VOXEL BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vetter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution the complexity of the vertical vegetation structure, based on dense airborne laser scanning (ALS point cloud data (25 echoes/m2 , is analyzed to calculate vegetation roughness for hydraulic applications. Using the original 3D ALS point cloud, three levels of abstractions are derived (cells, voxels and connections to analyze ALS data based on a 1×1 m2 raster over the whole data set. A voxel structure is used to count the echoes in predefined detrended height levels within each cell. In general, it is assumed that the number of voxels containing echoes is an indicator for elevated objects and consequently for increased roughness. Neighboring voxels containing at least one data point are merged together to connections. An additional height threshold is applied to connect vertical neighboring voxels with a certain distance in between. Thus, the connections indicate continuous vegetation structures. The height of the surface near or lowest connection is an indicator for hydrodynamic roughness coefficients. For cells, voxels and connections the laser echoes are counted within the structure and various statistical measures are calculated. Based on these derived statistical parameters a rule-based classification is developed by applying a decision tree to assess vegetation types. Roughness coefficient values such as Manning's n are estimated, which are used as input for 2D hydrodynamic-numerical modeling. The estimated Manning’s values from the ALS point cloud are compared with a traditional Manning's map. Finally, the effect of these two different Manning's n maps as input on the 2D hydraulics are quantified by calculating a height difference model of the inundated depth maps. The results show the large potential of using the entire vertical vegetation structure for hydraulic roughness estimation.

  18. White matter integrity in dementia with Lewy bodies: a voxel-based analysis of diffusion tensor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelska, Zuzana; Schwarz, Christopher G; Boeve, Bradley F; Lowe, Val J; Reid, Robert I; Przybelski, Scott A; Lesnick, Timothy G; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Senjem, Matthew L; Ferman, Tanis J; Smith, Glenn E; Geda, Yonas E; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Kantarci, Kejal

    2015-06-01

    Many patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) have overlapping Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related pathology, which may contribute to white matter (WM) diffusivity alterations on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Consecutive patients with DLB (n = 30), age- and sex-matched AD patients (n = 30), and cognitively normal controls (n = 60) were recruited. All subjects underwent DTI, 18F 2-fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose, and (11)C Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography scans. DLB patients had reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the parietooccipital WM but not elsewhere compared with cognitively normal controls, and elevated FA in parahippocampal WM compared with AD patients, which persisted after controlling for β-amyloid load in DLB. The pattern of WM FA alterations on DTI was consistent with the more diffuse posterior parietal and occipital glucose hypometabolism of 2-fluoro-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography in the cortex. DLB is characterized by a loss of parietooccipital WM integrity, independent of concomitant AD-related β-amyloid load. Cortical glucose hypometabolism accompanies WM FA alterations with a concordant pattern of gray and WM involvement in the parietooccipital lobes in DLB. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Segmentation Based Classification of 3D Urban Point Clouds: A Super-Voxel Based Approach with Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Trassoudaine

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation and classification of urban range data into different object classes have several challenges due to certain properties of the data, such as density variation, inconsistencies due to missing data and the large data size that require heavy computation and large memory. A method to classify urban scenes based on a super-voxel segmentation of sparse 3D data obtained from LiDAR sensors is presented. The 3D point cloud is first segmented into voxels, which are then characterized by several attributes transforming them into super-voxels. These are joined together by using a link-chain method rather than the usual region growing algorithm to create objects. These objects are then classified using geometrical models and local descriptors. In order to evaluate the results, a new metric that combines both segmentation and classification results simultaneously is presented. The effects of voxel size and incorporation of RGB color and laser reflectance intensity on the classification results are also discussed. The method is evaluated on standard data sets using different metrics to demonstrate its efficacy.

  20. Assessment of S Values in Stylized and Voxel-Based Rat Models for Positron-Emitting Radionuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Tianwu; Zaidi, Habib

    2013-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful tool in small animal research, enabling noninvasive quantitative imaging of biochemical processes in living subjects. However, the dosimetric characteristics of small animal PET imaging are usually overlooked, although the radiation dose may be

  1. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie; van Steenbergen, Henk; Nienke Pannekoek, J.

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in gray matter (GM...... was used, focusing on the basal ganglia, the amygdala-hippocampal complex, the prefrontal cortex, and the parietal cortex. SAD-patients had larger GM volume in the dorsal striatum when compared to HC-participants. This increase correlated positively with the severity of self-reported social anxiety...

