WorldWideScience

Sample records for fy95 limited energy

  1. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    Stacey, D.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R&D) demonstrations, non-INEL R&D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document.

  2. Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration FY-95 Deployment Plan

    Stacey, D.E.

    1995-03-01

    The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is a program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Technology Development. BWID supports the applied research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation of a suite of advanced technologies that together form a comprehensive remediation system for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste. The FY-95 effort will fund 24 technologies in five areas of buried waste site remediation: site characterization, waste characterization, retrieval, treatment, and containment/stabilization. Ten of these technologies will take part in the integrated field demonstration that will take place at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) facilities in the summer of 1995. This document is the basic operational planning document for deployment of all BWID projects funded in FY-95. Discussed in this document are the BWID preparations for the INEL integrated field demonstration, INEL research and development (R ampersand D) demonstrations, non-INEL R ampersand D demonstrations, and office research and technical review meetings. Each project will have a test plan detailing the specific procedures, objectives, and tasks of the test. Therefore, information that is specific to testing each technology is intentionally limited in this document

  3. FY95 Limited Energy Study. Area B Nitric Acid Production Facilities, Holston Army Ammunition Plant, Kingsport, Tennessee

    1996-01-01

    .... The field survey of existing conditions was completed in July 1995. The results of this field survey were subsequently tabulated and used to generate single line process flow diagrams on Autocad...

  4. FY95 software project management plan: TMACS, CASS computer systems

    Spurling, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The FY95 Work Plan for TMACS and CASS Software Projects describes the activities planned for the current fiscal year. This plan replaces WHC-SD-WM-SDP-008. The TMACS project schedule is included in the TWRS Integrated Schedule

  5. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described.

  6. FY-95 technology catalog. Technology development for buried waste remediation

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program, which is now part of the Landfill Stabilization Focus Area (LSFA), supports applied research, development, demonstration, and evaluation of a multitude of advanced technologies dealing with underground radioactive and hazardous waste remediation. These innovative technologies are being developed as part of integrated comprehensive remediation systems for the effective and efficient remediation of buried waste sites throughout the DOE complex. These efforts are identified and coordinated in support of Environmental Restoration (EM-40) and Waste Management (EM-30) needs and objectives. Sponsored by the DOE Office of Technology Development (EM-50), BWID and LSFA work with universities and private industry to develop technologies that are being transferred to the private sector for use nationally and internationally. This report contains the details of the purpose, logic, and methodology used to develop and demonstrate DOE buried waste remediation technologies. It also provides a catalog of technologies and capabilities with development status for potential users. Past FY-92 through FY-94 technology testing, field trials, and demonstrations are summarized. Continuing and new FY-95 technology demonstrations also are described

  7. Endangered species and cultural resources program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California: Annual report FY95

    1996-04-01

    In FY95, EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc. (EG and G/EM) continued to support efforts to protect endangered species and cultural resources at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC). These efforts are conducted to ensure NPRC compliance with regulations regarding the protection of listed species and cultural resources on Federal properties. Population monitoring activities are conducted annually for San Joaquin kit foxes, giant kangaroo rats, blunt-nosed leopard lizards, and Hoover's wooly-star. To mitigate impacts of oil field activities on listed species, 674 preactivity surveys covering approximately 211 hectares (521 acres) were conducted in FY95. EG and G/EM also assisted with mitigating effects from third-party projects, primarily by conducting biological and cultural resource consultations with regulatory agencies. EG and G/EM has conducted an applied habitat reclamation program at NPRC since 1985. In FY95, an evaluation of revegetation rates on reclaimed and non-reclaimed disturbed lands was completed, and the results will be used to direct future habitat reclamation efforts at NPRC. In FY95, reclamation success was monitored on 50 sites reclaimed in 1985. An investigation of factors influencing the distribution and abundance of kit foxes at NPRC was initiated in FY94. Factors being examined include habitat disturbance, topography, grazing, coyote abundance, lagomorph abundance, and shrub density. This investigation continued in FY95 and a manuscript on this topic will be completed in FY96. Also, Eg and G/EM completed collection of field data to evaluate the effects of a well blow-out on plant and animal populations. A final report will be prepared in FY96. Finally, EG and G/EM completed a life table analysis on San Joaquin kit foxes at NPRC

  8. AMTEX first quarter FY95 report

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    The AMTEX Partnership{trademark} is a collaborative research and development program among the US Integrated Textile Industry, the Department of Energy (DOE), the national laboratories, other federal agencies and laboratories, and universities. The goal of AMTEX is to strengthen the competitiveness of this vital industry, thereby preserving and creating US jobs.

  9. Energy Conservation Investment Program, FY95 Limited Energy Study Area B Nitric Acid Production Facilities Holston Army Ammunition Plant Kingsport, Tennessee

    1995-01-01

    .... The field survey of existing conditions was completed in July 1995. The results of this field survey were subsequently tabulated and used to generate single line process flow diagrams on Autocad...

  10. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  11. Organic tanks safety program FY95 waste aging studies

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Lenihan, B.D.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report gives the second year's findings of a study of how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds in the underground tanks at Hanford. Efforts were focused on the global reaction kinetics in a simulated waste exposed to γ rays and the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion. The gas production is predominantly radiolytic. Decarboxylation of carboxylates is probably an aging pathway. TBP was totaly consumed in almost every run. Radiation clearly accelerated consumption of the other compounds. EDTA is more reactive than citrate. Oximes and possibly organic nitro compounds are key intermediates in the radiolytic redox reactions of organic compounds with nitrate/nitrite. Observations are consistent with organic compounds being progressively degraded to compounds with greater numbers of C-O bonds and fewer C-H and C-C bonds, resulting in an overall lower energy content. If the radwaste tanks are adequately ventilated and continually dosed by radioactivity, their total energy content should have declined. Level of risk depends on how rapidly carboxylate salts of moderate energy content (including EDTA fragments) degrade to low energy oxalate and formate

  12. The AMTEX Partnership{trademark}. Fourth quarter FY95 report

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The AMTEX Partnership{trademark} is a collaborative research and development program among the US Integrated Textile Industry, the Department of Energy (DOE), the national laboratories, other federal agencies and laboratories, and universities. The goal of AMTEX is to strengthen the competitiveness of this vital industry, thereby preserving and creating US jobs. The operations and program management of the AMTEX Partnership{trademark} is provided by the Program Office. This report is produced by the Program Office on a quarterly basis and provides information on the progress, operations, and project management of the partnership. Progress is reported on the following projects: computer-aided fabric evaluation; cotton biotechnology; demand activated manufacturing architecture; electronic embedded fingerprints; on-line process control for flexible fiber manufacturing; rapid cutting; sensors for agile manufacturing; and textile resource conservation.

  13. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  14. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data. Annual report, 1994-FY 95

    None

    1996-07-01

    The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) has published reports of its activities since 1984. The first report covered January through June of 1984, and the second report covered July through December 1984. Since those first two semiannual reports, AEOD has published annual reports of its activities from 1985 through 1993. Beginning with the report for 1986, AEOD Annual Reports have been published as NUREG-1272. Beginning with the report for 1987, NUREG-1272 has been published in two parts, No. 1 covering power reactors and No. 2 covering nonreactors (changed to {open_quotes}nuclear materials{close_quotes} with the 1993 report). The 1993 AEOD Annual Report was NUREG-1272, Volume 8. AEOD has changed its annual report from a calendar year to a fiscal year report to be consistent with the NRC Annual Report and to conserve staff resources. NUREG-1272, Volume 9, No. 1 and No. 2, therefore, are combined calendar year 1994 (1994) and fiscal year 1995 (FY 95) reports which describe activities conducted between January 1, 1994, and September 30, 1995. Certain data which have historically been reported on a calendar year basis, however, are complete through calendar year 1995. Throughout this report, whenever information is presented for fiscal year 1995, it is designated as FY 95 data. Calendar year information is always designated by the four digits of the calendar year. This report, NUREG-1272, Volume 9, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns associated with the use of licensed material in non-power reactor applications. A new part has been added, NUREG-1272, Volume 9, No. 3, which covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in FY 95 in support of the NRC`s mission.

  15. Mississippi State University Center for Air Sea Technology FY95 Research Program

    Yeske, Lanny; Corbin, James H.

    1995-01-01

    The Mississippi State University (MSU) Center for Air Sea Technology (CAST) evolved from the Institute for Naval Oceanography's (INO) Experimental Center for Mesoscale Ocean Prediction (ECMOP) which was started in 1989. MSU CAST subsequently began operation on 1 October 1992 under an Office of Naval Research (ONR) two-year grant which ended on 30 September 1994. In FY95 MSU CAST was successful in obtaining five additional research grants from ONR, as well as several other research contracts from the Naval Oceanographic Office via NASA, the Naval Research Laboratory, the Army Corps of Engineers, and private industry. In the past, MSU CAST technical research and development has produced tools, systems, techniques, and procedures that improve efficiency and overcome deficiency for both the operational and research communities residing with the Department of Defense, private industry, and university ocean modeling community. We continued this effort with the following thrust areas: to develop advanced methodologies and tools for model evaluation, validation and visualization, both oceanographic and atmospheric; to develop a system-level capability for conducting temporally and ; spatially scaled ocean simulations driven by or are responsive to ocean models, and take into consideration coupling to atmospheric models; to continue the existing oceanographic/atmospheric data management task with emphasis on distributed databases in a network environment, with database optimization and standardization, including use of Mosaic and World Wide Web (WWW) access; and to implement a high performance parallel computing technology for CAST ocean models

  16. Photovoltaic energy cost limit

    Coiante, D.

    1992-01-01

    Referring to a photovoltaic system for grid connected applications, a parametric expression of kWh cost is derived. The limit of kWh cost is carried out extrapolating the values of cost components to their lowest figure. The reliability of the forecast is checked by disaggregating kWh cost in direct and indirect costs and by discussing the possible cost reduction of each component

  17. Limitation of solar energy and wind energy

    White, R. S.

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines, solar energy collectors and photovoltaic cells have been popular sources of electricity since the oil crisis in the late seventies, and they are increasingly favored by many scientists and much of the public as methods for reducing global warming. The older wind farms in California are outdated. New wind turbines have not followed, primarily because of competition from lower-cost natural gas. The Times urges increased federal and state subsidies for the wind and solar industries. The primary reason that wind and solar energies have not made inroads in the past, and will never supply more than a few percentage points of the world's electrical energy, is their unpredictable variations in time and their constant need for back-ups. The only non-carbon-dioxide-emitting generator capable of backing up wind and solar energy and replacing coal and gas generators is nuclear fission. Nuclear power may be the practical solution to global warming, after all.

  18. Superconducting magnetic energy storage, possibilities and limitations

    Bace, M.; Knapp, V.

    1981-01-01

    Energy storage is of great importance for the exploitation of new energy sources as well as for the better utilisation of conventional ones. Several proposals in recent years have suggested that superconducting magnets could be used as energy storage in large electricity networks. It is a purpose of this note to point out that the requirements which have to be met by energy storage in a large electricity network place serious limitation on the possible use of superconducting energy storage. (author)

  19. Classical limit for quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions

    Sen, D.; Sengupta, S.

    2004-01-01

    The classical limit problem is discussed for the quantum mechanical energy eigenfunctions using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation, free from the problem at the classical turning points. A proper perspective of the whole issue is sought to appreciate the significance of the discussion. It is observed that for bound states in arbitrary potential, appropriate limiting condition is definable in terms of a dimensionless classical limit parameter leading smoothly to all observable classical results. Most important results are the emergence of classical phase space, keeping the observable distribution functions non-zero only within the so-called classical region at the limit point and resolution of some well-known paradoxes. (author)

  20. Hot nuclei, limiting temperatures and excitation energies

    Peter, J.

    1986-09-01

    Hot fusion nuclei are produced in heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies (20-100 MeV/U). Information on the maximum excitation energy per nucleon -and temperatures- indicated by the experimental data is compared to the predictions of static and dynamical calculations. Temperatures around 5-6 MeV are reached and seem to be the limit of formation of thermally equilibrated fusion nuclei

  1. Theoretical efficiency limits for thermoradiative energy conversion

    Strandberg, Rune

    2015-01-01

    A new method to produce electricity from heat called thermoradiative energy conversion is analyzed. The method is based on sustaining a difference in the chemical potential for electron populations above and below an energy gap and let this difference drive a current through an electric circuit. The difference in chemical potential originates from an imbalance in the excitation and de-excitation of electrons across the energy gap. The method has similarities to thermophotovoltaics and conventional photovoltaics. While photovoltaic cells absorb thermal radiation from a body with higher temperature than the cell itself, thermoradiative cells are hot during operation and emit a net outflow of photons to colder surroundings. A thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.25 eV at a temperature of 500 K in surroundings at 300 K is found to have a theoretical efficiency limit of 33.2%. For a high-temperature thermoradiative cell with an energy gap of 0.4 eV, a theoretical efficiency close to 50% is found while the cell produces 1000 W/m 2 has a temperature of 1000 K and is placed in surroundings with a temperature of 300 K. Some aspects related to the practical implementation of the concept are discussed and some challenges are addressed. It is, for example, obvious that there is an upper boundary for the temperature under which solid state devices can work properly over time. No conclusions are drawn with regard to such practical boundaries, because the work is aimed at establishing upper limits for ideal thermoradiative devices

  2. Uranium, a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    Ohnemus, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this step was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken into account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this article outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analyzes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the influence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among other results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nuclear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig.)

  3. Uranium, a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this step was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken into account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this article outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analyzes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the influence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among other results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nuclear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig./GL)

  4. Uranium - a factor limiting nuclear energy?

    Ohnemus, J.

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear power has been back as a topic of public debate since early this year. A special subject under discussion is the extension of nuclear power plant life. Hardly had it been on the agenda, when interested parties announced that this st ep was impossible because uranium reserves were no longer sufficient. A variety of terms are being used in this discussion without their meaning being taken int o account: stocks, resources, and reserves. To clarify the situation, this artic le outlines important aspects of short and long term uranium supplies, and analy zes their meaning. Here are some of the most important issues under consideration: - For what period of time is there really enough uranium? - Is uranium becoming the limiting factor in the use of nuclear power? - Is uranium really a 'sustainable' energy resource? - Will higher prices extend the range? - What is the in fluence of the price of uranium on the cost of electricity generation? Among oth er results, it is found that comprehensive sources of low-price uranium and nucl ear fuels are, or can be made, available worldwide. Consequently, the 'range' is beyond the time frames currently mentioned, also as a function of technological factors, i.e. reaching several hundred years. It is also important to note that nuclear power - ensures greater independence of volatile imported sources, - guarantees reliably low electricity prices, - has a huge potential of environmental protection, and - is a clean source of energy. (orig.)

  5. Performance Limits of Communication with Energy Harvesting

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to the availability of energy harvested during communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility

  6. Renewable energy - its potential and limitations

    Read, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Several renewable energy options are discussed, namely solar energy, passive solar systems, photovoltaics, wind energy and biomass. Although technical feasibility has been shown for various systems, there has been slow growth in their implementation. Some aspects of this slow growth are in the domains of economic viability, long term reliability, the training of operators and installers, public perception and education and govenmental attitudes. It is estimated that the increased use of renewable energy depends on several factors which include government policies, funding, energy conservation, pricing policies, reliable commercial products, public education and adequate training. 11 refs

  7. Performance Limits of Communication with Energy Harvesting

    Znaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-04-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to the availability of energy harvested during communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility and environmental changes. During this work, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the quality of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize the throughput. Differently from previous work, the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. We solve this problem with respect to the energy harvesting constraints. Assuming a perfect knowledge of the CSI at the receiver, we determine the optimal power policy for different models of the energy arrival process (offline and online model). Indeed, we obtain the power allocation scheme when the transmitter has either perfect CSI or no CSI. We also investigate of utmost interest the case of fading channels with imperfect CSI. Moreover, a study of the asymptotic behavior of the communication system is proposed. Specifically, we analyze of the average throughput in a system where the average recharge rate goes asymptotically to zero and when it is very high.

  8. Energy independent optical potentials: construction and limitations

    Hussein, M.S.; Moniz, E.J.

    1983-11-01

    Properties of the energy-independent potential U sup(-) which is wave-function-equivalent to the usual optical potential U(E) are constructed and examined. A simple procedure is presented for constructing U sup(-) in the uniform medium, and physical examples are discussed. The general result for finite systems, a recursive expansion in powers of U(E), is used to investigate the multiple scattering expansion of U sup(-); the energy-independent potential is found to have serious short-comings for direct microscopic construction or phenomenological parametrization. The microscopic theory, as exemplified here by the multiple scattering approach, does not lead to a reliable approximation scheme. Phenomenological approaches to U sup(-) are unattractive because the physics does not guide the parametrization effectively: the structure of the nonlocality is not tied directly to the dynamics; Im U sup(-) changes sign; different elements of the physics, separate in U(E), are completely entangled in U sup(-). (Author) [pt

  9. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  10. 75 FR 6378 - Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC Covanta Power...

    2010-02-09

    ..., ER10-410-000] Covanta Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership Covanta Energy Marketing LLC... Pylmouth Renewable Energy Limited Partnership, Covanta Energy Marketing LLC, and Covanta Power, LLC filed... assistance with any FERC Online service, please e-mail [email protected] , or call (866) 208-3676...

  11. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    1988-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  12. Thermodynamic limits of energy harvesting from outgoing thermal radiation.

    Buddhiraju, Siddharth; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-04-17

    We derive the thermodynamic limits of harvesting power from the outgoing thermal radiation from the ambient to the cold outer space. The derivations are based on a duality relation between thermal engines that harvest solar radiation and those that harvest outgoing thermal radiation. In particular, we derive the ultimate limit for harvesting outgoing thermal radiation, which is analogous to the Landsberg limit for solar energy harvesting, and show that the ultimate limit far exceeds what was previously thought to be possible. As an extension of our work, we also derive the ultimate limit of efficiency of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  13. Signal detection without finite-energy limits to quantum resolution

    Luis Aina, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    We show that there are extremely simple signal detection schemes where the finiteness of energy resources places no limit on the resolution. On the contrary, larger resolution can be obtained with lower energy. To this end the generator of the signal-dependent transformation encoding the signal information on the probe state must be different from the energy. We show that the larger the deviation of the probe state from being the minimum-uncertainty state, the better the resolution.

  14. Limits and Prospects of Renewable Energy Sources in Italy

    Coiante, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Italian energy balance for year 2005 is discussed with particular attention on renewable energy production. The potentials of renewable sources are evaluated in terms of energy density that can be obtained from occupied plant area. About 20000 km 2 of sunny barren lands are present in South of Italy, particularly suitable for photovoltaic plants and that corresponds to a potential production of 144 Mtep of primary energy. Therefore, in theory, the photovoltaic energy potential is comparable with energy balance. The grid connection limit due to intermittent power generation of photovoltaic and wind energy systems is considered in relation with the stability of grid power level. Assuming a 25% maximum grid penetration of intermittent power with respect to capacity of active thermoelectric generators, the renewable energy contribution amounts to about 2% of annual energy balance. In front of expectations for a larger contribution, the practical result is the renewable energy production of present systems is marginal, unsuitable for counteracting the global climate crisis. The conclusion is that, for exploiting the large renewable energy potential, is necessary to implement the plants with an energy storage system able to overcome the source intermittency. Without this improvement, the expectations on renewable energy sources could be disappointed. [it

  15. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  16. The transition towards renewable energies: Physical limits and temporal conditions

    Mediavilla, Margarita; Castro, Carlos de; Capellán, Iñigo; Javier Miguel, Luis; Arto, Iñaki; Frechoso, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of the depletion of fossil energy resources, together with the consequences of climate change, have provoked the development of numerous national and pluri-national energy policies. However, there have been few overall studies on the evolution of these resources. This paper uses a dynamic model to study the exhaustion patterns of world fossil and nuclear fuels and their possible replacement by renewable energy sources. The results show that peak oil will be the first restriction and it will not be easily overcome. Electric vehicles can produce some interesting savings, but they are insufficient to avoid the decline in oil. Biofuels are even more limited, due to the enormous extensions of fertile land they require and their low productivity. This shows that overcoming the decline in oil will need much more ambitious policies than the mere substitution of technology. If the “oil–economy” relationship does not change substantially, world economic growth may be seriously limited or even negative. In contrast, the production of electrical energy is not such a worrying problem in the short and middle-term. - Highlights: ► We study world energy demand and resources with a systems dynamics model. ► We find that peak oil cannot be overcomed with simple technological substitution. ► Past economic growth and energy intensity trends cannot be maintained. ► Electric vehicles are only a partial solution, biofuels are even more limited. ► Substitution of electric energy by renewables is much easier than oil substitution.

