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Sample records for g-protein-coupled receptor kinase

  1. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 promotes cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscheschner, Henrike; Gao, Erhe; Schumacher, Sarah M.; Yuan, Ancai; Backs, Johannes; Most, Patrick; Wieland, Thomas; Koch, Walter J.; Katus, Hugo A.; Raake, Philip W.

    2017-01-01

    The increase in protein activity and upregulation of G-protein coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a hallmark of cardiac stress and heart failure. Inhibition of GRK2 improved cardiac function and survival and diminished cardiac remodeling in various animal heart failure models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of GRK2 on cardiac hypertrophy and dissect potential molecular mechanisms. In mice we observed increased GRK2 mRNA and protein levels following transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Conditional GRK2 knockout mice showed attenuated hypertrophic response with preserved ventricular geometry 6 weeks after TAC operation compared to wild-type animals. In isolated neonatal rat ventricular cardiac myocytes stimulation with angiotensin II and phenylephrine enhanced GRK2 expression leading to enhanced signaling via protein kinase B (PKB or Akt), consecutively inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β), such promoting nuclear accumulation and activation of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT). Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy induced by in vitro GRK2 overexpression increased the cytosolic interaction of GRK2 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ). Moreover, inhibition of PI3Kγ as well as GRK2 knock down prevented Akt activation resulting in halted NFAT activity and reduced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Our data show that enhanced GRK2 expression triggers cardiac hypertrophy by GRK2-PI3Kγ mediated Akt phosphorylation and subsequent inactivation of GSK3β, resulting in enhanced NFAT activity. PMID:28759639

  2. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases control expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Juliane; Lerche Hansen, Jakob; Haunsø, Stig

    2002-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates G protein-coupled receptors resulting in uncoupling from G proteins. Receptors modulate GRK2 expression, however the mechanistic basis for this effect is largely unknown. Here we report a novel mechanism by which receptors use...

  3. The Role of G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinases in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shan; Sun, Litao; Jiao, Yufei; Lee, Leo Tsz On

    2018-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of plasma membrane receptors. Emerging evidence demonstrates that signaling through GPCRs affects numerous aspects of cancer biology such as vascular remolding, invasion, and migration. Therefore, development of GPCR-targeted drugs could provide a new therapeutic strategy to treating a variety of cancers. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) modulate GPCR signaling by interacting with the ligand-activated GPCR and phosphorylating its intracellular domain. This phosphorylation initiates receptor desensitization and internalization, which inhibits downstream signaling pathways related to cancer progression. GRKs can also regulate non-GPCR substrates, resulting in the modulation of a different set of pathophysiological pathways. In this review, we will discuss the role of GRKs in modulating cell signaling and cancer progression, as well as the therapeutic potential of targeting GRKs. PMID:29483837

  4. Characterization and functional analyses of the human G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkamp, Sandra; Telgmann, Ralph; Staessen, Jan A; Hagedorn, Claudia; Dördelmann, Corinna; Bek, Martin; Brand-Herrmann, Stefan-Martin; Brand, Eva

    2008-10-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 is involved in renal sodium handling and blood pressure regulation. Missense variants have already been tested functionally and are associated with hypertension, but no data on promoter analyses are yet available. We scanned 94 hypertensive white subjects for genetic variation and performed promoter reporter gene analyses in HEK293T, COS7, and SaOs-2 cells. Transient transfections with various full lengths and wild-type deletion constructs revealed that 1851 bp of the flanking region and 275 bp of the 5'-untranslated region were sufficient for transcriptional activities and composed a powerful cis-active element in the distal 293 bp. The -1702T and +2T alleles resulted in drastic general reductions of promoter function, whereas an activity increasing effect of +268C was cell type specific. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assay, supershift, and cotransfection analyses of transcription factor binding sites predicted in silico (Alibaba2.1/Transfac7) resulted in allele-specific binding patterns of nuclear proteins and identified the participation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein transcription factor family members. The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 core promoter resides in the first 1851 bp upstream of its transcription start site. The 4 identified genetic variants within this region exert allele-specific impact on both cell type- and stimulation-dependent transcription and may affect the expression balance of renal G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4.

  5. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 negatively regulates chemokine signaling at a level downstream from G protein subunits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Sainz, MC; Murga, C; Kavelaars, A; Jurado-Pueyo, M; Krakstad, BF; Heijnen, CJ; Mayor, F; Aragay, AM

    The G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates and desensitizes ligand-activated G protein-coupled-receptors. Here, evidence is shown for a novel role of GRK2 in regulating chemokine-mediated signals. The presence of increased levels of GRK2 in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells

  6. Molecular basis for activation of G protein-coupled receptor kinases

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    Boguth, Cassandra A.; Singh, Puja; Huang, Chih-chin; Tesmer, John J.G. (Michigan)

    2012-03-16

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) selectively recognize and are allosterically regulated by activated GPCRs, but the molecular basis for this interaction is not understood. Herein, we report crystal structures of GRK6 in which regions known to be critical for receptor phosphorylation have coalesced to stabilize the kinase domain in a closed state and to form a likely receptor docking site. The crux of this docking site is an extended N-terminal helix that bridges the large and small lobes of the kinase domain and lies adjacent to a basic surface of the protein proposed to bind anionic phospholipids. Mutation of exposed, hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal helix selectively inhibits receptor, but not peptide phosphorylation, suggesting that these residues interact directly with GPCRs. Our structural and biochemical results thus provide an explanation for how receptor recognition, phospholipid binding, and kinase activation are intimately coupled in GRKs.

  7. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases control expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, Juliane; Lerche Hansen, Jakob; Haunsø, Stig

    2002-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) phosphorylates G protein-coupled receptors resulting in uncoupling from G proteins. Receptors modulate GRK2 expression, however the mechanistic basis for this effect is largely unknown. Here we report a novel mechanism by which receptors use...... the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) cascade to regulate GRK2 cellular levels. ERK activation by receptor stimulation elevated endogenous GRK2 while antagonist treatment decreased cellular GRK2. Activating ERK by overexpressing constitutive active MEK-1 or Ras elevated GRK2 protein levels while blocking...

  8. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 gene variants in human essential hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Robin A.; Sanada, Hironobu; Xu, Jing; Yu, Pei-Ying; Wang, Zheng; Watanabe, Hidetsuna; Asico, Laureano D.; Wang, Wei; Zheng, Shaopeng; Yamaguchi, Ikuyo; Williams, Scott M.; Gainer, James; Brown, Nancy J.; Hazen-Martin, Debra; Wong, Lee-Jun C.; Robillard, Jean E.; Carey, Robert M.; Eisner, Gilbert M.; Jose, Pedro A.

    2002-01-01

    Essential hypertension has a heritability as high as 30–50%, but its genetic cause(s) has not been determined despite intensive investigation. The renal dopaminergic system exerts a pivotal role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance and participates in the pathogenesis of genetic hypertension. In genetic hypertension, the ability of dopamine and D1-like agonists to increase urinary sodium excretion is impaired. A defective coupling between the D1 dopamine receptor and the G protein/effector enzyme complex in the proximal tubule of the kidney is the cause of the impaired renal dopaminergic action in genetic rodent and human essential hypertension. We now report that, in human essential hypertension, single nucleotide polymorphisms of a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, GRK4γ, increase G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) activity and cause the serine phosphorylation and uncoupling of the D1 receptor from its G protein/effector enzyme complex in the renal proximal tubule and in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. Moreover, expressing GRK4γA142V but not the wild-type gene in transgenic mice produces hypertension and impairs the diuretic and natriuretic but not the hypotensive effects of D1-like agonist stimulation. These findings provide a mechanism for the D1 receptor coupling defect in the kidney and may explain the inability of the kidney to properly excrete sodium in genetic hypertension. PMID:11904438

  9. Ligand-triggered de-repression of Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins coupled to immune receptor kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiangxiu; Ma, Miaomiao; Zhou, Zhaoyang; Wang, Jinlong; Yang, Xinru; Rao, Shaofei; Bi, Guozhi; Li, Lin; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chai, Jijie; Chen, She; Zhou, Jian-Min

    2018-03-15

    Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G proteins regulate diverse processes by coupling to single-transmembrane receptors. One such receptor is the FLS2 receptor kinase, which perceives bacterial flagellin epitope flg22 to activate immunity through a class of cytoplasmic kinases called BIK1/PBLs. Unlike animal and fungal heterotrimeric G proteins that are activated by a ligand-induced guanine nucleotide exchange activity of seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), plant heterotrimeric G proteins are self-activating. How plant receptors regulate heterotrimeric G proteins in response to external ligands remains unknown. Here we show that RGS1, a GTPase accelerating protein, maintains Arabidopsis G proteins in an inactive state in complex with FLS2. Activation of FLS2 by flg22 induces a BIK1/PBL-mediated phosphorylation of RGS1 at Ser428 and Ser431 and that promotes RGS1 dissociation from the FLS2-G protein complex. This relieves G proteins from the RGS1-mediated repression and enables positive regulation of immune signaling. We additionally show that RGS1 is similarly regulated by multiple immune receptors. Our results uncover ligand-induced de-repression as a mechanism for G protein signaling in plants that is distinct from previously reported mechanism underlying the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins in other systems.

  10. Structure of Human G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with the Kinase Inhibitor Balanol

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    Tesmer, John J.G.; Tesmer, Valerie M.; Lodowski, David T.; Steinhagen, Henning; Huber, Jochen (Sanofi); (Michigan); (Texas)

    2010-07-19

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. To better understand how nanomolar inhibition and selectivity for GRK2 might be achieved, we have determined crystal structures of human GRK2 in complex with G{beta}{gamma} in the presence and absence of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. The selectivity of balanol among human GRKs is assessed.

  11. Molecular Mechanism of Selectivity among G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Inhibitors

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    Thal, David M.; Yeow, Raymond Y.; Schoenau, Christian; Huber, Jochen; Tesmer, John J.G. (Sanofi); (Michigan)

    2012-07-11

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key regulators of cell physiology and control processes ranging from glucose homeostasis to contractility of the heart. A major mechanism for the desensitization of activated GPCRs is their phosphorylation by GPCR kinases (GRKs). Overexpression of GRK2 is strongly linked to heart failure, and GRK2 has long been considered a pharmaceutical target for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. Several lead compounds developed by Takeda Pharmaceuticals show high selectivity for GRK2 and therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure. To understand how these drugs achieve their selectivity, we determined crystal structures of the bovine GRK2-G{beta}{gamma} complex in the presence of two of these inhibitors. Comparison with the apoGRK2-G{beta}{gamma} structure demonstrates that the compounds bind in the kinase active site in a manner similar to that of the AGC kinase inhibitor balanol. Both balanol and the Takeda compounds induce a slight closure of the kinase domain, the degree of which correlates with the potencies of the inhibitors. Based on our crystal structures and homology modeling, we identified five amino acids surrounding the inhibitor binding site that we hypothesized could contribute to inhibitor selectivity. However, our results indicate that these residues are not major determinants of selectivity among GRK subfamilies. Rather, selectivity is achieved by the stabilization of a unique inactive conformation of the GRK2 kinase domain.

  12. Identification and Characterization of Amlexanox as a G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 Inhibitor

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    Kristoff T. Homan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs have been implicated in human diseases ranging from heart failure to diabetes. Previous studies have identified several compounds that selectively inhibit GRK2, such as paroxetine and balanol. Far fewer selective inhibitors have been reported for GRK5, a target for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy, and the mechanism of action of reported compounds is unknown. To identify novel scaffolds that selectively inhibit GRK5, a differential scanning fluorometry screen was used to probe a library of 4480 compounds. The best hit was amlexanox, an FDA-approved anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic immunomodulator. The crystal structure of amlexanox in complex with GRK1 demonstrates that its tricyclic aromatic ring system forms ATP-like interactions with the hinge of the kinase domain, which is likely similar to how this drug binds to IκB kinase ε (IKKε, another kinase known to be inhibited by this compound. Amlexanox was also able to inhibit myocyte enhancer factor 2 transcriptional activity in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes in a manner consistent with GRK5 inhibition. The GRK1 amlexanox structure thus serves as a springboard for the rational design of inhibitors with improved potency and selectivity for GRK5 and IKKε.

  13. Selective engagement of G protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) encodes distinct functions of biased ligands

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    Zidar, David A.; Violin, Jonathan D.; Whalen, Erin J.; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    CCL19 and CCL21 are endogenous agonists for the seven-transmembrane receptor CCR7. They are equally active in promoting G protein stimulation and chemotaxis. Yet, we find that they result in striking differences in activation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/ß-arrestin system. CCL19 leads to robust CCR7 phosphorylation and β-arrestin2 recruitment catalyzed by both GRK3 and GRK6 whereas CCL21 activates GRK6 alone. This differential GRK activation leads to distinct functional consequences. Although each ligand leads to β-arrestin2 recruitment, only CCL19 leads to redistribution of β-arrestin2-GFP into endocytic vesicles and classical receptor desensitization. In contrast, these agonists are both capable of signaling through GRK6 and β-arrestin2 to ERK kinases. Thus, this mechanism for “ligand bias” whereby endogenous agonists activate different GRK isoforms leads to functionally distinct pools of β-arrestin. PMID:19497875

  14. G Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 Regulates Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion, and Metastasis.

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    Matthew J Billard

    Full Text Available Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC is a heterogeneous disease that has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Chemokine receptor interactions are important modulators of breast cancer metastasis; however, it is now recognized that quantitative surface expression of one important chemokine receptor, CXCR4, may not directly correlate with metastasis and that its functional activity in breast cancer may better inform tumor pathogenicity. G protein coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3 is a negative regulator of CXCR4 activity, and we show that GRK expression correlates with tumorigenicity, molecular subtype, and metastatic potential in human tumor microarray analysis. Using established human breast cancer cell lines and an immunocompetent in vivo mouse model, we further demonstrate that alterations in GRK3 expression levels in tumor cells directly affect migration and invasion in vitro and the establishment of distant metastasis in vivo. The effects of GRK3 modulation appear to be specific to chemokine-mediated migration behaviors without influencing tumor cell proliferation or survival. These data demonstrate that GRK3 dysregulation may play an important part in TNBC metastasis.

  15. G Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 3 Regulates Breast Cancer Migration, Invasion, and Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billard, Matthew J.; Fitzhugh, David J.; Parker, Joel S.; Brozowski, Jaime M.; McGinnis, Marcus W.; Timoshchenko, Roman G.; Serafin, D. Stephen; Lininger, Ruth; Klauber-Demore, Nancy; Sahagian, Gary; Truong, Young K.; Sassano, Maria F.; Serody, Jonathan S.; Tarrant, Teresa K.

    2016-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous disease that has a poor prognosis and limited treatment options. Chemokine receptor interactions are important modulators of breast cancer metastasis; however, it is now recognized that quantitative surface expression of one important chemokine receptor, CXCR4, may not directly correlate with metastasis and that its functional activity in breast cancer may better inform tumor pathogenicity. G protein coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3) is a negative regulator of CXCR4 activity, and we show that GRK expression correlates with tumorigenicity, molecular subtype, and metastatic potential in human tumor microarray analysis. Using established human breast cancer cell lines and an immunocompetent in vivo mouse model, we further demonstrate that alterations in GRK3 expression levels in tumor cells directly affect migration and invasion in vitro and the establishment of distant metastasis in vivo. The effects of GRK3 modulation appear to be specific to chemokine-mediated migration behaviors without influencing tumor cell proliferation or survival. These data demonstrate that GRK3 dysregulation may play an important part in TNBC metastasis. PMID:27049755

  16. BIOLUMINISCENCE RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER (BRET) METHODS TO STUDY G PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTOR - RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE HETERORECEPTOR COMPLEXES

    OpenAIRE

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O.; Flajolet, Marc; Agnati, Luigi F.; Greengard, Paul; Fuxe, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can form heteroreceptor complexes. In these complexes, the signalling from each interacting protomer is modulated to produce an integrated and therefore novel response upon agonist(s) activation. In the GPCR-RTK heteroreceptor complexes, GPCRs can activate RTK in the absence of added growth factor through the use of RTK signalling molecules. This integrative phenomenon is reciproca...

  17. The evolving impact of g protein-coupled receptor kinases in cardiac health and disease.

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    Sato, Priscila Y; Chuprun, J Kurt; Schwartz, Mathew; Koch, Walter J

    2015-04-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important regulators of various cellular functions via activation of intracellular signaling events. Active GPCR signaling is shut down by GPCR kinases (GRKs) and subsequent β-arrestin-mediated mechanisms including phosphorylation, internalization, and either receptor degradation or resensitization. The seven-member GRK family varies in their structural composition, cellular localization, function, and mechanism of action (see sect. II). Here, we focus our attention on GRKs in particular canonical and novel roles of the GRKs found in the cardiovascular system (see sects. III and IV). Paramount to overall cardiac function is GPCR-mediated signaling provided by the adrenergic system. Overstimulation of the adrenergic system has been highly implicated in various etiologies of cardiovascular disease including hypertension and heart failure. GRKs acting downstream of heightened adrenergic signaling appear to be key players in cardiac homeostasis and disease progression, and herein we review the current data on GRKs related to cardiac disease and discuss their potential in the development of novel therapeutic strategies in cardiac diseases including heart failure. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Identification and Structure-Function Analysis of Subfamily Selective G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase Inhibitors

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    Homan, Kristoff T.; Larimore, Kelly M.; Elkins, Jonathan M.; Szklarz, Marta; Knapp, Stefan; Tesmer, John J.G. [Michigan; (Oxford)

    2015-02-13

    Selective inhibitors of individual subfamilies of G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) would serve as useful chemical probes as well as leads for therapeutic applications ranging from heart failure to Parkinson’s disease. To identify such inhibitors, differential scanning fluorimetry was used to screen a collection of known protein kinase inhibitors that could increase the melting points of the two most ubiquitously expressed GRKs: GRK2 and GRK5. Enzymatic assays on 14 of the most stabilizing hits revealed that three exhibit nanomolar potency of inhibition for individual GRKs, some of which exhibiting orders of magnitude selectivity. Most of the identified compounds can be clustered into two chemical classes: indazole/dihydropyrimidine-containing compounds that are selective for GRK2 and pyrrolopyrimidine-containing compounds that potently inhibit GRK1 and GRK5 but with more modest selectivity. The two most potent inhibitors representing each class, GSK180736A and GSK2163632A, were cocrystallized with GRK2 and GRK1, and their atomic structures were determined to 2.6 and 1.85 Å spacings, respectively. GSK180736A, developed as a Rho-associated, coiled-coil-containing protein kinase inhibitor, binds to GRK2 in a manner analogous to that of paroxetine, whereas GSK2163632A, developed as an insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor, occupies a novel region of the GRK active site cleft that could likely be exploited to achieve more selectivity. However, neither compound inhibits GRKs more potently than their initial targets. This data provides the foundation for future efforts to rationally design even more potent and selective GRK inhibitors.

  19. Dysfunction of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in Alzheimer’'s Disease

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    William Z. Suo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although mutations and variations of several genes have been identified to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD, the efforts towards understanding the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease still have a long journey to go. One such effort is to identify the signal transduction deficits, for which previous studies have suggested that the central problems appear to be at the interface between G proteins and their coupled receptors. G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs are a small family of serine/threonine protein kinases primarily acting at the “receptor-G protein interface””. Recent studies have indicated the possible involvement of GRK, primarily GRK2 and GRK5, dysfunction in the pathogenesis of AD. It seems that mild, soluble, β-amyloid accumulation can lead to a reduced membrane (functional and an elevated cytosolic GRK2/5. The increased cytosolic GRK2 appears to be colocalized with damaged mitochondria and neurofibrillary tangles. Moreover, the total levels of GRK2, not only in the brain, but also in peripheral blood samples, are increased in a manner inversely correlated with the patient's cognitive levels. The deficiency of GRK5, on the other hand, impairs presynaptic M2 autoreceptor desensitization, which leads to a reduced acetylcholine release, axonal/synaptic degenerative changes, and associated amnestic, mild cognitive impairment. It also promotes an evil cycle to further increase Beta-amyloid accumulation and exaggerates brain inflammation, possibly even the basal forebrain cholinergic degeneration. Therefore, continuous efforts in this direction are necessary before translating the knowledge to any therapeutic strategies.

  20. The Ancient Link between G-Protein-Coupled Receptors and C-Terminal Phospholipid Kinase Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sensing external signals and transducing these into intracellular responses requires a molecular signaling system that is crucial for every living organism. Two important eukaryotic signal transduction pathways that are often interlinked are G-protein signaling and phospholipid signaling. Heterotrimeric G-protein subunits activated by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are typical stimulators of phospholipid signaling enzymes such as phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPKs) or phospholipase C (PLC). However, a direct connection between the two pathways likely exists in oomycetes and slime molds, as they possess a unique class of GPCRs that have a PIPK as an accessory domain. In principle, these so-called GPCR-PIPKs have the capacity of perceiving an external signal (via the GPCR domain) that, via PIPK, directly activates downstream phospholipid signaling. Here we reveal the sporadic occurrence of GPCR-PIPKs in all eukaryotic supergroups, except for plants. Notably, all species having GPCR-PIPKs are unicellular microorganisms that favor aquatic environments. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GPCR-PIPKs are likely ancestral to eukaryotes and significantly expanded in the last common ancestor of oomycetes. In addition to GPCR-PIPKs, we identified five hitherto-unknown classes of GPCRs with accessory domains, four of which are universal players in signal transduction. Similarly to GPCR-PIPKs, this enables a direct coupling between extracellular sensing and downstream signaling. Overall, our findings point to an ancestral signaling system in eukaryotes where GPCR-mediated sensing is directly linked to downstream responses. PMID:29362235

  1. Novel phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases with a G-protein coupled receptor signature are shared by Dictyostelium and Phytophthora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakthavatsalam, D.; Meijer, H.J.G.; Noegel, A.A.; Govers, F.

    2006-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) and phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinases (PIPK) are important key switches in signal transduction pathways. A novel class of proteins was identified in the genomes of two unrelated organisms that harbor both a GPCR and a PIPK domain. Dictyostelium discoideum

  2. Structures of Rhodopsin Kinase in Different Ligand States Reveal Key Elements Involved in G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase Activation

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    Singh, Puja; Wang, Benlian; Maeda, Tadao; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Tesmer, John J.G. (Case Western); (Michigan)

    2008-10-08

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) phosphorylate activated heptahelical receptors, leading to their uncoupling from G proteins. Here we report six crystal structures of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1), revealing not only three distinct nucleotide-binding states of a GRK but also two key structural elements believed to be involved in the recognition of activated GPCRs. The first is the C-terminal extension of the kinase domain, which was observed in all nucleotide-bound GRK1 structures. The second is residues 5-30 of the N terminus, observed in one of the GRK1{center_dot}(Mg{sup 2+}){sub 2} {center_dot}ATP structures. The N terminus was also clearly phosphorylated, leading to the identification of two novel phosphorylation sites by mass spectral analysis. Co-localization of the N terminus and the C-terminal extension near the hinge of the kinase domain suggests that activated GPCRs stimulate kinase activity by binding to this region to facilitate full closure of the kinase domain.

  3. Regulation of C3a receptor signaling in human mast cells by G protein coupled receptor kinases.

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    Qiang Guo

    Full Text Available The complement component C3a activates human mast cells via its cell surface G protein coupled receptor (GPCR C3aR. For most GPCRs, agonist-induced receptor phosphorylation leads to receptor desensitization, internalization as well as activation of downstream signaling pathways such as ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Previous studies in transfected COS cells overexpressing G protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs demonstrated that GRK2, GRK3, GRK5 and GRK6 participate in agonist-induced C3aR phosphorylation. However, the roles of these GRKs on the regulation of C3aR signaling and mediator release in human mast cells remain unknown.We utilized lentivirus short hairpin (shRNA to stably knockdown the expression of GRK2, GRK3, GRK5 and GRK6 in human mast cell lines, HMC-1 and LAD2, that endogenously express C3aR. Silencing GRK2 or GRK3 expression caused a more sustained Ca(2+ mobilization, attenuated C3aR desensitization, and enhanced degranulation as well as ERK1/2 phosphorylation when compared to shRNA control cells. By contrast, GRK5 or GRK6 knockdown had no effect on C3aR desensitization, but caused a significant decrease in C3a-induced mast cell degranulation. Interestingly, GRK5 or GRK6 knockdown rendered mast cells more responsive to C3a for ERK1/2 phosphorylation.This study demonstrates that GRK2 and GRK3 are involved in C3aR desensitization. Furthermore, it reveals the novel finding that GRK5 and GRK6 promote C3a-induced mast cell degranulation but inhibit ERK1/2 phosphorylation via C3aR desensitization-independent mechanisms. These findings thus reveal a new level of complexity for C3aR regulation by GRKs in human mast cells.

  4. Chapter Three - Ubiquitination and Protein Turnover of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases in GPCR Signaling and Cellular Regulation.

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    Penela, P

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are responsible for regulating a wide variety of physiological processes, and distinct mechanisms for GPCR inactivation exist to guarantee correct receptor functionality. One of the widely used mechanisms is receptor phosphorylation by specific G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), leading to uncoupling from G proteins (desensitization) and receptor internalization. GRKs and β-arrestins also participate in the assembly of receptor-associated multimolecular complexes, thus initiating alternative G-protein-independent signaling events. In addition, the abundant GRK2 kinase has diverse "effector" functions in cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolism homeostasis by means of the phosphorylation or interaction with non-GPCR partners. Altered expression of GRKs (particularly of GRK2 and GRK5) occurs during pathological conditions characterized by impaired GPCR signaling including inflammatory syndromes, cardiovascular disease, and tumor contexts. It is increasingly appreciated that different pathways governing GRK protein stability play a role in the modulation of kinase levels in normal and pathological conditions. Thus, enhanced GRK2 degradation by the proteasome pathway occurs upon GPCR stimulation, what allows cellular adaptation to chronic stimulation in a physiological setting. β-arrestins participate in this process by facilitating GRK2 phosphorylation by different kinases and by recruiting diverse E3 ubiquitin ligase to the receptor complex. Different proteolytic systems (ubiquitin-proteasome, calpains), chaperone activities and signaling pathways influence the stability of GRKs in different ways, thus endowing specificity to GPCR regulation as protein turnover of GRKs can be differentially affected. Therefore, modulation of protein stability of GRKs emerges as a versatile mechanism for feedback regulation of GPCR signaling and basic cellular processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer methods to study G protein-coupled receptor-receptor tyrosine kinase heteroreceptor complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Flajolet, Marc; Agnati, Luigi F; Greengard, Paul; Fuxe, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    A large body of evidence indicates that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) can form heteroreceptor complexes. In these complexes, the signaling from each interacting protomer is modulated to produce an integrated and therefore novel response upon agonist(s) activation. In the GPCR-RTK heteroreceptor complexes, GPCRs can activate RTK in the absence of added growth factor through the use of RTK signaling molecules. This integrative phenomenon is reciprocal and can place also RTK signaling downstream of GPCR. Formation of either stable or transient complexes by these two important classes of membrane receptors is involved in regulating all aspects of receptor function, from ligand binding to signal transduction, trafficking, desensitization, and downregulation among others. Functional phenomena can be modulated with conformation-specific inhibitors that stabilize defined GPCR states to abrogate both GPCR agonist- and growth factor-stimulated cell responses or by means of small interfering heteroreceptor complex interface peptides. The bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) technology has emerged as a powerful method to study the structure of heteroreceptor complexes closely associated with the study of receptor-receptor interactions in such complexes. In this chapter, we provide an overview of different BRET(2) assays that can be used to study the structure of GPCR-RTK heteroreceptor complexes and their functions. Various experimental designs for optimization of these experiments are also described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and tyrosine kinase receptor (TXR in the heart after morphine withdrawal

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    Pilar eAlmela

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise a large family of membrane receptors involved in signal transduction. These receptors are linked to a variety of physiological and biological processes such as regulation of neurotransmission, growth and cell differentiation among others. Some of the effects of GPCRs are known to be mediated by the activation of mitogen-activated extracellular kinase (MAPK pathways. Cross-talk among various signal pathways plays an important role in activation of intracellular and intranuclear signal transduction cascades. Naloxone-induced morphine withdrawal leads to an up-regulation of adenyl cyclase-mediated signalling, resulting in high expression of protein kinase (PK A. In addition, there is also an increased expression of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK, one member of MAPK. For this reason, the crosstalk between these GPCRs and receptors with tyrosine kinase activity (TKR can be considered a possible mechanism for adaptive changes that occurs after morphine withdrawal. Morphine withdrawal activates ERK1/2 and phosphorylated tyrosine hydroxylase (TH at Ser31 in the right and left ventricle. When N-(2-guanidinoethyl-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (HA-1004, a PKA inhibitor was infused, the ability of morphine withdrawal to activate ERK, which phosphorylates TH at Ser31, was reduced. The present finding demonstrated that the enhancement of ERK1/2 expression and the phosphorylation state of TH at Ser31 during morphine withdrawal are dependent on PKA and suggest cross-talk between PKA and ERK1/2 transduction pathway mediating morphine withdrawal-induced activation of TH. Increasing understanding of the mechanisms that interconnect the two pathway regulated by GPCRs and TKRs may facilitate the design of new therapeutic strategies.

  7. Distinct cellular and subcellular distributions of G protein-coupled receptor kinase and arrestin isoforms in the striatum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Bychkov

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs and arrestins mediate desensitization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR. Arrestins also mediate G protein-independent signaling via GPCRs. Since GRK and arrestins demonstrate no strict receptor specificity, their functions in the brain may depend on their cellular complement, expression level, and subcellular targeting. However, cellular expression and subcellular distribution of GRKs and arrestins in the brain is largely unknown. We show that GRK isoforms GRK2 and GRK5 are similarly expressed in direct and indirect pathway neurons in the rat striatum. Arrestin-2 and arrestin-3 are also expressed in neurons of both pathways. Cholinergic interneurons are enriched in GRK2, arrestin-3, and GRK5. Parvalbumin-positive interneurons express more of GRK2 and less of arrestin-2 than medium spiny neurons. The GRK5 subcellular distribution in the human striatal neurons is altered by its phosphorylation: unphosphorylated enzyme preferentially localizes to synaptic membranes, whereas phosphorylated GRK5 is found in plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions. Both GRK isoforms are abundant in the nucleus of human striatal neurons, whereas the proportion of both arrestins in the nucleus was equally low. However, overall higher expression of arrestin-2 yields high enough concentration in the nucleus to mediate nuclear functions. These data suggest cell type- and subcellular compartment-dependent differences in GRK/arrestin-mediated desensitization and signaling.

  8. Structure and Function of the Hypertension Variant A486V of G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Samantha J.; Parthasarathy, Gopal; Darke, Paul L.; Diehl, Ronald E.; Ford, Rachael E.; Hall, Dawn L.; Johnson, Scott A.; Reid, John C.; Rickert, Keith W.; Shipman, Jennifer M.; Soisson, Stephen M.; Zuck, Paul; Munshi, Sanjeev K.; Lumb, Kevin J. (Merck)

    2015-07-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) bind to and phosphorylate GPCRs, initiating the process of GPCR desensitization and internalization. GRK4 is implicated in the regulation of blood pressure, and three GRK4 polymorphisms (R65L, A142V, and A486V) are associated with hypertension. Here, we describe the 2.6 Å structure of human GRK4α A486V crystallized in the presence of 5'-adenylyl β,γ-imidodiphosphate. The structure of GRK4α is similar to other GRKs, although slight differences exist within the RGS homology (RH) bundle subdomain, substrate-binding site, and kinase C-tail. The RH bundle subdomain and kinase C-terminal lobe form a strikingly acidic surface, whereas the kinase N-terminal lobe and RH terminal subdomain surfaces are much more basic. In this respect, GRK4α is more similar to GRK2 than GRK6. A fully ordered kinase C-tail reveals interactions linking the C-tail with important determinants of kinase activity, including the αB helix, αD helix, and the P-loop. Autophosphorylation of wild-type GRK4α is required for full kinase activity, as indicated by a lag in phosphorylation of a peptide from the dopamine D1 receptor without ATP preincubation. In contrast, this lag is not observed in GRK4α A486V. Phosphopeptide mapping by mass spectrometry indicates an increased rate of autophosphorylation of a number of residues in GRK4α A486V relative to wild-type GRK4α, including Ser-485 in the kinase C-tail.

  9. Ligand-induced dynamics of heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptor-like kinase complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Tunc-Ozdemir

    Full Text Available Arabidopsis, 7-transmembrane Regulator of G signaling protein 1 (AtRGS1 modulates canonical G protein signaling by promoting the inactive state of heterotrimeric G protein complex on the plasma membrane. It is known that plant leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases (LRR RLKs phosphorylate AtRGS1 in vitro but little is known about the in vivo interaction, molecular dynamics, or the cellular consequences of this interaction.Therefore, a subset of the known RLKs that phosphorylate AtRGS1 were selected for elucidation, namely, BAK1, BIR1, FLS2. Several microscopies for both static and dynamic protein-protein interactions were used to follow in vivo interactions between the RLKs and AtRGS1 after the presentation of the Pathogen-associated Molecular Pattern, Flagellin 22 (Flg22. These microscopies included Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, Bimolecular Fluoresence Complementation, and Cross Number and Brightness Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy. In addition, reactive oxygen species and calcium changes in living cells were quantitated using luminometry and R-GECO1 microscopy.The LRR RLKs BAK1 and BIR1, interact with AtRGS1 at the plasma membrane. The RLK ligand flg22 sets BAK1 in motion toward AtRGS1 and BIR1 away, both returning to the baseline orientations by 10 minutes. The C-terminal tail of AtRGS1 is important for the interaction with BAK1 and for the tempo of the AtRGS1/BIR1 dynamics. This window of time corresponds to the flg22-induced transient production of reactive oxygen species and calcium release which are both attenuated in the rgs1 and the bak1 null mutants.A temporal model of these interactions is proposed. flg22 binding induces nearly instantaneous dimerization between FLS2 and BAK1. Phosphorylated BAK1 interacts with and enables AtRGS1 to move away from BIR1 and AtRGS1 becomes phosphorylated leading to its endocytosis thus leading to de-repression by permitting AtGPA1 to exchange GDP for GTP. Finally, the G protein complex

  10. Paroxetine Is a Direct Inhibitor of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Increases Myocardial Contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thal, David M. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Homan, Kristoff T. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Chen, Jun [Univ. of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wu, Emily K. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hinkle, Patricia M. [Univ. of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Huang, Z. Maggie [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Chuprun, J. Kurt [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Song, Jianliang [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gao, Erhe [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Cheung, Joseph Y. [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Sklar, Larry A. [Univ. of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koch, Walter J. [Temple Univ. School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Tesmer, John J.G. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-08-10

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a well-established therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure. In this paper we identify the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) paroxetine as a selective inhibitor of GRK2 activity both in vitro and in living cells. In the crystal structure of the GRK2·paroxetine–Gβγ complex, paroxetine binds in the active site of GRK2 and stabilizes the kinase domain in a novel conformation in which a unique regulatory loop forms part of the ligand binding site. Isolated cardiomyocytes show increased isoproterenol-induced shortening and contraction amplitude in the presence of paroxetine, and pretreatment of mice with paroxetine before isoproterenol significantly increases left ventricular inotropic reserve in vivo with no significant effect on heart rate. Neither is observed in the presence of the SSRI fluoxetine. Our structural and functional results validate a widely available drug as a selective chemical probe for GRK2 and represent a starting point for the rational design of more potent and specific GRK2 inhibitors.

  11. G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2 Promotes Breast Tumorigenesis Through a HDAC6-Pin1 Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Nogués

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to oncogenic drivers, signaling nodes can critically modulate cancer-related cellular networks to strength tumor hallmarks. We identify G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 as a relevant player in breast cancer. GRK2 is up-regulated in breast cancer cell lines, in spontaneous tumors in mice, and in a proportion of invasive ductal carcinoma patients. Increased GRK2 functionality promotes the phosphorylation and activation of the Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6 leading to de-acetylation of the Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, a central modulator of tumor progression, thereby enhancing its stability and functional interaction with key mitotic regulators. Interestingly, a correlation between GRK2 expression and Pin1 levels and de-acetylation status is detected in breast cancer patients. Activation of the HDAC6-Pin1 axis underlies the positive effects of GRK2 on promoting growth factor signaling, cellular proliferation and anchorage-independent growth in both luminal and basal breast cancer cells. Enhanced GRK2 levels promote tumor growth in mice, whereas GRK2 down-modulation sensitizes cells to therapeutic drugs and abrogates tumor formation. Our data suggest that GRK2 acts as an important onco-modulator by strengthening the functionality of key players in breast tumorigenesis such as HDAC6 and Pin1.

  12. c-Src, Insulin-Like Growth Factor I Receptor, G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinases and Focal Adhesion Kinase are Enriched Into Prostate Cancer Cell Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRita, Rachel M; Zerlanko, Brad; Singh, Amrita; Lu, Huimin; Iozzo, Renato V; Benovic, Jeffrey L; Languino, Lucia R

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that Src tyrosine kinase, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-IR), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) play important roles in prostate cancer (PrCa) development and progression. Src, which signals through FAK in response to integrin activation, has been implicated in many aspects of tumor biology, such as cell proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Furthermore, Src signaling is known to crosstalk with IGF-IR, which also promotes angiogenesis. In this study, we demonstrate that c-Src, IGF-IR, and FAK are packaged into exosomes (Exo), c-Src in particular being highly enriched in Exo from the androgen receptor (AR)-positive cell line C4-2B and AR-negative cell lines PC3 and DU145. Furthermore, we show that the active phosphorylated form of Src (Src pY416 ) is co-expressed in Exo with phosphorylated FAK (FAK pY861 ), a known target site of Src, which enhances proliferation and migration. We further demonstrate for the first time exosomal enrichment of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) 5 and GRK6, both of which regulate Src and IGF-IR signaling and have been implicated in cancer. Finally, Src pY416 and c-Src are both expressed in Exo isolated from the plasma of prostate tumor-bearing TRAMP mice, and those same mice have higher levels of exosomal c-Src than their wild-type counterparts. In summary, we provide new evidence that active signaling molecules relevant to PrCa are enriched in Exo, and this suggests that the Src signaling network may provide useful biomarkers detectable by liquid biopsy, and may contribute to PrCa progression via Exo. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 66-73, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Characterization of G-protein coupled receptor kinase interaction with the neurokinin-1 receptor using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Rasmus; Holliday, Nicholas D; Hansen, Jakob L

    2007-01-01

    activation, the full-length NK-1 receptor, but not a functional C-terminal tail-truncated receptor, is preassociated with GRK5 in a relatively low-affinity state. We demonstrate that GRK5 can compete for agonist induced GRK2 interaction with the NK-1 receptor, whereas GRK2 does not compete for receptor...

  14. Targeted ubiquitination and degradation of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 by the DDB1-CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyan Wu

    Full Text Available The G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs phosphorylate agonist occupied G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and desensitize GPCR-mediated signaling. Recent studies indicate they also function non-catalytically via interaction with other proteins. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to screen interacting proteins of GRK5 in MDA-MB-231 cells and HUVEC cells. Mass spectrometry analysis reveals several proteins in the GRK5 immunocomplex including damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1, an adaptor subunit of the CUL4-ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the association of GRK5 with DDB1-CUL4 complex, and reveal that DDB1 acts as an adapter to link GRK5 to CUL4 to form the complex. Overexpression of DDB1 promoted, whereas knockdown of DDB1 inhibited the ubiquitination of GRK5, and the degradation of GRK5 was reduced in cells deficient of DDB1. Furthermore, the depletion of DDB1 decreased Hsp90 inhibitor-induced GRK5 destabilization and UV irradiation-induced GRK5 degradation. Thus, our study identified potential GRK5 interacting proteins, and reveals the association of GRK5 with DDB1 in cell and the regulation of GRK5 level by DDB1-CUL4 ubiquitin ligase complex-dependent proteolysis pathway.

  15. Heterotrimeric G protein beta1gamma2 subunits change orientation upon complex formation with G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) on a model membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, Andrew P; Yang, Pei; Tesmer, Valerie M; Ding, Bei; Tesmer, John J G; Chen, Zhan

    2011-09-13

    Few experimental techniques can assess the orientation of peripheral membrane proteins in their native environment. Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was applied to study the formation of the complex between G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2) and heterotrimeric G protein β(1)γ(2) subunits (Gβγ) at a lipid bilayer, without any exogenous labels. The most likely membrane orientation of the GRK2-Gβγ complex differs from that predicted from the known protein crystal structure, and positions the predicted receptor docking site of GRK2 such that it would more optimally interact with GPCRs. Gβγ also appears to change its orientation after binding to GRK2. The developed methodology is widely applicable for the study of other membrane proteins in situ.

  16. Distinct Structural Features of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 5 (GRK5) Regulate Its Nuclear Localization and DNA-Binding Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Laura R.; Robinson, James D.; Lester, Katrina N.; Pitcher, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) act to desensitize G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). In addition to this role at the plasma membrane, a nuclear function for GRK5, a member of the GRK4 subfamily of GRKs, has been reported. GRK5 phosphorylates and promotes the nuclear export of the histone deacetylase, HDAC5. Here we demonstrate that the possession of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) is a common feature of GRK4 subfamily members (GRKs 4, 5 and 6). However, the location of the NLS and the ability of these GRKs to bind DNA in vitro are different. The NLSs of GRK5 and 6 bind DNA in vitro, whilst the NLS of GRK4 does not. Using mutants of GRK5 we identify the regions of GRK5 required for DNA-binding in vitro and nuclear localization in cells. The DNA-binding ability of GRK5 requires both the NLS and an N-terminal calmodulin (CaM)-binding site. A functional nuclear export sequence (NES), required for CaM-dependent nuclear export of the kinase, is also identified. Based on our observations we propose a model to explain how nuclear localization of GRK5 may be regulated. Notably, the nuclear localization of GRK5 and 6 is differentially regulated. These results suggest subfamily specific nuclear functions for the GRK4 subfamily members. Identification of GRK specific small molecule inhibitors of nuclear localization and/or function for the GRK4 subfamily may thus be an achievable goal. PMID:23658733

  17. Inhibition of G-protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Prevents the Dysfunctional Cardiac Substrate Metabolism in Fatty Acid Synthase Transgenic Mice*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Alla, Joshua; Graemer, Muriel; Fu, Xuebin; Quitterer, Ursula

    2016-01-01

    Impairment of myocardial fatty acid substrate metabolism is characteristic of late-stage heart failure and has limited treatment options. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) could counteract the disturbed substrate metabolism of late-stage heart failure. The heart failure-like substrate metabolism was reproduced in a novel transgenic model of myocardium-specific expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major palmitate-synthesizing enzyme. The increased fatty acid utilization of FASN transgenic neonatal cardiomyocytes rapidly switched to a heart failure phenotype in an adult-like lipogenic milieu. Similarly, adult FASN transgenic mice developed signs of heart failure. The development of disturbed substrate utilization of FASN transgenic cardiomyocytes and signs of heart failure were retarded by the transgenic expression of GRKInh, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2. Cardioprotective GRK2 inhibition required an intact ERK axis, which blunted the induction of cardiotoxic transcripts, in part by enhanced serine 273 phosphorylation of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). Conversely, the dual-specific GRK2 and ERK cascade inhibitor, RKIP (Raf kinase inhibitor protein), triggered dysfunctional cardiomyocyte energetics and the expression of heart failure-promoting Pparg-regulated genes. Thus, GRK2 inhibition is a novel approach that targets the dysfunctional substrate metabolism of the failing heart. PMID:26670611

  18. Inhibition of G-protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Prevents the Dysfunctional Cardiac Substrate Metabolism in Fatty Acid Synthase Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Alla, Joshua; Graemer, Muriel; Fu, Xuebin; Quitterer, Ursula

    2016-02-05

    Impairment of myocardial fatty acid substrate metabolism is characteristic of late-stage heart failure and has limited treatment options. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) could counteract the disturbed substrate metabolism of late-stage heart failure. The heart failure-like substrate metabolism was reproduced in a novel transgenic model of myocardium-specific expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), the major palmitate-synthesizing enzyme. The increased fatty acid utilization of FASN transgenic neonatal cardiomyocytes rapidly switched to a heart failure phenotype in an adult-like lipogenic milieu. Similarly, adult FASN transgenic mice developed signs of heart failure. The development of disturbed substrate utilization of FASN transgenic cardiomyocytes and signs of heart failure were retarded by the transgenic expression of GRKInh, a peptide inhibitor of GRK2. Cardioprotective GRK2 inhibition required an intact ERK axis, which blunted the induction of cardiotoxic transcripts, in part by enhanced serine 273 phosphorylation of Pparg (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ). Conversely, the dual-specific GRK2 and ERK cascade inhibitor, RKIP (Raf kinase inhibitor protein), triggered dysfunctional cardiomyocyte energetics and the expression of heart failure-promoting Pparg-regulated genes. Thus, GRK2 inhibition is a novel approach that targets the dysfunctional substrate metabolism of the failing heart. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. G-protein coupling of cannabinoid receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, M.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Since the cloning of the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors in the early 1990's extensive research has focused on understanding their signal transduction pathways. While it has been known for sometime that both receptors can couple to intracellular signalling via pertussis toxin sensitive G-proteins (Gi/Go), the specificity and kinetics of these interactions have only recently been elucidated. We have developed an in situ reconstitution approach to investigating receptor-G-protein interactions. This approach involves chaotropic extraction of receptor containing membranes in order to inactivate or remove endogenous G-proteins. Recombinant or isolated brain G-proteins can then be added back to the receptors, and their activation monitored through the binding of [ 35 S]-GTPγS. This technique has been utilised for an extensive study of cannabinoid receptor mediated activation of G-proteins. In these studies we have established that CB1 couples with high affinity to both Gi and Go type G-proteins. In contrast, CB2 couples strongly to Gi, but has a very low affinity for Go. This finding correlated well with the previous findings that while CB1 and CB2 both couple to the inhibition of adenylate cyclase, CB1 but not CB2 could also inhibit calcium channels. We then examined the ability of a range of cannabinoid agonists to activate the Gi and Go via CB1. Conventional receptor theory suggests that a receptor is either active or inactive with regard to a G-protein and that the active receptor activates all relevant G-proteins equally. However, in this study we found that agonists could produce different degrees of activation, depending on which G-protein was present. Further studies have compared the ability of the two endocannabinoids to drive the activation of Gi or Go. These studies show that agonists can induce multiple forms of activated receptor that differ in their ability to catalyse the activation of Gi or Go. The ability of an agonist to drive a receptor

  20. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-3-deficient mice exhibit WHIM syndrome features and attenuated inflammatory responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Teresa K.; Billard, Matthew J.; Timoshchenko, Roman G.; McGinnis, Marcus W.; Serafin, D. Stephen; Foreman, Oded; Esserman, Denise A.; Chao, Nelson J.; Lento, William E.; Lee, David M.; Patel, Dhavalkumar; Siderovski, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine receptor interactions coordinate leukocyte migration in inflammation. Chemokine receptors are GPCRs that when activated, are phosphorylated by GRKs to turn off G protein-mediated signaling yet recruit additional signaling machinery. Recently, GRK3 was identified as a negative regulator of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling that is defective in human WHIM syndrome. Here, we report that GRK3−/− mice exhibit numerous features of human WHIM, such as impaired CXCL12-mediated desensitization, enhanced CXCR4 signaling to ERK activation, altered granulocyte migration, and a mild myelokathexis. Moreover, GRK3−/− protects mice from two acute models of inflammatory arthritis (K/BxN serum transfer and CAIA). In these granulocyte-dependent disease models, protection of GRK3−/− mice is mediated by retention of cells in the marrow, fewer circulating granulocytes in the peripheral blood, and reduced granulocytes in the joints during active inflammation. In contrast to WHIM, GRK3−/− mice have minimal hypogammaglobulinemia and a peripheral leukocytosis with increased lymphocytes and absent neutropenia. Thus, we conclude that the loss of GRK3-mediated regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling contributes to some, but not all, of the complete WHIM phenotype and that GRK3 inhibition may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:23935208

  1. The p110beta isoform of phosphoinositide 3-kinase signals downstream of G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally redundant with p110gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermet-Guibert, Julie; Bjorklof, Katja; Salpekar, Ashreena; Gonella, Cristiano; Ramadani, Faruk; Bilancio, Antonio; Meek, Stephen; Smith, Andrew J H; Okkenhaug, Klaus; Vanhaesebroeck, Bart

    2008-06-17

    The p110 isoforms of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) are acutely regulated by extracellular stimuli. The class IA PI3K catalytic subunits (p110alpha, p110beta, and p110delta) occur in complex with a Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing p85 regulatory subunit, which has been shown to link p110alpha and p110delta to Tyr kinase signaling pathways. The p84/p101 regulatory subunits of the p110gamma class IB PI3K lack SH2 domains and instead couple p110gamma to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we show, using small-molecule inhibitors with selectivity for p110beta and cells derived from a p110beta-deficient mouse line, that p110beta is not a major effector of Tyr kinase signaling but couples to GPCRs. In macrophages, both p110beta and p110gamma contributed to Akt activation induced by the GPCR agonist complement 5a, but not by the Tyr kinase ligand colony-stimulating factor-1. In fibroblasts, which express p110beta but not p110gamma, p110beta mediated Akt activation by the GPCR ligands stromal cell-derived factor, sphingosine-1-phosphate, and lysophosphatidic acid but not by the Tyr kinase ligands PDGF, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1. Introduction of p110gamma in these cells reduced the contribution of p110beta to GPCR signaling. Taken together, these data show that p110beta and p110gamma can couple redundantly to the same GPCR agonists. p110beta, which shows a much broader tissue distribution than the leukocyte-restricted p110gamma, could thus provide a conduit for GPCR-linked PI3K signaling in the many cell types where p110gamma expression is low or absent.

  2. Hypertension-Related Gene Polymorphisms of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 Are Associated with NT-proBNP Concentration in Normotensive Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatabe, Junichi; Yatabe, Midori S.; Yoneda, Minoru; Felder, Robin A.; Jose, Pedro A.; Sanada, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) with activating polymorphisms desensitize the natriuric renal tubular D1 dopamine receptor, and these GRK4 polymorphisms are strongly associated with salt sensitivity and hypertension. Meanwhile, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) may be useful in detecting slight volume expansion. However, relations between hypertension-related gene polymorphisms including GRK4 and cardiovascular indices such as NT-proBNP are not clear, especially in healthy subjects. Therefore, various hypertension-related polymorphisms and cardiovascular indices were analyzed in 97 normotensive, healthy Japanese adults. NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in subjects with two or more GRK4 polymorphic alleles. Other hypertension-related gene polymorphisms, such as those of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes, did not correlate with NT-proBNP. There was no significant association between any of the hypertension-related gene polymorphisms and central systolic blood pressure, cardioankle vascular index, augmentation index, plasma aldosterone concentration, or an oxidative stress marker, urinary 8-OHdG. Normotensive individuals with GRK4 polymorphisms show increased serum NT-proBNP concentration and may be at a greater risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22518293

  3. Hypertension-Related Gene Polymorphisms of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 Are Associated with NT-proBNP Concentration in Normotensive Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junichi Yatabe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4 with activating polymorphisms desensitize the natriuric renal tubular D1 dopamine receptor, and these GRK4 polymorphisms are strongly associated with salt sensitivity and hypertension. Meanwhile, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP may be useful in detecting slight volume expansion. However, relations between hypertension-related gene polymorphisms including GRK4 and cardiovascular indices such as NT-proBNP are not clear, especially in healthy subjects. Therefore, various hypertension-related polymorphisms and cardiovascular indices were analyzed in 97 normotensive, healthy Japanese adults. NT-proBNP levels were significantly higher in subjects with two or more GRK4 polymorphic alleles. Other hypertension-related gene polymorphisms, such as those of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system genes, did not correlate with NT-proBNP. There was no significant association between any of the hypertension-related gene polymorphisms and central systolic blood pressure, cardioankle vascular index, augmentation index, plasma aldosterone concentration, or an oxidative stress marker, urinary 8-OHdG. Normotensive individuals with GRK4 polymorphisms show increased serum NT-proBNP concentration and may be at a greater risk of developing hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Benjamin P; Woodall, Meryl C; Luongo, Timothy S; Grisanti, Laurel A; Tilley, Douglas G; Elrod, John W; Koch, Walter J

    2016-10-14

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl ) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β 2 AR-induced hypertrophy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  5. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Benjamin P.; Woodall, Meryl C.; Luongo, Timothy S.; Grisanti, Laurel A.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Elrod, John W.; Koch, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β2AR-induced hypertrophy. PMID:27566547

  6. New factors influencing G protein coupled receptors' system functions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New factors such as the G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) surrounding's chemical environment, cell membrane constituents, the existent gap junction, endogenous receptor affinity status and animal species have been shown to influence the GPCR physiology and variations of those factors can modify the functions of the ...

  7. G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 mediates Tazarotene-induced gene 1-induced growth suppression of human colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chang-Chieh; Tsai, Fu-Ming; Shyu, Rong-Yaun; Tsai, Ya-Ming; Wang, Chun-Hua; Jiang, Shun-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Tazarotene-induced gene 1 (TIG1) is a retinoid-inducible type II tumour suppressor gene. The B isoform of TIG1 (TIG1B) inhibits growth and invasion of cancer cells. Expression of TIG1B is frequently downregulated in various cancer tissues; however, the expression and activities of the TIG1A isoform are yet to be reported. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of the TIG1A and TIG1B isoforms on cell growth and gene expression profiles using colon cancer cells. TIG1A and TIG1B stable clones derived from HCT116 and SW620 colon cancer cells were established using the GeneSwitch system; TIG1 isoform expression was induced by mifepristone treatment. Cell growth was assessed using the WST-1 cell proliferation and colony formation assays. RNA interference was used to examine the TIG1 mediating changes in cell growth. Gene expression profiles were determined using microarray and validated using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analyses. Both TIG1 isoforms were expressed at high levels in normal prostate and colon tissues and were downregulated in colon cancer cell lines. Both TIG1 isoforms significantly inhibited the growth of transiently transfected HCT116 cells and stably expressing TIG1A and TIG1B HCT116 and SW620 cells. Expression of 129 and 55 genes was altered upon induction of TIG1A and TIG1B expression, respectively, in stably expressing HCT116 cells. Of the genes analysed, 23 and 6 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively, in both TIG1A and TIG1B expressing cells. Upregulation of the G-protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses in both TIG1 stable cell lines. Silencing of TIG1A or GRK5 expression significantly decreased TIG1A-mediated cell growth suppression. Expression of both TIG1 isoforms was observed in normal prostate and colon tissues and was downregulated in colon cancer cell lines. Both TIG1 isoforms suppressed cell growth and

  8. G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40-dependent potentiation of insulin secretion in mouse islets is mediated by protein kinase D1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdaoussi, M; Bergeron, V; Zarrouki, B; Kolic, J; Cantley, J; Fielitz, J; Olson, E N; Prentki, M; Biden, T; MacDonald, P E; Poitout, V

    2012-10-01

    Activation of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)40 by long-chain fatty acids potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta cells, and GPR40 agonists are in clinical development for type 2 diabetes therapy. GPR40 couples to the G protein subunit Gα(q/11) but the signalling cascade activated downstream is unknown. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms of GPR40-dependent potentiation of GSIS by fatty acids. Insulin secretion in response to glucose, oleate or diacylglycerol (DAG) was assessed in dynamic perifusions and static incubations in islets from wild-type (WT) and Gpr40 (-/-) mice. Depolymerisation of filamentous actin (F-actin) was visualised by phalloidin staining and epifluorescence. Pharmacological and molecular approaches were used to ascertain the roles of protein kinase D (PKD) and protein kinase C delta in GPR40-mediated potentiation of GSIS. Oleate potentiates the second phase of GSIS, and this effect is largely dependent upon GPR40. Accordingly, oleate induces rapid F-actin remodelling in WT but not in Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Exogenous DAG potentiates GSIS in both WT and Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Oleate induces PKD phosphorylation at residues Ser-744/748 and Ser-916 in WT but not Gpr40 (-/-) islets. Importantly, oleate-induced F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of GSIS are lost upon pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 or deletion of Prkd1. We conclude that the signalling cascade downstream of GPR40 activation by fatty acids involves activation of PKD1, F-actin depolymerisation and potentiation of second-phase insulin secretion. These results provide important information on the mechanisms of action of GPR40, a novel drug target for type 2 diabetes.

  9. A monoclonal antibody for G protein-coupled receptor crystallography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Peter W; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Parnot, Charles

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of signaling proteins in mammals, mediating responses to hormones, neurotransmitters, and senses of sight, smell and taste. Mechanistic insight into GPCR signal transduction is limited by a paucity of high-resolution structural...

  10. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK-2) regulates serotonin metabolism through the monoamine oxidase AMX-2 inCaenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Luo, Jiansong; Aryal, Dipendra K; Wetsel, William C; Nass, Richard; Benovic, Jeffrey L

    2017-04-07

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate many animal behaviors. GPCR signaling is mediated by agonist-promoted interactions of GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins, GPCR kinases (GRKs), and arrestins. To further elucidate the role of GRKs in regulating GPCR-mediated behaviors, we utilized the genetic model system Caenorhabditis elegans Our studies demonstrate that grk-2 loss-of-function strains are egg laying-defective and contain low levels of serotonin (5-HT) and high levels of the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). The egg laying defect could be rescued by the expression of wild type but not by catalytically inactive grk-2 or by the selective expression of grk-2 in hermaphrodite-specific neurons. The addition of 5-HT or inhibition of 5-HT metabolism also rescued the egg laying defect. Furthermore, we demonstrate that AMX-2 is the primary monoamine oxidase that metabolizes 5-HT in C. elegans , and we also found that grk-2 loss-of-function strains have abnormally high levels of AMX-2 compared with wild-type nematodes. Interestingly, GRK-2 was also found to interact with and promote the phosphorylation of AMX-2. Additional studies reveal that 5-HIAA functions to inhibit egg laying in a manner dependent on the 5-HT receptor SER-1 and the G protein GOA-1. These results demonstrate that GRK-2 modulates 5-HT metabolism by regulating AMX-2 function and that 5-HIAA may function in the SER-1 signaling pathway. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. The Importance of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 4 (GRK4 in Pathogenesis of Salt Sensitivity, Salt Sensitive Hypertension and Response to Antihypertensive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Rayner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt sensitivity is probably caused by either a hereditary or acquired defect of salt excretion by the kidney, and it is reasonable to consider that this is the basis for differences in hypertension between black and white people. Dopamine acts in an autocrine/paracrine fashion to promote natriuresis in the proximal tubule and thick ascending loop of Henle. G-protein receptor kinases (or GRKs are serine and threonine kinases that phosphorylate G protein-coupled receptors in response to agonist stimulation and uncouple the dopamine receptor from its G protein. This results in a desensitisation process that protects the cell from repeated agonist exposure. GRK4 activity is increased in spontaneously hypertensive rats, and infusion of GRK4 antisense oligonucleotides attenuates the increase in blood pressure (BP. This functional defect is replicated in the proximal tubule by expression of GRK4 variants namely p.Arg65Leu, p.Ala142Val and p.Val486Ala, in cell lines, with the p.Ala142Val showing the most activity. In humans, GRK4 polymorphisms were shown to be associated with essential hypertension in Australia, BP regulation in young adults, low renin hypertension in Japan and impaired stress-induced Na excretion in normotensive black men. In South Africa, GRK4 polymorphisms are more common in people of African descent, associated with impaired Na excretion in normotensive African people, and predict blood pressure response to Na restriction in African patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. The therapeutic importance of the GRK4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs was emphasised in the African American Study of Kidney Disease (AASK where African-Americans with hypertensive nephrosclerosis were randomised to receive amlodipine, ramipril or metoprolol. Men with the p.Ala142Val genotype were less likely to respond to metoprolol, especially if they also had the p.Arg65Leu variant. Furthermore, in the analysis of response to treatment in

  12. Myocardial Ablation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 (GRK2 Decreases Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury through an Anti-Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Fan

    Full Text Available Studies from our lab have shown that decreasing myocardial G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2 activity and expression can prevent heart failure progression after myocardial infarction. Since GRK2 appears to also act as a pro-death kinase in myocytes, we investigated the effect of cardiomyocyte-specific GRK2 ablation on the acute response to cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. To do this we utilized two independent lines of GRK2 knockout (KO mice where the GRK2 gene was deleted in only cardiomyocytes either constitutively at birth or in an inducible manner that occurred in adult mice prior to I/R. These GRK2 KO mice and appropriate control mice were subjected to a sham procedure or 30 min of myocardial ischemia via coronary artery ligation followed by 24 hrs reperfusion. Echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements showed significantly improved post-I/R cardiac function in both GRK2 KO lines, which correlated with smaller infarct sizes in GRK2 KO mice compared to controls. Moreover, there was significantly less TUNEL positive myocytes, less caspase-3, and -9 but not caspase-8 activities in GRK2 KO mice compared to control mice after I/R injury. Of note, we found that lowering cardiac GRK2 expression was associated with significantly lower cytosolic cytochrome C levels in both lines of GRK2 KO mice after I/R compared to corresponding control animals. Mechanistically, the anti-apoptotic effects of lowering GRK2 expression were accompanied by increased levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and increased activation of Akt after I/R injury. These findings were reproduced in vitro in cultured cardiomyocytes and GRK2 mRNA silencing. Therefore, lowering GRK2 expression in cardiomyocytes limits I/R-induced injury and improves post-ischemia recovery by decreasing myocyte apoptosis at least partially via Akt/Bcl-2 mediated mitochondrial protection and implicates mitochondrial-dependent actions, solidifying GRK2 as a pro-death kinase in the heart.

  13. Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Manglik, Aashish; Kobilka, Brian K., E-mail: kobilka@stanford.edu [Stanford University, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Weis, William I., E-mail: kobilka@stanford.edu [Stanford University, 279 Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford University, Fairchild Building, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    The use of molecular replacement in solving the structures of G protein-coupled receptors is discussed, with specific examples being described in detail. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large class of integral membrane proteins involved in regulating virtually every aspect of human physiology. Despite their profound importance in human health and disease, structural information regarding GPCRs has been extremely limited until recently. With the advent of a variety of new biochemical and crystallographic techniques, the structural biology of GPCRs has advanced rapidly, offering key molecular insights into GPCR activation and signal transduction. To date, almost all GPCR structures have been solved using molecular-replacement techniques. Here, the unique aspects of molecular replacement as applied to individual GPCRs and to signaling complexes of these important proteins are discussed.

  14. Structural Studies of G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dandan; Zhao, Qiang; Wu, Beili

    2015-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest and the most physiologically important membrane protein family that recognizes a variety of environmental stimuli, and are drug targets in the treatment of numerous diseases. Recent progress on GPCR structural studies shed light on molecular mechanisms of GPCR ligand recognition, activation and allosteric modulation, as well as structural basis of GPCR dimerization. In this review, we will discuss the structural features of GPCRs and structural insights of different aspects of GPCR biological functions.

  15. Introduction: G Protein-coupled Receptors and RGS Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Adele; Fisher, Rory A

    2015-01-01

    Here, we provide an overview of the role of regulator of G protein-signaling (RGS) proteins in signaling by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the latter of which represent the largest class of cell surface receptors in humans responsible for transducing diverse extracellular signals into the intracellular environment. Given that GPCRs regulate virtually every known physiological process, it is unsurprising that their dysregulation plays a causative role in many human diseases and they are targets of 40-50% of currently marketed pharmaceuticals. Activated GPCRs function as GTPase exchange factors for Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins, promoting the formation of Gα-GTP and dissociated Gβγ subunits that regulate diverse effectors including enzymes, ion channels, and protein kinases. Termination of signaling is mediated by the intrinsic GTPase activity of Gα subunits leading to reformation of the inactive Gαβγ heterotrimer. RGS proteins determine the magnitude and duration of cellular responses initiated by many GPCRs by functioning as GTPase-accelerating proteins (GAPs) for specific Gα subunits. Twenty canonical mammalian RGS proteins, divided into four subfamilies, act as functional GAPs while almost 20 additional proteins contain nonfunctional RGS homology domains that often mediate interaction with GPCRs or Gα subunits. RGS protein biochemistry has been well elucidated in vitro, but the physiological functions of each RGS family member remain largely unexplored. This book summarizes recent advances employing modified model organisms that reveal RGS protein functions in vivo, providing evidence that RGS protein modulation of G protein signaling and GPCRs can be as important as initiation of signaling by GPCRs. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. G protein-coupled receptors in Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Catherine A; Fox, A Nicole; Pitts, R Jason; Kent, Lauren B; Tan, Perciliz L; Chrystal, Mathew A; Cravchik, Anibal; Collins, Frank H; Robertson, Hugh M; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2002-10-04

    We used bioinformatic approaches to identify a total of 276 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the Anopheles gambiae genome. These include GPCRs that are likely to play roles in pathways affecting almost every aspect of the mosquito's life cycle. Seventy-nine candidate odorant receptors were characterized for tissue expression and, along with 76 putative gustatory receptors, for their molecular evolution relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Examples of lineage-specific gene expansions were observed as well as a single instance of unusually high sequence conservation.