  2. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie; van Steenbergen, Henk; Pannekoek, J. Nienke; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Lochner, Christine; Hattingh, Coenraad J.; Cremers, Henk R.; Furmark, Tomas; Mansson, Kristoffer N. T.; Frick, Andreas; Engman, Jonas; Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Fredrikson, Mats; Straube, Thomas; Peterburs, Jutta; Klumpp, Heide; Phanp, K. Luan; Roelofs, Karin; Veltman, Dick J.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Stein, Dan J.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in graymatter (GM) in

  3. Voxel-based morphometry multi-center mega-analysis of brain structure in social anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bas-Hoogendam, J.M.; van Steenbergen, H.; Pannekoek, J.N.; Fouche, J.-P.; Lochner, C.; Hattingh, C.J.; Cremers, H.R.; Furmark, T.; Månsson, K.N.T.; Frick, A.; Engman, J.; Boraxbekk, C.-J.; Carlbring, P.; Andersson, G.; Fredrikson, M.; Straube, T.; Peterburs, J.; Klumpp, H.; Phan, K.L.; Roelofs, K.; Veltman, D. J.; van Tol, M.-J.; Stein, D.J.; van der Wee, N.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a prevalent and disabling mental disorder, associated with significant psychiatric co-morbidity. Previous research on structural brain alterations associated with SAD has yielded inconsistent results concerning the direction of the changes in gray matter (GM) in

  4. Shared white matter alterations across emotional disorders: A voxel-based meta-analysis of fractional anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisanne Michelle Jenkins

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Distinct diagnostic categories of ED show commonalities in WM tracts with reduced FA when compared to HC, which links brain networks involved in cognitive and affective processing. This meta-analysis facilitates an increased understanding of the biological markers that are shared by these ED.

  5. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Dole

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution

  6. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Marjorie; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS) in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution anomalies and the

  7. Brain tissues atrophy is not always the best structural biomarker of physiological aging: A multimodal cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Andrea; Caligiuri, Maria Eugenia; Péran, Patrice; Sabatini, Umberto; Cosentino, Carlo; Amato, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a voxel-based multiple regression analysis of different magnetic resonance image modalities, including anatomical T1-weighted, T2* relaxometry, and diffusion tensor imaging. Quantitative parameters sensitive to complementary brain tissue alterations, including morphometric atrophy, mineralization, microstructural damage, and anisotropy loss, were compared in a linear physiological aging model in 140 healthy subjects (range 20-74 years). The performance of different predictors and the identification of the best biomarker of age-induced structural variation were compared without a priori anatomical knowledge. The best quantitative predictors in several brain regions were iron deposition and microstructural damage, rather than macroscopic tissue atrophy. Age variations were best resolved with a combination of markers, suggesting that multiple predictors better capture age-induced tissue alterations. These findings highlight the importance of a combined evaluation of multimodal biomarkers for the study of aging and point to a number of novel applications for the method described.

  8. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging study of treatment-naïve adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany M Chaim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Attention-Deficit/Hiperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a prevalent disorder, but its neuroanatomical circuitry is still relatively understudied, especially in the adult population. The few morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies available to date have found heterogeneous results. This may be at least partly attributable to some well-known technical limitations of the conventional voxel-based methods usually employed to analyze such neuroimaging data. Moreover, there is a great paucity of imaging studies of adult ADHD to date that have excluded patients with history of use of stimulant medication. METHODS: A newly validated method named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA was applied to multimodal (structural and DTI MRI data acquired from 22 treatment-naïve ADHD adults and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC. RESULTS: Regarding DTI data, we found higher fractional anisotropy in ADHD relative to HC encompassing the white matter (WM of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal left gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus; reductions in trace (a measure of diffusivity in ADHD relative to HC were also found in fronto-striatal-parieto-occipital circuits, including the right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral cingulate gyrus, as well as the left body and right splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi. Volumetric abnormalities in ADHD subjects were found only at a trend level of significance, including reduced gray matter (GM in the right angular gyrus, and increased GM in the right supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that adult ADHD is associated

  9. Relationship between structural brainstem and brain plasticity and lower-limb training in spinal cord injury: a longitudinal pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eVilliger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI. However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study assessed training improvement-induced structural brain plasticity in chronic iSCI patients using longitudinal MRI.We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM to analyze longitudinal brain volume changes associated with intensive virtual reality (VR-augmented lower limb training in nine traumatic iSCI patients. The MRI data was acquired before and after a 4-week training period (16-20 training sessions. Before training, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and voxel-based cortical thickness (VBCT assessed baseline morphometric differences in nine iSCI patients compared to 14 healthy controls. The intense VR-augmented training of limb control improved significantly balance, walking speed, ambulation, and muscle strength in patients. Retention of clinical improvements was confirmed by the 3-4 months follow-up. In patients relative to controls, reductions in VBM of white matter volume within the brainstem and cerebellum and VBCT showed cortical thinning in the primary motor cortex. Over time, TBM revealed significant improvement-induced increases in the left middle temporal and occipital gyrus, left temporal pole and fusiform gyrus, both hippocampi, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and brainstem in iSCI patients. This study demonstrates structural plasticity at the cortical and brainstem level as a consequence of VR-augmented training in iSCI patients. These structural changes may serve as neuroimaging biomarkers of VR-augmented lower limb neurorehabilitation in addition to performance measures to detect improvements in rehabilitative training.