  17. Limiting biomass consumption for heating in 100% renewable energy systems

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    -scale solar thermal, large heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat, and waste incineration. Where the energy density in the building stock is not high enough for DH to be economical, geothermal heat pumps can be recommended for individual heating systems, even though biomass consumption is higher......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems while buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply even in 100% renewable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on how the heating sector can reduce its consumption of biomass, thus leaving biomass...... for other sectors, but while still enabling a 100% renewable energy system. The analyses of heating technologies shows that district heating (DH) systems are important in limiting the dependence on biomass and create cost effective solutions. DH systems are especially important in renewable energy systems...

  18. Physical Limits of Solar Energy Conversion in the Earth System.

    Kleidon, Axel; Miller, Lee; Gans, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    Solar energy provides by far the greatest potential for energy generation among all forms of renewable energy. Yet, just as for any form of energy conversion, it is subject to physical limits. Here we review the physical limits that determine how much energy can potentially be generated out of sunlight using a combination of thermodynamics and observed climatic variables. We first explain how the first and second law of thermodynamics constrain energy conversions and thereby the generation of renewable energy, and how this applies to the conversions of solar radiation within the Earth system. These limits are applied to the conversion of direct and diffuse solar radiation - which relates to concentrated solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV) technologies as well as biomass production or any other photochemical conversion - as well as solar radiative heating, which generates atmospheric motion and thus relates to wind power technologies. When these conversion limits are applied to observed data sets of solar radiation at the land surface, it is estimated that direct concentrated solar power has a potential on land of up to 11.6 PW (1 PW=10(15) W), whereas photovoltaic power has a potential of up to 16.3 PW. Both biomass and wind power operate at much lower efficiencies, so their potentials of about 0.3 and 0.1 PW are much lower. These estimates are considerably lower than the incoming flux of solar radiation of 175 PW. When compared to a 2012 primary energy demand of 17 TW, the most direct uses of solar radiation, e.g., by CSP or PV, have thus by far the greatest potential to yield renewable energy requiring the least space to satisfy the human energy demand. Further conversions into solar-based fuels would be reduced by further losses which would lower these potentials. The substantially greater potential of solar-based renewable energy compared to other forms of renewable energy simply reflects much fewer and lower unavoidable conversion losses when solar

  19. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1986-87

    1987-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1987 covers the followings subjects: report from the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; the future; financial section and board of directors and officers

  20. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1985-86

    1986-01-01

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1986 covers the following subjects: report from the chairman and the president; research company; CANDU operations; radiochemical company; employee performance; nuclear Canada; Financial section; and board of directors and officers

  1. Intrinsic Energy Dissipation Limits in Nano and Micromechanical Resonators

    Iyer, Srikanth Subramanian

    Resonant microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) have enabled miniaturization of high-performance inertial sensors, radio-frequency filters, timing references and mass-based chemical sensors. Despite the increasing prevalence of MEMS resonators for these applications, the energy dissipation in these structures is not well-understood. Accurate prediction of the energy loss and the resulting quality factor (Q) has significant design implications because it is directly related to device performance metrics including sensitivity for resonant sensors, bandwidth for radio-frequency filters and phase-noise for timing references. In order to assess the future potential for MEMS resonators it is critically important to evaluate the energy dissipation limits, which will dictate the ultimate performance resonant MEMS devices can achieve. This work focuses on the derivation and evaluation of the intrinsic mechanical energy dissipation limit for single-crystal nano and micromechanical resonators due to anharmonic phonon-phonon scattering in the Akhiezer regime. The energy loss is derived using perturbation theory and the linearized Boltzmann transport equation for phonons, and includes the direction and polarization dependent mode-Gruneisen parameters in order to capture the strain-induced anharmonicity among phonon branches. Evaluation of the quality factor limit reveals that Akhiezer damping, previously thought to depend only on material properties, has a strong dependence on crystal orientation and resonant mode shape. The robust model provides a dissipation limit for all resonant modes including shear-mode vibrations, which have significantly reduced energy loss because dissipative phonon-phonon scattering is restricted to volume-preserving phonon branches, indicating that Lame or wine-glass mode resonators will have the highest upper limit on mechanical efficiency. Finally, the analytical dissipation model is integrated with commercial finite element software in order to

  2. Prospects and Limits of Energy Storage in Batteries.

    Abraham, K M

    2015-03-05

    Energy densities of Li ion batteries, limited by the capacities of cathode materials, must increase by a factor of 2 or more to give all-electric automobiles a 300 mile driving range on a single charge. Battery chemical couples with very low equivalent weights have to be sought to produce such batteries. Advanced Li ion batteries may not be able to meet this challenge in the near term. The state-of-the-art of Li ion batteries is discussed, and the challenges of developing ultrahigh energy density rechargeable batteries are identified. Examples of ultrahigh energy density battery chemical couples include Li/O2, Li/S, Li/metal halide, and Li/metal oxide systems. Future efforts are also expected to involve all-solid-state batteries with performance similar to their liquid electrolyte counterparts, biodegradable batteries to address environmental challenges, and low-cost long cycle-life batteries for large-scale energy storage. Ultimately, energy densities of electrochemical energy storage systems are limited by chemistry constraints.

  3. Stringy symmetries and their high-energy limits

    Chan, C.-T.; Lee, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We derive stringy symmetries with conserved charges of arbitrarily high spins from the decoupling of two types of zero-norm states in the old covariant first quantized (OCFQ) spectrum of open bosonic string. These symmetries are valid to all energy α ' and all loop orders χ in string perturbation theory. The high-energy limit α ' ->∞ of these stringy symmetries can then be used to fix the proportionality constants between scattering amplitudes of different string states algebraically without referring to Gross and Mende's saddle point calculation of high-energy string-loop amplitudes. These proportionality constants are, as conjectured by Gross, independent of the scattering angle φ CM and the order χ of string perturbation theory. However, we also discover some new nonzero components of high-energy amplitudes not found previously by Gross and Manes. These components are essential to preserve massive gauge invariances or decouple massive zero-norm states of string theory. A set of massive scattering amplitudes and their high energy limit are calculated explicitly to justify our results

  4. Limiting energy loss distributions for multiphoton channeling radiation

    Bondarenco, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    Recent results in the theory of multiphoton spectra for coherent radiation sources are overviewed, with the emphasis on channeling radiation. For the latter case, the importance of the order of resummation and averaging is emphasized. Limiting shapes of multiphoton spectra at high intensity are discussed for different channeling regimes. In some spectral regions, there emerges a correspondence between the radiative energy loss and the electron integrals of motion

  5. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 2007 annual financial report

    2007-01-01

    This is the annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2007 and summarizes the financial activities of AECL during the period 2006-2007. The highlights for this period include increase in consolidated commercial revenue by 40%, progress on the Cernavoda reactor, increased investment in the safety and performance of the CANDU fleet and a memorandum of understanding with Natural Resources Canada to govern implementation of a five-year waste management and decommissioning plan.

  6. New limit on logotropic unified dark energy models

    V.M.C. Ferreira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A unification of dark matter and dark energy in terms of a logotropic perfect dark fluid has recently been proposed, where deviations with respect to the standard ΛCDM model are dependent on a single parameter B. In this paper we show that the requirement that the linear growth of cosmic structures on comoving scales larger than 8h−1Mpc is not significantly affected with respect to the standard ΛCDM result provides the strongest limit to date on the model (B<6×10−7, an improvement of more than three orders of magnitude over previous upper limits on the value of B. We further show that this limit rules out the logotropic Unified Dark Energy model as a possible solution to the small scale problems of the ΛCDM model, including the cusp problem of Dark Matter halos or the missing satellite problem, as well as the original version of the model where the Planck energy density was taken as one of the two parameters characterizing the logotropic dark fluid.

  7. Radiation pressure acceleration: The factors limiting maximum attainable ion energy

    Bulanov, S. S.; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bulanov, S. V. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); A. M. Prokhorov Institute of General Physics RAS, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Kando, M. [KPSI, National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department, University of Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica, CNR, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Leemans, W. P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) is a highly efficient mechanism of laser-driven ion acceleration, with near complete transfer of the laser energy to the ions in the relativistic regime. However, there is a fundamental limit on the maximum attainable ion energy, which is determined by the group velocity of the laser. The tightly focused laser pulses have group velocities smaller than the vacuum light speed, and, since they offer the high intensity needed for the RPA regime, it is plausible that group velocity effects would manifest themselves in the experiments involving tightly focused pulses and thin foils. However, in this case, finite spot size effects are important, and another limiting factor, the transverse expansion of the target, may dominate over the group velocity effect. As the laser pulse diffracts after passing the focus, the target expands accordingly due to the transverse intensity profile of the laser. Due to this expansion, the areal density of the target decreases, making it transparent for radiation and effectively terminating the acceleration. The off-normal incidence of the laser on the target, due either to the experimental setup, or to the deformation of the target, will also lead to establishing a limit on maximum ion energy.

  8. Low-energy limit of the extended Linear Sigma Model

    Divotgey, Florian [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Kovacs, Peter [Wigner Research Center for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, ExtreMe Matter Institute, Darmstadt (Germany); Giacosa, Francesco [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Jan-Kochanowski University, Institute of Physics, Kielce (Poland); Rischke, Dirk H. [Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University of Science and Technology of China, Interdisciplinary Center for Theoretical Study and Department of Modern Physics, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2018-01-15

    The extended Linear Sigma Model is an effective hadronic model based on the linear realization of chiral symmetry SU(N{sub f}){sub L} x SU(N{sub f}){sub R}, with (pseudo)scalar and (axial-)vector mesons as degrees of freedom. In this paper, we study the low-energy limit of the extended Linear Sigma Model (eLSM) for N{sub f} = flavors by integrating out all fields except for the pions, the (pseudo-)Nambu-Goldstone bosons of chiral symmetry breaking. The resulting low-energy effective action is identical to Chiral Perturbation Theory (ChPT) after choosing a representative for the coset space generated by chiral symmetry breaking and expanding it in powers of (derivatives of) the pion fields. The tree-level values of the coupling constants of the effective low-energy action agree remarkably well with those of ChPT. (orig.)

  9. Unified limiting form of graviton radiation at extreme energies

    Ciafaloni, Marcello; Coradeschi, Francesco; Veneziano, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    We derive the limiting form of graviton radiation in gravitational scattering at transplanckian energies ($E\\gg M_P$) and small deflection angles. We show that --- owing to the graviton's spin 2 --- such limiting form unifies the soft- and Regge- regimes of emission, by covering a broad angular range, from forward fragmentation to deeply central region. The single-exchange emission amplitudes have a nice expression in terms of the transformation phases of helicity amplitudes under rotations. As a result, the multiple-exchange emission amplitudes can be resummed via an impact parameter $b$-space factorization theorem that takes into account all coherence effects. We then see the emergence of an energy spectrum of the emitted radiation which, being tuned on $\\hbar/R \\sim M_P^2/E \\ll M_P$, is reminiscent of Hawking's radiation. Such a spectrum is much softer than the one na\\"ively expected for increasing input energies and neatly solves a potential energy crisis. Furthermore, by including rescattering correction...

  10. Energy and population: transitional issues and eventual limits.

    Werbos, P J

    1990-08-01

    The implication of population size for US energy requirements is explored in this essay. The basic argument is that the present supply of fuels and energy technologies is not sustainable in the long run, that a wide range of choices is possible when a complete transition is made to sustainable technologies, and that the growth of population and the composition of this growth during the next 30 years are the most serious problems impacting on the achievement of sustainable technology. The importance and future of fuel oil is discussed as well as the transition to sustainable energy supplies: conservation, renewables, nuclear and coal. Dependency on oil can only be changed through time and the infusion of money, but even with these givens, the transition is also dependent on the political and budgetary climate. The race is between crisis and cure. It is argued that the soft energy systems (biomass, solar water heater, wind, hydro, and geothermal energy) along with conservation will increase easily and naturally, but the total potential from these sources amounts to only 10% of the present US energy supply. Conservation offers greater hope because 80% of end-use fossil fuel is used in transportation and industry. Further growth of the population in the US would create a demand to desalinate water, which would increase the demand for energy. A totally soft energy economy is probably not feasible without a drastic reduction in US population. The expected direction is in the increased use of coal, and then nuclear energy. Unfortunately, coal contributes to greenhouse warming, and the supply is limited to 60-100 years. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism is connected to the widespread use of nuclear energy. Some breakthrough technology with cold fusion may offer a safer alternative. High technology renewables such as solar cells can be competitive with nuclear energy, if prices can be kept down. on earth or in space, are being investigated. Exploring a variety of advanced

  11. Energy density and rate limitations in structural composite supercapacitors

    Snyder, J. F.; Gienger, E.; Wetzel, E. D.; Xu, K.

    2012-06-01

    The weight and volume of conventional energy storage technologies greatly limits their performance in mobile platforms. Traditional research efforts target improvements in energy density to reduce device size and mass. Enabling a device to perform additional functions, such as bearing mechanical load, is an alternative approach as long as the total mass efficiency exceeds that of the individual materials it replaces. Our research focuses on structural composites that function as batteries and supercapacitors. These multifunctional devices could be used to replace conventional structural components, such as vehicle frame elements, to provide significant system-level weight reductions and extend mission times. Our approach is to design structural properties directly into the electrolyte and electrode materials. Solid polymer electrolyte materials bind the system and transfer load to the fibers while conducting ions between the electrodes. Carbon fiber electrodes provide a route towards optimizing both energy storage and load-bearing capabilities, and may also obviate the need for a separate current collector. The components are being integrated using scalable, cost-effective composite processing techniques that are amenable to complex part shapes. Practical considerations of energy density and rate behavior are described here as they relate to materials used. Our results highlight the viability as well as the challenges of this multifunctional approach towards energy storage.

  12. UV DRIVEN EVAPORATION OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS: ENERGY-LIMITED, RECOMBINATION-LIMITED, AND PHOTON-LIMITED FLOWS

    Owen, James E.; Alvarez, Marcelo A.

    2016-01-01

    We have investigated the evaporation of close-in exoplanets irradiated by ionizing photons. We find that the properties of the flow are controlled by the ratio of the recombination time to the flow timescale. When the recombination timescale is short compared to the flow timescale, the flow is in approximate local ionization equilibrium with a thin ionization front where the photon mean free path is short compared to the flow scale. In this “recombination-limited” flow the mass-loss scales roughly with the square root of the incident flux. When the recombination time is long compared to the flow timescale the ionization front becomes thick and encompasses the entire flow with the mass-loss rate scaling linearly with flux. If the planet's potential is deep, then the flow is approximately “energy-limited”; however, if the planet's potential is shallow, then we identify a new limiting mass-loss regime, which we term “photon-limited.” In this scenario, the mass-loss rate is purely limited by the incoming flux of ionizing photons. We have developed a new numerical approach that takes into account the frequency dependence of the incoming ionizing spectrum and performed a large suite of 1D simulations to characterize UV driven mass-loss around low-mass planets. We find that the flow is “recombination-limited” at high fluxes but becomes “energy-limited” at low fluxes; however, the transition is broad occurring over several orders of magnitude in flux. Finally, we point out that the transitions between the different flow types do not occur at a single flux value but depend on the planet's properties, with higher-mass planets becoming “energy-limited” at lower fluxes

  13. Energy consumption - a limited quantity in the debate about energy policies

    Beinhauer, H.

    1990-01-01

    The limits to the availability of energy have been pushed out again and again, in the past decade even by a considerable measure. Thus, the proven energy reserves of the world are nearly a third above the levels discussed ten years ago, although nearly 70 billion tons of coal equivalent have been consumed in the meantime. However, a very different limit in energy consumption has come dangerously close: The limit to the capacity of nature to absorb the pollutants released in the combustion of fossil energy resources, such as CO 2 , NO x , or SO 2 . Nobody can seriously believe that an even larger share of the growing world population will be prepared in the future to be satisfied with an even smaller share in the world energy consumption. Against this background, the need is becoming apparent to make use of nuclear power in the industrialized countries as much as possible. (orig.)

  14. Limits for Recombination in a Low Energy Loss Organic Heterojunction

    Menke, S. Matthew; Sadhanala, Aditya; Nikolka, Mark; Ran, Niva A.; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Abdel-Azeim, Safwat; Stern, Hannah L.; Wang, Ming; Sirringhaus, Henning; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Bazan, Guillermo C.; Friend, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Donor-acceptor organic solar cells often show high quantum yields for charge collection, but relatively low open-circuit voltages (VOC) limit power conversion efficiencies to around 12%. We report here the behavior of a system, PIPCP:PC61BM, that exhibits very low electronic disorder (Urbach energy less than 27 meV), very high carrier mobilities in the blend (field-effect mobility for holes >10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1), and a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (50 meV). These characteristics should give excellent performance, and indeed, the VOC is high relative to the donor energy gap. However, we find the overall performance is limited by recombination, with formation of lower-lying triplet excitons on the donor accounting for 90% of the recombination. We find this is a bimolecular process that happens on time scales as short as 100 ps. Thus, although the absence of disorder and the associated high carrier mobility speeds up charge diffusion and extraction at the electrodes, which we measure as early as 1 ns, this also speeds up the recombination channel, giving overall a modest quantum yield of around 60%. We discuss strategies to remove the triplet exciton recombination channel.

  15. Limits for Recombination in a Low Energy Loss Organic Heterojunction

    Menke, S. Matthew

    2016-11-03

    Donor-acceptor organic solar cells often show high quantum yields for charge collection, but relatively low open-circuit voltages (VOC) limit power conversion efficiencies to around 12%. We report here the behavior of a system, PIPCP:PC61BM, that exhibits very low electronic disorder (Urbach energy less than 27 meV), very high carrier mobilities in the blend (field-effect mobility for holes >10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1), and a very low driving energy for initial charge separation (50 meV). These characteristics should give excellent performance, and indeed, the VOC is high relative to the donor energy gap. However, we find the overall performance is limited by recombination, with formation of lower-lying triplet excitons on the donor accounting for 90% of the recombination. We find this is a bimolecular process that happens on time scales as short as 100 ps. Thus, although the absence of disorder and the associated high carrier mobility speeds up charge diffusion and extraction at the electrodes, which we measure as early as 1 ns, this also speeds up the recombination channel, giving overall a modest quantum yield of around 60%. We discuss strategies to remove the triplet exciton recombination channel.

  16. Limited and unlimited liability in the German Atomic Energy Law

    Pelzer, N.

    1982-01-01

    The liability of operators of nuclear installations in the FRG is limited under current law to the sum of one thousand million DM (section 31 of the Atomic Energy law). Since about the autumn of 1979, the Federal Ministry of the Interior is making inquiries into the necessity and appropriateness of abandoning the provision on liability limitations, in order to improve the victims compensation. The legal problems involved in this decision are presented by the author, trying to answer the question of whether the current system of liability limitations should be maintained or abandoned by discussing this issue from the point of view of the legal functions ''justice'' and ''expedience'' of this provision. The manifold international interlacement of the atomic energy law does not allow this study to be restricted to the law of the FRG. A brief review of the development and current state of the international nuclear liability law is the basis of this study into the problems of a possible modification of the German nuclear liability provisions. The study is carried out with the purpose of elaborating model solutions. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Gaps between Jets in the high energy limit

    Forshaw, Jeffrey R.; Kyrieleis, Albrecht; Seymour, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    We use perturbative QCD to calculate the parton level cross section for the production of two jets that are far apart in rapidity, subject to a limitation on the total transverse momentum Q 0 in the interjet region. We specifically address the question of how to combine the approach which sums all leading logarithms in Q/Q 0 (where Q is the jet transverse momentum) with the BFKL approach, in which leading logarithms of the scattering energy are summed. This paper constitutes progress towards the simultaneous summation of all important logarithms. Using an 'all orders' matching, we are able to obtain results for the cross section which correctly reproduce the two approaches in the appropriate limits

  18. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2002-2003

    2003-01-01

    This is the annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2003 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2002-2003. It outlines the strategic objectives that include growing the market and market share, maximize return on resources, evolve the business structure to support business growth, grow knowledge assets, be a technology and knowledge-based innovative leader, leverage intellectual property to provide marketable products and services and establish nuclear power as a clean air and public policy solution.

  19. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited 2008 annual financial report

    2008-01-01

    This is the annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2008 and summarizes the financial activities of AECL during the period 2007-2008. The major highlights for this period include increase of consolidated revenue by 4%, significant progress on Liquid Waste Transfer and Storage (LWTS) and the Fuel Packaging and Storage (FPS) project, feasibility study of a new ACR-1000 plant in New Brunswick and a memorandum of understanding with CNSC for pre project design review of ACR-1000.