  17. Serial femtosecond crystallography datasets from G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas A; Barty, Anton; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; Zhang, Haitao; Gati, Cornelius; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Basu, Shibom; Oberthür, Dominik; Metz, Markus; Beyerlein, Kenneth R; Yoon, Chun Hong; Yefanov, Oleksandr M; James, Daniel; Wang, Dingjie; Messerschmidt, Marc; Koglin, Jason E; Boutet, Sébastien; Weierstall, Uwe; Cherezov, Vadim

    2016-08-01

    We describe the deposition of four datasets consisting of X-ray diffraction images acquired using serial femtosecond crystallography experiments on microcrystals of human G protein-coupled receptors, grown and delivered in lipidic cubic phase, at the Linac Coherent Light Source. The receptors are: the human serotonin receptor 2B in complex with an agonist ergotamine, the human δ-opioid receptor in complex with a bi-functional peptide ligand DIPP-NH2, the human smoothened receptor in complex with an antagonist cyclopamine, and finally the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in complex with the selective antagonist ZD7155. All four datasets have been deposited, with minimal processing, in an HDF5-based file format, which can be used directly for crystallographic processing with CrystFEL or other software. We have provided processing scripts and supporting files for recent versions of CrystFEL, which can be used to validate the data.

  18. A Latin American Perspective on G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupo, André S; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2016-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors are sensors that interact with a large variety of elements, including photons, ions, and large proteins. Not surprisingly, these receptors participate in the numerous normal physiologic processes that we refer to as health and in its perturbations that constitute disease. It has been estimated that a large percentage of drugs currently used in therapeutics target these proteins, and this percentage is larger when illegal drugs are included. The state of the art in this field can be defined with the oxymoron "constant change," and enormous progress has been made in recent years. A group of scientists working in Latin America were invited to contribute minireviews for this special section to present some of the work performed in this geographical region and foster further international collaboration. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  19. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwasako, Kenji; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Nagata, Sayaka; Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka; Murakami, Manabu; Hattori, Yuichi; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kato, Johji

    2016-01-01

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM 1 receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM 1 receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM 1 receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [ 125 I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β 2 -adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449–453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM 1 receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. - Highlights: • We discovered a novel function of GRKs in GPCR trafficking using human CLR/RAMP2. • GRKs 4 and 5 markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of human CLR/RAMP2. • Both GRKs exhibited highly significant receptor signaling inhibition. • Five residues of the C-terminal tail of CLR govern this function of GRKs.

  20. Inhibitory effects of two G protein-coupled receptor kinases on the cell surface expression and signaling of the human adrenomedullin receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwasako, Kenji, E-mail: kuwasako@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Toshio [Noto Marine Laboratory, Division of Marine Environmental Studies, Institute of Nature and Environmental Technology, Kanazawa University, Ishikawa, 927-0553 (Japan); Nagata, Sayaka [Division of Circulatory and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Jiang, Danfeng; Hayashi, Hidetaka [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Murakami, Manabu [Department of Pharmacology, Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, 036-8562 (Japan); Hattori, Yuichi [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Graduate School of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toyama, Toyama, 930-0194 (Japan); Kitamura, Kazuo [Division of Circulatory and Body Fluid Regulation, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan); Kato, Johji [Frontier Science Research Center, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, 889-1692 (Japan)

    2016-02-19

    Receptor activity-modifying protein 2 (RAMP2) enables the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR, a family B GPCR) to form the type 1 adrenomedullin receptor (AM{sub 1} receptor). Here, we investigated the effects of the five non-visual GPCR kinases (GRKs 2 through 6) on the cell surface expression of the human (h)AM{sub 1} receptor by cotransfecting each of these GRKs into HEK-293 cells that stably expressed hRAMP2. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that when coexpressed with GRK4 or GRK5, the cell surface expression of the AM{sub 1} receptor was markedly decreased prior to stimulation with AM, thereby attenuating both the specific [{sup 125}I]AM binding and AM-induced cAMP production. These inhibitory effects of both GRKs were abolished by the replacement of the cytoplasmic C-terminal tail (C-tail) of CLR with that of the calcitonin receptor (a family B GPCR) or β{sub 2}-adrenergic receptor (a family A GPCR). Among the sequentially truncated CLR C-tail mutants, those lacking the five residues 449–453 (Ser-Phe-Ser-Asn-Ser) abolished the inhibition of the cell surface expression of CLR via the overexpression of GRK4 or GRK5. Thus, we provided new insight into the function of GRKs in agonist-unstimulated GPCR trafficking using a recombinant AM{sub 1} receptor and further determined the region of the CLR C-tail responsible for this GRK function. - Highlights: • We discovered a novel function of GRKs in GPCR trafficking using human CLR/RAMP2. • GRKs 4 and 5 markedly inhibited the cell surface expression of human CLR/RAMP2. • Both GRKs exhibited highly significant receptor signaling inhibition. • Five residues of the C-terminal tail of CLR govern this function of GRKs.

  1. Sphingolipids in the function of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafurulla, Mohammad; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2015-09-15

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest and most diverse protein family in mammals and are involved in information transfer across cellular membranes. GPCRs are known to regulate multiple physiological functions and therefore represent major drug targets in all clinical areas. The fact that GPCRs are integral membrane proteins raises the possibility of their interaction with functionally important membrane lipids such as sphingolipids. Sphingolipids are essential membrane components and are recognized as diverse and dynamic regulators of a multitude of cellular processes. Interaction with sphingolipids could lead to modulation of GPCR structure and function. In this review, we highlight the role of sphingolipids in the function of GPCRs with specific examples. A comprehensive understanding of molecular events involved in GPCR-lipid interaction would provide better insight into GPCR function in health and disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nanobody stabilization of G protein coupled receptor conformational states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, Jan; K Kobilka, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in the field of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) structural biology during the past four years. Several obstacles to generating diffraction quality crystals of GPCRs have been overcome by combining innovative methods ranging from protein engineering to lipid-based screens and microdiffraction technology. The initial GPCR structures represent energetically stable inactive-state conformations. However, GPCRs signal through different G protein isoforms or G protein-independent effectors upon ligand binding suggesting the existence of multiple ligand-specific active states. These active-state conformations are unstable in the absence of specific cytosolic signaling partners representing new challenges for structural biology. Camelid single chain antibody fragments (nanobodies) show promise for stabilizing active GPCR conformations and as chaperones for crystallogenesis. PMID:21782416

  3. Structural organization of G-protein-coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomize, Andrei L.; Pogozheva, Irina D.; Mosberg, Henry I.

    1999-07-01

    Atomic-resolution structures of the transmembrane 7-α-helical domains of 26 G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) (including opsins, cationic amine, melatonin, purine, chemokine, opioid, and glycoprotein hormone receptors and two related proteins, retinochrome and Duffy erythrocyte antigen) were calculated by distance geometry using interhelical hydrogen bonds formed by various proteins from the family and collectively applied as distance constraints, as described previously [Pogozheva et al., Biophys. J., 70 (1997) 1963]. The main structural features of the calculated GPCR models are described and illustrated by examples. Some of the features reflect physical interactions that are responsible for the structural stability of the transmembrane α-bundle: the formation of extensive networks of interhelical H-bonds and sulfur-aromatic clusters that are spatially organized as 'polarity gradients' the close packing of side-chains throughout the transmembrane domain; and the formation of interhelical disulfide bonds in some receptors and a plausible Zn2+ binding center in retinochrome. Other features of the models are related to biological function and evolution of GPCRs: the formation of a common 'minicore' of 43 evolutionarily conserved residues; a multitude of correlated replacements throughout the transmembrane domain; an Na+-binding site in some receptors, and excellent complementarity of receptor binding pockets to many structurally dissimilar, conformationally constrained ligands, such as retinal, cyclic opioid peptides, and cationic amine ligands. The calculated models are in good agreement with numerous experimental data.

  4. Peptide ligand recognition by G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Krumm

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The past few years have seen spectacular progress in the structure determination of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. We now have structural representatives from classes A, B, C, and F. Within the rhodopsin-like class A, most structures belong to the α group, whereas fewer GPCR structures are available from the β, γ, and δ groups, which include peptide GPCRs such as the receptors for neurotensin (β group, opioids, chemokines (γ group, and protease-activated receptors (δ group. Structural information on peptide GPCRs is restricted to complexes with non-peptidic drug-like antagonists with the exception of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 that has been crystallized in the presence of a cyclic peptide antagonist. Notably, the neurotensin receptor (NTSR1 is to date the only peptide GPCR whose structure has been solved in the presence of a peptide agonist. Although limited in number, the current peptide GPCR structures reveal great diversity in shape and electrostatic properties of the ligand binding pockets, features that play key roles in the discrimination of ligands. Here, we review these aspects of peptide GPCRs in view of possible models for peptide agonist binding.

  5. Presynaptic G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Gatekeepers of Addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Johnson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse and addiction cause widespread social and public health problems, and the neurobiology underlying drug actions and drug use and abuse is an area of intensive research. Drugs of abuse alter synaptic transmission, and these actions contribute to acute intoxication as well as the chronic effects of abused substances. Transmission at most mammalian synapses involves neurotransmitter activation of two receptor subtypes, ligand-gated ion channels that mediate fast synaptic responses, and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that have slower neuromodulatory actions. The GPCRs represent a large proportion of neurotransmitter receptors involved in almost all facets of nervous system function. In addition, these receptors are targets for many pharmacotherapeutic agents. Drugs of abuse directly or indirectly affect neuromodulation mediated by GPCRs, with important consequences for intoxication, drug taking and responses to prolonged drug exposure, withdrawal and addiction. Among the GPCRs are several subtypes involved in presynaptic inhibition, most of which are coupled to the Gi/o class of G protein. There is increasing evidence that these presynaptic Gi/o-coupled GPCRs have important roles in the actions of drugs of abuse, as well as behaviors related to these drugs. This topic will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on receptors for three neurotransmitters, dopamine (D1- and D2-like receptors, endocannabinoids (CB1 receptors and glutamate (group II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu receptors. The focus is on recent evidence from laboratory animal models (and some evidence in humans implicating these receptors in the acute and chronic effects of numerous abused drugs, as well as in the control of drug seeking and taking. The ability of drugs targeting these receptors to modify drug seeking behavior has raised the possibility of using compounds targeting these receptors for addiction pharmacotherapy. This topic is also discussed, with emphasis on

  6. G protein-coupled receptor systems and their lipid environment in health disorders during aging

    OpenAIRE

    Alemany, Regina; Perona, Javier S.; Sánchez-Dominguez, José M.; Montero, Emilio; Cañizares, Julio; Bressani, Ricardo; Escribá, Pablo V.; Ruiz-Gutierrez, Valentina

    2007-01-01

    Cells, tissues and organs undergo phenotypic changes and deteriorate as they age. Cell growth arrest and hyporesponsiveness to extrinsic stimuli are all hallmarks of senescent cells. Most such external stimuli received by a cell are processed by two different cell membrane systems: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). GPCRs form the largest gene family in the human genome and they are involved in most relevant physiological functions. Given the changes obs...

  7. Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors by Ubiquitination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Skieterska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs comprise the largest family of membrane receptors that control many cellular processes and consequently often serve as drug targets. These receptors undergo a strict regulation by mechanisms such as internalization and desensitization, which are strongly influenced by posttranslational modifications. Ubiquitination is a posttranslational modification with a broad range of functions that is currently gaining increased appreciation as a regulator of GPCR activity. The role of ubiquitination in directing GPCRs for lysosomal degradation has already been well-established. Furthermore, this modification can also play a role in targeting membrane and endoplasmic reticulum-associated receptors to the proteasome. Most recently, ubiquitination was also shown to be involved in GPCR signaling. In this review, we present current knowledge on the molecular basis of GPCR regulation by ubiquitination, and highlight the importance of E3 ubiquitin ligases, deubiquitinating enzymes and β-arrestins. Finally, we discuss classical and newly-discovered functions of ubiquitination in controlling GPCR activity.

  8. GPCRdb: an information system for G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberg, Vignir; Mordalski, Stefan; Munk, Christian; Rataj, Krzysztof; Harpsøe, Kasper; Hauser, Alexander S; Vroling, Bas; Bojarski, Andrzej J; Vriend, Gert; Gloriam, David E

    2016-01-04

    Recent developments in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structural biology and pharmacology have greatly enhanced our knowledge of receptor structure-function relations, and have helped improve the scientific foundation for drug design studies. The GPCR database, GPCRdb, serves a dual role in disseminating and enabling new scientific developments by providing reference data, analysis tools and interactive diagrams. This paper highlights new features in the fifth major GPCRdb release: (i) GPCR crystal structure browsing, superposition and display of ligand interactions; (ii) direct deposition by users of point mutations and their effects on ligand binding; (iii) refined snake and helix box residue diagram looks; and (iii) phylogenetic trees with receptor classification colour schemes. Under the hood, the entire GPCRdb front- and back-ends have been re-coded within one infrastructure, ensuring a smooth browsing experience and development. GPCRdb is available at http://www.gpcrdb.org/ and it's open source code at https://bitbucket.org/gpcr/protwis. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  9. The G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, C; Smajilovic, S; Wellendorph, P

    2014-01-01

    GPRC6A (G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 6, subtype A) is a class C G protein-coupled receptor, that has been cloned from human, mouse and rat. Several groups have shown that the receptor is activated by a range of basic and small aliphatic L-α-amino acids of which L-arginine, L-lysine...

  10. G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in Adult Neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doze, Van A.

    2012-01-01

    The importance of adult neurogenesis has only recently been accepted, resulting in a completely new field of investigation within stem cell biology. The regulation and functional significance of adult neurogenesis is currently an area of highly active research. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have emerged as potential modulators of adult neurogenesis. GPCRs represent a class of proteins with significant clinical importance, because approximately 30% of all modern therapeutic treatments target these receptors. GPCRs bind to a large class of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators such as norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin. Besides their typical role in cellular communication, GPCRs are expressed on adult neural stem cells and their progenitors that relay specific signals to regulate the neurogenic process. This review summarizes the field of adult neurogenesis and its methods and specifies the roles of various GPCRs and their signal transduction pathways that are involved in the regulation of adult neural stem cells and their progenitors. Current evidence supporting adult neurogenesis as a model for self-repair in neuropathologic conditions, adult neural stem cell therapeutic strategies, and potential avenues for GPCR-based therapeutics are also discussed. PMID:22611178

  11. Real-Time G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Imaging to Understand and Quantify Receptor Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María S. Aymerich

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the trafficking of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their regulation by agonists and antagonists is fundamental to develop more effective drugs. Optical methods using fluorescent-tagged receptors and spinning disk confocal microscopy are useful tools to investigate membrane receptor dynamics in living cells. The aim of this study was to develop a method to characterize receptor dynamics using this system which offers the advantage of very fast image acquisition with minimal cell perturbation. However, in short-term assays photobleaching was still a problem. Thus, we developed a procedure to perform a photobleaching-corrected image analysis. A study of short-term dynamics of the long isoform of the dopamine type 2 receptor revealed an agonist-induced increase in the mobile fraction of receptors with a rate of movement of 0.08 μm/s For long-term assays, the ratio between the relative fluorescence intensity at the cell surface versus that in the intracellular compartment indicated that receptor internalization only occurred in cells co-expressing G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. These results indicate that the lateral movement of receptors and receptor internalization are not directly coupled. Thus, we believe that live imaging of GPCRs using spinning disk confocal image analysis constitutes a powerful tool to study of receptor dynamics.

  12. Alpha-Bulges in G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob van der Kant

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Agonist binding is related to a series of motions in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs that result in the separation of transmembrane helices III and VI at their cytosolic ends and subsequent G protein binding. A large number of smaller motions also seem to be associated with activation. Most helices in GPCRs are highly irregular and often contain kinks, with extensive literature already available about the role of prolines in kink formation and the precise function of these kinks. GPCR transmembrane helices also contain many α-bulges. In this article we aim to draw attention to the role of these α-bulges in ligand and G-protein binding, as well as their role in several aspects of the mobility associated with GPCR activation. This mobility includes regularization and translation of helix III in the extracellular direction, a rotation of the entire helix VI, an inward movement of the helices near the extracellular side, and a concerted motion of the cytosolic ends of the helices that makes their orientation appear more circular and that opens up space for the G protein to bind. In several cases, α-bulges either appear or disappear as part of the activation process.

  13. Microgravity and Signaling Molecules in Rat Osteoblasts: Downstream of Receptor Tyrosine Kinase, G-Protein-Coupled Receptor, and Small GTP-Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumel, Yasuhiro; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Morita, Sadao; Katano, Hisako; Akiyama, Hideo; Hirano, Masahiko; Ohya, Keiichi; Sams, Clarence F.; Whitson, Peggy A.

    2005-01-01

    Rat osteoblasts were cultured for 4 and 5 days aboard Space Shuttle and solubilized on board. The mRNA levels of the post-receptor signaling molecules were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The G-protein alpha subunit G(alpha)q mRNA levels were elevated 3-fold by microgravity. G(alpha)q stimulates PLC(beta), and then PKC. PKC(delta) and PKC(theta) mRNA levels were increased 2- to 5-fold by microgravity The mRNA levels of SOS and Ras GRF were increased 4 to 5-fold by microgravity, while Ras GAP was not altered. Spaceflight-induced bone loss might be attributed to microgravity modulation of the signaling pathway in osteoblasts.

  14. A ligand channel through the G protein coupled receptor opsin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W Hildebrand

    Full Text Available The G protein coupled receptor rhodopsin contains a pocket within its seven-transmembrane helix (TM structure, which bears the inactivating 11-cis-retinal bound by a protonated Schiff-base to Lys296 in TM7. Light-induced 11-cis-/all-trans-isomerization leads to the Schiff-base deprotonated active Meta II intermediate. With Meta II decay, the Schiff-base bond is hydrolyzed, all-trans-retinal is released from the pocket, and the apoprotein opsin reloaded with new 11-cis-retinal. The crystal structure of opsin in its active Ops* conformation provides the basis for computational modeling of retinal release and uptake. The ligand-free 7TM bundle of opsin opens into the hydrophobic membrane layer through openings A (between TM1 and 7, and B (between TM5 and 6, respectively. Using skeleton search and molecular docking, we find a continuous channel through the protein that connects these two openings and comprises in its central part the retinal binding pocket. The channel traverses the receptor over a distance of ca. 70 A and is between 11.6 and 3.2 A wide. Both openings are lined with aromatic residues, while the central part is highly polar. Four constrictions within the channel are so narrow that they must stretch to allow passage of the retinal beta-ionone-ring. Constrictions are at openings A and B, respectively, and at Trp265 and Lys296 within the retinal pocket. The lysine enforces a 90 degrees elbow-like kink in the channel which limits retinal passage. With a favorable Lys side chain conformation, 11-cis-retinal can take the turn, whereas passage of the all-trans isomer would require more global conformational changes. We discuss possible scenarios for the uptake of 11-cis- and release of all-trans-retinal. If the uptake gate of 11-cis-retinal is assigned to opening B, all-trans is likely to leave through the same gate. The unidirectional passage proposed previously requires uptake of 11-cis-retinal through A and release of photolyzed all

  15. G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins and signaling: pharmacogenomic insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Miles D; Cole, David E C; Jose, Pedro A; Chidiac, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The identification and characterization of the genes encoding G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and the proteins necessary for the processes of ligand binding, GPCR activation, inactivation, and receptor trafficking to the membrane are discussed in the context of human genetic disease. In addition to functional GPCR variants, the identification of genetic disruptions affecting proteins necessary to GPCR functions have provided insights into the function of these pathways. Gsα and Gβ subunit polymorphisms have been found to result in complex phenotypes. Disruptions in accessory proteins that normally modify or organize heterotrimeric G-protein coupling may also result in disease states. These include the contribution of variants of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) protein to hypertension; the role variants of the activator of G protein signaling (AGS) proteins to phenotypes (such as the type III AGS8 variant to hypoxia); the contribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) proteins, such as GRK4, in disorders such as hypertension. The role of accessory proteins in GPCR structure and function is discussed in the context of genetic disorders associated with disruption of the genes that encode them. An understanding of the pharmacogenomics of GPCR and accessory protein signaling provides the basis for examining both GPCR pharmacogenetics and the genetics of monogenic disorders that result from disruption of given receptor systems.

  16. Dissecting signaling and functions of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araç, Demet; Aust, Gabriela; Calebiro, Davide; Engel, Felix B.; Formstone, Caroline; Goffinet, André; Hamann, Jörg; Kittel, Robert J.; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Monk, Kelly R.; Petrenko, Alexander; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schiöth, Helgi B.; Schwartz, Thue W.; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A.; Wobus, Manja; Wolfrum, Uwe; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise an expanded superfamily of receptors in the human genome. Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) form the second largest class of GPCRs. Despite the abundance, size, molecular structure, and functions in facilitating cell and matrix

  17. Dissecting signaling and functions of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Araç, Demet; Aust, Gabriela; Calebiro, Davide

    2012-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise an expanded superfamily of receptors in the human genome. Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) form the second largest class of GPCRs. Despite the abundance, size, molecular structure, and functions in facilitating cell and matrix...

  18. G protein coupled receptors signaling pathways implicate in inflammatory and immune response of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Jinling; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Lingling; Wei, Wei

    2017-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are transmembrane receptor proteins, which allow the transfer of signals across the membrane. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by synovitis and accompanied with inflammatory and abnormal immune response. GPCRs signaling pathways play a significant role in inflammatory and immune response processes including RA. In this review, we have focused on the advances in GPCRs signaling pathway implicating the inflammatory and immune response of RA. The signaling pathways of GPCRs-adenylyl cyclase (AC)-cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) include β 2 adrenergic receptors (β 2 -ARs)-AC-cAMP signaling pathways, E-prostanoid2/4 (EP2/4)-AC-cAMP signaling pathways and so on. Regulatory proteins, such as G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and β-arrestins, play important modulatory roles in GPCRs signaling pathway. GPCRs signaling pathway and regulatory proteins implicate the pathogenesis process of inflammatory and immune response. GPCRs-AC-cAMP signal pathways involve in the inflammatory and immune response of RA. Different signaling pathways are mediated by different receptors, such as β 2 -AR, PGE2 receptor, chemokines receptor, and adenosine receptor. GRKs and β-arrestins are crucial proteins in the regulation of GPCRs signaling pathways. The potential therapeutic targets as well as strategies to modulate GPCRs signaling pathway are new development trends.

  19. G Protein-Coupled Receptor Multimers : A Question Still Open Despite the Use of Novel Approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vischer, Henry F; Castro, Marián; Pin, Jean Philippe

    Heteromerization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can significantly change the functional properties of involved receptors. Various biochemical and biophysical methodologies have been developed in the last two decades to identify and functionally evaluate GPCR heteromers in heterologous cells,

  20. Cell-Surface Receptors Transactivation Mediated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, Fabio; Guerra, Germano; Parisi, Melania; De Marinis, Marta; Tafuri, Domenico; Cinelli, Mariapia; Ammendola, Rosario

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane-spanning proteins belonging to a large family of cell-surface receptors involved in many intracellular signaling cascades. Despite GPCRs lack intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity, tyrosine phosphorylation of a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) occurs in response to binding of specific agonists of several such receptors, triggering intracellular mitogenic cascades. This suggests that the notion that GPCRs are associated with the regulation of post-mitotic cell functions is no longer believable. Crosstalk between GPCR and RTK may occur by different molecular mechanism such as the activation of metalloproteases, which can induce the metalloprotease-dependent release of RTK ligands, or in a ligand-independent manner involving membrane associated non-receptor tyrosine kinases, such as c-Src. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are also implicated as signaling intermediates in RTKs transactivation. Intracellular concentration of ROS increases transiently in cells stimulated with GPCR agonists and their deliberated and regulated generation is mainly catalyzed by enzymes that belong to nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase family. Oxidation and/or reduction of cysteine sulfhydryl groups of phosphatases tightly controls the activity of RTKs and ROS-mediated inhibition of cellular phosphatases results in an equilibrium shift from the non-phosphorylated to the phosphorylated state of RTKs. Many GPCR agonists activate phospholipase C, which catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bis-phosphate to produce inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate and diacylglicerol. The consequent mobilization of Ca2+ from endoplasmic reticulum leads to the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms. PKCα mediates feedback inhibition of RTK transactivation during GPCR stimulation. Recent data have expanded the coverage of transactivation to include Serine/Threonine kinase receptors and Toll-like receptors. Herein, we

  1. Phosphodiesterase inhibitor KMUP-3 displays cardioprotection via protein kinase G and increases cardiac output via G-protein-coupled receptor agonist activity and Ca2+ sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Pin Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available KMUP-3 (7-{2-[4-(4-nitrobenzene piperazinyl]ethyl}-1, 3-dimethylxanthine displays cardioprotection and increases cardiac output, and is suggested to increase cardiac performance and improve myocardial infarction. To determine whether KMUP-3 improves outcomes in hypoperfused myocardium by inducing Ca2+ sensitization to oppose protein kinase (PKG-mediated Ca2+ blockade, we measured left ventricular systolic blood pressure, maximal rates of pressure development, mean arterial pressure and heart rate in rats, and measured contractility and expression of PKs/RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCKII in beating guinea pig left atria. Hemodynamic changes induced by KMUP-3 (0.5–3.0 mg/kg, intravenously were inhibited by Y27632 [(R-(+-trans-4-1-aminoethyl-N-(4-Pyridyl cyclohexane carboxamide] and ketanserin (1 mg/kg, intravenously. In electrically stimulated left guinea pig atria, positive inotropy induced by KMUP-3 (0.1–100μM was inhibited by the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS inhibitors N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME and 7-nitroindazole, cyclic AMP antagonist SQ22536 [9-(terahydro-2-furanyl-9H-purin-6-amine], soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC antagonist ODQ (1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one, RhoA inhibitor C3 exoenzyme, β-blocker propranolol, 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A antagonist ketanserin, ROCK inhibitor Y27632 and KMUP-1 (7-{2-[4-(2-chlorobenzene piperazinyl]ethyl}-1, 3-dimethylxanthine at 10μM. Western blotting assays indicated that KMUP-3 (0.1–10μM increased PKA, RhoA/ROCKII, and PKC translocation and CIP-17 (an endogenous 17-kDa inhibitory protein activation. In spontaneous right atria, KMUP-3 induced negative chronotropy that was blunted by 7-nitroindazole and atropine. In neonatal myocytes, L-NAME inhibited KMUP-3-induced eNOS phosphorylation and RhoA/ROCK activation. In H9c2 cells, Y-27632 (50μM and PKG antagonist KT5823 [2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10R- methoxy-2,9-dimethyl-1-oxo-9S,12R-epoxy-1H-diindolo(1,2,3-fg:3′,2′,1

  2. A switch of G protein-coupled receptor binding preference from phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-p85 to filamin A negatively controls the PI3K pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Souad; Saint-Laurent, Nathalie; Estève, Jean-Pierre; Schulz, Stefan; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Fourmy, Daniel; Lättig, Jens; Mollereau, Catherine; Pyronnet, Stéphane; Susini, Christiane; Bousquet, Corinne

    2012-03-01

    Frequent oncogenic alterations occur in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, urging identification of novel negative controls. We previously reported an original mechanism for restraining PI3K activity, controlled by the somatostatin G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) sst2 and involving a ligand-regulated interaction between sst2 with the PI3K regulatory p85 subunit. We here identify the scaffolding protein filamin A (FLNA) as a critical player regulating the dynamic of this complex. A preexisting sst2-p85 complex, which was shown to account for a significant basal PI3K activity in the absence of ligand, is disrupted upon sst2 activation. FLNA was here identified as a competitor of p85 for direct binding to two juxtaposed sites on sst2. Switching of GPCR binding preference from p85 toward FLNA is determined by changes in the tyrosine phosphorylation of p85- and FLNA-binding sites on sst2 upon activation. It results in the disruption of the sst2-p85 complex and the subsequent inhibition of PI3K. Knocking down FLNA expression, or abrogating FLNA recruitment to sst2, reversed the inhibition of PI3K and of tumor growth induced by sst2. Importantly, we report that this FLNA inhibitory control on PI3K can be generalized to another GPCR, the mu opioid receptor, thereby providing an unprecedented mechanism underlying GPCR-negative control on PI3K.

  3. Requirements and ontology for a G protein-coupled receptor oligomerization knowledge base

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skrabanek, L.; Murcia, M.; Bouvier, M.; Devi, L.; George, S.R.; Lohse, M.J.; Milligan, G.; Neubig, R.; Palczewski, K.; Parmentier, M.; Pin, J.P.; Vriend, G.; Javitch, J.A.; Campagne, F.; Filizola, M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) are a large and diverse family of membrane proteins whose members participate in the regulation of most cellular and physiological processes and therefore represent key pharmacological targets. Although several bioinformatics resources support research

  4. Chronic regulation of colonic epithelial secretory function by activation of G protein-coupled receptors.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toumi, F

    2011-02-01

    Enteric neurotransmitters that act at G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to acutely promote epithelial Cl(-) and fluid secretion. Here we examined if acute GPCR activation might have more long-term consequences for epithelial secretory function.

  5. The repertoire of trace amine G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David E.; Bjarnadóttir, Thóra K; Yan, Yi-Lin

    2005-01-01

    eukaryotic species for receptors similar to the mammalian trace amine (TA) receptor subfamily. We identified 18 new receptors in rodents that are orthologous to the previously known TA-receptors. Remarkably, we found 57 receptors (and 40 pseudogenes) of this type in the zebrafish (Danio rerio), while fugu...

  6. High-throughput screening of antagonists for the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia; Zhu, Lin-yun; Liu, Qing; Hentzer, Morten; Smith, Garrick Paul; Wang, Ming-wei

    2015-07-01

    To discover antagonists of the orphan G-protein coupled receptor GPR139 through high-throughput screening of a collection of diverse small molecules. Calcium mobilization assays were used to identify initial hits and for subsequent confirmation studies. Five small molecule antagonists, representing 4 different scaffolds, were identified following high-throughput screening of 16 000 synthetic compounds. The findings provide important tools for further study of this orphan G-protein coupled receptor.

  7. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    The serine protease thrombin activates G protein signaling systems that lead to Ras activation and, in certain cells, proliferation. Whereas the steps leading to Ras activation by G protein-coupled receptors are not well defined, the mechanisms of Ras activation by receptor tyrosine kinases have...... kinase activation, gene induction and cell growth. From these data, we conclude that Shc represents a crucial point of convergence between signaling pathways activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors....... recently been elucidated biochemically and genetically. The present study was undertaken to determine whether common signaling components are used by these two distinct classes of receptors. Here we report that the adaptor protein Shc, is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues following stimulation...

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase α mediates 17-β-estradiol-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Sampietro, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo E; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Gregnanin, Ilaria; Rainero, Elena; Ferrara, Michele; Perego, Beatrice; Riboni, Francesca; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Graziani, Andrea; Surico, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Increased levels of endogenous and/or exogenous estrogens are one of the well known risk factors of endometrial cancer. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes which phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), thus turning off and on DAG-mediated and PA-mediated signaling pathways, respectively. DGK α activity is stimulated by growth factors and oncogenes and is required for chemotactic, proliferative, and angiogenic signaling in vitro. Herein, using either specific siRNAs or the pharmacological inhibitor R59949, we demonstrate that DGK α activity is required for 17-β-estradiol (E2)-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line. Impairment of DGK α activity also influences basal cell proliferation and growth in soft agar of Hec-1A, while it has no effects on basal cell motility. Moreover, we show that DGK α activity induced by E2, as well as its observed effects, are mediated by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30 (GPER). These findings suggest that DGK α may be a potential target in endometrial cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. G-protein-coupled receptors for free fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Ulven, Trond; Murdoch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    that communicate cellular signals initiated by hormones and neurotransmitters. Recently, based on tissue expression patterns of these receptors and the concept that they may elicit the production of a range of appetite- and hunger-regulating peptides, such nutrient sensing GPCRs are attracting considerable...... of these receptors. However, ongoing clinical trials of agonists of free fatty acid receptor 1 suggest that this receptor and other receptors for free fatty acids may provide a successful strategy for controlling hyperglycaemia and providing novel approaches to treat diabetes. Receptors responsive to free fatty acid...

  10. Structural basis for activation of G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Asmar, Fazila; Meinild, Anne Kristine

    2002-01-01

    into conformational changes accompanying GPCR activation and the underlying molecular mechanism governing transition of the receptor between its active and inactive states. Using the beta2-adrenergic receptor as a model system we have obtained evidence for an evolutionary conserved activation mechanism where...... changes and receptor activation. At the current stage we are exploring the possibility of reaching this goal by direct in situ labeling of the beta2-adrenergic receptor in Xenopus laevis oocytes with conformationally sensitive fluorescent probes and parallel detection of receptor activation by co...

  11. DMPD: G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macrophages. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17456803 G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signaling in macropha...2007 Apr 24. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and signali...ng in macrophages. PubmedID 17456803 Title G-protein-coupled receptor expression, function, and sign

  12. Allosteric modulation of G-protein coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anders A.; Spalding, Tracy A

    2004-01-01

    are believed to activate (agonists) or inhibit (competitive antagonists) receptor signalling by binding the receptor at the same site as the endogenous agonist, the orthosteric site. In contrast, allosteric ligands modulate receptor function by binding to different regions in the receptor, allosteric sites....... In recent years, combinatorial chemistry and high throughput screening have helped identify several allosteric GPCR modulators with novel structures, several of which already have become valuable pharmacological tools and may be candidates for clinical testing in the near future. This mini review outlines...... the current status and perspectives of allosteric modulation of GPCR function with emphasis on the pharmacology of endogenous and synthesised modulators, their receptor interactions and the therapeutic prospects of allosteric ligands compared to orthosteric ligands....

  13. Membrane cholesterol access into a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guixa-González, R.; Albasanz, J. L.; Rodriguez-Espigares, I.; Pastor, M.; Sanz, F.; Martí-Solano, M.; Manna, M.; Martinez-Seara, Hector; Hildebrand, P. W.; Martín, M.; Selent, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, Feb 21 (2017), č. článku 14505. ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : postmortem orbitofrontal cortex * A(2A) adenosine receptor * molecular dynamics Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 12.124, year: 2016 https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14505

  14. G protein-coupled receptor modulation with pepducins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimond, Patricia; Carlson, Kenneth; Bouvier, Michel

    2011-01-01

    of the structure and function of this ubiquitous superfamily of membrane receptors and their potential modulation for disease treatment. Presentations also focused on how GPCR mechanisms might be exploited to treat diseases with pepducins, novel synthetic lipopeptide pharmacophores that modulate heptahelical GPCR...

  15. Receptor activity-modifying proteins; multifunctional G protein-coupled receptor accessory proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Debbie L; Walker, Christopher S; Gingell, Joseph J; Ladds, Graham; Reynolds, Christopher A; Poyner, David R

    2016-04-15

    Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs) are single pass membrane proteins initially identified by their ability to determine the pharmacology of the calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), a family B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). It is now known that RAMPs can interact with a much wider range of GPCRs. This review considers recent developments on the structure of the complexes formed between the extracellular domains (ECDs) of CLR and RAMP1 or RAMP2 as these provide insights as to how the RAMPs direct ligand binding. The range of RAMP interactions is also considered; RAMPs can interact with numerous family B GPCRs as well as examples of family A and family C GPCRs. They influence receptor expression at the cell surface, trafficking, ligand binding and G protein coupling. The GPCR-RAMP interface offers opportunities for drug targeting, illustrated by examples of drugs developed for migraine. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Molecular basis for amino acid sensing by family C G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Family C of human G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is constituted by eight metabotropic glutamate receptors, two gamma-aminobutyric acid type B (GABA(B1-2)) subunits forming the heterodimeric GABA(B) receptor, the calcium-sensing receptor, three taste1 receptors (T1R1-3), a promiscuous L-alpha;-amino......-2) and T1R2-3 receptor, all receptors are either activated or positively modulated by amino acids. In this review, we outline mutational, biophysical and structural studies which have elucidated the interaction of the amino acids with the Venus flytrap domains, molecular mechanisms of receptor selectivity...... acid receptor G-protein-coupled receptor family C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6A) and seven orphan receptors. Aside from the orphan receptors, the family C GPCRs are dimeric receptors characterized by a large extracellular Venus flytrap domain which bind the endogenous agonists. Except from the GABA(B1...

  17. A new crystal structure fragment-based pharmacophore method for G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fidom, Kimberley; Isberg, Vignir; Hauser, Alexander Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new method for the building of pharmacophores for G protein-coupled receptors, a major drug target family. The method is a combination of the ligand- and target-based pharmacophore methods and founded on the extraction of structural fragments, interacting ligand moiety...... or ligands are known. 47% of the class A G protein-coupled receptors can be targeted with at least four-element pharmacophores. The fragment libraries can also be used to grow known ligands or for rotamer refinement of homology models. Researchers can download the complete fragment library or a subset...

  18. Structural Determinants of the Supramolecular Organization of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in Bilayers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Periole, Xavier; Knepp, Adam M.; Sakmar, Thomas P.; Marrink, Siewert J.; Huber, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) rhodopsin self-assembles into supramolecular structures in native bilayers, but the structural determinants of receptor oligomerization are not known. We carried out multiple self-assembly coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) simulations of model membranes

  19. Transcriptional and Functional Characterization of the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Repertoire of Gastric Somatostatin Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Kristoffer L; Engelstoft, Maja S; Lund, Mari L

    2015-01-01

    characterized the G protein-coupled receptors expressed in gastric Sst-RFP-positive cells and probed their effects on SST secretion in primary cell cultures. Surprisingly, besides SST, amylin and PYY were also highly enriched in the SST cells. Several receptors found to regulate SST secretion were highly...

  20. Adipokinetic hormones and their G protein-coupled receptors emerged in Lophotrochozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Shizhong; Hauser, Frank; Skadborg, Signe K.

    2016-01-01

    and in Lophotrochozoa. Furthermore, we have cloned and deorphanized two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) from the oyster Crassostrea gigas (Mollusca) that are activated by low nanomolar concentrations of oyster AKH (pQVSFSTNWGSamide). Our discovery of functional AKH receptors in molluscs is especially significant...

  1. A molecular pharmacologist's guide to G protein-coupled receptor crystallography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piscitelli, Chayne L.; Kean, James; de Graaf, C.; Deupi, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) structural biology has progressed dramatically in the last decade. There are now over 120 GPCR crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank of 32 different receptors from families scattered across the phylogenetic tree, including class B, C, and Frizzled

  2. Structure of the full-length glucagon class B G-protein-coupled receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Haonan; Qiao, Anna; Yang, Dehua; Yang, Linlin; Dai, Antao; de Graaf, C.; Reedtz-Runge, Steffen; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Zhang, Hui; Han, Gye Won; Grant, Thomas D.; Sierra, Raymond G.; Weierstall, Uwe; Nelson, Garrett; Liu, Wei; Wu, Yanhong; Ma, Limin; Cai, Xiaoqing; Lin, Guangyao; Wu, Xiaoai; Geng, Zhi; Dong, Yuhui; Song, Gaojie; Griffin, Patrick R.; Lau, Jesper; Cherezov, Vadim; Yang, Huaiyu; Hanson, Michael A.; Stevens, Raymond C.; Zhao, Qiang; Jiang, Hualiang; Wang, Ming Wei; Wu, Beili

    2017-01-01

    The human glucagon receptor, GCGR, belongs to the class B G-protein-coupled receptor family and plays a key role in glucose homeostasis and the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Here we report the 3.0 Å crystal structure of full-length GCGR containing both the extracellular domain and

  3. GPCR-OKB: the G Protein Coupled Receptor Oligomer Knowledge Base.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khelashvili, G.; Dorff, K.; Shan, J.; Camacho-Artacho, M.; Skrabanek, L.; Vroling, B.; Bouvier, M.; Devi, L.A.; George, S.R.; Javitch, J.A.; Lohse, M.J.; Milligan, G.; Neubig, R.R.; Palczewski, K.; Parmentier, M.; Pin, J.P.; Vriend, G.; Campagne, F.; Filizola, M.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY: Rapid expansion of available data about G Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR) dimers/oligomers over the past few years requires an effective system to organize this information electronically. Based on an ontology derived from a community dialog involving colleagues using experimental and

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jörg; Aust, Gabriela; Araç, Demet

    2015-01-01

    The Adhesion family forms a large branch of the pharmacologically important superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As Adhesion GPCRs increasingly receive attention from a wide spectrum of biomedical fields, the Adhesion GPCR Consortium, together with the International Union of Basic...

  5. Pharmacogenomic and structural analysis of constitutive g protein-coupled receptor activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.J.; Vischer, H.F.; Bakker, R.A.; Jongejan, A.; Timmerman, H.; Pardo, L.M.; Leurs, R.

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a chemically diverse plethora of signal transduction molecules. The notion that GPCRs also signal without an external chemical trigger, i.e., in a constitutive or spontaneous manner, resulted in a paradigm shift in the field of GPCR pharmacology. The

  6. Ligand binding to G protein-coupled receptors in tethered cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Karen L.; Meyer, Bruno H.; Hovius, Ruud

    2003-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large class of seven transmembrane proteins, which bind selectively agonists or antagonists with important consequences for cellular signaling and function. Comprehension of the molecular details of ligand binding is important for the understanding...

  7. PDZ domain-mediated interactions of G protein-coupled receptors with postsynaptic density protein 95

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Thor C; Wirth, Volker F; Roberts, Nina Ingerslev

    2013-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest family of membrane proteins in the human genome. Their signaling is regulated by scaffold proteins containing PDZ domains, but although these interactions are important for GPCR function, they are still poorly understood. We here present ...

  8. Customizing G Protein-coupled receptor models for structure-based virtual screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C.; Rognan, D.

    2009-01-01

    This review will focus on the construction, refinement, and validation of G Protein-coupled receptor models for the purpose of structure-based virtual screening. Practical tips and tricks derived from concrete modeling and virtual screening exercises to overcome the problems and pitfalls associated

  9. Exploring the biology of G protein-coupled receptors from in vitro to in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohn, Laura M; Lohse, Martin J; Nitabach, Michael N; Taghert, Paul H; Smit, Martine J.

    2015-01-01

    In August 2014, an international group of researchers gathered for 5 days at the Lorentz Center in Leiden, The Netherlands, to explore the technical and conceptual issues associated with the analysis of G protein-coupled receptor functions utilizing information from crystal structure models to the

  10. Modulation of cellular signaling by herpesvirus-encoded G protein-coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munnik, Sabrina M.; Smit, Martine J.; Leurs, Rob; Vischer, Henry F.

    2015-01-01

    Human herpesviruses (HHVs) are widespread infectious pathogens that have been associated with proliferative and inflammatory diseases. During viral evolution, HHVs have pirated genes encoding viral G protein-coupled receptors (vGPCRs), which are expressed on infected host cells. These vGPCRs show

  11. A Molecular Mechanism for Sequential Activation of a G Protein-Coupled Receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grundmann, Manuel; Tikhonova, Irina G; Hudson, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    Ligands targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are currently classified as either orthosteric, allosteric, or dualsteric/bitopic. Here, we introduce a new pharmacological concept for GPCR functional modulation: sequential receptor activation. A hallmark feature of this is a stepwise ligand...... and pharmacological perturbations along with computational methods, and propose a kinetic model applicable to the analysis of sequential receptor activation. We envision this form of dynamic agonism as a common principle of nature to spatiotemporally encode cellular information....

  12. Recent Progress in Understanding Subtype Specific Regulation of NMDA Receptors by G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available G Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs are the largest family of receptors whose ligands constitute nearly a third of prescription drugs in the market. They are widely involved in diverse physiological functions including learning and memory. NMDA receptors (NMDARs, which belong to the ionotropic glutamate receptor family, are likewise ubiquitously expressed in the central nervous system (CNS and play a pivotal role in learning and memory. Despite its critical contribution to physiological and pathophysiological processes, few pharmacological interventions aimed directly at regulating NMDAR function have been developed to date. However, it is well established that NMDAR function is precisely regulated by cellular signalling cascades recruited downstream of G protein coupled receptor (GPCR stimulation. Accordingly, the downstream regulation of NMDARs likely represents an important determinant of outcome following treatment with neuropsychiatric agents that target selected GPCRs. Importantly, the functional consequence of such regulation on NMDAR function varies, based not only on the identity of the GPCR, but also on the cell type in which relevant receptors are expressed. Indeed, the mechanisms responsible for regulating NMDARs by GPCRs involve numerous intracellular signalling molecules and regulatory proteins that vary from one cell type to another. In the present article, we highlight recent findings from studies that have uncovered novel mechanisms by which selected GPCRs regulate NMDAR function and consequently NMDAR-dependent plasticity.

  13. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Extranuclear Mediators for the Non-Genomic Actions of Steroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Steroids hormones possess two distinct actions, a delayed genomic effect and a rapid non-genomic effect. Rapid steroid-triggered signaling is mediated by specific receptors localized most often to the plasma membrane. The nature of these receptors is of great interest and accumulated data suggest that G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are appealing candidates. Increasing evidence regarding the interaction between steroids and specific membrane proteins, as well as the involvement of G protein and corresponding downstream signaling, have led to identification of physiologically relevant GPCRs as steroid extranuclear receptors. Examples include G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30 for estrogen, membrane progestin receptor for progesterone, G protein-coupled receptor family C group 6 member A (GPRC6A and zinc transporter member 9 (ZIP9 for androgen, and trace amine associated receptor 1 (TAAR1 for thyroid hormone. These receptor-mediated biological effects have been extended to reproductive development, cardiovascular function, neuroendocrinology and cancer pathophysiology. However, although great progress have been achieved, there are still important questions that need to be answered, including the identities of GPCRs responsible for the remaining steroids (e.g., glucocorticoid, the structural basis of steroids and GPCRs’ interaction and the integration of extranuclear and nuclear signaling to the final physiological function. Here, we reviewed the several significant developments in this field and highlighted a hypothesis that attempts to explain the general interaction between steroids and GPCRs.

  14. Receptor oligomerization in family B1 of G-protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, Sarah Norklit; Ørgaard, Anne; Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    , investigation of family B1 receptor oligomerization and especially its pharmacological importance is still at an early stage. Even though GPCR oligomerization is a well-established phenomenon, there is a need for more investigations providing a direct link between these interactions and receptor functionality......The superfamily of the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) is the largest family of membrane-associated receptors. GPCRs are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous human diseases, and they constitute an estimated 30-40% of all drug targets. During the last two decades......, GPCR oligomerization has been extensively studied using methods like bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and today, receptor-receptor interactions within the GPCR superfamily is a well-established phenomenon. Evidence of the impact of GPCR oligomerization on, e.g., ligand binding, receptor...

  15. Biophysical approaches to G protein-coupled receptors: Structure, function and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, André; Turcatti, Gerardo

    1999-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) represent a large family of drug targets for which there is no high-resolution structural information. In order to understand the mechanisms of ligand recognition and receptor activation, there is a strong need for novel biophysical methods. In this Perspective we provide an overview of recent experimental approaches used to explore the molecular architecture and dynamics of GPCR and their interactions with ligands and G proteins using biophysical, non-crystallographic, methods.

  16. Constitutive Activity among Orphan Class-A G Protein Coupled Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Adam L.; Steurer, Michael A.; Aronstam, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of constitutive activity among orphan class-A G protein coupled receptors within the cAMP signaling pathway. Constitutive signaling was revealed by changes in gene expression under control of the cAMP response element. Gene expression was measured in Chinese hamster ovary cells transiently co-transfected with plasmids containing a luciferase reporter and orphan receptor. Criteria adopted for defining constitutive activation were: 1) 200% el...

  17. Induction of RAGE Shedding by Activation of G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Verena V.; Kojro, Elzbieta; Rat, Dorothea; Postina, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    The multiligand Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE) is involved in various pathophysiological processes, including diabetic inflammatory conditions and Alzheimes disease. Full-length RAGE, a cell surface-located type I membrane protein, can proteolytically be converted by metalloproteinases ADAM10 and MMP9 into a soluble RAGE form. Moreover, administration of recombinant soluble RAGE suppresses activation of cell surface-located RAGE by trapping RAGE ligands. Therefore stimulation of RAGE shedding might have a therapeutic value regarding inflammatory diseases. We aimed to investigate whether RAGE shedding is inducible via ligand-induced activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We chose three different GPCRs coupled to distinct signaling cascades: the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) activating adenylyl cyclase, the oxytocin receptor (OTR) linked to phospholipase Cβ, and the PACAP receptor (subtype PAC1) coupled to adenylyl cyclase, phospholipase Cβ, calcium signaling and MAP kinases. We generated HEK cell lines stably coexpressing an individual GPCR and full-length RAGE and then investigated GPCR ligand-induced activation of RAGE shedding. We found metalloproteinase-mediated RAGE shedding on the cell surface to be inducible via ligand-specific activation of all analyzed GPCRs. By using specific inhibitors we have identified Ca2+ signaling, PKCα/PKCβI, CaMKII, PI3 kinases and MAP kinases to be involved in PAC1 receptor-induced RAGE shedding. We detected an induction of calcium signaling in all our cell lines coexpressing RAGE and different GPCRs after agonist treatment. However, we did not disclose a contribution of adenylyl cyclase in RAGE shedding induction. Furthermore, by using a selective metalloproteinase inhibitor and siRNA-mediated knock-down approaches, we show that ADAM10 and/or MMP9 are playing important roles in constitutive and PACAP-induced RAGE shedding. We also found that treatment of mice with PACAP increases the amount of

  18. Expression analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors in mouse macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Lattin, Jane E; Schroder, Kate; Su, Andrew I; Walker, John R; Zhang, Jie; Wiltshire, Tim; Saijo, Kaoru; Glass, Christopher K; Hume, David A; Kellie, Stuart; Sweet, Matthew J

    2008-01-01

    Background Monocytes and macrophages express an extensive repertoire of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) that regulate inflammation and immunity. In this study we performed a systematic micro-array analysis of GPCR expression in primary mouse macrophages to identify family members that are either enriched in macrophages compared to a panel of other cell types, or are regulated by an inflammatory stimulus, the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Results Several members of the P2RY f...

  19. Mutations in G protein-coupled receptors that impact receptor trafficking and reproductive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa-Aguirre, Alfredo; Zariñán, Teresa; Dias, James A; Conn, P Michael

    2014-01-25

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large superfamily of integral cell surface plasma membrane proteins that play key roles in transducing extracellular signals, including sensory stimuli, hormones, neurotransmitters, or paracrine factors into the intracellular environment through the activation of one or more heterotrimeric G proteins. Structural alterations provoked by mutations or variations in the genes coding for GPCRs may lead to misfolding, altered plasma membrane expression of the receptor protein and frequently to disease. A number of GPCRs regulate reproductive function at different levels; these receptors include the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) and the gonadotropin receptors (follicle-stimulating hormone receptor and luteinizing hormone receptor), which regulate the function of the pituitary-gonadal axis. Loss-of-function mutations in these receptors may lead to hypogonadotropic or hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, which encompass a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes. In this review we describe mutations that provoke misfolding and failure of these receptors to traffick from the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane. We also discuss some aspects related to the therapeutic potential of some target-specific drugs that selectively bind to and rescue function of misfolded mutant GnRHR and gonadotropin receptors, and that represent potentially valuable strategies to treat diseases caused by inactivating mutations of these receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural biology of G protein-coupled receptors: new opportunities from XFELs and cryoEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishchenko, Andrii; Gati, Cornelius; Cherezov, Vadim

    2018-03-16

    G protein-coupled receptors mediate cell signaling and regulate the majority of sensory and physiological processes in the human body. Recent breakthroughs in cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray free electron lasers have accelerated structural studies of difficult-to-crystallize receptors and their signaling complexes, and have opened up new opportunities in understanding conformational dynamics and visualizing the process of receptor activation with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Here, we summarize major milestones and challenges associated with the application of these techniques and outline future directions in their development with a focus on membrane protein structural biology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Visualizing G protein-coupled receptors in action through confocal microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Badillo, Jean A; Cabrera-Wrooman, Alejandro; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

    2014-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute one of the most abundant entities in cellular communication. Elucidation of their structure and function as well as of their regulation began 30-40 years ago and the advance has markedly increased during the last 15 years. They participate in a plethora of cell functions such as regulation of metabolic fluxes, contraction, secretion, differentiation, or proliferation, and in essentially all activities of our organism; these receptors are targets of a large proportion of prescribed and illegal drugs. Fluorescence techniques have been used to study receptors for many years. The experimental result was usually a two-dimensional (2D) micrograph. Today, the result can be a spatiotemporal (four-dimensional, 4D) movie. Advances in microscopy, fluorescent protein design, and computer-assisted analysis have been of great importance to increase our knowledge on receptor regulation and function and create opportunities for future research. In this review we briefly depict the state of the art of the G protein-coupled receptor field and the methodologies used to study G protein-coupled receptor location, trafficking, dimerization, and other types of receptor-protein interaction. Fluorescence techniques now permit the capture of receptor images with high resolution and, together with a variety of fluorescent dyes that color organelles (such as the plasma membrane or the nucleus) or the cytoskeleton, allow researchers to obtain a much clearer idea of what is taking place at the cellular level. These developments are changing the way we explore cell communication and signal transduction, permitting deeper understanding of the physiological and pathophysiological processes. Copyright © 2014 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. cAMP biosensors applied in molecular pharmacological studies of G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a common second messenger that mediates numerous biological responses. Intracellular cAMP levels are increased by activation of G(s)-coupled G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and decreased by activation of G(i)-coupled GPCRs via the adenylyl cyclase. Many...... is characterized in the 384-well plate format and used for measuring the signaling of the G(s)-coupled ß(2)-adrenergic receptor. The procedures described may be applied for other FRET-based biosensors in terms of characterization and conversion to the 384-well plate format....

  3. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...

  4. Understanding the Added Value of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Heteromers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Franco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute the most populated family of proteins within the human genome. Since the early sixties work on GPCRs and on GPCR-mediated signaling has led to a number of awards, the most recent being the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for 2012. The future of GPCRs research is surely based on their capacity for heteromerization. Receptor heteromers offer a series of challenges that will help in providing success in academic/basic research and translation into more effective and safer drugs.

  5. Rac1 modulates G-protein-coupled receptor-induced bronchial smooth muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Kai, Yuki; Sato, Ken; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Chiba, Yohihiko

    2018-01-05

    Increasing evidence suggests a functional role of RhoA/Rho-kinase signalling as a mechanism for smooth muscle contraction; however, little is known regarding the roles of Rac1 and other members of the Rho protein family. This study aimed to examine whether Rac1 modulates bronchial smooth muscle contraction. Ring preparations of bronchi isolated from rats were suspended in an organ bath, and isometric contraction of circular smooth muscle was measured. Immunoblotting was used to examine myosin light chain phosphorylation in bronchial smooth muscle. Our results demonstrated that muscle contractions induced by carbachol (CCh) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were inhibited by EHT1864, a selective Rac1 inhibitor, and NSC23766, a selective inhibitor of Rac1-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors. Similarly, myosin light chain and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 (MYPT1) at Thr853 phosphorylation induced by contractile agonist were inhibited with Rac1 inhibition. However, contractions induced by high K + , calyculin A (a potent protein phosphatase inhibitor) and K + /PDBu were not inhibited by these Rac1 inhibitors. Interestingly, NaF (a G-protein activator)-induced contractions were inhibited by EHT1864 but not by NSC23766. We next examined the effects of a trans-acting activator of transcription protein transduction domain (PTD) fusion protein with Rac1 (PTD-Rac1) on muscle contraction. The constitutively active form of PTD-Rac1 directly induced force development and contractions were abolished by EHT1864. These results suggest that Rac1, activated by G protein-coupled receptor agonists, such as CCh and ET-1, may induce myosin light chain and MYPT phosphorylation and modulate the contraction of bronchial smooth muscle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quaternary structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor heterotetramer in complex with Gi and Gs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Cordomí, Arnau; Zelman-Femiak, Monika; Brugarolas, Marc; Moreno, Estefania; Aguinaga, David; Perez-Benito, Laura; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Pardo, Leonardo; García-Sáez, Ana J; McCormick, Peter J; Franco, Rafael

    2016-04-05

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in the form of monomers or homodimers that bind heterotrimeric G proteins, are fundamental in the transfer of extracellular stimuli to intracellular signaling pathways. Different GPCRs may also interact to form heteromers that are novel signaling units. Despite the exponential growth in the number of solved GPCR crystal structures, the structural properties of heteromers remain unknown. We used single-particle tracking experiments in cells expressing functional adenosine A1-A2A receptors fused to fluorescent proteins to show the loss of Brownian movement of the A1 receptor in the presence of the A2A receptor, and a preponderance of cell surface 2:2 receptor heteromers (dimer of dimers). Using computer modeling, aided by bioluminescence resonance energy transfer assays to monitor receptor homomerization and heteromerization and G-protein coupling, we predict the interacting interfaces and propose a quaternary structure of the GPCR tetramer in complex with two G proteins. The combination of results points to a molecular architecture formed by a rhombus-shaped heterotetramer, which is bound to two different interacting heterotrimeric G proteins (Gi and Gs). These novel results constitute an important advance in understanding the molecular intricacies involved in GPCR function.

  7. Scotopic vision in the monkey is modulated by the G protein-coupled receptor 55

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Harrar, Vanessa; Javadi, Pasha

    2016-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid system plays important roles in the retina of mice and monkeys via their classic CB1 and CB2 receptors. We have previously reported that the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a putative cannabinoid receptor, is exclusively expressed in rod photoreceptors in the mon......The endogenous cannabinoid system plays important roles in the retina of mice and monkeys via their classic CB1 and CB2 receptors. We have previously reported that the G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), a putative cannabinoid receptor, is exclusively expressed in rod photoreceptors...... in the monkey retina, suggesting its possible role in scotopic vision. To test this hypothesis, we recorded full-field electroretinograms (ERGs) after the intravitreal injection of the GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylglucoside (LPG) or the selective GPR55 antagonist CID16020046 (CID), under light- and dark......-adapted conditions. Thirteen vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) were used in this study: four controls (injected with the vehicle dimethyl sulfoxide, DMSO), four injected with LPG and five with CID. We analyzed amplitudes and latencies of the a-wave (photoreceptor responses) and the b-wave (rod and cone system...

  8. Dimers of G-Protein Coupled Receptors as Versatile Storage and Response Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Parker

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The status and use of transmembrane, extracellular and intracellular domains in oligomerization of heptahelical G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs are reviewed and for transmembrane assemblies also supplemented by new experimental evidence. The transmembrane-linked GPCR oligomers typically have as the minimal unit an asymmetric ~180 kDa pentamer consisting of receptor homodimer or heterodimer and a G-protein αβγ subunit heterotrimer. With neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors, this assembly is converted to ~90 kDa receptor monomer-Gα complex by receptor and Gα agonists, and dimers/heteropentamers are depleted by neutralization of Gαi subunits by pertussis toxin. Employing gradient centrifugation, quantification and other characterization of GPCR dimers at the level of physically isolated and identified heteropentamers is feasible with labeled agonists that do not dissociate upon solubilization. This is demonstrated with three neuropeptide Y (NPY receptors and could apply to many receptors that use large peptidic agonists.

  9. G protein-coupled receptors form stable complexes with inwardly rectifying potassium channels and adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavine, Natalie; Ethier, Nathalie; Oak, James N; Pei, Lin; Liu, Fang; Trieu, Phan; Rebois, R Victor; Bouvier, Michel; Hebert, Terence E; Van Tol, Hubert H M

    2002-11-29

    A large number of studies have demonstrated co-purification or co-immunoprecipitation of receptors with G proteins. We have begun to look for the presence of effector molecules in these receptor complexes. Co-expression of different channel and receptor permutations in COS-7 and HEK 293 cells in combination with co-immunoprecipitation experiments established that the dopamine D(2) and D(4), and beta(2)-adrenergic receptors (beta(2)-AR) form stable complexes with Kir3 channels. The D(4)/Kir3 and D(2) receptor/Kir3 interaction does not occur when the channel and receptor are expressed separately and mixed prior to immunoprecipitation, indicating that the interaction is not an artifact of the experimental protocol and reflects a biosynthetic event. The observed complexes are stable in that they are not disrupted by receptor activation or modulation of G protein alpha subunit function. However, using a peptide that binds Gbetagamma (betaARKct), we show that Gbetagamma is critical for dopamine receptor-Kir3 complex formation, but not for maintenance of the complex. We also provide evidence that Kir3 channels and another effector, adenylyl cyclase, are stably associated with the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor and can be co-immunoprecipitated by anti-receptor antibodies. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, we have shown that in living cells under physiological conditions, beta(2)AR interacts directly with Kir3.1/3.4 and Kir3.1/3.2c heterotetramers as well as with adenylyl cyclase. All of these interactions are stable in the presence of receptor agonists, suggesting that these signaling complexes persist during signal transduction. In addition, we provide evidence that the receptor-effector complexes are also found in vivo. The observation that several G protein-coupled receptors form stable complexes with their effectors suggests that this arrangement might be a general feature of G protein-coupled signal transduction.

  10. G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via heterotrimeric G proteins from endosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvetanova, Nikoleta G; Irannejad, Roshanak; von Zastrow, Mark

    2015-03-13

    Some G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in addition to activating heterotrimeric G proteins in the plasma membrane, appear to elicit a "second wave" of G protein activation after ligand-induced internalization. We briefly summarize evidence supporting this view and then discuss what is presently known about the functional significance of GPCR-G protein activation in endosomes. Endosomal activation can shape the cellular response temporally by prolonging its overall duration, and may shape the response spatially by moving the location of intracellular second messenger production relative to effectors. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. New functions and signaling mechanisms for the class of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebscher, Ines; Ackley, Brian; Araç, Demet

    2014-01-01

    The class of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCRs), with 33 human homologs, is the second largest family of GPCRs. In addition to a seven-transmembrane α-helix-a structural feature of all GPCRs-the class of aGPCRs is characterized by the presence of a large N-terminal extracellular region....... In addition, all aGPCRs but one (GPR123) contain a GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain that mediates autoproteolytic cleavage at the GPCR autoproteolysis site motif to generate N- and a C-terminal fragments (NTF and CTF, respectively) during protein maturation. Subsequently, the NTF and CTF...

  12. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokoch, Michael P; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2010-01-01

    extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known...... about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the beta(2) adrenergic...

  13. Improved in Vitro Folding of the Y2 G Protein-Coupled Receptor into Bicelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schmidt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prerequisite for structural studies on G protein-coupled receptors is the preparation of highly concentrated, stable, and biologically active receptor samples in milligram amounts of protein. Here, we present an improved protocol for Escherichia coli expression, functional refolding, and reconstitution into bicelles of the human neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 (Y2R for solution and solid-state NMR experiments. The isotopically labeled receptor is expressed in inclusion bodies and purified using SDS. We studied the details of an improved preparation protocol including the in vitro folding of the receptor, e.g., the native disulfide bridge formation, the exchange of the denaturating detergent SDS, and the functional reconstitution into bicelle environments of varying size. Full pharmacological functionality of the Y2R preparation was shown by a ligand affinity of 4 nM and G-protein activation. Further, simple NMR experiments are used to test sample quality in high micromolar concentration.