  10. Relationship between structural brainstem and brain plasticity and lower-limb training in spinal cord injury: a longitudinal pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Grabher, Patrick; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Curt, Armin; Bolliger, Marc; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina; Kollias, Spyros; Eng, Kynan; Freund, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Rehabilitative training has shown to improve significantly motor outcomes and functional walking capacity in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury (iSCI). However, whether performance improvements during rehabilitation relate to brain plasticity or whether it is based on functional adaptation of movement strategies remain uncertain. This study assessed training improvement-induced structural brain plasticity in chronic iSCI patients using longitudinal MRI. We used tensor-based morphometry (TBM) to analyze longitudinal brain volume changes associated with intensive virtual reality (VR)-augmented lower limb training in nine traumatic iSCI patients. The MRI data was acquired before and after a 4-week training period (16–20 training sessions). Before training, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and voxel-based cortical thickness (VBCT) assessed baseline morphometric differences in nine iSCI patients compared to 14 healthy controls. The intense VR-augmented training of limb control improved significantly balance, walking speed, ambulation, and muscle strength in patients. Retention of clinical improvements was confirmed by the 3–4 months follow-up. In patients relative to controls, VBM revealed reductions of white matter volume within the brainstem and cerebellum and VBCT showed cortical thinning in the primary motor cortex. Over time, TBM revealed significant improvement-induced volume increases in the left middle temporal and occipital gyrus, left temporal pole and fusiform gyrus, both hippocampi, cerebellum, corpus callosum, and brainstem in iSCI patients. This study demonstrates structural plasticity at the cortical and brainstem level as a consequence of VR-augmented training in iSCI patients. These structural changes may serve as neuroimaging biomarkers of VR-augmented lower limb neurorehabilitation in addition to performance measures to detect improvements in rehabilitative training. PMID:25999842

  11. Multimodal Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Treatment-Naïve Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaim, Tiffany M.; Zhang, Tianhao; Zanetti, Marcus V.; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Louzã, Mário R.; Doshi, Jimit; Serpa, Mauricio H.; Duran, Fabio L. S.; Caetano, Sheila C.; Davatzikos, Christos; Busatto, Geraldo F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Attention-Deficit/Hiperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent disorder, but its neuroanatomical circuitry is still relatively understudied, especially in the adult population. The few morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies available to date have found heterogeneous results. This may be at least partly attributable to some well-known technical limitations of the conventional voxel-based methods usually employed to analyze such neuroimaging data. Moreover, there is a great paucity of imaging studies of adult ADHD to date that have excluded patients with history of use of stimulant medication. Methods A newly validated method named optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis (ODVBA) was applied to multimodal (structural and DTI) MRI data acquired from 22 treatment-naïve ADHD adults and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC). Results Regarding DTI data, we found higher fractional anisotropy in ADHD relative to HC encompassing the white matter (WM) of the bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right middle frontal left gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, bilateral cingulate gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus and right superior temporal gyrus; reductions in trace (a measure of diffusivity) in ADHD relative to HC were also found in fronto-striatal-parieto-occipital circuits, including the right superior frontal gyrus and bilateral middle frontal gyrus, right precentral gyrus, left middle occipital gyrus and bilateral cingulate gyrus, as well as the left body and right splenium of the corpus callosum, right superior corona radiata, and right superior longitudinal and fronto-occipital fasciculi. Volumetric abnormalities in ADHD subjects were found only at a trend level of significance, including reduced gray matter (GM) in the right angular gyrus, and increased GM in the right supplementary motor area and superior frontal gyrus. Conclusions Our results suggest that adult ADHD is associated with

  12. Test-retest reliability of graph metrics in high-resolution functional connectomics: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hai-Xiao; Liao, Xu-Hong; Lin, Qi-Xiang; Li, Gu-Shu; Chi, Yu-Ze; Liu, Xiang; Yang, Hua-Zhong; Wang, Yu; Xia, Ming-Rui

    2015-10-01

    The combination of resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) technique and graph theoretical approaches has emerged as a promising tool for characterizing the topological organization of brain networks, that is, functional connectomics. In particular, the construction and analysis of high-resolution brain connectomics at a voxel scale are important because they do not require prior regional parcellations and provide finer spatial information about brain connectivity. However, the test-retest reliability of voxel-based functional connectomics remains largely unclear. This study tended to investigate both short-term (∼20 min apart) and long-term (6 weeks apart) test-retest (TRT) reliability of graph metrics of voxel-based brain networks. Based on graph theoretical approaches, we analyzed R-fMRI data from 53 young healthy adults who completed two scanning sessions (session 1 included two scans 20 min apart; session 2 included one scan that was performed after an interval of ∼6 weeks). The high-resolution networks exhibited prominent small-world and modular properties and included functional hubs mainly located at the default-mode, salience, and executive control systems. Further analysis revealed that test-retest reliabilities of network metrics were sensitive to the scanning orders and intervals, with fair to excellent long-term reliability between Scan 1 and Scan 3 and lower reliability involving Scan 2. In the long-term case (Scan 1 and Scan 3), most network metrics were generally test-retest reliable, with the highest reliability in global metrics in the clustering coefficient and in the nodal metrics in nodal degree and efficiency. We showed high test-retest reliability for graph properties in the high-resolution functional connectomics, which provides important guidance for choosing reliable network metrics and analysis strategies in future studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Brain mapping for long-term recovery of gait after supratentorial stroke: A retrospective cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hyun; Kyeong, Sunghyon; Do, Kyung Hee; Lim, Seong Kyu; Cho, Hyong Keun; Jung, Suk; Kim, Hye Won