  20. Evaluation of scenarios for energy systems. Potentials, limits and acceptance

    Schubert, Daniel Kurt Josef

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to previous approaches in connection with the energy transition, the dissertation leads to a change of perspective towards social consideration. Previous scenario studies focused on technical feasibility as well as individual cost and environmental aspects, as shown in the pre-analysis. Society plays a secondary role in this case. Instead of being taken into account in the prior decision-making process, time and effort are often invested in the downstream conviction of the population only after that. The approach pursued in the work consistently focuses on incorporating social preferences and barriers into the decision-making process in advance, so that decisions themselves have lasting validity. Representative telephone surveys are used to determine the preferences of the population on the one hand and the limits of acceptance in the form of willingness to pay on the other hand. Only then are scenario calculations carried out in order to be able to quantitatively evaluate energy policy options for action. In the subsequent comparison of social barriers and model results, however, the limits of this approach are also made clear: a desired action option from the perspective of the population (here the brown coal exit) can also fail because of political and legal barriers. [de

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    2001-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  2. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    2000-01-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor

  3. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1989-1990

    1990-01-01

    In 1990, after a comprehensive industry review, the Canadian government announced that steps would be taken to revitalize the nuclear industry. Canada's nuclear utilities made a commitment to bear a large share of the cost of nuclear research and development. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) reported its first financial loss in twelve years, as anticipated at the start of the year. Four of the 20 CANDU reactors operating worldwide were in the top ten based on lifetime performance. By year-end one foreign and two domestic utilities had announced their intention to build more CANDU units. The federal government has agreed to stabilize AECL's research funding at 1989-90 levels ($31.5 million above levels planned in 1985), has authorized AECL to negotiate with New Brunswick to build Point Lepreau-2 as the prototype for the CANDU-3 reactor, and has allowed the restructuring of AECL so utility and private sector investors can become equity partners in AECL CANDU

  4. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  5. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  6. Children, parents and home energy use: Exploring motivations and limits to energy demand reduction

    Fell, Michael J.; Chiu, Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    While almost 30% of UK households include children, little research has attempted to present children's perspectives on home energy use. This study used focus groups with children and parents at two primary (elementary) schools in London, UK, to explore home energy use and energy feedback. Energy was found to be a little-discussed subject at home. Children derived more motivation to save energy from responsibility conferred by school activities than other (e.g. environmental) concerns, and some connected energy saving with dangers of using electricity (e.g. fire). Material and social constraints (e.g. access to outside space, parents' environmental attitudes) meant that it was sometimes difficult for children to save energy even when motivated. However, parents showed greater inclination to pay attention to energy saving when framed as supporting their child's learning than as a financial or environmental concern. Children were disinclined to reduce energy-consuming activities such as watching television, and while parents complained about children's energy use most saw it as a low priority issue. Policy implications of these findings are considered, and the approach employed is argued to be an effective way of investigating children's perceptions around energy use. - Highlights: • Separate focus groups were conducted with children and parents on home energy use. • Children were motivated to save energy by being given responsibility. • Parents viewed saving energy more positively when framed as educating their child. • Material and social factors limit children's ability to save energy. • The method may encourage openness by decreasing power imbalances

  7. Black hole emission process in the high energy limit

    Carter, B [Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France). Groupe d' Astrophysique Relativiste; Gibbons, G W; Lin, D N.C.; Perry, M J [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics; Cambridge Univ. (UK). Inst. of Astronomy)

    1976-11-01

    The ultimate outcome of the Hawking process of particle emission by small black holes is discussed in terms of the various conceivable theories of the behaviour of matter in the ultra-high temperature limit. It is shown that if high temperature matter is described by a relatively hard equation of state with an adiabatic index GAMMA greater than 6/5 then interactions between particles can probably be ignored so that the rate of creation will continue to be describable by Hawking's method. On the other hand for softer equations of state (including those of the ultra soft Hagedorn type) the created matter will almost certainly be highly opaque and a hydrodynamic model of the emission process will be more appropriate. Actual astronomical detection of the final emission products might in principle have provided valuable information about the correct theory of ultra high energy physics but it is shown that in practice the black hole death rate is so low that observational distinction of the resulting high energy decay products from the background would require high resolution detectors.

  8. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  9. Melt Flow and Energy Limitation of Laser Cutting

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser technology is a convertible technology for plenty of parts in most materials. Laser material processing for industrial manufacturing applications is today a widespread procedure for welding, cutting, marking and micro machining of metal and plastic parts and components. Involvement and support this huge mass-production industry of laser cutting, new technology and dry-process using lasers were and are being actively developed. Fundamentally, industrial laser cutting or other applications on industry should satisfy the four key practical application issues including “Quality or Performance”, “Throughput or Speed”, “Cost or Total Ownership Cost”, and “Reliability”. Laser requires for examples several complicated physical factors to be resolved including die strength to be enable good wire-bonding and survival of severe cycling test, clean cutting wall surface, good cutting of direct attach film, and proper speed of cutting for achieving economy of throughput. Some example of maximum cutting rate, wherewith is normally limited laser energy, cutting speed is depend on type laser, different of cutting with one laser beam and beam pattern and applied laser power/material thickness will be introduced in this paper.

  10. CT energy weighting in the presence of scatter and limited energy resolution

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Energy-resolved CT has the potential to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) through optimal weighting of photons detected in energy bins. In general, optimal weighting gives higher weight to the lower energy photons that contain the most contrast information. However, low-energy photons are generally most corrupted by scatter and spectrum tailing, an effect caused by the limited energy resolution of the detector. This article first quantifies the effects of spectrum tailing on energy-resolved data, which may also be beneficial for material decomposition applications. Subsequently, the combined effects of energy weighting, spectrum tailing, and scatter are investigated through simulations. Methods: The study first investigated the effects of spectrum tailing on the estimated attenuation coefficients of homogeneous slab objects. Next, the study compared the CNR and artifact performance of images simulated with varying levels of scatter and spectrum tailing effects, and reconstructed with energy integrating, photon-counting, and two optimal linear weighting methods: Projection-based and image-based weighting. Realistic detector energy-response functions were simulated based on a previously proposed model. The energy-response functions represent the probability that a photon incident on the detector at a particular energy will be detected at a different energy. Realistic scatter was simulated with Monte Carlo methods. Results: Spectrum tailing resulted in a negative shift in the estimated attenuation coefficient of slab objects compared to an ideal detector. The magnitude of the shift varied with material composition, increased with material thickness, and decreased with photon energy. Spectrum tailing caused cupping artifacts and CT number inaccuracies in images reconstructed with optimal energy weighting, and did not impact images reconstructed with photon counting weighting. Spectrum tailing did not significantly impact the CNR in reconstructed images

  11. 76 FR 43682 - Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest Independent...

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-53-000] Shetek Wind Inc. Jeffers South, LLC Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator, Inc...), Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC, and Allco Renewable Energy Limited (collectively Complainants...

  12. The limited role of recombination energy in common envelope removal

    Grichener, Aldana; Sabach, Efrat; Soker, Noam

    2018-05-01

    We calculate the outward energy transport time by convection and photon diffusion in an inflated common envelope and find this time to be shorter than the envelope expansion time. We conclude therefore that most of the hydrogen recombination energy ends in radiation rather than in kinetic energy of the outflowing envelope. We use the stellar evolution code MESA and inject energy inside the envelope of an asymptotic giant branch star to mimic energy deposition by a spiraling-in stellar companion. During 1.7 years the envelope expands by a factor of more than 2. Along the entire evolution the convection can carry the energy very efficiently outwards, to the radius where radiative transfer becomes more efficient. The total energy transport time stays within several months, shorter than the dynamical time of the envelope. Had we included rapid mass loss, as is expected in the common envelope evolution, the energy transport time would have been even shorter. It seems that calculations that assume that most of the recombination energy ends in the outflowing gas might be inaccurate.

  13. Limit on possible energy-dependent velocities for massless particles

    Haines, T.J.; Alexandreas, D.E.; Allen, R.C.; Biller, S.; Berley, D.; Burman, R.L.; Cady, D.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Dingus, B.L.; Dion, G.M.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Goodman, J.A.; Hoffman, C.M.; Lloyd-Evans, J.; Nagle, D.E.; Potter, M.; Sandberg, V.D.; Wilkinson, C.A.; Yodh, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    A basic tenet of special relativity is that all massless particles travel at a constant, energy-independent velocity. Astrophysical data, including observation of the Crab pulsar at ∼100 MeV and the recent detection of the pulsar in Hercules X-1 at energies ≥100 TeV, are used to place new experimental constraints on energy-dependent deviations from constant velocity for massless particles. Previous experiments reached energies ∼10 GeV; this analysis improves the previous constraints by 7 orders of magnitude

  14. Waste management program at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Wong, P.C.F.; Chan, N.; Hawrelluk, K. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Waste Management Program establishes requirements for waste management activities at AECL sites in Canada. It ensures that activities involving planning for, handling, processing, transporting, storage and long-term management of wastes are performed in a manner that protects the workers, the public, and the environment, and are in compliance with applicable regulatory and licence requirements. The program translates applicable legal requirements into program requirements appropriate for AECL, and assists AECL management in implementing those requirements. The Waste Management Program was formally established at AECL in 2007 as one of the nuclear programs. The activities conducted in the first two years (2007 - 09) were mainly focused on program development. Currently the program is executing the waste management improvement initiatives based on the Waste Management Program Improvement Plan. During the program implementation, close collaboration between the Waste Management Program and other departments resulted in improved waste management performance at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This included increased segregation of the waste at the source, reduction in waste generation, improved labeling and identification of waste packages, improved recyclables collection and initiating recycling of selected hazardous wastes. In accordance with pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring long-term management shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. The annual volume of solid waste generated is one of the key indicators for waste management performance. AECL has been successful in reduction of operational waste and diversion of materials for recycling at CRL. From 2007 to 2010, the annual volume of solid waste, including inactive and radioactive wastes, generated from routine operations at CRL decreased by 26%, and the annual amount of recyclables sent

  15. Waste management program at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Wong, P.C.F.; Chan, N.; Hawrelluk, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) Waste Management Program establishes requirements for waste management activities at AECL sites in Canada. It ensures that activities involving planning for, handling, processing, transporting, storage and long-term management of wastes are performed in a manner that protects the workers, the public, and the environment, and are in compliance with applicable regulatory and licence requirements. The program translates applicable legal requirements into program requirements appropriate for AECL, and assists AECL management in implementing those requirements. The Waste Management Program was formally established at AECL in 2007 as one of the nuclear programs. The activities conducted in the first two years (2007 - 09) were mainly focused on program development. Currently the program is executing the waste management improvement initiatives based on the Waste Management Program Improvement Plan. During the program implementation, close collaboration between the Waste Management Program and other departments resulted in improved waste management performance at Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). This included increased segregation of the waste at the source, reduction in waste generation, improved labeling and identification of waste packages, improved recyclables collection and initiating recycling of selected hazardous wastes. In accordance with pollution prevention, the quantities and degree of hazard of wastes requiring long-term management shall be minimized, following the principles of Prevent, Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. The annual volume of solid waste generated is one of the key indicators for waste management performance. AECL has been successful in reduction of operational waste and diversion of materials for recycling at CRL. From 2007 to 2010, the annual volume of solid waste, including inactive and radioactive wastes, generated from routine operations at CRL decreased by 26%, and the annual amount of recyclables sent

  16. Accuracy of the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index using MODIS under water-limited vs. energy-limited evapotranspiration conditions

    Garcia, Monica; Fernández, N.; Villagarcía, L.

    2014-01-01

    surface fluxes using MODIS data; and (ii) provide insights about the factors most affecting the accuracy of results. Factors considered included the type of climatic control on evapotranspiration, λE, (i.e. water-limited vs. energy-limited), the quality of Tair estimates, the heterogeneity of land cover...

  17. Resource management in energy-limited, bandwidth-limited, transceiver-limited wireless networks for session-based multicasting

    Wieselthier, Jeffrey E; Nguyen, Gam D; Ephremides, Anthony

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we consider source-initiated multicast session traffic in an ad hoc wireless network, operating under hard constraints on the available transmission energy as well as on bandwidth and transceiver resources...

  18. Performance Limitations in High-Energy Ion Colliders

    Fischer, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    High-energy ion colliders (hadron colliders operating with species other than protons) are premier research tools for nuclear physics. The collision energy and high luminosity are important design and operations considerations. However, the experiments also expect flexibility with frequent changes in the collision energy, lattice configuration, and ion species, including asymmetric collisions. For the creation, acceleration, and storage of bright intense ion beams, attention must be paid to space charge, charge exchange, and intra-beam scattering effects. The latter leads to luminosity lifetimes of only a few hours for heavy ions. Ultimately cooling at full energy is needed to overcome this effect. Currently, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is the only operating high-energy ion collider. The Large Hadron Collider, under construction at CERN, will also run with heavy ions.

  19. Ballistic Missile Defense FY95 Funding & Language Track

    1994-10-01

    io o 0) "> SI Q) to a-, H~ TO CD TO - m fe o c ■Q </) Q> V) 0) TO JO "Js ^" ** 5<o c Q> E E o o 0) Tj Ü TO SSto ...Defense Act National SSTO National Test Facility Upper Lower Tier Risk Reduction Report ABM Treaty NMD TMD Early Warnin Pages: 00247 Cataloged Date: May

  20. Summary of Synthetic Lap Polishing Experiments at LLNL, FY95

    Nichols, M A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to support the optics finishing development work for the NIF, the National Ignition Facility. One of the major expenses for the construction of NIF is the cost of finishing of the large aperture optics. One way to significantly reduce the cost of the project is to develop processes to reduce the amount of time necessary to polish the more than 3,000 amplifier slabs. These slabs are rectangular with an aspect ratio of more than twenty to one and are made of a very temperature sensitive glass, Nd doped phosphate laser glass. As a result of this effort, we could potentially reduce the time necessary to polish each surface of an amplifier from 20-30 hours of run time to under an hour to achieve the same removal and still maintain a flatness of between one to three waves concave figure. We also feel confident that we can polish rectangular thermally sensitive glass flat by use of temperature control of the polishing platen, pad curvature, slurry concentration with temperature control, pad rotation, and pressure; although further, larger scale experiments are necessary to gain sufficient confidence that such a procedure could be successfully fielded

  1. New limits on coupled dark energy model after Planck 2015

    Li, Hang; Yang, Weiqiang; Wu, Yabo; Jiang, Ying

    2018-06-01

    We used the Planck 2015 cosmic microwave background anisotropy, baryon acoustic oscillation, type-Ia supernovae, redshift-space distortions, and weak gravitational lensing to test the model parameter space of coupled dark energy. We assumed the constant and time-varying equation of state parameter for dark energy, and treated dark matter and dark energy as the fluids whose energy transfer was proportional to the combined term of the energy densities and equation of state, such as Q = 3 Hξ(1 +wx) ρx and Q = 3 Hξ [ 1 +w0 +w1(1 - a) ] ρx, the full space of equation of state could be measured when we considered the term (1 +wx) in the energy exchange. According to the joint observational constraint, the results showed that wx = - 1.006-0.027+0.047 and ξ = 0.098-0.098>+0.026 for coupled dark energy with a constant equation of state, w0 = -1.076-0.076+0.085, w1 = - 0.069-0.319+0.361, and ξ = 0.210-0.210+0.048 for a variable equation of state. We did not get any clear evidence for the coupling in the dark fluids at 1 σ region.

  2. Energy service companies -- The sky's the limit

    Fraser, M.; Montross, C.

    1998-07-01

    The term ESCO has a different meaning to different people. Increasingly, the term is used in its broadest sense to describe any company providing services related to a customer's energy acquisition and use. Previously, the term ESCO was synonymous with contractors who installed new equipment that was paid for by the energy cost savings that resulted. As a result of competition, restructuring and de-regulation of the electricity and gas sectors, the range of firms offering energy services now includes: local utilities using services to retain customers, remote utilities offering services to customers outside their franchise as a door opener to future commodity sales, local and remote utilities who see services as a more lucrative growth opportunity than commodities or transportation of the commodity, facility managers taking advantage of outsourcing trends and using energy management to reduce costs, power marketers, power brokers, aggregators combining energy analysis to segment their customers with processes to identify potential conservation and load management opportunities, cogeneration developers, and agents who help their customers navigate the uncharted waters of the deregulated energy business. This paper will review the impact of the broader definition of ESCOs with a view toward forecasting future trends in the industry including consideration of the fact that the term, energy service, may, itself, be too narrow a definition for a successful business of industry.

  3. Sustainable energy systems: Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This thesis discusses problems and possibilities of more sustainable energy systems first of all for the energy supply of the Netherlands. The “trias energetica” is used to distinguish the steps that have...

  4. Energy deposition on the FTU poloidal limiter during disruptions

    Ciotti, M.; Franzoni, G.; Maddaluno, G.

    1994-01-01

    The first results of the program for the characterization of the thermal flux on the FTU poloidal limiter during disruptions are presented. Data on power fluxes are obtained by using an infrared detector and a set of thermocouples. Two peaks in the limiter thermal load, corresponding to the thermal (up to 500 MW/m2) and magnetic quenches, are well resolved by the infrared detector allowing the time correlation with other first diagnostic measurements. The dependence on the main plasma parameters of the intensity and time evolution of the thermal flux to the limiter is discussed

  5. Low-energy limit of two-scale field theories

    Leon, J.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    We present a full and self-contained discussion of the decoupling theorem applied to several general models in four-dimensional field theory. We compute in each case the low-energy effective action and show the explicit one-loop expressions for each of the effective parameters. We find that for suitable conditions one can always build an effective low-energy theory where the conditions of the decoupling theorem are satisfied

  6. The myth of renewable energies - Love means giving without limits

    Prud'homme, Remy

    2017-01-01

    While considering statements made by French ministers on solar and renewable energies as scientifically mistaken or expressing some kind of religious faith, the author aims at proposing undeniable data and figures reflecting the reality of renewable energies. His study is based on official results for a dozen of countries which have been implementing massive investment programmes for a decade (for example, Germany, Denmark, Italy), and the author shows that the result is not encouraging at all, neither for the environment, nor for the economy, and nor for the taxpayer: significant price increase for the consumers, a lower than expected efficiency in terms of reduction of greenhouse emissions. The example of Denmark is notably outlined: production at moments energy is not needed (Denmark is even said to pay to get rid of this energy which cannot be stored), integration to neighbouring networks to supply energy when needed. The author states that without a storage solution, the French ambition on solar and wind energy may well have an as bad end as our neighbours

  7. Limitations of Nuclear Power as a Sustainable Energy Source

    Joshua M. Pearce

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review and analysis of the challenges that nuclear power must overcome in order to be considered sustainable. The results make it clear that not only do innovative technical solutions need to be generated for the fundamental inherent environmental burdens of nuclear energy technology, but the nuclear industry must also address difficult issues of equity both in the present and for future generations. The results show that if the concept of just sustainability is applied to the nuclear energy sector a global large-scale sustainable nuclear energy system to replace fossil fuel combustion requires the following: (i a radical improvement in greenhouse gas emissions intensity by improved technology and efficiency through the entire life cycle to prevent energy cannibalism during rapid growth; (ii the elimination of nuclear insecurity to reduce the risks associated with nuclear power so that the free market can indemnify it without substantial public nuclear energy insurance subsidies; (iii the elimination of radioactive waste at the end of life and minimization of environmental impact during mining and operations; and (iv the nuclear industry must regain public trust or face obsolescence as a swarm of renewable energy technologies quickly improve both technical and economic performance.

  8. Limiting technologies for particle beams and high energy physics

    Panofsky, W.K.H.

    1985-07-01

    Since 1930 the energy of accelerators had grown by an order of magnitude roughly every 7 years. Like all exponential growths, be they human population, the size of computers, or anything else, this eventually will have to come to an end. When will this happen to the growth of the energy of particle accelerators and colliders. Fortunately, as the energy of accelerators has grown the cost per unit energy has decreased almost as fast as has the increase in energy. The result is that while the energy has increased so dramatically the cost per new installation has increased only by roughly an order of magnitude since the 1930's (corrected for inflation), while the number of accelerators operating at the frontier of the field has shrunk. As is shown in the by now familiar Livingston chart this dramatic decrease in cost has been achieved largely by a succession of new technologies, in addition to the more moderate gains in efficiency due to improved design, economies of scale, etc. We are therefore facing two questions: (1) Is there good reason scientifically to maintain the exponential growth, and (2) Are there new technologies in sight which promise continued decreases in unit costs. The answer to the first question is definitely yes; the answer to the second question is maybe

  9. Limitations on energy resolution of segmented silicon detectors

    Wiącek, P.; Chudyba, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper experimental study of charge division effects and energy resolution of X-ray silicon pad detectors are presented. The measurements of electrical parameters, capacitances and leakage currents, for six different layouts of pad arrays are reported. The X-ray spectra have been measured using a custom developed dedicated low noise front-end electronics. The spectra measured for six different detector layouts have been analysed in detail with particular emphasis on quantitative evaluation of charge division effects. Main components of the energy resolution due to Fano fluctuations, electronic noise, and charge division, have been estimated for six different sensor layouts. General recommendations regarding optimisation of pad sensor layout for achieving best possible energy resolution have been formulated.