  14. Nanobody-Enabled Reverse Pharmacology on G-Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Els; Betti, Cecilia; Laeremans, Toon; Chevillard, Florent; Guillemyn, Karel; Kolb, Peter; Ballet, Steven; Steyaert, Jan

    2018-05-04

    The conformational complexity of transmembrane signaling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is a central hurdle for the design of screens for receptor agonists. In their basal states, GPCRs have lower affinities for agonists compared to their G-protein-bound active state conformations. Moreover, different agonists can stabilize distinct active receptor conformations and do not uniformly activate all cellular signaling pathways linked to a given receptor (agonist bias). Comparative fragment screens were performed on a β 2 -adrenoreceptor-nanobody fusion locked in its active-state conformation by a G-protein-mimicking nanobody, and the same receptor in its basal-state conformation. This simple biophysical assay allowed the identification and ranking of multiple novel agonists and permitted classification of the efficacy of each hit in agonist, antagonist, or inverse agonist categories, thereby opening doors to nanobody-enabled reverse pharmacology. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Biased ligands at G-protein-coupled receptors: promise and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violin, Jonathan D; Crombie, Aimee L; Soergel, David G; Lark, Michael W

    2014-07-01

    Drug discovery targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is no longer limited to seeking agonists or antagonists to stimulate or block cellular responses associated with a particular receptor. GPCRs are now known to support a diversity of pharmacological profiles, a concept broadly referred to as functional selectivity. In particular, the concept of ligand bias, whereby a ligand stabilizes subsets of receptor conformations to engender novel pharmacological profiles, has recently gained increasing prominence. This review discusses how biased ligands may deliver safer, better tolerated, and more efficacious drugs, and highlights several biased ligands that are in clinical development. Biased ligands targeting the angiotensin II type 1 receptor and the μ opioid receptor illustrate the translation of the biased ligand concept from basic biology to clinical drug development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of the first surrogate agonists for the G protein-coupled receptor GPR132

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mohamed A.; Christensen, Hanna Belcik; Isberg, Vignir

    2015-01-01

    GPR132 is an orphan class A G protein-coupled receptor. It has been proposed to be activated by protons and to regulate apoptosis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, but these results are still preliminary. In the current work, we designed and screened a focused compound library using a β-arrestin......GPR132 is an orphan class A G protein-coupled receptor. It has been proposed to be activated by protons and to regulate apoptosis, atherosclerosis and inflammation, but these results are still preliminary. In the current work, we designed and screened a focused compound library using a β......-arrestin recruitment assay, and thereby identified the first disclosed surrogate GPR132 agonist 1 with a potency of 3.4 μM. This constitutes the first available pharmacological tool for the in vitro characterization of the orphan receptor GPR132. The testing of 32 analogs furthermore identified a number of compounds...... with lower activity – of which six were agonists and two were antagonists – that were used to construct preliminary structure–activity relationships. Docking followed by a molecular dynamics simulation of compound 1 in a structural model of GPR132 displayed the putative interactions for the key ligand...

  17. Ligand-specific regulation of the extracellular surface of a G-protein-coupled receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokoch, Michael P.; Zou, Yaozhong; Rasmussen, Søren G.F.; Liu, Corey W.; Nygaard, Rie; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Fung, Juan José; Choi, Hee-Jung; Thian, Foon Sun; Kobilka, Tong Sun; Puglisi, Joseph D.; Weis, William I.; Pardo, Leonardo; Prosser, R. Scott; Mueller, Luciano; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford-MED); (Toronto); (BMS); (UAB, Spain)

    2010-01-14

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven-transmembrane proteins that mediate most cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters. They are the largest group of therapeutic targets for a broad spectrum of diseases. Recent crystal structures of GPCRs have revealed structural conservation extending from the orthosteric ligand-binding site in the transmembrane core to the cytoplasmic G-protein-coupling domains. In contrast, the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs is remarkably diverse and is therefore an ideal target for the discovery of subtype-selective drugs. However, little is known about the functional role of the ECS in receptor activation, or about conformational coupling of this surface to the native ligand-binding pocket. Here we use NMR spectroscopy to investigate ligand-specific conformational changes around a central structural feature in the ECS of the {beta}{sub 2} adrenergic receptor: a salt bridge linking extracellular loops 2 and 3. Small-molecule drugs that bind within the transmembrane core and exhibit different efficacies towards G-protein activation (agonist, neutral antagonist and inverse agonist) also stabilize distinct conformations of the ECS. We thereby demonstrate conformational coupling between the ECS and the orthosteric binding site, showing that drugs targeting this diverse surface could function as allosteric modulators with high subtype selectivity. Moreover, these studies provide a new insight into the dynamic behaviour of GPCRs not addressable by static, inactive-state crystal structures.

  18. A robust and rapid method of producing soluble, stable, and functional G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Corin

    Full Text Available Membrane proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs, are notoriously difficult to express. Using commercial E. coli cell-free systems with the detergent Brij-35, we could rapidly produce milligram quantities of 13 unique GPCRs. Immunoaffinity purification yielded receptors at >90% purity. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism indicated that the purified receptors were properly folded. Microscale thermophoresis, a novel label-free and surface-free detection technique that uses thermal gradients, showed that these receptors bound their ligands. The secondary structure and ligand-binding results from cell-free produced proteins were comparable to those expressed and purified from HEK293 cells. Our study demonstrates that cell-free protein production using commercially available kits and optimal detergents is a robust technology that can be used to produce sufficient GPCRs for biochemical, structural, and functional analyses. This robust and simple method may further stimulate others to study the structure and function of membrane proteins.

  19. A Prospective Cross-Screening Study on G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Lessons Learned in Virtual Compound Library Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.P.A.; Roumen, L.; van der Horst, E.; Lane, J.R.; Vischer, H.F.; van Offenbeek, J.; de Vries, H.; Verhoeven, S.; Show, K.Y.; Verkaar, F.; Beukers, M.W.; McGuire, R; Leurs, R.; IJzerman, A.P.; de Vlieg, J; de Esch, I.J.P.; Zaman, G.J.; Klomp, J.P.G; Bender, A.; de Graaf, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present the systematic prospective evaluation of a protein-based and a ligand-based virtual screening platform against a set of three G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): the β-2 adrenoreceptor (ADRB2), the adenosine A

  20. From atomic structures to neuronal functions of g protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palczewski, Krzysztof; Orban, Tivadar

    2013-07-08

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are essential mediators of signal transduction, neurotransmission, ion channel regulation, and other cellular events. GPCRs are activated by diverse stimuli, including light, enzymatic processing of their N-termini, and binding of proteins, peptides, or small molecules such as neurotransmitters. GPCR dysfunction caused by receptor mutations and environmental challenges contributes to many neurological diseases. Moreover, modern genetic technology has helped identify a rich array of mono- and multigenic defects in humans and animal models that connect such receptor dysfunction with disease affecting neuronal function. The visual system is especially suited to investigate GPCR structure and function because advanced imaging techniques permit structural studies of photoreceptor neurons at both macro and molecular levels that, together with biochemical and physiological assessment in animal models, provide a more complete understanding of GPCR signaling.

  1. G protein-coupled receptors as anabolic drug targets in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepenhorst, Natalie; Rueda, Patricia; Cook, Anna E; Pastoureau, Philippe; Sabatini, Massimo; Langmead, Christopher J

    2018-04-01

    Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disorder characterised by imbalance between bone building (anabolism) and resorption (catabolism). Most therapeutics target inhibition of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, but more recent attention in early drug discovery has focussed on anabolic targets in osteoblasts or their precursors. Two marketed agents that display anabolic properties, strontium ranelate and teriparatide, mediate their actions via the G protein-coupled calcium-sensing and parathyroid hormone-1 receptors, respectively. This review explores their activity, the potential for improved therapeutics targeting these receptors and other putative anabolic GPCR targets, including Smoothened, Wnt/Frizzled, relaxin family peptide, adenosine, cannabinoid, prostaglandin and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High content screening for G protein-coupled receptors using cell-based protein translocation assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grånäs, Charlotta; Lundholt, Betina Kerstin; Heydorn, Arne

    2005-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been one of the most productive classes of drug targets for several decades, and new technologies for GPCR-based discovery promise to keep this field active for years to come. While molecular screens for GPCR receptor agonist- and antagonist-based drugs...... will continue to be valuable discovery tools, the most exciting developments in the field involve cell-based assays for GPCR function. Some cell-based discovery strategies, such as the use of beta-arrestin as a surrogate marker for GPCR function, have already been reduced to practice, and have been used...... as valuable discovery tools for several years. The application of high content cell-based screening to GPCR discovery has opened up additional possibilities, such as direct tracking of GPCRs, G proteins and other signaling pathway components using intracellular translocation assays. These assays provide...

  3. Structural predictions of neurobiologically relevant G-protein coupled receptors and intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Giulia; Dibenedetto, Domenica; Calandrini, Vania; Giorgetti, Alejandro; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-09-15

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) and intrinsic disordered proteins (IDPs) are key players for neuronal function and dysfunction. Unfortunately, their structural characterization is lacking in most cases. From one hand, no experimental structure has been determined for the two largest GPCRs subfamilies, both key proteins in neuronal pathways. These are the odorant (450 members out of 900 human GPCRs) and the bitter taste receptors (25 members) subfamilies. On the other hand, also IDPs structural characterization is highly non-trivial. They exist as dynamic, highly flexible structural ensembles that undergo conformational conversions on a wide range of timescales, spanning from picoseconds to milliseconds. Computational methods may be of great help to characterize these neuronal proteins. Here we review recent progress from our lab and other groups to develop and apply in silico methods for structural predictions of these highly relevant, fascinating and challenging systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Signaling within Allosteric Machines: Signal Transmission Pathways Inside G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartuzi, Damian; Kaczor, Agnieszka A; Matosiuk, Dariusz

    2017-07-15

    In recent years, our understanding of function of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has changed from a picture of simple signal relays, transmitting only a particular signal to a particular G protein heterotrimer, to versatile machines, capable of various responses to different stimuli and being modulated by various factors. Some recent reports provide not only the data on ligands/modulators and resultant signals induced by them, but also deeper insights into exact pathways of signal migration and mechanisms of signal transmission through receptor structure. Combination of these computational and experimental data sheds more light on underlying mechanisms of signal transmission and signaling bias in GPCRs. In this review we focus on available clues on allosteric pathways responsible for complex signal processing within GPCRs structures, with particular emphasis on linking compatible in silico- and in vitro-derived data on the most probable allosteric connections.

  5. Structural basis for chemokine recognition and activation of a viral G protein-coupled receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, John S.; Ingram, Jessica R.; Venkatakrishnan, A.J.; Jude, Kevin M.; Dukkipati, Abhiram; Feinberg, Evan N.; Angelini, Alessandro; Waghray, Deepa; Dror, Ron O.; Ploegh, Hidde L.; Garcia, K. Christopher (Stanford); (Stanford-MED); (Whitehead); (MIT)

    2015-03-05

    Chemokines are small proteins that function as immune modulators through activation of chemokine G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Several viruses also encode chemokines and chemokine receptors to subvert the host immune response. How protein ligands activate GPCRs remains unknown. We report the crystal structure at 2.9 angstrom resolution of the human cytomegalovirus GPCR US28 in complex with the chemokine domain of human CX3CL1 (fractalkine). The globular body of CX3CL1 is perched on top of the US28 extracellular vestibule, whereas its amino terminus projects into the central core of US28. The transmembrane helices of US28 adopt an active-state-like conformation. Atomic-level simulations suggest that the agonist-independent activity of US28 may be due to an amino acid network evolved in the viral GPCR to destabilize the receptor’s inactive state.

  6. G protein-coupled receptor 39 deficiency is associated with pancreatic islet dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Birgitte; Egerod, Kristoffer L; Jin, Chunyu

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptor (GPR)-39 is a seven-transmembrane receptor expressed mainly in endocrine and metabolic tissues that acts as a Zn(++) sensor signaling mainly through the G(q) and G(12/13) pathways. The expression of GPR39 is regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1alpha and HNF-4......alpha, and in the present study, we addressed the importance of GPR39 for glucose homeostasis and pancreatic islets function. The expression and localization of GPR39 were characterized in the endocrine pancreas and pancreatic cell lines. Gpr39(-/-) mice were studied in vivo, especially in respect...... of glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro in respect of islet architecture, gene expression, and insulin secretion. Gpr39 was down-regulated on differentiation of the pluripotent pancreatic cell line AR42J cells toward the exocrine phenotype but was along with Pdx-1 strongly up...

  7. The orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR139 is activated by the peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anne Cathrine Nøhr; Shehata, Mohamed A; Hauser, Alexander S

    2017-01-01

    GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is expressed primarily in the brain. Not much is known regarding the function of GPR139. Recently we have shown that GPR139 is activated by the amino acids l-tryptophan and l-phenylalanine (EC50 values of 220 μM and 320 μM, respectively), as well...... cleavage site in the pre-pro-protein pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Our results demonstrate that GPR139 is a peptide receptor, activated by ACTH, α-MSH, β-MSH, the conserved core motif HFRW as well as a potential endogenous peptide α-MSH1-9. Further studies are needed to determine the functional relevance...

  8. G-protein-Coupled Receptors and Their (Bio Chemical Significance Win 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsi-Hsien Lin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are seven transmembrane cell surface proteins specialized in cellular communication. These receptors represent a major gateway through which cells convert external cues into intracellular signals and respond with appropriate actions. While the effects of hormones, neurotransmitters, and drugs on cells, tissues, organs, and even whole organisms are well described, the molecular identity of the direct targets and the diverse signaling mechanisms of these biological ligands have been slow and hard to define. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the year 2012 acknowledges the importance of GPCRs in these processes, especially for the contribution of Profs Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka to the studies of GPCRs. In this brief review, the seminal works accomplished by the two GPCR pioneers are summarized and the (bio chemical significance of GPCRs in health and disease is discussed.

  9. G-protein-coupled receptors and their (Bio) chemical significance win 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsi-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are seven transmembrane cell surface proteins specialized in cellular communication. These receptors represent a major gateway through which cells convert external cues into intracellular signals and respond with appropriate actions. While the effects of hormones, neurotransmitters, and drugs on cells, tissues, organs, and even whole organisms are well described, the molecular identity of the direct targets and the diverse signaling mechanisms of these biological ligands have been slow and hard to define. The Nobel Prize in Chemistry for the year 2012 acknowledges the importance of GPCRs in these processes, especially for the contribution of Profs Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka to the studies of GPCRs. In this brief review, the seminal works accomplished by the two GPCR pioneers are summarized and the (bio) chemical significance of GPCRs in health and disease is discussed.

  10. Impact of G protein-coupled receptor heteromers in endocrine systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, K C; Hanyaloglu, A C

    2017-07-05

    The fine-tuning of endocrine homeostasis is regulated by dynamic receptor mediated processes. The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have diverse roles in the modulation of all endocrine axes, thus understanding the mechanisms underpinning their functionality is paramount for treatment of endocrinopathies. Evidence over the last 20 years has highlighted homo and heteromerization as a key mode of mediating GPCR functional diversity. This review will discuss the concept of GPCR heteromerization and its relevance to endocrine function, detailing in vitro and in vivo evidence, and exploring current and potential pharmacological strategies for specific targeting of GPCR heteromers in endocrine heath and disease. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modulation of cellular signaling by herpesvirus-encoded G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina M de Munnik

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human herpesviruses are widespread infectious pathogens that have been associated with proliferative and inflammatory diseases. During viral evolution, human herpesviruses have pirated genes encoding viral G protein-coupled receptors (vGPCRs, which are expressed on infected host cells. These vGPCRs show highest homology to human chemokine receptors, which play a key role in the immune system. Importantly, vGPCRs have acquired unique properties such as constitutive activity and the ability to bind a broad range of human chemokines. This allows vGPCRs to hijack human proteins and modulate cellular signaling for the benefit of the virus, ultimately resulting in immune evasion and viral dissemination to establish a widespread and lifelong infection. Knowledge on the mechanisms by which herpesviruses reprogram cellular signaling might provide insight in the contribution of vGPCRs to viral survival and herpesvirus-associated pathologies.

  12. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression...... of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), such as endothelin ET(B), serotonin 5-HT(1B), and thromboxane A(2) TP receptors, in rat cerebral arteries. Studies show that these vasocontractile GPCR show alterations by lipid-soluble cigarette smoke particles via activation of mitogen-activated protein...... kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine...

  13. Dissecting signaling and functions of adhesion G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araç, Demet; Aust, Gabriela; Calebiro, Davide; Engel, Felix B; Formstone, Caroline; Goffinet, André; Hamann, Jörg; Kittel, Robert J; Liebscher, Ines; Lin, Hsi-Hsien; Monk, Kelly R; Petrenko, Alexander; Piao, Xianhua; Prömel, Simone; Schiöth, Helgi B; Schwartz, Thue W; Stacey, Martin; Ushkaryov, Yuri A; Wobus, Manja; Wolfrum, Uwe; Xu, Lei; Langenhan, Tobias

    2012-12-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise an expanded superfamily of receptors in the human genome. Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (adhesion-GPCRs) form the second largest class of GPCRs. Despite the abundance, size, molecular structure, and functions in facilitating cell and matrix contacts in a variety of organ systems, adhesion-GPCRs are by far the most poorly understood GPCR class. Adhesion-GPCRs possess a unique molecular structure, with extended N-termini containing various adhesion domains. In addition, many adhesion-GPCRs are autoproteolytically cleaved into an N-terminal fragment (NTF, NT, α-subunit) and C-terminal fragment (CTF, CT, β-subunit) at a conserved GPCR autoproteolysis-inducing (GAIN) domain that contains a GPCR proteolysis site (GPS). These two features distinguish adhesion-GPCRs from other GPCR classes. Though active research on adhesion-GPCRs in diverse areas, such as immunity, neuroscience, and development and tumor biology has been intensified in the recent years, the general biological and pharmacological properties of adhesion-GPCRs are not well known, and they have not yet been used for biomedical purposes. The "6th International Adhesion-GPCR Workshop," held at the Institute of Physiology of the University of Würzburg on September 6-8, 2012, assembled a majority of the investigators currently actively pursuing research on adhesion-GPCRs, including scientists from laboratories in Europe, the United States, and Asia. The meeting featured the nascent mechanistic understanding of the molecular events driving the signal transduction of adhesion-GPCRs, novel models to evaluate their functions, and evidence for their involvement in human disease. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Role of post-translational modifications on structure, function and pharmacology of class C G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2015-01-01

    taste receptors (T1R1-3), one calcium-sensing (CaS) receptor, one GPCR, class C, group 6, subtype A (GPRC6) receptor, and seven orphan receptors. G protein-coupled receptors undergo a number of post-translational modifications, which regulate their structure, function and/or pharmacology. Here, we...

  15. Mechanisms of G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-Mediated Spinal Nociception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliu, Elena; Brailoiu, G. Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B.

    2012-01-01

    Human and animal studies suggest that estrogens are involved in the processing of nociceptive sensory information and analgesic responses in the central nervous system. Rapid pronociceptive estrogenic effects have been reported, some of which likely involve G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER...... in spinal nociceptive processing. Intrathecal challenging of mice with the GPER agonist G-1 results in pain-related behaviors. GPER antagonism with G15 reduces the G-1-induced response. Electrophysiological recordings from superficial dorsal horn neurons indicate neuronal membrane depolarization with G-1...... application, which is G15 sensitive. In cultured spinal sensory neurons, G-1 increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS accumulation. In the presence of G15, G-1 does not elicit the calcium and ROS responses, confirming specific GPER involvement in this process...

  16. Internal hydration increases during activation of the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossfield, Alan; Pitman, Michael C.; Feller, Scott E.; Soubias, Olivier; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Rhodopsin, the membrane protein responsible for dim-light vision, until recently was the only G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) with a known crystal structure. As a result, there is enormous interest in studying its structure, dynamics, and function. Here we report the results of three all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, each at least 1.5 microseconds, which predict that substantial changes in internal hydration play a functional role in rhodopsin activation. We confirm that the increased hydration is specific to the Meta-I intermediate with 1H magic angle spinning NMR. The internal waters interact with several conserved residues, suggesting that changes in internal hydration may be important during the activation of other GPCRs. The results serve to illustrate the synergism of long timescale molecular dynamics simulations and NMR in enhancing our understanding of GPCR function. PMID:18585736

  17. Crystal structure of the human beta2 adrenergic G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Choi, Hee-Jung; Rosenbaum, Daniel M

    2007-01-01

    Structural analysis of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for hormones and neurotransmitters has been hindered by their low natural abundance, inherent structural flexibility, and instability in detergent solutions. Here we report a structure of the human beta2 adrenoceptor (beta2AR), which...... was crystallized in a lipid environment when bound to an inverse agonist and in complex with a Fab that binds to the third intracellular loop. Diffraction data were obtained by high-brilliance microcrystallography and the structure determined at 3.4 A/3.7 A resolution. The cytoplasmic ends of the beta2AR...... transmembrane segments and the connecting loops are well resolved, whereas the extracellular regions of the beta2AR are not seen. The beta2AR structure differs from rhodopsin in having weaker interactions between the cytoplasmic ends of transmembrane (TM)3 and TM6, involving the conserved E/DRY sequences...

  18. The significance of G protein-coupled receptor crystallography for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salon, John A; Lodowski, David T; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    Crucial as molecular sensors for many vital physiological processes, seven-transmembrane domain G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest family of proteins targeted by drug discovery. Together with structures of the prototypical GPCR rhodopsin, solved structures of other liganded GPCRs promise to provide insights into the structural basis of the superfamily's biochemical functions and assist in the development of new therapeutic modalities and drugs. One of the greatest technical and theoretical challenges to elucidating and exploiting structure-function relationships in these systems is the emerging concept of GPCR conformational flexibility and its cause-effect relationship for receptor-receptor and receptor-effector interactions. Such conformational changes can be subtle and triggered by relatively small binding energy effects, leading to full or partial efficacy in the activation or inactivation of the receptor system at large. Pharmacological dogma generally dictates that these changes manifest themselves through kinetic modulation of the receptor's G protein partners. Atomic resolution information derived from increasingly available receptor structures provides an entrée to the understanding of these events and practically applying it to drug design. Supported by structure-activity relationship information arising from empirical screening, a unified structural model of GPCR activation/inactivation promises to both accelerate drug discovery in this field and improve our fundamental understanding of structure-based drug design in general. This review discusses fundamental problems that persist in drug design and GPCR structural determination.

  19. Structural basis for modulation of a G-protein-coupled receptor by allosteric drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dror, Ron O.; Green, Hillary F.; Valant, Celine; Borhani, David W.; Valcourt, James R.; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Canals, Meritxell; Lane, J. Robert; Rahmani, Raphaël; Baell, Jonathan B.; Sexton, Patrick M.; Christopoulos, Arthur; Shaw, David E.

    2013-11-01

    The design of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) allosteric modulators, an active area of modern pharmaceutical research, has proved challenging because neither the binding modes nor the molecular mechanisms of such drugs are known. Here we determine binding sites, bound conformations and specific drug-receptor interactions for several allosteric modulators of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M2 receptor), a prototypical family A GPCR, using atomic-level simulations in which the modulators spontaneously associate with the receptor. Despite substantial structural diversity, all modulators form cation-π interactions with clusters of aromatic residues in the receptor extracellular vestibule, approximately 15Å from the classical, `orthosteric' ligand-binding site. We validate the observed modulator binding modes through radioligand binding experiments on receptor mutants designed, on the basis of our simulations, either to increase or to decrease modulator affinity. Simulations also revealed mechanisms that contribute to positive and negative allosteric modulation of classical ligand binding, including coupled conformational changes of the two binding sites and electrostatic interactions between ligands in these sites. These observations enabled the design of chemical modifications that substantially alter a modulator's allosteric effects. Our findings thus provide a structural basis for the rational design of allosteric modulators targeting muscarinic and possibly other GPCRs.

  20. The amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae genome contains a highly diversified set of G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiöth Helgi B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are one of the largest families of genes in mammals. Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus is one of the species most closely related species to vertebrates. Results Mining and phylogenetic analysis of the amphioxus genome showed the presence of at least 664 distinct GPCRs distributed among all the main families of GPCRs; Glutamate (18, Rhodopsin (570, Adhesion (37, Frizzled (6 and Secretin (16. Surprisingly, the Adhesion GPCR repertoire in amphioxus includes receptors with many new domains not previously observed in this family. We found many Rhodopsin GPCRs from all main groups including many amine and peptide binding receptors and several previously uncharacterized expansions were also identified. This genome has however no genes coding for bitter taste receptors (TAS2, the sweet and umami (TAS1, pheromone (VR1 or VR2 or mammalian olfactory receptors. Conclusion The amphioxus genome is remarkably rich in various GPCR subtypes while the main GPCR groups known to sense exogenous substances (such as Taste 2, mammalian olfactory, nematode chemosensory, gustatory, vomeronasal and odorant receptors in other bilateral species are absent.

  1. Functional autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Marques, Otavio; Riemekasten, Gabriela

    2017-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise the largest and most diverse family of integral membrane proteins that participate in different physiological processes such as the regulation of the nervous and immune systems. Besides the endogenous ligands of GPCRs, functional autoantibodies are also able to bind GPCRs to trigger or block intracellular signalling pathways, resulting in agonistic or antagonistic effects, respectively. In this Review, the effects of functional GPCR-targeting autoantibodies on the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatic diseases, are discussed. Autoantibodies targeting β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors, which are expressed by cardiac and airway smooth muscle cells, respectively, have an important role in the development of asthma and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, high levels of autoantibodies against the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M3 as well as those targeting endothelin receptor type A and type 1 angiotensin II receptor have several implications in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases such as Sjögren syndrome and systemic sclerosis. Expanding the knowledge of the pathophysiological roles of autoantibodies against GPCRs will shed light on the biology of these receptors and open avenues for new therapeutic approaches.

  2. Arrestin orchestrates crosstalk between G protein-coupled receptors to modulate the spatiotemporal activation of ERK MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, David; Crosby, Catherine; Xiang, Yang

    2010-01-08

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to diversified extracellular stimuli to modulate cellular function. Despite extensive studies investigating the regulation of single GPCR signaling cascades, the effects of concomitant GPCR activation on downstream signaling and cellular function remain unclear. We aimed to characterize the cellular mechanism by which GPCR crosstalk regulates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation. Adrenergic receptors on cardiac fibroblasts were manipulated to examine the role of arrestin in the spatiotemporal regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 MAPK signaling. We show a general mechanism in which arrestin activation by one GPCR is capable of regulating signaling originating from another GPCR. Activation of Gq coupled-receptor signaling leads to prolonged ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation, nuclear accumulation, and cellular proliferation. Interestingly, coactivation of these receptors with the beta-adrenergic receptors induced transient ERK signaling localized within the cytosol, which attenuated cell proliferation. Further studies revealed that recruitment of arrestin3 to the beta2-adrenergic receptor orchestrates the sequestration of Gq-coupled receptor-induced ERK to the cytosol through direct binding of ERK to arrestin. This is the first evidence showing that arrestin3 acts as a coordinator to integrate signals from multiple GPCRs. Our studies not only provide a novel mechanism explaining the integration of mitogenic signaling elicited by different GPCRs, but also underscore the critical role of signaling crosstalk among GPCRs in vivo.

  3. Molecular recognition of parathyroid hormone by its G protein-coupled receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel)

    2008-08-07

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is central to calcium homeostasis and bone maintenance in vertebrates, and as such it has been used for treating osteoporosis. It acts primarily by binding to its receptor, PTH1R, a member of the class B G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family that also includes receptors for glucagon, calcitonin, and other therapeutically important peptide hormones. Despite considerable interest and much research, determining the structure of the receptor-hormone complex has been hindered by difficulties in purifying the receptor and obtaining diffraction-quality crystals. Here, we present a method for expression and purification of the extracellular domain (ECD) of human PTH1R engineered as a maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion that readily crystallizes. The 1.95-{angstrom} structure of PTH bound to the MBP-PTH1R-ECD fusion reveals that PTH docks as an amphipathic helix into a central hydrophobic groove formed by a three-layer {alpha}-{beta}-{beta}{alpha} fold of the PTH1R ECD, resembling a hot dog in a bun. Conservation in the ECD scaffold and the helical structure of peptide hormones emphasizes this hot dog model as a general mechanism of hormone recognition common to class B GPCRs. Our findings reveal critical insights into PTH actions and provide a rational template for drug design that targets this hormone signaling pathway.

  4. Comprehensive Analysis of Non-Synonymous Natural Variants of G Protein-Coupled Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Ryung; Duc, Nguyen Minh; Chung, Ka Young

    2017-09-19

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest superfamily of transmembrane receptors and have vital signaling functions in various organs. Because of their critical roles in physiology and pathology, GPCRs are the most commonly used therapeutic target. It has been suggested that GPCRs undergo massive genetic variations such as genetic polymorphisms and DNA insertions or deletions. Among these genetic variations, non-synonymous natural variations change the amino acid sequence and could thus alter GPCR functions such as expression, localization, signaling, and ligand binding, which may be involved in disease development and altered responses to GPCR-targeting drugs. Despite the clinical importance of GPCRs, studies on the genotype-phenotype relationship of GPCR natural variants have been limited to a few GPCRs such as β-adrenergic receptors and opioid receptors. Comprehensive understanding of non-synonymous natural variations within GPCRs would help to predict the unknown genotype-phenotype relationship and yet-to-be-discovered natural variants. Here, we analyzed the non-synonymous natural variants of all non-olfactory GPCRs available from a public database, UniProt. The results suggest that non-synonymous natural variations occur extensively within the GPCR superfamily especially in the N-terminus and transmembrane domains. Within the transmembrane domains, natural variations observed more frequently in the conserved residues, which leads to disruption of the receptor function. Our analysis also suggests that only few non-synonymous natural variations have been studied in efforts to link the variations with functional consequences.

  5. A constitutively active G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor regulates motility of larval Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Kevin; Kimber, Michael J; Day, Tim A; Ribeiro, Paula

    2015-07-01

    The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and, to a lesser extent, the cholinergic agonist, carbachol. Anti-cholinergic drugs, atropine and promethazine, were found to have inverse agonist activity towards SmGAR, causing a significant decrease in the receptor's basal activity. An RNAi phenotypic assay revealed that suppression of SmGAR activity in early-stage larval schistosomulae leads to a drastic reduction in larval motility. In sum, our results provide the first molecular evidence that cholinergic GAR-like receptors are present in schistosomes and are required for proper motor control in the larvae. The results further identify SmGAR as a possible candidate for antiparasitic drug targeting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional and Structural Overview of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Comprehensively Obtained from Genome Sequences

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    Makiko Suwa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the functional mechanisms of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is very important for GPCR-related drug design. We have developed an integrated GPCR database (SEVENS http://sevens.cbrc.jp/ that includes 64,090 reliable GPCR genes comprehensively identified from 56 eukaryote genome sequences, and overviewed the sequences and structure spaces of the GPCRs. In vertebrates, the number of receptors for biological amines, peptides, etc. is conserved in most species, whereas the number of chemosensory receptors for odorant, pheromone, etc. significantly differs among species. The latter receptors tend to be single exon type or a few exon type and show a high ratio in the numbers of GPCRs, whereas some families, such as Class B and Class C receptors, have long lengths due to the presence of many exons. Statistical analyses of amino acid residues reveal that most of the conserved residues in Class A GPCRs are found in the cytoplasmic half regions of transmembrane (TM helices, while residues characteristic to each subfamily found on the extracellular half regions. The 69 of Protein Data Bank (PDB entries of complete or fragmentary structures could be mapped on the TM/loop regions of Class A GPCRs covering 14 subfamilies.

  7. Molecular evolution of the transmembrane domains of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarosh N Fatakia

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are a superfamily of integral membrane proteins vital for signaling and are important targets for pharmaceutical intervention in humans. Previously, we identified a group of ten amino acid positions (called key positions, within the seven transmembrane domain (7TM interhelical region, which had high mutual information with each other and many other positions in the 7TM. Here, we estimated the evolutionary selection pressure at those key positions. We found that the key positions of receptors for small molecule natural ligands were under strong negative selection. Receptors naturally activated by lipids had weaker negative selection in general when compared to small molecule-activated receptors. Selection pressure varied widely in peptide-activated receptors. We used this observation to predict that a subgroup of orphan GPCRs not under strong selection may not possess a natural small-molecule ligand. In the subgroup of MRGX1-type GPCRs, we identified a key position, along with two non-key positions, under statistically significant positive selection.

  8. Principles and determinants of G-protein coupling by the rhodopsin-like thyrotropin receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Kleinau

    Full Text Available In this study we wanted to gain insights into selectivity mechanisms between G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR and different subtypes of G-proteins. The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR binds G-proteins promiscuously and activates both Gs (cAMP and Gq (IP. Our goal was to dissect selectivity patterns for both pathways in the intracellular region of this receptor. We were particularly interested in the participation of poorly investigated receptor parts.We systematically investigated the amino acids of intracellular loop (ICL 1 and helix 8 using site-directed mutagenesis alongside characterization of cAMP and IP accumulation. This approach was guided by a homology model of activated TSHR in complex with heterotrimeric Gq, using the X-ray structure of opsin with a bound G-protein peptide as a structural template.We provide evidence that ICL1 is significantly involved in G-protein activation and our model suggests potential interactions with subunits G alpha as well as G betagamma. Several amino acid substitutions impaired both IP and cAMP accumulation. Moreover, we found a few residues in ICL1 (L440, T441, H443 and helix 8 (R687 that are sensitive for Gq but not for Gs activation. Conversely, not even one residue was found that selectively affects cAMP accumulation only. Together with our previous mutagenesis data on ICL2 and ICL3 we provide here the first systematically completed map of potential interfaces between TSHR and heterotrimeric G-protein. The TSHR/Gq-heterotrimer complex is characterized by more selective interactions than the TSHR/Gs complex. In fact the receptor interface for binding Gs is a subset of that for Gq and we postulate that this may be true for other GPCRs coupling these G-proteins. Our findings support that G-protein coupling and preference is dominated by specific structural features at the intracellular region of the activated GPCR but is completed by additional complementary recognition patterns between receptor and G

  9. Principles and determinants of G-protein coupling by the rhodopsin-like thyrotropin receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Jaeschke, Holger; Worth, Catherine L; Mueller, Sandra; Gonzalez, Jorge; Paschke, Ralf; Krause, Gerd

    2010-03-18

    In this study we wanted to gain insights into selectivity mechanisms between G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and different subtypes of G-proteins. The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) binds G-proteins promiscuously and activates both Gs (cAMP) and Gq (IP). Our goal was to dissect selectivity patterns for both pathways in the intracellular region of this receptor. We were particularly interested in the participation of poorly investigated receptor parts.We systematically investigated the amino acids of intracellular loop (ICL) 1 and helix 8 using site-directed mutagenesis alongside characterization of cAMP and IP accumulation. This approach was guided by a homology model of activated TSHR in complex with heterotrimeric Gq, using the X-ray structure of opsin with a bound G-protein peptide as a structural template.We provide evidence that ICL1 is significantly involved in G-protein activation and our model suggests potential interactions with subunits G alpha as well as G betagamma. Several amino acid substitutions impaired both IP and cAMP accumulation. Moreover, we found a few residues in ICL1 (L440, T441, H443) and helix 8 (R687) that are sensitive for Gq but not for Gs activation. Conversely, not even one residue was found that selectively affects cAMP accumulation only. Together with our previous mutagenesis data on ICL2 and ICL3 we provide here the first systematically completed map of potential interfaces between TSHR and heterotrimeric G-protein. The TSHR/Gq-heterotrimer complex is characterized by more selective interactions than the TSHR/Gs complex. In fact the receptor interface for binding Gs is a subset of that for Gq and we postulate that this may be true for other GPCRs coupling these G-proteins. Our findings support that G-protein coupling and preference is dominated by specific structural features at the intracellular region of the activated GPCR but is completed by additional complementary recognition patterns between receptor and G-protein subtypes.

  10. Fluorescent knock-in mice to decipher the physiopathological role of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique eMassotte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs modulate most physiological functions but are also critically involved in numerous pathological states. Approximately a third of marketed drugs target GPCRs, which places this family of receptors in the main arena of pharmacological pre-clinical and clinical research. The complexity of GPCR function demands comprehensive appraisal in native environment to collect in-depth knowledge of receptor physiopathological roles and assess the potential of therapeutic molecules. Identifying neurons expressing endogenous GPCRs is therefore essential to locate them within functional circuits whereas GPCR visualization with subcellular resolution is required to get insight into agonist-induced trafficking. Both remain frequently poorly investigated because direct visualization of endogenous receptors is often hampered by the lack of appropriate tools. Also, monitoring intracellular trafficking requires real-time visualization to gather in-depth knowledge. In this context, knock-in mice expressing a fluorescent protein or a fluorescent version of a GPCR under the control of the endogenous promoter not only help to decipher neuroanatomical circuits but also enable real-time monitoring with subcellular resolution thus providing invaluable information on their trafficking in response to a physiological or a pharmacological challenge. This review will present the animal models and discuss their contribution to the understanding of the physiopathological role of GPCRs. We will also address the drawbacks associated with this methodological approach and browse future directions.

  11. G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: Next Generation Therapeutic Targets in Head and Neck Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeharu Kanazawa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic outcome in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is poor in most advanced cases. To improve therapeutic efficiency, novel therapeutic targets and prognostic factors must be discovered. Our studies have identified several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs as promising candidates. Significant epigenetic silencing of GPCR expression occurs in HNSCC compared with normal tissue, and is significantly correlated with clinical behavior. Together with the finding that GPCR activity can suppress tumor cell growth, this indicates that GPCR expression has potential utility as a prognostic factor. In this review, we discuss the roles that galanin receptor type 1 (GALR1 and type 2 (GALR2, tachykinin receptor type 1 (TACR1, and somatostatin receptor type 1 (SST1 play in HNSCC. GALR1 inhibits proliferation of HNSCC cells though ERK1/2-mediated effects on cell cycle control proteins such as p27, p57, and cyclin D1, whereas GALR2 inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in HNSCC cells. Hypermethylation of GALR1, GALR2, TACR1, and SST1 is associated with significantly reduced disease-free survival and a higher recurrence rate. Although their overall activities varies, each of these GPCRs has value as both a prognostic factor and a therapeutic target. These data indicate that further study of GPCRs is a promising strategy that will enrich pharmacogenomics and prognostic research in HNSCC.

  12. Molecular Recognition of Corticotropin releasing Factor by Its G protein-coupled Receptor CRFR1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Parker, Naomi R.; Suino-Powell, Kelly; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel)

    2009-01-15

    The bimolecular interaction between corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide, and its type 1 receptor (CRFR1), a class B G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), is crucial for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to stress, and has been a target of intense drug design for the treatment of anxiety, depression, and related disorders. As a class B GPCR, CRFR1 contains an N-terminal extracellular domain (ECD) that provides the primary ligand binding determinants. Here we present three crystal structures of the human CRFR1 ECD, one in a ligand-free form and two in distinct CRF-bound states. The CRFR1 ECD adopts the alpha-beta-betaalpha fold observed for other class B GPCR ECDs, but the N-terminal alpha-helix is significantly shorter and does not contact CRF. CRF adopts a continuous alpha-helix that docks in a hydrophobic surface of the ECD that is distinct from the peptide-binding site of other class B GPCRs, thereby providing a basis for the specificity of ligand recognition between CRFR1 and other class B GPCRs. The binding of CRF is accompanied by clamp-like conformational changes of two loops of the receptor that anchor the CRF C terminus, including the C-terminal amide group. These structural studies provide a molecular framework for understanding peptide binding and specificity by the CRF receptors as well as a template for designing potent and selective CRFR1 antagonists for therapeutic applications.

  13. Basic Concepts in G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Homo- and Heterodimerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, heptahelical G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs were considered to be expressed as monomers on the cell surface of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. It is now becoming evident that this view must be overtly changed since these receptors can form homodimers, heterodimers, and higher-order oligomers on the plasma membrane. Here we discuss some of the basics and some new concepts of receptor homo- and heteromerization. Dimers-oligomers modify pharmacology, trafficking, and signaling of receptors. First of all, GPCR dimers must be considered as the main molecules that are targeted by neurotransmitters or by drugs. Thus, binding data must be fitted to dimer-based models. In these models, it is considered that the conformational changes transmitted within the dimer molecule lead to cooperativity. Cooperativity must be taken into account in the binding of agonists-antagonists-drugs and also in the binding of the so-called allosteric modulators. Cooperativity results from the intramolecular cross-talk in the homodimer. As an intramolecular cross-talk in the heterodimer, the binding of one neurotransmitter to one receptor often affects the binding of the second neurotransmitter to the partner receptor. Coactivation of the two receptors in a heterodimer can change completely the signaling pathway triggered by the neurotransmitter as well as the trafficking of the receptors. Heterodimer-specific drugs or dual drugs able to activate the two receptors in the heterodimer simultaneously emerge as novel and promising drugs for a variety of central nervous system (CNS therapeutic applications.

  14. A prospective cross-screening study on G-protein-coupled receptors: lessons learned in virtual compound library design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, M.P.A.; Roumen, L.; Horst, E. van der; Lane, J.R.; Vischer, H.F.; Offenbeek, J. van; Vries, H. de; Verhoeven, S.; Chow, K.Y.; Verkaar, F.; Beukers, M.W.; McGuire, R.; Leurs, R.; IJzerman, A.P.; Vlieg, J. de; Esch, I.J. de; Zaman, G.J.; Klomp, J.P.G.; Bender, A.; Graaf, C. de

    2012-01-01

    We present the systematic prospective evaluation of a protein-based and a ligand-based virtual screening platform against a set of three G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs): the beta-2 adrenoreceptor (ADRB2), the adenosine A(2A) receptor (AA2AR), and the sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor (S1PR1).

  15. Bile acids alter male fertility through G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 signaling pathways in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baptissart, Marine; Vega, Aurélie; Martinot, Emmanuelle; Pommier, Aurélien J.; Houten, Sander M.; Marceau, Geoffroy; de Haze, Angélique; Baron, Silvère; Schoonjans, Kristina; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A.; Volle, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids (BAs) are signaling molecules that are involved in many physiological functions, such as glucose and energy metabolism. These effects are mediated through activation of the nuclear and membrane receptors, farnesoid X receptor (FXR-α) and TGR5 (G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1;

  16. Tre1, a G protein-coupled receptor, directs transepithelial migration of Drosophila germ cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat S Kunwar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In most organisms, germ cells are formed distant from the somatic part of the gonad and thus have to migrate along and through a variety of tissues to reach the gonad. Transepithelial migration through the posterior midgut (PMG is the first active step during Drosophila germ cell migration. Here we report the identification of a novel G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR, Tre1, that is essential for this migration step. Maternal tre1 RNA is localized to germ cells, and tre1 is required cell autonomously in germ cells. In tre1 mutant embryos, most germ cells do not exit the PMG. The few germ cells that do leave the midgut early migrate normally to the gonad, suggesting that this gene is specifically required for transepithelial migration and that mutant germ cells are still able to recognize other guidance cues. Additionally, inhibiting small Rho GTPases in germ cells affects transepithelial migration, suggesting that Tre1 signals through Rho1. We propose that Tre1 acts in a manner similar to chemokine receptors required during transepithelial migration of leukocytes, implying an evolutionarily conserved mechanism of transepithelial migration. Recently, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 was shown to direct migration in vertebrate germ cells. Thus, germ cells may more generally use GPCR signaling to navigate the embryo toward their target.

  17. Membrane-Mediated Oligomerization of G Protein Coupled Receptors and Its Implications for GPCR Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahbauer, Stefan; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2016-01-01

    The dimerization or even oligomerization of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) causes ongoing, controversial debates about its functional role and the coupled biophysical, biochemical or biomedical implications. A continously growing number of studies hints to a relation between oligomerization and function of GPCRs and strengthens the assumption that receptor assembly plays a key role in the regulation of protein function. Additionally, progress in the structural analysis of GPCR-G protein and GPCR-ligand interactions allows to distinguish between actively functional and non-signaling complexes. Recent findings further suggest that the surrounding membrane, i.e., its lipid composition may modulate the preferred dimerization interface and as a result the abundance of distinct dimeric conformations. In this review, the association of GPCRs and the role of the membrane in oligomerization will be discussed. An overview of the different reported oligomeric interfaces is provided and their capability for signaling discussed. The currently available data is summarized with regard to the formation of GPCR oligomers, their structures and dependency on the membrane microenvironment as well as the coupling of oligomerization to receptor function.

  18. The G protein-coupled receptor heterodimer network (GPCR-HetNet) and its hub components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Brito, Ismel; Romero-Fernandez, Wilber; Di Palma, Michael; Oflijan, Julia; Skieterska, Kamila; Duchou, Jolien; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Suárez-Boomgaard, Diana; Rivera, Alicia; Guidolin, Diego; Agnati, Luigi F; Fuxe, Kjell

    2014-05-14

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) oligomerization has emerged as a vital characteristic of receptor structure. Substantial experimental evidence supports the existence of GPCR-GPCR interactions in a coordinated and cooperative manner. However, despite the current development of experimental techniques for large-scale detection of GPCR heteromers, in order to understand their connectivity it is necessary to develop novel tools to study the global heteroreceptor networks. To provide insight into the overall topology of the GPCR heteromers and identify key players, a collective interaction network was constructed. Experimental interaction data for each of the individual human GPCR protomers was obtained manually from the STRING and SCOPUS databases. The interaction data were used to build and analyze the network using Cytoscape software. The network was treated as undirected throughout the study. It is comprised of 156 nodes, 260 edges and has a scale-free topology. Connectivity analysis reveals a significant dominance of intrafamily versus interfamily connections. Most of the receptors within the network are linked to each other by a small number of edges. DRD2, OPRM, ADRB2, AA2AR, AA1R, OPRK, OPRD and GHSR are identified as hubs. In a network representation 10 modules/clusters also appear as a highly interconnected group of nodes. Information on this GPCR network can improve our understanding of molecular integration. GPCR-HetNet has been implemented in Java and is freely available at http://www.iiia.csic.es/~ismel/GPCR-Nets/index.html.

  19. G protein-coupled receptor modulation with pepducins: moving closer to the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Patricia; Carlson, Kenneth; Bouvier, Michel; Gerard, Craig; Xu, Lei; Covic, Lidija; Agarwal, Anika; Ernst, Oliver P; Janz, Jay M; Schwartz, Thue W; Gardella, Thomas J; Milligan, Graeme; Kuliopulos, Athan; Sakmar, Thomas P; Hunt, Stephen W

    2011-05-01

    At the 2nd Pepducin Science Symposium held in Cambridge, Massachusetts, on November 4-5, 2010, investigators working in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) research convened to discuss progress since last year's inaugural conference. This year's symposium focused on increasing knowledge of the structure and function of this ubiquitous superfamily of membrane receptors and their potential modulation for disease treatment. Presentations also focused on how GPCR mechanisms might be exploited to treat diseases with pepducins, novel synthetic lipopeptide pharmacophores that modulate heptahelical GPCR activity. While the multiple roles of GPCRs in physiological and pathophysiological processes offer significant opportunities for novel drug development, the global nature of their activity challenges drug-specific and validated target identification. This year's conference highlighted advances in understanding of GPCR agonist and antagonist ligand-binding motifs, their ligand-independent functions, structure-activity relationships (SARs), and evolving unique methods to probe GPCR structure and function. Study results summarized at the meeting also provided evidence for evolving views of how signaling mechanisms work through these receptors. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Tracking G-protein-coupled receptor activation using genetically encoded infrared probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shixin; Zaitseva, Ekaterina; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Sakmar, Thomas P; Deupi, Xavier; Vogel, Reiner

    2010-04-29

    Rhodopsin is a prototypical heptahelical family A G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) responsible for dim-light vision. Light isomerizes rhodopsin's retinal chromophore and triggers concerted movements of transmembrane helices, including an outward tilting of helix 6 (H6) and a smaller movement of H5, to create a site for G-protein binding and activation. However, the precise temporal sequence and mechanism underlying these helix rearrangements is unclear. We used site-directed non-natural amino acid mutagenesis to engineer rhodopsin with p-azido-l-phenylalanine residues incorporated at selected sites, and monitored the azido vibrational signatures using infrared spectroscopy as rhodopsin proceeded along its activation pathway. Here we report significant changes in electrostatic environments of the azido probes even in the inactive photoproduct Meta I, well before the active receptor state was formed. These early changes suggest a significant rotation of H6 and movement of the cytoplasmic part of H5 away from H3. Subsequently, a large outward tilt of H6 leads to opening of the cytoplasmic surface to form the active receptor photoproduct Meta II. Thus, our results reveal early conformational changes that precede larger rigid-body helix movements, and provide a basis to interpret recent GPCR crystal structures and to understand conformational sub-states observed during the activation of other GPCRs.

  1. G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-Selective Ligands Modulate Endometrial Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney K. Petrie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial carcinoma is the most common cancer of the female reproductive tract. GPER/GPR30 is a 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptor that has been identified as the third estrogen receptor, in addition to ERα and ERβ. High GPER expression is predictive of poor survival in endometrial and ovarian cancer, but despite this, the estrogen-mediated signaling pathways and specific estrogen receptors involved in endometrial cancer remain unclear. Here, employing ERα-negative Hec50 endometrial cancer cells, we demonstrate that GPER mediates estrogen-stimulated activation of ERK and PI3K via matrix metalloproteinase activation and subsequent transactivation of the EGFR and that ER-targeted therapeutic agents (4-hydroxytamoxifen, ICI182,780/fulvestrant, and Raloxifene, the phytoestrogen genistein, and the “ERα-selective” agonist propylpyrazole triol also function as GPER agonists. Furthermore, xenograft tumors of Hec50 cells yield enhanced growth with G-1 and estrogen, the latter being inhibited by GPER-selective pharmacologic antagonism with G36. These results have important implications with respect to the use of putatively ER-selective ligands and particularly for the widespread long-term use of “ER-targeted” therapeutics. Moreover, our findings shed light on the potential mechanisms of SERM/SERD side effects reported in many clinical studies. Finally, our results provide the first demonstration that pharmacological inhibition of GPER activity in vivo prevents estrogen-mediated tumor growth.

  2. Extracellular Ca2+ is a danger signal activating the NLRP3 inflammasome through G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossol, Manuela; Pierer, Matthias; Raulien, Nora

    2012-01-01

    calcium activates the NLRP3 inflammasome via stimulation of G protein-coupled calcium sensing receptors. Activation is mediated by signalling through the calcium-sensing receptor and GPRC6A via the phosphatidyl inositol/Ca(2+) pathway. The resulting increase in the intracellular calcium concentration......, and this effect was inhibited in GPRC6A(-/-) mice. Our results demonstrate that G-protein-coupled receptors can activate the inflammasome, and indicate that increased extracellular calcium has a role as a danger signal and amplifier of inflammation....

  3. High-resolution crystal structure of an engineered human beta2-adrenergic G protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cherezov, Vadim; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Hanson, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors constitute the largest family of eukaryotic signal transduction proteins that communicate across the membrane. We report the crystal structure of a human beta2-adrenergic receptor-T4 lysozyme fusion protein bound...... to the partial inverse agonist carazolol at 2.4 angstrom resolution. The structure provides a high-resolution view of a human G protein-coupled receptor bound to a diffusible ligand. Ligand-binding site accessibility is enabled by the second extracellular loop, which is held out of the binding cavity by a pair...

  4. GPCR-ModSim: A comprehensive web based solution for modeling G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esguerra, Mauricio; Siretskiy, Alexey; Bello, Xabier; Sallander, Jessica; Gutiérrez-de-Terán, Hugo

    2016-07-08

    GPCR-ModSim (http://open.gpcr-modsim.org) is a centralized and easy to use service dedicated to the structural modeling of G-protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). 3D molecular models can be generated from amino acid sequence by homology-modeling techniques, considering different receptor conformations. GPCR-ModSim includes a membrane insertion and molecular dynamics (MD) equilibration protocol, which can be used to refine the generated model or any GPCR structure uploaded to the server, including if desired non-protein elements such as orthosteric or allosteric ligands, structural waters or ions. We herein revise the main characteristics of GPCR-ModSim and present new functionalities. The templates used for homology modeling have been updated considering the latest structural data, with separate profile structural alignments built for inactive, partially-active and active groups of templates. We have also added the possibility to perform multiple-template homology modeling in a unique and flexible way. Finally, our new MD protocol considers a series of distance restraints derived from a recently identified conserved network of helical contacts, allowing for a smoother refinement of the generated models which is particularly advised when there is low homology to the available templates. GPCR- ModSim has been tested on the GPCR Dock 2013 competition with satisfactory results. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  5. Single-molecule resolution of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Kim C; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Hanyaloglu, Aylin C

    2016-01-01

    The organization of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) into dimers and higher-order oligomers has provided a potential mechanistic system in defining complex GPCR responses. Despite being studied for nearly 20 years it has, and still is, been an area of controversy. Although technology has developed to quantitatively measure these associations in real time, identify the structural interfaces and even systems to understand the physiological significance of di/oligomerization, key questions remain outstanding including the role of each individual complex from the monomer to the higher-order oligomer, in their native system. Recently, single-molecule microscopy approaches have provided the tools to directly visualize individual GPCRs in dimers and oligomers, though as with any technological development each have their advantages and limitations. This chapter will describe these recent developments in single-molecule fluorescent microscopy, focusing on our recent application of super-resolution imaging of the GPCR for the luteinizing hormone/chorionic gonadotropin to quantify GPCR monomers and formation of protomers in to dimers and distinct oligomeric forms. We present our approach, considerations, strategy, and challenges to visualize this receptor beyond the light diffraction limit via photoactivated localization microscopy with photoactivatable dyes. The addition of super-resolution approaches to the GPCR "nano-tool kit" will pave the way for novel avenues to answer outstanding questions regarding the existence and significance of these complexes to GPCR signaling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, Kelly J; Liu, Yuting; Cai, Yingying; Yan, Elsa C Y

    2015-01-01

    Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  7. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  8. Aspergillus Oxylipin Signaling and Quorum Sensing Pathways Depend on G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharyn J. Affeldt

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxylipins regulate Aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in Aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. Despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative GPCRs have been identified in the Aspergilli. Here, we present evidence that oxylipins stimulate a burst in cAMP in A. nidulans, and that loss of an A. nidulans GPCR, gprD, prevents this cAMP accumulation. A. flavus undergoes an oxylipin-mediated developmental shift when grown at different densities, and this regulates spore, sclerotial and aflatoxin production. A. flavus encodes two putative GprD homologs, GprC and GprD, and we demonstrate here that they are required to transition to a high-density development state, as well as to respond to spent medium of a high-density culture. The finding of GPCRs that regulate production of survival structures (sclerotia, inoculum (spores and aflatoxin holds promise for future development of anti-fungal therapeutics.

  9. Aspergillus oxylipin signaling and quorum sensing pathways depend on g protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affeldt, Katharyn J; Brodhagen, Marion; Keller, Nancy P

    2012-09-01

    Oxylipins regulate Aspergillus development and mycotoxin production and are also involved in Aspergillus quorum sensing mechanisms. Despite extensive knowledge of how these oxylipins are synthesized and what processes they regulate, nothing is known about how these signals are detected and transmitted by the fungus. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) have been speculated to be involved as they are known oxylipin receptors in mammals, and many putative GPCRs have been identified in the Aspergilli. Here, we present evidence that oxylipins stimulate a burst in cAMP in A. nidulans, and that loss of an A. nidulans GPCR, gprD, prevents this cAMP accumulation. A. flavus undergoes an oxylipin-mediated developmental shift when grown at different densities, and this regulates spore, sclerotial and aflatoxin production. A. flavus encodes two putative GprD homologs, GprC and GprD, and we demonstrate here that they are required to transition to a high-density development state, as well as to respond to spent medium of a high-density culture. The finding of GPCRs that regulate production of survival structures (sclerotia), inoculum (spores) and aflatoxin holds promise for future development of anti-fungal therapeutics.

  10. G-protein-coupled receptors mediate 14-3-3 signal transduction.

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    Li, Hua; Eishingdrelo, Alex; Kongsamut, Sathapana; Eishingdrelo, Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-interacting proteins likely participate in regulating GPCR signaling by eliciting specific signal transduction cascades, inducing cross-talk with other pathways, and fine tuning the signal. However, except for G-proteins and β-arrestins, other GPCR-interacting proteins are poorly characterized. 14-3-3 proteins are signal adaptors, and their participation in GPCR signaling is not well understood or recognized. Here we demonstrate that GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling is ligand-regulated and is likely to be a more general phenomenon than suggested by the previous reports of 14-3-3 involvement with a few GPCRs. For the first time, we can pharmacologically characterize GPCR/14-3-3 signaling. We have shown that GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling is phosphorylation-dependent, and that the GPCR/14-3-3 interaction likely occurs later than receptor desensitization and internalization. GPCR-mediated 14-3-3 signaling can be β-arrestin-independent, and individual agonists can have different potencies on 14-3-3 and β-arrestin signaling. GPCRs can also mediate the interaction between 14-3-3 and Raf-1. Our work opens up a new broad realm of previously unappreciated GPCR signal transduction. Linking GPCRs to 14-3-3 signal transduction creates the potential for the development of new research directions and provides a new signaling pathway for drug discovery.

  11. Regulators of G-protein-signaling proteins: negative modulators of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Geoffrey E; Jardín, Isaac; Berna-Erro, A; Salido, Gines M; Rosado, Juan A

    2015-01-01

    Regulators of G-protein-signaling (RGS) proteins are a category of intracellular proteins that have an inhibitory effect on the intracellular signaling produced by G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). RGS along with RGS-like proteins switch on through direct contact G-alpha subunits providing a variety of intracellular functions through intracellular signaling. RGS proteins have a common RGS domain that binds to G alpha. RGS proteins accelerate GTPase and thus enhance guanosine triphosphate hydrolysis through the alpha subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. As a result, they inactivate the G protein and quickly turn off GPCR signaling thus terminating the resulting downstream signals. Activity and subcellular localization of RGS proteins can be changed through covalent molecular changes to the enzyme, differential gene splicing, and processing of the protein. Other roles of RGS proteins have shown them to not be solely committed to being inhibitors but behave more as modulators and integrators of signaling. RGS proteins modulate the duration and kinetics of slow calcium oscillations and rapid phototransduction and ion signaling events. In other cases, RGS proteins integrate G proteins with signaling pathways linked to such diverse cellular responses as cell growth and differentiation, cell motility, and intracellular trafficking. Human and animal studies have revealed that RGS proteins play a vital role in physiology and can be ideal targets for diseases such as those related to addiction where receptor signaling seems continuously switched on. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. G protein-coupled receptor 56 regulates mechanical overload-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James P; Wrann, Christiane D; Rao, Rajesh R; Nair, Sreekumaran K; Jedrychowski, Mark P; You, Jae-Sung; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Gygi, Steven P; Ruas, Jorge L; Hornberger, Troy A; Wu, Zhidan; Glass, David J; Piao, Xianhua; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2014-11-04

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha 4 (PGC-1α4) is a protein isoform derived by alternative splicing of the PGC1α mRNA and has been shown to promote muscle hypertrophy. We show here that G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is a transcriptional target of PGC-1α4 and is induced in humans by resistance exercise. Furthermore, the anabolic effects of PGC-1α4 in cultured murine muscle cells are dependent on GPR56 signaling, because knockdown of GPR56 attenuates PGC-1α4-induced muscle hypertrophy in vitro. Forced expression of GPR56 results in myotube hypertrophy through the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, which is dependent on Gα12/13 signaling. A murine model of overload-induced muscle hypertrophy is associated with increased expression of both GPR56 and its ligand collagen type III, whereas genetic ablation of GPR56 expression attenuates overload-induced muscle hypertrophy and associated anabolic signaling. These data illustrate a signaling pathway through GPR56 which regulates muscle hypertrophy associated with resistance/loading-type exercise.

  13. G-protein-coupled receptor 137 accelerates proliferation of urinary bladder cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yiheng; Bi, Wenhuan; Zhang, Fei; Wu, Wenbo; Xia, Shujie; Liu, Haitao

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a worldwide concern because of its level of incidence and recurrence. To search an effective therapeutic strategy for urinary bladder cancer, it is important to identify proteins involved in tumorigenesis that could serve as potential targets for diagnosis and treatment. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPRs) constitute a large protein family of receptors that sense molecules outside the cell and activate signal transduction pathways and cellular responses inside the cell. GPR137 is a newly discovered human gene encoding orphan GPRs. In this study, we aimed to investigate the physiological role of GPR137 in urinary bladder cancer. The effect of GPR137 on cell growth was examined via an RNA interference (RNAi) lentivirus system in two human urinary bladder cancer cell lines BT5637 and T24. Lentivirus-mediated RNAi could specifically suppressed GPR137 expression in vitro, resulting in alleviated cell viability and impaired colony formation, as well as blocks G0/G1 and S phases of the cell cycle. These results suggested GPR137 as an essential player in urinary bladder cancer cell growth, and it may serve as a potential target for gene therapy in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. G protein-coupled receptor 91 signaling in diabetic retinopathy and hypoxic retinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianyan; Li, Tingting; Du, Xinhua; Wu, Qiang; Le, Yun-Zheng

    2017-10-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 91 (GPR91) is a succinate-specific receptor and activation of GPR91 could initiate a complex signal transduction cascade and upregulate inflammatory and pro-angiogenic cytokines. In the retina, GPR91 is predominately expressed in ganglion cells, a major cellular entity involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and other hypoxic retinal diseases. During the development of DR and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), chronic hypoxia causes an increase in the levels of local succinate. Succinate-mediated GPR91 activation upregulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) through ERK1/2-C/EBP β (c-Fos) and/or ERK1/2-COX-2/PGE2 signaling pathways, which in turn, leads to the breakdown of blood-retina barriers in these disorders. In this review, we will have a brief introduction of GPR91 and its biological functions and a more detailed discussion about the role and mechanisms of GPR91 in DR and ROP. A better understanding of GPR91 regulation may be of great significance in identifying new biomarkers and drug targets for the prediction and treatment of DR, ROP, and hypoxic retinal diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. G-protein coupled receptors as therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerram, Mounia; Zhang, Lu-Yong; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou

    2016-12-01

    Neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases are frequent in elderly populations and comprise primarily of dementia (mainly Alzheimer's disease) Parkinson's disease and stroke. These neurological disorders (NDs) occur as a result of neurodegenerative processes and represent one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide with a significant clinical and socio-economic impact. Although NDs have been characterized for many years, the exact molecular mechanisms that govern these pathologies or why they target specific individuals and specific neuronal populations remain unclear. As research progresses, many similarities appear which relate these diseases to one another on a subcellular level. Discovering these similarities offers hope for therapeutic advances that could ameliorate the conditions of many diseases simultaneously. G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most abundant receptor type in the central nervous system and are linked to complex downstream pathways, manipulation of which may have therapeutic application in many NDs. This review will highlight the potential use of neurotransmitter GPCRs as emerging therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Salt effects on the conformational stability of the visual G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Martínez-Archundia, Marlet; Ramon, Eva; Garriga, Pere

    2011-12-07

    Membrane protein stability is a key parameter with important physiological and practical implications. Inorganic salts affect protein stability, but the mechanisms of their interactions with membrane proteins are not completely understood. We have undertaken the study of a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor, the α-helical membrane protein rhodopsin from vertebrate retina, and explored the effects of inorganic salts on the thermal decay properties of both its inactive and photoactivated states. Under high salt concentrations, rhodopsin significantly increased its activation enthalpy change for thermal bleaching, whereas acid denaturation affected the formation of a denatured loose-bundle state for both the active and inactive conformations. This behavior seems to correlate with changes in protonated Schiff-base hydrolysis. However, chromophore regeneration with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore and MetarhodopsinII decay kinetics were slower only in the presence of sodium chloride, suggesting that in this case, the underlying phenomenon may be linked to the activation of rhodopsin and the retinal release processes. Furthermore, the melting temperature, determined by means of circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry measurements, was increased in the presence of high salt concentrations. The observed effects on rhodopsin could indicate that salts favor electrostatic interactions in the retinal binding pocket and indirectly favor hydrophobic interactions at the membrane protein receptor core. These effects can be exploited in applications where the stability of membrane proteins in solution is highly desirable. Copyright © 2011 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salt Effects on the Conformational Stability of the Visual G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Rhodopsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Alcaraz, Arfaxad; Martínez-Archundia, Marlet; Ramon, Eva; Garriga, Pere

    2011-01-01

    Membrane protein stability is a key parameter with important physiological and practical implications. Inorganic salts affect protein stability, but the mechanisms of their interactions with membrane proteins are not completely understood. We have undertaken the study of a prototypical G-protein-coupled receptor, the α-helical membrane protein rhodopsin from vertebrate retina, and explored the effects of inorganic salts on the thermal decay properties of both its inactive and photoactivated states. Under high salt concentrations, rhodopsin significantly increased its activation enthalpy change for thermal bleaching, whereas acid denaturation affected the formation of a denatured loose-bundle state for both the active and inactive conformations. This behavior seems to correlate with changes in protonated Schiff-base hydrolysis. However, chromophore regeneration with the 11-cis-retinal chromophore and MetarhodopsinII decay kinetics were slower only in the presence of sodium chloride, suggesting that in this case, the underlying phenomenon may be linked to the activation of rhodopsin and the retinal release processes. Furthermore, the melting temperature, determined by means of circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetry measurements, was increased in the presence of high salt concentrations. The observed effects on rhodopsin could indicate that salts favor electrostatic interactions in the retinal binding pocket and indirectly favor hydrophobic interactions at the membrane protein receptor core. These effects can be exploited in applications where the stability of membrane proteins in solution is highly desirable. PMID:22261069

  18. Drug discovery opportunities and challenges at G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D Holliday

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of G protein coupled receptors for long chain free fatty acids (FFAs, FFA1 (GPR40 and GPR120, has expanded our understanding of these nutrients as signalling molecules. These receptors have emerged as important sensors for FFA levels in the circulation or the gut lumen, based on evidence from in vitro and rodent models, and an increasing number of human studies. Here we consider their promise as therapeutic targets for metabolic disease, including type 2 diabetes and obesity. FFA1 directly mediates acute FFA-induced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells, while GPR120 and FFA1 trigger release of incretins from intestinal endocrine cells, and so indirectly enhance insulin secretion and promote satiety. GPR120 signalling in adipocytes and macrophages also results in insulin sensitizing and beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. Drug discovery has focussed on agonists to replicate acute benefits of FFA receptor signalling, with promising early results for FFA1 agonists in man. Controversy surrounding chronic effects of FFA1 on beta-cells illustrates that long term benefits of antagonists also need exploring. It has proved challenging to generate highly selective potent ligands for FFA1 or GPR120 subtypes, given that both receptors have hydrophobic orthosteric binding sites, which are not completely defined and have modest ligand affinity. Structure activity relationships are also reliant on functional read outs, in the absence of robust binding assays to provide direct affinity estimates. Nevertheless synthetic ligands have already helped dissect specific contributions of FFA1 and GPR120 signalling from the many possible cellular effects of FFAs. Approaches including use of fluorescent ligand binding assays, and targeting allosteric receptor sites, may improve further preclinical ligand development at these receptors, to exploit their unique potential to target multiple facets of diabetes.