    2018-04-01

    The recovery of independent gait after stroke is a main goal of patients and understanding the relationship between brain lesions and the recovery of gait can help physicians set viable rehabilitation plans. Our study investigated the association between variables of gait parameters and brain lesions.Fifty poststroke patients with a mean age of 67.5 ± 1.3 years and an average duration after onset of 62.2 ± 7.9 months were included. Three-dimensional gait analysis and magnetic resonance imaging were conducted for all patients. Twelve quantified gait parameters of temporal-spatial, kinematic, and kinetic data were used. To correlate gait parameters with specific brain lesions, we used a voxel-based lesion symptom mapping analysis. Statistical significance was set to an uncorrected P value 10 voxels.Based on the location of a brain lesion, the following results were obtained: The posterior limb of the internal capsule was significantly associated with gait speed and increased knee extension in the stance phase. The hippocampus and frontal lobe were significantly associated with cadence. The proximal corona radiata was significantly associated with stride length and affected the hip maximal extension angle in the stance phase. The paracentral lobule was significantly associated with the affected knee maximal flexion angle in the swing phase and with the affected ankle maximal dorsiflexion angle in the stance phase. The frontal lobe, thalamus, and the lentiform nucleus were associated with kinetic gait parameters.Cortical, proximal white matter, and learning-related and motor-related areas are mainly associated with one's walking ability after stroke.

  14. PET studies in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik and Max-Planck-Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ({sup 18}F-F-DOPA) and for ({sup 11}C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs.

  15. Longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogomori, Koji; Takano, Koichi; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Nakano, Seigo; Nawata, Hideyuki; Yano, Rika; Nishimura, Ryoji; Takita, Masashi

    2009-01-01

    A longitudinal morphometric MRI study of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was conducted to determine the relationship between the progression of the symptoms and the progression of the brain atrophy. The Voxel-based Specific Regional Analysis System for Alzheimer's Disease (VSRAD), developed by Matsuda et al. was used as a method of morphometry to perform the statistical MR image analysis. Thirty-eight patients of AD patients were investigated with VSRAD. These patients were divided into two groups according to the progression of symptoms based on a clinical evaluation. One group was the progress group (20 patients), while the other group was the stable group (18 patients) for comparison. The relationship was investigated between the speed of the symptomatic progression and the change in each VSRAD indicator. Consequently, the entorhinal Z-score and the entorhinal atrophy rate showed a correlation with the speed of the symptomatic progression. The increase of the entorhinal Z-score in the follow-up was larger in the progress group than that in the stable group (0.65/1.28 years in the progress group and 0.05/1.26 years in the stable group.). These results suggest that a rapid symptomatic progression in an AD patient accompanies the rapid progression of atrophy in the entorhinal cortex. (author)

  16. Tinnitus: A Large VBM-EEG Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; Van De Heyning, Paul; De Ridder, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    A surprising fact in voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies performed in tinnitus is that not one single region is replicated in studies of different centers. The question then rises whether this is related to the low sample size of these studies, the selection of non-representative patient subgroups, or the absence of stratification according to clinical characteristics. Another possibility is that VBM is not a good tool to study functional pathologies such as tinnitus, in contrast to pathologies like Alzheimer’s disease where it is known the pathology is related to cell loss. In a large sample of 154 tinnitus patients VBM and QEEG (Quantitative Electroencephalography) was performed and evaluated by a regression analysis. Correlation analyses are performed between VBM and QEEG data. Uncorrected data demonstrated structural differences in grey matter in hippocampal and cerebellar areas related to tinnitus related distress and tinnitus duration. After control for multiple comparisons, only cerebellar VBM changes remain significantly altered. Electrophysiological differences are related to distress, tinnitus intensity, and tinnitus duration in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampus, which confirms previous results. The absence of QEEG-VBM correlations suggest functional changes are not reflected by co-occurring structural changes in tinnitus, and the absence of VBM changes (except for the cerebellum) that survive correct statistical analysis in a large study population suggests that VBM might not be very sensitive for studying tinnitus. PMID:25781934

  17. Subregional Basal Forebrain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease: A Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilimann, Ingo; Grothe, Michel; Heinsen, Helmut; Alho, Eduardo Joaquim Lopez; Grinberg, Lea; Amaro, Edson; dos Santos, Gláucia Aparecida Bento; da Silva, Rafael Emídio; Mitchell, Alex J.; Frisoni, Giovanni B.; Bokde, Arun L.W.; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Filippi, Massimo; Hampel, Harald; Klöppel, Stefan; Teipel, Stefan J.