  10. Limited Area Forecasting and Statistical Modelling for Wind Energy Scheduling

    Rosgaard, Martin Haubjerg

    forecast accuracy for operational wind power scheduling. Numerical weather prediction history and scales of atmospheric motion are summarised, followed by a literature review of limited area wind speed forecasting. Hereafter, the original contribution to research on the topic is outlined. The quality...... control of wind farm data used as forecast reference is described in detail, and a preliminary limited area forecasting study illustrates the aggravation of issues related to numerical orography representation and accurate reference coordinates at ne weather model resolutions. For the o shore and coastal...... sites studied limited area forecasting is found to deteriorate wind speed prediction accuracy, while inland results exhibit a steady forecast performance increase with weather model resolution. Temporal smoothing of wind speed forecasts is shown to improve wind power forecast performance by up to almost...

  11. N-body quantum scattering theory in two Hilbert spaces. VII. Real-energy limits

    Chandler, C.; Gibson, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    A study is made of the real-energy limits of approximate solutions of the Chandler--Gibson equations, as well as the real-energy limits of the approximate equations themselves. It is proved that (1) the approximate time-independent transition operator T π (z) and an auxiliary operator M π (z), when restricted to finite energy intervals, are trace class operators and have limits in trace norm for almost all values of the real energy; (2) the basic dynamical equation that determines the operator M π (z), when restricted to the space of trace class operators, has a real-energy limit in trace norm for almost all values of the real energy; (3) the real-energy limit of M π (z) is a solution of the real-energy limit equation; (4) the diagonal (on-shell) elements of the kernels of the real-energy limit of T π (z) and of all solutions of the real-energy limit equation exactly equal the on-shell transition operator, implying that the real-energy limit equation uniquely determines the physical transition amplitude; and (5) a sequence of approximate on-shell transition operators converges strongly to the exact on-shell transition operator. These mathematically rigorous results are believed to be the most general of their type for nonrelativistic N-body quantum scattering theories

  12. Energy analysis of human stumbling: the limitations of recovery

    Forner Cordero, A.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2005-01-01

    This study has analyzed the segmental energy changes in the recovery from a stumble induced during walking on a treadmill. Three strategies emerged according to the behavior of the perturbed limb, elevating, lowering, and delayed lowering. These three strategies showed different changes in the

  13. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements.

  14. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, annual report, 1995-1996

    1996-01-01

    The 1996 Annual Report of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is published and submitted to the Honourable member of Parliament, Minister of Natural Resources. Included in this report are messages from Marketing and Commercial Operation, Product Development, i e.CANDU and Research Reactors, CANDU research, Waste Management, Environmental Management, Financial Review and also included are copies of the financial statements

  15. Sustainable energy systems : Limitations and challenges based on exergy analysis

    Woudstra, N.

    2012-01-01

    General There is a general understanding that the so-called “developed countries” have to change their way of life including their energy supply into a more sustainable way. But even in the case of unanimity with regard to the direction, there are still many opinions about the way to follow. This

  16. 75 FR 50950 - Federal Speculative Position Limits for Referenced Energy Contracts and Associated Regulations

    2010-08-18

    ..., section 4a(a) of the Act authorized the Commission to establish position limits for contracts traded on or... Position Limits for Referenced Energy Contracts and Associated Regulations AGENCY: Commodity Futures... and option contracts based on a limited set of exempt commodities,\\1\\ namely certain energy...

  17. Atmospheric Energy Limits on Subsurface Life on Mars

    Weiss, B. P.; Yung, Y. L.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that the terrestrial biomass of subterranean organisms may equal or exceed that at the surface. Taken as a group, these organisms can live in heavily saline conditions at temperatures from 115 C to as low as -20 C. Such conditions might exist on Mars beneath the surface oxidant in an aquifer or hydrothermal system, where the surrounding rock would also protect against the solar ultraviolet radiation. The way that such systems could obtain energy and carbon is not completely clear, although it is believed that on Earth, energy flows from the interaction of highly reduced basalt with groundwater produce H2, while carbon is derived from CO2 dissolved in the groundwater. Another potential source is the Martian atmosphere, acting as a photochemical conduit of solar insolation.

  18. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Health Study formally began in April 1980. The purpose of the study is to determine the causes of death among a population of radiation workers and to compare this information with data available for the causes of death in the general population. The study population and the implementation are briefly discussed. The aim of the study is to determine the real occupational risk of being a radiation worker. 3 refs

  19. Heavy ion scattering: High energy limits of RBS and ERD

    Rauhala, E.

    1994-01-01

    Elastic scattering of 7 Li ions by oxygen and 12 C, 14 N and 16 O ions by aluminum, silicon, titanium and sulfur have been studied below the Coulomb barrier energies 3-30 MeV in the angular range of 78 degrees - 170 degrees. By kinematically reversing the reactions, the recoiling of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen by 40-100 MeV 27 Al, 28 Si, 32S and 48 Ti ions into recoil angles of 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees and 40 degrees has also been investigated. Excitation functions and angular distributions are presented. Contrary to the case of light H and He ions, the heavy ion scattering cross sections fall off rapidly above the non-Rutherford threshold energy, rendering heavy ion RBS and ERD spectrometry worthless. Both classical and wave mechanical calculations have been attempted for predicting the RBS threshold energies. Simple calculations give moderate accuracy, while the more extensive nuclear potential perturbation approach relies on parameters fitted for the particular experiment. The authors present a general classical semi-empirical model for both direct scattering (RBS) and the kinematically reversed reactions (ERD), accurately reproducing the experimental data. The model is based on parameters fitted from the present scattering experiments and from an extensive literature survey

  20. Energy confinement in Doublet III with high-Z limiters

    Marcus, F.B.; Adcock, S.J.; Baker, D.R.; Blau, F.P.; Brooks, N.H.; Chase, R.P.; DeBoo, J.C.; Ejima, S.; Fairbanks, E.S.; Fisher, R.K.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes the experimental measurements and data analysis techniques used to evaluate the energy confinement in noncircular plasmas produced in Doublet III. Major aspects of the confinement measurements and analysis techniques are summarized. Machine parameters, diagnostic systems and discharge parameters relavent to the confinement measurements are given. Magnetic analysis techniques used to determine the plasma shape are reviewed. Scaling of the on-axis values of electron temperature, confinement time and Z/sub eff/ with plasma density is presented. Comparison with scaling results from other circular tokamaks is discussed. Numerical and analytic techniques developed for calculating the plasma energy confinement time and self-consistent profiles of density, temperature, current, and flux in non-circular geometries are described. These techniques are applied to the data and used to determine the central and global electron energy confinement time for a typical doublet plasma. Additional aspects of the confinement such as the radial dependence of the electron thermal conductivity and the estimated ion temperature are explored with the aid of a non-circular transport simulation code. The results of the confinement measurements are summarized and discussed. A brief summary of the theoretically expected effects of noncircularity on plasma confinement is included for reference as Appendix I.

  1. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    Myers, D.K.; Werner, M.M.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary examination of records relating to past Chalk River employees provides some reassurance that large numbers of cancer deaths that might be related to occupational radiation exposure do not exist in the groups of employees studied to the end of 1982. The lack of reliable information on deaths of ex-employees who left AECL for other employment prevented the inclusion of this group in this preliminary study. This information will presumably be obtained during the course of the more comprehensive Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. employee health study. 6 refs

  2. 75 FR 22578 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane Trading Limited

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-365] Application To Export Electric Energy; Centre Lane... application. SUMMARY: Centre Lane Trading Limited (CLT) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy...)). On April 20, 2010, DOE received an application from CLT for authority to transmit electric energy...

  3. 76 FR 71007 - Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited, Midwest Independent...

    2011-11-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL11-53-000] Shetek Wind Inc., Jeffers South, LLC and Allco Renewable Energy Limited, Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator... an original and 14 copies of the protest or intervention to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

  4. The Floor's the Limit (Antiproton energies to hit new low)

    2000-01-01

    Celebrating the success of the RFQ in Aarhus. Left to right: Alessanda Lombardi (CERN), Iouri Bylinskii (CERN), Alex Csete (Aarhus), Ulrik Uggerhøj (Aarhus), Ryu Hayano (Tokyo, spokesman ASACUSA), Helge Knudsen (Aarhus), Werner Pirkl (CERN), Ryan Thompson (Aarhus), Søren P. Møller (Aarhus). Although in particle physics we are accustomed to strive for higher and higher energies, this is not always the most interesting thing to do with antiprotons. Indeed, as recent issues of the Bulletin have suggested, the signpost on the road to a closer look at the antiproton points towards ever-lower energies. The CERN Antiproton Decelerator decelerates antipro-tons emerging from a target placed in the path of a 26 GeV/c proton beam from 90 % of to about 10 % of the speed of light. However, even this is far too fast for many of the most interesting experiments on antiprotons planned by Danish and Japanese members of the ASACUSA collaboration. Tokyo University has therefore financed the con...

  5. Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA): Scopes and limitations

    Jamróz, Michał H.

    2013-10-01

    The principle of operations of the VEDA program written by the author for Potential Energy Distribution (PED) analysis of theoretical vibrational spectra is described. Nowadays, the PED analysis is indispensible tool in serious analysis of the vibrational spectra. To perform the PED analysis it is necessary to define 3N-6 linearly independent local mode coordinates. Already for 20-atomic molecules it is a difficult task. The VEDA program reads the input data automatically from the Gaussian program output files. Then, VEDA automatically proposes an introductory set of local mode coordinates. Next, the more adequate coordinates are proposed by the program and optimized to obtain maximal elements of each column (internal coordinate) of the PED matrix (the EPM parameter). The possibility for an automatic optimization of PED contributions is a unique feature of the VEDA program absent in any other programs performing PED analysis.

  6. Energy flux to the TEXTOR limiters during disruptions

    Finken, K.H.; Baek, W.Y.; Dippel, K.H.; Boedo, J.A.; Gray, D.S.

    1992-01-01

    Rapidly changing heat fluxes deposited on the limiter blades are observed during disruptions by infrared (IR) scanners. These scanners are a suitable tool for the analysis of these heat fluxes because they provide both spatial and temporal information with sufficient resolution. Several new features of the power flux to the plasma facing surfaces during a disruption have been found. The disruptive heat flux occurs on three different time-scales. The fastest ones are for heat bursts with a duration of ≤0.1 ms; several of these bursts form a thermal quench of about one millisecond duration, and some of these thermal quenches are found to occur during the current decay phase. Power flux densities of the order of 50 MW/m 2 have been observed during a burst. The spatial extent of the area on which this power is deposited during a burst is larger than or equal to the size of half an ALT-II blade, i.e. about 1 m in the toroidal direction. Simultaneous measurements with two cameras show that the correlation length of a single burst is smaller than half the toroidal circumference, probably of the order of half a blade or a full blade length. This is consistent with plasma islands of low mode number. The typical heat deposition patterns at the limiter blades for normal discharges are preserved during a disruption. The magnetic structure near the plasma surface can therefore not be destroyed completely during the thermal quench. The power flux follows the field lines. However, the power e-folding length is about a factor of two to three times larger than under normal discharge conditions. (author). 27 refs, 9 figs

  7. Asia's hunger for energy. Raw materials exploitation taken to the limit; Asiens Energiehunger. Rohstoffe am Limit

    Pilny, Karl; Reid, Gerard

    2011-07-01

    The world is facing a dramatic change, owing to the rapid economic growth of China and India, which is unique in history. The result will be an enraged battle for limited fossil fuels like oil and gas. To secure energy resources, the current and future powers will increasingly use power play and also armed solutions. This is why we need profound changes, not only in the manner of power generation but also in the distribution and uses of the generated power. The book intends to give the reader profound understanding of the role of raw materials in future energy supply and of the options we have to solve the energy problem. (orig./RHM)

  8. Gauge Group Contraction of Electroweak Model and its Natural Energy Limits

    Nikolai A. Gromov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The low and higher energy limits of the Electroweak Model are obtained from first principles of gauge theory. Both limits are given by the same contraction of the gauge group, but for the different consistent rescalings of the field space. Mathematical contraction parameter in both cases is interpreted as energy. The very weak neutrino-matter interaction is explained by zero tending contraction parameter, which depends on neutrino energy. The second consistent rescaling corresponds to the higher energy limit of the Electroweak Model. At the infinite energy all particles lose masses, electroweak interactions become long-range and are mediated by the neutral currents. The limit model represents the development of the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of the first second.

  9. Evaluating Small Sphere Limit of the Wang-Yau Quasi-Local Energy

    Chen, Po-Ning; Wang, Mu-Tao; Yau, Shing-Tung

    2018-01-01

    In this article, we study the small sphere limit of the Wang-Yau quasi-local energy defined in Wang and Yau (Phys Rev Lett 102(2):021101, 2009, Commun Math Phys 288(3):919-942, 2009). Given a point p in a spacetime N, we consider a canonical family of surfaces approaching p along its future null cone and evaluate the limit of the Wang-Yau quasi-local energy. The evaluation relies on solving an "optimal embedding equation" whose solutions represent critical points of the quasi-local energy. For a spacetime with matter fields, the scenario is similar to that of the large sphere limit found in Chen et al. (Commun Math Phys 308(3):845-863, 2011). Namely, there is a natural solution which is a local minimum, and the limit of its quasi-local energy recovers the stress-energy tensor at p. For a vacuum spacetime, the quasi-local energy vanishes to higher order and the solution of the optimal embedding equation is more complicated. Nevertheless, we are able to show that there exists a solution that is a local minimum and that the limit of its quasi-local energy is related to the Bel-Robinson tensor. Together with earlier work (Chen et al. 2011), this completes the consistency verification of the Wang-Yau quasi-local energy with all classical limits.

  10. Accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders

    P. Bauer et al.

    2002-12-05

    The following presents a study of the accelerator physics and technology limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in very large hadron colliders (VLHCs). The main accelerator physics limitations to ultimate energy and luminosity in future energy frontier hadron colliders are synchrotron radiation (SR) power, proton-collision debris power in the interaction regions (IR), number of events-per-crossing, stored energy per beam and beam-stability [1]. Quantitative estimates of these limits were made and translated into scaling laws that could be inscribed into the particle energy versus machine size plane to delimit the boundaries for possible VLHCs. Eventually, accelerator simulations were performed to obtain the maximum achievable luminosities within these boundaries. Although this study aimed at investigating a general VLHC, it was unavoidable to refer in some instances to the recently studied, [2], 200 TeV center-of-mass energy VLHC stage-2 design (VLHC-2). A more thorough rendering of this work can be found in [3].

  11. Scalings of energy confinement and density limit in stellarator/heliotron

    Sudo, S.; Takeiri, Y.; Zushi, H.; Sano, F.; Itoh, K.; Kondo, K.; Iiyoshi, A.

    1989-04-01

    Empirical scaling of energy confinement observed experimentally in stellarator/heliotron (Heliotron E, Wendelstein 7A, L2, Heliotron DR) under the condition that plasmas are heated by ECH and/or NbI is proposed. Empirical scaling of density limit obtainable under the optimum condition is proposed. These scalings are compared with those of tokamaks. The energy confinement scaling has similar power dependence as 'L mode scaling' of tokamaks. The density limit scaling seems also to indicate the upper limit of achievable density in many tokamaks. Combining the energy confinement time and the density limit scaling a transport-limited beta value is also deduced. Thus, from the viewpoint of designing a machine, there should be some compromise in determing magnetic field strength on plasma axis, average minor radius and major radius, because their dependence on confinement time and transport-limited beta value is contradicting. (J.P.N.)

  12. Estimation of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II

    Foote, J.H.

    1976-01-01

    Several estimates of the adiabatic energy limit versus beta in Baseball II are summarized, and the calculational methods used to obtain them are described. Some estimates are based on analytic expressions; for others, particle orbits are calculated, magnetic-moment jumps are inspected, and adiabatic limits then derived. The results are sensitive to the assumed variation of the combined vacuum-plus-plasma magnetic field. The calculated adiabatic energy limit falls rapidly with beta, even for a gradual magnetic-field variation. If we assume a sharp depression in the axial profile of the combined magnetic field for a finite-beta plasma, the adiabatic limit can be further markedly reduced

  13. Testing the black disk limit in $pp$ collisions at very high energy

    Brogueira, P.; de Deus, J. Dias

    2011-01-01

    We use geometric scaling invariant quantities to measure the approach, or not, of the imaginary and real parts of the elastic scattering amplitude, to the black disk limit, in $pp$ collisions at very high energy.

  14. Identification of Fitness Determinants during Energy-Limited Growth Arrest in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Basta, David W; Bergkessel, Megan; Newman, Dianne K

    2017-11-28

    Microbial growth arrest can be triggered by diverse factors, one of which is energy limitation due to scarcity of electron donors or acceptors. Genes that govern fitness during energy-limited growth arrest and the extent to which they overlap between different types of energy limitation are poorly defined. In this study, we exploited the fact that Pseudomonas aeruginosa can remain viable over several weeks when limited for organic carbon (pyruvate) as an electron donor or oxygen as an electron acceptor. ATP values were reduced under both types of limitation, yet more severely in the absence of oxygen. Using transposon-insertion sequencing (Tn-seq), we identified fitness determinants in these two energy-limited states. Multiple genes encoding general functions like transcriptional regulation and energy generation were required for fitness during carbon or oxygen limitation, yet many specific genes, and thus specific activities, differed in their relevance between these states. For instance, the global regulator RpoS was required during both types of energy limitation, while other global regulators such as DksA and LasR were required only during carbon or oxygen limitation, respectively. Similarly, certain ribosomal and tRNA modifications were specifically required during oxygen limitation. We validated fitness defects during energy limitation using independently generated mutants of genes detected in our screen. Mutants in distinct functional categories exhibited different fitness dynamics: regulatory genes generally manifested a phenotype early, whereas genes involved in cell wall metabolism were required later. Together, these results provide a new window into how P. aeruginosa survives growth arrest. IMPORTANCE Growth-arrested bacteria are ubiquitous in nature and disease yet understudied at the molecular level. For example, growth-arrested cells constitute a major subpopulation of mature biofilms, serving as an antibiotic-tolerant reservoir in chronic

  15. Effect of current profile evolution on plasma-limiter interaction and the energy confinement time

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Bol, K.; Bretz, N.

    1979-04-01

    Experiments conducted on the PLT tokamak have shown that both plasma-limiter interaction and the gross energy confinement time are functions of the gas influx during the discharge. By suitably controlling the gas influx, it is possible to contract the current channel, decrease impurity radiation from the core of the discharge, and increase the gross energy confinement time, whether the aperture limiters were of tungsten, stainless steel or carbon

  16. Higher renewable energy integration into the existing energy system of Finland – Is there any maximum limit?

    Zakeri, Behnam; Syri, Sanna; Rinne, Samuli

    2015-01-01

    Finland is to increase the share of RES (renewable energy sources) up to 38% in final energy consumption by 2020. While benefiting from local biomass resources Finnish energy system is deemed to achieve this goal, increasing the share of other intermittent renewables is under development, namely wind power and solar energy. Yet the maximum flexibility of the existing energy system in integration of renewable energy is not investigated, which is an important step before undertaking new renewable energy obligations. This study aims at filling this gap by hourly analysis and comprehensive modeling of the energy system including electricity, heat, and transportation, by employing EnergyPLAN tool. Focusing on technical and economic implications, we assess the maximum potential of different RESs separately (including bioenergy, hydropower, wind power, solar heating and PV, and heat pumps), as well as an optimal mix of different technologies. Furthermore, we propose a new index for assessing the maximum flexibility of energy systems in absorbing variable renewable energy. The results demonstrate that wind energy can be harvested at maximum levels of 18–19% of annual power demand (approx. 16 TWh/a), without major enhancements in the flexibility of energy infrastructure. With today's energy demand, the maximum feasible renewable energy for Finland is around 44–50% by an optimal mix of different technologies, which promises 35% reduction in carbon emissions from 2012's level. Moreover, Finnish energy system is flexible to augment the share of renewables in gross electricity consumption up to 69–72%, at maximum. Higher shares of RES calls for lower energy consumption (energy efficiency) and more flexibility in balancing energy supply and consumption (e.g. by energy storage). - Highlights: • By hourly analysis, we model the whole energy system of Finland. • With existing energy infrastructure, RES (renewable energy sources) in primary energy cannot go beyond 50%.