  19. Regulation of G protein-coupled receptor signalling: focus on the cardiovascular system and regulator of G protein signalling proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Michel, Martin C.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2008-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in many biological processes. Therefore, GPCR function is tightly controlled both at receptor level and at the level of signalling components. Well-known mechanisms by which GPCR function can be regulated comprise desensitization/resensitization

  20. Structure-based identification of non-competitive ligands for two related class B G Protein-Coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, C.; Rein, C; Giordanetto, F; Piwnica, D; Rognan, D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the availability of X-ray crystal structure data for several members of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, structure-based discovery of GPCR ligands has been exclusively restricted to classA (rhodopsin-like) receptors. Herein we report the identification, by a docking-based

  1. Mini G protein probes for active G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in live cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Qingwen; Okashah, Najeah; Inoue, Asuka; Nehmé, Rony; Carpenter, Byron; Tate, Christopher G; Lambert, Nevin A

    2018-03-09

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key signaling proteins that regulate nearly every aspect of cell function. Studies of GPCRs have benefitted greatly from the development of molecular tools to monitor receptor activation and downstream signaling. Here we show that mini G proteins are robust probes that can be used in a variety of assay formats to report GPCR activity in living cells. Mini G (mG) proteins are engineered GTPase domains of Gα subunits that were developed for structural studies of active state GPCRs. Confocal imaging revealed that mG proteins fused to fluorescent proteins were located diffusely in the cytoplasm, and translocated to sites of receptor activation at the cell surface and at intracellular organelles. Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assays with mG proteins fused to either a fluorescent protein or luciferase reported agonist, superagonist and inverse agonist activities. Variants of mG proteins (mGs, mGsi, mGsq and mG12) corresponding to the four families of Gα subunits displayed appropriate coupling to their cognate GPCRs, allowing quantitative profiling of subtype-specific coupling to individual receptors. BRET between luciferase-mG fusion proteins and fluorescent markers indicated the presence of active GPCRs at the plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus and endosomes. Complementation assays with fragments of NanoLuc luciferase fused to GPCRs and mG proteins reported constitutive receptor activity and agonist-induced activation with up to 20-fold increases in luminescence. We conclude that mG proteins are versatile tools for studying GPCR activation and coupling specificity in cells, and should be useful for discovering and characterizing G protein subtype-biased ligands. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. GPCR ontology: development and application of a G protein-coupled receptor pharmacology knowledge framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przydzial, Magdalena J; Bhhatarai, Barun; Koleti, Amar; Vempati, Uma; Schürer, Stephan C

    2013-12-15

    Novel tools need to be developed to help scientists analyze large amounts of available screening data with the goal to identify entry points for the development of novel chemical probes and drugs. As the largest class of drug targets, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) remain of particular interest and are pursued by numerous academic and industrial research projects. We report the first GPCR ontology to facilitate integration and aggregation of GPCR-targeting drugs and demonstrate its application to classify and analyze a large subset of the PubChem database. The GPCR ontology, based on previously reported BioAssay Ontology, depicts available pharmacological, biochemical and physiological profiles of GPCRs and their ligands. The novelty of the GPCR ontology lies in the use of diverse experimental datasets linked by a model to formally define these concepts. Using a reasoning system, GPCR ontology offers potential for knowledge-based classification of individuals (such as small molecules) as a function of the data. The GPCR ontology is available at http://www.bioassayontology.org/bao_gpcr and the National Center for Biomedical Ontologies Web site.

  3. The essential role of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling in regulating T cell immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dashan

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the critical role of GPCR signaling in T cell immunity. The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most common targets in current pharmaceutical industry, and represent the largest and most versatile family of cell surface communicating molecules. GPCRs can be activated by a diverse array of ligands including neurotransmitters, chemokines as well as sensory stimuli. Therefore, GPCRs are involved in many key cellular and physiological processes, such as sense of light, taste and smell, neurotransmission, metabolism, endocrine and exocrine secretion. In recent years, GPCRs have been found to play an important role in immune system. T cell is an important type of immune cell, which plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. A variety of GPCRs and their signaling mediators (RGS proteins, GRKs and β-arrestin) have been found to express in T cells and involved T cell-mediated immunity. We will summarize the role of GPCR signaling and their regulatory molecules in T cell activation, homeostasis and function in this article. GPCR signaling plays an important role in T cell activation, homeostasis and function. GPCR signaling is critical in regulating T cell immunity.

  4. Self-organized criticality in proteins: Hydropathic roughening profiles of G-protein-coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. C.

    2013-03-01

    Proteins appear to be the most dramatic natural example of self-organized criticality (SOC), a concept that explains many otherwise apparently unlikely phenomena. Protein conformational functionality is often dominated by long-range hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions which both drive protein compaction and mediate protein-protein interactions. Superfamily transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest family of proteins in the human genome; their amino acid sequences form the largest database for protein-membrane interactions. While there are now structural data on the heptad transmembrane structures of representatives of several heptad families, here we show how fresh insights into global and some local chemical trends in GPCR properties can be obtained accurately from sequences alone, especially by algebraically separating the extracellular and cytoplasmic loops from transmembrane segments. The global mediation of long-range water-protein interactions occurs in conjunction with modulation of these interactions by roughened interfaces. Hydropathic roughening profiles are defined here solely in terms of amino acid sequences, and knowledge of protein coordinates is not required. Roughening profiles both for GPCR and some simpler protein families display accurate and transparent connections to protein functionality, and identify natural length scales for protein functionality.

  5. [Handling G-protein-coupled receptors: expression, purification and in vitro stabilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banères, Jean-Louis; Mouillac, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    Among the different classes of integral membrane proteins, G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) constitute the largest family. They are involved in most essential physiological functions and particularly play a key role in cell-to-cell communication and sensory signal transduction. They represent targets for approximately 30% of currently marketed drugs. In order to better understand their functioning, define their tridimensional structure and develop novel selective and efficient therapeutic compounds, it is crucial to purify these proteins for a full characterization. However, this biochemical step is not trivial since GPCR are present in membranes at very low levels and they require detergents to be extracted from their natural lipid environment and be handled as functional proteins. No universal strategy for GPCR production, purification and stabilization is currently available; each single GPCR possesses a unique set of physicochemical characteristics, preference for some detergents upon solubilization and specific conditions for purification. During the last decade, major breakthroughs regarding overexpression, purification and above all GPCR stabilization, thanks to amphipols and nanodiscs, opened very exciting perspectives for structural and dynamic investigations of these membrane proteins. The aim of this chapter is to provide an overview of the different aspects of GPCR handling. © 2012 médecine/sciences – Inserm / SRMS.

  6. Ligand-induced dynamical change of G-protein-coupled receptor revealed by neutron scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Utsab R.; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Mamontov, Eugene; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    Light activation of the visual G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin leads to the significant change in protein conformation and structural fluctuations, which further activates the cognate G-protein (transducin) and initiates the biological signaling. In this work, we studied the rhodopsin activation dynamics using state-of-the-art neutron scattering technique. Our quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS) results revealed a broadly distributed relaxation rate of the hydrogen atom in rhodopsin on the picosecond to nanosecond timescale (beta-relaxation region), which is crucial for the protein function. Furthermore, the application of mode-coupling theory to the QENS analysis uncovers the subtle changes in rhodopsin dynamics due to the retinal cofactor. Comparing the dynamics of the ligand-free apoprotein, opsin versus the dark-state rhodopsin, removal of the retinal cofactor increases the relaxation time in the beta-relaxation region, which is due to the possible open conformation. Moreover, we utilized the concept of free-energy landscape to explain our results for the dark-state rhodopsin and opsin dynamics, which can be further applied to other GPCR systems to interpret various dynamic behaviors in ligand-bound and ligand-free protein.

  7. Cholesterol activates the G-protein coupled receptor Smoothened to promote Hedgehog signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Giovanni; Sircar, Ria; Kong, Jennifer H; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Sagner, Andreas; Byrne, Eamon FX; Covey, Douglas F; Siebold, Christian; Rohatgi, Rajat

    2016-01-01

    Cholesterol is necessary for the function of many G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). We find that cholesterol is not just necessary but also sufficient to activate signaling by the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway, a prominent cell-cell communication system in development. Cholesterol influences Hh signaling by directly activating Smoothened (SMO), an orphan GPCR that transmits the Hh signal across the membrane in all animals. Unlike many GPCRs, which are regulated by cholesterol through their heptahelical transmembrane domains, SMO is activated by cholesterol through its extracellular cysteine-rich domain (CRD). Residues shown to mediate cholesterol binding to the CRD in a recent structural analysis also dictate SMO activation, both in response to cholesterol and to native Hh ligands. Our results show that cholesterol can initiate signaling from the cell surface by engaging the extracellular domain of a GPCR and suggest that SMO activity may be regulated by local changes in cholesterol abundance or accessibility. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20304.001 PMID:27705744

  8. GPR55, a G-protein coupled receptor for lysophosphatidylinositol, plays a role in motor coordination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Shan Wu

    Full Text Available The G-protein coupled receptor 55 (GPR55 is activated by lysophosphatidylinositols and some cannabinoids. Recent studies found prominent roles for GPR55 in neuropathic/inflammatory pain, cancer and bone physiology. However, little is known about the role of GPR55 in CNS development and function. To address this question, we performed a detailed characterization of GPR55 knockout mice using molecular, anatomical, electrophysiological, and behavioral assays. Quantitative PCR studies found that GPR55 mRNA was expressed (in order of decreasing abundance in the striatum, hippocampus, forebrain, cortex, and cerebellum. GPR55 deficiency did not affect the concentrations of endocannabinoids and related lipids or mRNA levels for several components of the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus. Normal synaptic transmission and short-term as well as long-term synaptic plasticity were found in GPR55 knockout CA1 pyramidal neurons. Deleting GPR55 function did not affect behavioral assays assessing muscle strength, gross motor skills, sensory-motor integration, motor learning, anxiety or depressive behaviors. In addition, GPR55 null mutant mice exhibited normal contextual and auditory-cue conditioned fear learning and memory in a Pavlovian conditioned fear test. In contrast, when presented with tasks requiring more challenging motor responses, GPR55 knockout mice showed impaired movement coordination. Taken together, these results suggest that GPR55 plays a role in motor coordination, but does not strongly regulate CNS development, gross motor movement or several types of learned behavior.

  9. Kisspeptin/G protein-coupled receptor-54 system as an essential gatekeeper of pubertal development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jun Rhie

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Puberty is the end-point of a complex series of developmental events, defined by the dynamic interaction between genetic factors and environmental cues, ultimately leading to the attainment of reproductive capacity. Kisspeptins, products of the KISS1 gene, were originally identified as metastasis suppressor peptides with the ability to bind G protein-coupled receptors (GPR54. In 2003, loss-of-function mutations of the GPR54 gene were found in patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. This finding triggered study of the role of the kisspeptin/GPR54 system as an essential gatekeeper of control of reproduction and pubertal development. Kisspeptins are very potent elicitors of gonadotropin secretion, primarily through stimulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone release. KISS1 also functions as an essential integrator for peripheral inputs, including gonadal steroids and nutritional signals, and for controlling GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. Whether the kisspeptin/GPR54 system is the trigger for puberty onset and/or it operates as integrator and effector of up-stream regulatory factors warrants further investigation.

  10. Nicotinic Acid Increases Adiponectin Secretion from Differentiated Bovine Preadipocytes through G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Kopp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition period in dairy cows (3 weeks prepartum until 3 weeks postpartum is associated with substantial mobilization of energy stores, which is often associated with metabolic diseases. Nicotinic acid (NA is an antilipolytic and lipid-lowering compound used to treat dyslipidaemia in humans, and it also reduces non-esterified fatty acids in cattle. In mice the G-protein coupled receptor 109A (GPR109A ligand NA positively affects the secretion of adiponectin, an important modulator of glucose and fat metabolism. In cattle, the corresponding data linking NA to adiponectin are missing. Our objective was to examine the effects of NA on adiponectin and AMPK protein abundance and the expression of mRNAs of related genes such as chemerin, an adipokine that enhances adiponectin secretion in vitro. Differentiated bovine adipocytes were incubated with pertussis toxin (PTX to verify the involvement of GPR signaling, and treated with 10 or 15 µM NA for 12 or 24 h. NA increased adiponectin concentrations (p ≤ 0.001 and the mRNA abundances of GPR109A (p ≤ 0.05 and chemerin (p ≤ 0.01. Pre-incubation with PTX reduced the adiponectin response to NA (p ≤ 0.001. The NA-stimulated secretion of adiponectin and the mRNA expression of chemerin in the bovine adipocytes were suggestive of GPR signaling-dependent improved insulin sensitivity and/or adipocyte metabolism in dairy cows.

  11. Drug-target residence time--a case for G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Hillger, Julia M; IJzerman, Adriaan P; Heitman, Laura H

    2014-07-01

    A vast number of marketed drugs act on G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), the most successful category of drug targets to date. These drugs usually possess high target affinity and selectivity, and such combined features have been the driving force in the early phases of drug discovery. However, attrition has also been high. Many investigational new drugs eventually fail in clinical trials due to a demonstrated lack of efficacy. A retrospective assessment of successfully launched drugs revealed that their beneficial effects in patients may be attributed to their long drug-target residence times (RTs). Likewise, for some other GPCR drugs short RT could be beneficial to reduce the potential for on-target side effects. Hence, the compounds' kinetics behavior might in fact be the guiding principle to obtain a desired and durable effect in vivo. We therefore propose that drug-target RT should be taken into account as an additional parameter in the lead selection and optimization process. This should ultimately lead to an increased number of candidate drugs moving to the preclinical development phase and on to the market. This review contains examples of the kinetics behavior of GPCR ligands with improved in vivo efficacy and summarizes methods for assessing drug-target RT. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. G Protein-Coupled Receptors: What a Difference a ‘Partner’ Makes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît T. Roux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are important cell signaling mediators, involved in essential physiological processes. GPCRs respond to a wide variety of ligands from light to large macromolecules, including hormones and small peptides. Unfortunately, mutations and dysregulation of GPCRs that induce a loss of function or alter expression can lead to disorders that are sometimes lethal. Therefore, the expression, trafficking, signaling and desensitization of GPCRs must be tightly regulated by different cellular systems to prevent disease. Although there is substantial knowledge regarding the mechanisms that regulate the desensitization and down-regulation of GPCRs, less is known about the mechanisms that regulate the trafficking and cell-surface expression of newly synthesized GPCRs. More recently, there is accumulating evidence that suggests certain GPCRs are able to interact with specific proteins that can completely change their fate and function. These interactions add on another level of regulation and flexibility between different tissue/cell-types. Here, we review some of the main interacting proteins of GPCRs. A greater understanding of the mechanisms regulating their interactions may lead to the discovery of new drug targets for therapy.

  13. Deletion of G-protein-coupled receptor 55 promotes obesity by reducing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, A; Lee, J H; Wu, C-S; Wei, Q; Pradhan, G; Yafi, M; Lu, H-C; Sun, Y

    2016-03-01

    Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) is the best-characterized cannabinoid receptor, and CB1 antagonists are used in clinical trials to treat obesity. Because of the wide range of CB1 functions, the side effects of CB1 antagonists pose serious concerns. G-protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55) is an atypical cannabinoid receptor, and its pharmacology and functions are distinct from CB1. GPR55 regulates neuropathic pain, gut, bone, immune functions and motor coordination. GPR55 is expressed in various brain regions and peripheral tissues. However, the roles of GPR55 in energy and glucose homeostasis are unknown. Here we have investigated the roles of GPR55 in energy balance and insulin sensitivity using GPR55-null mice (GPR55(-/-)). Body composition of the mice was measured by EchoMRI. Food intake, feeding behavior, energy expenditure and physical activity of GPR55(-/-) mice were determined by indirect calorimetry. Muscle function was assessed by forced treadmill running test. Insulin sensitivity was evaluated by glucose and insulin tolerance tests. Adipose inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry analysis of adipose tissue macrophages. The expression of inflammatory markers in adipose tissues and orexigenic/anorexigenic peptides in the hypothalamus was also analyzed by real-time PCR. GPR55(-/-) mice had normal total energy intake and feeding pattern (i.e., no changes in meal size, meal number or feeding frequency). Intriguingly, whereas adult GPR55(-/-) mice only showed a modest increase in overall body weight, they exhibited significantly increased fat mass and insulin resistance. The spontaneous locomotor activity of GPR55(-/-) mice was dramatically decreased, whereas resting metabolic rate and non-shivering thermogenesis were unchanged. Moreover, GPR55(-/-) mice exhibited significantly decreased voluntary physical activity, showing reduced running distance on the running wheels, whereas muscle function appeared to be normal. GPR55 has an important role in energy

  14. Feeding and the rhodopsin family G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCRs in nematodes and arthropods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Carlos dos Reis Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologues of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster, suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologues of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors.

  15. Feeding and the rhodopsin family g-protein coupled receptors in nematodes and arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, João C R; Félix, Rute C; Fonseca, Vera G; Power, Deborah M

    2012-01-01

    In vertebrates, receptors of the rhodopsin G-protein coupled superfamily (GPCRs) play an important role in the regulation of feeding and energy homeostasis and are activated by peptide hormones produced in the brain-gut axis. These peptides regulate appetite and energy expenditure by promoting or inhibiting food intake. Sequence and function homologs of human GPCRs involved in feeding exist in the nematode roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), and the arthropod fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), suggesting that the mechanisms that regulate food intake emerged early and have been conserved during metazoan radiation. Nematodes and arthropods are the most diverse and successful animal phyla on Earth. They can survive in a vast diversity of environments and have acquired distinct life styles and feeding strategies. The aim of the present review is to investigate if this diversity has affected the evolution of invertebrate GPCRs. Homologs of the C. elegans and D. melanogaster rhodopsin receptors were characterized in the genome of other nematodes and arthropods and receptor evolution compared. With the exception of bombesin receptors (BBR) that are absent from nematodes, a similar gene complement was found. In arthropods, rhodopsin GPCR evolution is characterized by species-specific gene duplications and deletions and in nematodes by gene expansions in species with a free-living stage and gene deletions in representatives of obligate parasitic taxa. Based upon variation in GPCR gene number and potentially divergent functions within phyla we hypothesize that life style and feeding diversity practiced by nematodes and arthropods was one factor that contributed to rhodopsin GPCR gene evolution. Understanding how the regulation of food intake has evolved in invertebrates will contribute to the development of novel drugs to control nematodes and arthropods and the pests and diseases that use them as vectors.

  16. Interaction between G Protein-Coupled Receptor 143 and Tyrosinase: Implications for Understanding Ocular Albinism Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Elisabetta; Schiedel, Anke C; Manga, Prashiela

    2017-02-01

    Developmental eye defects in X-linked ocular albinism type 1 are caused by G-protein coupled receptor 143 (GPR143) mutations. Mutations result in dysfunctional melanosome biogenesis and macromelanosome formation in pigment cells, including melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium. GPR143, primarily expressed in pigment cells, localizes exclusively to endolysosomal and melanosomal membranes unlike most G protein-coupled receptors, which localize to the plasma membrane. There is some debate regarding GPR143 function and elucidating the role of this receptor may be instrumental for understanding neurogenesis during eye development and for devising therapies for ocular albinism type I. Many G protein-coupled receptors require association with other proteins to function. These G protein-coupled receptor-interacting proteins also facilitate fine-tuning of receptor activity and tissue specificity. We therefore investigated potential GPR143 interaction partners, with a focus on the melanogenic enzyme tyrosinase. GPR143 coimmunoprecipitated with tyrosinase, while confocal microscopy demonstrated colocalization of the proteins. Furthermore, tyrosinase localized to the plasma membrane when coexpressed with a GPR143 trafficking mutant. The physical interaction between the proteins was confirmed using fluorescence resonance energy transfer. This interaction may be required in order for GPR143 to function as a monitor of melanosome maturation. Identifying tyrosinase as a potential GPR143 binding protein opens new avenues for investigating the mechanisms that regulate pigmentation and neurogenesis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Modeling structure of G protein-coupled receptors in huan genome

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yang

    2016-01-26

    G protein-coupled receptors (or GPCRs) are integral transmembrane proteins responsible to various cellular signal transductions. Human GPCR proteins are encoded by 5% of human genes but account for the targets of 40% of the FDA approved drugs. Due to difficulties in crystallization, experimental structure determination remains extremely difficult for human GPCRs, which have been a major barrier in modern structure-based drug discovery. We proposed a new hybrid protocol, GPCR-I-TASSER, to construct GPCR structure models by integrating experimental mutagenesis data with ab initio transmembrane-helix assembly simulations, assisted by the predicted transmembrane-helix interaction networks. The method was tested in recent community-wide GPCRDock experiments and constructed models with a root mean square deviation 1.26 Å for Dopamine-3 and 2.08 Å for Chemokine-4 receptors in the transmembrane domain regions, which were significantly closer to the native than the best templates available in the PDB. GPCR-I-TASSER has been applied to model all 1,026 putative GPCRs in the human genome, where 923 are found to have correct folds based on the confidence score analysis and mutagenesis data comparison. The successfully modeled GPCRs contain many pharmaceutically important families that do not have previously solved structures, including Trace amine, Prostanoids, Releasing hormones, Melanocortins, Vasopressin and Neuropeptide Y receptors. All the human GPCR models have been made publicly available through the GPCR-HGmod database at http://zhanglab.ccmb.med.umich.edu/GPCR-HGmod/ The results demonstrate new progress on genome-wide structure modeling of transmembrane proteins which should bring useful impact on the effort of GPCR-targeted drug discovery.

  18. Direct molecular evolution of detergent-stable G protein-coupled receptors using polymer encapsulated cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel J; Plückthun, Andreas

    2013-02-08

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest class of pharmaceutical protein targets, yet drug development is encumbered by a lack of information about their molecular structure and conformational dynamics. Most mechanistic and structural studies as well as in vitro drug screening with purified receptors require detergent solubilization of the GPCR, but typically, these proteins exhibit only low stability in detergent micelles. We have developed the first directed evolution method that allows the direct selection of GPCRs stable in a chosen detergent from libraries containing over 100 million individual variants. The crucial concept was to encapsulate single Escherichia coli cells of a library, each expressing a different GPCR variant, to form detergent-resistant, semipermeable nano-containers. Unlike naked cells, these containers are not dissolved by detergents, allowing us to solubilize the GPCR proteins in situ while maintaining an association with the protein's genetic information, a prerequisite for directed evolution. The pore size was controlled to permit GPCR ligands to permeate but the solubilized receptor to remain within the nanocapsules. Fluorescently labeled ligands were used to bind to those GPCR variants inside the nano-containers that remained active in the detergent tested. With the use of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, detergent-stable mutants derived from two different family A GPCRs could be identified, some with the highest stability reported in short-chain detergents. In principle, this method (named cellular high-throughput encapsulation, solubilization and screening) is not limited to engineering stabilized GPCRs but could be used to stabilize other proteins for biochemical and structural studies. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Enhanced expression of G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jala, Venkatakrishna Rao; Radde, Brandie N; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Klinge, Carolyn M

    2012-01-01

    G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) was reported to bind 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), tamoxifen, and ICI 182,780 (fulvestrant) and promotes activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mediated signaling in breast, endometrial and thyroid cancer cells. Although lung adenocarcinomas express estrogen receptors α and β (ERα and ERβ), the expression of GPER in lung cancer has not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the expression of GPER in lung cancer. The expression patterns of GPER in various lung cancer lines and lung tumors were investigated using standard quantitative real time PCR (at mRNA levels), Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods (at protein levels). The expression of GPER was scored and the pairwise comparisons (cancer vs adjacent tissues as well as cancer vs normal lung tissues) were performed. Analysis by real-time PCR and Western blotting revealed a significantly higher expression of GPER at both mRNA and protein levels in human non small cell lung cancer cell (NSCLC) lines relative to immortalized normal lung bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs). The virally immortalized human small airway epithelial cell line HPL1D showed higher expression than HBECs and similar expression to NSCLC cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections of murine lung adenomas as well as human lung adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas and non-small cell lung carcinomas showed consistently higher expression of GPER in the tumor relative to the surrounding non-tumor tissue. The results from this study demonstrate increased GPER expression in lung cancer cells and tumors compared to normal lung. Further evaluation of the function and regulation of GPER will be necessary to determine if GPER is a marker of lung cancer progression

  20. Drug Discovery Targeting Serotonin G Protein-Coupled Receptors in the Treatment of Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsing, Daniel E.

    Clinical data show that activation of 5-HT2C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can treat obesity (lorcaserin/BelviqRTM) and psychotic disorders (aripiprazole/Abilify.), including schizophrenia. 5-HT2C GPCRs are members of the 5-HT2 sub-family of 5-HT GPCRs, which include 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT 2C GPCRs. 5-HT2C is structurally similar to 5-HT2A and 5-HT2B GPCRs, but activation of 5-HT2A and/or 5-HT 2B causes deleterious effects, including hallucinations and cardiac valvulopathy. Thus, there is a challenge to develop drugs that selectively activate only 5-HT2C. Prolonged activation of GPCRs by agonists reduces their function via a regulatory process called desensitization. This has clinical relevance, as 45% of drugs approved by the FDA target GPCRs, and agonist drugs (e.g., morphine) typically lose efficacy over time due to desensitization, which invites tolerance. Agonists that cause less desensitization may show extended clinical efficacy as well as a more acceptable clinical dose range. We hypothesized that structurally distinct agonists of the 5-HT2C receptor may cause varying degrees of desensitization by stabilizing unique 5-HT2C receptor conformations. Discovery of 5-HT2C agonists that exhibit minimal desensitization is therapeutically relevant for the pharmacotherapeutic treatment of chronic diseases such as obesity and psychotic disorders. The 5-HT7 receptor has recently been discovered as a druggable target, and selective activation of the 5-HT7 receptor has been shown to alleviate locomotor deficits in mouse models of Rett Syndrome. Additionally, buspirone has been shown to display therapeutically relevant affinity at 5-HT 1A and is currently in phase II clinical trials to treat stereotypy in children with autism. The 5-PAT chemical scaffold shows high affinity towards the 5-HT7 and 5-HT1A receptors. Modulations around the 5-phenyl moiety were able to improve selectivity in binding towards the 5-HT 7 receptor, whereas modulations of the alkyl chains

  1. Radio-peptides targeting g-protein coupled receptors in cancer: from bench to bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maecke, H.R.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. In the development of targeted imaging and therapy agents the most important challenge and prerequisite is to identify and validate the molecular targets of any disease. The targets should be specific, relevant, easily accessible and highly expressed. In addition they should have no or at least very low expression in normal tissue. Among the many drug targets is the large family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). It is the most important family of marketed drugs and the basic accomplishments in the field were recognised by the award of the recent Nobel price in chemistry. GPCRs also play a role in cancer. Several of these receptors are massively over-expressed in different human tumors such as neuroendocrine tumors (over-expression of the somatostatin receptor family), prostate and breast tumors (bombesin receptor family), brain tumors (NK1 receptor) etc.. This allows to develop (nuclear, MRI, optical) probes for imaging and potentially targeted therapy (theragnostics). Natural ligands targeting GPCRs are often peptides. They need to be modified for metabolic stability, modified for labeling with radio-metals (conjugation of bifunctional chelators) or radio-halogens (prosthetic groups). Preserved biological integrity after modification and labeling needs to be assured, long retention times in the tumor is important, conferred by internalisation. Radio-metal labeling in particular needs to be reasonably fast and the radio metal complexes have to show high stability with regard to radio-metal release. These prerequisites will be discussed for somatostatin receptor based radio-peptides in particular. For a successful clinical application preclinical imaging and biodistribution in adequate animal models are mandatory. New tracers for positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) will be presented for neuroendocrine tumors and prostate cancer. In particular radiolabeled antagonists will

  2. Structure modeling of all identified G protein-coupled receptors in the human genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, encoded by about 5% of human genes, comprise the largest family of integral membrane proteins and act as cell surface receptors responsible for the transduction of endogenous signal into a cellular response. Although tertiary structural information is crucial for function annotation and drug design, there are few experimentally determined GPCR structures. To address this issue, we employ the recently developed threading assembly refinement (TASSER method to generate structure predictions for all 907 putative GPCRs in the human genome. Unlike traditional homology modeling approaches, TASSER modeling does not require solved homologous template structures; moreover, it often refines the structures closer to native. These features are essential for the comprehensive modeling of all human GPCRs when close homologous templates are absent. Based on a benchmarked confidence score, approximately 820 predicted models should have the correct folds. The majority of GPCR models share the characteristic seven-transmembrane helix topology, but 45 ORFs are predicted to have different structures. This is due to GPCR fragments that are predominantly from extracellular or intracellular domains as well as database annotation errors. Our preliminary validation includes the automated modeling of bovine rhodopsin, the only solved GPCR in the Protein Data Bank. With homologous templates excluded, the final model built by TASSER has a global C(alpha root-mean-squared deviation from native of 4.6 angstroms, with a root-mean-squared deviation in the transmembrane helix region of 2.1 angstroms. Models of several representative GPCRs are compared with mutagenesis and affinity labeling data, and consistent agreement is demonstrated. Structure clustering of the predicted models shows that GPCRs with similar structures tend to belong to a similar functional class even when their sequences are diverse. These results demonstrate the usefulness

  3. Modelling and simulation of biased agonism dynamics at a G protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, L J; Mead, J; Frattini, E; Winfield, I; Ladds, G

    2018-04-07

    Theoretical models of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) concentration-response relationships often assume an agonist producing a single functional response via a single active state of the receptor. These models have largely been analysed assuming steady-state conditions. There is now much experimental evidence to suggest that many GPCRs can exist in multiple receptor conformations and elicit numerous functional responses, with ligands having the potential to activate different signalling pathways to varying extents-a concept referred to as biased agonism, functional selectivity or pluri-dimensional efficacy. Moreover, recent experimental results indicate a clear possibility for time-dependent bias, whereby an agonist's bias with respect to different pathways may vary dynamically. Efforts towards understanding the implications of temporal bias by characterising and quantifying ligand effects on multiple pathways will clearly be aided by extending current equilibrium binding and biased activation models to include G protein activation dynamics. Here, we present a new model of time-dependent biased agonism, based on ordinary differential equations for multiple cubic ternary complex activation models with G protein cycle dynamics. This model allows simulation and analysis of multi-pathway activation bias dynamics at a single receptor for the first time, at the level of active G protein (α GTP ), towards the analysis of dynamic functional responses. The model is generally applicable to systems with N G G proteins and N* active receptor states. Numerical simulations for N G =N * =2 reveal new insights into the effects of system parameters (including cooperativities, and ligand and receptor concentrations) on bias dynamics, highlighting new phenomena including the dynamic inter-conversion of bias direction. Further, we fit this model to 'wet' experimental data for two competing G proteins (G i and G s ) that become activated upon stimulation of the adenosine A 1

  4. Validation of a rapid, non-radioactive method to quantify internalisation of G-protein coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, Maikel; Florczyk, Urszula M.; Hendriks-Balk, Marieelle C.; Michel, Martin C.; Peters, Stephan L. M.; Alewijnse, Astrid E.

    2007-01-01

    Agonist exposure can cause internalisation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which may be a part of desensitisation but also of cellular signaling. Previous methods to study internalisation have been tedious or only poorly quantitative. Therefore, we have developed and validated a quantitative

  5. Assessment and challenges of ligand docking into comparative models of G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dong Nguyen

    Full Text Available The rapidly increasing number of high-resolution X-ray structures of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs creates a unique opportunity to employ comparative modeling and docking to provide valuable insight into the function and ligand binding determinants of novel receptors, to assist in virtual screening and to design and optimize drug candidates. However, low sequence identity between receptors, conformational flexibility, and chemical diversity of ligands present an enormous challenge to molecular modeling approaches. It is our hypothesis that rapid Monte-Carlo sampling of protein backbone and side-chain conformational space with Rosetta can be leveraged to meet this challenge. This study performs unbiased comparative modeling and docking methodologies using 14 distinct high-resolution GPCRs and proposes knowledge-based filtering methods for improvement of sampling performance and identification of correct ligand-receptor interactions. On average, top ranked receptor models built on template structures over 50% sequence identity are within 2.9 Å of the experimental structure, with an average root mean square deviation (RMSD of 2.2 Å for the transmembrane region and 5 Å for the second extracellular loop. Furthermore, these models are consistently correlated with low Rosetta energy score. To predict their binding modes, ligand conformers of the 14 ligands co-crystalized with the GPCRs were docked against the top ranked comparative models. In contrast to the comparative models themselves, however, it remains difficult to unambiguously identify correct binding modes by score alone. On average, sampling performance was improved by 10(3 fold over random using knowledge-based and energy-based filters. In assessing the applicability of experimental constraints, we found that sampling performance is increased by one order of magnitude for every 10 residues known to contact the ligand. Additionally, in the case of DOR, knowledge of a single specific

  6. Profiling G protein-coupled receptors of Fasciola hepatica identifies orphan rhodopsins unique to phylum Platyhelminthes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVeigh, Paul; McCammick, Erin; McCusker, Paul; Wells, Duncan; Hodgkinson, Jane; Paterson, Steve; Mousley, Angela; Marks, Nikki J; Maule, Aaron G

    2018-02-05

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth. All GPCRs fall within the established GRAFS nomenclature; comprising three glutamate, 135 rhodopsin, two adhesion, five frizzled, one smoothened, and one secretin GPCR. Stringent annotation pipelines identified 18 highly diverged rhodopsins in F. hepatica that maintained core rhodopsin signatures, but lacked significant similarity with non-flatworm sequences, providing a new sub-group of potential flukicide targets. These facilitated identification of a larger cohort of 76 related sequences from available flatworm genomes, representing new members of existing groups (PROF1/Srfb, Rho-L, Rho-R, Srfa, Srfc) of flatworm-specific rhodopsins. These receptors imply flatworm specific GPCR functions, and/or co-evolution with unique flatworm ligands, and could facilitate the development of exquisitely selective anthelmintics. Ligand binding domain sequence conservation relative to deorphanised rhodopsins enabled high confidence ligand-receptor matching of seventeen receptors activated by acetylcholine, neuropeptide F/Y, octopamine or serotonin. RNA-Seq analyses showed expression of 101 GPCRs across various developmental stages, with the majority expressed most highly in the pathogenic intra-mammalian juvenile parasites. These data identify a broad complement of GPCRs in F. hepatica, including rhodopsins likely to have key functions in neuromuscular control and

  7. Profiling G protein-coupled receptors of Fasciola hepatica identifies orphan rhodopsins unique to phylum Platyhelminthes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McVeigh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are established drug targets. Despite their considerable appeal as targets for next-generation anthelmintics, poor understanding of their diversity and function in parasitic helminths has thwarted progress towards GPCR-targeted anti-parasite drugs. This study facilitates GPCR research in the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, by generating the first profile of GPCRs from the F. hepatica genome. Our dataset describes 147 high confidence GPCRs, representing the largest cohort of GPCRs, and the largest set of in silico ligand-receptor predictions, yet reported in any parasitic helminth. All GPCRs fall within the established GRAFS nomenclature; comprising three glutamate, 135 rhodopsin, two adhesion, five frizzled, one smoothened, and one secretin GPCR. Stringent annotation pipelines identified 18 highly diverged rhodopsins in F. hepatica that maintained core rhodopsin signatures, but lacked significant similarity with non-flatworm sequences, providing a new sub-group of potential flukicide targets. These facilitated identification of a larger cohort of 76 related sequences from available flatworm genomes, representing new members of existing groups (PROF1/Srfb, Rho-L, Rho-R, Srfa, Srfc of flatworm-specific rhodopsins. These receptors imply flatworm specific GPCR functions, and/or co-evolution with unique flatworm ligands, and could facilitate the development of exquisitely selective anthelmintics. Ligand binding domain sequence conservation relative to deorphanised rhodopsins enabled high confidence ligand-receptor matching of seventeen receptors activated by acetylcholine, neuropeptide F/Y, octopamine or serotonin. RNA-Seq analyses showed expression of 101 GPCRs across various developmental stages, with the majority expressed most highly in the pathogenic intra-mammalian juvenile parasites. These data identify a broad complement of GPCRs in F. hepatica, including rhodopsins likely to have key functions in

  8. The Diverse Roles of Arrestin Scaffolds in G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Yuri K; Luttrell, Louis M

    2017-07-01

    The visual/ β -arrestins, a small family of proteins originally described for their role in the desensitization and intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), have emerged as key regulators of multiple signaling pathways. Evolutionarily related to a larger group of regulatory scaffolds that share a common arrestin fold, the visual/ β -arrestins acquired the capacity to detect and bind activated GPCRs on the plasma membrane, which enables them to control GPCR desensitization, internalization, and intracellular trafficking. By acting as scaffolds that bind key pathway intermediates, visual/ β -arrestins both influence the tonic level of pathway activity in cells and, in some cases, serve as ligand-regulated scaffolds for GPCR-mediated signaling. Growing evidence supports the physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of arrestins and underscores their potential as therapeutic targets. Circumventing arrestin-dependent GPCR desensitization may alleviate the problem of tachyphylaxis to drugs that target GPCRs, and find application in the management of chronic pain, asthma, and psychiatric illness. As signaling scaffolds, arrestins are also central regulators of pathways controlling cell growth, migration, and survival, suggesting that manipulating their scaffolding functions may be beneficial in inflammatory diseases, fibrosis, and cancer. In this review we examine the structure-function relationships that enable arrestins to perform their diverse roles, addressing arrestin structure at the molecular level, the relationship between arrestin conformation and function, and sites of interaction between arrestins, GPCRs, and nonreceptor-binding partners. We conclude with a discussion of arrestins as therapeutic targets and the settings in which manipulating arrestin function might be of clinical benefit. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Bradycardic effects mediated by activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor in rat nucleus ambiguus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Arterburn, Jeffrey B; Oprea, Tudor I; Chitravanshi, Vineet C; Brailoiu, Eugen

    2013-03-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been identified in several brain regions, including cholinergic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus, which are critical for parasympathetic cardiac regulation. Using calcium imaging and electrophysiological techniques, microinjection into the nucleus ambiguus and blood pressure measurement, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of GPER activation in nucleus ambiguus neurons. A GPER selective agonist, G-1, produced a sustained increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in a concentration-dependent manner in retrogradely labelled cardiac vagal neurons of nucleus ambiguus. The increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) produced by G-1 was abolished by pretreatment with G36, a GPER antagonist. G-1 depolarized cultured cardiac vagal neurons of the nucleus ambiguus. The excitatory effect of G-1 was also identified by whole-cell visual patch-clamp recordings in nucleus ambiguus neurons, in medullary slices. To validate the physiological relevance of our in vitro studies, we carried out in vivo experiments. Microinjection of G-1 into the nucleus ambiguus elicited a decrease in heart rate; the effect was blocked by prior microinjection of G36. Systemic injection of G-1, in addition to a previously reported decrease in blood pressure, also reduced the heart rate. The G-1-induced bradycardia was prevented by systemic injection of atropine, a muscarinic antagonist, or by bilateral microinjection of G36 into the nucleus ambiguus. Our results indicate that GPER-mediated bradycardia occurs via activation of cardiac parasympathetic neurons of the nucleus ambiguus and support the involvement of the GPER in the modulation of cardiac vagal tone.

  10. Conformational analysis of g protein-coupled receptor signaling by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Lee, Su Youn; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-01-01

    Conformational change and protein-protein interactions are two major mechanisms of membrane protein signal transduction, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Upon agonist binding, GPCRs change conformation, resulting in interaction with downstream signaling molecules such as G proteins. To understand the precise signaling mechanism, studies have investigated the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling using X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or electron paramagnetic resonance. In addition to these techniques, hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) has recently been used in GPCR studies. HDX-MS measures the rate at which peptide amide hydrogens exchange with deuterium in the solvent. Exposed or flexible regions have higher exchange rates and excluded or ordered regions have lower exchange rates. Therefore, HDX-MS is a useful tool for studying protein-protein interfaces and conformational changes after protein activation or protein-protein interactions. Although HDX-MS does not give high-resolution structures, it analyzes protein conformations that are difficult to study with X-ray crystallography or NMR. Furthermore, conformational information from HDX-MS can help in the crystallization of X-ray crystallography by suggesting highly flexible regions. Interactions between GPCRs and downstream signaling molecules are not easily analyzed by X-ray crystallography or NMR because of the large size of the GPCR-signaling molecule complexes, hydrophobicity, and flexibility of GPCRs. HDX-MS could be useful for analyzing the conformational mechanism of GPCR signaling. In this chapter, we discuss details of HDX-MS for analyzing GPCRs using the β2AR-G protein complex as a model system. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemogenomics Knowledgebased Polypharmacology Analyses of Drug Abuse Related G-Protein Coupled Receptors and Their Ligands

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    Xiang-Qun eXie

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug abuse (DA and addiction is a complex illness, broadly viewed as a neurobiological impairment with genetic and environmental factors that influence its development and manifestation. Abused substances can disrupt the activity of neurons by interacting with many proteins, particularly G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. A few medicines that target the central nervous system (CNS can also modulate DA related proteins, such as GPCRs, which can act in conjunction with the controlled psychoactive substance(s and increase side effects. To fully explore the molecular interaction networks that underlie DA and to effectively modulate the GPCRs in these networks with small molecules for DA treatment, we built a drug-abuse domain specific chemogenomics knowledgebase (DA-KB to centralize the reported chemogenomics research information related to DA and CNS disorders in an effort to benefit researchers across a broad range of disciplines. We then focus on the analysis of GPCRs as many of them are closely related with drug abuse. Their distribution in human tissues was also analyzed for the study of side effects caused by abused drugs. We further implement our computational algorithms/tools to explore DA targets, DA mechanisms and pathways involved in polydrug addiction and to explore polypharmacological effects of the GPCR ligands. Finally, the polypharmacology effects of GPCR-targeted medicines for drug abuse treatment were investigated and such effects can be exploited for the development of drugs with polypharmacophore for drug abuse intervention. The chemogenomics database and the analysis tools will help us better understand the mechanism of drugs abuse and facilitate to design new medications for system pharmacotherapy of drug abuse.

  12. Superfamily of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs – extraordinary and outstanding success of evolution

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    Kazimierz Kochman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are considered as very diverse and also surprisingly successful structures during the whole evolutionary process, being capable of transducing the different forms of “information” within the cell and also between cells, such as different peptides, lipids, proteins, nucleotides, nucleosides, organic odorants and photons. Complex studies as well as two-dimensional crystallization of rhodopsin, their paradigm, led to the creation of a useful model having a common central core, consisting of seven transmembrane helical domains, which undergoes appropriate structural modification during activation and signal transduction. After the complete delineation of the human genome, which is the apogee of human scientific civilization and culture, it was possible to identify more than 800 human GPCR sequences and in parallel analyze 342 unique functional nonolfactory human GPCR sequences with phylogenetic analyses. These results support, with high bootstrap values, the existence of five main families, named by the authors glutamate, rhodopsin, adhesion, frizzle/taste2, and secretin, forming the GRAFS classification system. Positions of the GPCRs in chromosomal paralogous regions indicate the importance of tetraploidizations or local gene duplication events during their creation. Some families of GPCRs show, however, very little or no similarity in the sequence of amino acid chains. They utilize an enormous number of different domains to bind ligands and to activate the appropriate G-proteins. The delicate tuning of their coupling to G proteins is further regulated by splicing, RNA editing and phosphorylation. A number of GPCRs may also form homodimers or heterodimers with structurally different GPCRs and also with membrane-bound proteins having one transmembrane domain. It should also be stressed that not all GPCRs are strictly faithful to G proteins because growing evidence indicates that they can interact directly

  13. Expression and function of proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors in inflammatory pain

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    Lin Chih-Shin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic inflammatory pain, when not effectively treated, is a costly health problem and has a harmful effect on all aspects of health-related quality of life. Despite the availability of pharmacologic treatments, chronic inflammatory pain remains inadequately treated. Understanding the nociceptive signaling pathways of such pain is therefore important in developing long-acting treatments with limited side effects. High local proton concentrations (tissue acidosis causing direct excitation or modulation of nociceptive sensory neurons by proton-sensing receptors are responsible for pain in some inflammatory pain conditions. We previously found that all four proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are expressed in pain-relevant loci (dorsal root ganglia, DRG, which suggests their possible involvement in nociception, but their functions in pain remain unclear. Results In this study, we first demonstrated differential change in expression of proton-sensing GPCRs in peripheral inflammation induced by the inflammatory agents capsaicin, carrageenan, and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA. In particular, the expression of TDAG8, one proton-sensing GPCR, was increased 24 hours after CFA injection because of increased number of DRG neurons expressing TDAG8. The number of DRG neurons expressing both TDAG8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 was increased as well. Further studies revealed that TDAG8 activation sensitized the TRPV1 response to capsaicin, suggesting that TDAG8 could be involved in CFA-induced chronic inflammatory pain through regulation of TRPV1 function. Conclusion Each subtype of the OGR1 family was expressed differently, which may reflect differences between models in duration and magnitude of hyperalgesia. Given that TDAG8 and TRPV1 expression increased after CFA-induced inflammation and that TDAG8 activation can lead to TRPV1 sensitization, it suggests that high concentrations of protons after

  14. Definition of the G protein-coupled receptor transmembrane bundle binding pocket and calculation of receptor similarities for drug design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gloriam, David Erik Immanuel; Foord, Steven M; Blaney, Frank E

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in structural biology for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have provided new opportunities to improve the definition of the transmembrane binding pocket. Here a reference set of 44 residue positions accessible for ligand binding was defined through detailed analysis of all...... to endogenous ligand types, although it revealed subdivision of certain classes, notably peptide and lipid receptors. The transmembrane binding site reference set, particularly when coupled with a means of identifying the subset of ligand binding residues, provides a general paradigm for understanding...

  15. G-protein coupled receptor signaling architecture of mammalian immune cells.

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    Natalia Polouliakh

    Full Text Available A series of recent studies on large-scale networks of signaling and metabolic systems revealed that a certain network structure often called "bow-tie network" are observed. In signaling systems, bow-tie network takes a form with diverse and redundant inputs and outputs connected via a small numbers of core molecules. While arguments have been made that such network architecture enhances robustness and evolvability of biological systems, its functional role at a cellular level remains obscure. A hypothesis was proposed that such a network function as a stimuli-reaction classifier where dynamics of core molecules dictate downstream transcriptional activities, hence physiological responses against stimuli. In this study, we examined whether such hypothesis can be verified using experimental data from Alliance for Cellular Signaling (AfCS that comprehensively measured GPCR related ligands response for B-cell and macrophage. In a GPCR signaling system, cAMP and Ca2+ act as core molecules. Stimuli-response for 32 ligands to B-Cells and 23 ligands to macrophages has been measured. We found that ligands with correlated changes of cAMP and Ca2+ tend to cluster closely together within the hyperspaces of both cell types and they induced genes involved in the same cellular processes. It was found that ligands inducing cAMP synthesis activate genes involved in cell growth and proliferation; cAMP and Ca2+ molecules that increased together form a feedback loop and induce immune cells to migrate and adhere together. In contrast, ligands without a core molecules response are scattered throughout the hyperspace and do not share clusters. G-protein coupling receptors together with immune response specific receptors were found in cAMP and Ca2+ activated clusters. Analyses have been done on the original software applicable for discovering 'bow-tie' network architectures within the complex network of intracellular signaling where ab initio clustering has been

  16. G-protein coupled receptor signaling architecture of mammalian immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polouliakh, Natalia; Nock, Richard; Nielsen, Frank; Kitano, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    A series of recent studies on large-scale networks of signaling and metabolic systems revealed that a certain network structure often called "bow-tie network" are observed. In signaling systems, bow-tie network takes a form with diverse and redundant inputs and outputs connected via a small numbers of core molecules. While arguments have been made that such network architecture enhances robustness and evolvability of biological systems, its functional role at a cellular level remains obscure. A hypothesis was proposed that such a network function as a stimuli-reaction classifier where dynamics of core molecules dictate downstream transcriptional activities, hence physiological responses against stimuli. In this study, we examined whether such hypothesis can be verified using experimental data from Alliance for Cellular Signaling (AfCS) that comprehensively measured GPCR related ligands response for B-cell and macrophage. In a GPCR signaling system, cAMP and Ca2+ act as core molecules. Stimuli-response for 32 ligands to B-Cells and 23 ligands to macrophages has been measured. We found that ligands with correlated changes of cAMP and Ca2+ tend to cluster closely together within the hyperspaces of both cell types and they induced genes involved in the same cellular processes. It was found that ligands inducing cAMP synthesis activate genes involved in cell growth and proliferation; cAMP and Ca2+ molecules that increased together form a feedback loop and induce immune cells to migrate and adhere together. In contrast, ligands without a core molecules response are scattered throughout the hyperspace and do not share clusters. G-protein coupling receptors together with immune response specific receptors were found in cAMP and Ca2+ activated clusters. Analyses have been done on the original software applicable for discovering 'bow-tie' network architectures within the complex network of intracellular signaling where ab initio clustering has been implemented as well

  17. Identification of G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway proteins in marine diatoms using comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, Jesse A; Parker, Micaela S; Kodner, Robin B; Wallace, James C; Armbrust, E Virginia; Faustman, Elaine M

    2013-07-24

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway plays an essential role in signal transmission and response to external stimuli in mammalian cells. Protein components of this pathway have been characterized in plants and simpler eukaryotes such as yeast, but their presence and role in unicellular photosynthetic eukaryotes have not been determined. We use a comparative genomics approach using whole genome sequences and gene expression libraries of four diatoms (Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries, Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum and Fragilariopsis cylindrus) to search for evidence of GPCR signaling pathway proteins that share sequence conservation to known GPCR pathway proteins. The majority of the core components of GPCR signaling were well conserved in all four diatoms, with protein sequence similarity to GPCRs, human G protein α- and β-subunits and downstream effectors. There was evidence for the Gγ-subunit and thus a full heterotrimeric G protein only in T. pseudonana. Phylogenetic analysis of putative diatom GPCRs indicated similarity but deep divergence to the class C GPCRs, with branches basal to the GABAB receptor subfamily. The extracellular and intracellular regions of these putative diatom GPCR sequences exhibited large variation in sequence length, and seven of these sequences contained the necessary ligand binding domain for class C GPCR activation. Transcriptional data indicated that a number of the putative GPCR sequences are expressed in diatoms under various stress conditions in culture, and that many of the GPCR-activated signaling proteins, including the G protein, are also expressed. The presence of sequences in all four diatoms that code for the proteins required for a functional mammalian GPCR pathway highlights the highly conserved nature of this pathway and suggests a complex signaling machinery related to environmental perception and response in these unicellular organisms. The lack of evidence for some GPCR pathway

  18. An improved classification of G-protein-coupled receptors using sequence-derived features

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    Peng Zhen-Ling

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play a key role in diverse physiological processes and are the targets of almost two-thirds of the marketed drugs. The 3 D structures of GPCRs are largely unavailable; however, a large number of GPCR primary sequences are known. To facilitate the identification and characterization of novel receptors, it is therefore very valuable to develop a computational method to accurately predict GPCRs from the protein primary sequences. Results We propose a new method called PCA-GPCR, to predict GPCRs using a comprehensive set of 1497 sequence-derived features. The principal component analysis is first employed to reduce the dimension of the feature space to 32. Then, the resulting 32-dimensional feature vectors are fed into a simple yet powerful classification algorithm, called intimate sorting, to predict GPCRs at five levels. The prediction at the first level determines whether a protein is a GPCR or a non-GPCR. If it is predicted to be a GPCR, then it will be further predicted into certain family, subfamily, sub-subfamily and subtype by the classifiers at the second, third, fourth, and fifth levels, respectively. To train the classifiers applied at five levels, a non-redundant dataset is carefully constructed, which contains 3178, 1589, 4772, 4924, and 2741 protein sequences at the respective levels. Jackknife tests on this training dataset show that the overall accuracies of PCA-GPCR at five levels (from the first to the fifth can achieve up to 99.5%, 88.8%, 80.47%, 80.3%, and 92.34%, respectively. We further perform predictions on a dataset of 1238 GPCRs at the second level, and on another two datasets of 167 and 566 GPCRs respectively at the fourth level. The overall prediction accuracies of our method are consistently higher than those of the existing methods to be compared. Conclusions The comprehensive set of 1497 features is believed to be capable of capturing information about amino acid

  19. Analysis of Drug Design for a Selection of G Protein-Coupled Neuro-Receptors Using Neural Network Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Claus; Mortensen, Rasmus M.; Bohr, Henrik G.

    2015-01-01

    A study is presented on how well possible drug-molecules can be predicted with respect to their function and binding to a selection of neuro-receptors by the use of artificial neural networks. The ligands investigated in this study are chosen to be corresponding to the G protein-coupled receptors...... computational tools, able to aid in drug-design in a fast and cheap fashion, compared to conventional pharmacological techniques....

  20. Modulation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors by strategically functionalized agonists and antagonists immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Jayasekara, P. Suresh; Phan, Khai; Tosh, Dilip K.; Kumar, T. Santhosh; Moss, Steven M.; Zhang, Guofeng; Barchi, Joseph J.; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allow the tuning of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties by active or passive targeting of drugs for cancer and other diseases. We have functionalized gold nanoparticles by tethering specific ligands, agonists and antagonists, of adenosine receptors (ARs) to the gold surface as models for cell surface interactions with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The AuNP conjugates with chain-extended AR ligands alone (PEGylated nucleosides and nonnucleosides, an...

  1. CXCL1 and CXCL2 Regulate NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via G-Protein-Coupled Receptor CXCR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boro, Monoranjan; Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy

    2017-09-01

    Inflammation is an extensively concerted process that confers protection to the host encountering immune insult. The major inflammatory mediators include IL-1 family members, such as IL-1β, and the functional activation of such molecules is arbitrated by their regulated cleavage brought about by components of a multiprotein complex called inflammasome. In this context, NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation often acts as a rate-limiting step in regulating critical cell-fate decisions in various inflammatory scenarios. In this study, we identify the G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR2 (recognizing chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2) as another arm feeding into the regulated activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages. We demonstrate that in vivo blocking of CXCL1 and CXCL2 can significantly reduce the Mycobacterium tuberculosis -induced bioactive IL-1β production. Further, CXCL1 could amplify the inflammasome activation in in vivo mouse models of carrageenan-induced inflammation in footpads and air pouches. The mechanistic insights revealed CXCR2-driven protein kinase C μ-dependent integrin-linked kinase to be essential for CXCL1-mediated activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. Blocking the activity of integrin-linked kinase or protein kinase C μ either by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown or pharmacological inhibitor compromised inflammasome activation and subsequent production of bioactive IL-1β. Taken together, our study demonstrates CXCR2-driven activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages and indicates a potential host-directed therapeutic target to limit the damaging inflammation associated with overt production of proinflammatory IL-1β. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Estrogen-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekas, Erin; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Estrogen (17β-estradiol) promotes the survival and proliferation of breast cancer cells and its receptors represent important therapeutic targets. The cellular actions of estrogen are mediated by the nuclear estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ as well as the 7-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). We previously reported that estrogen activates the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3Kinase) pathway via GPER, resulting in phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) production within the nucleus of breast cancer cells; however, the mechanisms and consequences of this activity remained unclear. MCF7 breast cancer cells were transfected with GFP-fused Forkhead box O3 (FOXO3) as a reporter to assess localization in response to estrogen stimulation. Inhibitors of PI3Kinases and EGFR were employed to determine the mechanisms of estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. Receptor knockdown with siRNA and the selective GPER agonist G-1 elucidated the estrogen receptor(s) responsible for estrogen-mediated FOXO3a inactivation. The effects of selective estrogen receptor modulators and downregulators (SERMs and SERDs) on FOXO3a in MCF7 cells were also determined. Cell survival (inhibition of apoptosis) was assessed by caspase activation. In the estrogen-responsive breast cancer cell line MCF7, FOXO3a inactivation occurs on a rapid time scale as a result of GPER, but not ERα, stimulation by estrogen, established by the GPER-selective agonist G-1 and knockdown of GPER and ERα. GPER-mediated inactivation of FOXO3a is effected by the p110α catalytic subunit of PI3Kinase as a result of transactivation of the EGFR. The SERMs tamoxifen and raloxifene, as well as the SERD ICI182,780, were active in mediating FOXO3a inactivation in a GPER-dependent manner. Additionally, estrogen-and G-1-mediated stimulation of MCF7 cells results in a decrease in caspase activation under proapoptotic conditions. Our results suggest that non-genomic signaling by GPER contributes

  3. Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 induces coronary artery relaxation via Epac/Rap1-mediated inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway in parallel with PKA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yu

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported that cAMP/PKA signaling is involved in GPER-mediated coronary relaxation by activating MLCP via inhibition of RhoA pathway. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that activation of GPER induces coronary artery relaxation via inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase pathway by cAMP downstream targets, exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac as well as PKA. Our results show that Epac inhibitors, brefeldin A (BFA, 50 μM, or ESI-09 (20 μM, or CE3F4 (100 μM, all partially inhibited porcine coronary artery relaxation response to the selective GPER agonist, G-1 (0.3-3 μM; while concurrent administration of BFA and PKI (5 μM, a PKA inhibitor, almost completely blocked the relaxation effect of G-1. The Epac specific agonist, 8-CPT-2Me-cAMP (007, 1-100 μM, induced a concentration-dependent relaxation response. Furthermore, the activity of Ras-related protein 1 (Rap1 was up regulated by G-1 (1 μM treatment of porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs. Phosphorylation of vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (p-VASP was elevated by G-1 (1 μM treatment, but not by 007 (50 μM; and the effect of G-1 on p-VASP was blocked by PKI, but not by ESI-09, an Epac antagonist. RhoA activity was similarly down regulated by G-1 and 007, whereas ESI-09 restored most of the reduced RhoA activity by G-1 treatment. Furthermore, G-1 decreased PGF2α-induced p-MYPT1, which was partially reversed with either ESI-09 or PKI; whereas, concurrent administration of ESI-09 and PKI totally prevented the inhibitory effect of G-1. The inhibitory effects of G-1 on p- MLC levels in CASMCs were mostly restored by either ESI-09 or PKI. These results demonstrate that activation of GPER induces coronary artery relaxation via concurrent inhibition of RhoA/Rho kinase by Epac/Rap1 and PKA. GPER could be a potential drug target for preventing and treating cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Using constitutive activity to define appropriate high-throughput screening assays for orphan g protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Tony; Coleman, James L J; Smith, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Orphan G protein-coupled receptors represent an underexploited resource for drug discovery but pose a considerable challenge for assay development because their cognate G protein signaling pathways are often unknown. In this methodological chapter, we describe the use of constitutive activity, that is, the inherent ability of receptors to couple to their cognate G proteins in the absence of ligand, to inform the development of high-throughput screening assays for a particular orphan receptor. We specifically focus on a two-step process, whereby constitutive G protein coupling is first determined using yeast Gpa1/human G protein chimeras linked to growth and β-galactosidase generation. Coupling selectivity is then confirmed in mammalian cells expressing endogenous G proteins and driving accumulation of transcription factor-fused luciferase reporters specific to each of the classes of G protein. Based on these findings, high-throughput screening campaigns can be performed on the already miniaturized mammalian reporter system.

  5. Calcium propionate supplementation improves development of rumen epithelium in calves via stimulating G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X Z; Chen, W B; Wu, X; Zhang, Y W; Jiang, Y M; Meng, Q X; Zhou, Z M

    2018-02-26

    In the present study, calcium propionate (CaP) was used as feed additive in the diet of calves to investigate their effects on rumen fermentation and the development of rumen epithelium in calves. To elucidate the mechanism in which CaP improves development of calf rumen epithelium via stimulating the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of G protein-coupled receptors, a total of 54 male Jersey calves (age=7±1 days, BW=23.1±1.2 kg) were randomly divided into three treatment groups: control without CaP supplementation (Con), 5% CaP supplementation (5% CaP) and 10% CaP supplementation (10% CaP). The experiment lasted 160 days and was divided into three feeding stages: Stage 1 (days 0 to 30), Stage 2 (days 31 to 90) and Stage 3 (days 91 to 160). Calcium propionate supplementation percentages were calculated on a dry matter basis. In total, six calves from each group were randomly selected and slaughtered on days 30, 90 and 160 at the conclusion of each experimental feeding stage. Rumen fermentation was improved with increasing concentration of CaP supplementation in calves through the first 30 days (Stage 1). No effects of CaP supplementation were observed on rumen fermentation in calves during Stage 2 (days 31 to 90). Supplementation with 5% CaP increased propionate concentration, but not acetate and butyrate in calves during Stage 3 (days 91 to 160). The rumen papillae length of calves in the 5% CaP supplementation group was greater than that of Con groups in calves after 160 days feeding. The mRNA expression of G protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) and GPR43 supplemented with 5% CaP were greater than the control group and 10% CaP group in feeding 160 days calves. 5% CaP supplementation increased the mRNA expression of cyclin D1, whereas did not increase the mRNA expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 compared with the control group in feeding 160-day calves. These results indicate that propionate may act as a signaling molecule to improve rumen epithelium development

  6. The lactate receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor 81/hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morland, Cecilie; Lauritzen, Knut Huso; Puchades, Maja

    2015-01-01

    , and schizophrenia and in the deposition of phosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease. HCAR1 could serve to ameliorate these conditions and might also act through downstream mechanisms other than cAMP. Lactate exits cells through monocarboxylate transporters in an equilibrating manner and through astrocyte...... anion channels activated by depolarization. In addition to locally produced lactate, lactate produced by exercising muscle as well as exogenous HCAR1 agonists, e.g., from fruits and berries, might activate the receptor on cerebral blood vessels and brain cells....