    2014-01-01

    Histopathological studies in Alzheimer's disease (AD) suggest severe and region-specific neurodegeneration of the basal forebrain cholinergic system (BFCS). Here, we studied the between-center reliability and diagnostic accuracy of MRI-based BFCS volumetry in a large multicenter data set, including participants with prodromal (n = 41) or clinically manifest AD (n = 134) and 148 cognitively healthy controls. Atrophy was determined using voxel-based and region-of-interest based analyses of high-dimensionally normalized MRI scans using a newly created map of the BFCS based on postmortem in cranio MRI and histology. The AD group showed significant volume reductions of all subregions of the BFCS, which were most pronounced in the posterior nucleus basalis Meynert (NbM). The mild cognitive impairment-AD group showed pronounced volume reductions in the posterior NbM, but preserved volumes of anterior-medial regions. Diagnostic accuracy of posterior NbM volume was superior to hippocampus volume in both groups, despite higher multicenter variability of the BFCS measurements. The data of our study suggest that BFCS morphometry may provide an emerging biomarker in AD. PMID:24503619

  18. Voxel-based gray and white matter morphometry correlates of hallucinations in schizophrenia : The superior temporal gyrus does not stand alone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Meer, Lisette; Bruggeman, Richard; Modinos, Gemma; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in schizophrenia (SZ) have been proposed to result from abnormal local, interregional and interhemispheric integration of brain signals in regions involved in language production and perception. This abnormal functional integration may find its base

  19. Gray and white matter density changes in monozygotic and same-sex dizygotic twins discordant for schizophrenia using voxel-based morphometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshoff Pol, HE; Schnack, HG; Mandl, RC

    2006-01-01

    best reflect the genetic and environmental risk factors in the brains of patients with schizophrenia remains unresolved. 1.5-T MRI brain scans of 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic twin-pairs discordant for schizophrenia were compared to 11 monozygotic and 11 same-sex dizygotic healthy control......Global gray matter brain tissue volume decreases in schizophrenia have been associated to disease-related (possibly nongenetic) factors. Global white matter brain tissue volume decreases were related to genetic risk factors for the disease. However, which focal gray and white matter brain regions...... gyrus in twin-pairs discordant for schizophrenia as compared to healthy twin-pairs. Focal changes in left medial (orbito)frontal and left sensory motor gyri may reflect the increased genetic risk to develop schizophrenia. Focal changes in the left anterior hemisphere may therefore be particularly...

  20. Non-invasive MR perfusion study in patients with depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Su; Huang Xiaoqi; Zou Ling; Li Dongming; Tang Hehan; Yang Hong; Zhang Tijiang; Li Xiuli; Gong Qiyong; Sun Xueli; Zou Ke

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the brain perfusion changes in patients with refractory depressive disorder (RDD) and non-refractory depressive disorder (NDD) using arterial spin labeling (ASL). Methods: Present study included 12 patients with RDD, 37 patients with NDD and 42 controls, and their age, sex and handedness were matched among the three groups. FAIR sequences were performed using a 3 T MR imaging system with an 8 channel phase array head coil. The labelled and controled images were subtracted and then averaged to obtain perfusion-weighted images. The first 2 images were excluded to avoid T 1 equilibrium effects and then voxel based analysis was performed using SPM2. One way ANOVA analysis using age as covariance (thresholded at P<0.01 uncorrected) was performed. Results: Patients with NDD showed regional alteration of the brain perfusion, mainly involved in two frontal- subcortical circuits, i.e. significantly decreased perfusion in the left frontal and thalamus (the limbic- thalamo-cortical circuit) whereas significantly increased perfusion in bilateral hippocampi, right lentiform and left anterior cingulated gyms (the limbic-striatal-pallidal-thalamic circuit). In contrast, patients with RDD presented significantly decreased perfusion involving bilateral frontal areas (the limbic-thalamo-cortical circuit) whereby no significantly increased perfusion areas were observed. Conclusion: In addition to the reported experimental evidences, our results suggest that the RDD is associated with inactivity of bilateral frontal areas, while the NDD is associated with inactivity of left frontal areas and overaetivity of bilateral limbic system. (authors)

  1. Brain imaging studies of sleep disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masaki; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Brain imaging studies of narcolepsy (NA)/cataplexy (CA), a typical sleep disorder, are summarized together with techniques of functional and structural imaging means. single photon emission CT (SPECT) is based on the distribution of tracers labeled by single photon emitters like 99m Tc and 123 I for seeing the blood flow and receptors. PET using positron emitters like 15 O and 18 F for blood flow and for glucose metabolism, respectively, is of higher resolution and more quantitative than SPECT. Functional MRI (fMRI) depicts the cerebral activity through signal difference by blood oxygenation level dependence (BOLD) effect, and MR spectroscopy (MRS) depicts and quantifies biomaterials through the difference of their nuclear chemical shifts in the magnetic field. Morphologic imaging studies involve the measurement of the volume of the region of interest by comparison with the reference region such as the whole brain volume. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) has changed to its more advanced surface-based analysis (SBA) of T1-enhanced image. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is based on the tissue water diffusion. Functional SPECT/PET studies have suggested the decrease of blood flow and metabolic activity in the hypothalamus (HT) and other related regions at the conscious resting state, and locally increased blood flow in cingulate gyrus (CG) and amygdaloid complex (AC) at affective CA/PA seizure. fMRI has suggested the hypoactivity of HT and hyperactivity of AC at the seizure. VBM-based studies have not given the consistent results, but DTI studies have suggested an important participation of AC at the seizure. (T.T.)