  17. A singular perturbation limit of diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition

    Kagaya, Takashi; Tonegawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    We study a general asymptotic behavior of critical points of a diffused interface energy with a fixed contact angle condition defined on a domain $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb{R}^n$. We show that the limit varifold derived from the diffused energy satisfies a generalized contact angle condition on the boundary under a set of assumptions.

  18. Activity Energy Expenditure and Mobility Limitation in Older Adults: Differential Associations by Sex

    Manini, T.M.; Everhart, J.E.; Patel, K.V.; Schoeller, D.A.; Cummings, S.; Mackey, D.C.; Bauer, D.C.; Simonsick, E.M.; Cobert, L.H.; Visser, M.; Tylavsky, F.; Newman, A.B.; Harris, T.B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether higher activity energy expenditure, assessed by using doubly labeled water, was associated with a reduced decline in mobility limitation among 248 older community-dwelling US adults aged 70-82 years enrolled in 1998-1999. Activity energy

  19. Systems and methods for controlling energy use during a demand limiting period

    Wenzel, Michael J.; Drees, Kirk H.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for limiting power consumption by a heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) subsystem of a building are shown and described. A feedback controller is used to generate a manipulated variable based on an energy use setpoint and a measured energy use. The manipulated variable may be used for adjusting the operation of an HVAC device.

  20. Electricity network limitations on large-scale deployment of wind energy

    Fairbairn, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report sought to identify limitation on large scale deployment of wind energy in the UK. A description of the existing electricity supply system in England, Scotland and Wales is given, and operational aspects of the integrated electricity networks, licence conditions, types of wind turbine generators, and the scope for deployment of wind energy in the UK are addressed. A review of technical limitations and technical criteria stipulated by the Distribution and Grid Codes, the effects of system losses, and commercial issues are examined. Potential solutions to technical limitations are proposed, and recommendations are outlined.

  1. An Energy-Based Limit State Function for Estimation of Structural Reliability in Shock Environments

    Michael A. Guthrie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available limit state function is developed for the estimation of structural reliability in shock environments. This limit state function uses peak modal strain energies to characterize environmental severity and modal strain energies at failure to characterize the structural capacity. The Hasofer-Lind reliability index is briefly reviewed and its computation for the energy-based limit state function is discussed. Applications to two degree of freedom mass-spring systems and to a simple finite element model are considered. For these examples, computation of the reliability index requires little effort beyond a modal analysis, but still accounts for relevant uncertainties in both the structure and environment. For both examples, the reliability index is observed to agree well with the results of Monte Carlo analysis. In situations where fast, qualitative comparison of several candidate designs is required, the reliability index based on the proposed limit state function provides an attractive metric which can be used to compare and control reliability.

  2. Heating technologies for limiting biomass consumption in 100% renewable energy systems

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Connolly, David

    2011-01-01

    district heating enables the use of combined heat and power production (CPH) and other renewable resources than biomass such as large-scale solar thermal, large-heat pumps, geothermal heat, industrial surplus heat etc. which is important for reducing the biomass consumption. Where the energy density......The utilisation of biomass poses large challenges in renewable energy systems and buildings account for a substantial part of the energy supply also in 100% renewable energy systems. The analyses of heating technologies show that district heating systems are especially important in limiting...... the dependence on biomass resources and to create cost effective systems. District heating systems are especially important in renewable energy systems with large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy sources as it enables fuel efficient and lower cost energy systems with thermal heat storages. And also...

  3. Reminimization of energy integral and stability limit for non-ideal MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) plasma

    Kondoh, Y.

    1988-03-01

    The stability condition of relaxed states is derived from the energy principle for the non-ideal MHD plasma. An Euler equation for the reminimization of energy integral is derived and shown to give the marginal stable, non-singular perturbations for the stability condition. An extended stability limit for the β = 0 relaxed states is derived from the stability condition, with use of the eigenvalue analysis for the Euler equation. By using the perturbation method, the extended stability limit is solved in the 1st order approximation to explain the deviation of the experimental stability limit from the idealized stability limit by Taylor. A procedure to get overall stability limit against both the non-singular and the singular perturbations is discussed. 25 refs

  4. Particle and energy balance in the SOL generated by a limiter in a RFP plasma

    Antoni, V.; Bagatin, M.; Desideri, D.; Serianni, G.

    1992-01-01

    The plasma outer region of the RFP experiment ETA BETA II has been extensively investigated. In particular by an insertable graphite limiter, instrumented with thermocouples and Langmuir probes, the energy and particle fluxes in the shadow of the limiter have been measured at different insertions. The results are compared with those obtained by small-sized calorimeter/Langmuir probes inserted to investigate, with fine space resolution, the outer region without limiter. Almost 80% of the power to the limiter is estimated to be carried by fast suprathermal electrons flowing along the magnetic field line direction. From an energy balance equation, applied in the SOL locally generated, the connection length of the limiter has been derived. Thus a particle balance has been applied to determine the particle diffusion coefficient at the plasma edge. (orig.)

  5. High-energy limit of collision-induced false vacuum decay

    Demidov, Sergei; Levkov, Dmitry [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences,60-th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, Moscow, 117312 (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-17

    We develop a consistent semiclassical description of field-theoretic collision-induced tunneling at arbitrary high collision energies. As a playground we consider a (1+1)-dimensional false vacuum decay initiated by a collision of N particles at energy E, paying special attention to the realistic case of N=2 particles. We demonstrate that the cross section of this process is exponentially suppressed at all energies. Moreover, the respective suppressesion exponent F{sub N}(E) exhibits a specific behavior which is significant for our semiclassical method and assumed to be general: it decreases with energy, reaches absolute minimum F=F{sub min}(N) at a certain threshold energy E=E{sub rt}(N), and stays constant at higher energies. We show that the minimal suppression F{sub min}(N) and threshold energy can be evaluated using a special class of semiclassical solutions which describe exponentially suppressed transitions but nevertheless evolve in real time. Importantly, we argue that the cross section at energies above E{sub rt}(N) is computed perturbatively in the background of the latter solutions, and the terms of this perturbative expansion stay bounded in the infinite-energy limit. Transitions in the high-energy regime proceed via emission of many soft quanta with total energy E{sub rt}; the energy excess E−E{sub rt} remains in the colliding particles till the end of the process.

  6. Energy saving in WWTP: Daily benchmarking under uncertainty and data availability limitations.

    Torregrossa, D; Schutz, G; Cornelissen, A; Hernández-Sancho, F; Hansen, J

    2016-07-01

    Efficient management of Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) can produce significant environmental and economic benefits. Energy benchmarking can be used to compare WWTPs, identify targets and use these to improve their performance. Different authors have performed benchmark analysis on monthly or yearly basis but their approaches suffer from a time lag between an event, its detection, interpretation and potential actions. The availability of on-line measurement data on many WWTPs should theoretically enable the decrease of the management response time by daily benchmarking. Unfortunately this approach is often impossible because of limited data availability. This paper proposes a methodology to perform a daily benchmark analysis under database limitations. The methodology has been applied to the Energy Online System (EOS) developed in the framework of the project "INNERS" (INNovative Energy Recovery Strategies in the urban water cycle). EOS calculates a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) for the evaluation of energy and process performances. In EOS, the energy KPIs take in consideration the pollutant load in order to enable the comparison between different plants. For example, EOS does not analyse the energy consumption but the energy consumption on pollutant load. This approach enables the comparison of performances for plants with different loads or for a single plant under different load conditions. The energy consumption is measured by on-line sensors, while the pollutant load is measured in the laboratory approximately every 14 days. Consequently, the unavailability of the water quality parameters is the limiting factor in calculating energy KPIs. In this paper, in order to overcome this limitation, the authors have developed a methodology to estimate the required parameters and manage the uncertainty in the estimation. By coupling the parameter estimation with an interval based benchmark approach, the authors propose an effective, fast and reproducible

  7. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2016

    2017-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2016. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report to the Members of EDF Energy Holdings Limited; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Company statement of changes in equity; 13 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  8. Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? Evidence from the Chinese automobile industry

    Gallagher, Kelly Sims

    2006-01-01

    Limits to leapfrogging in energy technologies? One of the most attractive notions in the field of sustainable energy development is the concept of energy-technology 'leapfrogging'. Leapfrogging through international technology transfer can be especially problematic because often developing countries do not have the technological capabilities to produce or integrate the advanced energy technologies themselves. Until they have acquired the capabilities to produce the advanced technologies themselves, most late-industrializing countries buy their new technologies from industrialized countries, usually through licensing or joint-venture arrangements. Empirical case studies of the three main Sino-US passenger-car joint ventures reveal that until the late 1990s, little energy or environmental leapfrogging occurred in the Chinese automobile industry as the result of the introduction of US automotive technology. An improvement in Chinese capabilities and more stringent Chinese energy and environmental policies are needed to induce energy leapfrogging in the Chinese automobile industry. Foreign firms also have a social responsibility to contribute to China's sustainable industrial development. In order to realize the promise of the leapfrogging, the limits to leapfrogging must be identified and acknowledged so that strategies can be devised to surmount the barriers to the introduction of advanced energy technologies in developing countries

  9. Solar, wind and waves: Natural limits to renewable sources of energy within the Earth system

    Kleidon, Axel [Max-Planck-Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, wave, or hydropower, utilize energy that is continuously generated by natural processes within the Earth system from the planetary forcing. Here we estimate the limits of these natural energy conversions and the extent to which these can be used as renewable energy sources using the laws of thermodynamics. At most, wind power in the order of 1 000 TW (1 TW = 1E12 W) can be derived from the total flux of incoming solar radiation of 175 000 TW, which is consistent with estimates based on observations. Other generation rates that are derived from the kinetic energy of wind are in the order of 10-100 TW. In comparison, the human primary energy demand of about 17 TW constitutes a considerable fraction of these rates. We provide some further analysis on the limits of wind power using a combination of conceptual models, observational data, and numerical simulation models. We find that many current estimates of wind power substantially overestimate the potential of wind power because the effect of kinetic energy extraction on the air flow is neglected. We conclude that the only form of renewable energy that is available in substantial amounts and that is associated with minor climatic impacts is solar power.

  10. Electrical network limitations on large-scale deployment of offshore wind energy

    Power, P.B.

    2001-07-01

    In this report we have summarised the electrical network limitations to the connection of offshore wind energy schemes in the United Kingdom. The offshore wind resource in the United Kingdom could enable energy production in excess of 230 TWh to be realised. The wind resource of the UK coast should enable 4 GW of wind generation (13.4 GWh assuming 30% load factor) to be developed, providing appropriate technical and commercial arrangements can be made. (author)

  11. High-energy neutrino background: Limitations on models of deuterium production

    Eichler, D.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out that Epstein's model for deuterium production via high-energy spallation reactions produces high-energy neutrinos in sufficient quantity to stand out above those that are produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the Earth's atmosphere. That the Reines experiment detected neutrinos of atmospheric origin without detecting any cosmic component restricts deuterium production by spallation reactions to very high redshifts (z> or approx. =300). Improved neutrino experiments may be able to push these limits back to recombination

  12. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    2011-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-12-000] Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA), Allco Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint...

  13. Limiting Global Warming to Well Below 2 °C: Energy System Modelling and Policy Development

    This book presents the energy system roadmaps necessary to limit global temperature increase to below 2°C, in order to avoid the catastrophic impacts of climate change. It provides a unique perspective on and critical understanding of the feasibility of a well-below-2°C world by exploring energy...... and at a global scale to offer scientific evidence to underpin complex policy decisions relating to climate change mitigation and interrelated issues like energy security and the energy–water nexus. It includes several chapters directly related to the Nationally Determined Contributions proposed in the context...

  14. Limiting Energy Consumption by Decreasing Packets Retransmissions in 5G Network

    Łukasz Apiecionek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the potential of using Multipath Transmission Control Protocol for limiting the energy consumption in 5G network. The number of errors occurring during packet transmissions and in effect the number of retransmissions affect the consumption of energy by the devices in the network. The paper analyzes the potential energy savings from implementing an algorithm for detecting problems and predicting the future retransmissions. Although this is the main object of the paper, it must be emphasized that the proposed method also allows increasing the speed of transmission and improving the security of the data and it is easy to implement in 5G networks.

  15. A note on the post-Newtonian limit of quasi-local energy expressions

    Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B

    2011-01-01

    An 'effective' quasi-local energy expression, motivated by the (relativistically corrected) Newtonian theory, is introduced in exact general relativity as the volume integral of all the source terms in the field equation for the Newtonian potential in static spacetimes. In particular, we exhibit a new post-Newtonian correction in the source term in the field equation for the Newtonian gravitational potential. In asymptotically flat spacetimes, this expression tends to the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner energy at spatial infinity as a monotonically decreasing set function. We prove its positivity in spherically symmetric spacetimes under certain energy conditions, and that its vanishing characterizes flatness. We argue that any physically acceptable quasi-local energy expression should behave qualitatively like this 'effective' energy expression in this limit. (paper)

  16. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; Alvarez-Muñiz, J.; Alves Batista, R.; Ambrosio, M.; Aminaei, A.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andringa, S.; Aramo, C.; Aranda, V. M.; Arqueros, F.; Arsene, N.; Asorey, H.; Assis, P.; Aublin, J.; Ave, M.; Avenier, M.; Avila, G.; Awal, N.; Badescu, A. M.; Barber, K. B.; Bäuml, J.; Baus, C.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker, K. H.; Bellido, J. A.; Berat, C.; Bertaina, M. E.; Bertou, X.; Biermann, P. L.; Billoir, P.; Blaess, S. G.; Blanco, A.; Blanco, M.; Buitink, S.; Docters, W.; Dorosti Hasankiadeh, Q.; Ferguson, A P.; Lu, L.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrinos in the cosmic ray flux with energies near 1 EeV and above are detectable with the Surface Detector array (SD) of the Pierre Auger Observatory. We report here on searches through Auger data from 1 January 2004 until 20 June 2013. No neutrino candidates were found, yielding a limit to the

  17. Double-Higgs boson production in the high-energy limit: planar master integrals

    Davies, Joshua; Mishima, Go; Steinhauser, Matthias; Wellmann, David

    2018-03-01

    We consider the virtual corrections to the process gg → HH at NLO in the high energy limit and compute the corresponding planar master integrals in an expansion for small top quark mass. We provide details on the evaluation of the boundary conditions and present analytic results expressed in terms of harmonic polylogarithms.

  18. Interpolation of band-limited discrete-time signals by minimising out-of-band energy

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Vries, L.B.

    1984-01-01

    An interpolation method for restoring burst errors in discrete—time, band—limited signals is presented. The restoration is such that the restored signal has minimal out—of—band energy. The filter coefficients depend Only on the burst length and on the size of the band to which the signal is assumed

  19. Limited-angle multi-energy CT using joint clustering prior and sparsity regularization

    Zhang, Huayu; Xing, Yuxiang

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we present an easy-to-implement Multi-energy CT scanning strategy and a corresponding reconstruction method, which facilitate spectral CT imaging by improving the data efficiency the number-of-energy- channel fold without introducing visible limited-angle artifacts caused by reducing projection views. Leveraging the structure coherence at different energies, we first pre-reconstruct a prior structure information image using projection data from all energy channels. Then, we perform a k-means clustering on the prior image to generate a sparse dictionary representation for the image, which severs as a structure information constraint. We com- bine this constraint with conventional compressed sensing method and proposed a new model which we referred as Joint Clustering Prior and Sparsity Regularization (CPSR). CPSR is a convex problem and we solve it by Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM). We verify our CPSR reconstruction method with a numerical simulation experiment. A dental phantom with complicate structures of teeth and soft tissues is used. X-ray beams from three spectra of different peak energies (120kVp, 90kVp, 60kVp) irradiate the phantom to form tri-energy projections. Projection data covering only 75◦ from each energy spectrum are collected for reconstruction. Independent reconstruction for each energy will cause severe limited-angle artifacts even with the help of compressed sensing approaches. Our CPSR provides us with images free of the limited-angle artifact. All edge details are well preserved in our experimental study.

  20. Limits to sustained energy intake. XV. Effects of wheel running on the energy budget during lactation.

    Zhao, Zhi-Jun; Król, Elzbieta; Moille, Sophie; Gamo, Yuko; Speakman, John R

    2013-06-15

    The capacity of animals to dissipate heat may constrain sustained energy intake during lactation. We examined these constraints at peak lactation in MF1 mice that had ad libitum access to food, or that had to run a pre-set target on running wheels to obtain ad libitum access to food. The voluntary distance run decreased sharply during pregnancy and peak lactation. When lactating females were provided with 80% of their estimated food requirements, and had to run pre-set distances of 2, 4 or 6 km before given access to additional ad libitum food, most of them did not complete the running target during late lactation and the mice with the highest targets failed to reach their targets earlier in lactation. There were consequently significant group differences in asymptotic food intake (2 km, 16.97 ± 0.40 g day(-1); 4 km, 14.29 ± 0.72 g day(-1); and 6 km, 12.65 ± 0.45 g day(-1)) and weaned litter masses (2 km, 71.11 ± 2.39 g; 4 km, 54.63 ± 4.28 g and 6 km, 47.18 ± 2.46 g). When the females did run sufficiently to gain ad libitum food access, their intake did not differ between the different distance groups or from controls that were not required to run. Thus, despite being physically capable of running the distances, mice could not exercise sufficiently in lactation to gain regular ad libitum access to food, probably because of the risks of hyperthermia when combining heat production from exercise with thermogenesis from lactation.

  1. Upper limit on the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy tau neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory.