  7. Expression of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER in endometriosis: a tissue microarray study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samartzis Nicolas

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER is thought to be involved in non-genomic estrogen responses as well as processes such as cell proliferation and migration. In this study, we analyzed GPER expression patterns from endometriosis samples and normal endometrial tissue samples and compared these expression profiles to those of the classical sex hormone receptors. Methods A tissue microarray, which included 74 samples from different types of endometriosis (27 ovarian, 19 peritoneal and 28 deep-infiltrating and 30 samples from normal endometrial tissue, was used to compare the expression levels of the GPER, estrogen receptor (ER-alpha, ER-beta and progesterone receptor (PR. The immunoreactive score (IRS was calculated separately for epithelium and stroma as the product of the staining intensity and the percentage of positive cells. The expression levels of the hormonal receptors were dichotomized into low (IRS  =6 expression groups. Results The mean epithelial IRS (+/−standard deviation, range of cytoplasmic GPER expression was 1.2 (+/−1.7, 0–4 in normal endometrium and 5.1 (+/−3.5, 0–12 in endometriosis (p p = 0.71, of ER-alpha 10.6 (+/−2.4, 3–12 and 9.8 (+/−3.0, 2–12; p = 0.26, of ER-beta 2.4 (+/−2.2; 0–8 and 5.6 (+/−2.6; 0–10; p p p p = 0.001, of ER-beta 1.8 (+/−2.0; 0–8 and 5.4 (+/−2.5; 0–10; p p���= 0.044, respectively. Cytoplasmic GPER expression was not detectable in the stroma of endometrium and endometriosis. The observed frequency of high epithelial cytoplasmic GPER expression levels was 50% (n = 30/60 in the endometriosis and none (0/30 in the normal endometrium samples (p p = 0.01, as compared to peritoneal (9/18, 50% or deep-infiltrating endometriotic lesions (7/22, 31.8%. The frequency of high stromal nuclear GPER expression levels was 100% (n = 74/74 in endometriosis and 76.7% (n = 23/30 in normal endometrium (p

  8. A G-protein-coupled receptor regulation pathway in cytochrome P450-mediated permethrin-resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Cao, Chuanwang; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Lee; He, Lin; Xi, Zhiyong; Bian, Guowu; Liu, Nannan

    2015-12-10

    Rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to be involved in the GPCR signal transduction system and regulate many essential physiological processes in organisms. This study, for the first time, revealed that knockdown of the rhodopsin-like GPCR gene in resistant mosquitoes resulted in a reduction of mosquitoes' resistance to permethrin, simultaneously reducing the expression of two cAMP-dependent protein kinase A genes (PKAs) and four resistance related cytochrome P450 genes. The function of rhodopsin-like GPCR was further confirmed using transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, in which the tolerance to permethrin and the expression of Drosophila resistance P450 genes were both increased. The roles of GPCR signaling pathway second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and downstream effectors PKAs in resistance were investigated using cAMP production inhibitor Bupivacaine HCl and the RNAi technique. Inhibition of cAMP production led to significant decreases in both the expression of four resistance P450 genes and two PKA genes and mosquito resistance to permethrin. Knockdown of the PKA genes had shown the similar effects on permethrin resistance and P450 gene expression. Taken together, our studies revealed, for the first time, the role of the GPCR/cAMP/PKA-mediated regulatory pathway governing P450 gene expression and P450-mediated resistance in Culex mosquitoes.

  9. A G-protein-coupled receptor regulation pathway in cytochrome P450-mediated permethrin-resistance in mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Cao, Chuanwang; Yang, Ting; Zhang, Lee; He, Lin; Xi, Zhiyong; Bian, Guowu; Liu, Nannan

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are known to be involved in the GPCR signal transduction system and regulate many essential physiological processes in organisms. This study, for the first time, revealed that knockdown of the rhodopsin-like GPCR gene in resistant mosquitoes resulted in a reduction of mosquitoes’ resistance to permethrin, simultaneously reducing the expression of two cAMP-dependent protein kinase A genes (PKAs) and four resistance related cytochrome P450 genes. The function of rhodopsin-like GPCR was further confirmed using transgenic lines of Drosophila melanogaster, in which the tolerance to permethrin and the expression of Drosophila resistance P450 genes were both increased. The roles of GPCR signaling pathway second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and downstream effectors PKAs in resistance were investigated using cAMP production inhibitor Bupivacaine HCl and the RNAi technique. Inhibition of cAMP production led to significant decreases in both the expression of four resistance P450 genes and two PKA genes and mosquito resistance to permethrin. Knockdown of the PKA genes had shown the similar effects on permethrin resistance and P450 gene expression. Taken together, our studies revealed, for the first time, the role of the GPCR/cAMP/PKA-mediated regulatory pathway governing P450 gene expression and P450-mediated resistance in Culex mosquitoes. PMID:26656663

  10. A G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: A putative insertion site for a multi-pathogen recombinant capripoxvirus vaccine strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Dickmu, Simon; Kwiatek, Olivier; Albina, Emmanuel

    2017-09-01

    Capripoxviruses (CaPVs) have been shown to be ideal viral vectors for the development of recombinant multivalent vaccines to enable delivery of immunogenic genes from ruminant pathogens. So far, the viral thymidine kinase (TK) gene is the only gene used to generate recombinants. A putative non-essential gene encoding a G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor subfamily homologue (GPCR) was targeted as an additional insertion site. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) was chosen as a disease model. A new recombinant CaPV expressing the viral attachment hemagglutinin (H) of the PPR virus (PPRV) in the GPCR insertion site (rKS1-HPPR-GPCR) was generated in the backbone North African isolate KS1 strain of lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV). Comparison with the recombinant CaPV expressing the H of PPRV in the TK gene (rKS1-HPPR-TK) shown to induce protection against both PPR and LSD in both sheep and goats was assessed. The suitability of the GPCR gene to be a putative additional insertion site in the CaPV genome is evaluated and discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Discovery and cardioprotective effects of the first non-Peptide agonists of the G protein-coupled prokineticin receptor-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Gasser

    Full Text Available Prokineticins are angiogenic hormones that activate two G protein-coupled receptors: PKR1 and PKR2. PKR1 has emerged as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and cardioprotection. Identification of non-peptide PKR1 agonists that contribute to myocardial repair and collateral vessel growth hold promises for treatment of heart diseases. Through a combination of in silico studies, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacological profiling approaches, we designed, synthesized, and characterized the first PKR1 agonists, demonstrating their cardioprotective activity against myocardial infarction (MI in mice. Based on high throughput docking protocol, 250,000 compounds were computationally screened for putative PKR1 agonistic activity, using a homology model, and 10 virtual hits were pharmacologically evaluated. One hit internalizes PKR1, increases calcium release and activates ERK and Akt kinases. Among the 30 derivatives of the hit compound, the most potent derivative, IS20, was confirmed for its selectivity and specificity through genetic gain- and loss-of-function of PKR1. Importantly, IS20 prevented cardiac lesion formation and improved cardiac function after MI in mice, promoting proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells and neovasculogenesis. The preclinical investigation of the first PKR1 agonists provides a novel approach to promote cardiac neovasculogenesis after MI.

  12. Comparison of MEK/ERK pathway inhibitors on the upregulation of vascular G-protein coupled receptors in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    on translational level and increased respective contractions. The prostanoid TP receptor mediated contraction curve was left-wards shifted by organ culture. Organ culture was associated with elevated pERK1/2 in the vascular smooth muscle cells: the MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 attenuated the endothelin ET(B) receptor......Organ culture is an in vitro method for investigating cellular mechanisms involved in upregulation of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors. We hypothesize that mitogen-activated-protein kinase (MEK) and/or extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) specific inhibitors will attenuate the G......), prostanoid TP receptor, and angiotensin II receptor type 1 and type 2 were investigated. Results were verified by measurement of mRNA with real time PCR and by protein immunohistochemistry. Organ culture induced transcriptional upregulation of endothelin ET(B) receptor and of serotonin 5-HT(1B) receptor...

  13. A monomeric G protein-coupled receptor isolated in a high-density lipoprotein particle efficiently activates its G protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whorton, Matthew R; Bokoch, Michael P; Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup

    2007-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) respond to a diverse array of ligands, mediating cellular responses to hormones and neurotransmitters, as well as the senses of smell and taste. The structures of the GPCR rhodopsin and several G proteins have been determined by x-ray crystallography, yet...... the organization of the signaling complex between GPCRs and G proteins is poorly understood. The observations that some GPCRs are obligate heterodimers, and that many GPCRs form both homo- and heterodimers, has led to speculation that GPCR dimers may be required for efficient activation of G proteins. However......, technical limitations have precluded a definitive analysis of G protein coupling to monomeric GPCRs in a biochemically defined and membrane-bound system. Here we demonstrate that a prototypical GPCR, the beta2-adrenergic receptor (beta2AR), can be incorporated into a reconstituted high-density lipoprotein...

  14. Identification of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) in Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells as Novel Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    synthesis , effects on cell growth and cell death, caspase 3 activation, expression of cell cycle proteins [p21/p27], cell migration) that PASMC-GPCRs...there are many more G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which are recognition sites on the cell surface for hormones, proteins, neurotransmitters and...plasmamembrane preparations of neurotransmitters , hormones, and pharmacological agents in terms of their ability to regulate the generation of second

  15. The G protein-coupled receptor subset of the dog genome is more similar to that in humans than rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Schiöth Helgi B; Foord Steven M; Fredriksson Robert; Haitina Tatjana; Gloriam David E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The dog is an important model organism and it is considered to be closer to humans than rodents regarding metabolism and responses to drugs. The close relationship between humans and dogs over many centuries has lead to the diversity of the canine species, important genetic discoveries and an appreciation of the effects of old age in another species. The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the largest gene families in most mammals and the most expl...

  16. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snus and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu Cangbao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression of vasocontractile G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR), such as endothelin ET B , serotonin 5-HT 1B , and thromboxane A 2 TP receptors, in rat cerebral arteries. Studies show that these vasocontractile GPCR show alterations by lipid-soluble cigarette smoke particles via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24 h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine was kept at plasma level of snus users (25 ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250 ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET B receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT 1B receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine, and TP receptor agonist U46619 were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of ET B , 5-HT 1B , and TP receptors was studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Organ culture with WSS or DSS (25 ng nicotine/ml) lowered the 5-HT 1B receptor-mediated contraction. Furthermore, DSS shifted the TP receptor-mediated contraction curve left-wards with a stronger contraction. High dose of nicotine (250 ng nicotine/ml) increased the ET B receptor-mediated contraction. The combined 5-HT 1B and 5-HT 2A receptor-mediated contraction was increased, and both the 5-CT and TxA2 induced contractions were left-ward shifted by WSS, DSS, or nicotine (250 ng nicotine/ml). Only the DSS group

  17. Apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaojiao Chu

    Full Text Available Apelin, a novel adipokine, is the specific endogenous ligand of G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Consistent with its putative role as an adipokine, apelin has been linked to states of insulin resistance. However, the function of apelin in hepatic insulin resistance, a vital part of insulin resistance, and its underlying mechanisms still remains unclear. Here we define the impacts of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes. Our studies indicate that apelin reversed TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in HepG2 cells, mouse primary hepatocytes and liver tissues of C57BL/6J mice by improving JNK-IRS1-AKT-GSK pathway. Moreover, Western blot revealed that APJ, but not apelin, expressed in the hepatocytes and liver tissues of mice. We found that F13A, a competitive antagonist for G protein-coupled receptor APJ, suppressed the effects of apelin on TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes, suggesting APJ is involved in the function of apelin. In conclusion, we show novel evidence suggesting that apelin ameliorates TNF-α-induced reduction of glycogen synthesis in the hepatocytes through G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin appears as a beneficial adipokine with anti-insulin resistance properties, and thus as a promising therapeutic target in metabolic disorders.

  18. Abnormalities in osteoclastogenesis and decreased tumorigenesis in mice deficient for ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer G protein-coupled receptor 1 (OGR1 has been shown to be a proton sensing receptor in vitro. We have shown that OGR1 functions as a tumor metastasis suppressor gene when it is over-expressed in human prostate cancer cells in vivo. To examine the physiological functions of OGR1, we generated conditional OGR1 deficient mice by homologous recombination. OGR1 deficient mice were viable and upon gross-inspection appeared normal. Consistent with in vitro studies showing that OGR1 is involved in osteoclastogenesis, reduced osteoclasts were detected in OGR1 deficient mice. A pH-dependent osteoclasts survival effect was also observed. However, overall abnormality in the bones of these animals was not observed. In addition, melanoma cell tumorigenesis was significantly inhibited in OGR1 deficient mice. OGR1 deficient mice in the mixed background produced significantly less peritoneal macrophages when stimulated with thioglycolate. These macrophages also showed altered extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK activation and nitric oxide (NO production in response to lipopolysaccharide. OGR1-dependent pH responses assessed by cAMP production and cell survival in macrophages or brown fat cells were not observed, presumably due to the presence of other proton sensing receptors in these cells. Our results indicate that OGR1's role in osteoclastogenesis is not strong enough to affect overall bone development and its role in tumorigenesis warrants further investigation. The mice generated can be potentially used for several disease models, including cancers or osteoclast-related diseases.

  19. G Protein-coupled receptors: Multi-turnover GDP/GTP exchange catalysis on heterotrimeric G proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott M

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins can diffuse laterally in the plasma membrane such that one receptor can catalyze the activation (GDP/GTP exchange) of multiple G proteins. In some cases, these processes are fast enough to support molecular signal amplification, where a single receptor maintains the activation of multiple G proteins at steady-state. Amplification in cells is probably highly regulated. It depends upon the identities of the G receptor and G protein - some do and some don't - and upon the activities of GTPase-activating proteins, membrane scaffolds, and other regulatory partners.

  20. Getting from A to B-exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Mos, Iris; Lenselink, Eelke B

    2016-01-01

    The adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs/class B2 G protein-coupled receptors) constitute an ancient family of G protein-coupled receptors that have recently been demonstrated to play important roles in cellular and developmental processes. Here, we describe a first insight...... important motifs resembling class A, class B, and combined elements, but also a unique highly conserved ADGR motif (H3.33). Given the high conservation of these motifs and residues across the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor family, it can be assumed that these are general elements of adhesion GPCR...... function.-Peeters, M. C., Mos, I., Lenselink, E. B., Lucchesi, M., IJzerman, A. P., Schwartz, T. W. Getting from A to B-Exploring the activation motifs of the class B adhesion G protein-coupled receptor subfamily G member 4/GPR112....

  1. Involvement of the G-protein-coupled receptor 4 in RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okito, Asuka [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Nakahama, Ken-ichi, E-mail: nakacell@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Akiyama, Masako [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Ono, Takashi [Department of Orthodontic Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Morita, Ikuo [Department of Cellular Physiological Chemistry, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-03-06

    Osteoclast activity is enhanced in acidic environments following systemic or local inflammation. However, the regulatory mechanism of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts under acidic conditions is not fully understood. In the present paper, we detected the mRNA expression of the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) proton sensors GPR4 and GPR65 (T-cell death-associated gene 8, TDAG8), in osteoblasts. RANKL expression and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) level in osteoblasts were up-regulated under acidic culture conditions. Acidosis-induced up-regulation of RANKL was abolished by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89. To clarify the role of GPR4 in RANKL expression, GPR4 gain and loss of function experiments were performed. Gene knockdown and forced expression of GPR4 caused reduction and induction of RANKL expression, respectively. These results suggested that, at least in part, RANKL expression by osteoblasts in an acidic environment was mediated by cAMP/PKA signaling resulting from GPR4 activation. A comprehensive microarray analysis of gene expression of osteoblasts revealed that, under acidic conditions, the phenotype of osteoblasts was that of an osteoclast supporting cell rather than that of a mineralizing cell. These findings will contribute to a molecular understanding of bone disruption in an acidic environment. - Highlights: • RANKL expression was increased in osteoblasts under acidosis via cAMP/PKA pathway. • GRP4 knockdown resulted in decrease of RANKL expression. • GRP4 overexpression resulted in increase of RANKL expression. • Osteoblast mineralization was reduced under acidic condition.

  2. The Adhesion G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR56/ADGRG1 Is an Inhibitory Receptor on Human NK Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gin-Wen Chang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells possess potent cytotoxic mechanisms that need to be tightly controlled. Here, we explored the regulation and function of GPR56/ADGRG1, an adhesion G protein-coupled receptor implicated in developmental processes and expressed distinctively in mature NK cells. Expression of GPR56 was triggered by Hobit (a homolog of Blimp-1 in T cells and declined upon cell activation. Through studying NK cells from polymicrogyria patients with disease-causing mutations in ADGRG1, encoding GPR56, and NK-92 cells ectopically expressing the receptor, we found that GPR56 negatively regulates immediate effector functions, including production of inflammatory cytokines and cytolytic proteins, degranulation, and target cell killing. GPR56 pursues this activity by associating with the tetraspanin CD81. We conclude that GPR56 inhibits natural cytotoxicity of human NK cells.

  3. Extracellular osmolarity modulates G protein-coupled receptor-dependent ATP release from 1321N1 astrocytoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Andrew E.; Corbett Walsh, B.; Dubyak, George R.

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that ATP release from 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells could be stimulated either by activation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) or by hypotonic stress. Cheema et al. (Cheema TA, Ward CE, Fisher SK. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 315: 755–763, 2005) have demonstrated that thrombin activation of protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) in 1321N1 cells and primary astrocytes acts synergistically with hypotonic stress to gate the opening of volume-sensitive organic osmolyte and anion...

  4. An Autocrine Proliferation Repressor Regulates Dictyostelium discoideum Proliferation and Chemorepulsion Using the G Protein-Coupled Receptor GrlH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu; Wu, Yuantai; Herlihy, Sarah E; Brito-Aleman, Francisco J; Ting, Jose H; Janetopoulos, Chris; Gomer, Richard H

    2018-02-13

    In eukaryotic microbes, little is known about signals that inhibit the proliferation of the cells that secrete the signal, and little is known about signals (chemorepellents) that cause cells to move away from the source of the signal. Autocrine proliferation repressor protein A (AprA) is a protein secreted by the eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum AprA is a chemorepellent for and inhibits the proliferation of D. discoideum We previously found that cells sense AprA using G proteins, suggesting the existence of a G protein-coupled AprA receptor. To identify the AprA receptor, we screened mutants lacking putative G protein-coupled receptors. We found that, compared to the wild-type strain, cells lacking putative receptor GrlH ( grlH¯ cells) show rapid proliferation, do not have large numbers of cells moving away from the edges of colonies, are insensitive to AprA-induced proliferation inhibition and chemorepulsion, and have decreased AprA binding. Expression of GrlH in grlH¯ cells ( grlH¯/grlH OE ) rescues the phenotypes described above. These data indicate that AprA signaling may be mediated by GrlH in D. discoideum IMPORTANCE Little is known about how eukaryotic cells can count themselves and thus regulate the size of a tissue or density of cells. In addition, little is known about how eukaryotic cells can sense a repellant signal and move away from the source of the repellant, for instance, to organize the movement of cells in a developing embryo or to move immune cells out of a tissue. In this study, we found that a eukaryotic microbe uses G protein-coupled receptors to mediate both cell density sensing and chemorepulsion. Copyright © 2018 Tang et al.

  5. Purification of family B G protein-coupled receptors using nanodiscs: Application to human glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingying Cai

    Full Text Available Family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play vital roles in hormone-regulated homeostasis. They are drug targets for metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. Despite their importance, the signaling mechanisms for family B GPCRs at the molecular level remain largely unexplored due to the challenges in purification of functional receptors in sufficient amount for biophysical characterization. Here, we purified the family B GPCR human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R, whose agonists, e.g. exendin-4, are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The receptor was expressed in HEK293S GnTl- cells using our recently developed protocol. The protocol incorporates the receptor into the native-like lipid environment of reconstituted high density lipoprotein (rHDL particles, also known as nanodiscs, immediately after the membrane solubilization step followed by chromatographic purification, minimizing detergent contact with the target receptor to reduce denaturation and prolonging stabilization of receptor in lipid bilayers without extra steps of reconstitution. This method yielded purified GLP1R in nanodiscs that could bind to GLP-1 and exendin-4 and activate Gs protein. This nanodisc purification method can potentially be a general strategy to routinely obtain purified family B GPCRs in the 10s of microgram amounts useful for spectroscopic analysis of receptor functions and activation mechanisms.

  6. Importance of the extracellular loops in G protein-coupled receptors for ligand recognition and receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, M C; van Westen, G J P; Li, Q; IJzerman, A P

    2011-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the major drug target of medicines on the market today. Therefore, much research is and has been devoted to the elucidation of the function and three-dimensional structure of this large family of membrane proteins, which includes multiple conserved transmembrane domains connected by intra- and extracellular loops. In the last few years, the less conserved extracellular loops have garnered increasing interest, particularly after the publication of several GPCR crystal structures that clearly show the extracellular loops to be involved in ligand binding. This review will summarize the recent progress made in the clarification of the ligand binding and activation mechanism of class-A GPCRs and the role of extracellular loops in this process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chemogenomic analysis of G-protein coupled receptors and their ligands deciphers locks and keys governing diverse aspects of signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg D Wichard

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular mechanism of signalling in the important super-family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is causally related to questions of how and where these receptors can be activated or inhibited. In this context, it is of great interest to unravel the common molecular features of GPCRs as well as those related to an active or inactive state or to subtype specific G-protein coupling. In our underlying chemogenomics study, we analyse for the first time the statistical link between the properties of G-protein-coupled receptors and GPCR ligands. The technique of mutual information (MI is able to reveal statistical inter-dependence between variations in amino acid residues on the one hand and variations in ligand molecular descriptors on the other. Although this MI analysis uses novel information that differs from the results of known site-directed mutagenesis studies or published GPCR crystal structures, the method is capable of identifying the well-known common ligand binding region of GPCRs between the upper part of the seven transmembrane helices and the second extracellular loop. The analysis shows amino acid positions that are sensitive to either stimulating (agonistic or inhibitory (antagonistic ligand effects or both. It appears that amino acid positions for antagonistic and agonistic effects are both concentrated around the extracellular region, but selective agonistic effects are cumulated between transmembrane helices (TMHs 2, 3, and ECL2, while selective residues for antagonistic effects are located at the top of helices 5 and 6. Above all, the MI analysis provides detailed indications about amino acids located in the transmembrane region of these receptors that determine G-protein signalling pathway preferences.

  8. The repertoire of olfactory C family G protein-coupled receptors in zebrafish: candidate chemosensory receptors for amino acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngai John

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrate odorant receptors comprise at least three types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs: the OR, V1R, and V2R/V2R-like receptors, the latter group belonging to the C family of GPCRs. These receptor families are thought to receive chemosensory information from a wide spectrum of odorant and pheromonal cues that influence critical animal behaviors such as feeding, reproduction and other social interactions. Results Using genome database mining and other informatics approaches, we identified and characterized the repertoire of 54 intact "V2R-like" olfactory C family GPCRs in the zebrafish. Phylogenetic analysis – which also included a set of 34 C family GPCRs from fugu – places the fish olfactory receptors in three major groups, which are related to but clearly distinct from other C family GPCRs, including the calcium sensing receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptors, GABA-B receptor, T1R taste receptors, and the major group of V2R vomeronasal receptor families. Interestingly, an analysis of sequence conservation and selective pressure in the zebrafish receptors revealed the retention of a conserved sequence motif previously shown to be required for ligand binding in other amino acid receptors. Conclusion Based on our findings, we propose that the repertoire of zebrafish olfactory C family GPCRs has evolved to allow the detection and discrimination of a spectrum of amino acid and/or amino acid-based compounds, which are potent olfactory cues in fish. Furthermore, as the major groups of fish receptors and mammalian V2R receptors appear to have diverged significantly from a common ancestral gene(s, these receptors likely mediate chemosensation of different classes of chemical structures by their respective organisms.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a human orphan family C G-protein coupled receptor GPRC5D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, H; Jensen, A A; Sheppard, P O

    2001-01-01

    Recently three orphan G-protein coupled receptors, RAIG1, GPRC5B and GPRC5C, with homology to members of family C (metabotropic glutamate receptor-like) have been identified. Using the protein sequences of these receptors as queries we identified overlapping expressed sequence tags which were...... intestine, whereas other organs only express a subset of the genes. In an attempt to delineate the signal transduction pathway(s) of the orphan receptors, a series of chimeric receptors containing the amino terminal domain of the calcium sensing receptor or metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1...... predicted to encode an additional subtype. The full length coding regions of mouse mGprc5d and human GPRC5D were cloned and shown to contain predicted open reading frames of 300 and 345 amino acids, respectively. GPRC5D has seven putative transmembrane segments and is expressed in the cell membrane...

  10. Mechanism of the G-protein mimetic nanobody binding to a muscarinic G-protein-coupled receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinglong; McCammon, J Andrew

    2018-03-20

    Protein-protein binding is key in cellular signaling processes. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of protein-protein binding, however, are challenging due to limited timescales. In particular, binding of the medically important G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with intracellular signaling proteins has not been simulated with MD to date. Here, we report a successful simulation of the binding of a G-protein mimetic nanobody to the M 2 muscarinic GPCR using the robust Gaussian accelerated MD (GaMD) method. Through long-timescale GaMD simulations over 4,500 ns, the nanobody was observed to bind the receptor intracellular G-protein-coupling site, with a minimum rmsd of 2.48 Å in the nanobody core domain compared with the X-ray structure. Binding of the nanobody allosterically closed the orthosteric ligand-binding pocket, being consistent with the recent experimental finding. In the absence of nanobody binding, the receptor orthosteric pocket sampled open and fully open conformations. The GaMD simulations revealed two low-energy intermediate states during nanobody binding to the M 2 receptor. The flexible receptor intracellular loops contribute remarkable electrostatic, polar, and hydrophobic residue interactions in recognition and binding of the nanobody. These simulations provided important insights into the mechanism of GPCR-nanobody binding and demonstrated the applicability of GaMD in modeling dynamic protein-protein interactions.

  11. Biased signaling of G protein-coupled receptors - From a chemokine receptor CCR7 perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Astrid Sissel; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Hjortø, Gertrud M

    2018-01-01

    findings related to ligand- and tissue-biased signaling of CCR7 and summarize what is known about bias at other chemokine receptors. CCR7 is expressed by a subset of T-cells and by mature dendritic cells (DCs). Together with its two endogenous ligands CCL19 and CCL21, of which the carboxy terminal tail...... of CCL21 displays an extraordinarily strong glycosaminoglycan (GAG) binding, CCR7 plays a central role in coordinating the meeting between mature antigen presenting DCs and naïve T-cells which normally takes place in the lymph nodes (LNs). This process is a prerequisite for the initiation of an antigen......-specific T-cell mediated immune response. Thus CCR7 and its ligands are key players in initiating cell-based immune responses. CCL19 and CCL21 display differential interaction- and docking-modes for CCR7 leading to stabilization of different CCR7 conformations and hereby preferential activation of distinct...

  12. Distinct profiles of functional discrimination among G proteins determine the actions of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuho, Ikuo; Ostrovskaya, Olga; Kramer, Grant M; Jones, Christopher D; Xie, Keqiang; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2015-12-01

    Members of the heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor (GPCR) family play key roles in many physiological functions and are extensively exploited pharmacologically to treat diseases. Many of the diverse effects of individual GPCRs on cellular physiology are transduced by heterotrimeric G proteins, which are composed of α, β, and γ subunits. GPCRs interact with and stimulate the binding of guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to the α subunit to initiate signaling. Mammalian genomes encode 16 different G protein α subunits, each one of which has distinct properties. We developed a single-platform, optical strategy to monitor G protein activation in live cells. With this system, we profiled the coupling ability of individual GPCRs for different α subunits, simultaneously quantifying the magnitude of the signal and the rates at which the receptors activated the G proteins. We found that individual receptors engaged multiple G proteins with varying efficacy and kinetics, generating fingerprint-like profiles. Different classes of GPCR ligands, including full and partial agonists, allosteric modulators, and antagonists, distinctly affected these fingerprints to functionally bias GPCR signaling. Finally, we showed that intracellular signaling modulators further altered the G protein-coupling profiles of GPCRs, which suggests that their differential abundance may alter signaling outcomes in a cell-specific manner. These observations suggest that the diversity of the effects of GPCRs on cellular physiology may be determined by their differential engagement of multiple G proteins, coupling to which produces signals with varying signal magnitudes and activation kinetics, properties that may be exploited pharmacologically. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Present perspectives on the automated classification of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the protein sequence level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Matthew N; Gloriam, David E; Secker, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    to machine learning as well as a variety of alignment-free techniques based on the physiochemical properties of sequences. We review here the available methodologies for the classification of GPCRs. Part of this work focuses on how we have tried to build the intrinsically hierarchical nature of sequence......The G-protein coupled receptors--or GPCRs--comprise simultaneously one of the largest and one of the most multi-functional protein families known to modern-day molecular bioscience. From a drug discovery and pharmaceutical industry perspective, the GPCRs constitute one of the most commercially...

  14. An Autocrine Proliferation Repressor Regulates Dictyostelium discoideum Proliferation and Chemorepulsion Using the G Protein-Coupled Receptor GrlH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Tang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic microbes, little is known about signals that inhibit the proliferation of the cells that secrete the signal, and little is known about signals (chemorepellents that cause cells to move away from the source of the signal. Autocrine proliferation repressor protein A (AprA is a protein secreted by the eukaryotic microbe Dictyostelium discoideum. AprA is a chemorepellent for and inhibits the proliferation of D. discoideum. We previously found that cells sense AprA using G proteins, suggesting the existence of a G protein-coupled AprA receptor. To identify the AprA receptor, we screened mutants lacking putative G protein-coupled receptors. We found that, compared to the wild-type strain, cells lacking putative receptor GrlH (grlH{macron} cells show rapid proliferation, do not have large numbers of cells moving away from the edges of colonies, are insensitive to AprA-induced proliferation inhibition and chemorepulsion, and have decreased AprA binding. Expression of GrlH in grlH{macron} cells (grlH{macron}/grlHOE rescues the phenotypes described above. These data indicate that AprA signaling may be mediated by GrlH in D. discoideum.

  15. Experimental strategies for studying G protein-coupled receptor homo- and heteromerization with radioligand binding and signal transduction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Roberto; Rocchi, Cristina; Scarselli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Before the molecular biology era, functional experiments on isolated organs and radioligand binding and biochemical experiments on animal tissues were widely used to characterize G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The introduction of recombinant cell lines expressing a single GPCR type has been a big step forward for studying both drug-receptor interactions and signal transduction. Before the introduction of the concept of receptor oligomerization, all data generated were attributed to the interaction of drugs with receptor monomers. Now, considerable data must be reinterpreted in light of receptor homo- and heteromerization. In this chapter, we will review some of the methods used to study radioligand binding and signal transduction modifications induced by GPCR homo- and heteromerization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Structural Basis for Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein-Dependent Selective Peptide Recognition by a G Protein-Coupled Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booe, Jason M; Walker, Christopher S; Barwell, James; Kuteyi, Gabriel; Simms, John; Jamaluddin, Muhammad A; Warner, Margaret L; Bill, Roslyn M; Harris, Paul W; Brimble, Margaret A; Poyner, David R; Hay, Debbie L; Pioszak, Augen A

    2015-06-18

    Association of receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMP1-3) with the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) enables selective recognition of the peptides calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin (AM) that have diverse functions in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. How peptides selectively bind GPCR:RAMP complexes is unknown. We report crystal structures of CGRP analog-bound CLR:RAMP1 and AM-bound CLR:RAMP2 extracellular domain heterodimers at 2.5 and 1.8 Å resolutions, respectively. The peptides similarly occupy a shared binding site on CLR with conformations characterized by a β-turn structure near their C termini rather than the α-helical structure common to peptides that bind related GPCRs. The RAMPs augment the binding site with distinct contacts to the variable C-terminal peptide residues and elicit subtly different CLR conformations. The structures and accompanying pharmacology data reveal how a class of accessory membrane proteins modulate ligand binding of a GPCR and may inform drug development targeting CLR:RAMP complexes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Kinetic Aspects of the Interaction between Ligand and G Protein-Coupled Receptor: The Case of the Adenosine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dong; Heitman, Laura H; IJzerman, Adriaan P

    2017-01-11

    Ligand-receptor binding kinetics is an emerging topic in the drug research community. Over the past years, medicinal chemistry approaches from a kinetic perspective have been increasingly applied to G protein-coupled receptors including the adenosine receptors (AR), which are involved in a plethora of physiological and pathological conditions. The study of ligand-AR binding kinetics offers room for detailed structure-kinetics relationships next to more traditional structure-activity relationships. Their combination may facilitate the triage of candidate compounds in hit-to-lead campaigns. Furthermore, kinetic studies also help in understanding AR allosterism. Allosteric modulation may yield a change in the activity and conformation of a receptor resulting from the binding of a compound at a site distinct from where the endogenous agonist adenosine binds. Hence, in this Review, we summarize available data and evidence for the binding kinetics of orthosteric and allosteric AR ligands. We hope this Review will raise awareness to consider the kinetic aspects of drug-target interactions on both ARs and other drug targets.

  18. Increased expression of the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor Gpr65 during retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ail, D; Rüfenacht, V; Caprara, C; Samardzija, M; Kast, B; Grimm, C

    2015-08-20

    The retina is a metabolically highly active tissue that is sensitive to pH changes. Blinding diseases of the retina are often characterized by degeneration of photoreceptor cells altering the acid-base homeostasis of the tissue microenvironment and by an accompanying inflammatory response. GPR4, GPR65 and GPR68 are G protein-coupled receptors that aid cells to sense and survive conditions of acidic pH and inflammatory cells express Gpr65 enhancing their viability. Hence, we investigated expression and function of these proton-sensing GPRs in the normal and degenerating retina. We observed increased retinal expression of Gpr65, but not of Gpr4 and Gpr68, in mouse models of both inherited (rd10) and induced (light damage) retinal degeneration. Lack of GPR65 slightly accelerated photoreceptor degeneration in rd10 mice and resulted in a strong activation of microglia after light-injury. Since GPR65 was dispensable for normal retinal development, function and aging as evidenced by the evaluation of Gpr65(-/-) mice, our results indicate that the proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor GPR65 may be involved in a mechanism that supports survival of photoreceptors in the degenerating retina. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Structural-Functional Features of the Thyrotropin Receptor: A Class A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor at Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Worth, Catherine L; Kreuchwig, Annika; Biebermann, Heike; Marcinkowski, Patrick; Scheerer, Patrick; Krause, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone receptors, a sub-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TSHR and its endogenous ligand thyrotropin (TSH) are of essential importance for growth and function of the thyroid gland and proper function of the TSH/TSHR system is pivotal for production and release of thyroid hormones. This receptor is also important with respect to pathophysiology, such as autoimmune (including ophthalmopathy) or non-autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions and cancer development. Pharmacological interventions directly targeting the TSHR should provide benefits to disease treatment compared to currently available therapies of dysfunctions associated with the TSHR or the thyroid gland. Upon TSHR activation, the molecular events conveying conformational changes from the extra- to the intracellular side of the cell across the membrane comprise reception, conversion, and amplification of the signal. These steps are highly dependent on structural features of this receptor and its intermolecular interaction partners, e.g., TSH, antibodies, small molecules, G-proteins, or arrestin. For better understanding of signal transduction, pathogenic mechanisms such as autoantibody action and mutational modifications or for developing new pharmacological strategies, it is essential to combine available structural data with functional information to generate homology models of the entire receptor. Although so far these insights are fragmental, in the past few decades essential contributions have been made to investigate in-depth the involved determinants, such as by structure determination via X-ray crystallography. This review summarizes available knowledge (as of December 2016) concerning the TSHR protein structure, associated functional aspects, and based on these insights we suggest several receptor complex models. Moreover, distinct TSHR properties will be highlighted in comparison to other class A GPCRs to

  20. Structural–Functional Features of the Thyrotropin Receptor: A Class A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinau, Gunnar; Worth, Catherine L.; Kreuchwig, Annika; Biebermann, Heike; Marcinkowski, Patrick; Scheerer, Patrick; Krause, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is a member of the glycoprotein hormone receptors, a sub-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). TSHR and its endogenous ligand thyrotropin (TSH) are of essential importance for growth and function of the thyroid gland and proper function of the TSH/TSHR system is pivotal for production and release of thyroid hormones. This receptor is also important with respect to pathophysiology, such as autoimmune (including ophthalmopathy) or non-autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions and cancer development. Pharmacological interventions directly targeting the TSHR should provide benefits to disease treatment compared to currently available therapies of dysfunctions associated with the TSHR or the thyroid gland. Upon TSHR activation, the molecular events conveying conformational changes from the extra- to the intracellular side of the cell across the membrane comprise reception, conversion, and amplification of the signal. These steps are highly dependent on structural features of this receptor and its intermolecular interaction partners, e.g., TSH, antibodies, small molecules, G-proteins, or arrestin. For better understanding of signal transduction, pathogenic mechanisms such as autoantibody action and mutational modifications or for developing new pharmacological strategies, it is essential to combine available structural data with functional information to generate homology models of the entire receptor. Although so far these insights are fragmental, in the past few decades essential contributions have been made to investigate in-depth the involved determinants, such as by structure determination via X-ray crystallography. This review summarizes available knowledge (as of December 2016) concerning the TSHR protein structure, associated functional aspects, and based on these insights we suggest several receptor complex models. Moreover, distinct TSHR properties will be highlighted in comparison to other class A GPCRs to

  1. Structural–Functional Features of the Thyrotropin Receptor: A Class A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor at Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Krause

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR is a member of the glycoprotein hormone receptors, a sub-group of class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. TSHR and its endogenous ligand thyrotropin (TSH are of essential importance for growth and function of the thyroid gland and proper function of the TSH/TSHR system is pivotal for production and release of thyroid hormones. This receptor is also important with respect to pathophysiology, such as autoimmune (including ophthalmopathy or non-autoimmune thyroid dysfunctions and cancer development. Pharmacological interventions directly targeting the TSHR should provide benefits to disease treatment compared to currently available therapies of dysfunctions associated with the TSHR or the thyroid gland. Upon TSHR activation, the molecular events conveying conformational changes from the extra- to the intracellular side of the cell across the membrane comprise reception, conversion, and amplification of the signal. These steps are highly dependent on structural features of this receptor and its intermolecular interaction partners, e.g., TSH, antibodies, small molecules, G-proteins, or arrestin. For better understanding of signal transduction, pathogenic mechanisms such as autoantibody action and mutational modifications or for developing new pharmacological strategies, it is essential to combine available structural data with functional information to generate homology models of the entire receptor. Although so far these insights are fragmental, in the past few decades essential contributions have been made to investigate in-depth the involved determinants, such as by structure determination via X-ray crystallography. This review summarizes available knowledge (as of December 2016 concerning the TSHR protein structure, associated functional aspects, and based on these insights we suggest several receptor complex models. Moreover, distinct TSHR properties will be highlighted in comparison to other

  2. The orexin receptor OX1R in colon cancer: a promising therapeutic target and a new paradigm in G protein-coupled receptor signalling through ITIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laburthe, Marc; Voisin, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    An exciting aspect of the heptahelical orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) has emerged recently, when it was shown that it drives apoptosis in human colon cancer cell lines. Here we review recent findings related to the role of OX1R in colorectal cancers and the unexpected mechanism whereby this G protein-coupled receptor works. The OX1R is aberrantly expressed at all steps of primary colorectal tumour progression and after local (lymph node) or distant (liver, lung) metastasis. No OX1R is detected in normal colonic epithelial cells. Treatment of human colon cancer cells in culture with orexins promotes robust apoptosis and subsequent reduction of growth including in cells that are resistant to 5-fluorouracil, the most commonly used drug in chemotherapy. When human colon cancer cells are xenografted in nude mice, treatment with orexins dramatically slows tumour growth and even reverses the development of established tumours. Thus, OX1R agonists might be novel candidates for colon cancer therapy. Activation of OX1R drives apoptosis through Gq protein but independently of classical Gαq activation of phospholipase C. In fact, it is the freed βγ dimer of Gq that plays a pivotal role by stimulating Src-tyrosine kinase. This results in phosphorylation of two immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM) in OX1R and subsequent recruitment by OX1R of the phosphotyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, which is activated thereby. Downstream events include release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-7. The role of ITIMs in OX1R-driven apoptosis represents a new paradigm of G protein-coupled receptor signalling. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on the Molecular Pharmacology of G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs). To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2012.165.issue-6. To view the 2010 themed section on the same topic visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.2010.159.issue-5

  3. Bile Acids Trigger GLP-1 Release Predominantly by Accessing Basolaterally Located G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brighton, Cheryl A.; Rievaj, Juraj; Kuhre, Rune E.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are well-recognized stimuli of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion. This action has been attributed to activation of the G protein-coupled bile acid receptor GPBAR1 (TGR5), although other potential bile acid sensors include the nuclear farnesoid receptor and the apical sodium......-coupled bile acid transporter ASBT. The aim of this study was to identify pathways important for GLP-1 release and to determine whether bile acids target their receptors on GLP-1-secreting L-cells from the apical or basolateral compartment. Using transgenic mice expressing fluorescent sensors specifically in L...... chambers optimized for measuring GLP-1 secretion, we found that both a GPBAR1 agonist and TDCA stimulated GLP-1 release better when applied from the basolateral than from the luminal direction and that luminal TDCA was ineffective when intestinal tissue was pretreated with an ASBT inhibitor. ASBT...

  4. S-Nitrosothiols modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling in a reversible and highly receptor-specific manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mönkkönen Kati S

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies indicate that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling machinery can serve as a direct target of reactive oxygen species, including nitric oxide (NO and S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs. To gain a broader view into the way that receptor-dependent G protein activation – an early step in signal transduction – might be affected by RSNOs, we have studied several receptors coupling to the Gi family of G proteins in their native cellular environment using the powerful functional approach of [35S]GTPγS autoradiography with brain cryostat sections in combination with classical G protein activation assays. Results We demonstrate that RSNOs, like S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO and S-nitrosocysteine (CysNO, can modulate GPCR signaling via reversible, thiol-sensitive mechanisms probably involving S-nitrosylation. RSNOs are capable of very targeted regulation, as they potentiate the signaling of some receptors (exemplified by the M2/M4 muscarinic cholinergic receptors, inhibit others (P2Y12 purinergic, LPA1lysophosphatidic acid, and cannabinoid CB1 receptors, but may only marginally affect signaling of others, such as adenosine A1, μ-opioid, and opiate related receptors. Amplification of M2/M4 muscarinic responses is explained by an accelerated rate of guanine nucleotide exchange, as well as an increased number of high-affinity [35S]GTPγS binding sites available for the agonist-activated receptor. GSNO amplified human M4 receptor signaling also under heterologous expression in CHO cells, but the effect diminished with increasing constitutive receptor activity. RSNOs markedly inhibited P2Y12 receptor signaling in native tissues (rat brain and human platelets, but failed to affect human P2Y12 receptor signaling under heterologous expression in CHO cells, indicating that the native cellular signaling partners, rather than the P2Y12 receptor protein, act as a molecular target for this action. Conclusion These in vitro studies

  5. The Biased G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Agonism Bridges the Gap between the Insulin Receptor and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liauchonak, Iryna; Dawoud, Fady; Riat, Yatin; Sambi, Manpreet; Jain, Justin; Kalaydina, Regina-Veronicka; Mendonza, Nicole; Bajwa, Komal

    2018-01-01

    Insulin signaling, as mediated through the insulin receptor (IR), plays a critical role in metabolism. Aberrations in this signaling cascade lead to several pathologies, the majority of which are classified under the umbrella term “metabolic syndrome”. Although many of these pathologies are associated with insulin resistance, the exact mechanisms are not well understood. One area of current interest is the possibility of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) influencing or regulating IR signaling. This concept is particularly significant, because GPCRs have been shown to participate in cross-talk with the IR. More importantly, GPCR signaling has also been shown to preferentially regulate specific downstream signaling targets through GPCR agonist bias. A novel study recently demonstrated that this GPCR-biased agonism influences the activity of the IR without the presence of insulin. Although GPCR-IR cross-talk has previously been established, the notion that GPCRs can regulate the activation of the IR is particularly significant in relation to metabolic syndrome and other pathologies that develop as a result of alterations in IR signaling. As such, we aim to provide an overview of the physiological and pathophysiological roles of the IR within metabolic syndrome and its related pathologies, including cardiovascular health, gut microflora composition, gastrointestinal tract functioning, polycystic ovarian syndrome, pancreatic cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Furthermore, we propose that the GPCR-biased agonism may perhaps mediate some of the downstream signaling effects that further exacerbate these diseases for which the mechanisms are currently not well understood. PMID:29462993

  6. Insights into Basal Signaling Regulation, Oligomerization, and Structural Organization of the Human G-Protein Coupled Receptor 83.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Müller

    Full Text Available The murine G-protein coupled receptor 83 (mGPR83 is expressed in the hypothalamus and was previously suggested to be involved in the regulation of metabolism. The neuropeptide PEN has been recently identified as a potent GPR83 ligand. Moreover, GPR83 constitutes functionally relevant hetero-oligomers with other G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR such as the ghrelin receptor (GHSR or GPR171. Previous deletion studies also revealed that the long N-terminal extracellular receptor domain (eNDo of mGPR83 may act as an intra-molecular ligand, which participates in the regulation of basal signaling activity, which is a key feature of GPCR function. Here, we investigated particular amino acids at the eNDo of human GPR83 (hGPR83 by side-directed mutagenesis to identify determinants of the internal ligand. These studies were accompanied by structure homology modeling to combine functional insights with structural information. The capacity for hetero-oligomer formation of hGPR83 with diverse family A GPCRs such as the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R was also investigated, with a specific emphasis on the impact of the eNDo on oligomerization and basal signaling properties. Finally, we demonstrate that hGPR83 exhibits an unusual basal signaling for different effectors, which also supports signaling promiscuity. hGPR83 interacts with a variety of hypothalamic GPCRs such as the MC4R or GHSR. These interactions are not dependent on the ectodomain and most likely occur at interfaces constituted in the transmembrane regions. Moreover, several amino acids at the transition between the eNDo and transmembrane helix 1 were identified, where mutations lead also to biased basal signaling modulation.

  7. The Multiple Faces of Prostaglandin E2 G-Protein Coupled Receptor Signaling during the Dendritic Cell Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Cambi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many processes regulating immune responses are initiated by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs and report biochemical changes in the microenvironment. Dendritic cells (DCs are the most potent antigen-presenting cells and crucial for the regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The lipid mediator Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 via four GPCR subtypes (EP1-4 critically regulates DC generation, maturation and migration. The role of PGE2 signaling in DC biology was unraveled by the characterization of EP receptor subtype expression in DC progenitor cells and DCs, the identification of the signaling pathways initiated by these GPCR subtypes and the classification of DC responses to PGE2 at different stages of differentiation. Here, we review the advances in PGE2 signaling in DCs and describe the efforts still to be made to understand the spatio-temporal fine-tuning of PGE2 responses by DCs.

  8. Minireview: Role of Intracellular Scaffolding Proteins in the Regulation of Endocrine G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    The majority of hormones stimulates and mediates their signal transduction via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The signal is transmitted into the cell due to the association of the GPCRs with heterotrimeric G proteins, which in turn activates an extensive array of signaling pathways to regulate cell physiology. However, GPCRs also function as scaffolds for the recruitment of a variety of cytoplasmic protein-interacting proteins that bind to both the intracellular face and protein interaction motifs encoded by GPCRs. The structural scaffolding of these proteins allows GPCRs to recruit large functional complexes that serve to modulate both G protein-dependent and -independent cellular signaling pathways and modulate GPCR intracellular trafficking. This review focuses on GPCR interacting PSD95-disc large-zona occludens domain containing scaffolds in the regulation of endocrine receptor signaling as well as their potential role as therapeutic targets for the treatment of endocrinopathies. PMID:25942107

  9. Seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor repertoire of gastric ghrelin cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Park, Won-Mee; Sakata, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    /o-coupled receptors inhibited ghrelin secretion including somatostatin receptors SSTR1, SSTR2 and SSTR3 and unexpectedly the highly enriched lactate receptor, GPR81. Three other metabolite receptors known to be both Gαi/o- and Gαq/11-coupled all inhibited ghrelin secretion through a pertussis toxin-sensitive Gαi...... ghrelin cell-selective pertussis toxin expression markedly enhanced circulating ghrelin. These 7TM receptors and associated Gα subunits constitute a major part of the molecular machinery directly mediating neuronal and endocrine stimulation versus metabolite and somatostatin inhibition of ghrelin...

  10. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Hauser, Frank; Kobberup, Sune

    2003-01-01

    part of the receptor gene. DNA corresponding to the corrected gene CG6111 was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, where it was found to code for a receptor that could be activated by low concentrations of crustacean cardioactive peptide, which is a neuropeptide also known to occur in Drosophila....... Furthermore, we identified a gene sequence in the genomic database from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae that very likely codes for a crustacean cardioactive peptide receptor....

  11. Intracellular calcium levels determine differential modulation of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarro, G.; Aguinaga, D.; Hradsky, J.; Moreno, E.; Reddy, P.P.; Cortés, A.; Mallol, J.; Casadó, V.; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, M.R.; Lluís, C.; Canela, E.I.; McCormick, P.J.; Ferreira, S.; Ferré, S.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological significance of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer is well established and it is being considered as an important target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the physiological factors that

  12. Mechanisms of estradiol-induced insulin secretion by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30/GPER in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geetanjali; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2011-08-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes.

  13. Mechanisms of Estradiol-Induced Insulin Secretion by the G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor GPR30/GPER in Pancreatic β-Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Geetanjali

    2011-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism and supplementation studies suggest an important role for estrogens in the amelioration of glucose intolerance and diabetes. Because little is known regarding the signaling mechanisms involved in estradiol-mediated insulin secretion, we investigated the role of the G protein-coupled receptor 30, now designated G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER), in activating signal transduction cascades in β-cells, leading to secretion of insulin. GPER function in estradiol-induced signaling in the pancreatic β-cell line MIN6 was assessed using small interfering RNA and GPER-selective ligands (G-1 and G15) and in islets isolated from wild-type and GPER knockout mice. GPER is expressed in MIN6 cells, where estradiol and the GPER-selective agonist G-1 mediate calcium mobilization and activation of ERK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Both estradiol and G-1 induced insulin secretion under low- and high-glucose conditions, which was inhibited by pretreatment with GPER antagonist G15 as well as depletion of GPER by small interfering RNA. Insulin secretion in response to estradiol and G-1 was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK activation and further modulated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity. In islets isolated from wild-type mice, the GPER antagonist G15 inhibited insulin secretion induced by estradiol and G-1, both of which failed to induce insulin secretion in islets obtained from GPER knockout mice. Our results indicate that GPER activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and ERK in response to estradiol treatment plays a critical role in the secretion of insulin from β-cells. The results of this study suggest that the activation of downstream signaling pathways by the GPER-selective ligand G-1 could represent a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of diabetes. PMID:21673097

  14. Present perspectives on the automated classification of the G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) at the protein sequence level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Matthew N; Gloriam, David E; Secker, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptors--or GPCRs--comprise simultaneously one of the largest and one of the most multi-functional protein families known to modern-day molecular bioscience. From a drug discovery and pharmaceutical industry perspective, the GPCRs constitute one of the most commercially...... and economically important groups of proteins known. The GPCRs undertake numerous vital metabolic functions and interact with a hugely diverse range of small and large ligands. Many different methodologies have been developed to efficiently and accurately classify the GPCRs. These range from motif-based techniques...... to machine learning as well as a variety of alignment-free techniques based on the physiochemical properties of sequences. We review here the available methodologies for the classification of GPCRs. Part of this work focuses on how we have tried to build the intrinsically hierarchical nature of sequence...

  15. A role for information collection, management, and integration in structure-function studies of G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2006-01-01

    Elucidation of protein function is greatly facilitated by the availability of an atomic resolution structure or a reliable molecular model. The difficulty of obtaining atomic resolution structures of membrane proteins in general, and of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in particular, has made the information available from sequence analysis, mutagenesis, and the literature on related GPCRs exceptionally important. Here, we review previous studies of GPCR structure-function from the perspectives of sequence analysis, management of mutagenesis and ligand binding data, and literature data mining. The knowledge derived from these information resources not only constitutes the prerequisites for reliable molecular modeling, but also can provide other insights into GPCR functions. Finally, we review approaches for information integration and applying knowledge discovery techniques to structure-function studies of GPCRs, including molecular modeling itself.

  16. Conformational changes in the g protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin revealed by histidine hydrogen-deuterium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodowski, David T; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Miyagi, Masaru

    2010-11-09

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are activated by ligand binding, allowing extracellular signals to be efficiently transmitted through the membrane to the G protein recognition site, 40 Å away. Utilizing His residues found spaced throughout the GPCR, rhodopsin, we used His hydrogen-deuterium exchange (His-HDX) to monitor long-time scale structural rearrangements previously inaccessible by other means. The half-lives of His-HDX indicate clear differences in the solvent accessibility of three His residues in rhodopsin/opsin and Zn2+-dependent changes in the pKa for His195. These results indicate the utility of His-HDX in examining structural rearrangements in native source and membrane proteins without requiring structural modification.

  17. Conformational Changes in the G Protein-Coupled Receptor Rhodopsin Revealed by Histidine Hydrogen–Deuterium Exchange†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodowski, David T.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Miyagi, Masaru

    2010-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are activated by ligand binding, allowing extracellular signals to be efficiently transmitted through the membrane to the G protein recognition site, 40 Å away. Utilizing His residues found spaced throughout the GPCR, rhodopsin, we used His hydrogen–deuterium exchange (His-HDX) to monitor long-time scale structural rearrangements previously inaccessible by other means. The half-lives of His-HDX indicate clear differences in the solvent accessibility of three His residues in rhodopsin/opsin and Zn2+-dependent changes in the pKa for His195. These results indicate the utility of His-HDX in examining structural rearrangements in native source and membrane proteins without requiring structural modification. PMID:20939497

  18. Modulation of firing and synaptic transmission of serotonergic neurons by intrinsic G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi eMaejima

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Serotonergic neurons project to virtually all regions of the CNS and are consequently involved in many critical physiological functions such as mood, sexual behavior, feeding, sleep/wake cycle, memory, cognition, blood pressure regulation, breathing and reproductive success. Therefore serotonin release and serotonergic neuronal activity have to be precisely controlled and modulated by interacting brain circuits to adapt to specific emotional and environmental states. We will review the current knowledge about G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels involved in the regulation of serotonergic system, how their regulation is modulating the intrinsic activity of serotonergic neurons and its transmitter release and will discuss the latest methods for controlling the modulation of serotonin release and intracellular signaling in serotonergic neurons in vitro and in vivo.

  19. Cell wall trapping of autocrine peptides for human G-protein-coupled receptors on the yeast cell surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ishii

    Full Text Available G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs regulate a wide variety of physiological processes and are important pharmaceutical targets for drug discovery. Here, we describe a unique concept based on yeast cell-surface display technology to selectively track eligible peptides with agonistic activity for human GPCRs (Cell Wall Trapping of Autocrine Peptides (CWTrAP strategy. In our strategy, individual recombinant yeast cells are able to report autocrine-positive activity for human GPCRs by expressing a candidate peptide fused to an anchoring motif. Following expression and activation, yeast cells trap autocrine peptides onto their cell walls. Because captured peptides are incapable of diffusion, they have no impact on surrounding yeast cells that express the target human GPCR and non-signaling peptides. Therefore, individual yeast cells can assemble the autonomous signaling complex and allow single-cell screening of a yeast population. Our strategy may be applied to identify eligible peptides with agonistic activity for target human GPCRs.

  20. Identification of signal transduction pathways used by orphan g protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnick, Janine N; Skynner, Heather A; Chapman, Kerry L; Jack, Andrew D; Zamiara, Elize; Negulescu, Paul; Beaumont, Kevin; Patel, Smita; McAllister, George

    2003-04-01

    The superfamily of GPCRs have diverse biological roles, transducing signals from a range of stimuli, from photon recognition by opsins to neurotransmitter regulation of neuronal function. Of the many identified genes encoding GPCRs, >130 are orphan receptors ( i.e., their endogenous ligands are unknown), and this subset represents putative novel therapeutic targets for pharmaceutical intervention in a variety of diseases. As an initial step toward drug discovery, determining a biological function for these newly identified receptors is of vital importance, and thus identification of a natural ligand(s) is a primary aim. There are several established methods for doing this, but many have drawbacks and usually require some in-depth knowledge about how the receptor functions. The technique described here utilizes a transcription-based reporter assay in live cells. This allows the determination of the signal transduction pathway any given oGPCR uses, without any prior knowledge of the endogenous ligand. This can therefore reduce the redundancy of effort involved in screening ligands at a given receptor in multiple formats (i.e., Galpha(s), Galpha(i/0), and Galpha(q) assays), as well as ensuring that the receptor targeted is capable of signaling if appropriately activated. Such knowledge is often laboriously obtained, and for almost all oGPCRs, this kind of information is not yet available. This technology can also be used to develop inverse agonist as well as agonist sensitive high throughput assays for oGPCRs. The veracity of this approach is demonstrated, using a number of known GPCRs. The likely signaling pathways of the GPR3, GPR12, GPR19, GPR21, and HG55 oGPCRs are shown, and a high throughput assay for GPR26 receptors developed. The methods outlined here for elucidation of the signal transduction pathways for oGPCRs and development of functional assays should speed up the process of identification of ligands for this potentially therapeutically useful group of

  1. Chemogenetic Modulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signalling in Visual Attention Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren H; Fitzpatrick, Ciarán Martin; Gether, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    a major area of investigation, it has proven difficult to accurately associate specific neuronal projections, cell types, neurotransmitter systems and receptors with distinct phenotypes owing to its complexity. In this MiniReview, we present a recently invented technology known as Designer Receptors...... the different DREADDs available and explain how unprecedented specificity of neuronal signalling can be achieved using DREADDs. We next discuss various studies performed in animal models of visual attention, where different brain regions and neuronal populations have been probed by DREADDs. We highlight...

  2. Islet-selectivity of G-protein coupled receptor ligands evaluated for PET imaging of pancreatic {beta}-cell mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, Gary W., E-mail: gary.cline@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Zhao, Xiaojian [Yale University School of Medicine (United States); Jakowski, Amy B.; Soeller, Walter C.; Treadway, Judith L. [Pfizer Global Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton CT (United States)

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} We screened G-protein coupled receptors for imaging pancreatic. {yields} Database mining and immunohistochemistry identified GPCRs enriched in {beta}-cells. {yields} In vitro and in vivo assays were used to determine exocrine vs endocrine specificity. {yields} GPCR candidates for imaging of {beta}-cell mass are Prokineticin-1R, mGluR5, and GLP-1R. -- Abstract: A critical unmet need exists for methods to quantitatively measure endogenous pancreatic {beta}-cell mass (BCM) for the clinical evaluation of therapies to prevent or reverse loss of BCM and diabetes progression. Our objective was to identify G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are expressed with a high degree of specificity to islet {beta}-cells for receptor-targeted imaging of BCM. GPCRs enriched in pancreatic islets relative to pancreas acinar and hepatic tissue were identified using a database screen. Islet-specific expression was confirmed by human pancreas immunohistochemistry (IHC). In vitro selectivity assessment was determined from the binding and uptake of radiolabeled ligands to the rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cell line and isolated rat islets relative to the exocrine pancreas cell-type, PANC-1. Tail-vein injections of radioligands into rats were used to determine favorable image criteria of in vivo biodistribution to the pancreas relative to other internal organs (i.e., liver, spleen, stomach, and lungs). Database and IHC screening identified four candidate receptors for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation for PET imaging of BCM: prokineticin-1 receptor (PK-1R), metabotropic glutamate receptor type-5 (mGluR5), neuropeptide Y-2 receptor (NPY-2R), and glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R). In vitro specificity ratios gave the following receptor rank order: PK-1R > GLP-1R > NPY-2R > mGluR5. The biodistribution rank order of selectivity to the pancreas was found to be PK-1R > VMAT2 {approx} GLP-1R > mGluR5. Favorable islet selectivity and biodistribution

  3. Neuroendocrine-immune interaction: regulation of inflammation via G-protein coupled receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Aa, van der L.M.; Chadzinska, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine- and immune systems interact in a bi-directional fashion to communicate the status of pathogen recognition to the brain and the immune response is influenced by physiological changes. The network of ligands and their receptors involved includes cytokines and chemokines,

  4. Evolution of a G protein-coupled receptor response by mutations in regulatory network interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Roberto, Raphaël B; Chang, Belinda; Trusina, Ala

    2016-01-01

    , Ste2 is a hub in a network of interactions controlling both signal transduction and signal suppression. Through laboratory evolution, we obtained 21 mutant receptors sensitive to the pheromone of a related yeast species and investigated the molecular mechanisms behind this newfound sensitivity. While...

  5. Essential Regulation of Lung Surfactant Homeostasis by the Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPR116

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Young Yang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available GPR116 is an orphan seven-pass transmembrane receptor whose function has been unclear. Global disruption of the Gpr116 gene in mice revealed an unexpected, critical role for this receptor in lung surfactant homeostasis, resulting in progressive accumulation of surfactant lipids and proteins in the alveolar space, labored breathing, and a reduced lifespan. GPR116 expression analysis, bone marrow transplantation studies, and characterization of conditional knockout mice revealed that GPR116 expression in ATII cells is required for maintaining normal surfactant levels. Aberrant packaging of surfactant proteins with lipids in the Gpr116 mutant mice resulted in compromised surfactant structure, function, uptake, and processing. Thus, GPR116 plays an indispensable role in lung surfactant homeostasis with important ramifications for the understanding and treatment of lung surfactant disorders.

  6. Microvesicle and tunneling nanotube mediated intercellular transfer of g-protein coupled receptors in cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guescini, M. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino (Italy); Leo, G.; Genedani, S. [Department Biomedical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Carone, C. [Department Biomedical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); IRCCS San Camillo Lido, Venezia (Italy); Pederzoli, F. [Department Biomedical Sciences, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy); Ciruela, F. [Departament Patologia i Terapeutica Experimental, Universitat de Barcelona (Spain); Guidolin, D. [Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padua (Italy); Stocchi, V.; Mantuano, M. [Department of Biomolecular Sciences, University of Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino (Italy); Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Fuxe, K. [Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Agnati, L.F., E-mail: luigiagnati@tin.it [IRCCS San Camillo Lido, Venezia (Italy)

    2012-03-10

    Recent evidence shows that cells exchange collections of signals via microvesicles (MVs) and tunneling nano-tubes (TNTs). In this paper we have investigated whether in cell cultures GPCRs can be transferred by means of MVs and TNTs from a source cell to target cells. Western blot, transmission electron microscopy and gene expression analyses demonstrate that A{sub 2A} and D{sub 2} receptors are present in released MVs. In order to further demonstrate the involvement of MVs in cell-to-cell communication we created two populations of cells (HEK293T and COS-7) transiently transfected with D{sub 2}R-CFP or A{sub 2A}R-YFP. These two types of cells were co-cultured, and FRET analysis demonstrated simultaneously positive cells to the D{sub 2}R-CFP and A{sub 2A}R-YFP. Fluorescence microscopy analysis also showed that GPCRs can move from one cell to another also by means of TNTs. Finally, recipient cells pre-incubated for 24 h with A{sub 2A}R positive MVs were treated with the adenosine A{sub 2A} receptor agonist CGS-21680. The significant increase in cAMP accumulation clearly demonstrated that A{sub 2A}Rs were functionally competent in target cells. These findings demonstrate that A{sub 2A} receptors capable of recognizing and decoding extracellular signals can be safely transferred via MVs from source to target cells.