  2. Sex differences in the IQ-white matter microstructure relationship: a DTI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Beate; Benedek, Mathias; Koschutnig, Karl; Jauk, Emanuel; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2014-11-01

    Sex differences in the relationship between general intelligence and brain structure are a topic of increasing research interest. Early studies focused mainly on gray and white matter differences using voxel-based morphometry, while more recent studies investigated neural fiber tracts using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze the white matter microstructure. In this study we used tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) on DTI to test how intelligence is associated with brain diffusion indices and to see whether this relationship differs between men and women. 63 Men and women divided into groups of lower and higher intelligence were selected. Whole-brain DTI scans were analyzed using TBSS calculating maps of fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity (AD). The results reveal that the white matter microstructure differs between individuals as a function of intelligence and sex. In men, higher intelligence was related to higher FA and lower RD in the corpus callosum. In women, in contrast, intelligence was not related to the white matter microstructure. The higher values of FA and lower values of RD suggest that intelligence is associated with higher myelination and/or a higher number of axons particularly in men. This microstructural difference in the corpus callosum may increase cognitive functioning by reducing inter-hemispheric transfer time and thus account for more efficient brain functioning in men. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A FEASIBILITY STUDY ON USE OF GENERIC MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEM FOR DETECTING ASPHALT PAVEMENT CRACKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to automatically detect pavement cracks on urban roads by employing the 3D point clouds acquired by a mobile laser scanning (MLS system. Our method consists of four steps: ground point filtering, high-pass convolution, matched filtering, and noise removal. First, a voxel-based upward growing method is applied to construct Digital Terrain Model (DTM of the road surface. Then, a high-pass filter convolutes the DTM to detect local elevation changes that may embed cracking information. Next, a two-step matched filter is applied to extract crack features. Lastly, a noise removal process is conducted to refine the results. Instead of using MLS intensity, this study takes advantages of the MLS elevation information to perform automated crack detection from large-volume, mixed-density, unstructured MLS point clouds. Four types of cracks including longitudinal, transvers, random, and alligator cracks are detected. Our results demonstrated that the proposed method works well with the RIEGL VMX-450 point clouds and can detect cracks in moderate-to-severe severity (13 - 25 mm within a 200 m by 30 m urban road segment located in Kingston, Ontario, at one time. Due to the resolution capability, small cracks with slight severity remain unclear in the MLS point cloud.

  4. Gender and hemispheric differences in temporal lobe epilepsy: a VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria Teresa Castilho Garcia; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Britto, Fernanda Dos Santos; Sandim, Gabriel Barbosa; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Centeno, Ricardo Silva; Carrete, Henrique; Yacubian, Elza Márcia Targas

    2014-04-01

    Gender differences are recognized in the functional and anatomical organization of the human brain. Differences between genders are probably expressed early in life, when differential rates of cerebral maturation occur. Sexual dimorphism has been described in temporal lobe epilepsy with mesial temporal sclerosis (TLE-MTS). Several voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have shown that TLE-MTS extends beyond mesial temporal structures, and that there are differences in the extent of anatomical damage between hemispheres, although none have approached gender differences. Our aim was to investigate gender differences and anatomical abnormalities in TLE-MTS. VBM5 was employed to analyze gender and hemispheric differences in 120 patients with TLE-MTS and 50 controls. VBM abnormalities were more widespread in left-TLE; while in women changes were mostly seen in temporal areas, frontal regions were more affected in men. Our study confirmed that gender and laterality are important factors determining the nature and severity of brain damage in TLE-MTS. Differential rates of maturation between gender and hemispheres may explain the distinct areas of anatomical damage in men and women. Copyright © 2013 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alternations of functional connectivity in amblyopia patients: a resting-state fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieqiong; Hu, Ling; Li, Wenjing; Xian, Junfang; Ai, Likun; He, Huiguang

    2014-03-01

    Amblyopia is a common yet hard-to-cure disease in children and results in poor or blurred vision. Some efforts such as voxel-based analysis, cortical thickness analysis have been tried to reveal the pathogenesis of amblyopia. However, few studies focused on alterations of the functional connectivity (FC) in amblyopia. In this study, we analyzed the abnormalities of amblyopia patients by both the seed-based FC with the left/right primary visual cortex and the network constructed throughout the whole brain. Experiments showed the following results: (1)As for the seed-based FC analysis, FC between superior occipital gyrus and the primary visual cortex was found to significantly decrease in both sides. The abnormalities were also found in lingual gyrus. The results may reflect functional deficits both in dorsal stream and ventral stream. (2)Two increased functional connectivities and 64 decreased functional connectivities were found in the whole brain network analysis. The decreased functional connectivities most concentrate in the temporal cortex. The results suggest that amblyopia may be caused by the deficits in the visual information transmission.