    Abraham, J; Abreu, P; Aglietta, M; Aguirre, C; Allard, D; Allekotte, I; Allen, J; Allison, P; Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Ambrosio, M; Anchordoqui, L; Andringa, S; Anzalone, A; Aramo, C; Argirò, S; Arisaka, K; Armengaud, E; Arneodo, F; Arqueros, F; Asch, T; Asorey, H; Assis, P; Atulugama, B S; Aublin, J; Ave, M; Avila, G; Bäcker, T; Badagnani, D; Barbosa, A F; Barnhill, D; Barroso, S L C; Bauleo, P; Beatty, J J; Beau, T; Becker, B R; Becker, K H; Bellido, J A; BenZvi, S; Berat, C; Bergmann, T; Bernardini, P; Bertou, X; Biermann, P L; Billoir, P; Blanch-Bigas, O; Blanco, F; Blasi, P; Bleve, C; Blümer, H; Bohácová, M; Bonifazi, C; Bonino, R; Boratav, M; Brack, J; Brogueira, P; Brown, W C; Buchholz, P; Bueno, A; Burton, R E; Busca, N G; Caballero-Mora, K S; Cai, B; Camin, D V; Caramete, L; Caruso, R; Carvalho, W; Castellina, A; Catalano, O; Cataldi, G; Cazon, L; Cester, R; Chauvin, J; Chiavassa, A; Chinellato, J A; Chou, A; Chye, J; Clark, P D J; Clay, R W; Colombo, E; Conceição, R; Connolly, B; Contreras, F; Coppens, J; Cordier, A; Cotti, U; Coutu, S; Covault, C E; Creusot, A; Criss, A; Cronin, J; Curutiu, A; Dagoret-Campagne, S; Daumiller, K; Dawson, B R; de Almeida, R M; De Donato, C; de Jong, S J; De La Vega, G; de Mello Junior, W J M; de Mello Neto, J R T; DeMitri, I; de Souza, V; del Peral, L; Deligny, O; Della Selva, A; Delle Fratte, C; Dembinski, H; Di Giulio, C; Diaz, J C; Dobrigkeit, C; D'Olivo, J C; Dornic, D; Dorofeev, A; dos Anjos, J C; Dova, M T; D'Urso, D; Dutan, I; DuVernois, M A; Engel, R; Epele, L; Erdmann, M; Escobar, C O; Etchegoyen, A; Facal San Luis, P; Falcke, H; Farrar, G; Fauth, A C; Fazzini, N; Ferrer, F; Ferry, S; Fick, B; Filevich, A; Filipcic, A; Fleck, I; Fonte, R; Fracchiolla, C E; Fulgione, W; García, B; García Gámez, D; Garcia-Pinto, D; Garrido, X; Geenen, H; Gelmini, G; Gemmeke, H; Ghia, P L; Giller, M; Glass, H; Gold, M S; Golup, G; Gomez Albarracin, F; Gómez Berisso, M; Gómez Herrero, R; Gonçalves, P; Gonçalves do Amaral, M; Gonzalez, D; Gonzalez, J G; González, M; Góra, D; Gorgi, A; Gouffon, P; Grassi, V; Grillo, A F; Grunfeld, C; Guardincerri, Y; Guarino, F; Guedes, G P; Gutiérrez, J; Hague, J D; Hamilton, J C; Hansen, P; Harari, D; Harmsma, S; Harton, J L; Haungs, A; Hauschildt, T; Healy, M D; Hebbeker, T; Hebrero, G; Heck, D; Hojvat, C; Holmes, V C; Homola, P; Hörandel, J; Horneffer, A; Horvat, M; Hrabovský, M; Huege, T; Hussain, M; Iarlori, M; Insolia, A; Ionita, F; Italiano, A; Kaducak, M; Kampert, K H; Karova, T; Kégl, B; Keilhauer, B; Kemp, E; Kieckhafer, R M; Klages, H O; Kleifges, M; Kleinfeller, J; Knapik, R; Knapp, J; Koang, D-H; Krieger, A; Krömer, O; Kuempel, D; Kunka, N; Kusenko, A; La Rosa, G; Lachaud, C; Lago, B L; Lebrun, D; Lebrun, P; Lee, J; Leigui de Oliveira, M A; Letessier-Selvon, A; Leuthold, M; Lhenry-Yvon, I; López, R; Lopez Agüera, A; Lozano Bahilo, J; Luna García, R; Maccarone, M C; Macolino, C; Maldera, S; Mancarella, G; Manceñido, M E; Mandat, D; Mantsch, P; Mariazzi, A G; Maris, I C; Marquez Falcon, H R; Martello, D; Martínez, J; Martínez Bravo, O; Mathes, H J; Matthews, J; Matthews, J A J; Matthiae, G; Maurizio, D; Mazur, P O; McCauley, T; McEwen, M; McNeil, R R; Medina, M C; Medina-Tanco, G; Meli, A; Melo, D; Menichetti, E; Menschikov, A; Meurer, Chr; Meyhandan, R; Micheletti, M I; Miele, G; Miller, W; Mollerach, S; Monasor, M; Monnier Ragaigne, D; Montanet, F; Morales, B; Morello, C; Moreno, J C; Morris, C; Mostafá, M; Muller, M A; Mussa, R; Navarra, G; Navarro, J L; Navas, S; Necesal, P; Nellen, L; Newman-Holmes, C; Newton, D; Nguyen Thi, T; Nierstenhoefer, N; Nitz, D; Nosek, D; Nozka, L; Oehlschläger, J; Ohnuki, T; Olinto, A; Olmos-Gilbaja, V M; Ortiz, M; Ortolani, F; Ostapchenko, S; Otero, L; Pacheco, N; Pakk Selmi-Dei, D; Palatka, M; Pallotta, J; Parente, G; Parizot, E; Parlati, S; Pastor, S; Patel, M; Paul, T; Pavlidou, V; Payet, K; Pech, M; Pekala, J; Pelayo, R; Pepe, I M; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Petrinca, P; Petrov, Y; Pham Ngoc, Diep; Pham Ngoc, Dong; Pham Thi, T N; Pichel, A; Piegaia, R; Pierog, T; Pimenta, M; Pinto, T; Pirronello, V; Pisanti, O; Platino, M; Pochon, J; Privitera, P; Prouza, M; Quel, E J; Rautenberg, J; Redondo, A; Reucroft, S; Revenu, B; Rezende, F A S; Ridky, J; Riggi, S; Risse, M; Rivière, C; Rizi, V; Roberts, M; Robledo, C; Rodriguez, G; Rodríguez Frías, D; Rodriguez Martino, J; Rodriguez Rojo, J; Rodriguez-Cabo, I; Ros, G; Rosado, J; Roth, M; Rouillé-d'Orfeuil, B; Roulet, E; Rovero, A C; Salamida, F; Salazar, H; Salina, G; Sánchez, F; Santander, M; Santo, C E; Santos, E M; Sarazin, F; Sarkar, S; Sato, R; Scherini, V; Schieler, H; Schmidt, A; Schmidt, F; Schmidt, T; Scholten, O; Schovánek, P; Schüssler, F; Sciutto, S J; Scuderi, M; Segreto, A; Semikoz, D; Settimo, M; Shellard, R C; Sidelnik, I; Siffert, B B; Sigl, G; Smetniansky De Grande, N; Smiałkowski, A; Smída, R; Smith, A G K; Smith, B E; Snow, G R; Sokolsky, P; Sommers, P; Sorokin, J; Spinka, H; Squartini, R; Strazzeri, E; Stutz, A; Suarez, F; Suomijärvi, T; Supanitsky, A D; Sutherland, M S; Swain, J; Szadkowski, Z; Takahashi, J; Tamashiro, A; Tamburro, A; Taşcău, O; Tcaciuc, R; Thomas, D; Ticona, R; Tiffenberg, J; Timmermans, C; Tkaczyk, W; Todero Peixoto, C J; Tomé, B; Tonachini, A; Torres, I; Torresi, D; Travnicek, P; Tripathi, A; Tristram, G; Tscherniakhovski, D; Tueros, M; Tunnicliffe, V; Ulrich, R; Unger, M; Urban, M; Valdés Galicia, J F; Valiño, I; Valore, L; van den Berg, A M; van Elewyck, V; Vázquez, R A; Veberic, D; Veiga, A; Velarde, A; Venters, T; Verzi, V; Videla, M; Villaseñor, L; Vorobiov, S; Voyvodic, L; Wahlberg, H; Wainberg, O; Walker, P; Warner, D; Watson, A A; Westerhoff, S; Wieczorek, G; Wiencke, L; Wilczyńska, B; Wilczyński, H; Wileman, C; Winnick, M G; Wu, H; Wundheiler, B; Yamamoto, T; Younk, P; Zas, E; Zavrtanik, D; Zavrtanik, M; Zech, A; Zepeda, A; Ziolkowski, M

    2008-05-30

    The surface detector array of the Pierre Auger Observatory is sensitive to Earth-skimming tau neutrinos that interact in Earth's crust. Tau leptons from nu(tau) charged-current interactions can emerge and decay in the atmosphere to produce a nearly horizontal shower with a significant electromagnetic component. The data collected between 1 January 2004 and 31 August 2007 are used to place an upper limit on the diffuse flux of nu(tau) at EeV energies. Assuming an E(nu)(-2) differential energy spectrum the limit set at 90% C.L. is E(nu)(2)dN(nu)(tau)/dE(nu)<1.3 x 10(-7) GeV cm(-2) s(-1) sr(-1) in the energy range 2 x 10(17) eV< E(nu)< 2 x 10(19) eV.

  2. Case study of energy conservation at national refinery limited, Karachi (Pakistan)

    Shah, F.A.; Shaikh, M.B.; Mahesar, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Petroleum refining is one of the four top most industries in Pakistan in energy consumption and to save energy is the concern of every one. In this research, authors have calculated the designed and actual efficiency of the industrial furnaces at ''Two stage distillation unit'' of National Refinery Limited, Karachi. Observations were made for energy (Oil) consumption, heat (radiation) losses, through the furnace wall, tubing and stacks flue gases. The study shows difference in the data given at the time of design and at present working data. The furnace (01-F1) is 60% efficient and recorded 9% pounds of oil more per hour, giving 18% more heat loss. The reasons behind the fuel and energy losses are discussed with the suggestions. (authors)

  3. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    Acciari, V. A.; Benbow, W.; Aliu, E.; Boltuch, D.; Arlen, T.; Celik, O.; Aune, T.; Bautista, M.; Cogan, P.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Bradbury, S. M.; Byrum, K.; Cannon, A.; Cesarini, A.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Duke, C.

    2009-01-01

    The recent detection by the Fermi γ-ray space telescope of high-energy γ-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE γ-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  4. TransCanada PipeLines Limited 1998 annual report : TransCanada energy solutions

    1999-01-01

    Financial information from TransCanada PipeLines Limited and a review of the company's 1998 operations was made available for the benefit of shareholders. TransCanada's pipeline system transports natural gas and crude oil from Western Canada Sedimentary Basin to North America's major energy markets. Net earnings from continuing operations for 1998, before unusual charges, were $575 million ($ 355 million after unusual charges) compared to $522 million for 1997. Solid performances from the energy transmission and international business, when compared to 1997, were more than offset by a decreased contribution from energy processing. TransCanada recorded integration costs of $166 million, after tax, related to the merger with NOVA in 1998, which was the major operational accomplishment during the year, creating a seamless economic energy delivery, processing and marketing system from the wellhead to the market. tabs., figs

  5. Navigating the limitations of energy poverty: Lessons from the promotion of improved cooking technologies in Kenya

    Sesan, Temilade

    2012-01-01

    Energy poverty has been defined as the lack of access of households in developing countries to modern energy sources, and their consequent reliance on solid biomass fuels for cooking. Improved stoves have been promoted by development actors since the 1970s to alleviate various environmental and health problems associated with biomass use, with largely disappointing outcomes. Against this background, this paper examines the intervention of an international development organisation – Practical Action – in West Kochieng, Kenya, where the organisation's energy poverty alleviation efforts are aimed at addressing the health hazards of biomass smoke with six ‘low-cost’ improved cooking technologies. The study reveals that the cooking technology most valued by poor West Kochieng households is the one which most reflects their priorities, rather than those expressed by Practical Action. The findings point to three aspects of appropriateness of energy poverty alleviation interventions – technological, economic and cultural – which combine to influence acceptance and uptake of such interventions. The evidence highlights some of the limitations inherent in the generic policy recommendation to ‘leapfrog’ towards the resolution of energy poverty-related problems, and suggests that more measured steps which respond to the socio-economic realities of poor households are likely to engender more appropriate solutions. - Highlights: ► The technological, economic, and cultural appropriateness of stoves influence uptake. ► Appropriate energy technologies take cognisance of the limitations of poverty. ► Such technologies are more likely to be adopted by biomass-reliant poor households. ► Energy poverty cannot be isolated from the broader context of poverty. ► Eliminating poverty is a prerequisite to alleviating energy poverty.

  6. Efficiency Limits of Solar Energy Harvesting via Internal Photoemission in Carbon Materials

    Svetlana V. Boriskina

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe strategies to estimate the upper limits of the efficiency of photon energy harvesting via hot electron extraction from gapless absorbers. Gapless materials such as noble metals can be used for harvesting the whole solar spectrum, including visible and near-infrared light. The energy of photo-generated non-equilibrium or ‘hot’ charge carriers can be harvested before they thermalize with the crystal lattice via the process of their internal photo-emission (IPE through the rectifying Schottky junction with a semiconductor. However, the low efficiency and the high cost of noble metals necessitates the search for cheaper abundant alternative materials, and we show here that carbon can serve as a promising IPE material candidate. We compare the upper limits of performance of IPE photon energy-harvesting platforms, which incorporate either gold or carbon as the photoactive material where hot electrons are generated. Through a combination of density functional theory, joint electron density of states calculations, and Schottky diode efficiency modeling, we show that the material electron band structure imposes a strict upper limit on the achievable efficiency of the IPE devices. Our calculations reveal that graphite is a good material candidate for the IPE absorber for harvesting visible and near-infrared photons. Graphite electron density of states yields a sizeable population of hot electrons with energies high enough to be collected across the potential barrier. We also discuss the mechanisms that prevent the IPE device efficiency from reaching the upper limits imposed by their material electron band structures. The proposed approach is general and allows for efficient pre-screening of materials for their potential use in IPE energy converters and photodetectors within application-specific spectral windows.

  7. Sub-seasonal thaw slump mass wasting is not consistently energy limited at the landscape scale

    S. Zwieback

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Predicting future thaw slump activity requires a sound understanding of the atmospheric drivers and geomorphic controls on mass wasting across a range of timescales. On sub-seasonal timescales, sparse measurements indicate that mass wasting at active slumps is often limited by the energy available for melting ground ice, but other factors such as rainfall or the formation of an insulating veneer may also be relevant. To study the sub-seasonal drivers, we derive topographic changes from single-pass radar interferometric data acquired by the TanDEM-X satellites. The estimated elevation changes at 12 m resolution complement the commonly observed planimetric retreat rates by providing information on volume losses. Their high vertical precision (around 30 cm, frequent observations (11 days and large coverage (5000 km2 allow us to track mass wasting as drivers such as the available energy change during the summer of 2015 in two study regions. We find that thaw slumps in the Tuktoyaktuk coastlands, Canada, are not energy limited in June, as they undergo limited mass wasting (height loss of around 0 cm day−1 despite the ample available energy, suggesting the widespread presence of early season insulating snow or debris veneer. Later in summer, height losses generally increase (around 3 cm day−1, but they do so in distinct ways. For many slumps, mass wasting tracks the available energy, a temporal pattern that is also observed at coastal yedoma cliffs on the Bykovsky Peninsula, Russia. However, the other two common temporal trajectories are asynchronous with the available energy, as they track strong precipitation events or show a sudden speed-up in late August respectively. The observed temporal patterns are poorly related to slump characteristics like the headwall height. The contrasting temporal behaviour of nearby thaw slumps highlights the importance of complex local and temporally varying controls on mass wasting.

  8. What determines transitions between energy- and moisture-limited evaporative regimes?

    Haghighi, E.; Gianotti, D.; Akbar, R.; Salvucci, G.; Entekhabi, D.

    2017-12-01

    The relationship between evaporative fraction (EF) and soil moisture (SM) has traditionally been used in atmospheric and land-surface modeling communities to determine the strength of land-atmosphere coupling in the context of the dominant evaporative regime (energy- or moisture-limited). However, recent field observations reveal that EF-SM relationship is not unique and could vary substantially with surface and/or meteorological conditions. This implies that conventional EF-SM relationships (exclusive of surface and meteorological conditions) are embedded in more complex dependencies and that in fact it is a multi-dimensional function. To fill the fundamental knowledge gaps on the important role of varying surface and meteorological conditions not accounted for by the traditional evaporative regime conceptualization, we propose a generalized EF framework using a mechanistic pore-scale model for evaporation and energy partitioning over drying soil surfaces. Nonlinear interactions among the components of the surface energy balance are reflected in a critical SM that marks the onset of transition between energy- and moisture-limited evaporative regimes. The new generalized EF framework enables physically based estimates of the critical SM, and provides new insights into the origin of land surface EF partitioning linked to meteorological input data and the evolution of land surface temperature during surface drying that affect the relative efficiency of surface energy balance components. Our results offer new opportunities to advance predictive capabilities quantifying land-atmosphere coupling for a wide range of present and projected meteorological input data.

  9. Coherent Radiative Parton Energy Loss beyond the BDMPS-Z Limit

    Zapp, Korinna C

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that a phenomenologically viable theory of jet quenching for heavy ion collisions requires the understanding of medium-induced parton energy loss beyond the limit of eikonal kinematics formulated by Baier-Dokshitzer-Mueller-Peigne-Schiff and Zakharov (BDMPS-Z). Here, we supplement a recently developed exact Monte Carlo implementation of the BDMPS-Z formalism with elementary physical requirements including exact energy-momentum conservation, a refined formulation of jet-medium interactions and a treatment of all parton branchings on the same footing. We document the changes induced by these physical requirements and we describe their kinematic origin.

  10. Limiting fragmentation, scaling and substructual dependence of multiparticle production in high energy heavy ion reactions

    Otterlund, I; Garpman, S; Persson, S; Soderstrom, K; Stenlund, E [Lund Univ. (Sweden); Adamovich, M I; Alexandrov, Y A; Chernyavsky, M M; Gerassimov, S G; Kharlamov, S P; Larionova, V G; Maslennikova, N V; Orlova, G I; Peresadko, N G; Salmanova, N A; Tretyakova, M I [AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst. (USSR); Aggarwal, M M; Friedlander, E M; Heckman, H H; Lindstrom, P J [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA); Andreeva, N P; Anson, Z V; Ameeva, Z V; Bubnov, V I; Chasnicov, I Y; Eremenko, L E; Eligbaeva, G Z; Gaitinov, A S; Kalyachkina, G S; Kanygina, E K; Shakhova, T I [AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij (USSR); Arora, R; Bhatia, V S; Kaur, M; Mittra, I S [Panjab Univ., Chandigarh (India); Azimov, S A; Chernova, L P; Gadzhieva, S I; Gulamov, K G; Kadyrov, F G; Lukicheva, N S; Navotny, V S; Svechnikova, L N [AN Uzbekskoj SSR, Tashkent. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. (USSR); Basova, E; Bondarenko, R A; Gulyamov, U G; EMUO1 Collaboration

    1990-01-01

    We report on recent results obtained by the EMUO1 collaboration from studies of {sup 16}O + emulsion, at 14.6, 60 and 200 A GeV, and {sup 32}S + emulsion and {sup 32}S+Au interactions at 200 A GeV. Shower-particle production in oxygen-induced interactions are studied over the energy range 2.1-200 A GeV. Scaling and limiting fragmentation are observed. Multiplicity and angular distributions of low energy target-associated particles are presented and compared with distributions obtained using the Ranft and the Fritiof simulation codes. (orig.).

  11. Limits on diffuse fluxes of high energy extraterrestrial neutrinos with the AMANDA-B10 detector

    Ahrens, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.C.; Becka, T.; Becker, K.-H.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Binon, F.; Boeser, S.; Botner, O.; Bouchta, A.; Bouhali, O.; Burgess, T.; Carius, S.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Conrad, J.; Cooley, J.; Cowen, D.F.; Davour, A.; De Clercq, C.; DeYoung, T.; Desiati, P.; Doksus, P.; Ekstrom, P.; Feser, T.; Gaisser, T.K.; Ganugapati, R.; Gaug, M.; Geenen, H.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hauschildt, T.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hill, G.C.; Hulth, P.O.; Hughey, B.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Jacobsen, J.; Karle, A.; Kuehn, K.; Kim, J.; Kopke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Lamoureux, J.I.; Leich, H.; Leuthold, M.; Lindahl, P.; Liubarsky, I.; Madsen, J.; Mandli, K.; Marciniewski, P.; Matis, H.S.; McParland, C.P.; Messarius, T.; Miller, T.C.; Minaeva, Y.; Miocinovic, P.; Mock, P.C.; Morse, R.; Neunhoffer, T.; Niessen, P.; Nygren, D.R.; Ogelman, H.; Olbrechts, P.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Pohl, A.C.; Porrata, R.; Price, P.B.; Przybylski, G.T.; Rawlins, K.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richter, S.; Rodriguez Martino, J.; Romenesko, P.; Ross, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schinarakis, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schwarz, R.; Silvestri, A.; Solarz, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Spiczak, G.M.; Spiering, C.; Steele, D.; Steffen, P.; Stokstad, R.G.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Taboada, I.; Tilav, S.; Wagner, W.; Walck, C.; Wang, Y.-R.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Wu, W.; Yodh, G.; Young, S.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the AMANDA-B10 detector taken during the austral winter of 1997 have been searched for a diffuse flux of high energy extraterrestrial muon-neutrinos, as predicted from, e.g., the sum of all active galaxies in the universe. This search yielded no excess events above those expected from the background atmospheric neutrinos, leading to upper limits on the extraterrestrial neutrino flux. For an assumed E -2 spectrum, a 90 percent classical confidence level upper limit has been placed at a level E 2 Phi(E) = 8.4 x 10 -7 GeV cm -2 s -1 1 sr -1 (for a predominant neutrino energy range 6-1000 TeV) which is the most restrictive bound placed by any neutrino detector. When specific predicted spectral forms are considered, it is found that some are excluded

  12. On the low-energy limit of one-loop photon-graviton amplitudes

    Bastianelli, F.; Corradini, O.; Dávila, J.M.; Schubert, C.

    2012-01-01

    We present first results of a systematic study of the structure of the low-energy limit of the one-loop photon-graviton amplitudes induced by massive scalars and spinors. Our main objective is the search of KLT-type relations where effectively two photons merge into a graviton. We find such a relation at the graviton-photon-photon level. We also derive the diffeomorphism Ward identity for the 1PI one-graviton-N-photon amplitudes.

  13. Limits for supersymmetry from a comprehensive study of CERN missing-energy events

    Barnett, R.M.