  7. Microvesicle and tunneling nanotube mediated intercellular transfer of g-protein coupled receptors in cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guescini, M.; Leo, G.; Genedani, S.; Carone, C.; Pederzoli, F.; Ciruela, F.; Guidolin, D.; Stocchi, V.; Mantuano, M.; Borroto-Escuela, D.O.; Fuxe, K.; Agnati, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that cells exchange collections of signals via microvesicles (MVs) and tunneling nano-tubes (TNTs). In this paper we have investigated whether in cell cultures GPCRs can be transferred by means of MVs and TNTs from a source cell to target cells. Western blot, transmission electron microscopy and gene expression analyses demonstrate that A 2A and D 2 receptors are present in released MVs. In order to further demonstrate the involvement of MVs in cell-to-cell communication we created two populations of cells (HEK293T and COS-7) transiently transfected with D 2 R-CFP or A 2A R-YFP. These two types of cells were co-cultured, and FRET analysis demonstrated simultaneously positive cells to the D 2 R-CFP and A 2A R-YFP. Fluorescence microscopy analysis also showed that GPCRs can move from one cell to another also by means of TNTs. Finally, recipient cells pre-incubated for 24 h with A 2A R positive MVs were treated with the adenosine A 2A receptor agonist CGS-21680. The significant increase in cAMP accumulation clearly demonstrated that A 2A Rs were functionally competent in target cells. These findings demonstrate that A 2A receptors capable of recognizing and decoding extracellular signals can be safely transferred via MVs from source to target cells.

  8. Conserved waters mediate structural and functional activation of family A (rhodopsin-like) G protein-coupled receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angel, T.; Chance, M; Palczewski, K

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors with seven transmembrane {alpha}-helices (GPCRs) comprise the largest receptor superfamily and are involved in detecting a wide variety of extracellular stimuli. The availability of high-resolution crystal structures of five prototypical GPCRs, bovine and squid rhodopsin, engineered A2A-adenosine, {beta}1- and {beta}2-adrenergic receptors, permits comparative analysis of features common to these and likely all GPCRs. We provide an analysis of the distribution of water molecules in the transmembrane region of these GPCR structures and find conserved contacts with microdomains demonstrated to be involved in receptor activation. Colocalization of water molecules associating with highly conserved and functionally important residues in several of these GPCR crystal structures supports the notion that these waters are likely to be as important to proper receptor function as the conserved residues. Moreover, in the absence of large conformational changes in rhodopsin after photoactivation, we propose that ordered waters contribute to the functional plasticity needed to transmit activation signals from the retinal-binding pocket to the cytoplasmic face of rhodopsin and that fundamental features of the mechanism of activation, involving these conserved waters, are shared by many if not all family A receptors.

  9. Cloning, expression, purification and characterization of oligomeric states of the native 5HT2A G-Protein-Coupled Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, Gopa; Jaiswal, Priyank; Dey, Sandip; Sengupta, Jayati; Mukherjee, Sujoy

    2018-02-06

    The serotonin 5HT2A G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) is involved in a plethora of neuromodulatory functions and its dysregulation is linked to psychiatric disorders. However, there is insufficient, direct structural evidence of the structure, dynamics and the mechanism of function of this receptor. Cholesterol plays an important role in the function of many GPCRs and reduced cholesterol levels may be linked to serotonergic pathway disruptions. But cholesterol's effect on the structure, especially the oligomeric states of the 5HT2A receptor is not well understood. Structural studies on most GPCRs typically require the substitution of the dynamic intracellular loop 3 along with other mutations and truncations for stability and hence, structural characterization of native receptor sequence is relatively rare. Here we have cloned, over-expressed and purified native sequence of rat serotonin 5HT2A GPCR using baculoviral expression system. Subsequently, we used cryo-electron microscopy to show that the 5HT2A GPCR forms a dimer in presence of cholesterol but converts to a monomer when cholesterol is depleted. Since dimer formation is necessary for signaling by 5HT2A receptors, our results also indicate the importance of cholesterol in serotonin 5HT2A receptor's function. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Structural insights into positive and negative allosteric regulation of a G protein-coupled receptor through protein-lipid interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzzese, Agustín; Gil, Carles; Dalton, James A R; Giraldo, Jesús

    2018-03-13

    Lipids are becoming known as essential allosteric modulators of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCRs). However, how they exert their effects on GPCR conformation at the atomic level is still unclear. In light of recent experimental data, we have performed several long-timescale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, totalling 24 μs, to rigorously map allosteric modulation and conformational changes in the β 2 adrenergic receptor (β2AR) that occur as a result of interactions with three different phospholipids. In particular, we identify different sequential mechanisms behind receptor activation and deactivation, respectively, mediated by specific lipid interactions with key receptor regions. We show that net negatively charged lipids stabilize an active-like state of β2AR that is able to dock G s α protein. Clustering of anionic lipids around the receptor with local distortion of membrane thickness is also apparent. On the other hand, net-neutral zwitterionic lipids inactivate the receptor, generating either fully inactive or intermediate states, with kinetics depending on lipid headgroup charge distribution and hydrophobicity. These chemical differences alter membrane thickness and density, which differentially destabilize the β2AR active state through lateral compression effects.

  11. Reciprocal regulation of two G protein-coupled receptors sensing extracellular concentrations of Ca2+ and H+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei-Chun; Jacobs, Benjamin; Becker, Esther B. E.; Glitsch, Maike D.

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface receptors that detect a wide range of extracellular messengers and convey this information to the inside of cells. Extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and ovarian cancer gene receptor 1 (OGR1) are two GPCRs that sense extracellular Ca2+ and H+, respectively. These two ions are key components of the interstitial fluid, and their concentrations change in an activity-dependent manner. Importantly, the interstitial fluid forms part of the microenvironment that influences cell function in health and disease; however, the exact mechanisms through which changes in the microenvironment influence cell function remain largely unknown. We show that CaSR and OGR1 reciprocally inhibit signaling through each other in central neurons, and that this is lost in their transformed counterparts. Furthermore, strong intracellular acidification impairs CaSR function, but potentiates OGR1 function. Thus, CaSR and OGR1 activities can be regulated in a seesaw manner, whereby conditions promoting signaling through one receptor simultaneously inhibit signaling through the other receptor, potentiating the difference in their relative signaling activity. Our results provide insight into how small but consistent changes in the ionic microenvironment of cells can significantly alter the balance between two signaling pathways, which may contribute to disease progression. PMID:26261299

  12. Cloning and characterization of a human orphan family C G-protein coupled receptor GPRC5D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, H; Jensen, A A; Sheppard, P O

    2001-01-01

    Recently three orphan G-protein coupled receptors, RAIG1, GPRC5B and GPRC5C, with homology to members of family C (metabotropic glutamate receptor-like) have been identified. Using the protein sequences of these receptors as queries we identified overlapping expressed sequence tags which were....... The four human receptor subtypes, which we assign to group 5 of family C GPCRs, show 31-42% amino acid sequence identity to each other and 20-25% sequence identity to the transmembrane domains of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes 2 and 3 and other family C members. In contrast to the remaining...... family C members, the group 5 receptors have short amino terminal domains of some 30-50 amino acids. GPRC5D was shown to be clustered with RAIG1 on chromosome 12p13.3 and like RAIG1 and GPRC5B to consist of three exons, the first exon being the largest containing all seven transmembrane segments. GPRC5D...

  13. Functional characterization of G-Protein Coupled receptors: a bioinformatics approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Roux, Aurélie; Hutz, Mara H; Rohde, Luiz A; Woods, Amina S

    2014-01-01

    Complex molecular and cellular mechanisms regulate GPCRs. It is suggested that proteins Intrinsically Disordered regions (IDR) are to play a role in GPCR’s intra and extracellular regions plasticity, due to their potential for post-translational modification and interaction with other proteins. These regions are defined as lacking a stable three-dimensional (3D) structure. They are rich in hydrophilic and charged, amino acids and are capable to assume different conformation which allows them to interact with multiple partners. In this study we analyzed 75 GPCR involved in synaptic transmission using computational tools for sequence based prediction of intrinsically disordered regions within a protein. We also evaluated putative ligand binding motifs using receptor sequences. The disorder analysis indicated that neurotransmitter GPCRs have a significant amount of disorder in their N-terminus, third Intracellular loop (3IL) and C-terminus. About 31, 39 and 53% of human GPCR involved in synaptic transmission are disordered in these regions. Thirty-three percent of receptors show at least one predicted PEST motif, this being statistically greater than the estimate for the rest of human GPCRs. About 90% of the receptors had at least one putative site for dimerization in their 3IL or C-terminus. The ELM instance sampled in these domains were 14-3-3, SH3, SH2 and PDZ motifs. In conclusion, the increased flexibility observed in GPCRs, added to the enrichment of linear motifs, PEST and heteromerization sites, may be critical for the nervous system’s functional plasticity. PMID:24997265

  14. Intracellular calcium levels determine differential modulation of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor heteromers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Aguinaga, David; Moreno, Estefania; Hradsky, Johannes; Reddy, Pasham P; Cortés, Antoni; Mallol, Josefa; Casadó, Vicent; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, Michael R; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-11-20

    The pharmacological significance of the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)-dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) heteromer is well established and it is being considered as an important target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease and other neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the physiological factors that control its distinctive biochemical properties are still unknown. We demonstrate that different intracellular Ca2+ levels exert a differential modulation of A2AR-D2R heteromer-mediated adenylyl-cyclase and MAPK signaling in striatal cells. This depends on the ability of low and high Ca2+ levels to promote a selective interaction of the heteromer with the neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins NCS-1 and calneuron-1, respectively. These Ca2+-binding proteins differentially modulate allosteric interactions within the A2AR-D2R heteromer, which constitutes a unique cellular device that integrates extracellular (adenosine and dopamine) and intracellular (Ca+2) signals to produce a specific functional response.

  15. The activation mechanisms of G protein-coupled receptors : the case of the adenosine A2B and HCA2/3 receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and elucidating the functions and activation of GPCRs will provide opportunities for novel drug discovery. We confirmed that a yeast system with an extended library of G proteins is very well suited for the study of GPCR activation, G protein coupling profiles, receptor-G protein binding

  16. Validation of a rapid, non-radioactive method to quantify internalisation of G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsma, Maikel; Florczyk, Urszula M; Hendriks-Balk, Mariëlle C; Michel, Martin C; Peters, Stephan L M; Alewijnse, Astrid E

    2007-07-01

    Agonist exposure can cause internalisation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which may be a part of desensitisation but also of cellular signaling. Previous methods to study internalisation have been tedious or only poorly quantitative. Therefore, we have developed and validated a quantitative method using a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor as a model. Because of a lack of suitable binding studies, it has been difficult to study S1P receptor internalisation. Using a N-terminal HisG-tag, S1P(1) receptors on the cell membrane can be visualised via immunocytochemistry with a specific anti-HisG antibody. S1P-induced internalisation was concentration dependent and was quantified using a microplate reader, detecting either absorbance, a fluorescent or luminescent signal, depending on the antibodies used. Among those, the fluorescence detection method was the most convenient to use. The relative ease of this method makes it suitable to measure a large number of data points, e.g. to compare the potency and efficacy of receptor ligands.

  17. Functional activation of G-proteins coupled with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in rat brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odagaki, Yuji; Kinoshita, Masakazu; Toyoshima, Ryoichi

    2014-01-01

    The functional activation of Gi/o proteins coupled to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) was investigated with the conventional guanosine-5'-O-(3-[(35)S]thio) triphosphate ([(35)S]GTPγS) binding assay in rat brain membranes. The most efficacious stimulation elicited by acetylcholine or carbachol (CCh) was obtained in striatal membranes. The pharmacological properties of mAChR-mediated [(35)S]GTPγS binding determined with a series of muscarinic agonists and antagonists were almost identical among the three brain regions investigated, i.e., cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and striatum, except for the apparent partial agonist effects of (αR)-α-cyclopentyl-α-hydroxy-N-[1-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-4-piperidinyl]benzeneacetamide fumarate (J 104129) observed only in the hippocampus, but not in the other two regions. Among the muscarinic toxins investigated, only MT3 attenuated CCh-stimulated [(35)S] GTPγS binding. The highly selective allosteric potentiator at the M4 mAChR subtype, 3-amino-N-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-4,6-dimethylthieno[2,3-b]pyridine-2-carboxamide (VU 10010), shifted the concentration-response curve for CCh leftwards as well as upwards. On the other hand, neither thiochrome nor brucine N-oxide was effective. The increases induced by CCh and 5-HT were essentially additive, though not completely, indicating that the mAChRs and 5-HT1A receptors were coupled independently to distinct pools of Gi/o proteins. Collectively, all of the data suggest that functional activation of Gi/o proteins coupled to mAChRs, especially the M4 subtype, is detectable by means of CCh-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding assay in rat discrete brain regions.

  18. Peptide welding technology - A simple strategy for generating innovative ligands for G protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo', Girolamo; Rizzi, Anna; Ruzza, Chiara; Ferrari, Federica; Pacifico, Salvatore; Gavioli, Elaine C; Salvadori, Severo; Guerrini, Remo

    2018-01-01

    Based on their high selectivity of action and low toxicity, naturally occurring peptides have great potential in terms of drug development. However, the pharmacokinetic properties of peptides, in particular their half life, are poor. Among different strategies developed for reducing susceptibility to peptidases, and thus increasing the duration of action of peptides, the generation of branched peptides has been described. However, the synthesis and purification of branched peptides are extremely complicated thus limiting their druggability. Here we present a novel and facile synthesis of tetrabranched peptides acting as GPCR ligands and their in vitro and vivo pharmacological characterization. Tetrabranched derivatives of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), N/OFQ related peptides, opioid peptides, tachykinins, and neuropeptide S were generated with the strategy named peptide welding technology (PWT) and characterized by high yield and purity of the desired final product. In general, PWT derivatives displayed a pharmacological profile similar to that of the natural sequence in terms of affinity, pharmacological activity, potency, and selectivity of action in vitro. More importantly, in vivo studies demonstrated that PWT peptides are characterized by increased potency associated with long lasting duration of action. In conclusion, PWT derivatives of biologically active peptides can be viewed as innovative pharmacological tools for investigating those conditions and states in which selective and prolonged receptor stimulation promotes beneficial effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Mouse taste cells with G protein-coupled taste receptors lack voltage-gated calcium channels and SNAP-25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medler Kathryn F

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli from the environment and relaying information to the nervous system. Bitter, sweet and umami stimuli utilize G-protein coupled receptors which activate the phospholipase C (PLC signaling pathway in Type II taste cells. However, it is not known how these cells communicate with the nervous system. Previous studies have shown that the subset of taste cells that expresses the T2R bitter receptors lack voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, which are normally required for synaptic transmission at conventional synapses. Here we use two lines of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP from two taste-specific promoters to examine Ca2+ signaling in subsets of Type II cells: T1R3-GFP mice were used to identify sweet- and umami-sensitive taste cells, while TRPM5-GFP mice were used to identify all cells that utilize the PLC signaling pathway for transduction. Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents were assessed with Ca2+ imaging and whole cell recording, while immunocytochemistry was used to detect expression of SNAP-25, a presynaptic SNARE protein that is associated with conventional synapses in taste cells. Results Depolarization with high K+ resulted in an increase in intracellular Ca2+ in a small subset of non-GFP labeled cells of both transgenic mouse lines. In contrast, no depolarization-evoked Ca2+ responses were observed in GFP-expressing taste cells of either genotype, but GFP-labeled cells responded to the PLC activator m-3M3FBS, suggesting that these cells were viable. Whole cell recording indicated that the GFP-labeled cells of both genotypes had small voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents, but no evidence of Ca2+ currents. A subset of non-GFP labeled taste cells exhibited large voltage-dependent Na+ and K+ currents and a high threshold voltage-gated Ca2+ current. Immunocytochemistry indicated that SNAP-25 was expressed in a separate population of taste cells

  20. G protein-coupled receptor quantification using peptide group-specific enrichment combined with internal peptide standard reporter calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, David; Planatscher, Hannes; Hardie, Darryl B; Kraushaar, Udo; Pynn, Christopher J; Stoll, Dieter; Borchers, Christoph; Joos, Thomas O; Poetz, Oliver

    2013-09-02

    The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family comprises the largest and most diverse group of membrane receptors in eukaryotes. GPCRs are involved in a plethora of physiological functions in all kinds of tissues. Detailed knowledge about GPCR presence and expression levels in tissues can be very helpful for drug development as the majority of drugs are designed to modulate membrane receptors. Furthermore, it is known that many adverse drug effects result from GPCR interactions. However, very few satisfactory methods are currently available for the detection and quantification of GPCRs. The detection is complicated by their three-dimensional structure, their hydrophobic properties, and their localization in the plasma membrane with 7-trans-membrane domains and small cytosolic and extracellular domains. Due to these properties it is very difficult to generate specific antibodies directed against GPCRs for sandwich immunoassays and Western blot. We therefore designed an immunoaffinity- and mass spectrometry-based approach to analyze GPCR-specific signature peptides in tryptic digests in rat tissue lysates. The expression levels of four different GPCRs were determined using chemically labeled synthetic standard peptides. Here, we demonstrate for the first time, that peptide immunoaffinity MS-based methods can render a reliable and quantitative analysis of multi-membrane spanning receptor molecules. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ligand and structure-based methodologies for the prediction of the activity of G protein-coupled receptor ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzi, Stefano; Tikhonova, Irina G.; Harden, T. Kendall; Jacobson, Kenneth A.

    2009-11-01

    Accurate in silico models for the quantitative prediction of the activity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands would greatly facilitate the process of drug discovery and development. Several methodologies have been developed based on the properties of the ligands, the direct study of the receptor-ligand interactions, or a combination of both approaches. Ligand-based three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships (3D-QSAR) techniques, not requiring knowledge of the receptor structure, have been historically the first to be applied to the prediction of the activity of GPCR ligands. They are generally endowed with robustness and good ranking ability; however they are highly dependent on training sets. Structure-based techniques generally do not provide the level of accuracy necessary to yield meaningful rankings when applied to GPCR homology models. However, they are essentially independent from training sets and have a sufficient level of accuracy to allow an effective discrimination between binders and nonbinders, thus qualifying as viable lead discovery tools. The combination of ligand and structure-based methodologies in the form of receptor-based 3D-QSAR and ligand and structure-based consensus models results in robust and accurate quantitative predictions. The contribution of the structure-based component to these combined approaches is expected to become more substantial and effective in the future, as more sophisticated scoring functions are developed and more detailed structural information on GPCRs is gathered.

  2. The GPS Motif Is a Molecular Switch for Bimodal Activities of Adhesion Class G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Prömel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR form the second largest group of seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM receptors whose molecular layout and function differ from canonical 7TM receptors. Despite their essential roles in immunity, tumorigenesis, and development, the mechanisms of aGPCR activation and signal transduction have remained obscure to date. Here, we use a transgenic assay to define the protein domains required in vivo for the activity of the prototypical aGPCR LAT-1/Latrophilin in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS motif, the molecular hallmark feature of the entire aGPCR class, is essential for LAT-1 signaling serving in two different activity modes of the receptor. Surprisingly, neither mode requires cleavage but presence of the GPS, which relays interactions with at least two different partners. Our work thus uncovers the versatile nature of aGPCR activity in molecular detail and places the GPS motif in a central position for diverse protein-protein interactions.

  3. The GPS motif is a molecular switch for bimodal activities of adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prömel, Simone; Frickenhaus, Marie; Hughes, Samantha; Mestek, Lamia; Staunton, David; Woollard, Alison; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Schöneberg, Torsten; Schnabel, Ralf; Russ, Andreas P; Langenhan, Tobias

    2012-08-30

    Adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors (aGPCR) form the second largest group of seven-transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptors whose molecular layout and function differ from canonical 7TM receptors. Despite their essential roles in immunity, tumorigenesis, and development, the mechanisms of aGPCR activation and signal transduction have remained obscure to date. Here, we use a transgenic assay to define the protein domains required in vivo for the activity of the prototypical aGPCR LAT-1/Latrophilin in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that the GPCR proteolytic site (GPS) motif, the molecular hallmark feature of the entire aGPCR class, is essential for LAT-1 signaling serving in two different activity modes of the receptor. Surprisingly, neither mode requires cleavage but presence of the GPS, which relays interactions with at least two different partners. Our work thus uncovers the versatile nature of aGPCR activity in molecular detail and places the GPS motif in a central position for diverse protein-protein interactions. Copyright © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Confined Diffusion Without Fences of a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor as Revealed by Single Particle Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daumas, Frédéric; Destainville, Nicolas; Millot, Claire; Lopez, André; Dean, David; Salomé, Laurence

    2003-01-01

    Single particle tracking is a powerful tool for probing the organization and dynamics of the plasma membrane constituents. We used this technique to study the μ-opioid receptor belonging to the large family of the G-protein-coupled receptors involved with other partners in a signal transduction pathway. The specific labeling of the receptor coupled to a T7-tag at its N-terminus, stably expressed in fibroblastic cells, was achieved by colloidal gold coupled to a monoclonal anti T7-tag antibody. The lateral movements of the particles were followed by nanovideomicroscopy at 40 ms time resolution during 2 min with a spatial precision of 15 nm. The receptors were found to have either a slow or directed diffusion mode (10%) or a walking confined diffusion mode (90%) composed of a long-term random diffusion and a short-term confined diffusion, and corresponding to a diffusion confined within a domain that itself diffuses. The results indicate that the confinement is due to an effective harmonic potential generated by long-range attraction between the membrane proteins. A simple model for interacting membrane proteins diffusion is proposed that explains the variations with the domain size of the short-term and long-term diffusion coefficients. PMID:12524289

  5. The G protein-coupled receptor FSHR-1 is required for the Caenorhabditis elegans innate immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jennifer R; Kim, Dennis H; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2009-02-24

    Innate immunity is an ancient defense system used by both vertebrates and invertebrates. Previously characterized innate immune responses in plants and animals are triggered by detection of pathogens using specific receptors, which typically use a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain to bind molecular patterns associated with infection. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans uses defense pathways conserved with vertebrates; however, the mechanism by which C. elegans detects pathogens is unknown. We screened all LRR-containing transmembrane receptors in C. elegans and identified the G protein-coupled receptor FSHR-1 as an important component of the C. elegans immune response to Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. FSHR-1 acts in the C. elegans intestine, the primary site of exposure to ingested pathogens. FSHR-1 signals in parallel to the known p38 MAPK pathway but converges to regulate the transcriptional induction of an overlapping but nonidentical set of antimicrobial effectors. FSHR-1 may act generally to boost the nematode immune response, or it may function as a pathogen receptor.

  6. Serotonin Signaling in Schistosoma mansoni: A Serotonin–Activated G Protein-Coupled Receptor Controls Parasite Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Mohammed; Ribeiro, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Serotonin is an important neuroactive substance in all the parasitic helminths. In Schistosoma mansoni, serotonin is strongly myoexcitatory; it potentiates contraction of the body wall muscles and stimulates motor activity. This is considered to be a critical mechanism of motor control in the parasite, but the mode of action of serotonin is poorly understood. Here we provide the first molecular evidence of a functional serotonin receptor (Sm5HTR) in S. mansoni. The schistosome receptor belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily and is distantly related to serotonergic type 7 (5HT7) receptors from other species. Functional expression studies in transfected HEK 293 cells showed that Sm5HTR is a specific serotonin receptor and it signals through an increase in intracellular cAMP, consistent with a 5HT7 signaling mechanism. Immunolocalization studies with a specific anti-Sm5HTR antibody revealed that the receptor is abundantly distributed in the worm's nervous system, including the cerebral ganglia and main nerve cords of the central nervous system and the peripheral innervation of the body wall muscles and tegument. RNA interference (RNAi) was performed both in schistosomulae and adult worms to test whether the receptor is required for parasite motility. The RNAi-suppressed adults and larvae were markedly hypoactive compared to the corresponding controls and they were also resistant to exogenous serotonin treatment. These results show that Sm5HTR is at least one of the receptors responsible for the motor effects of serotonin in S. mansoni. The fact that Sm5HTR is expressed in nerve tissue further suggests that serotonin stimulates movement via this receptor by modulating neuronal output to the musculature. Together, the evidence identifies Sm5HTR as an important neuronal protein and a key component of the motor control apparatus in S. mansoni. PMID:24453972

  7. FRPR-4 Is a G-Protein Coupled Neuropeptide Receptor That Regulates Behavioral Quiescence and Posture in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Nelson

    Full Text Available Neuropeptides signal through G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs to regulate a broad array of animal behaviors and physiological processes. The Caenorhabditis elegans genome encodes approximately 100 predicted neuropeptide receptor GPCRs, but in vivo roles for only a few have been identified. We describe here a role for the GPCR FRPR-4 in the regulation of behavioral quiescence and locomotive posture. FRPR-4 is activated in cell culture by several neuropeptides with an amidated isoleucine-arginine-phenylalanine (IRF motif or an amidated valine-arginine-phenylalanine (VRF motif at their carboxy termini, including those encoded by the gene flp-13. Loss of frpr-4 function results in a minor feeding quiescence defect after heat-induced cellular stress. Overexpression of frpr-4 induces quiescence of locomotion and feeding as well as an exaggerated body bend posture. The exaggerated body bend posture requires the gene flp-13. While frpr-4 is expressed broadly, selective overexpression of frpr-4 in the proprioceptive DVA neurons results in exaggerated body bends that require flp-13 in the ALA neuron. Our results suggest that FLP-13 and other neuropeptides signal through FRPR-4 and other receptors to regulate locomotion posture and behavioral quiescence.

  8. Model-Based Discovery of Synthetic Agonists for the Zn2+-Sensing G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 39 (GPR39) Reveals Novel Biological Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimurer, Thomas M.; Mende, Franziska; Graae, Anne-Sofie

    2017-01-01

    The G-protein coupled receptor 39 (GPR39) is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by Zn2. We used a homol. model-based approach to identify small-mol. pharmacol. tool compds. for the receptor. The method focused on a putative binding site in GPR39 for synthetic ligands and knowledge of ligand....... of the initial library were inactive when tested alone, but lead compds. were identified using Zn2 as an allosteric enhancer. Highly selective, highly potent Zn2-independent GPR39 agonists were found in subsequent mini-libraries. These agonists identified GPR39 as a novel regulator of gastric somatostatin...

  9. The repertoire of G protein-coupled receptors in the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni and the model organism Schmidtea mediterranea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zamanian Mostafa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs constitute one of the largest groupings of eukaryotic proteins, and represent a particularly lucrative set of pharmaceutical targets. They play an important role in eukaryotic signal transduction and physiology, mediating cellular responses to a diverse range of extracellular stimuli. The phylum Platyhelminthes is of considerable medical and biological importance, housing major pathogens as well as established model organisms. The recent availability of genomic data for the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and the model planarian Schmidtea mediterranea paves the way for the first comprehensive effort to identify and analyze GPCRs in this important phylum. Results Application of a novel transmembrane-oriented approach to receptor mining led to the discovery of 117 S. mansoni GPCRs, representing all of the major families; 105 Rhodopsin, 2 Glutamate, 3 Adhesion, 2 Secretin and 5 Frizzled. Similarly, 418 Rhodopsin, 9 Glutamate, 21 Adhesion, 1 Secretin and 11 Frizzled S. mediterranea receptors were identified. Among these, we report the identification of novel receptor groupings, including a large and highly-diverged Platyhelminth-specific Rhodopsin subfamily, a planarian-specific Adhesion-like family, and atypical Glutamate-like receptors. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out following extensive gene curation. Support vector machines (SVMs were trained and used for ligand-based classification of full-length Rhodopsin GPCRs, complementing phylogenetic and homology-based classification. Conclusions Genome-wide investigation of GPCRs in two platyhelminth genomes reveals an extensive and complex receptor signaling repertoire with many unique features. This work provides important sequence and functional leads for understanding basic flatworm receptor biology, and sheds light on a lucrative set of anthelmintic drug targets.

  10. Expression profile of the entire family of Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors in mouse and rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebendal Ted

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are membrane-bound receptors with long N termini. This family has 33 members in humans. Several Adhesion GPCRs are known to have important physiological functions in CNS development and immune system response mediated by large cell surface ligands. However, the majority of Adhesion GPCRs are still poorly studied orphans with unknown functions. Results In this study we performed the extensive tissue localization analysis of the entire Adhesion GPCR family in rat and mouse. By applying the quantitative real-time PCR technique we have produced comparable expression profile for each of the members in the Adhesion family. The results are compared with literature data and data from the Allen Brain Atlas project. Our results suggest that the majority of the Adhesion GPCRs are either expressed in the CNS or ubiquitously. In addition the Adhesion GPCRs from the same phylogenetic group have either predominant CNS or peripheral expression, although each of their expression profile is unique. Conclusion Our findings indicate that many of Adhesion GPCRs are expressed, and most probably, have function in CNS. The related Adhesion GPCRs are well conserved in their structure and interestingly have considerable overlap in their expression profiles, suggesting similarities among the physiological roles for members within many of the phylogenetically related clusters.

  11. Prostate-specific G-protein-coupled receptor collaborates with loss of PTEN to promote prostate cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M; Siwko, S; Zeng, L; Li, J; Yi, Z; Liu, M

    2016-03-03

    Among frequent events in prostate cancer are loss of the tumor-suppressor phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and overexpression of prostate-specific G-protein-coupled receptor (PSGR), but the potential tumorigenic synergy between these lesions is unknown. Here, we report a new mouse model (PSGR-Pten(Δ/Δ)) combining prostate-specific loss of Pten with probasin promoter-driven PSGR overexpression. By 12 months PSGR-Pten(Δ/Δ) mice developed invasive prostate tumors featuring Akt activation and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration. PSGR-Pten(Δ/Δ) tumors exhibited E-cadherin loss and increased stromal androgen receptor (AR) expression. PSGR overexpression increased LNCaP proliferation, whereas PSGR short hairpin RNA knockdown inhibited proliferation and migration. In conclusion, we demonstrate that PSGR overexpression synergizes with loss of PTEN to accelerate prostate cancer development, and present a novel bigenic mouse model that mimics the human condition, where both PSGR overexpression and loss of PTEN occur concordantly in the majority of advanced prostate cancers, yielding an environment more relevant to studying human prostate cancer.

  12. Stroke increases g protein-coupled estrogen receptor expression in the brain of male but not female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Brad R S; Brait, Vanessa H; Guida, Elizabeth; Lee, Seyoung; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Gardiner-Mann, Chantelle V; Miller, Alyson A; Tang, Sung-Chun; Drummond, Grant R; Sobey, Christopher G

    2013-01-01

    The novel estrogen receptor, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER, previously named GPR30), is widely distributed throughout the male and female brain and, thus, could potentially play a role in estrogen-mediated neuroprotective effects in diseases such as stroke. We hypothesized that GPER distribution and expression in the brain of male, intact female, and ovariectomized (OVX) mice is increased after 0.5 h middle cerebral artery occlusion. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that ischemia reperfusion increased GPER distribution in the peri-infarct brain regions of male mice, but surprisingly not in intact females or OVX mice. Similar differences were observed in the male and female human brain after stroke. In contrast, GPER distribution was decreased in the infarct core of all mice examined. Furthermore, GPER immunofluorescence was co-localized with the endothelial cell marker, von Willebrand factor, and the neuronal marker, NeuN. Consistent with the immunohistochemical findings, Western blot analysis showed GPER expression is only elevated in the ischemic hemisphere of male mice. Moreover, GPER mRNA expression in males was elevated at 4 h but had returned to baseline by 24 h. In conclusion, these findings indicate that GPER may be a potential therapeutic target after stroke, especially in males, in whom estrogen therapy is not feasible. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor FPR2 promotes malignant phenotype of human colon cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yi; Yao, Xiaohong; Chen, Keqiang; Wang, Xiafei; Zhou, Jiamin; Gong, Wanghua; Yoshimura, Teizo; Huang, Jiaqiang; Wang, Rongquan; Wu, Yuzhang; Shi, Guochao; Bian, Xiuwu; Wang, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    The G-protein coupled chemoattractant receptor formylpeptide receptor-2 (FPR2 in human, Fpr2 in mice) is expressed by mouse colon epithelial cells and plays a critical role in mediating mucosal homeostasis and inflammatory responses. However, the biological role of FPR2 in human colon is unclear. Our investigation revealed that a considerable number of human colon cancer cell lines expressed FPR2 and its ligands promoted cell migration and proliferation. Human colon cancer cell lines expressing high levels of FPR2 also formed more rapidly growing tumors in immunocompromised mice as compared with cell lines expressing lower levels of FPR2. Knocking down of FPR2 from colon cancer cell lines highly expressing FPR2 reduced their tumorigenicity. Clinically, FPR2 is more highly expressed in progressive colon cancer, associated with poorer patient prognosis. These results suggest that FPR2 can be high-jacked by colon cancer cells for their growth advantage, thus becoming a potential target for therapeutic development. PMID:27904774

  14. Opposite Regulation of Ghrelin and Glucagon-like Peptide-1 by Metabolite G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, M S; Schwartz, T W

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormones send information about incoming nutrients to the rest of the body and thereby control many aspects of metabolism. The secretion of ghrelin and glucagon-like protein (GLP)-1, two hormones with opposite secretory patterns and opposite actions on multiple targets, is controlled by a lim......Gut hormones send information about incoming nutrients to the rest of the body and thereby control many aspects of metabolism. The secretion of ghrelin and glucagon-like protein (GLP)-1, two hormones with opposite secretory patterns and opposite actions on multiple targets, is controlled...... by a limited number of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs); half of which recognize and bind dietary nutrient metabolites, metabolites generated by gut microbiota, and metabolites of the host's intermediary metabolism. Most metabolite GPCRs controlling ghrelin secretion are inhibitory, whereas all metabolite...... receptors controlling GLP-1 secretion are stimulatory. This dichotomy in metabolite sensor function, which is obtained through a combination of differential expression and cell-dependent signaling bias, offers pharmacological targets to stimulate GLP-1 and inhibit ghrelin through the same mechanism....

  15. G-protein coupled receptor solubilization and purification for biophysical analysis and functional studies, in the total absence of detergent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshad, Mohammed; Charlton, Jack; Lin, Yu-Pin; Routledge, Sarah J; Bawa, Zharain; Knowles, Timothy J; Overduin, Michael; Dekker, Niek; Dafforn, Tim R; Bill, Roslyn M; Poyner, David R; Wheatley, Mark

    2015-04-16

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest class of membrane proteins and are a major drug target. A serious obstacle to studying GPCR structure/function characteristics is the requirement to extract the receptors from their native environment in the plasma membrane, coupled with the inherent instability of GPCRs in the detergents required for their solubilization. In the present study, we report the first solubilization and purification of a functional GPCR [human adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR)], in the total absence of detergent at any stage, by exploiting spontaneous encapsulation by styrene maleic acid (SMA) co-polymer direct from the membrane into a nanoscale SMA lipid particle (SMALP). Furthermore, the A2AR-SMALP, generated from yeast (Pichia pastoris) or mammalian cells, exhibited increased thermostability (~5°C) compared with detergent [DDM (n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside)]-solubilized A2AR controls. The A2AR-SMALP was also stable when stored for prolonged periods at 4°C and was resistant to multiple freeze-thaw cycles, in marked contrast with the detergent-solubilized receptor. These properties establish the potential for using GPCR-SMALP in receptor-based drug discovery assays. Moreover, in contrast with nanodiscs stabilized by scaffold proteins, the non-proteinaceous nature of the SMA polymer allowed unobscured biophysical characterization of the embedded receptor. Consequently, CD spectroscopy was used to relate changes in secondary structure to loss of ligand binding ([(3)H]ZM241385) capability. SMALP-solubilization of GPCRs, retaining the annular lipid environment, will enable a wide range of therapeutic targets to be prepared in native-like state to aid drug discovery and understanding of GPCR molecular mechanisms.

  16. G protein-coupled receptors regulate Na+,K+-ATPase activity and endocytosis by modulating the recruitment of adaptor protein 2 and clathrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimoto, Goichi; Yudowski, Guillermo A.; Barker, Christopher J.; Köhler, Martin; Katz, Adrian I.; Féraille, Eric; Pedemonte, Carlos H.; Berggren, Per-Olof; Bertorello, Alejandro M.

    2000-01-01

    Inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) activity in renal epithelial cells by activation of G protein-coupled receptors is mediated by phosphorylation of the catalytic α-subunit followed by endocytosis of active molecules. We examined whether agonists that counteract this effect do so by dephosphorylation of the α-subunit or by preventing its internalization through a direct interaction with the endocytic network. Oxymetazoline counteracted the action of dopamine on NKA activity, and this effect was achieved not by preventing α-subunit phosphorylation, but by impaired endocytosis of α-subunits into clathrin vesicles and early and late endosomes. Dopamine-induced inhibition of NKA activity and α-subunit endocytosis required the interaction of adaptor protein 2 (AP-2) with the catalytic α-subunit. Phosphorylation of the α-subunit is essential because dopamine failed to promote such interaction in cells lacking the protein kinase C phosphorylation residue (S18A). Confocal microscopy confirmed that oxymetazoline prevents incorporation of NKA molecules into clathrin vesicles by inhibiting the ability of dopamine to recruit clathrin to the plasma membrane. Dopamine decreased the basal levels of inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6), whereas oxymetazoline prevented this effect. Similar increments (above basal) in the concentration of InsP6 induced by oxymetazoline prevented AP-2 binding to the NKA α-subunit in response to dopamine. In conclusion, inhibition of NKA activity can be reversed by preventing its endocytosis without altering the state of α-subunit phosphorylation; increased InsP6 in response to G protein-coupled receptor signals blocks the recruitment of AP-2 and thereby clathrin-dependent endocytosis of NKA. PMID:10716725

  17. Selective Allosteric Antagonists for the G Protein-Coupled Receptor GPRC6A Based on the 2-Phenylindole Privileged Structure Scaffold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Henrik; Boesgaard, Michael Worch; Nørskov-Lauritsen, Lenea

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent a biological target class of fundamental importance in drug therapy. The GPRC6A receptor is a newly deorphanized class C GPCR that we recently reported for the first allosteric antagonists based on the 2-arylindole privileged structure scaffold (e.g., 1...

  18. The Target Residence Time of Antihistamines Determines Their Antagonism of the G Protein-Coupled Histamine H1 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reggie Bosma

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacodynamics of drug-candidates is often optimized by metrics that describe target binding (Kd or Ki value or target modulation (IC50. However, these metrics are determined at equilibrium conditions, and consequently information regarding the onset and offset of target engagement and modulation is lost. Drug-target residence time is a measure for the lifetime of the drug-target complex, which has recently been receiving considerable interest, as target residence time is shown to have prognostic value for the in vivo efficacy of several drugs. In this study, we have investigated the relation between the increased residence time of antihistamines at the histamine H1 receptor (H1R and the duration of effective target-inhibition by these antagonists. Hela cells, endogenously expressing low levels of the H1R, were incubated with a series of antihistamines and dissociation was initiated by washing away the unbound antihistamines. Using a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye and a label free, dynamic mass redistribution based assay, functional recovery of the H1R responsiveness was measured by stimulating the cells with histamine over time, and the recovery was quantified as the receptor recovery time. Using these assays, we determined that the receptor recovery time for a set of antihistamines differed more than 40-fold and was highly correlated to their H1R residence times, as determined with competitive radioligand binding experiments to the H1R in a cell homogenate. Thus, the receptor recovery time is proposed as a cell-based and physiologically relevant metric for the lead optimization of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists, like the H1R antagonists. Both, label-free or real-time, classical signaling assays allow an efficient and physiologically relevant determination of kinetic properties of drug molecules.

  19. The Target Residence Time of Antihistamines Determines Their Antagonism of the G Protein-Coupled Histamine H1 Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Reggie; Witt, Gesa; Vaas, Lea A. I.; Josimovic, Ivana; Gribbon, Philip; Vischer, Henry F.; Gul, Sheraz; Leurs, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacodynamics of drug-candidates is often optimized by metrics that describe target binding (Kd or Ki value) or target modulation (IC50). However, these metrics are determined at equilibrium conditions, and consequently information regarding the onset and offset of target engagement and modulation is lost. Drug-target residence time is a measure for the lifetime of the drug-target complex, which has recently been receiving considerable interest, as target residence time is shown to have prognostic value for the in vivo efficacy of several drugs. In this study, we have investigated the relation between the increased residence time of antihistamines at the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) and the duration of effective target-inhibition by these antagonists. Hela cells, endogenously expressing low levels of the H1R, were incubated with a series of antihistamines and dissociation was initiated by washing away the unbound antihistamines. Using a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye and a label free, dynamic mass redistribution based assay, functional recovery of the H1R responsiveness was measured by stimulating the cells with histamine over time, and the recovery was quantified as the receptor recovery time. Using these assays, we determined that the receptor recovery time for a set of antihistamines differed more than 40-fold and was highly correlated to their H1R residence times, as determined with competitive radioligand binding experiments to the H1R in a cell homogenate. Thus, the receptor recovery time is proposed as a cell-based and physiologically relevant metric for the lead optimization of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists, like the H1R antagonists. Both, label-free or real-time, classical signaling assays allow an efficient and physiologically relevant determination of kinetic properties of drug molecules. PMID:29033838

  20. The Target Residence Time of Antihistamines Determines Their Antagonism of the G Protein-Coupled Histamine H1 Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Reggie; Witt, Gesa; Vaas, Lea A I; Josimovic, Ivana; Gribbon, Philip; Vischer, Henry F; Gul, Sheraz; Leurs, Rob

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacodynamics of drug-candidates is often optimized by metrics that describe target binding (K d or K i value) or target modulation (IC 50 ). However, these metrics are determined at equilibrium conditions, and consequently information regarding the onset and offset of target engagement and modulation is lost. Drug-target residence time is a measure for the lifetime of the drug-target complex, which has recently been receiving considerable interest, as target residence time is shown to have prognostic value for the in vivo efficacy of several drugs. In this study, we have investigated the relation between the increased residence time of antihistamines at the histamine H 1 receptor (H 1 R) and the duration of effective target-inhibition by these antagonists. Hela cells, endogenously expressing low levels of the H 1 R, were incubated with a series of antihistamines and dissociation was initiated by washing away the unbound antihistamines. Using a calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye and a label free, dynamic mass redistribution based assay, functional recovery of the H 1 R responsiveness was measured by stimulating the cells with histamine over time, and the recovery was quantified as the receptor recovery time . Using these assays, we determined that the receptor recovery time for a set of antihistamines differed more than 40-fold and was highly correlated to their H 1 R residence times, as determined with competitive radioligand binding experiments to the H 1 R in a cell homogenate. Thus, the receptor recovery time is proposed as a cell-based and physiologically relevant metric for the lead optimization of G protein-coupled receptor antagonists, like the H 1 R antagonists. Both, label-free or real-time, classical signaling assays allow an efficient and physiologically relevant determination of kinetic properties of drug molecules.

  1. Spectral methods for study of the G-protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin: I. Vibrational and electronic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struts, A. V.; Barmasov, A. V.; Brown, M. F.

    2015-05-01

    Here we review the application of modern spectral methods for the study of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using rhodopsin as a prototype. Because X-ray analysis gives us immobile snapshots of protein conformations, it is imperative to apply spectroscopic methods for elucidating their function: vibrational (Raman, FTIR), electronic (UV-visible absorption, fluorescence) spectroscopies, and magnetic resonance (electron paramagnetic resonance, EPR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In the first of the two companion articles, we discuss the application of optical spectroscopy for studying rhodopsin in a membrane environment. Information is obtained regarding the time-ordered sequence of events in rhodopsin activation. Isomerization of the chromophore and deprotonation of the retinal Schiff base leads to a structural change of the protein involving the motion of helices H5 and H6 in a pH-dependent process. Information is obtained that is unavailable from X-ray crystallography, which can be combined with spectroscopic studies to achieve a more complete understanding of GPCR function.

  2. G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 is involved in brain development during zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yanan; Liu, Xiaochun [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Zhu, Pei; Li, Jianzhen; Sham, Kathy W.Y. [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Shuk Han [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Cheng, Christopher H.K., E-mail: chkcheng@cuhk.edu.hk [School of Biomedical Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Lin, Haoran, E-mail: lsslhr@mail.sysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, Institute of Aquatic Economic Animals and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory for Aquatic Economic Animals, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); College of Ocean, Hainan University, Haikou 570228, Hainan (China)

    2013-05-24

    Highlights: •The Gper expression was detected in the developing brain of zebrafish. •Gper morpholino knockdown induced apoptosis of brain cells. •Gper morpholino knockdown reduced expression in neuron markers. •Zebrafish Gper may be involved in neuronal development. -- Abstract: G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (Gper, formerly known as GPR30) is found to be a trophic and protective factor in mediating action of estrogen in adult brain, while its role in developing brain remains to be elucidated. Here we present the expression pattern of Gper and its functions during embryogenesis in zebrafish. Both the mRNA and protein of Gper were detected throughout embryogenesis. Whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH) revealed a wide distribution of gper mRNAs in various regions of the developing brain. Gper knockdown by specific morpholinos resulted in growth retardation in embryos and morphological defects in the developing brain. In addition, induced apoptosis, decreased proliferation of the brain cells and maldevelopment of sensory and motor neurons were also found in the morphants. Our results provide novel insights into Gper functions in the developing brain, revealing that Gper can maintain the survival of the brain cells, and formation and/or differentiation of the sensory and motor neurons.

  3. When Heterotrimeric G Proteins Are Not Activated by G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Structural Insights and Evolutionary Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Vincent; Marivin, Arthur; Garcia-Marcos, Mikel

    2018-01-23

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are signal-transducing switches conserved across eukaryotes. In humans, they work as critical mediators of intercellular communication in the context of virtually any physiological process. While G protein regulation by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is well-established and has received much attention, it has become recently evident that heterotrimeric G proteins can also be activated by cytoplasmic proteins. However, this alternative mechanism of G protein regulation remains far less studied than GPCR-mediated signaling. This Viewpoint focuses on recent advances in the characterization of a group of nonreceptor proteins that contain a sequence dubbed the "Gα-binding and -activating (GBA) motif". So far, four proteins present in mammals [GIV (also known as Girdin), DAPLE, CALNUC, and NUCB2] and one protein in Caenorhabditis elegans (GBAS-1) have been described as possessing a functional GBA motif. The GBA motif confers guanine nucleotide exchange factor activity on Gαi subunits in vitro and activates G protein signaling in cells. The importance of this mechanism of signal transduction is highlighted by the fact that its dysregulation underlies human diseases, such as cancer, which has made the proteins attractive new candidates for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss recent discoveries on the structural basis of GBA-mediated activation of G proteins and its evolutionary conservation and compare them with the better-studied mechanism mediated by GPCRs.

  4. Medium-Throughput Screen of Microbially Produced Serotonin via a G-Protein-Coupled Receptor-Based Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenworth, Amy M; Claiborne, Tauris; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela

    2017-10-17

    Chemical biosensors, for which chemical detection triggers a fluorescent signal, have the potential to accelerate the screening of noncolorimetric chemicals produced by microbes, enabling the high-throughput engineering of enzymes and metabolic pathways. Here, we engineer a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-based sensor to detect serotonin produced by a producer microbe in the producer microbe's supernatant. Detecting a chemical in the producer microbe's supernatant is nontrivial because of the number of other metabolites and proteins present that could interfere with sensor performance. We validate the two-cell screening system for medium-throughput applications, opening the door to the rapid engineering of microbes for the increased production of serotonin. We focus on serotonin detection as serotonin levels limit the microbial production of hydroxystrictosidine, a modified alkaloid that could accelerate the semisynthesis of camptothecin-derived anticancer pharmaceuticals. This work shows the ease of generating GPCR-based chemical sensors and their ability to detect specific chemicals in complex aqueous solutions, such as microbial spent medium. In addition, this work sets the stage for the rapid engineering of serotonin-producing microbes.

  5. Expression Pattern of G-Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor in Myometrium of Uteri with and without Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jiao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare the expression of G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER in the junctional zone and outer myometrium of the proliferative and secretory phases of women with and without adenomyosis. Methods. A total of 76 women were included in this study, 42 with adenomyosis (proliferative phase, n=23; secretory phases, n=19 and 34 controls (proliferative phase, n=16; secretory phases, n=18. Protein and total RNA were extracted from the junctional zone (JZ and outer myometrium (OM. GPER protein and mRNA expression levels were evaluated by the use of western blotting and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR. Results. The expression of GPER protein and mRNA in women with adenomyosis was significantly higher than that of control subjects, both in the junctional zone and in the outer myometrium and both in the proliferative and in the secretory phases. Conclusion. The significant and consistent increase in GPER expression in adenomyosis compared with control subjects, regardless of whether it was in the proliferative or secretory phases and regardless of whether it was in the JZ or OM, suggests that GPER plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the adenomyosis.

  6. Current Techniques for Studying Oligomer Formations of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors Using Mammalian and Yeast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Ishii, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2016-05-27

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are physiologically important transmembrane proteins that sense signaling molecules such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and various sensory stimuli; GPCRs represent major molecular targets for drug discovery. Although GPCRs traditionally have been thought to function as monomers or homomers, in the recent years these proteins have also been shown to function as heteromers. Heteromerization among GPCRs is expected to generate potentially large functional and physiological diversity and to provide new opportunities for drug discovery. However, due to the existence of numerous combinations, the larger universe of possible GPCR heteromers is unknown, and thus its functional significance is still poorly understood. The oligomerization of GPCRs in living cells now has been demonstrated in mammalian cells and in native tissues by using genetic, biochemical, and physiological approaches, as well as various resonance energy transfer (RET) technologies. In addition, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which can serve as a biosensor for monitoring eukaryotic biological processes, can also be used for the identification of functionally significant heteromer pairs of GPCRs. In this review, we focus on studies of GPCR oligomers, and summarize the technologies used to evaluate GPCR oligomerization. We additionally consider the potential limitations of these methods at present, and envision the possible future applications of these techniques.

  7. G Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Focus on BACE1 Related GPCRs

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    Juan eZhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs have been considered as one of the largest families of validated drug targets, which involve in almost overall physiological functions and pathological processes. Meanwhile, Alzheimer’s disease (AD, the most common type of dementia, affects thinking, learning, memory and behavior of elderly people, that has become the hotspot nowadays for its increasing risks and incurability. The above fields have been intensively studied, and the link between the two has been demonstrated, whereas the way how GPCRs perturb AD progress are yet to be further explored given their complexities. In this review, we summarized recent progress regarding the GPCRs interacted with β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1, a key secretase in AD pathogenesis. Then we discussed the current findings on the regulatory roles of GPCRs on BACE1, and the possibility for pharmaceutical treatment of AD patients by the allosteric modulators and biased ligands of GPCRs. We hope this review can provide new insights into the understanding of mechanistic link between GPCRs and BACE1, and highlight the potential of GPCRs as therapeutic target for AD.

  8. Behavior of leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5-expressing cells in the reprogramming process

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    Yuko Arioka

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear what cells are proper for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein coupled receptor 5 (Lgr5 is well known as a tissue stem cell and progenitor marker, both of which are reported to be sensitive to reprogramming. In the present study, we examined the reprogramming behavior of Lgr5-expressing cells (Lgr5+ cells. First, we compared reprogramming behavior using mouse Lgr5+ and Lgr5 negative (Lgr5− hair follicles (HFs. The number of alkaline phosphatase staining-positive cells was lesser in a well of Lgr5+ HFs than in Lgr5− HFs; however, the ratio of Nanog+ SSEA1+ cells in the cell mixture derived from Lgr5+ HFs was much higher than that from Lgr5− HFs. Lgr5+ cells could be induced from mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs after transduction with Yamanaka factors. As shown in HFs, the progeny of Lgr5+ cells arising from MEFs highly converted into Nanog+ cells and did not form Nanog− colonies. The progeny represented the status of the late reprogramming phase to a higher degree than the nonprogeny. We also confirmed this using human Lg5+ cells. Our findings suggest that the use of Lgr5+ cells will minimize sorting efforts for obtaining superior iPSCs.

  9. A mechanism regulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling that requires cycles of protein palmitoylation and depalmitoylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lixia; Chisari, Mariangela; Maktabi, Mohammad H; Sobieski, Courtney; Zhou, Hao; Konopko, Aaron M; Martin, Brent R; Mennerick, Steven J; Blumer, Kendall J

    2014-02-28

    Reversible attachment and removal of palmitate or other long-chain fatty acids on proteins has been hypothesized, like phosphorylation, to control diverse biological processes. Indeed, palmitate turnover regulates Ras trafficking and signaling. Beyond this example, however, the functions of palmitate turnover on specific proteins remain poorly understood. Here, we show that a mechanism regulating G protein-coupled receptor signaling in neuronal cells requires palmitate turnover. We used hexadecyl fluorophosphonate or palmostatin B to inhibit enzymes in the serine hydrolase family that depalmitoylate proteins, and we studied R7 regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)-binding protein (R7BP), a palmitoylated allosteric modulator of R7 RGS proteins that accelerate deactivation of Gi/o class G proteins. Depalmitoylation inhibition caused R7BP to redistribute from the plasma membrane to endomembrane compartments, dissociated R7BP-bound R7 RGS complexes from Gi/o-gated G protein-regulated inwardly rectifying K(+) (GIRK) channels and delayed GIRK channel closure. In contrast, targeting R7BP to the plasma membrane with a polybasic domain and an irreversibly attached lipid instead of palmitate rendered GIRK channel closure insensitive to depalmitoylation inhibitors. Palmitate turnover therefore is required for localizing R7BP to the plasma membrane and facilitating Gi/o deactivation by R7 RGS proteins on GIRK channels. Our findings broaden the scope of biological processes regulated by palmitate turnover on specific target proteins. Inhibiting R7BP depalmitoylation may provide a means of enhancing GIRK activity in neurological disorders.

  10. REEPs are membrane shaping adapter proteins that modulate specific g protein-coupled receptor trafficking by affecting ER cargo capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susann Björk

    Full Text Available Receptor expression enhancing proteins (REEPs were identified by their ability to enhance cell surface expression of a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, specifically GPCRs that have proven difficult to express in heterologous cell systems. Further analysis revealed that they belong to the Yip (Ypt-interacting protein family and that some REEP subtypes affect ER structure. Yip family comparisons have established other potential roles for REEPs, including regulation of ER-Golgi transport and processing/neuronal localization of cargo proteins. However, these other potential REEP functions and the mechanism by which they selectively enhance GPCR cell surface expression have not been clarified. By utilizing several REEP family members (REEP1, REEP2, and REEP6 and model GPCRs (α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors, we examined REEP regulation of GPCR plasma membrane expression, intracellular processing, and trafficking. Using a combination of immunolocalization and biochemical methods, we demonstrated that this REEP subset is localized primarily to ER, but not plasma membranes. Single cell analysis demonstrated that these REEPs do not specifically enhance surface expression of all GPCRs, but affect ER cargo capacity of specific GPCRs and thus their surface expression. REEP co-expression with α2 adrenergic receptors (ARs revealed that this REEP subset interacts with and alter glycosidic processing of α2C, but not α2A ARs, demonstrating selective interaction with cargo proteins. Specifically, these REEPs enhanced expression of and interacted with minimally/non-glycosylated forms of α2C ARs. Most importantly, expression of a mutant REEP1 allele (hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG31 lacking the carboxyl terminus led to loss of this interaction. Thus specific REEP isoforms have additional intracellular functions besides altering ER structure, such as enhancing ER cargo capacity, regulating ER-Golgi processing, and interacting with select cargo

  11. Identification of Novel G Protein-Coupled Receptor 143 Ligands as Pharmacologic Tools for Investigating X-Linked Ocular Albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippo, Elisabetta; Manga, Prashiela; Schiedel, Anke C

    2017-06-01

    GPR143 regulates melanosome biogenesis and organelle size in pigment cells. The mechanisms underlying receptor function remain unclear. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are excellent pharmacologic targets; thus, we developed and applied a screening approach to identify potential GPR143 ligands and chemical modulators. GPR143 interacts with β-arrestin; we therefore established a β-arrestin recruitment assay to screen for compounds that modulate activity. Because GPR143 is localized intracellularly, screening with the wild-type receptor would be restricted to agents absorbed by the cell. For the screen we used a mutant receptor, which shows similar basal activity as the wild type but traffics to the plasma membrane. We tested two compound libraries and investigated validated hits for their effects on melanocyte pigmentation. GPR143, which showed high constitutive activity in the β-arrestin assay, was inhibited by several compounds. The three validated inhibitors (pimozide, niclosamide, and ethacridine lactate) were assessed for impact on melanocytes. Pigmentation and expression of tyrosinase, a key melanogenic enzyme, were reduced by all compounds. Because GPR143 appears to be constitutively active, these compounds may turn off its activity. X-linked ocular albinism type I, characterized by developmental eye defects, results from GPR143 mutations. Identifying pharmacologic agents that modulate GPR143 activity will contribute significantly to our understanding of its function and provide novel tools with which to study GPCRs in melanocytes and retinal pigment epithelium. Pimozide, one of three GPR143 inhibitors identified in this study, maybe be a good lead structure for development of more potent compounds and provide a platform for design of novel therapeutic agents.

  12. Effective Application of Bicelles for Conformational Analysis of G Protein-Coupled Receptors by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duc, Nguyen Minh; Du, Yang; Thorsen, Thor S.; Lee, Su Youn; Zhang, Cheng; Kato, Hideaki; Kobilka, Brian K.; Chung, Ka Young

    2015-05-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have important roles in physiology and pathology, and 40% of drugs currently on the market target GPCRs for the treatment of various diseases. Because of their therapeutic importance, the structural mechanism of GPCR signaling is of great interest in the field of drug discovery. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a useful tool for analyzing ligand binding sites, the protein-protein interaction interface, and conformational changes of proteins. However, its application to GPCRs has been limited for various reasons, including the hydrophobic nature of GPCRs and the use of detergents in their preparation. In the present study, we tested the application of bicelles as a means of solubilizing GPCRs for HDX-MS studies. GPCRs (e.g., β2-adrenergic receptor [β2AR], μ-opioid receptor, and protease-activated receptor 1) solubilized in bicelles produced better sequence coverage (greater than 90%) than GPCRs solubilized in n-dodecyl-β-D-maltopyranoside (DDM), suggesting that bicelles are a more effective method of solubilization for HDX-MS studies. The HDX-MS profile of β2AR in bicelles showed that transmembrane domains (TMs) undergo lower deuterium uptake than intracellular or extracellular regions, which is consistent with the fact that the TMs are highly ordered and embedded in bicelles. The overall HDX-MS profiles of β2AR solubilized in bicelles and in DDM were similar except for intracellular loop 3. Interestingly, we detected EX1 kinetics, an important phenomenon in protein dynamics, at the C-terminus of TM6 in β2AR. In conclusion, we suggest the application of bicelles as a useful method for solubilizing GPCRs for conformational analysis by HDX-MS.

  13. Quantitative and systems pharmacology 2. In silico polypharmacology of G protein-coupled receptor ligands via network-based approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zengrui; Lu, Weiqiang; Yu, Weiwei; Wang, Tianduanyi; Li, Weihua; Liu, Guixia; Zhang, Hankun; Pang, Xiufeng; Huang, Jin; Liu, Mingyao; Cheng, Feixiong; Tang, Yun

    2018-03-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest super family with more than 800 membrane receptors. Currently, over 30% of the approved drugs target human GPCRs. However, only approximately 30 human GPCRs have been resolved three-dimensional crystal structures, which limits traditional structure-based drug discovery. Recent advances in network-based systems pharmacology approaches have demonstrated powerful strategies for identifying new targets of GPCR ligands. In this study, we proposed a network-based systems pharmacology framework for comprehensive identification of new drug-target interactions on GPCRs. Specifically, we reconstructed both global and local drug-target interaction networks for human GPCRs. Network analysis on the known drug-target networks showed rational strategies for designing new GPCR ligands and evaluating side effects of the approved GPCR drugs. We further built global and local network-based models for predicting new targets of the known GPCR ligands. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of more than 0.96 was obtained for the best network-based models in cross validation. In case studies, we identified that several network-predicted GPCR off-targets (e.g. ADRA2A, ADRA2C and CHRM2) were associated with cardiovascular complications (e.g. bradycardia and palpitations) of the approved GPCR drugs via an integrative analysis of drug-target and off-target-adverse drug event networks. Importantly, we experimentally validated that two newly predicted compounds, AM966 and Ki16425, showed high binding affinities on prostaglandin E2 receptor EP4 subtype with IC 50 =2.67μM and 6.34μM, respectively. In summary, this study offers powerful network-based tools for identifying polypharmacology of GPCR ligands in drug discovery and development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of G protein-coupled adenosine receptors by strategically functionalized agonists and antagonists immobilized on gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, P Suresh; Phan, Khai; Tosh, Dilip K; Kumar, T Santhosh; Moss, Steven M; Zhang, Guofeng; Barchi, Joseph J; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2013-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) allow the tuning of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties by active or passive targeting of drugs for cancer and other diseases. We have functionalized gold nanoparticles by tethering specific ligands, agonists and antagonists, of adenosine receptors (ARs) to the gold surface as models for cell surface interactions with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The AuNP conjugates with chain-extended AR ligands alone (PEGylated nucleosides and nonnucleosides, anchored to the Au via thioctic acid) were found to be insoluble in water due to hydrophobic entities in the ligand. Therefore, we added a second, biologically inactive pendant moiety to increase the water solubility, consisting of a PEGylated chain terminating in a carboxylic or phosphate group. The purity and stability of the immobilized biologically active ligand were examined by ultrafiltration and HPLC. Pharmacological receptor binding studies on these GPCR ligand-derivatized AuNPs (2-5 nm in diameter), performed using membranes of mammalian cells stably expressing human A1, A2A, and A3ARs, showed that the desired selectivity was retained with K(i) values (nanomolar) of A3AR agonist 21b and A2AAR antagonists 24 and 26a of 14 (A3), 34 (A2A), and 69 (A2A), respectively. The corresponding monomers displayed K i values of 37, 61, and 1,420 nM, respectively. In conclusion, we have synthesized stable, water-soluble AuNP derivatives of tethered A3 and A2AAR ligands that retain the biological properties of their monomeric ligands and are intended for therapeutic and imaging applications. This is the first prototypical application to gold carriers of small molecule (nonpeptide) GPCR ligands, which are under investigation for treatment of cancer and inflammatory diseases.

  15. Novel Computational Methodologies for Structural Modeling of Spacious Ligand Binding Sites of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: Development and Application to Human Leukotriene B4 Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Ishino, Yoko; Harada, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to predict the activated structures of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with high accuracy, while aiming for the use of the predicted 3D structures in in silico virtual screening in the future. We propose a new method for modeling GPCR thermal fluctuations, where conformation changes of the proteins are modeled by combining fluctuations on multiple time scales. The core idea of the method is that a molecular dynamics simulation is used to calculate avera...

  16. SuperBiHelix method for predicting the pleiotropic ensemble of G-protein-coupled receptor conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jenelle K; Abrol, Ravinder; Goddard, William A; Trzaskowski, Bartosz; Scott, Caitlin E

    2014-01-07

    There is overwhelming evidence that G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) exhibit several distinct low-energy conformations, each of which might favor binding to different ligands and/or lead to different downstream functions. Understanding the function of such proteins requires knowledge of the ensemble of low-energy configurations that might play a role in this pleiotropic functionality. We earlier reported the BiHelix method for efficiently sampling the (12)(7) = 35 million conformations resulting from 30° rotations about the axis (η) of all seven transmembrane helices (TMHs), showing that the experimental structure is reliably selected as the best conformation from this ensemble. However, various GPCRs differ sufficiently in the tilts of the TMHs that this method need not predict the optimum conformation starting from any other template. In this paper, we introduce the SuperBiHelix method in which the tilt angles (θ, ϕ) are optimized simultaneously with rotations (η) efficiently enough that it is practical and sufficient to sample (5 × 3 × 5)(7) = 13 trillion configurations. This method can correctly identify the optimum structure of a GPCR starting with the template from a different GPCR. We have validated this method by predicting known crystal structure conformations starting from the template of a different protein structure. We find that the SuperBiHelix conformational ensemble includes the higher energy conformations associated with the active protein in addition to those associated with the more stable inactive protein. This methodology was then applied to design and experimentally confirm structures of three mutants of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor associated with different functions.