  6. Volumetric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Brain and Cerebellum in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kułak, Piotr; Maciorkowska, Elżbieta; Gościk, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are rarely used in the diagnosis of patients with cerebral palsy. The aim of present study was to assess the relationships between the volumetric MRI and clinical findings in children with cerebral palsy compared to control subjects. Materials and Methods. Eighty-two children with cerebral palsy and 90 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were collected. Results. The dominant changes identified on MRI scans in children with cerebral palsy were periventricular leukomalacia (42%) and posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (21%). The total brain and cerebellum volumes in children with cerebral palsy were significantly reduced in comparison to controls. Significant grey matter volume reduction was found in the total brain in children with cerebral palsy compared with the control subjects. Positive correlations between the age of the children of both groups and the grey matter volumes in the total brain were found. Negative relationship between width of third ventricle and speech development was found in the patients. Positive correlations were noted between the ventricles enlargement and motor dysfunction and mental retardation in children with cerebral palsy. Conclusions. By using the voxel-based morphometry, the total brain, cerebellum, and grey matter volumes were significantly reduced in children with cerebral palsy.

  7. Semi-automatic forensic approach using mandibular midline lingual structures as fingerprint: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, E; Mowafy, B; Politis, C; Jacobs, R

    2017-12-01

    Previous research proposed the use of the mandibular midline neurovascular canal structures as a forensic finger print. In their observer study, an average correct identification of 95% was reached which triggered this study. To present a semi-automatic computer recognition approach to replace the observers and to validate the accuracy of this newly proposed method. Imaging data from Computer Tomography (CT) and Cone Beam Computer Tomography (CBCT) of mandibles scanned at two different moments were collected to simulate an AM and PM situation where the first scan presented AM and the second scan was used to simulate PM. Ten cases with 20 scans were used to build a classifier which relies on voxel based matching and results with classification into one of two groups: "Unmatched" and "Matched". This protocol was then tested using five other scans out of the database. Unpaired t-testing was applied and accuracy of the computerized approach was determined. A significant difference was found between the "Unmatched" and "Matched" classes with means of 0.41 and 0.86 respectively. Furthermore, the testing phase showed an accuracy of 100%. The validation of this method pushes this protocol further to a fully automatic identification procedure for victim identification based on the mandibular midline canals structures only in cases with available AM and PM CBCT/CT data.

  8. Changes in the gray matter volume during compensation after vestibular neuritis: a longitudinal VBM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung-Kwang; Kim, Ja Hee; Kim, Hyung-Jong; Lee, Hyo-Jeong

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral vestibular dysfunction following vestibular neuritis (VN) often persists but functional recovery of balance can be variable. The authors compared structural changes in the brain before and after post-VN compensation and related it to the functional recovery. Nine patients diagnosed with unilateral VN were included. Brain MRI and clinical observation were performed within 2 days of acute VN diagnosis and were repeated 3 months after the first exam. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis for longitudinal data was performed using VBM8 toolbox running within SPM8. Changes in local grey matter volume (GMV) were examined using a paired t-test and clinical relevance was tested using correlation analyses with functional improvement. Significant increases in GMV were observed in the vestibular cortex, bilateral hippocampus, visual cortices and the cerebellum. GMV decreased in cerebellar regions, including the vermis, and in the prefrontal cortex. Increases in GMV in visual cortices and cerebellum were associated with the poorest recovery of balance, which might be explained by functional substitution. The structural layout of vestibular compensation suggests that memory and motor planning are closely related to this process. Vision seems to be a major source of functional substitution, as has been previously demonstrated. This study, however, is the first longitudinal analysis of brain structural changes associated with recovery of balance following unilateral VN.

  9. Brain Abnormalities in Congenital Fibrosis of the Extraocular Muscles Type 1: A Multimodal MRI Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Wen; Man, Fengyuan; Wu, Shaoqin; Lv, Bin; Wang, Zhenchang; Xian, Junfang; Sabel, Bernhard A; He, Huiguang; Jiao, Yonghong

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possible brain structural and functional alterations in congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) patients using multimodal MRI imaging. T1-weighted, diffusion tensor images and functional MRI data were obtained from 9 KIF21A positive patients and 19 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Voxel based morphometry and tract based spatial statistics were applied to the T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images, respectively. Amplitude of low frequency fluctuations and regional homogeneity were used to process the functional MRI data. We then compared these multimodal characteristics between CFEOM1 patients and healthy controls. Compared with healthy controls, CFEOM1 patients demonstrated increased grey matter volume in bilateral frontal orbital cortex and in the right temporal pole. No diffusion indices changes were detected, indicating unaffected white matter microstructure. In addition, from resting state functional MRI data, trend of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations increases were noted in the right inferior parietal lobe and in the right frontal cortex, and a trend of ReHo increase (pabnormality of extraocular muscles and their innervating nerves. Future studies should consider the possible correlations between brain morphological/functional findings and clinical data, especially pertaining to eye movements, to obtain more precise answers about the role of brain area changes and their functional consequence in CFEOM1.