    1985-04-01

    We have performed a comprehensive analysis of supersymmetric processes which can lead to missing-energy events such as those observed by the UA1 collaboration. Several critical aspects of the theoretical analysis are discussed here including fragmentation, backgrounds, and evolution of gluinos. When the experimentalists publish their final data, excellent limits will be set for M/sub g/ and M/sub q/, and it is possible that certain mass regions will not be excluded as explanations of the data

  14. Synthesizing modeling of power generation and power limits in energy systems

    Sieniutycz, Stanislaw

    2015-01-01

    Applying the common mathematical procedure of thermodynamic optimization the paper offers a synthesizing or generalizing modeling of power production in various energy generators, such as thermal, solar and electrochemical engines (fuel cells). Static and dynamical power systems are investigated. Dynamical models take into account the gradual downgrading of a resource, caused by power delivery. Analytical modeling includes conversion efficiencies expressed in terms of driving fluxes. Products of efficiencies and driving fluxes determine the power yield and power maxima. While optimization of static systems requires using of differential calculus and Lagrange multipliers, dynamic optimization involves variational calculus and dynamic programming. In reacting mixtures balances of mass and energy serve to derive power yield in terms of an active part of chemical affinity. Power maximization approach is also applied to fuel cells treated as flow engines driven by heat flux and fluxes of chemical reagents. The results of power maxima provide limiting indicators for thermal, solar and SOFC generators. They are more exact than classical reversible limits of energy transformation. - Highlights: • Systematic evaluation of power limits by optimization. • Common thermodynamic methodology for engine systems. • Original, in-depth study of power maxima. • Inclusion of fuel cells to a class of thermodynamic power systems

  15. Performance of the MACRO limited streamer tubes for estimates of muon energy

    Giorgini, M

    2002-01-01

    The MACRO limited streamer tubes can be operated in drift mode by using the TDCs included in the QTP system. In this way a considerable improvement in the space resolution is obtained, allowing the analysis of muon tracks in terms of multiple scattering effects and the energy estimates of muons crossing the detector. We present the results of two dedicated tests, performed with the CERN PS-T9 and SPS-X7 beams, to provide a full check of the electronics and to exploit the feasibility of the analysis. Using a neural network, we are able to estimate the muon energies up to E/sub mu / approximately = 40 GeV. The test beam data provide then an absolute energy calibration, which allows to apply the method to the MACRO data. (5 refs).

  16. High energy bursts from a solid state laser operated in the heat capacity limited regime

    Albrecht, G.; George, E.V.; Krupke, W.F.; Sooy, W.; Sutton, S.B.

    1996-06-11

    High energy bursts are produced from a solid state laser operated in a heat capacity limited regime. Instead of cooling the laser, the active medium is thermally well isolated. As a result, the active medium will heat up until it reaches some maximum acceptable temperature. The waste heat is stored in the active medium itself. Therefore, the amount of energy the laser can put out during operation is proportional to its mass, the heat capacity of the active medium, and the temperature difference over which it is being operated. The high energy burst capacity of a heat capacity operated solid state laser, together with the absence of a heavy, power consuming steady state cooling system for the active medium, will make a variety of applications possible. Alternately, cooling takes place during a separate sequence when the laser is not operating. Industrial applications include new material working processes. 5 figs.

  17. Breaking the theoretical scaling limit for predicting quasiparticle energies: the stochastic GW approach.

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Gao, Yi; Arntsen, Christopher; Karshenas, Cyrus; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi

    2014-08-15

    We develop a formalism to calculate the quasiparticle energy within the GW many-body perturbation correction to the density functional theory. The occupied and virtual orbitals of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian are replaced by stochastic orbitals used to evaluate the Green function G, the polarization potential W, and, thereby, the GW self-energy. The stochastic GW (sGW) formalism relies on novel theoretical concepts such as stochastic time-dependent Hartree propagation, stochastic matrix compression, and spatial or temporal stochastic decoupling techniques. Beyond the theoretical interest, the formalism enables linear scaling GW calculations breaking the theoretical scaling limit for GW as well as circumventing the need for energy cutoff approximations. We illustrate the method for silicon nanocrystals of varying sizes with N_{e}>3000 electrons.

  18. Limits on turbulent propagation of energy in cool-core clusters of galaxies

    Bambic, C. J.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A. C.; Sanders, J.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2018-07-01

    We place constraints on the propagation velocity of bulk turbulence within the intracluster medium of three clusters and an elliptical galaxy. Using Reflection Grating Spectrometer measurements of turbulent line broadening, we show that for these clusters, the 90 per cent upper limit on turbulent velocities when accounting for instrumental broadening is too low to propagate energy radially to the cooling radius of the clusters within the required cooling time. In this way, we extend previous Hitomi-based analysis on the Perseus cluster to more clusters, with the intention of applying these results to a future, more extensive catalogue. These results constrain models of turbulent heating in active galactic nucleus feedback by requiring a mechanism which can not only provide sufficient energy to offset radiative cooling but also resupply that energy rapidly enough to balance cooling at each cluster radius.

  19. Upper limit on the ultrahigh-energy photon flux from AGASA and Yakutsk data

    Rubtsov, G.I.; Dedenko, L.G.; Fedorova, G.F.; Fedunin, E.Yu.; Roganova, T.M.; Glushkov, A.V.; Makarov, I.T.; Pravdin, M.I.; Sleptsov, I.E.; Gorbunov, D.S.; Troitsky, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    We present the interpretation of the muon and scintillation signals of ultrahigh-energy air showers observed by AGASA and Yakutsk extensive air shower array experiments. We consider case-by-case ten highest-energy events with known muon content and conclude that at the 95% confidence level none of them was induced by a primary photon. Taking into account statistical fluctuations and differences in the energy estimation of proton and photon primaries, we derive an upper limit of 36% at a 95% confidence level on the fraction of primary photons in the cosmic-ray flux above 10 20 eV. This result disfavors the Z-burst and superheavy dark-matter solutions to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin-cutoff problem

  20. Secondary electron emission yield in the limit of low electron energy

    Andronov, A.N.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Startsev, E.A.; Raitses, Y.; Demidov, V.I.

    2013-04-22

    Secondary electron emission (SEE) from solids plays an important role in many areas of science and technology.1 In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the experimental and theoretical studies of SEE. A recent study proposed that the reflectivity of very low energy electrons from solid surface approaches unity in the limit of zero electron energy2,3,4, If this was indeed the case, this effect would have profound implications on the formation of electron clouds in particle accelerators,2-4 plasma measurements with electrostatic Langmuir probes, and operation of Hall plasma thrusters for spacecraft propulsion5,6. It appears that, the proposed high electron reflectivity at low electron energies contradicts to numerous previous experimental studies of the secondary electron emission7. The goal of this note is to discuss possible causes of these contradictions.

  1. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2013

    2014-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2013. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  2. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2014

    2015-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2014. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  3. EDF Energy Holdings Limited, Registered Number 06930266, Annual report and financial statements 31 December 2015

    2016-01-01

    EDF Energy Holdings Limited and subsidiaries make up EDF Energy. The companies' principal activities are to provide and supply electricity and gas to commercial, residential and industrial customers, and to generate electricity through a portfolio of generation assets including nuclear, coal fired, gas and renewable generation. EDF Energy is also involved in the construction of new build nuclear assets. This document is the annual report and financial statements of the company for the year 2015. Contents: 1 - Strategic report; 2 - Directors' report; 3 - Directors' responsibility statement; 4 - Independent Auditor's report; 5 - Consolidated income statement; 6 - Consolidated statement of comprehensive income; 7 - Consolidated balance sheet; 8 - Consolidated cash flow statement; 9 - Consolidated statement of changes in equity 10 - Notes to the consolidated financial statements; 11 - Company balance sheet; 12 - Company statement of changes in equity; 13 - Notes to the Company financial statements

  4. Limits to anaerobic energy and cytosolic concentration in the living cell

    Paglietti, A.

    2015-11-01

    For many physical systems at any given temperature, the set of all states where the system's free energy reaches its largest value can be determined from the system's constitutive equations of internal energy and entropy, once a state of that set is known. Such an approach is fraught with complications when applied to a living cell, because the cell's cytosol contains thousands of solutes, and thus thousands of state variables, which makes determination of its state impractical. We show here that, when looking for the maximum energy that the cytosol can store and release, detailed information on cytosol composition is redundant. Compatibility with cell's life requires that a single variable that represents the overall concentration of cytosol solutes must fall between defined limits, which can be determined by dehydrating and overhydrating the cell to its maximum capacity. The same limits are shown to determine, in particular, the maximum amount of free energy that a cell can supply in fast anaerobic processes, starting from any given initial state. For a typical skeletal muscle in normal physiological conditions this energy, i.e., the maximum anaerobic capacity to do work, is calculated to be about 960 J per kg of muscular mass. Such energy decreases as the overall concentration of solutes in the cytosol is increased. Similar results apply to any kind of cell. They provide an essential tool to understand and control the macroscopic response of single cells and multicellular cellular tissues alike. The applications include sport physiology, cell aging, disease produced cell damage, drug absorption capacity, to mention the most obvious ones.

  5. Master Limited Partnerships and Real Estate Investment Trusts: Opportunities and Potential Complications for Renewable Energy

    Feldman, D.; Settle, E.

    2013-11-01

    Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs) and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs) are two proposed investment vehicles which have the potential to lower renewable energy assets' high cost of capital; a critical factor in the Department of Energy's goal for renewable energy to achieve grid-parity with traditional sources of electric generation. Due to current U.S. federal income tax laws, regulations, and administrative interpretations, REITs and MLPs cannot finance a significant portion of the cost of renewable energy assets. Efforts are underway to alter these rules by changing the definition of 'real property' (REIT) and 'qualified income' (MLP). However, even with rule changes, both investment vehicles have structural challenges to efficiently finance renewable energy assets. Among them are 1) effectively utilizing the U.S. federal income tax incentives; 2) administratively structuring the investments to not be overly onerous or complicated, given the potential for pooling a relatively large amount of small assets; and 3) attracting and retaining a large enough investment community to participate in the funding opportunities. This report summarizes these challenges so that if proposed federal changes are made, stakeholders have an understanding of the possible outcomes.

  6. On the limitations introduced by energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis

    Szilagyi, E.

    2001-01-01

    Improvements in experimental techniques have led to monolayer depth resolution in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). Evaluation of the spectra, however, is not trivial. The spectra, using even the best experimental set-up, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. A proper account for energy spread is necessary to extract the correct depth profile from the measured spectra. With calculation of the correct energy (or depth) resolution of a given method, one can decide in advance whether or not the method will resolve details of interest in the depth profile. To achieve the best depth resolution, it is also possible to find optimum parameters for the experiments. The limitations introduced by the energy spread effects are discussed. An example for simulation is shown for high energy resolution HI-ERDA measurements. Satisfactory agreement between the simulated and the measured HI-ERDA spectra taken by 60 MeV 127 I 23+ ions on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite (HOPG) sample is found, in spite of the non-equilibrium charge state of the recoils and the difference in the stopping powers caused by the given charge state of the incident ion and the recoil, which are not taken into account. To achieve more precise data evaluation these effects should be included in simulation codes, or all the subspectra corresponding to different recoils charge states should be measured and summed

  7. On the limitations introduced by energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis

    Szilagyi, E. E-mail: szilagyi@rmki.kfki.hu

    2001-07-01

    Improvements in experimental techniques have led to monolayer depth resolution in heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). Evaluation of the spectra, however, is not trivial. The spectra, using even the best experimental set-up, are subject to finite energy resolution of both extrinsic and intrinsic origin. A proper account for energy spread is necessary to extract the correct depth profile from the measured spectra. With calculation of the correct energy (or depth) resolution of a given method, one can decide in advance whether or not the method will resolve details of interest in the depth profile. To achieve the best depth resolution, it is also possible to find optimum parameters for the experiments. The limitations introduced by the energy spread effects are discussed. An example for simulation is shown for high energy resolution HI-ERDA measurements. Satisfactory agreement between the simulated and the measured HI-ERDA spectra taken by 60 MeV {sup 127}I{sup 23+} ions on highly oriented pyrolythic graphite (HOPG) sample is found, in spite of the non-equilibrium charge state of the recoils and the difference in the stopping powers caused by the given charge state of the incident ion and the recoil, which are not taken into account. To achieve more precise data evaluation these effects should be included in simulation codes, or all the subspectra corresponding to different recoils charge states should be measured and summed.

  8. Limits on the thermal energy release from radioactive wastes in a mined geologic repository

    Scott, J.A.

    1983-03-01

    The theraml energy release of nuclear wastes is a major factor in the design of geologic repositories. Thermal limits need to be placed on various aspets of the geologic waste disposal system to avoid or retard the degradation of repository performance because of increased temperatures. The thermal limits in current use today are summarized in this report. These limits are placed in a hierarchial structure of thermal criteria consistent with the failure mechanism they are trying to prevent. The thermal criteria hierarchy is used to evaluate the thermal performance of a sample repository design. The design consists of disassembled BWR spent fuel, aged 10 years, close packed in a carbon steel canister with 15 cm of crushed salt backfill. The medium is bedded salt. The most-restrictive temperature for this design is the spent-fuel centerline temperature limit of 300 0 C. A sensitivity study on the effects of additional cooling prior to disposal on repository thermal limits and design is performed

  9. Potentials and limitations of energy recovery from municipal solid waste in Vietnam

    Schulenburg, Hong Giang

    2012-11-01

    The major aim of study is the evaluation of the potentials and limitations of energy recovery from MSW in Vietnam through a comparative assessment of the climate change impacts (via CO2-eq.) among waste-to-energy (WtE) options in order to select the suitable technique for waste management. Recovered energy by these waste management options is assumed to replace the energy from fossil fuels-based sources, including three power possibilities. A survey on national legal and institutional framework for solid waste management was therefore undertaken to point out the strength and weakness and suggest the developing and improvement policies in this field. A view on economic benefit is also one important objective and it represented in terms of ''CO2- Avoidance Cost'' among different investment options. Sensitivity analysis has been carried out with regard to the optimum technical parameters and the change of energy mix in 2020-2030 in order to assess the variations of overall GHGs impacts in Vietnam. Due to waste composition, the energy mix and legal framework on solid waste management at national level are not robust, therefore the outcomes of this study do not aim to select the best waste management approach or to pose the Vietnamese waste managers or decision makers under pressure. Instead, it endeavors to indicate the potential of GHGs savings and the economic benefits that could be gained by introducing WtE practices. It also aims to suggest the improvement of national legal framework in solid waste management and energy development plan in order to transfer the technical knowledge and experience on WtE technology from developed countries to Vietnam.

  10. Possible limitations to SSPS use due to distribution of world population and world energy consumption centers

    Claverie, M.J.; Dupas, A.P.

    1980-09-01

    Satellite solar power stations, as envisioned now, would be very large energy systems from the point of view of power output (about 5 GW) and of land requirements (more than 400 sq km for a rectenna and the associated exclusion area). These size constraints could lead to limitations in the use of SSPS in significant parts of the world, due to three main incompatibilities: too high population density, insufficient density of electrical demand, and obligation for a single power station to provide less than about 20% of the total electrical demand in a given geographical zone to assure reliability. The extent of these three possible limitations was assessed, using a future world energy model developed previously. The rationale behind this model is to divide the world into 10 deg latitude by 10 deg longitude zones, in which future electrical demands (in 2000 and 2020/2025) are computed according to energetical previsions of the Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and of the World Energy Conference (WEC). The results are world wide maps of electrical demand densities in 2000 and 2020/2025.

  11. Limits to the Fraction of High-energy Photon Emitting Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2013-02-01

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  12. LIMITS TO THE FRACTION OF HIGH-ENERGY PHOTON EMITTING GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Akerlof, Carl W.; Zheng, WeiKang

    2013-01-01

    After almost four years of operation, the two instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope have shown that the number of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with high-energy photon emission above 100 MeV cannot exceed roughly 9% of the total number of all such events, at least at the present detection limits. In a recent paper, we found that GRBs with photons detected in the Large Area Telescope have a surprisingly broad distribution with respect to the observed event photon number. Extrapolation of our empirical fit to numbers of photons below our previous detection limit suggests that the overall rate of such low flux events could be estimated by standard image co-adding techniques. In this case, we have taken advantage of the excellent angular resolution of the Swift mission to provide accurate reference points for 79 GRB events which have eluded any previous correlations with high-energy photons. We find a small but significant signal in the co-added field. Guided by the extrapolated power-law fit previously obtained for the number distribution of GRBs with higher fluxes, the data suggest that only a small fraction of GRBs are sources of high-energy photons.

  13. Climatic correlates of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests.

    Adrian J Das

    Full Text Available Recent increases in tree mortality rates across the western USA are correlated with increasing temperatures, but mechanisms remain unresolved. Specifically, increasing mortality could predominantly be a consequence of temperature-induced increases in either (1 drought stress, or (2 the effectiveness of tree-killing insects and pathogens. Using long-term data from California's Sierra Nevada mountain range, we found that in water-limited (low-elevation forests mortality was unambiguously best modeled by climatic water deficit, consistent with the first mechanism. In energy-limited (high-elevation forests deficit models were only equivocally better than temperature models, suggesting that the second mechanism is increasingly important in these forests. We could not distinguish between models predicting mortality using absolute versus relative changes in water deficit, and these two model types led to different forecasts of mortality vulnerability under future climate scenarios. Our results provide evidence for differing climatic controls of tree mortality in water- and energy-limited forests, while highlighting the need for an improved understanding of tree mortality processes.

  14. A Strong Limit on the Very-high-energy Emission from GRB 150323A

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Bugaev, V.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Flinders, A.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lin, T. T. Y.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Petrashyk, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, R. M.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    On 2015 March 23, the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) responded to a Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) detection of a gamma-ray burst, with observations beginning 270 s after the onset of BAT emission, and only 135 s after the main BAT emission peak. No statistically significant signal is detected above 140 GeV. The VERITAS upper limit on the fluence in a 40-minute integration corresponds to about 1% of the prompt fluence. Our limit is particularly significant because the very-high-energy (VHE) observation started only ∼2 minutes after the prompt emission peaked, and Fermi-Large Area Telescope observations of numerous other bursts have revealed that the high-energy emission is typically delayed relative to the prompt radiation and lasts significantly longer. Also, the proximity of GRB 150323A (z = 0.593) limits the attenuation by the extragalactic background light to ∼50% at 100–200 GeV. We conclude that GRB 150323A had an intrinsically very weak high-energy afterglow, or that the GeV spectrum had a turnover below ∼100 GeV. If the GRB exploded into the stellar wind of a massive progenitor, the VHE non-detection constrains the wind density parameter to be A ≳ 3 × 1011 g cm‑1, consistent with a standard Wolf–Rayet progenitor. Alternatively, the VHE emission from the blast wave would be weak in a very tenuous medium such as the interstellar medium, which therefore cannot be ruled out as the environment of GRB 150323A.

  15. Characterization of a Very Small Plasma Focus in the Limit of Low Energy (50 J)

    Silva, P.; Sotol, L.; Moreno, J.; Sylvester, G.; Zambra, M.; Altamirano, L.; Bruzzone, H.; Clausse, A.; Moreno, C.

    2001-01-01

    A very small plasma focus device has been designed and constructed. The plasma focus operates in the limit of low energy (160 nF capacitor bank, 65 nH, 250-40 kV, ∼32-128 J). The design of the electrode was assisted by a simple model of a Mather plasma focus. The calculations indicate that yields of 10 4 -10 5 neutrons per shot are expected when the discharge is operated with deuterium. A single frame image converter camera (5 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The umbrella-like current sheath running over the end of the coaxial electrodes and the pinch after the radial collapse can be clearly observed in the photographs. The observations are similar to the results obtained with devices operating at energies several order of magnitude higher. (author)

  16. A study on the health of the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. III

    Johnston, L.H.; Werner, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) Employee Health Study commenced in 1980 July following the issue of a Company-Wide General Notice of 1980 April by the President of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mr. James Donnelly. The study was set up to determine the causes of death of the AECL study population as compared to a similar group in the general population and to determine if there is a relationship between cause of death and occupational exposure to ionising radiation. Previous AECL reports have outlined how the study has been set up and implemented. The purpose of this report is to describe the reasons for and the methods of upgrading the data base for the AECL Employee Health Study. Some description of procedures used during the first linkage and recommendations for future linkages are included

  17. Energy renovation of Danish single-family houses Economy - barrier, motivation and limit

    Mortensen, Andrea; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Plenge, Mary-Ann Knudstrup

    a large percentage who have not heard about the offers compared to the other income groups. There have been many reflections about energy saving initiatives and many of the initiatives have already been performed. There is however still a high number missing and particularly the depth of the renovation...... needs to be increased for Denmark to approach the defined objectives. The positive is that the listed tasks are predominantly carried out or considered to save energy, indicating that the homeowners are aware of this benefit. On the wish list presented to the homeowners, five wishes were selected.......000 DKK and 310.000DKK) are fair compared to the outcome, but when the needed investment is at 550.000 DKK and above, the majority think it is too expensive despite the benefits. The investment limit for the private renovations is defined on the basis on the homeowners’ interest in performing similar...