  17. Computational Analysis of Missense Variants of G Protein-Coupled Receptors Involved in the Neuroendocrine Regulation of Reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Le; Nie, Min; Zhang, Anna; Wen, Junping; Noel, Sekoni D; Lee, Vivian; Carroll, Rona S; Kaiser, Ursula B

    2016-01-01

    Many missense variants in G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of reproduction have been identified by phenotype-driven or large-scale exome sequencing. Computational functional prediction analysis is commonly performed to evaluate their impact on receptor function. To assess the performance and outcome of functional prediction analyses for these GPCRs, we performed a statistical analysis of the prediction performance of SIFT and PolyPhen-2 for variants with documented biological function as well as variants retrieved from Ensembl. We obtained missense variants with documented biological function testing from patients with reproductive disorders from a comprehensive literature search. Missense variants from individuals with known reproductive disorders were retrieved from the Human Gene Mutation Database. Missense variants from the general population were retrieved from the Ensembl genome database. The accuracies of SIFT and PolyPhen-2 were 83 and 85%, respectively. The performance of both prediction tools was greater in predicting loss-of-function variants (SIFT: 92%; PolyPhen-2: 95%) than in predicting variants that did not affect function (SIFT: 54%; PolyPhen-2: 57%). Concordance between SIFT and PolyPhen-2 did not improve accuracy. Surprisingly, approximately half of the variants retrieved from Ensembl were predicted as loss-of-function variants by SIFT (47%) and PolyPhen-2 (54%). Our findings provide new guidance for interpreting the results and limitations of computational functional prediction analyses for GPCRs and will help to determine which variants require biological function testing. In addition, our findings raise important questions regarding the link between genotype and phenotype in the general population. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Comparative sequence and structural analyses of G-protein-coupled receptor crystal structures and implications for molecular models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L Worth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Up until recently the only available experimental (high resolution structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR was that of bovine rhodopsin. In the past few years the determination of GPCR structures has accelerated with three new receptors, as well as squid rhodopsin, being successfully crystallized. All share a common molecular architecture of seven transmembrane helices and can therefore serve as templates for building molecular models of homologous GPCRs. However, despite the common general architecture of these structures key differences do exist between them. The choice of which experimental GPCR structure(s to use for building a comparative model of a particular GPCR is unclear and without detailed structural and sequence analyses, could be arbitrary. The aim of this study is therefore to perform a systematic and detailed analysis of sequence-structure relationships of known GPCR structures. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed in detail conserved and unique sequence motifs and structural features in experimentally-determined GPCR structures. Deeper insight into specific and important structural features of GPCRs as well as valuable information for template selection has been gained. Using key features a workflow has been formulated for identifying the most appropriate template(s for building homology models of GPCRs of unknown structure. This workflow was applied to a set of 14 human family A GPCRs suggesting for each the most appropriate template(s for building a comparative molecular model. CONCLUSIONS: The available crystal structures represent only a subset of all possible structural variation in family A GPCRs. Some GPCRs have structural features that are distributed over different crystal structures or which are not present in the templates suggesting that homology models should be built using multiple templates. This study provides a systematic analysis of GPCR crystal structures and a consistent method for identifying

  19. Comparative sequence and structural analyses of G-protein-coupled receptor crystal structures and implications for molecular models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Catherine L; Kleinau, Gunnar; Krause, Gerd

    2009-09-16

    Up until recently the only available experimental (high resolution) structure of a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) was that of bovine rhodopsin. In the past few years the determination of GPCR structures has accelerated with three new receptors, as well as squid rhodopsin, being successfully crystallized. All share a common molecular architecture of seven transmembrane helices and can therefore serve as templates for building molecular models of homologous GPCRs. However, despite the common general architecture of these structures key differences do exist between them. The choice of which experimental GPCR structure(s) to use for building a comparative model of a particular GPCR is unclear and without detailed structural and sequence analyses, could be arbitrary. The aim of this study is therefore to perform a systematic and detailed analysis of sequence-structure relationships of known GPCR structures. We analyzed in detail conserved and unique sequence motifs and structural features in experimentally-determined GPCR structures. Deeper insight into specific and important structural features of GPCRs as well as valuable information for template selection has been gained. Using key features a workflow has been formulated for identifying the most appropriate template(s) for building homology models of GPCRs of unknown structure. This workflow was applied to a set of 14 human family A GPCRs suggesting for each the most appropriate template(s) for building a comparative molecular model. The available crystal structures represent only a subset of all possible structural variation in family A GPCRs. Some GPCRs have structural features that are distributed over different crystal structures or which are not present in the templates suggesting that homology models should be built using multiple templates. This study provides a systematic analysis of GPCR crystal structures and a consistent method for identifying suitable templates for GPCR homology modelling that will

  20. Cell transformation mediated by the Epstein-Barr virus G protein-coupled receptor BILF1 is dependent on constitutive signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngaa, Rikke Birgitte; Nørregaard, K.; Kristensen, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) open reading frame BILF1 encodes a seven trans-membrane (TM) G protein-coupled receptor that signals with high constitutive activity through G alpha(i) (Beisser et al., 2005; Paulsen et al., 2005). In this paper, the transforming potential of BILF1 is investigated in vitro...

  1. Rationally designed chemokine-based toxin targeting the viral G protein-coupled receptor US28 potently inhibits cytomegalovirus infection in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiess, Katja; Jeppesen, Mads G.; Malmgaard-Clausen, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    to target the human viral pathogen, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), on the basis of its expression of the 7TM G protein-coupled chemokine receptor US28. The virus origin of US28 provides an exceptional chemokine-binding profile with high selectivity and improved binding for the CX3C chemokine, CX3CL1...

  2. High Efficacy but Low Potency of delta-Opioid Receptor-G Protein Coupling in Brij-58-Treated, Low-Density Plasma Membrane Fragments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roubalová, Lenka; Vošahlíková, Miroslava; Brejchová, Jana; Sýkora, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimír; Svoboda, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 8 (2015), e0135664 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/0919 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:61388955 Keywords : delta - opioid receptor * G protein coupling * detergent * efficacy * potency Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry (UFCH-W) Impact factor: 3.057, year: 2015

  3. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER, GPR 30) in normal human endometrium and early pregnancy decidua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkova, Z; Noskova, V; Ehinger, A; Hansson, S; Casslén, B

    2010-10-01

    The recently identified trans-membrane G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER, GPR30) has been implicated in rapid non-genomic effects of estrogens. This focuses on expression and localization of GPER mRNA and protein in normal cyclic endometrium and early pregnancy decidua. Real-time PCR, western blotting, in situ hybridization and immuno-histochemistry were used. Endometrial expression of GPER mRNA was lower in the secretory phase than in the proliferative phase, and even lower in the decidua. The expression pattern was similar to that of ERα mRNA, but different from that of ERβ mRNA. Western blot detected GPER protein as a 54 kDa band in all endometrial and decidual samples. In contrast to the mRNA, GPER protein did not show cyclic variations. Apparently, a lower amount of mRNA is sufficient to maintain protein levels in the secretory phase. GPER mRNA was predominantly localized in the epithelium of mid- and late-proliferative phase endometrium, whereas expression in early proliferative and secretory glands could not be distinguished from the diffuse stromal signal, which was present throughout the cycle. Immuno-staining for GPER was stronger in glandular and luminal epithelium than in the stroma throughout the cycle. The cyclic variations of GPER mRNA obviously relate to strong epithelial expression in the proliferative phase, and the expression pattern suggests regulation by ovarian steroids. GPER protein is present in endometrial tissue throughout the cycle, and the epithelial localization suggests potential functions during sperm migration at mid-cycle, as well as decidualization and blastocyst implantation in the mid-secretory phase.

  4. G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 is involved in the protective effect of protocatechuic aldehyde against endothelial dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Soo Kong

    Full Text Available Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA, a phenolic aldehyde, has therapeutic potency against atherosclerosis. Although PCA is known to inhibit the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of PCA on endothelial cells and injured vessels in vivo in association with G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER-1. With PCA treatment, cAMP production was increased in HUVECs, while GPER-1 expression was increased in both HUVECs and a rat aortic explant. PCA and G1, a GPER-1 agonist, reduced H2O2 stimulated ROS production in HUVECs, whereas, G15, a GPER-1 antagonist, increased ROS production further. These elevations were inhibited by co-treatment with PCA or G1. TNFα stimulated the expression of inflammatory markers (VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and CD40, phospho-NF-κB, phospho-p38 and HIF-1α; however, co-treatment with PCA or G1 down-regulated this expression significantly. Likewise, increased expression of inflammatory markers by treatment with G15 was inhibited by co-treatment with PCA. In re-endothelization, aortic ring sprouting and neointima formation assay, rat aortas treated with PCA or G1 showed accelerated re-endothelization of the endothelium and reduced sprouting and neointima formation. However, aortas from G15-treated rats showed decelerated re-endothelization and increased sprouting and neointima formation. The effects of G15 were restored by co-treatment with PCA or G1. Also, in the endothelia of these aortas, PCA and G1 increased CD31 and GPER-1 and decreased VCAM-1 and CD40 expression. In contrast, the opposite effect was observed in G15-treated endothelium. These results suggest that GPER-1 might mediate the protective effect of PCA on the endothelium.

  5. Capripoxvirus G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor: a host-range gene suitable for virus animal origin discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Christian; Lamien, Charles Euloge; Fakhfakh, Emna; Chadeyras, Amélie; Aba-Adulugba, Elexpeter; Libeau, Geneviève; Tuppurainen, Eeva; Wallace, David B; Adam, Tajelser; Silber, Roland; Gulyaz, Vely; Madani, Hafsa; Caufour, Philippe; Hammami, Salah; Diallo, Adama; Albina, Emmanuel

    2009-08-01

    The genus Capripoxvirus within the family Poxviridae comprises three closely related viruses, namely goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses. This nomenclature is based on the animal species from which the virus was first isolated, respectively, goat, sheep and cattle. Since capripoxviruses are serologically identical, their specific identification relies exclusively on the use of molecular tools. We describe here the suitability of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) gene for use in host-range grouping of capripoxviruses. The analysis of 58 capripoxviruses showed three tight genetic clusters consisting of goat pox, sheep pox and lumpy skin disease viruses. However, a few discrepancies exist with the classical virus-host origin nomenclature: a virus isolated from sheep is grouped in the goat poxvirus clade and vice versa. Intra-group diversity was further observed for the goat pox and lumpy skin disease virus isolates. Despite the presence of nine vaccine strains, no genetic determinants of virulence were identified on the GPCR gene. For sheep poxviruses, the addition or deletion of 21 nucleic acids (7 aa) was consistently observed in the 5' terminal part of the gene. Specific signatures for each cluster were also identified. Prediction of the capripoxvirus GPCR topology, and its comparison with other known mammalian GPCRs and viral homologues, revealed not only a classical GPCR profile in the last three-quarters of the protein but also unique features such as a longer N-terminal end with a proximal hydrophobic alpha-helix and a shorter serine-rich C-tail.

  6. The Visual Cycle in the Inner Retina of Chicken and the Involvement of Retinal G-Protein-Coupled Receptor (RGR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Nicolás M; Morera, Luis P; Tempesti, Tomas; Guido, Mario E

    2017-05-01

    The vertebrate retina contains typical photoreceptor (PR) cones and rods responsible for day/night vision, respectively, and intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) involved in the regulation of non-image-forming tasks. Rhodopsin/cone opsin photopigments in visual PRs or melanopsin (Opn4) in ipRGCs utilizes retinaldehyde as a chromophore. The retinoid regeneration process denominated as "visual cycle" involves the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) or Müller glial cells. Opn4, on the contrary, has been characterized as a bi/tristable photopigment, in which a photon of one wavelength isomerizes 11-cis to all-trans retinal (Ral), with a second photon re-isomerizing it back. However, it is unknown how the chromophore is further metabolized in the inner retina. Nor is it yet clear whether an alternative secondary cycle occurs involving players such as the retinal G-protein-coupled receptor (RGR), a putative photoisomerase of unidentified inner retinal activity. Here, we investigated the role of RGR in retinoid photoisomerization in Opn4x (Xenopus ortholog) (+) RGC primary cultures free of RPE and other cells from chicken embryonic retinas. Opn4x (+) RGCs display significant photic responses by calcium fluorescent imaging and photoisomerize exogenous all-trans to 11-cis Ral and other retinoids. RGR was found to be expressed in developing retina and in primary cultures; when its expression was knocked down, the levels of 11-cis, all-trans Ral, and all-trans retinol in cultures exposed to light were significantly higher and those in all-trans retinyl esters lower than in dark controls. The results support a novel role for RGR in ipRGCs to modulate retinaldehyde levels in light, keeping the balance of inner retinal retinoid pools.

  7. The G protein-coupled receptor subset of the dog genome is more similar to that in humans than rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitina, Tatjana; Fredriksson, Robert; Foord, Steven M; Schiöth, Helgi B; Gloriam, David E

    2009-01-15

    The dog is an important model organism and it is considered to be closer to humans than rodents regarding metabolism and responses to drugs. The close relationship between humans and dogs over many centuries has lead to the diversity of the canine species, important genetic discoveries and an appreciation of the effects of old age in another species. The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one of the largest gene families in most mammals and the most exploited in terms of drug discovery. An accurate comparison of the GPCR repertoires in dog and human is valuable for the prediction of functional similarities and differences between the species. We searched the dog genome for non-olfactory GPCRs and obtained 353 full-length GPCR gene sequences, 18 incomplete sequences and 13 pseudogenes. We established relationships between human, dog, rat and mouse GPCRs resolving orthologous pairs and species-specific duplicates. We found that 12 dog GPCR genes are missing in humans while 24 human GPCR genes are not part of the dog GPCR repertoire. There is a higher number of orthologous pairs between dog and human that are conserved as compared with either mouse or rat. In almost all cases the differences observed between the dog and human genomes coincide with other variations in the rodent species. Several GPCR gene expansions characteristic for rodents are not found in dog. The repertoire of dog non-olfactory GPCRs is more similar to the repertoire in humans as compared with the one in rodents. The comparison of the dog, human and rodent repertoires revealed several examples of species-specific gene duplications and deletions. This information is useful in the selection of model organisms for pharmacological experiments.

  8. The G protein-coupled receptor subset of the dog genome is more similar to that in humans than rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiöth Helgi B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dog is an important model organism and it is considered to be closer to humans than rodents regarding metabolism and responses to drugs. The close relationship between humans and dogs over many centuries has lead to the diversity of the canine species, important genetic discoveries and an appreciation of the effects of old age in another species. The superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs is one of the largest gene families in most mammals and the most exploited in terms of drug discovery. An accurate comparison of the GPCR repertoires in dog and human is valuable for the prediction of functional similarities and differences between the species. Results We searched the dog genome for non-olfactory GPCRs and obtained 353 full-length GPCR gene sequences, 18 incomplete sequences and 13 pseudogenes. We established relationships between human, dog, rat and mouse GPCRs resolving orthologous pairs and species-specific duplicates. We found that 12 dog GPCR genes are missing in humans while 24 human GPCR genes are not part of the dog GPCR repertoire. There is a higher number of orthologous pairs between dog and human that are conserved as compared with either mouse or rat. In almost all cases the differences observed between the dog and human genomes coincide with other variations in the rodent species. Several GPCR gene expansions characteristic for rodents are not found in dog. Conclusion The repertoire of dog non-olfactory GPCRs is more similar to the repertoire in humans as compared with the one in rodents. The comparison of the dog, human and rodent repertoires revealed several examples of species-specific gene duplications and deletions. This information is useful in the selection of model organisms for pharmacological experiments.

  9. GPCR-SSFE: A comprehensive database of G-protein-coupled receptor template predictions and homology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreuchwig Annika

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs transduce a wide variety of extracellular signals to within the cell and therefore have a key role in regulating cell activity and physiological function. GPCR malfunction is responsible for a wide range of diseases including cancer, diabetes and hyperthyroidism and a large proportion of drugs on the market target these receptors. The three dimensional structure of GPCRs is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases and for performing structure-based drug design. Although structural data are restricted to only a handful of GPCRs, homology models can be used as a proxy for those receptors not having crystal structures. However, many researchers working on GPCRs are not experienced homology modellers and are therefore unable to benefit from the information that can be gleaned from such three-dimensional models. Here, we present a comprehensive database called the GPCR-SSFE, which provides initial homology models of the transmembrane helices for a large variety of family A GPCRs. Description Extending on our previous theoretical work, we have developed an automated pipeline for GPCR homology modelling and applied it to a large set of family A GPCR sequences. Our pipeline is a fragment-based approach that exploits available family A crystal structures. The GPCR-SSFE database stores the template predictions, sequence alignments, identified sequence and structure motifs and homology models for 5025 family A GPCRs. Users are able to browse the GPCR dataset according to their pharmacological classification or search for results using a UniProt entry name. It is also possible for a user to submit a GPCR sequence that is not contained in the database for analysis and homology model building. The models can be viewed using a Jmol applet and are also available for download along with the alignments. Conclusions The data provided by GPCR-SSFE are useful for investigating

  10. GPCR-SSFE: a comprehensive database of G-protein-coupled receptor template predictions and homology models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Catherine L; Kreuchwig, Annika; Kleinau, Gunnar; Krause, Gerd

    2011-05-23

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transduce a wide variety of extracellular signals to within the cell and therefore have a key role in regulating cell activity and physiological function. GPCR malfunction is responsible for a wide range of diseases including cancer, diabetes and hyperthyroidism and a large proportion of drugs on the market target these receptors. The three dimensional structure of GPCRs is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these diseases and for performing structure-based drug design. Although structural data are restricted to only a handful of GPCRs, homology models can be used as a proxy for those receptors not having crystal structures. However, many researchers working on GPCRs are not experienced homology modellers and are therefore unable to benefit from the information that can be gleaned from such three-dimensional models. Here, we present a comprehensive database called the GPCR-SSFE, which provides initial homology models of the transmembrane helices for a large variety of family A GPCRs. Extending on our previous theoretical work, we have developed an automated pipeline for GPCR homology modelling and applied it to a large set of family A GPCR sequences. Our pipeline is a fragment-based approach that exploits available family A crystal structures. The GPCR-SSFE database stores the template predictions, sequence alignments, identified sequence and structure motifs and homology models for 5025 family A GPCRs. Users are able to browse the GPCR dataset according to their pharmacological classification or search for results using a UniProt entry name. It is also possible for a user to submit a GPCR sequence that is not contained in the database for analysis and homology model building. The models can be viewed using a Jmol applet and are also available for download along with the alignments. The data provided by GPCR-SSFE are useful for investigating general and detailed sequence-structure-function relationships

  11. Are aryl hydrocarbon receptor and G-protein-coupled receptor 30 involved in the regulation of seasonal testis activity in photosensitive rodent-the bank vole (Myodes glareolus)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzycka, Marta; Gorowska-Wojtowicz, Ewelina; Tworzydlo, Waclaw; Klak, Aleksandra; Kozub, Klaudia; Hejmej, Anna; Bilinska, Barbara; Kotula-Balak, Malgorzata

    2016-08-01

    Within the reproductive system both aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) contribute to estrogen signaling and controlling of reproductive physiology. The specific question is whether and how AHR and GPR30 are involved in regulation of testis function in seasonally breeding rodents. Bank vole testes were obtained from animals reared under 18 hours light:6 hours dark (LD) and 6 hours light:18 hours dark (SD) conditions. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and GPR30 expression were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry and/or immunofluorescent staining. In addition, the activity of enzymes involved in the intracellular signal transduction; extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), protein kinase (PKA), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP 9) and the concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and calcium (Ca(2+)) were examined by immunohistochemical, immunoenzymatic, and colorimetric assays, respectively. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor and GPR30 were expressed in testes of actively reproducing voles and regressed ones although their expression at the messenger RNA and AHR also at protein level appeared to be photoperiod-dependent. A specific cellular localization and expression of AHR and GPR30 correlated with the expression of ERK, PKA, and MMP 9. Moreover, we found robust differences in the levels of cAMP, cGMP, and Ca(2+) in testicular homogenates between LD and SD voles. In the testes of LD voles, the levels of second messengers were always higher compared to SD. In vole testis, AHR and GPR30 can induce signaling pathways that involve ERK, PKA, MMP 9 and cAMP, cGMP, Ca(2+). In addition, in AHR, signaling the engagement of both photoperiod and estrogens, whereas in GPR30, signaling only estrogens is reported. It is likely that in vole, because of a differential activity of signaling molecules, signal transduction via

  12. Crystal Structure of the PAC1R Extracellular Domain Unifies a Consensus Fold for Hormone Recognition by Class B G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Shiva; Pioszak, Augen; Zhang, Chenghai; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Xu, H. Eric

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD) bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism...

  13. Mutations in G-protein coupled receptors and their ligands as the molecular cause of endocrine diseases: from mutation detection to structure-function relation-ships

    OpenAIRE

    Biebermann, Heike

    2010-01-01

    G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) are the largest family of integral membrane proteins. GPCR transmit the information of extracellular signal into the cell where they influence the activity of effector systems that in turn modulated the concentration of second messengers. Genetic variations in GPCR are the molecular cause of a variety of human diseases. Mutations could lead to inactivation of the receptors or to ligand-independent constitutive activation. Moreover mutations in ligands fo...

  14. A putative G protein-coupled receptor, RDC1, is a novel coreceptor for human and simian immunodeficiency viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, N; Soda, Y; Kanbe, K; Liu, H Y; Mukai, R; Kitamura, T; Hoshino, H

    2000-01-01

    More than 10 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been shown to act as coreceptors for infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We have isolated HIV-1 variants infectious to primary brain-derived CD4-positive cells (BT-3 and BT-20/N) and U87/CD4 glioma cells that are resistant to T-cell line-tropic (T-tropic), macrophage-tropic (M-tropic), and T- and M-tropic (dualtropic) (X4, R5, and R5X4) HIV-1 strains. These primary brain-derived cells were also highly susceptible to HIV-2(ROD), HIV-2(SBL6669), and SIV(mndGB-1). A factor or coreceptor that determines the susceptibility of these brain-derived cells to these HIV and SIV strains has not been fully identified. To identify this coreceptor, we examined amino acid sequences of all known HIV and SIV coreceptors and noticed that tyrosine residues are well conserved in their extracellular amino-terminal domains. By this criterion, we selected 18 GPCRs as candidates of coreceptors for HIV and SIV strains infectious to these brain-derived cells. mRNA expression of an orphan GPCR, RDC1, was detected in the brain-derived cells, the C8166 T-cell line, and peripheral blood lymphocytes, all of which are susceptible to HIV-1 variants, but not in macrophages, which are resistant to them. When a CD4-expressing cell line, NP-2/CD4, which shows strict resistance to infection not only with HIV-1 but also with HIV-2 or SIV, was transduced with the RDC1 gene, the cells became highly susceptible to HIV-2 and SIV(mnd) strains but to neither M- nor T-tropic HIV-1 strains. The cells also acquired a low susceptibility to the HIV-1 variants. These findings indicate that RDC1 is a novel coreceptor for several HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV strains which infect brain-derived cells.

  15. Shc adaptor proteins are key transducers of mitogenic signaling mediated by the G protein-coupled thrombin receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Y; Grall, D; Salcini, A E

    1996-01-01

    of the thrombin receptor in growth-responsive CCL39 fibroblasts. Shc phosphorylation by thrombin or the thrombin receptor agonist peptide is maximal by 15 min and persists for > or = 2 h. Following thrombin stimulation, phosphorylated Shc is recruited to Grb2 complexes. One or more pertussis toxin......-insensitive proteins appear to mediate this effect, since (i) pertussis toxin pre-treatment of cells does not blunt the action of thrombin and (ii) Shc phosphorylation on tyrosine can be stimulated by the muscarinic m1 receptor. Shc phosphorylation does not appear to involve protein kinase C, since the addition of 4...

  16. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils.

  17. The Novel Functions of the PLC/PKC/PKD Signaling Axis in G Protein-Coupled Receptor-Mediated Chemotaxis of Neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuehua; Jin, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Chemotaxis, a directional cell migration guided by extracellular chemoattractant gradients, plays an essential role in the recruitment of neutrophils to sites of inflammation. Chemotaxis is mediated by the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathway. Extracellular stimuli trigger activation of the PLC/PKC/PKD signaling axis, which controls several signaling pathways. Here, we concentrate on the novel functions of PLC/PKC/PKD signaling in GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of neutrophils.

  18. Functional selectivity of allosteric interactions within G protein-coupled receptor oligomers: the dopamine D1-D3 receptor heterotetramer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitart, Xavier; Navarro, Gemma; Moreno, Estefania; Yano, Hideaki; Cai, Ning-Sheng; Sánchez-Soto, Marta; Kumar-Barodia, Sandeep; Naidu, Yamini T; Mallol, Josefa; Cortés, Antoni; Lluís, Carme; Canela, Enric I; Casadó, Vicent; McCormick, Peter J; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-10-01

    The dopamine D1 receptor-D3 receptor (D1R-D3R) heteromer is being considered as a potential therapeutic target for neuropsychiatric disorders. Previous studies suggested that this heteromer could be involved in the ability of D3R agonists to potentiate locomotor activation induced by D1R agonists. It has also been postulated that its overexpression plays a role in L-dopa-induced dyskinesia and in drug addiction. However, little is known about its biochemical properties. By combining bioluminescence resonance energy transfer, bimolecular complementation techniques, and cell-signaling experiments in transfected cells, evidence was obtained for a tetrameric stoichiometry of the D1R-D3R heteromer, constituted by two interacting D1R and D3R homodimers coupled to Gs and Gi proteins, respectively. Coactivation of both receptors led to the canonical negative interaction at the level of adenylyl cyclase signaling, to a strong recruitment of β-arrestin-1, and to a positive cross talk of D1R and D3R agonists at the level of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Furthermore, D1R or D3R antagonists counteracted β-arrestin-1 recruitment and MAPK activation induced by D3R and D1R agonists, respectively (cross-antagonism). Positive cross talk and cross-antagonism at the MAPK level were counteracted by specific synthetic peptides with amino acid sequences corresponding to D1R transmembrane (TM) domains TM5 and TM6, which also selectively modified the quaternary structure of the D1R-D3R heteromer, as demonstrated by complementation of hemiproteins of yellow fluorescence protein fused to D1R and D3R. These results demonstrate functional selectivity of allosteric modulations within the D1R-D3R heteromer, which can be involved with the reported behavioral synergism of D1R and D3R agonists. U.S. Government work not protected by U.S. copyright.

  19. Role of Receptor-attached Phosphates in Binding of Visual and Non-visual Arrestins to G Protein-coupled Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Luis E.; Kook, Seunghyi; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A.; Ahmed, M. Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Eugenia V.; Gurevich, Vsevolod V.

    2012-01-01

    Arrestins are a small family of proteins that regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestins specifically bind to phosphorylated active receptors, terminating G protein coupling, targeting receptors to endocytic vesicles, and initiating G protein-independent signaling. The interaction of rhodopsin-attached phosphates with Lys-14 and Lys-15 in β-strand I was shown to disrupt the interaction of α-helix I, β-strand I, and the C-tail of visual arrestin-1, facilitating its transition into an active receptor-binding state. Here we tested the role of conserved lysines in homologous positions of non-visual arrestins by generating K2A mutants in which both lysines were replaced with alanines. K2A mutations in arrestin-1, -2, and -3 significantly reduced their binding to active phosphorhodopsin in vitro. The interaction of arrestins with several GPCRs in intact cells was monitored by a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assay. BRET data confirmed the role of Lys-14 and Lys-15 in arrestin-1 binding to non-cognate receptors. However, this was not the case for non-visual arrestins in which the K2A mutations had little effect on net BRETmax values for the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2R), β2-adrenergic (β2AR), or D2 dopamine receptors. Moreover, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of M2R interacted with wild type non-visual arrestins normally, whereas phosphorylation-deficient β2AR mutants bound arrestins at 20–50% of the level of wild type β2AR. Thus, the contribution of receptor-attached phosphates to arrestin binding varies depending on the receptor-arrestin pair. Although arrestin-1 always depends on receptor phosphorylation, its role in the recruitment of arrestin-2 and -3 is much greater in the case of β2AR than M2R and D2 dopamine receptor. PMID:22275358

  20. Role of receptor-attached phosphates in binding of visual and non-visual arrestins to G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Luis E; Kook, Seunghyi; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Ahmed, M Rafiuddin; Gurevich, Eugenia V; Gurevich, Vsevolod V

    2012-03-16

    Arrestins are a small family of proteins that regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Arrestins specifically bind to phosphorylated active receptors, terminating G protein coupling, targeting receptors to endocytic vesicles, and initiating G protein-independent signaling. The interaction of rhodopsin-attached phosphates with Lys-14 and Lys-15 in β-strand I was shown to disrupt the interaction of α-helix I, β-strand I, and the C-tail of visual arrestin-1, facilitating its transition into an active receptor-binding state. Here we tested the role of conserved lysines in homologous positions of non-visual arrestins by generating K2A mutants in which both lysines were replaced with alanines. K2A mutations in arrestin-1, -2, and -3 significantly reduced their binding to active phosphorhodopsin in vitro. The interaction of arrestins with several GPCRs in intact cells was monitored by a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET)-based assay. BRET data confirmed the role of Lys-14 and Lys-15 in arrestin-1 binding to non-cognate receptors. However, this was not the case for non-visual arrestins in which the K2A mutations had little effect on net BRET(max) values for the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2R), β(2)-adrenergic (β(2)AR), or D2 dopamine receptors. Moreover, a phosphorylation-deficient mutant of M2R interacted with wild type non-visual arrestins normally, whereas phosphorylation-deficient β(2)AR mutants bound arrestins at 20-50% of the level of wild type β(2)AR. Thus, the contribution of receptor-attached phosphates to arrestin binding varies depending on the receptor-arrestin pair. Although arrestin-1 always depends on receptor phosphorylation, its role in the recruitment of arrestin-2 and -3 is much greater in the case of β(2)AR than M2R and D2 dopamine receptor.

  1. Quantitative measurement of cell membrane receptor internalization by the nanoluciferase reporter: Using the G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3 as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Song, Ge; Shao, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Ya-Li; Guo, Zhan-Yun

    2015-02-01

    Nanoluciferase (NanoLuc) is a newly developed small luciferase reporter with the brightest bioluminescence to date. In the present work, we developed NanoLuc as a sensitive bioluminescent reporter to measure quantitatively the internalization of cell membrane receptors, based on the pH dependence of the reporter activity. The G protein-coupled receptor RXFP3, the cognate receptor of relaxin-3/INSL7, was used as a model receptor. We first generated stable HEK293T cells that inducibly coexpressed a C-terminally NanoLuc-tagged human RXFP3 and a C-terminally enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged human RXFP3. The C-terminal EGFP-tag and NanoLuc-tag had no detrimental effects on the ligand-binding potency and intracellular trafficking of RXFP3. Based on the fluorescence of the tagged EGFP reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was visualized directly under a fluorescence microscope. Based on the bioluminescence of the tagged NanoLuc reporter, the ligand-induced RXFP3 internalization was measured quantitatively by a convenient bioluminescent assay. Coexpression of an EGFP-tagged inactive [E141R]RXFP3 had no detrimental effect on the ligand-binding potency and ligand-induced internalization of the NanoLuc-tagged wild-type RXFP3, suggesting that the mutant RXFP3 and wild-type RXFP3 worked independently. The present bioluminescent internalization assay could be extended to other G protein-coupled receptors and other cell membrane receptors to study ligand-receptor and receptor-receptor interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genistein, a Phytoestrogen in Soybean, Induces the Expression of Acetylcholinesterase via G Protein-Coupled Receptor 30 in PC12 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Etta Y. L.; Xu, Miranda L.; Jin, Yan; Wu, Qiyun; Dong, Tina T. X.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2018-01-01

    Genistein, 4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone, is a major isoflavone in soybean, which is known as phytestrogen having known benefit to brain functions. Being a common phytestrogen, the possible role of genistein in the brain protection needs to be further explored. In cultured PC12 cells, application of genistein significantly induced the expression of neurofilaments (NFs), markers for neuronal differentiation. In parallel, the expression of tetrameric form of proline-rich membrane anchor (PRiMA)-linked acetyl-cholinesterase (G4 AChE), a key enzyme to hydrolyze acetylcholine in cholinergic synapses, was induced in a dose-dependent manner: this induction included the associated protein PRiMA. The genistein-induced AChE expression was fully blocked by the pre-treatment of H89 (an inhibitor of protein kinase A, PKA) and G15 (a selective G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) antagonist), which suggested a direct involvement of a membrane-bound estrogen receptor (ER), named as GPR30 in the cultures. In parallel, the estrogen-induced activation of GPR30 induced AChE expression in a dose-dependent manner. The genistein/estrogen-induced AChE expression was triggered by a cyclic AMP responding element (CRE) located on the ACHE gene promoter. The binding of this CRE site by cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) induced ACHE gene transcription. In parallel, increased expression levels of miR132 and miR212 were found when cultured PC12 cells were treated with genistein or G1. Thus, a balance between production and destruction of AChE by the activation of GPR30 was reported here. We have shown for the first time that the activation of GPR30 could be one way for estrogen or flavonoids, possessing estrogenic properties, to enhance cholinergic functions in the brain, which could be a good candidate for possible treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:29535608

  3. The role of G protein coupled receptor-mediated signaling in the biological properties of Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aqeel, Yousuf; Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Manan, Zainab; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-04-01

    Despite advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and supportive care, the prognosis of Acanthamoeba infections remains poor, suggesting that new targets are needed that can affect parasite survival and host-pathogen interactions. G proteins and their coupled receptors are well known regulators of a variety of cellular functions. The overall aim of the present study was to study the role of G-protein coupled receptor, β adrenergic receptor on the biology and pathogenesis of keratitis isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype. Inhibition of β adrenergic receptor using antagonist, propranolol had detrimental effects on the extracellular proteolytic activities A. castellanii as determined using zymographic assays. Conversely, β adrenergic receptor agonist, isoprenaline showed increased proteases. Interestingly, β adrenergic receptor inhibition affected A. castellanii growth (using amoebistatic assays), viability (using amoebicidal assays by measuring uptake of Trypan blue) and encystation as determined by trophozoite transformation into the cyst form. Pre-treatment of parasites with propranolol hampered A. castellanii-mediated human brain microvascular endothelial cell cytotoxicity, as measured by the lacatate dehydrogenase release. The aforementioned findings suggest that G-protein coupled receptor, β adrenergic receptor-mediated signaling in A. castellanii biology and pathogenesis may offer new pharmacological targets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Different cAMP sources are critically involved in G protein?coupled receptor CRHR1 signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Inda, Carolina; dos Santos Claro, Paula A.; Bonfiglio, Juan J.; Senin, Sergio A.; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Turck, Christoph W.; Silberstein, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates G protein-dependent and internalization-dependent signaling mechanisms. Here, we report that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response of CRHR1 in physiologically relevant scenarios engages separate cAMP sources, involving the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). cAMP produced by tmACs and sAC is required for the acute phase of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation trigg...

  5. Distinct Phosphorylation Clusters Determine the Signaling Outcome of Free Fatty Acid Receptor 4/G Protein-Coupled Receptor 120

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prihandoko, Rudi; Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Hudson, Brian D

    2016-01-01

    It is established that long-chain free fatty acids includingω-3 fatty acids mediate an array of biologic responses through members of the free fatty acid (FFA) receptor family, which includes FFA4. However, the signaling mechanisms and modes of regulation of this receptor class remain unclear. He...

  6. Reconsidering the roles of endogenous estrogens and xenoestrogens: the membrane estradiol receptor G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) mediates the effects of various estrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Pandey, Kiran; Onalenna, Kereilwe; Nahar, Asrafun

    2018-03-06

    Estrone (E1) and estriol (E3) are considered "weak" estrogens, which exert suppressive effects through estrogen receptors α and β. However, recent studies have demonstrated that E1 and E3, as well as estradiol (E2), suppress gonadotropin-releasing hormone-induced luteinizing hormone secretion from bovine gonadotrophs via G-protein-coupled receptor 30, which is expressed in various reproductive organs. Currently, there is a lack of fundamental knowledge regarding E1 and E3, including their blood levels. In addition, xenoestrogens may remain in the body over long time periods because of enterohepatic circulation. Therefore, it is time to reconsider the roles of endogenous estrogens and xenoestrogens for reproduction.

  7. Bisphenol A at a low concentration boosts mouse spermatogonial cell proliferation by inducing the G protein-coupled receptor 30 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, Zhi-Guo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Huang, Wei [Department of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Beijing 100091 (China); Liu, Yu-Xiang [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Zhu, Ben-Zhan, E-mail: bzhu@rcees.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085 (China); Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most prevalent chemicals in daily-use materials, therefore, human exposure to BPA is ubiquitous. We found that low concentrations of BPA stimulate the spermatogonial GC-1 cells proliferation by G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30)-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)-c-Fos pathway. However, through the same pathway GPR30 expression has been shown to be induced by EGF, an EGFR ligand. Thus, we want to know if low concentrations of BPA are able to induce the GPR30 expression and the possible mechanism(s) in GC-1 cells. By transient transfection with expression plasmids, 10{sup −9} M BPA significantly transactivates the Gpr30-5′-flanking region through activating the GPR30, cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α), and EFGR-ERK pathways. Furthermore, an activator protein-1 (AP-1) site located within this region is found to be responsible for the transactivation of BPA. Expectedly, through the same pathways, BPA significantly induces the gene and protein expression of GPR30. c-Fos is further observed to be strongly recruited to the AP-1 site in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and its dysfunction on the AP-1 site markedly suppresses the expression of GPR30, p-ERK1/2, p-Ser118-ER-α and cell proliferation by BPA. Our results demonstrate that a low-concentration BPA induces GPR30 expression through the GPR30-EFGR-ERK-c-Fos, ER-α, and PKG pathways, presumably boosting the cells proliferation via a regulatory loop. The present study provides a novel insight into the potential role of GPR30 in the initiation and progression of male germ cell cancer induced by environmentally relevant BPA. - Highlights: ► Low concentrations of BPA activate the PKG and GPR30-EFGR-ERK-ER-α pathways. ► Low concentrations of BPA activate the AP-1 site of Gpr30-5′-flanking region. ► Low concentrations of BPA induce the expression of GPR30 gene and protein. ► Low

  8. System and methods for predicting transmembrane domains in membrane proteins and mining the genome for recognizing G-protein coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rene J; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E; Goddard, William A; Floriano, Wely

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides computer-implemented methods and apparatus implementing a hierarchical protocol using multiscale molecular dynamics and molecular modeling methods to predict the presence of transmembrane regions in proteins, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR), and protein structural models generated according to the protocol. The protocol features a coarse grain sampling method, such as hydrophobicity analysis, to provide a fast and accurate procedure for predicting transmembrane regions. Methods and apparatus of the invention are useful to screen protein or polynucleotide databases for encoded proteins with transmembrane regions, such as GPCRs.

  9. Computer-aided discovery of aromatic L-α-amino acids as agonists of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR139

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ísberg, Vignir; Andersen, Kirsten Bayer; Bisig, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    GPR139 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor expressed mainly in the central nervous system. We developed a pharmacophore model based on known GPR139 surrogate agonists which led us to propose aromatic-containing dipeptides as potential ligands. Upon testing, the dipeptides demonstrated agonism...... in the Gq pathway. Next, testing all 20 proteinogenic L-α-amino acids; L-tryptophan and L-phenylalanine were found to have EC50 values of 220 µM and 320 µM, respectively, making them the first putative endogenous agonists for GPR139....

  10. Genetic Variations in the Human G Protein-coupled Receptor Class C, Group 6, Member A (GPRC6A) Control Cell Surface Expression and Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Stine; Have, Christian Theil; Underwood, Christina Rye

    2017-01-01

    GPRC6A is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by l-amino acids, which, based on analyses of knock-out mice, has been suggested to have physiological functions in metabolism and testicular function. The human ortholog is, however, mostly retained intracellularly in contrast to the cell surface...... of the human ortholog. Genetic analyses of the 1000 genome database and the Inter99 cohort of 6,000 Danes establish the distribution of genotypes among ethnic groups, showing that the cell surface-expressed and functional variant is much more prevalent in the African population than in European and Asian...

  11. A homology-based model of the human 5-HT2A receptor derived from an in silico activated G-protein coupled receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, James J.; Nichols, David E.

    2002-07-01

    A homology-based model of the 5-HT2A receptor was produced utilizing an activated form of the bovine rhodopsin (Rh) crystal structure [1,2]. In silico activation of the Rh structure was accomplished by isomerization of the 11- cis-retinal (1) chromophore, followed by constrained molecular dynamics to relax the resultant high energy structure. The activated form of Rh was then used as a structural template for development of a human 5-HT2A receptor model. Both the 5-HT2A receptor and Rh are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) super-family. The resulting homology model of the receptor was then used for docking studies of compounds representing a cross-section of structural classes that activate the 5-HT2A receptor, including ergolines, tryptamines, and amphetamines. The ligand/receptor complexes that ensued were refined and the final binding orientations were observed to be compatible with much of the data acquired through both diversified ligand design and site directed mutagenesis.

  12. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk for users of use of Swedish snus/American snuff (moist tobacco) has been debated for a long time. The present study was designed to examine the effects of water- or lipid-soluble (DMSO-soluble) snus and nicotine, the most important substance in tobacco, on the expression...... kinases (MAPK). However, the effects of moist tobacco on the expression of GPCR are less studied. Rat middle cerebral arteries were isolated and organ cultured in serum-free medium for 24h in the presence of water-soluble snus (WSS), DMSO-soluble snus (DSS), or nicotine. The dose of snus and nicotine...... was kept at plasma level of snus users (25ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist...

  13. The Cell Surface Estrogen Receptor, G Protein- Coupled Receptor 30 (GPR30, is Markedly Down Regulated During Breast Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Poola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: GPR30 is a cell surface estrogen receptor that has been shown to mediate a number of non-genomic rapid effects of estrogen and appear to balance the signaling of estrogen and growth factors. In addition, progestins appear to use GPR30 for their actions. Therefore, GPR30 could play a critical role in hormonal regulation of breast epithelial cell integrity. Deregulation of the events mediated by GPR30 could contribute to tumorigenesis.Methods: To understand the role of GPR30 in the deregulation of estrogen signaling processes during breast carcinogenesis, we have undertaken this study to investigate its expression at mRNA levels in tumor tissues and their matched normal tissues. We compared its expression at mRNA levels by RT quantitative real-time PCR relative to GAPDH in ERα”—positive (n = 54 and ERα”—negative (n = 45 breast cancer tissues to their matched normal tissues.Results: We report here, for the first time, that GPR30 mRNA levels were significantly down-regulated in cancer tissues in comparison with their matched normal tissues (p 0.0001 by two sided paired t-test. The GPR30 expression levels were significantly lower in tumor tissues from patients (n = 29 who had lymph node metastasis in comparison with tumors from patients (n = 53 who were negative for lymph node metastasis (two sample t-test, p 0.02, but no association was found with ERα, PR and other tumor characteristics.Conclusions: Down-regulation of GPR30 could contribute to breast tumorigenesis and lymph node metastasis.

  14. Receptor oligomerization in family B1 of G-protein-coupled receptors: focus on BRET investigations and the link between GPCR oligomerization and binding cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roed, Sarah Norklit; Orgaard, Anne; Jorgensen, Rasmus; De Meyts, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The superfamily of the seven transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors (7TM/GPCRs) is the largest family of membrane-associated receptors. GPCRs are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous human diseases, and they constitute an estimated 30-40% of all drug targets. During the last two decades, GPCR oligomerization has been extensively studied using methods like bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and today, receptor-receptor interactions within the GPCR superfamily is a well-established phenomenon. Evidence of the impact of GPCR oligomerization on, e.g., ligand binding, receptor expression, and signal transduction indicates the physiological and pharmacological importance of these receptor interactions. In contrast to the larger and more thoroughly studied GPCR subfamilies A and C, the B1 subfamily is small and comprises only 15 members, including, e.g., the secretin receptor, the glucagon receptor, and the receptors for parathyroid hormone (PTHR1 and PTHR2). The dysregulation of several family B1 receptors is involved in diseases, such as diabetes, chronic inflammation, and osteoporosis which underlines the pathophysiological importance of this GPCR subfamily. In spite of this, investigation of family B1 receptor oligomerization and especially its pharmacological importance is still at an early stage. Even though GPCR oligomerization is a well-established phenomenon, there is a need for more investigations providing a direct link between these interactions and receptor functionality in family B1 GPCRs. One example of the functional effects of GPCR oligomerization is the facilitation of allosterism including cooperativity in ligand binding to GPCRs. Here, we review the currently available data on family B1 GPCR homo- and heteromerization, mainly based on BRET investigations. Furthermore, we cover the functional influence of oligomerization on ligand binding as well as the link between oligomerization and binding cooperativity.

  15. Structure-Based Scaffold Repurposing for G Protein-Coupled Receptors: Transformation of Adenosine Derivatives into 5HT2B/5HT2CSerotonin Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, Dilip K; Ciancetta, Antonella; Warnick, Eugene; Crane, Steven; Gao, Zhan-Guo; Jacobson, Kenneth A

    2016-12-22

    Adenosine derivatives developed to activate adenosine receptors (ARs) revealed micromolar activity at serotonin 5HT 2B and 5HT 2C receptors (5HTRs). We explored the structure-activity relationship at 5HT 2 Rs and modeled receptor interactions in order to optimize affinity and simultaneously reduce AR affinity. Depending on N 6 substitution, small 5'-alkylamide modification maintained 5HT 2B R affinity, which was enhanced upon ribose substitution with rigid bicyclo[3.1.0]hexane (North (N)-methanocarba), e.g., N 6 -dicyclopropylmethyl 4'-CH 2 OH derivative 14 (K i 11 nM). 5'-Methylamide 23 was 170-fold selective as antagonist for 5HT 2B R vs 5HT 2C R. 5'-Methyl 25 and ethyl 26 esters potently antagonized 5HT 2 Rs with moderate selectivity in comparison to ARs; related 6-N,N-dimethylamino analogue 30 was 5HT 2 R-selective. 5' position flexibility of substitution was indicated in 5HT 2B R docking. Both 5'-ester and 5'-amide derivatives displayed in vivo t 1/2 of 3-4 h. Thus, we used G protein-coupled receptor modeling to repurpose nucleoside scaffolds in favor of binding at nonpurine receptors as novel 5HT 2 R antagonists, with potential for cardioprotection, liver protection, or central nervous system activity.

  16. Different cAMP sources are critically involved in G protein-coupled receptor CRHR1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inda, Carolina; Dos Santos Claro, Paula A; Bonfiglio, Juan J; Senin, Sergio A; Maccarrone, Giuseppina; Turck, Christoph W; Silberstein, Susana

    2016-07-18

    Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates G protein-dependent and internalization-dependent signaling mechanisms. Here, we report that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response of CRHR1 in physiologically relevant scenarios engages separate cAMP sources, involving the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). cAMP produced by tmACs and sAC is required for the acute phase of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation triggered by CRH-stimulated CRHR1, but only sAC activity is essential for the sustained internalization-dependent phase. Thus, different cAMP sources are involved in different signaling mechanisms. Examination of the cAMP response revealed that CRH-activated CRHR1 generates cAMP after endocytosis. Characterizing CRHR1 signaling uncovered a specific link between CRH-activated CRHR1, sAC, and endosome-based signaling. We provide evidence of sAC being involved in an endocytosis-dependent cAMP response, strengthening the emerging model of GPCR signaling in which the cAMP response does not occur exclusively at the plasma membrane and introducing the notion of sAC as an alternative source of cAMP. © 2016 Inda et al.

  17. The activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor induces relaxation via cAMP as well as potentiates contraction via EGFR transactivation in porcine coronary arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Yu

    Full Text Available Estrogen exerts protective effects against cardiovascular diseases in premenopausal women, but is associated with an increased risk of both coronary heart disease and stroke in older postmenopausal women. Studies have shown that activation of the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER can cause either relaxation or contraction of arteries. It is highly likely that these dual actions of GPER may contribute to the seemingly paradoxical effects of estrogen in regulating coronary artery function. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that activation of GPER enhances agonist-stimulated porcine coronary artery contraction via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR transactivation and its downstream extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2 pathway. Isometric tension studies and western blot were performed to determine the effect of GPER activation on coronary artery contraction. Our findings demonstrated that G-1 caused concentration-dependent relaxation of ET-1-induced contraction, while pretreatment of arterial rings with G-1 significantly enhanced ET-1-induced contraction. GPER antagonist, G-36, significantly inhibited both the G-1-induced relaxation effect and G-1-enhanced ET-1 contraction. Gallein, a Gβγ inhibitor, significantly increased G-1-induced relaxation, yet inhibited G-1-enhanced ET-1-mediated contraction. Similarly, inhibition of EGFR with AG1478 or inhibition of Src with phosphatase 2 further increased G-1-induced relaxation responses in coronary arteries, but decreased G-1-enhanced ET-1-induced contraction. Western blot experiments in porcine coronary artery smooth muscle cells (PCASMC showed that G-1 increased tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, which was inhibited by AG-1478. Furthermore, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that the level of heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF released by ET-1 treatment increased two-fold; whereas pre-incubation with G-1 further increased ET-1-induced HB-EGF release to four

  18. From the black widow spider to human behavior: Latrophilins, a relatively unknown class of G protein-coupled receptors, are implicated in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ariel F; Muenke, Maximilian; Arcos-Burgos, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    The findings of a recent study associate LPHN3, a member of the latrophilin family, with an increased risk of developing attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common psychiatric disorder in childhood and adolescence. Latrophilins comprise a new family of G protein-coupled receptors of unknown native physiological function that mediate the neurotoxic effects of α-latrotoxin, a potent toxin found in black widow spider venom. This receptor-toxin interaction has helped to elucidate the mechanistic aspects of neurotransmitter and hormone release in vertebrates. Such unprecedented discovery points to a new direction in the assessment of ADHD and suggest that further study of this receptor family may provide novel insights into the etiology and treatment of ADHD and other related psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Novel computational methodologies for structural modeling of spacious ligand binding sites of G-protein-coupled receptors: development and application to human leukotriene B4 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishino, Yoko; Harada, Takanori

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a novel method to predict the activated structures of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) with high accuracy, while aiming for the use of the predicted 3D structures in in silico virtual screening in the future. We propose a new method for modeling GPCR thermal fluctuations, where conformation changes of the proteins are modeled by combining fluctuations on multiple time scales. The core idea of the method is that a molecular dynamics simulation is used to calculate average 3D coordinates of all atoms of a GPCR protein against heat fluctuation on the picosecond or nanosecond time scale, and then evolutionary computation including receptor-ligand docking simulations functions to determine the rotation angle of each helix of a GPCR protein as a movement on a longer time scale. The method was validated using human leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 as a sample GPCR. Our study demonstrated that the proposed method was able to derive the appropriate 3D structure of the active-state GPCR which docks with its agonists.

  20. Novel Computational Methodologies for Structural Modeling of Spacious Ligand Binding Sites of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: Development and Application to Human Leukotriene B4 Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Ishino

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method to predict the activated structures of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs with high accuracy, while aiming for the use of the predicted 3D structures in in silico virtual screening in the future. We propose a new method for modeling GPCR thermal fluctuations, where conformation changes of the proteins are modeled by combining fluctuations on multiple time scales. The core idea of the method is that a molecular dynamics simulation is used to calculate average 3D coordinates of all atoms of a GPCR protein against heat fluctuation on the picosecond or nanosecond time scale, and then evolutionary computation including receptor-ligand docking simulations functions to determine the rotation angle of each helix of a GPCR protein as a movement on a longer time scale. The method was validated using human leukotriene B4 receptor BLT1 as a sample GPCR. Our study demonstrated that the proposed method was able to derive the appropriate 3D structure of the active-state GPCR which docks with its agonists.

  1. [Roles of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, in modulation of exocrine gland functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-07-01

    Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2), a G protein-coupled receptor, is activated by proteolytic unmasking of the N-terminal extracellular tethered ligand that presumably binds to the extracellular loop 2 of the receptor itself. PAR-2 is widely distributed in the mammalian body and plays various roles in biological events in the cardiovascular, respiratory, alimentary, and central neurons systems. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically to mice and rats trigger prompt salivation in vivo. In an in vitro study, PAR-2 agonists including the endogenous PAR-2 activator trypsin induce secretion of amylase and mucin from isolated rat parotid glands and sublingual glands, respectively. PAR-2-activating peptides administered systemically also modulate pancreatic exocrine secretion in vivo as well as in vitro. In the gastric mucosa, PAR-2 stimulation enhances secretion of mucus and pepsinogen and suppresses acid secretion. Tear secretion can also be caused by PAR-2-related peptides in PAR-2-dependent and -independent manners. PAR-2 thus plays a general or key role in the regulation of exocrine secretion. This review focuses on the physiologic and/or pathophysiologic roles of PAR-2 in glandular exocrine secretion. The possibility of PAR-2 as a target for drug development is also discussed.

  2. Minireview: G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, GPER-1: its mechanism of action and role in female reproductive cancer, renal and vascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, Edward J; Thomas, Peter

    2012-07-01

    Using cDNA cloning strategies commonly employed for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPCR-30 (GPR30), was isolated from mammalian cells before knowledge of its cognate ligand. GPR30 is evolutionarily conserved throughout the vertebrates. A broad literature suggests that GPR30 is a Gs-coupled heptahelical transmembrane receptor that promotes specific binding of naturally occurring and man-made estrogens but not cortisol, progesterone, or testosterone. Its "pregenomic" signaling actions are manifested by plasma membrane-associated actions familiar to GPCR, namely, stimulation of adenylyl cyclase and Gβγ-subunit protein-dependent release of membrane-tethered heparan bound epidermal growth factor. These facts regarding its mechanism of action have led to the formal renaming of this receptor to its current functional designate, G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (ER) (GPER)-1. Further insight regarding its biochemical action and physiological functions in vertebrates is derived from receptor knockdown studies and the use of selective agonists/antagonists that discriminate GPER-1 from the nuclear steroid hormone receptors, ERα and ERβ. GPER-1-selective agents have linked GPER-1 to physiological and pathological events regulated by estrogen action, including, but not limited to, the central nervous, immune, renal, reproductive, and cardiovascular systems. Moreover, immunohistochemical studies have shown a positive association between GPER-1 expression and progression of female reproductive cancer, a relationship that is diametrically opposed from ER. Unlike ER knockout mice, GPER-1 knockout mice are fertile and show no overt reproductive anomalies. However, they do exhibit thymic atrophy, impaired glucose tolerance, and altered bone growth. Here, we discuss the role of GPER-1 in female reproductive cancers as well as renal and vascular physiology.

  3. A novel chemogenomics analysis of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs and their ligands: a potential strategy for receptor de-orphanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmerich Michael TM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs represent a family of well-characterized drug targets with significant therapeutic value. Phylogenetic classifications may help to understand the characteristics of individual GPCRs and their subtypes. Previous phylogenetic classifications were all based on the sequences of receptors, adding only minor information about the ligand binding properties of the receptors. In this work, we compare a sequence-based classification of receptors to a ligand-based classification of the same group of receptors, and evaluate the potential to use sequence relatedness as a predictor for ligand interactions thus aiding the quest for ligands of orphan receptors. Results We present a classification of GPCRs that is purely based on their ligands, complementing sequence-based phylogenetic classifications of these receptors. Targets were hierarchically classified into phylogenetic trees, for both sequence space and ligand (substructure space. The overall organization of the sequence-based tree and substructure-based tree was similar; in particular, the adenosine receptors cluster together as well as most peptide receptor subtypes (e.g. opioid, somatostatin and adrenoceptor subtypes. In ligand space, the prostanoid and cannabinoid receptors are more distant from the other targets, whereas the tachykinin receptors, the oxytocin receptor, and serotonin receptors are closer to the other targets, which is indicative for ligand promiscuity. In 93% of the receptors studied, de-orphanization of a simulated orphan receptor using the ligands of related receptors performed better than random (AUC > 0.5 and for 35% of receptors de-orphanization performance was good (AUC > 0.7. Conclusions We constructed a phylogenetic classification of GPCRs that is solely based on the ligands of these receptors. The similarities and differences with traditional sequence-based classifications were investigated: our ligand

  4. Identification and Characterization of Novel Variations in Platelet G-Protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR Genes in Patients Historically Diagnosed with Type 1 von Willebrand Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Stockley

    Full Text Available The clinical expression of type 1 von Willebrand disease may be modified by co-inheritance of other mild bleeding diatheses. We previously showed that mutations in the platelet P2Y12 ADP receptor gene (P2RY12 could contribute to the bleeding phenotype in patients with type 1 von Willebrand disease. Here we investigated whether variations in platelet G protein-coupled receptor genes other than P2RY12 also contributed to the bleeding phenotype. Platelet G protein-coupled receptor genes P2RY1, F2R, F2RL3, TBXA2R and PTGIR were sequenced in 146 index cases with type 1 von Willebrand disease and the potential effects of identified single nucleotide variations were assessed using in silico methods and heterologous expression analysis. Seven heterozygous single nucleotide variations were identified in 8 index cases. Two single nucleotide variations were detected in F2R; a novel c.-67G>C transversion which reduced F2R transcriptional activity and a rare c.1063C>T transition predicting a p.L355F substitution which did not interfere with PAR1 expression or signalling. Two synonymous single nucleotide variations were identified in F2RL3 (c.402C>G, p.A134 =; c.1029 G>C p.V343 =, both of which introduced less commonly used codons and were predicted to be deleterious, though neither of them affected PAR4 receptor expression. A third single nucleotide variation in F2RL3 (c.65 C>A; p.T22N was co-inherited with a synonymous single nucleotide variation in TBXA2R (c.6680 C>T, p.S218 =. Expression and signalling of the p.T22N PAR4 variant was similar to wild-type, while the TBXA2R variation introduced a cryptic splice site that was predicted to cause premature termination of protein translation. The enrichment of single nucleotide variations in G protein-coupled receptor genes among type 1 von Willebrand disease patients supports the view of type 1 von Willebrand disease as a polygenic disorder.

  5. Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced rapid uPAR mobilization and cell migration via the G-protein-coupled receptor 30 in ovarian cancer cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henic, Emir; Noskova, Vera; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    for ERalpha, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Estradiol attenuates the stimulatory effect of EGF on cell migration and uPAR expression. Specifically, E(2) reduces the very rapid increase of detergent extractable uPAR, which occurs within minutes of EGF stimulation and probably represents...... agonist G1, mimicked the effect of E(2) on uPAR expression and cell migration. OVCAR-3 cells express mRNA for GPR30.Estradiol attenuates EGF-induced mobilization of ligated uPAR from detergent-resistant domains and subsequent migration in ovarian cancer cells. The response to various ER ligands indicates......: rapid mobilization of uPAR from detergent-resistant domains, increased mRNA, and decreased degradation. G-protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30) is a newly identified membrane estrogen receptor (ER).The objective of this study was to explore the effects of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) on uPAR expression...

  6. Molecular cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of GPRC6A, a novel family C G-protein-coupled receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wellendorph, Petrine; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2004-01-01

    with a significant homology to the human calcium-sensing receptor (CaR, 34% aa sequence identity), the taste receptor 1 (T1R1, 28%), and the metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1, 24%), places GPRC6A in family C of the GPCRs. Interestingly, GPRC6A bears the highest resemblance with an odorant goldfish 5.......24 receptor (45%) which suggests that GPRC6A is the human orthologue of this receptor. GPRC6A is widely expressed in brain and peripheral tissues with highest levels in kidney, skeletal muscle, testis, and leucocytes. All three isoforms are expressed in mammalian cells, but are poorly expressed on the cell...

  7. Alteration in contractile G-protein coupled receptor expression by moist snuff and nicotine in rat cerebral arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Hardip; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2011-01-01

    nicotine/ml) lowered the 5-HT(1B) receptor-mediated contraction. Furthermore, DSS shifted the TP receptor-mediated contraction curve left-wards with a stronger contraction. High dose of nicotine (250ng nicotine/ml) increased the ET(B) receptor-mediated contraction. The combined 5-HT(1B) and 5-HT(2A...... was kept at plasma level of snus users (25ng nicotine/ml). A high dose (250ng nicotine/ml) was also included due to the previous results showing alteration in the GPCR expression by nicotine at this concentration. Contractile responses to the ET(B) receptor agonist sarafotoxin 6c, 5-HT(1B) receptor agonist...... 5-carboxamidotryptamine, and TP receptor agonist U46619 were investigated by a sensitive myograph. The expression of ET(B), 5-HT(1B), and TP receptors was studied at mRNA and protein levels using quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Organ culture with WSS or DSS (25ng...

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates expression of the anti-lipolytic G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81/Gpr81)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeninga, Ellen H; Bugge, Anne Skovsø; Nielsen, Ronni

    2009-01-01

    target genes that may contribute to the reduction of circulating free fatty acids after TZD treatment have been identified, the relevant PPARgamma target genes that may exert the anti-lipolytic effect of TZDs are unknown. Here we identified the anti-lipolytic human G-protein-coupled receptor 81 (GPR81......), GPR109A, and the (human-specific) GPR109B genes as well as the mouse Gpr81 and Gpr109A genes as novel TZD-induced genes in mature adipocytes. GPR81/Gpr81 is a direct PPARgamma target gene, because mRNA expression of GPR81/Gpr81 (and GPR109A/Gpr109A) increased in mature human and murine adipocytes...... as well as in vivo in epididymal fat pads of mice upon rosiglitazone stimulation, whereas small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of PPARgamma in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed a significant decrease in Gpr81 protein expression. In addition, chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing analysis...

  9. A dual agonist of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the G protein-coupled receptor TGR5, INT-767, reverses age-related kidney disease in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxin X; Luo, Yuhuan; Wang, Dong; Adorini, Luciano; Pruzanski, Mark; Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Levi, Moshe

    2017-07-21

    Even in healthy individuals, renal function gradually declines during aging. However, an observed variation in the rate of this decline has raised the possibility of slowing or delaying age-related kidney disease. One of the most successful interventional measures that slows down and delays age-related kidney disease is caloric restriction. We undertook the present studies to search for potential factors that are regulated by caloric restriction and act as caloric restriction mimetics. Based on our prior studies with the bile acid-activated nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled membrane receptor TGR5 that demonstrated beneficial effects of FXR and TGR5 activation in the kidney, we reasoned that FXR and TGR5 could be excellent candidates. We therefore determined the effects of aging and caloric restriction on the expression of FXR and TGR5 in the kidney. We found that FXR and TGR5 expression levels are decreased in the aging kidney and that caloric restriction prevents these age-related decreases. Interestingly, in long-lived Ames dwarf mice, renal FXR and TGR5 expression levels were also increased. A 2-month treatment of 22-month-old C57BL/6J mice with the FXR-TGR5 dual agonist INT-767 induced caloric restriction-like effects and reversed age-related increases in proteinuria, podocyte injury, fibronectin accumulation, TGF-β expression, and, most notably, age-related impairments in mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, in podocytes cultured in serum obtained from old mice, INT-767 prevented the increases in the proinflammatory markers TNF-α, toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), and TLR4. In summary, our results indicate that FXR and TGR5 may play an important role in modulation of age-related kidney disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Cross-communication between Giand Gsin a G-protein-coupled receptor heterotetramer guided by a receptor C-terminal domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Gemma; Cordomí, Arnau; Brugarolas, Marc; Moreno, Estefanía; Aguinaga, David; Pérez-Benito, Laura; Ferre, Sergi; Cortés, Antoni; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Canela, Enric I; Lluís, Carme; Pardo, Leonardo; McCormick, Peter J; Franco, Rafael

    2018-02-28

    G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteromeric complexes have distinct properties from homomeric GPCRs, giving rise to new receptor functionalities. Adenosine receptors (A 1 R or A 2A R) can form A 1 R-A 2A R heteromers (A 1 -A 2A Het), and their activation leads to canonical G-protein-dependent (adenylate cyclase mediated) and -independent (β-arrestin mediated) signaling. Adenosine has different affinities for A 1 R and A 2A R, allowing the heteromeric receptor to detect its concentration by integrating the downstream G i - and G s -dependent signals. cAMP accumulation and β-arrestin recruitment assays have shown that, within the complex, activation of A 2A R impedes signaling via A 1 R. We examined the mechanism by which A 1 -A 2A Het integrates G i - and G s -dependent signals. A 1 R blockade by A 2A R in the A 1 -A 2A Het is not observed in the absence of A 2A R activation by agonists, in the absence of the C-terminal domain of A 2A R, or in the presence of synthetic peptides that disrupt the heteromer interface of A 1 -A 2A Het, indicating that signaling mediated by A 1 R and A 2A R is controlled by both G i and G s proteins. We identified a new mechanism of signal transduction that implies a cross-communication between G i and G s proteins guided by the C-terminal tail of the A 2A R. This mechanism provides the molecular basis for the operation of the A 1 -A 2A Het as an adenosine concentration-sensing device that modulates the signals originating at both A 1 R and A 2A R.