  10. Reduced thalamic volume in Parkinson disease with REM sleep behavior disorder: volumetric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsone, M; Cerasa, A; Arabia, G; Morelli, M; Gambardella, A; Mumoli, L; Nisticò, R; Vescio, B; Quattrone, A

    2014-09-01

    REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common non motor feature of Parkinson's Disease (PD) affecting about half the patients with this disease. Distinct structural brain tissue abnormalities have been reported in several regions modulating REM sleep of the patients with idiopathic RBD. At the present time, there are no conventional MRI studies investigating patients with PD associated with RBD. Herein, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to detect the neuroanatomical profile of PD patients with and without RBD. Optimized VBM was applied to the MRI brain images in 11 PD patients with RBD (PD-RBD), 11 PD patients without RBD (PD) and 18 age-and sex-matched controls. To corroborate VBM findings we used automated volumetric method (FreeSurfer) to quantify subcortical brain regions volumes. Patients and controls also underwent DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies. The VBM analysis showed markedly reduced gray matter volume in the right thalamus of PD-RBD patients in comparison with PD patients and controls. Automatic thalamic segmentation in PD-RBD patients showed a bilaterally reduced thalamic volume as compared with PD patients or controls. All PD patients (with and without RBD) showed a reduced tracer uptake on DAT-SPECT and cardiac MIBG scintigraphies as compared to controls. Our findings suggest that the presence of RBD symptoms in PD patients is associated with a reduced thalamic volume suggesting a pathophysiologic role of the thalamus in the complex circuit causing RBD. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The effect of hard tissue surgical changes on soft tissue displacement: a pilot CBCT study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Koerich

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: This pilot study had as main objective to test the reliability of a new method to evaluate orthognathic surgery outcomes and also, to understand the effect of hard tissue changes on soft tissue displacement. Methods: The sample consisted of eight patients that underwent bimaxillary advancement and had CBCT at two time points (before surgery and 6-8 months follow-up. Voxel-based cranial base superimposition was used to register the scans. A different technique of iterative closest point (ICP was used to measure and correlate the changes. The average displacement of 15 areas (4 hard tissue and 11 soft tissue were measured twice. Results: ICC was > 0.99 for all areas. Changes in the tip of the nose did not correlate with changes in any maxillary area, whereas soft tissue A point, A point and upper lips had correlation with several areas. The highest correlation for the maxilla was between the upper lip and the left/right supra cheilion (p< 0.001, r= 0.91 and p< 0.001, r= 0.93, respectively. In the mandible, the majority of the correlations involved soft tissue pogonion, pogonion and lower incisors, with the strongest one between pogonion and lower incisors (p< 0.001, r= 0.98. Conclusion: With the proper case selection, ICP is a reliable method that can be used to assess three-dimensional changes.

  12. Motor function deficits in schizophrenia: an fMRI and VBM study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sadhana; Modi, Shilpi; Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Namita; Khushu, Subash [Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), NMR Research Center, Delhi (India); Goyal, Satnam; Bhatia, Triptish; Deshpande, Smita N. [RML Hospital, PGIMER, New Delhi (India)

    2014-05-15

    To investigate whether the motor functional alterations in schizophrenia (SZ) are also associated with structural changes in the related brain areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). A sample of 14 right-handed SZ patients and 14 right-handed healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and education were examined with structural high-resolution T1-weighted MRI; fMRI images were obtained during right index finger-tapping task in the same session. fMRI results showed reduced functional activation in the motor areas (contralateral precentral and postcentral gyrus) and ipsilateral cerebellum in SZ subjects as compared to healthy controls (n = 14). VBM analysis also revealed reduced grey matter in motor areas and white matter reduction in cerebellum of SZ subjects as compared to controls. The present study provides an evidence for a possible association between structural alterations in the motor cortex and disturbed functional activation in the motor areas in persons affected with SZ during a simple finger-tapping task. (orig.)

  13. STUDY ON THE EXPLAINABLE ABILITY BY USING AIRBORNE LIDAR IN STAND VALUE AND STAND COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Huang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Forest canopy structure is composed by the various species. Sun light is a main factor to affect the crown structures after tree competition. However, thinning operation is an appropriate way to control canopy density, which can adjust the competition conditions in the different crown structures. Recently, Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR, has been established as a standard technology for high precision three dimensional forest data acquisition; it could get stand characteristics with three-dimensional information that had develop potential for the structure characteristics of forest canopy. The 65 years old, different planting density of Cryptomeria japonica experiment area was selected for this study in Nanytou, Taiwan. Use the LiDAR image to estimate LiDAR characteristic values by constructed CHM, voxel-based LiDAR, mu0ltiple echoes, and assess the accuracy of stand characteristics with intensity values and field data. The competition index was calculated with field data, and estimate competition index of LiDAR via multiple linear regression. The results showed that the highest accuracy with stand characteristics was stand high which estimate by LiDAR, its average accuracy of 91.03%. LiDAR raster grid size was 20 m × 20 m for the correlation was the best, however, the higher canopy density will reduce the accuracy of the LiDAR characteristic values to estimate the stand characteristics. The significantly affect canopy thickness and the degree of competition in different planting distances.