  11. The adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G2 (ADGRG2/GPR64) constitutively activates SRE and NFκB and is involved in cell adhesion and migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelia Peeters, Miriam; Fokkelman, Michiel; Boogaard, Bob

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors (ADGRs) are believed to be activated by auto-proteolytic cleavage of their very large extracellular N-terminal domains normally acting as a negative regulator of the intrinsically constitutively active seven transmembrane domain. ADGRG2 (or GPR64) which...... activity through the adhesion- and migration-related transcription factors serum response element (SRE) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) presumably via coupling to Gα12/13 and Gαq. However, activation of these two pathways appears to occur through distinct molecular...... intracellular signal transduction. Knockdown of ADGRG2 by siRNA in the highly motile breast cancer cell lines Hs578T and MDA-MB-231 resulted in a strong reduction in cell adhesion and subsequent cell migration which was associated with a selective reduction in RelB, an NFκB family member. It is concluded...

  12. OXER1, a G protein-coupled oxoeicosatetraenoid receptor, mediates the survival-promoting effects of arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase in prostate cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarveswaran, Sivalokanathan; Ghosh, Jagadananda

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of 5-Lox induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by inactivating PKCε which is prevented by 5-oxoETE, and activators of PKCε prevent 5-Lox inhibition-induced apoptosis, suggesting that 5-Lox metabolites exert survival signaling via PKCε. However, mechanisms by which 5-Lox metabolites activate PKCε are not understood yet. We found that prostate cancer cells express high levels of OXER1, a G protein-coupled 5-oxoETE receptor, which delivers signal by generating diacyl-glycerol through phospholipase C-beta. Interestingly, we found that U73122, an inhibitor of PLC-beta, interrupts the apoptosis-preventing effect of 5-oxoETE, and exogenous diacyl-glycerol effectively prevents 5-Lox inhibition-induced apoptosis, suggesting that 5-oxoETE signals via OXER1 to promote prostate cancer cell survival. PMID:23643940

  13. Single Molecule Imaging Deciphers the Relation between Mobility and Signaling of a Prototypical G Protein-coupled Receptor in Living Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veya, Luc; Piguet, Joachim; Vogel, Horst

    2015-11-13

    Lateral diffusion enables efficient interactions between membrane proteins, leading to signal transmission across the plasma membrane. An open question is how the spatiotemporal distribution of cell surface receptors influences the transmembrane signaling network. Here we addressed this issue by studying the mobility of a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor, during its different phases of cellular signaling. Attaching a single quantum dot to individual neurokinin-1 receptors enabled us to follow with high spatial and temporal resolution over long time regimes the fate of individual receptors at the plasma membrane. Single receptor trajectories revealed a very heterogeneous mobility distribution pattern with diffusion constants ranging from 0.0005 to 0.1 μm(2)/s comprising receptors freely diffusing and others confined in 100-600-nm-sized membrane domains as well as immobile receptors. A two-dimensional representation of mobility and confinement resolved two major, broadly distributed receptor populations, one showing high mobility and low lateral restriction and the other showing low mobility and high restriction. We found that about 40% of the receptors in the basal state are already confined in membrane domains and are associated with clathrin. After stimulation with an agonist, an additional 30% of receptors became further confined. Using inhibitors of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, we found that the fraction of confined receptors at the basal state depends on the quantity of membrane-associated clathrin and is correlated to a significant decrease of the canonical pathway activity of the receptors. This shows that the high plasticity of receptor mobility is of central importance for receptor homeostasis and fine regulation of receptor activity. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Sequence and structure-based bioinformatic tools to the characterization, clustering and modeling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) /

    OpenAIRE

    Rios Azuara, Santiago,

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo, hemos desarrollado nuevas herramientas para el estudio de los receptores acoplados a proteína G (GPCRs). La importancia farmacológica de estos receptores motiva el desarrollo de métodos alternativos para ayudar su clasificación, identificación farmacológica y modelaje por comparación. Basado en los recientes avances in la cristalización de GPCRs, una nueva estrategia ha sido propuesta para un alineamiento múltiple de secuencias que incorpora irregularidades estructurales obse...

  15. Sequence and structure-based bioinformatic tools to the characterization, clustering and modeling of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs)

    OpenAIRE

    Rios Azuara, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo, hemos desarrollado nuevas herramientas para el estudio de los receptores acoplados a proteína G (GPCRs). La importancia farmacológica de estos receptores motiva el desarrollo de métodos alternativos para ayudar su clasificación, identificación farmacológica y modelaje por comparación. Basado en los recientes avances in la cristalización de GPCRs, una nueva estrategia ha sido propuesta para un alineamiento múltiple de secuencias que incorpora irregularidades estructurales obse...

  16. The positivity of G-protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR 30), an alternative estrogen receptor is not different between type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiayi; Yin, Yongxiang; Zhao, Min; Shen, Fang; Chen, Miaoxin; Chen, Qi

    2017-10-31

    It is well-known that the clinical outcomes are different between type 1 (estrogen dependent) and type 2 (estrogen independent) endometrial cancer. Studies have suggested that the estrogen receptor (ER) is positively correlated with endometrial cancer survival, however we previously reported that there is no difference in the positivity of ER as well as sex hormone levels between subtypes of cancer. G-protein-coupled receptor-30 (GPR 30), an alternative estrogen receptor has been suggested to be negatively correlated with clinical outcomes of endometrial cancer. In this study we investigated whether the positivity of GPR30 is different between subtypes of cancer. The immunostaining of GPR30 and ER was examined and analysed in 128 cases taking into account menopausal status. Overall, 105 (82%) cases were GPR30 positive and 118 (92%) cases were ER positive. The positivity of GPR30 in type 1 endometrial cancer (83%) was not statistically different to type 2 endometrial cancer (78%). In addition, intensity of immunostaining of GPR30 in type 1 endometrial cancer was also not different to type 2 endometrial cancer quantified by semi-quantitative analysis ( p = 0.268). Menopausal status was not associated with the positivity of GPR30 in both type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer. Furthermore, the positivity and intensity of immunostaining of GPR30 were not correlated with the positivity and intensity of immunostaining of ER in endometrial cancer ( p = 0.689). Our data further confirm that type 2 endometrial cancer may not be completely estrogen independent, and suggest that type 1 and type 2 endometrial cancer may have similar pathogenesis.

  17. Chemerin Elicits Potent Constrictor Actions via Chemokine-Like Receptor 1 (CMKLR1), not G-Protein-Coupled Receptor 1 (GPR1), in Human and Rat Vasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amanda J; Yang, Peiran; Read, Cai; Kuc, Rhoda E; Yang, Lucy; Taylor, Emily J A; Taylor, Colin W; Maguire, Janet J; Davenport, Anthony P

    2016-10-14

    Circulating levels of chemerin are significantly higher in hypertensive patients and positively correlate with blood pressure. Chemerin activates chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1 or ChemR23) and is proposed to activate the "orphan" G-protein-coupled receptor 1 (GPR1), which has been linked with hypertension. Our aim was to localize chemerin, CMKLR1, and GPR1 in the human vasculature and determine whether 1 or both of these receptors mediate vasoconstriction. Using immunohistochemistry and molecular biology in conduit arteries and veins and resistance vessels, we localized chemerin to endothelium, smooth muscle, and adventitia and found that CMKLR1 and GPR1 were widely expressed in smooth muscle. C9 (chemerin149-157) contracted human saphenous vein (pD 2 =7.30±0.31) and resistance arteries (pD 2 =7.05±0.54) and increased blood pressure in rats by 9.1±1.0 mm Hg at 200 nmol. Crucially, these in vitro and in vivo vascular actions were blocked by CCX832, which we confirmed to be highly selective for CMKLR1 over GPR1. C9 inhibited cAMP accumulation in human aortic smooth muscle cells and preconstricted rat aorta, consistent with the observed vasoconstrictor action. Downstream signaling was explored further and, compared to chemerin, C9 showed a bias factor=≈5000 for the G i protein pathway, suggesting that CMKLR1 exhibits biased agonism. Our data suggest that chemerin acts at CMKLR1, but not GPR1, to increase blood pressure. Chemerin has an established detrimental role in metabolic syndrome, and these direct vascular actions may contribute to hypertension, an additional risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study provides proof of principle for the therapeutic potential of selective CMKLR1 antagonists. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  18. Small Molecules from Nature Targeting G-Protein Coupled Cannabinoid Receptors: Potential Leads for Drug Discovery and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cannabinoid molecules are derived from Cannabis sativa plant which acts on the cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2 (CB1 and CB2 which have been explored as potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery and development. Currently, there are numerous cannabinoid based synthetic drugs used in clinical practice like the popular ones such as nabilone, dronabinol, and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol mediates its action through CB1/CB2 receptors. However, these synthetic based Cannabis derived compounds are known to exert adverse psychiatric effect and have also been exploited for drug abuse. This encourages us to find out an alternative and safe drug with the least psychiatric adverse effects. In recent years, many phytocannabinoids have been isolated from plants other than Cannabis. Several studies have shown that these phytocannabinoids show affinity, potency, selectivity, and efficacy towards cannabinoid receptors and inhibit endocannabinoid metabolizing enzymes, thus reducing hyperactivity of endocannabinoid systems. Also, these naturally derived molecules possess the least adverse effects opposed to the synthetically derived cannabinoids. Therefore, the plant based cannabinoid molecules proved to be promising and emerging therapeutic alternative. The present review provides an overview of therapeutic potential of ligands and plants modulating cannabinoid receptors that may be of interest to pharmaceutical industry in search of new and safer drug discovery and development for future therapeutics.

  19. The G protein G(i1) exhibits basal coupling but not preassembly with G protein-coupled receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bondar, A.; Lazar, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 23 (2017), s. 9690-9698 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : resonance energy transfer * CB1 cannabinoid receptor * living cells Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  20. G-protein coupled receptor 56 promotes myoblast fusion through serum response factor- and nuclear factor of activated T-cell-mediated signalling but is not essential for muscle development in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Melissa P; Doyle, Jamie R; Barry, Brenda; Beauvais, Ariane; Rozkalne, Anete; Piao, Xianhua; Lawlor, Michael W; Kopin, Alan S; Walsh, Christopher A; Gussoni, Emanuela

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian muscle cell differentiation is a complex process of multiple steps for which many of the factors involved have not yet been defined. In a screen to identify the regulators of myogenic cell fusion, we found that the gene for G-protein coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) was transiently up-regulated during the early fusion of human myoblasts. Human mutations in the gene for GPR56 cause the disease bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria; however, the consequences of receptor dysfunction on muscle development have not been explored. Using knockout mice, we defined the role of GPR56 in skeletal muscle. GPR56(-/-) myoblasts have decreased fusion and smaller myotube sizes in culture. In addition, a loss of GPR56 expression in muscle cells results in decreases or delays in the expression of myogenic differentiation 1, myogenin and nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT)c2. Our data suggest that these abnormalities result from decreased GPR56-mediated serum response element and NFAT signalling. Despite these changes, no overt differences in phenotype were identified in the muscle of GPR56 knockout mice, which presented only a mild but statistically significant elevation of serum creatine kinase compared to wild-type. In agreement with these findings, clinical data from 13 bilateral frontoparietal polymicrogyria patients revealed mild serum creatine kinase increase in only two patients. In summary, targeted disruption of GPR56 in mice results in myoblast abnormalities. The absence of a severe muscle phenotype in GPR56 knockout mice and human patients suggests that other factors may compensate for the lack of this G-protein coupled receptor during muscle development and that the motor delay observed in these patients is likely not a result of primary muscle abnormalities. © 2013 FEBS.

  1. Structure and Function of Cross-class Complexes of G Protein-coupled Secretin and Angiotensin 1a Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, Kaleeckal G; Augustine, Mary Lou; Lee, Leo T O; Chow, Billy K C; Miller, Laurence J

    2016-08-12

    Complexes of secretin (SecR) and angiotensin 1a (Atr1a) receptors have been proposed to be functionally important in osmoregulation, providing an explanation for overlapping and interdependent functions of hormones that bind and activate different classes of GPCRs. However, the nature of these cross-class complexes has not been well characterized and their signaling properties have not been systematically explored. We now use competitive inhibition of receptor bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and bimolecular fluorescence complementation to establish the dominant functionally important state as a symmetrical homodimeric form of SecR decorated by monomeric Atr1a, interacting through lipid-exposed faces of Atr1a TM1 and TM4. Conditions increasing prevalence of this complex exhibited negative allosteric modulatory impact on secretin-stimulated cAMP responses at SecR. In contrast, activating Atr1a with full agonist in such a complex exhibited a positive allosteric modulatory impact on the same signaling event. This modulation was functionally biased, with secretin-stimulated calcium responses unaffected, whereas angiotensin-stimulated calcium responses through the complex were reduced or absent. Further supporting this interpretation, Atr1a with mutations of lipid-exposed faces of TM1 and TM4 that did not affect its ability to bind or signal, could be expressed in the same cell as SecR, yet not exhibit either the negative or positive allosteric impact on cAMP observed with the inactive or activated states of wild type Atr1a on function, and not interfere with angiotensin-stimulated calcium responses like complexes with Atr1a. This may provide a more selective means of exploring the physiologic functional impact of this cross-class receptor complex without interfering with the function of either component receptor. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  2. The G protein G(i1) exhibits basal coupling but not preassembly with G protein-coupled receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bondar, Alexey; Lazar, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 292, č. 23 (2017), s. 9690-9698 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10799S; GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-14413Y Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : RESONANCE ENERGY-TRANSFER * CB1 CANNABINOID RECEPTOR * LIVING CELLS Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry OBOR OECD: Biochemistry and molecular biology Impact factor: 4.125, year: 2016

  3. Muscarinic receptor/G-protein coupling is reduced in the dorsomedial striatum of cognitively impaired aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves-Martinez, Erasmo; Haynes, Kathryn; Childers, Steven R; Sonntag, William E; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2012-02-01

    Behavioral flexibility, the ability to modify responses due to changing task demands, is detrimentally affected by aging with a shift towards increased cognitive rigidity. The neurobiological basis of this cognitive deficit is not clear although striatal cholinergic neurotransmission has been implicated. To investigate the possible association between striatal acetylcholine signaling with age-related changes in behavioral flexibility, young, middle-aged, and aged F344 X Brown Norway F1 rats were assessed using an attentional set-shifting task that includes two tests of behavioral flexibility: reversal learning and an extra-dimensional shift. Rats were also assessed in the Morris water maze to compare potential fronto-striatal-dependent deficits with hippocampal-dependent deficits. Behaviorally characterized rats were then assessed for acetylcholine muscarinic signaling within the striatum using oxotremorine-M-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding and [(3)H]AFDX-384 receptor binding autoradiography. The results showed that by old age, cognitive deficits were pronounced across cognitive domains, suggesting deterioration of both hippocampal and fronto-striatal regions. A significant decline in oxotremorine-M-stimulated [(35)S]GTPγS binding was limited to the dorsomedial striatum of aged rats when compared to young and middle-aged rats. There was no effect of age on striatal [(3)H]AFDX-384 receptor binding. These results suggest that a decrease in M2/M4 muscarinic receptor coupling is involved in the age-associated decline in behavioral flexibility. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Contribution of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) to 17β-estradiol-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Graciel; Menjivar-Cervantes, Norma; Leung, Man Sin; Volz, David C; Schlenk, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Exposure to 17β-estradiol (E2) influences the regulation of multiple signaling pathways, and E2-mediated disruption of signaling events during early development can lead to malformations such as cardiac defects. In this study, we investigated the potential role of the G-protein estrogen receptor 1 (GPER) in E2-induced developmental toxicity. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to E2 from 2h post fertilization (hpf) to 76 hpf with subsequent transcriptional measurements of heart and neural crest derivatives expressed 2 (hand2), leucine rich repeat containing 10 (lrrc10), and gper at 12, 28 and 76 hpf. Alteration in the expression of lrrc10, hand2 and gper was observed at 12 hpf and 76 hpf, but not at 28 hpf. Expression of these genes was also altered after exposure to G1 (a GPER agonist) at 76 hpf. Expression of lrrc10, hand2 and gper all coincided with the formation of cardiac edema at 76 hpf as well as other developmental abnormalities. While co-exposure of G1 with G36 (a GPER antagonist) rescued G1-induced abnormalities and altered gene expression, co-exposure of E2 with G36, or ICI 182,780 (an estrogen receptor antagonist) did not rescue E2-induced cardiac deformities or gene expression. In addition, no effects on the concentrations of downstream ER and GPER signaling molecules (cAMP or calcium) were observed in embryo homogenates after E2 treatment. These data suggest that the impacts of E2 on embryonic development at this stage are complex and may involve multiple receptor and/or signaling pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Three classes of ligands each bind to distinct sites on the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR84

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmud, Zobaer Al; Jenkins, Laura; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    Medium chain fatty acids can activate the pro-inflammatory receptor GPR84 but so also can molecules related to 3,3'-diindolylmethane. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane and decanoic acid acted as strong positive allosteric modulators of the function of each other and analysis showed the affinity of 3,3'-diind......Medium chain fatty acids can activate the pro-inflammatory receptor GPR84 but so also can molecules related to 3,3'-diindolylmethane. 3,3'-Diindolylmethane and decanoic acid acted as strong positive allosteric modulators of the function of each other and analysis showed the affinity of 3......,3'-diindolylmethane to be at least 100 fold higher. Methyl decanoate was not an agonist at GPR84. This implies a key role in binding for the carboxylic acid of the fatty acid. Via homology modelling we predicted and confirmed an integral role of arginine172, located in the 2nd extracellular loop, in the action...... of decanoic acid but not of 3,3'-diindolylmethane. Exemplars from a patented series of GPR84 antagonists were able to block agonist actions of both decanoic acid and 3,3'-diindolylmethane at GPR84. However, although a radiolabelled form of a related antagonist, [3H]G9543, was able to bind with high affinity...

  6. A common haplotype in the G-protein-coupled receptor gene GPR74 is associated with leanness and increased lipolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlman, Ingrid; Dicker, Andrea; Jiao, Hong

    2007-01-01

    with protection against obesity in two samples selected for obese and lean phenotypes (odds ratio for obesity 0.48 and 0.62; nominal P=.0014 and .014; n=1,013 and 1,423, respectively). In a population-based sample, it was associated with lower waist (P=.02) among 3,937 men and with obesity protection (odds ratio...... 0.36; P=.036) among those selected for obese or lean phenotypes. The ATAG haplotype was associated with increased adipocyte lipid mobilization (lipolysis) in vivo and in vitro. In human fat cells, GPR74 receptor stimulation and inhibition caused a significant and marked decrease and increase...... adipose tissue. The latter involves a cross-talk between GPR74 and beta -adrenoceptor signaling to lipolysis in fat cells....

  7. Crystal Structure of the PAC1R Extracellular Domain Unifies a Consensus Fold for Hormone Recognition by Class B G-Protein Coupled Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Shiva; Pioszak, Augen; Zhang, Chenghai; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Xu, H. Eric (Van Andel); (NU Singapore)

    2012-02-21

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD) bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism of hormone binding. However, the mechanism of how PACAP binds to its receptor remains controversial as an NMR structure of the PAC1R ECD/PACAP complex reveals a different topology of the ECD and a distinct mode of ligand recognition. Here we report a 1.9 {angstrom} crystal structure of the PAC1R ECD, which adopts the same fold as commonly observed for other members of Class B GPCR. Binding studies and cell-based assays with alanine-scanned peptides and mutated receptor support a model that PAC1R uses the same conserved fold of Class B GPCR ECD for PACAP binding, thus unifying the consensus mechanism of hormone binding for this family of receptors.

  8. Crystal structure of the PAC1R extracellular domain unifies a consensus fold for hormone recognition by class B G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shiva; Pioszak, Augen; Zhang, Chenghai; Swaminathan, Kunchithapadam; Xu, H Eric

    2011-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD) bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism of hormone binding. However, the mechanism of how PACAP binds to its receptor remains controversial as an NMR structure of the PAC1R ECD/PACAP complex reveals a different topology of the ECD and a distinct mode of ligand recognition. Here we report a 1.9 Å crystal structure of the PAC1R ECD, which adopts the same fold as commonly observed for other members of Class B GPCR. Binding studies and cell-based assays with alanine-scanned peptides and mutated receptor support a model that PAC1R uses the same conserved fold of Class B GPCR ECD for PACAP binding, thus unifying the consensus mechanism of hormone binding for this family of receptors.

  9. In pursuit of leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor-5 regulation and function in the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaofei; Jackson, Lindsey; Dey, Sudhansu K; Daikoku, Takiko

    2009-11-01

    Leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor (LGR)-5 is a recently identified marker of stem cells in adult intestinal epithelium and hair follicles. Because of this characteristic, we studied the status of Lgr5 expression in the mouse uterus under various conditions. Lgr5 is highly expressed in the uterine epithelium of immature mice and is dramatically down-regulated after the mice resume estrous cycles. Surprisingly, whereas its expression is up-regulated in uteri of ovariectomized mice, the expression is down-regulated by estrogen and progesterone via their cognate nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor-alpha and progesterone receptor, respectively. Using a mouse endometrial cancer model, we also found that Lgr5 is highly expressed in the epithelium during the initial stages of tumorigenesis but is remarkably down-regulated in fully developed tumors. Lgr5 is a downstream target of Wnt signaling in the intestine. Genetic evidence shows that either excessive or absence of Wnt signaling dampens Lgr5 expression in the uterus. Collectively, our results show that Lgr5 expression in the mouse uterine epithelium is unique and dynamically regulated under various physiological and pathological states of the uterus, suggesting that this orphan receptor has important functions in uterine biology. However, identifying definitive uterine function of LGR5 will require further investigation using conditional deletion of uterine Lgr5 because systemic deletion of this gene is neonatally lethal.

  10. Crystal structure of the PAC1R extracellular domain unifies a consensus fold for hormone recognition by class B G-protein coupled receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Kumar

    Full Text Available Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP is a member of the PACAP/glucagon family of peptide hormones, which controls many physiological functions in the immune, nervous, endocrine, and muscular systems. It activates adenylate cyclase by binding to its receptor, PAC1R, a member of class B G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR. Crystal structures of a number of Class B GPCR extracellular domains (ECD bound to their respective peptide hormones have revealed a consensus mechanism of hormone binding. However, the mechanism of how PACAP binds to its receptor remains controversial as an NMR structure of the PAC1R ECD/PACAP complex reveals a different topology of the ECD and a distinct mode of ligand recognition. Here we report a 1.9 Å crystal structure of the PAC1R ECD, which adopts the same fold as commonly observed for other members of Class B GPCR. Binding studies and cell-based assays with alanine-scanned peptides and mutated receptor support a model that PAC1R uses the same conserved fold of Class B GPCR ECD for PACAP binding, thus unifying the consensus mechanism of hormone binding for this family of receptors.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of tricarbonyl-Re/Tc(I chelate probes targeting the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER/GPR30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritwik Burai

    Full Text Available The discovery of the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPER (also GPR30 and the resulting development of selective chemical probes have revealed new aspects of estrogen receptor biology. The potential clinical relevance of this receptor has been suggested from numerous studies that have identified GPER expression in breast, endometrial, ovarian and other cancers. Thus GPER can be considered a candidate biomarker and target for non-invasive imaging and therapy. We have designed and synthesized a series of organometallic tricarbonyl-rhenium complexes conjugated to a GPER-selective small molecule derived from tetrahydro-3H-cyclopenta[c]quinoline. The activity and selectivity of these chelates in GPER-mediated signaling pathways were evaluated. These results demonstrate that GPER targeting characteristics depend strongly on the structure of the chelate and linkage. Ethanone conjugates functioned as agonists, a 1,2,3-triazole spacer yielded an antagonist, and derivatives with increased steric volume exhibited decreased activities. Promising GPER selectivity was observed, as none of the complexes interacted with the nuclear estrogen receptors. Radiolabeling with technetium-99m in aqueous media was efficient and gave radioligands with high radiochemical yields and purity. These chelates have favorable physicochemical properties, show excellent stability in biologically relevant media, exhibit receptor specificity and are promising candidates for continuing development as diagnostic imaging agents targeting GPER expression in cancer.

  12. Targeted Elimination of G Proteins and Arrestins Defines Their Specific Contributions to Both Intensity and Duration of G Protein-coupled Receptor Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Curto, Elisa; Inoue, Asuka; Jenkins, Laura; Raihan, Sheikh Zahir; Prihandoko, Rudi; Tobin, Andrew B; Milligan, Graeme

    2016-12-30

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can initiate intracellular signaling cascades by coupling to an array of heterotrimeric G proteins and arrestin adaptor proteins. Understanding the contribution of each of these coupling options to GPCR signaling has been hampered by a paucity of tools to selectively perturb receptor function. Here we employ CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing to eliminate selected G proteins (Gα q and Gα 11 ) or arrestin2 and arrestin3 from HEK293 cells together with the elimination of receptor phosphorylation sites to define the relative contribution of G proteins, arrestins, and receptor phosphorylation to the signaling outcomes of the free fatty acid receptor 4 (FFA4). A lack of FFA4-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca 2+ in Gα q /Gα 11 -null cells and agonist-mediated receptor internalization in arrestin2/3-null cells confirmed previously reported canonical signaling features of this receptor, thereby validating the genome-edited HEK293 cells. FFA4-mediated ERK1/2 activation was totally dependent on G q / 11 but intriguingly was substantially enhanced for FFA4 receptors lacking sites of regulated phosphorylation. This was not due to a simple lack of desensitization of G q / 11 signaling because the G q / 11 -dependent calcium response was desensitized by both receptor phosphorylation and arrestin-dependent mechanisms, whereas a substantially enhanced ERK1/2 response was only observed for receptors lacking phosphorylation sites and not in arrestin2/3-null cells. In conclusion, we validate CRISPR/Cas9 engineered HEK293 cells lacking G q / 11 or arrestin2/3 as systems for GPCR signaling research and employ these cells to reveal a previously unappreciated interplay of signaling pathways where receptor phosphorylation can impact on ERK1/2 signaling through a mechanism that is likely independent of arrestins. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. High Efficacy but Low Potency of δ-Opioid Receptor-G Protein Coupling in Brij-58-Treated, Low-Density Plasma Membrane Fragments.

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    Roubalova, Lenka; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Brejchova, Jana; Sykora, Jan; Rudajev, Vladimir; Svoboda, Petr

    2015-01-01

    HEK293 cells stably expressing PTX-insensitive δ-opioid receptor-Gi1α (C351I) fusion protein were homogenized, treated with low concentrations of non-ionic detergent Brij-58 at 0°C and fractionated by flotation in sucrose density gradient. In optimum range of detergent concentrations (0.025-0.05% w/v), Brij-58-treated, low-density membranes exhibited 2-3-fold higher efficacy of DADLE-stimulated, high-affinity [32P]GTPase and [35S]GTPγS binding than membranes of the same density prepared in the absence of detergent. The potency of agonist DADLE response was significantly decreased. At high detergent concentrations (>0.1%), the functional coupling between δ-opioid receptors and G proteins was completely diminished. The same detergent effects were measured in plasma membranes isolated from PTX-treated cells. Therefore, the effect of Brij-58 on δ-opioid receptor-G protein coupling was not restricted to the covalently bound Gi1α within δ-opioid receptor-Gi1α fusion protein, but it was also valid for PTX-sensitive G proteins of Gi/Go family endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells. Characterization of the direct effect of Brij-58 on the hydrophobic interior of isolated plasma membranes by steady-state anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) fluorescence indicated a marked increase of membrane fluidity. The time-resolved analysis of decay of DPH fluorescence by the "wobble in cone" model of DPH motion in the membrane indicated that the exposure to the increasing concentrations of Brij-58 led to a decreased order and higher motional freedom of the dye. Limited perturbation of plasma membrane integrity by low concentrations of non-ionic detergent Brij-58 results in alteration of δ-OR-G protein coupling. Maximum G protein-response to agonist stimulation (efficacy) is increased; affinity of response (potency) is decreased. The total degradation plasma membrane structure at high detergent concentrations results in diminution of functional coupling between

  14. Molecular dynamics simulations and structure-based network analysis reveal structural and functional aspects of G-protein coupled receptor dimer interactions

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    Baltoumas, Fotis A.; Theodoropoulou, Margarita C.; Hamodrakas, Stavros J.

    2016-06-01

    A significant amount of experimental evidence suggests that G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) do not act exclusively as monomers but also form biologically relevant dimers and oligomers. However, the structural determinants, stoichiometry and functional importance of GPCR oligomerization remain topics of intense speculation. In this study we attempted to evaluate the nature and dynamics of GPCR oligomeric interactions. A representative set of GPCR homodimers were studied through Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamics simulations, combined with interface analysis and concepts from network theory for the construction and analysis of dynamic structural networks. Our results highlight important structural determinants that seem to govern receptor dimer interactions. A conserved dynamic behavior was observed among different GPCRs, including receptors belonging in different GPCR classes. Specific GPCR regions were highlighted as the core of the interfaces. Finally, correlations of motion were observed between parts of the dimer interface and GPCR segments participating in ligand binding and receptor activation, suggesting the existence of mechanisms through which dimer formation may affect GPCR function. The results of this study can be used to drive experiments aimed at exploring GPCR oligomerization, as well as in the study of transmembrane protein-protein interactions in general.

  15. Acidosis Decreases c-Myc Oncogene Expression in Human Lymphoma Cells: A Role for the Proton-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptor TDAG8

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    Zhigang Li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65 is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partially rescues c-Myc expression, respectively. Acidic pH alone is insufficient to reduce c-Myc expression, as it does not decrease c-Myc in H1299 lung cancer cells expressing very low levels of pH-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Instead, c-Myc is slightly increased by acidosis in H1299 cells, but this increase is completely inhibited by ectopic overexpression of TDAG8. Interestingly, TDAG8 expression is decreased by more than 50% in human lymphoma samples in comparison to non-tumorous lymph nodes and spleens, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor function of TDAG8 in lymphoma. Collectively, our results identify a novel mechanism of c-Myc regulation by acidosis in the tumor microenvironment and indicate that modulation of TDAG8 and related pH-sensing receptor pathways may be exploited as a new approach to inhibit Myc expression.

  16. Novel G Protein-Coupled Oestrogen Receptor GPR30 Shows Changes in mRNA Expression in the Rat Brain over the Oestrous Cycle

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    Emma J. Spary

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Oestrogen influences autonomic function via actions at classical nuclear oestrogen receptors α and β in the brain, and recent evidence suggests the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 may also function as a cytoplasmic oestrogen receptor. We investigated the expression of GPR30 in female rat brains throughout the oestrous cycle and after ovariectomy to determine whether GPR30 expression in central autonomic nuclei is correlated with circulating oestrogen levels. In the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS, ventrolateral medulla (VLM and periaqueductal gray (PAG GPR30 mRNA, quantified by real-time PCR, was increased in proestrus and oestrus. In ovariectomised (OVX rats, expression in NTS and VLM appeared increased compared to metoestrus, but in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and PAG lower mRNA levels were seen in OVX. GPR30-like immunoreactivity (GPR30-LI colocalised with Golgi in neurones in many brain areas associated with autonomic pathways, and analysis of numbers of immunoreactive neurones showed differences consistent with the PCR data. GPR30-LI was found in a variety of transmitter phenotypes, including cholinergic, serotonergic, catecholaminergic and nitrergic neurones in different neuronal groups. These observations support the view that GPR30 could act as a rapid transducer responding to oestrogen levels and thus modulate the activity of central autonomic pathways.

  17. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

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    Maria Consolata Miletta

    Full Text Available Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB, which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR, GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  18. Butyrate increases intracellular calcium levels and enhances growth hormone release from rat anterior pituitary cells via the G-protein-coupled receptors GPR41 and 43.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletta, Maria Consolata; Petkovic, Vibor; Eblé, Andrée; Ammann, Roland A; Flück, Christa E; Mullis, Primus-E

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) closely related to the ketone body ß-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which is considered to be the major energy substrate during prolonged exercise or starvation. During fasting, serum growth hormone (GH) rises concomitantly with the accumulation of BHB and butyrate. Interactions between GH, ketone bodies and SCFA during the metabolic adaptation to fasting have been poorly investigated to date. In this study, we examined the effect of butyrate, an endogenous agonist for the two G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR41 and 43, on non-stimulated and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH)-stimulated hGH secretion. Furthermore, we investigated the potential role of GPR41 and 43 on the generation of butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ signal and its ultimate impact on hGH secretion. To study this, wt-hGH was transfected into a rat pituitary tumour cell line stably expressing the human GHRH receptor. Treatment with butyrate promoted hGH synthesis and improved basal and GHRH-induced hGH-secretion. By acting through GPR41 and 43, butyrate enhanced intracellular free cytosolic Ca2+. Gene-specific silencing of these receptors led to a partial inhibition of the butyrate-induced intracellular Ca2+ rise resulting in a decrease of hGH secretion. This study suggests that butyrate is a metabolic intermediary, which contributes to the secretion and, therefore, to the metabolic actions of GH during fasting.

  19. Modulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by G protein-coupled receptors in celiac-mesenteric ganglion neurons of septic rats.

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    Mohamed Farrag

    Full Text Available Septic shock, the most severe complication associated with sepsis, is manifested by tissue hypoperfusion due, in part, to cardiovascular and autonomic dysfunction. In many cases, the splanchnic circulation becomes vasoplegic. The celiac-superior mesenteric ganglion (CSMG sympathetic neurons provide the main autonomic input to these vessels. We used the cecal ligation puncture (CLP model, which closely mimics the hemodynamic and metabolic disturbances observed in septic patients, to examine the properties and modulation of Ca2+ channels by G protein-coupled receptors in acutely dissociated rat CSMG neurons. Voltage-clamp studies 48 hr post-sepsis revealed that the Ca2+ current density in CMSG neurons from septic rats was significantly lower than those isolated from sham control rats. This reduction coincided with a significant increase in membrane surface area and a negligible increase in Ca2+ current amplitude. Possible explanations for these findings include either cell swelling or neurite outgrowth enhancement of CSMG neurons from septic rats. Additionally, a significant rightward shift of the concentration-response relationship for the norepinephrine (NE-mediated Ca2+ current inhibition was observed in CSMG neurons from septic rats. Testing for the presence of opioid receptor subtypes in CSMG neurons, showed that mu opioid receptors were present in ~70% of CSMG, while NOP opioid receptors were found in all CSMG neurons tested. The pharmacological profile for both opioid receptor subtypes was not significantly affected by sepsis. Further, the Ca2+ current modulation by propionate, an agonist for the free fatty acid receptors GPR41 and GPR43, was not altered by sepsis. Overall, our findings suggest that CSMG function is affected by sepsis via changes in cell size and α2-adrenergic receptor-mediated Ca2+ channel modulation.

  20. Functional fusions of T4 lysozyme in the third intracellular loop of a G protein-coupled receptor identified by a random screening approach in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Elizabeth; Ding, Fa-Xiang; Naider, Fred; Dumont, Mark E

    2013-01-01

    The insertion of a stable soluble protein into loops of transmembrane proteins has proved to be a successful approach for enhancing their stabilities and crystallization, and may also be useful in contexts where the inserted proteins can modulate or report on the activities of membrane proteins. While the use of T4 lysozyme to replace portions of the third intracellular loops of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has allowed determination of the structures of members of this important class of receptors, the creation of such fusion proteins generally leads to loss of signaling function of the resulting fusion protein, since the third intracellular loops of GPCRs play critical roles in their interactions with G proteins. We describe here a random screening approach allowing insertion of T4 lysozyme into diverse positions in the third loop of the yeast α-pheromone receptor, a GPCR encoded by the yeast STE2 gene. Insertions were accompanied by varying extents of deletion or duplication of the loop. A set of phenotypic screens allow detection of potentially rare variant receptors that are expressed, bind to agonist and are capable of signal transduction via activation of the cognate G protein. A large fraction of screened full-length receptor variants containing at least partial duplications of the loop on either side of the inserted T4 lysozyme retain the ability to activate the downstream signaling pathway in response to binding of ligand. However, we were unable to identify any receptors with truncated C-termini that retain significant signaling function in the presence of inserted T4 lysozyme. Our results establish the feasibility of creating functional receptors containing insertions of T4 lysozyme in their third intracellular loops.

  1. GPCR-SSFE 2.0-a fragment-based molecular modeling web tool for Class A G-protein coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worth, Catherine L; Kreuchwig, Franziska; Tiemann, Johanna K S; Kreuchwig, Annika; Ritschel, Michele; Kleinau, Gunnar; Hildebrand, Peter W; Krause, Gerd

    2017-07-03

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in signal transduction and therefore a large proportion of pharmaceutical drugs target these receptors. Structural data of GPCRs are sparse yet important for elucidating the molecular basis of GPCR-related diseases and for performing structure-based drug design. To ameliorate this problem, GPCR-SSFE 2.0 (http://www.ssfa-7tmr.de/ssfe2/), an intuitive web server dedicated to providing three-dimensional Class A GPCR homology models has been developed. The updated web server includes 27 inactive template structures and incorporates various new functionalities. Uniquely, it uses a fingerprint correlation scoring strategy for identifying the optimal templates, which we demonstrate captures structural features that sequence similarity alone is unable to do. Template selection is carried out separately for each helix, allowing both single-template models and fragment-based models to be built. Additionally, GPCR-SSFE 2.0 stores a comprehensive set of pre-calculated and downloadable homology models and also incorporates interactive loop modeling using the tool SL2, allowing knowledge-based input by the user to guide the selection process. For visual analysis, the NGL viewer is embedded into the result pages. Finally, blind-testing using two recently published structures shows that GPCR-SSFE 2.0 performs comparably or better than other state-of-the art GPCR modeling web servers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  2. GPCR-I-TASSER: A hybrid approach to G protein-coupled receptor structure modeling and the application to the human genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jianyi; Jang, Richard; Zhang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Experimental structure determination remains very difficult for G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). We propose a new hybrid protocol to construct GPCR structure models that integrates experimental mutagenesis data with ab initio transmembrane (TM) helix assembly simulations. The method was tested on 24 known GPCRs where the ab initio TM-helix assembly procedure constructed the correct fold for 20 cases. When combined with weak-homology and sparse mutagenesis restraints, the method generated correct folds for all the tested cases with an average C-alpha RMSD 2.4 Å in the TM-regions. The new hybrid protocol was applied to model all 1026 GPCRs in the human genome, where 923 have a high confidence score that are expected to have correct folds; these contain many pharmaceutically important families with no previously solved structures, including Trace amine, Prostanoids, Releasing hormones, Melanocortins, Vasopressin and Neuropeptide Y receptors. The results demonstrate new progress on genome-wide structure modeling of transmembrane proteins. PMID:26190572

  3. GPCR-SSFE 2.0—a fragment-based molecular modeling web tool for Class A G-protein coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuchwig, Franziska; Tiemann, Johanna K.S.; Kreuchwig, Annika; Ritschel, Michele; Kleinau, Gunnar; Hildebrand, Peter W.; Krause, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Abstract G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are key players in signal transduction and therefore a large proportion of pharmaceutical drugs target these receptors. Structural data of GPCRs are sparse yet important for elucidating the molecular basis of GPCR-related diseases and for performing structure-based drug design. To ameliorate this problem, GPCR-SSFE 2.0 (http://www.ssfa-7tmr.de/ssfe2/), an intuitive web server dedicated to providing three-dimensional Class A GPCR homology models has been developed. The updated web server includes 27 inactive template structures and incorporates various new functionalities. Uniquely, it uses a fingerprint correlation scoring strategy for identifying the optimal templates, which we demonstrate captures structural features that sequence similarity alone is unable to do. Template selection is carried out separately for each helix, allowing both single-template models and fragment-based models to be built. Additionally, GPCR-SSFE 2.0 stores a comprehensive set of pre-calculated and downloadable homology models and also incorporates interactive loop modeling using the tool SL2, allowing knowledge-based input by the user to guide the selection process. For visual analysis, the NGL viewer is embedded into the result pages. Finally, blind-testing using two recently published structures shows that GPCR-SSFE 2.0 performs comparably or better than other state-of-the art GPCR modeling web servers. PMID:28582569

  4. The cardiac electrogenic sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBCe1) is activated by aldosterone through the G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR 30).

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    Orlowski, Alejandro; De Giusti, Verónica C; Ciancio, María C; Espejo, María S; Aiello, Ernesto A

    2016-09-02

    The sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) transports extracellular Na + and HCO 3 - into the cytoplasm upon intracellular acidosis, restoring the acidic pH i to near neutral values. Two different NBC isoforms have been described in the heart, the electroneutral NBCn1 (1Na + :1HCO 3 - ) and the electrogenic NBCe1 (1Na + :2HCO 3 - ). Certain non-genomic effects of aldosterone (Ald) were due to an orphan G protein-couple receptor 30 (GPR30). We have recently demonstrated that Ald activates GPR30 in adult rat ventricular myocytes, which transactivates the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and in turn triggers a reactive oxygen species (ROS)- and PI3K/AKT-dependent pathway, leading to the stimulation of NBC. The aim of this study was to investigate the NBC isoform involved in the Ald/GPR30-induced NBC activation. Using specific NBCe1 inhibitory antibodies (a-L3) we demonstrated that Ald does not affect NBCn1 activity. Ald was able to increase NBCe1 activity recorded in isolation. Using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy analysis we showed in this work that both NBCe1 and GPR30 are localized in t-tubules. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that NBCe1 is the NBC isoform activated by Ald in the heart.

  5. Bioinformatic prediction of G protein-coupled receptor encoding sequences from the transcriptome of the foreleg, including the Haller's organ, of the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus australis.

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    Sergio Munoz

    Full Text Available The cattle tick of Australia, Rhipicephalus australis, is a vector for microbial parasites that cause serious bovine diseases. The Haller's organ, located in the tick's forelegs, is crucial for host detection and mating. To facilitate the development of new technologies for better control of this agricultural pest, we aimed to sequence and annotate the transcriptome of the R. australis forelegs and associated tissues, including the Haller's organ. As G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are an important family of eukaryotic proteins studied as pharmaceutical targets in humans, we prioritized the identification and classification of the GPCRs expressed in the foreleg tissues. The two forelegs from adult R. australis were excised, RNA extracted, and pyrosequenced with 454 technology. Reads were assembled into unigenes and annotated by sequence similarity. Python scripts were written to find open reading frames (ORFs from each unigene. These ORFs were analyzed by different GPCR prediction approaches based on sequence alignments, support vector machines, hidden Markov models, and principal component analysis. GPCRs consistently predicted by multiple methods were further studied by phylogenetic analysis and 3D homology modeling. From 4,782 assembled unigenes, 40,907 possible ORFs were predicted. Using Blastp, Pfam, GPCRpred, TMHMM, and PCA-GPCR, a basic set of 46 GPCR candidates were compiled and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. With further screening of tertiary structures predicted by RaptorX, 6 likely GPCRs emerged and the strongest candidate was classified by PCA-GPCR to be a GABAB receptor.

  6. Development of therapeutic antibodies to G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels: Opportunities, challenges and their therapeutic potential in respiratory diseases.

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    Douthwaite, Julie A; Finch, Donna K; Mustelin, Tomas; Wilkinson, Trevor C I

    2017-01-01

    The development of recombinant antibody therapeutics continues to be a significant area of growth in the pharmaceutical industry with almost 50 approved monoclonal antibodies on the market in the US and Europe. Therapeutic drug targets such as soluble cytokines, growth factors and single transmembrane spanning receptors have been successfully targeted by recombinant monoclonal antibodies and the development of new product candidates continues. Despite this growth, however, certain classes of important disease targets have remained intractable to therapeutic antibodies due to the complexity of the target molecules. These complex target molecules include G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels which represent a large target class for therapeutic intervention with monoclonal antibodies. Although these targets have typically been addressed by small molecule approaches, the exquisite specificity of antibodies provides a significant opportunity to provide selective modulation of these important regulators of cell function. Given this opportunity, a significant effort has been applied to address the challenges of targeting these complex molecules and a number of targets are linked to the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases. In this review, we provide a summary of the importance of GPCRs and ion channels involved in respiratory disease and discuss advantages offered by antibodies as therapeutics at these targets. We highlight some recent GPCRs and ion channels linked to respiratory disease mechanisms and describe in detail recent progress made in the strategies for discovery of functional antibodies against challenging membrane protein targets such as GPCRs and ion channels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The search for novel insecticide targets in the post-genomics era, with a specific focus on G-protein coupled receptors

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    Michelle Ngai

    Full Text Available Insects are considered pests globally, implicated in the destruction of agricultural fields and transmission of pathogens that cause deadly human diseases, such as dengue, Zika and malaria. The diversity of the insecticide arsenal has remained stagnant for decades, but the recent rise of insecticide resistance fueled the discovery of novel modes of action, and the power of genomics has reinvigorated this search. This review discusses the importance of comparative and functional insect genomics in the identification of potential gene targets for an insecticidal mode of action with low off-target toxicity. Due to the global participation in the sequencing and annotation of insect genomes, the targeting of specific genes with molecular tools like RNAi and CRISPR/Cas9 for genome engineering and consequent functional identification and validation has become more efficient. While there are multiple avenues to explore for insecticidal candidates, this review identifies G-protein coupled receptors as attractive targets, and hones in on the octopamine and dopamine receptors due to their potential.

  8. The role of cytomegalovirus-encoded homologs of G protein-coupled receptors and chemokines in manipulation of and evasion from the immune system.

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    Vink, C; Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Bruggeman, C A

    2001-12-01

    Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have the ability to persist lifelong within the infected host. This ability implies that these viruses are highly adapted to their hosts. Most importantly, they will have to employ strategies to remain hidden from the host's immune system. Virus genes predicted to be involved in these strategies include genes encoding homologs of cellular immune effector or regulatory proteins, such as chemokine (CK) receptor-like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), CKs and MHC class I molecules. These genes may have been pirated by the virus during the long co-evolution of pathogen and host. In light of the crucial roles that GPCRs, CKs and MHC class I molecules play in the normal physiology of the host, it is to be expected that the CMV homologs of these proteins may have a profound impact on this physiology and, at the same time, serve vital functions in maintenance as well as replication of the virus within the infected host. As a consequence, these viral homologs can be envisaged as attractive targets for novel anti-viral strategies. The aim of this report is to present an overview of the current state of knowledge on the (putative) functions of the CMV homologs of GPCRs and CKs.

  9. Anatomical transcriptome of G protein-coupled receptors leads to the identification of a novel therapeutic candidate GPR52 for psychiatric disorders.

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    Hidetoshi Komatsu

    Full Text Available Many drugs of abuse and most neuropharmacological agents regulate G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs in the central nervous system (CNS_ENREF_1. The striatum, in which dopamine D1 and D2 receptors are enriched, is strongly innervated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA, which is the origin of dopaminergic cell bodies of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system_ENREF_3 and plays a central role in the development of psychiatric disorders_ENREF_4. Here we report the comprehensive and anatomical transcript profiling of 322 non-odorant GPCRs in mouse tissue by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR, leading to the identification of neurotherapeutic receptors exclusively expressed in the CNS, especially in the striatum. Among them, GPR6, GPR52, and GPR88, known as orphan GPCRs, were shown to co-localize either with a D2 receptor alone or with both D1 and D2 receptors in neurons of the basal ganglia. Intriguingly, we found that GPR52 was well conserved among vertebrates, is Gs-coupled and responsive to the antipsychotic drug, reserpine. We used three types of transgenic (Tg mice employing a Cre-lox system under the control of the GPR52 promoter, namely, GPR52-LacZ Tg, human GPR52 (hGPR52 Tg, and hGPR52-GFP Tg mice. Detailed histological investigation suggests that GPR52 may modulate dopaminergic and glutamatergic transmission in neuronal circuits responsible for cognitive function and emotion. In support of our prediction, GPR52 knockout and transgenic mice exhibited psychosis-related and antipsychotic-like behaviors, respectively. Therefore, we propose that GPR52 has the potential of being a therapeutic psychiatric receptor. This approach may help identify potential therapeutic targets for CNS diseases.

  10. The membrane-type estrogen receptor G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin 6 via inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in murine macrophage cells.

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    Okamoto, Mariko; Suzuki, Takuto; Mizukami, Yoichi; Ikeda, Teruo

    2017-11-01

    The female sex hormone estrogen exerts anti-inflammatory effects. The G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been recently identified as a novel membrane-type estrogen receptor that can mediate non-genomic estrogenic effects on many cell types. We previously demonstrated that GPER inhibits tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced expression of interleukin 6 (IL-6) through repression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) promoter activity using human breast cancer cells. Although several reports have indicated that GPER suppresses Toll-like receptor-induced inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages, the molecular mechanisms of the inhibition of cytokine production via GPER remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined GPER-mediated inhibition of IL-6 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation in a mouse macrophage cell line. We found that the GPER agonist G-1 inhibited LPS-induced IL-6 expression in macrophage cells, and this inhibition was due to the repression of NF-κB promoter activity by GPER. G-1 treatment also decreased the phosphorylation of inhibitor of κB kinases. Among the mitogen-activated protein kinases, the phosphorylation of c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was increased by G-1. These findings delineate the novel mechanism of the inhibition of LPS-induced IL-6 through GPER-activated JNK-mediated negative regulation of the NF-κB pathway in murine macrophage cells, which links anti-inflammatory effects to estrogen. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. G-Protein-coupled receptors as potential drug candidates in preeclampsia: targeting the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 for treatment and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kirk P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. OBJECTIVES AND RATIONALE In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1). Based on both compelling scientific rationale and a promising safety profile, the relaxin ligand–receptor system is comprehensively evaluated as a potential therapeutic endpoint in preeclampsia. SEARCH METHODS The published literature relating to the topic was searched through January 2016 using PubMed. OUTCOMES Relaxin is a peptide hormone secreted by the corpus luteum; it circulates in the luteal phase and during pregnancy. Activation of RXFP1 is vasodilatory; thus, relaxin supplementation is expected to at least partly restore the fundamental vasodilatory changes of normal pregnancy, thereby alleviating maternal organ hypoperfusion, which is a major pathogenic manifestation of severe preeclampsia. Specifically, by exploiting its pleiotropic hemodynamic attributes in preeclampsia, relaxin administration is predicted to (i) reverse robust arterial myogenic constriction; (ii) blunt systemic and renal vasoconstriction in response to activation of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1; (iii) mollify the action of endogenous vasoconstrictors on uterine spiral arteries with failed remodeling and retained smooth muscle; (iv) increase arterial compliance; (v) enhance insulin-mediated glucose disposal by promoting skeletal muscle vasodilation and (vi) mobilize and activate bone marrow-derived angiogenic progenitor cells, thereby repairing injured endothelium and improving maternal vascularity in organs such as breast, uterus, pancreas, skin and fat. By exploiting its pleiotropic molecular

  12. G-Protein-coupled receptors as potential drug candidates in preeclampsia: targeting the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 for treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Kirk P

    2016-09-01

    Important roles for G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have been identified in the maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy and in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. On this basis, GPCRs are potential therapeutic targets for preeclampsia. In this review, vasopressin and apelin are initially considered in this context before the focus on the hormone relaxin and its cognate receptor, the relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1). Based on both compelling scientific rationale and a promising safety profile, the relaxin ligand-receptor system is comprehensively evaluated as a potential therapeutic endpoint in preeclampsia. The published literature relating to the topic was searched through January 2016 using PubMed. Relaxin is a peptide hormone secreted by the corpus luteum; it circulates in the luteal phase and during pregnancy. Activation of RXFP1 is vasodilatory; thus, relaxin supplementation is expected to at least partly restore the fundamental vasodilatory changes of normal pregnancy, thereby alleviating maternal organ hypoperfusion, which is a major pathogenic manifestation of severe preeclampsia. Specifically, by exploiting its pleiotropic hemodynamic attributes in preeclampsia, relaxin administration is predicted to (i) reverse robust arterial myogenic constriction; (ii) blunt systemic and renal vasoconstriction in response to activation of the angiotensin II receptor, type 1; (iii) mollify the action of endogenous vasoconstrictors on uterine spiral arteries with failed remodeling and retained smooth muscle; (iv) increase arterial compliance; (v) enhance insulin-mediated glucose disposal by promoting skeletal muscle vasodilation and (vi) mobilize and activate bone marrow-derived angiogenic progenitor cells, thereby repairing injured endothelium and improving maternal vascularity in organs such as breast, uterus, pancreas, skin and fat. By exploiting its pleiotropic molecular attributes in preeclampsia, relaxin supplementation is

  13. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z'-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization.

  14. Differential requirements of arrestin-3 and clathrin for ligand-dependent and -independent internalization of human G protein-coupled receptor 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jing; Wu, Chun; Chen, Xiaopan; Li, Xiangmei; Ying, Guoyuan; Jin, Lili; Ma, Qiang; Li, Guo; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Guozheng; Zhou, Naiming

    2014-11-01

    G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) is believed to be an attractive target to enhance insulin secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. GPR40 has been found to couple to Gq protein, leading to the activation of phospholipase C and subsequent increases in the intracellular Ca(2+) level. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate the internalization and desensitization of GPR40 remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a construct of GPR40 fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) at its C-terminus was constructed for direct imaging of the localization and internalization of GPR40 by confocal microscopy. In stably transfected HEK-293 cells, GPR40 receptors underwent rapid agonist-induced internalization and constitutive ligand-independent internalization. Our data demonstrated that the agonist-mediated internalization of GPR40 was significantly blocked by hypertonic sucrose treatment and by siRNA mediated depletion of the heavy chain of clathrin. In contrast, constitutive GPR40 internalization was not affected by hypertonic sucrose or by knock-down of clathrin expression, but it was affected by treatment with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and nystatin. Furthermore, our results using an arrestin-3-EGFP redistribution assay and siRNA-mediated knock-down of arrestin-3 and GRK2 expression revealed that arrestin-3 and GRK2 play an essential role in the regulation of agonist-mediated GPR40 internalization, but are not involved in the regulation of constitutive GPR40 internalization. Additionally, our observation showed that upon activation by agonist, the internalized GPR40 receptors were rapidly recycled back to the plasma membrane via Rab4/Rab5 positive endosomes, whereas the constitutively internalized GPR40 receptors were recycled back to the cell surface through Rab5 positive endosomes. Because FFA receptors exhibit a high level of homology, our observations could be applicable to other members of this family. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc

  15. An evolutionarily conserved arginine is essential for Tre1 G protein-coupled receptor function during germ cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela R Kamps

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs play central roles in mediating cellular responses to environmental signals leading to changes in cell physiology and behaviors, including cell migration. Numerous clinical pathologies including metastasis, an invasive form of cell migration, have been linked to abnormal GPCR signaling. While the structures of some GPCRs have been defined, the in vivo roles of conserved amino acid residues and their relationships to receptor function are not fully understood. Trapped in endoderm 1 (Tre1 is an orphan receptor of the rhodopsin class that is necessary for primordial germ cell migration in Drosophila melanogaster embryos. In this study, we employ molecular genetic approaches to identify residues in Tre1 that are critical to its functions in germ cell migration. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we show that the previously reported scattershot mutation is an allele of tre1. The scattershot allele results in an in-frame deletion of 8 amino acids at the junction of the third transmembrane domain and the second intracellular loop of Tre1 that dramatically impairs the function of this GPCR in germ cell migration. To further refine the molecular basis for this phenotype, we assayed the effects of single amino acid substitutions in transgenic animals and determined that the arginine within the evolutionarily conserved E/N/DRY motif is critical for receptor function in mediating germ cell migration within an intact developing embryo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These structure-function studies of GPCR signaling in native contexts will inform future studies into the basic biology of this large and clinically important family of receptors.

  16. Establishment of a chimeric reporting system for the universal detection and high-throughput screening of G protein-coupled receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Jen; Hsu, Shih-Han; Hung, Wei-Ting; Luo, Ching-Wei

    2009-03-15

    G proteins, further divided into four subfamilies (G(s), G(q), G(12) and G(i)) based on their Galpha subunits, are the primary components activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Current GPCR assays are limited to the evaluation of selective Galpha signaling and do not allow comprehensive screening for orphan GPCRs without a known coupled Galpha. Therefore, our aim was to design a chimeric reporting system that covers responses from all Galpha subfamilies simultaneously. Because G(s) activates cAMP response element (CRE)-driven genes whereas G(q) and G(12) activate serum response element (SRE)-driven genes, we therefore incorporated 2x CRE and 5x SRE (2CRE5SRE) into a promoter for driving luciferase expression. To further report G(i) signals, a 2CRE5SRE-driven chimeric G(qi), in which the C-terminus of G(q) is replaced by that of G(i), was integrated to switch the responses of G(i)-coupled GPCRs to the G(q) signaling. The novel reporter system showed a strong signal amplification when activated by neuromedin U receptor 1 (mainly activates G(q)), neuromedin U receptor 2 (mainly activates G(i)) or luteinizing hormone receptor (mainly through the G(s) and G(q) pathways). In addition, 293T cells stably carrying our reporter construct showed a similar sensitivity to the radioactive cAMP assay when revealing the constitutive signal from gain-of-function mutants of luteinizing hormone receptor. To our knowledge, this is the first reporting system capable of covering the G(s), G(q), G(12) and G(i) signals and revealing the phenomena of constitutively active GPCRs. Such a universal platform will benefit future high-throughput screening and drug designs for any GPCR.

  17. Role of the ERC motif in the proximal part of the second intracellular loop and the C-terminal domain of the human prostaglandin F2alpha receptor (hFP-R) in G-protein coupling control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathe-Neuschäfer-Rube, Andrea; Neuschäfer-Rube, Frank; Püschel, Gerhard P

    2005-05-15

    The human FP-R (F2alpha prostaglandin receptor) is a Gq-coupled heptahelical ectoreceptor, which is of significant medical interest, since it is a potential target for the treatment of glaucoma and preterm labour. On agonist exposure, it mediates an increase in intracellular inositol phosphate formation. Little is known about the structures that govern the agonist-dependent receptor activation. In other prostanoid receptors, the C-terminal domain has been inferred in the control of agonist-dependent receptor activation. A DRY motif at the beginning of the second intracellular loop is highly conserved throughout the G-protein-coupled receptor family and appears to be crucial for controlling agonist-dependent receptor activation. It is replaced by an ERC motif in the FP-R and no evidence for the relevance of this motif in ligand-dependent activation of prostanoid receptors has been provided so far. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the potential role of the C-terminal domain and the ERC motif in agonist-controlled intracellular signalling in FP-R mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis. It was found that substitution of the acidic Glu(132) in the ERC motif by a threonine residue led to full constitutive activation, whereas truncation of the receptor's C-terminal domain led to partial constitutive activation of all three intracellular signal pathways that had previously been shown to be activated by the FP-R, i.e. inositol trisphosphate formation, focal adhesion kinase activation and T-cell factor signalling. Inositol trisphosphate formation and focal adhesion kinase phosphorylation were further enhanced by ligand binding in cells expressing the truncation mutant but not the E132T (Glu132-->Thr) mutant. Thus C-terminal truncation appeared to result in a receptor with partial constitutive activation, whereas substitution of Glu132 by threonine apparently resulted in a receptor with full constitutive activity.

  18. A physiologically required G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) interaction that compartmentalizes RGS activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Wayne; Hill, Claire; McCann, Eilish; Bond, Michael; Esparza-Franco, Manuel; Bennett, Jeannette; Rand, David; Davey, John; Ladds, Graham

    2013-09-20

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) can interact with regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins. However, the effects of such interactions on signal transduction and their physiological relevance have been largely undetermined. Ligand-bound GPCRs initiate by promoting exchange of GDP for GTP on the Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins. Signaling is terminated by hydrolysis of GTP to GDP through intrinsic GTPase activity of the Gα subunit, a reaction catalyzed by RGS proteins. Using yeast as a tool to study GPCR signaling in isolation, we define an interaction between the cognate GPCR (Mam2) and RGS (Rgs1), mapping the interaction domains. This reaction tethers Rgs1 at the plasma membrane and is essential for physiological signaling response. In vivo quantitative data inform the development of a kinetic model of the GTPase cycle, which extends previous attempts by including GPCR-RGS interactions. In vivo and in silico data confirm that GPCR-RGS interactions can impose an additional layer of regulation through mediating RGS subcellular localization to compartmentalize RGS activity within a cell, thus highlighting their importance as potential targets to modulate GPCR signaling pathways.

  19. Dynamic models of G-protein coupled receptor dimers: indications of asymmetry in the rhodopsin dimer from molecular dynamics simulations in a POPC bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filizola, Marta; Wang, Simon X.; Weinstein, Harel

    2006-08-01

    Based on the growing evidence that G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) form homo- and hetero-oligomers, models of GPCR signaling are now considering macromolecular assemblies rather than monomers, with the homo-dimer regarded as the minimal oligomeric arrangement required for functional coupling to the G-protein. The dynamic mechanisms of such signaling assemblies are unknown. To gain some insight into properties of GPCR dimers that may be relevant to functional mechanisms, we study their current structural prototype, rhodopsin. We have carried out nanosecond time-scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a rhodopsin dimer and compared the results to the monomer simulated in the same type of bilayer membrane model composed of an equilibrated unit cell of hydrated palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidyl choline (POPC). The dynamic representation of the homo-dimer reveals the location of structural changes in several regions of the monomeric subunits. These changes appear to be more pronounced at the dimerization interface that had been shown to be involved in the activation process [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:17495, 2005]. The results are consistent with a model of GPCR activation that involves allosteric modulation through a single GPCR subunit per dimer.

  20. Novel reciprocal regulation of cAMP signaling and apoptosis by orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPRC5A gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Minoru; Zang, Liqing; Oka, Takehiko; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Shimada, Yasuhito; Nishimura, Yuhei; Tanaka, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    GPRC5A is a member of G-protein-coupled receptors, which was originally identified as an all-trans-retinoic acid-induced gene. Although recent studies reported that this gene was highly expressed in the cancer cell lines and that GPRC5A might positively regulate cell proliferation, its mechanism remains unknown. We investigated the upstream and downstream signaling of GPRC5A and its biological function, and found that cAMP signaling is the novel GPRC5A induction pathway. When GPRC5A gene was overexpressed, intracellular cAMP concentration was decreased, and Gsα gene expression was downregulated. On the other hand, RNA interference of GPRC5A increased mRNA levels of Gsα and intracellular cAMP, reduced cell number, and induced apoptosis. Conversely, cell number was increased by GPRC5A overexpression. We first report the novel negative feedback model of cAMP signaling through GPRC5A gene expression. This evidence explains one of the mechanisms of the GPRC5A-regulated cell growth in some cancer cell lines

  1. The prognostic role of Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 in gastric cancer: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianchen; Qiu, Xinguang; Xiao, Jianan; Wang, Qingbing; Wang, Yanjun; Zhang, Yong; Bai, Dongxiao

    2016-04-01

    The prognostic value of Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5) in gastric cancer remains controversial. To further investigate this relationship,