  18. No speed limits in medical imaging and high-energy physics

    Rita Giuffredi & Tom Meyer

    2015-01-01

    Speed, or high time resolution, is becoming increasingly important, if not crucial, in the high-energy physics domain, both for particle acceleration and detection systems. Medical-imaging technology also vitally depends on high time resolution detection techniques, often the offspring of today’s large particle physics experiments. The four-year FP7 Marie Curie Training Project “PicoSEC-MCNet”, which draws to a close at the end of November, was designed to develop ultra-fast photon detectors for applications in both domains. The project has achieved important results that promise to trigger further developments in the years to come.   The PicoSEC-MCNet project participants. “New requirements in high-energy physics force us to push the limits of photon detection speed, as future high-luminosity accelerators will force us to cope with the unprecedentedly short bunch crossing intervals needed to produce sufficient luminosity,” explains Tom M...

  19. Fatigue and Serviceability Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    , a probabilistic model is derived on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. The sensitivity study is based on the calculation of a nonlinear coefficient of correlation in conjunction with predetermined designs of experiments. This is conducted......This paper develops the models for the structural performance of the loading and probabilistic characterization for the fatigue and the serviceability limit states for the support structure of offshore wind energy converters. These models and a sensitivity study are part of a risk based assessment...... as the starting point for the development of the structural performance and loading models. With these models introduced in detail, several modeling aspects for both limit states are analyzed. This includes analyses of the influence on the hot spot stresses by applying a contact formulation for the pile guide...

  20. Hybrid 21 MW wind-solar system to limit energy costs at an industrial plant

    López, C.

    2016-01-01

    Ereda has undertaken a project that aims to analyse the possibility of limiting the cost of the energy supply to a medium-sized industrial plant, with an installed capacity of over 26 MW, located in the south-west of Kazakhstan. The cost of electricity for its processes accounts for an important part of its production cost, achieving values in excess of 40%. The price of electricity in the country is expected to rise over the coming years. In addition, the plant is now required to reduce CO2 emissions from its industrial activity, which is why a further cost arising from the acquisition of emissions rights is expected in future. (Author)

  1. A semiclassical analysis of high energy electron diffraction by stacking faults: arrival at the classical limit

    Smith, A.E.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1978-01-01

    In a recent note the authors summarised results for an extension of Berry's theory to cover the one-dimensional problem of systematic reflections (planes) for a thin crystal sandwich consisting of two identical slabs of lattice parameter 'a' with a relative horizontal displacement 'f'. The diffraction amplitudes at the lower surface of the crystal were shown to depend on a double summation over the various transverse energy states in the upper and lower slab respectively, and on the transitions between them. In this report the authors demonstrate the arrival at the classical limit for the problem and, in particular, indicate briefly the nature of the topologically different classical paths. (Auth.)

  2. A study of the health of the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Weeks, J.L.; Johnston, L.H.

    1984-09-01

    The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited Employee Health Study is a program that was established in 1980 to determine, over the long term, the causes of death in a population consisting of some 14 000 AECL employees and past employees. In a previous report (AECL-6813) the steps taken to set up the study were described. The present report is a description of the way in which the study was implemented, and includes discussion of some recent developments that have had a bearing on epidemiological studies of the health of radiation workers

  3. Spectral energy distributions of T Tauri stars - disk flaring and limits on accretion

    Kenyon, S.J.; Hartmann, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Adams et al. (1987) conclusion that much of the IR excess emission in the spectral energy distribution of T Tauri stars arises from reprocessing of stellar radiation by a dusty circumstellar disk is presently supported by analyses conducted in light of various models of these stars' spectra. A low mass reprocessing disk can, however, produce these spectra as well as a massive accretion disk. The detection of possible boundary layer radiation in the optical and near-UV regions poses the strongest limits on accretion rates. Disk accretion in the T Tauri phase does not significantly modify stellar evolution. 85 references

  4. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control.

    Klimchitskaya, G L; Mostepanenko, V M

    2017-07-12

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 and Al 2 O 3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  5. Casimir free energy of dielectric films: classical limit, low-temperature behavior and control

    Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    The Casimir free energy of dielectric films, both free-standing in vacuum and deposited on metallic or dielectric plates, is investigated. It is shown that the values of the free energy depend considerably on whether the calculation approach used neglects or takes into account the dc conductivity of film material. We demonstrate that there are material-dependent and universal classical limits in the former and latter cases, respectively. The analytic behavior of the Casimir free energy and entropy for a free-standing dielectric film at low temperature is found. According to our results, the Casimir entropy goes to zero when the temperature vanishes if the calculation approach with neglected dc conductivity of a film is employed. If the dc conductivity is taken into account, the Casimir entropy takes the positive value at zero temperature, depending on the parameters of a film, i.e. the Nernst heat theorem is violated. By considering the Casimir free energy of SiO2 and Al2O3 films deposited on a Au plate in the framework of two calculation approaches, we argue that physically correct values are obtained by disregarding the role of dc conductivity. A comparison with the well known results for the configuration of two parallel plates is made. Finally, we compute the Casimir free energy of SiO2, Al2O3 and Ge films deposited on high-resistivity Si plates of different thicknesses and demonstrate that it can be positive, negative and equal to zero. The effect of illumination of a Si plate with laser light is considered. Possible applications of the obtained results to thin films used in microelectronics are discussed.

  6. What limits photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency in nature? Lessons from the oceans.

    Falkowski, Paul G; Lin, Hanzhi; Gorbunov, Maxim Y

    2017-09-26

    Constraining photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency in nature is challenging. In principle, two yield measurements must be made simultaneously: photochemistry, fluorescence and/or thermal dissipation. We constructed two different, extremely sensitive and precise active fluorometers: one measures the quantum yield of photochemistry from changes in variable fluorescence, the other measures fluorescence lifetimes in the picosecond time domain. By deploying the pair of instruments on eight transoceanic cruises over six years, we obtained over 200 000 measurements of fluorescence yields and lifetimes from surface waters in five ocean basins. Our results revealed that the average quantum yield of photochemistry was approximately 0.35 while the average quantum yield of fluorescence was approximately 0.07. Thus, closure on the energy budget suggests that, on average, approximately 58% of the photons absorbed by phytoplankton in the world oceans are dissipated as heat. This extraordinary inefficiency is associated with the paucity of nutrients in the upper ocean, especially dissolved inorganic nitrogen and iron. Our results strongly suggest that, in nature, most of the time, most of the phytoplankton community operates at approximately half of its maximal photosynthetic energy conversion efficiency because nutrients limit the synthesis or function of essential components in the photosynthetic apparatus.This article is part of the themed issue 'Enhancing photosynthesis in crop plants: targets for improvement'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Global Energy Development and Climate-Induced Water Scarcity—Physical Limits, Sectoral Constraints, and Policy Imperatives

    Christopher A. Scott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The current accelerated growth in demand for energy globally is confronted by water-resource limitations and hydrologic variability linked to climate change. The global spatial and temporal trends in water requirements for energy development and policy alternatives to address these constraints are poorly understood. This article analyzes national-level energy demand trends from U.S. Energy Information Administration data in relation to newly available assessments of water consumption and life-cycle impacts of thermoelectric generation and biofuel production, and freshwater availability and sectoral allocations from the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Bank. Emerging, energy-related water scarcity flashpoints include the world’s largest, most diversified economies (Brazil, India, China, and USA among others, while physical water scarcity continues to pose limits to energy development in the Middle East and small-island states. Findings include the following: (a technological obstacles to alleviate water scarcity driven by energy demand are surmountable; (b resource conservation is inevitable, driven by financial limitations and efficiency gains; and (c institutional arrangements play a pivotal role in the virtuous water-energy-climate cycle. We conclude by making reference to coupled energy-water policy alternatives including water-conserving energy portfolios, intersectoral water transfers, virtual water for energy, hydropower tradeoffs, and use of impaired waters for energy development.

  8. Distributed Flexibility Management Targeting Energy Cost and Total Power Limitations in Electricity Distribution Grids

    Bessler, Sanford; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu; Silva, Nuno

    2018-01-01

    Demand Management uses the interaction and information exchange between multiple control functions in order to achieve goals that can vary in different application contexts. Since there are several stakeholders involved, these may have diverse objectives and even use different architectures...... to actively manage power demand. This paper utilizes an existing distributed demand management architecture in order to provide the following contributions: (1) It develops and evaluates a set of algorithms that combine the optimization of energy costs in scenarios of variable day-ahead prices with the goal...... to improve distribution grid operation reliability, here implemented by a total Power limit. (2) It evaluates the proposed scheme as a distributed system where flexibility information is exchanged with the existing industry standard OpenADR. A Hardware-in-the-Loop testbed realization demonstrates...

  9. A study of the health of the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. IV

    Howe, G.R.; Chiarelli, A.M.; Etezadi-Amoli, J.; Miller, A.B.; Weeks, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A follow-up study of 13,570 individuals employed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited has been conducted by linking the records for the cohort to Canadian mortality data for the period between 1950 and 1981. Approximately 60 percent of the individuals in this cohort had some radiation exposure recorded during their employment. A total of 150 deaths from cancer were observed in those males with some radiation exposure, compared to 166 expected, giving a standardized mortality ratio of 0.90. No individual cancer shows a significantly increased death rate compared to the population rate. In general, these results provide useful evidence that the currently accepted risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer are reasonable for low dose rate experience

  10. Is there a limitation to the stored beam energy for 2011 and beyond?

    Schmidt, R

    2011-01-01

    The machine protection systems have been designed to ultimately operate with beams of a stored energy of 360MJ. This presentation will address if there is an intermediate limit and what upgrades are required to permit operation with 360MJ. A failure in one of the protection systems (BLM, BIC, LBDS, ...) could have catastrophic consequences for LHC. Considering the operational experience, the most critical failure modes are reviewed, their probability is estimated and methods for mitigation are discussed. Ideas for reducing the risk include additional interlocks (DIDT interlock, abort gap cleaning/monitoring, fast BLMs, additional BPMs as HW interlock, aperture measurements,...), operational procedures and upgrades of hardware systems. There are also examples when the beams should NOT be dumped immediately.

  11. Nondestructive strain depth profiling with high energy X-ray diffraction: System capabilities and limitations

    Zhang, Zhan; Wendt, Scott; Cosentino, Nicholas; Bond, Leonard J.

    2018-04-01

    Limited by photon energy, and penetration capability, traditional X-ray diffraction (XRD) strain measurements are only capable of achieving a few microns depth due to the use of copper (Cu Kα1) or molybdenum (Mo Kα1) characteristic radiation. For deeper strain depth profiling, destructive methods are commonly necessary to access layers of interest by removing material. To investigate deeper depth profiles nondestructively, a laboratory bench-top high-energy X-ray diffraction (HEXRD) system was previously developed. This HEXRD method uses an industrial 320 kVp X-Ray tube and the Kα1 characteristic peak of tungsten, to produces a higher intensity X-ray beam which enables depth profiling measurement of lattice strain. An aluminum sample was investigated with deformation/load provided using a bending rig. It was shown that the HEXRD method is capable of strain depth profiling to 2.5 mm. The method was validated using an aluminum sample where both the HEXRD method and the traditional X-ray diffraction method gave data compared with that obtained using destructive etching layer removal, performed by a commercial provider. The results demonstrate comparable accuracy up to 0.8 mm depth. Nevertheless, higher attenuation capabilities in heavier metals limit the applications in other materials. Simulations predict that HEXRD works for steel and nickel in material up to 200 µm, but experiment results indicate that the HEXRD strain profile is not practical for steel and nickel material, and the measured diffraction signals are undetectable when compared to the noise.

  12. Maximized Effective Energy Output of Contact-Separation-Triggered Triboelectric Nanogenerators as Limited by Air Breakdown

    Zi, Yunlong; Wu, Changsheng; Ding, Wenbo; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-01-01

    Recent progress in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) has demonstrated their promising potential as a high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting technology, and plenty of effort has been devoted to improving the power output by maximizing the triboelectric surface charge density. However, due to high-voltage air breakdown, most of the enhanced surface charge density brought by material/surface optimization or external ion injection is not retainable or usable for electricity generation during the operation of contact-separation-triggered TENGs. Here, the existence of the air breakdown effect in a contact-separation mode TENG with a low threshold surface charge density of ≈40–50 µC m−2 is first validated under the high impedance external load, and then followed by the theoretical study of the maximized effective energy output as limited by air breakdown for contact-separation-triggered TENGs. The effects of air pressure and gas composition are also studied and propose promising solutions for reducing the air breakdown effect. This research provides a crucial fundamental study for TENG technology and its further development and applications.

  13. Research on Improved VSG Control Algorithm Based on Capacity-Limited Energy Storage System

    Yanfeng Ma

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A large scale of renewable energy employing grid connected electronic inverters fail to contribute inertia or damping to power systems, and, therefore, may bring negative effects to the stability of power system. As a solution, an advanced Virtual Synchronous Generator (VSG control technology based on Hamilton approach is introduced in this paper firstly to support the frequency and enhance the suitability and robustness of the system. The charge and discharge process of power storage devices forms the virtual inertia and damping of VSG, and, therefore, limits on storage capacity may change the coefficients of VSG. To provide a method in keeping system output in an acceptable level with the capacity restriction in a transient period, an energy control algorithm is designed for VSG adaptive control. Finally, simulations are conducted in DIgSILENT to demonstrate the correctness of the algorithm. The demonstration shows: (1 the proposed control model aims at better system robustness and stability; and (2 the model performs in the environment closer to practical engineering by fitting the operation state of storage system.

  14. Maximized Effective Energy Output of Contact-Separation-Triggered Triboelectric Nanogenerators as Limited by Air Breakdown

    Zi, Yunlong

    2017-05-02

    Recent progress in triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) has demonstrated their promising potential as a high-efficiency mechanical energy harvesting technology, and plenty of effort has been devoted to improving the power output by maximizing the triboelectric surface charge density. However, due to high-voltage air breakdown, most of the enhanced surface charge density brought by material/surface optimization or external ion injection is not retainable or usable for electricity generation during the operation of contact-separation-triggered TENGs. Here, the existence of the air breakdown effect in a contact-separation mode TENG with a low threshold surface charge density of ≈40–50 µC m−2 is first validated under the high impedance external load, and then followed by the theoretical study of the maximized effective energy output as limited by air breakdown for contact-separation-triggered TENGs. The effects of air pressure and gas composition are also studied and propose promising solutions for reducing the air breakdown effect. This research provides a crucial fundamental study for TENG technology and its further development and applications.

  15. Potential and limitations of biomass production for energy purposes: Vegetable oils compared with alcohol

    Andrade, C.S.; Rosa, L.P.

    1984-01-01

    Since Brazil has favourable conditions for biomass production, as regards land mass, soil and climate, several agricultural products have been proposed as alternatives to petroleum-derived fuels. An analysis is made of the potential and limitations of energy systems using biomass production aimed at the use of vegetable oils in diesel engines compared with the experience acquired in Brazil with alcohol fuel in Otto engines. The current status of the national programme for alcohol production (PNA) within the framework of Brazilian agriculture in the last few years is presented, taking into account its objectives, achievements and impacts. Regarding vegetable oils, it must be emphasized that freight and mass passenger transport is being researched in every aspect - from the agricultural production of oleaginous plants to the use of oils in diesel engines. To assess the potential of oleaginous plant production, land needs for the years 1990 and 2000 have been estimated. From the study of some selected oleaginous plants and their potential expansion in a realistic way it was concluded that the viability of this alternative to diesel oil is limited in the short and medium term compared with alcohol, which provides better conditions for great expansion in the short term. It is believed that the option is viable, provided that it is launched gradually to avoid repeating the negative impacts that (according to some experts) were generated by PNA. (author)

  16. The bungling giant : Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980-1994

    Slater, I.J.

    2003-01-01

    From 1980-1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be 'passively' or 'inherently' safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, 'piecemeal social engineering.' Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large-scale centralized nuclear technology to the piecemeal

  17. The bungling giant: Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980--1994

    Slater, Ian James

    From 1980--1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be "passively" or "inherently" safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, "piecemeal social engineering." Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large-scale centralized nuclear technology to the piecemeal

  18. Smarter finance for cleaner energy: open up master limited partnerships (MLPs) and real estate investment trusts (REITs) to renewable energy investment

    Mormann, Feliz; Reicher, Dan

    2012-11-15

    Master Limited Partnerships (MLPs) and Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)—both well-established investment structures—should be opened up to renewable energy investment. MLPs and, more recently, REITs have a proven track record for promoting oil, gas, and other traditional energy sources. When extended to renewable energy projects these tools will help promote growth, move renewables closer to subsidy independence, and vastly broaden the base of investors in America’s energy economy. The extension of MLPs and REITs to renewables enjoys significant support from the investment and clean energy communities. In addition, MLPs for renewables also enjoy bipartisan political backing in Congress.

  19. German support systems for onshore wind farms in the context of Polish acts limiting wind energy development

    Dawid Leszek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available European energy system is undergoing a deep transition to low-emission energy sources, mainly wind farms. This transition is caused mostly by energy politics of European Union (EU and its goals in the topic of renewable energy. European wind energy is dominated by Germany that produces half of total wind energy in EU. The aim of this article is to present support systems for wind farms existing in Germany in the context of introducing in Poland the Act of 20 May 2016 on Wind Energy Investments limiting onshore wind farms localization and Act of 22 June 2016 introducing changes to the Act on Renewable Energy Sources (RES and some other acts. It is postulated to make amendments of acts regulating RES while considering German solutions.

  20. Gender Identification Using High-Frequency Speech Energy: Effects of Increasing the Low-Frequency Limit.

    Donai, Jeremy J; Halbritter, Rachel M

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of normal-hearing listeners to use high-frequency energy for gender identification from naturally produced speech signals. Two experiments were conducted using a repeated-measures design. Experiment 1 investigated the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff (i.e., increasing the low-frequency spectral limit) on gender identification from naturally produced vowel segments. Experiment 2 studied the effects of increasing high-pass filter cutoff on gender identification from naturally produced sentences. Confidence ratings for the gender identification task were also obtained for both experiments. Listeners in experiment 1 were capable of extracting talker gender information at levels significantly above chance from vowel segments high-pass filtered up to 8.5 kHz. Listeners in experiment 2 also performed above chance on the gender identification task from sentences high-pass filtered up to 12 kHz. Cumulatively, the results of both experiments provide evidence that normal-hearing listeners can utilize information from the very high-frequency region (above 4 to 5 kHz) of the speech signal for talker gender identification. These findings are at variance with current assumptions regarding the perceptual information regarding talker gender within this frequency region. The current results also corroborate and extend previous studies of the use of high-frequency speech energy for perceptual tasks. These findings have potential implications for the study of information contained within the high-frequency region of the speech spectrum and the role this region may play in navigating the auditory scene, particularly when the low-frequency portion of the spectrum is masked by environmental noise sources or for listeners with substantial hearing loss in the low-frequency region and better hearing sensitivity in the high-frequency region (i.e., reverse slope hearing loss).

  1. Vibrational energy transfer in selectively excited diatomic molecules. [Relaxation rates, self-relaxation, upper limits

    Dasch, C.J.

    1978-09-01

    Single rovibrational states of HCl(v=2), HBr(v=2), DCl(v=2), and CO(v=2) were excited with a pulsed optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Total vibrational relaxation rates near - resonance quenchers were measured at 295/sup 0/K using time resolved infrared fluorescence. These rates are attributed primarily to V - V energy transfer, and they generally conform to a simple energy gap law. A small deviation was found for the CO(v) + DCl(v') relaxation rates. Upper limits for the self relaxation by V - R,T of HCl(v=2) and HBr(v=2) and for the two quantum exchange between HCl and HBr were determined. The HF dimer was detected at 295/sup 0/K and 30 torr HF pressure with an optoacoustic spectrometer using the OPO. Pulsed and chopped, resonant and non-resonant spectrophones are analyzed in detail. From experiments and first order perturbation theory, these V - V exchange rates appear to behave as a first order perturbation in the vibrational coordinates. The rotational dynamics are known to be complicated however, and the coupled rotational - vibrational dynamics were investigated theoreticaly in infinite order by the Dillon and Stephenson and the first Magnus approximations. Large ..delta..J transitions appear to be important, but these calculations differ by orders of magnitude on specific rovibrational transition rates. Integration of the time dependent semiclassical equations by a modified Gordon method and a rotationally distorted wave approximation are discussed as methods which would treat the rotational motion more accurately. 225 references.

  2. Limits of an "Energy Union": only pragmatic progress on EU energy market regulation expected in the coming months

    Fischer, Severin; Geden, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Since the Juncker Commission took office in late 2014, the idea of an »Energy Union« has been a central theme of the EU energy policy debate. Today, the Energy Union concept covers every area of current European energy and climate policy. Its primary objective is to create a coherent, overarching policy framework. From a political perspective, the Commission’s aim is to prevent any further renationalization of energy policy. But although the Member State governments constantly refer to the en...

  3. Waste Management Improvement Initiatives at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited - 13091

    Chan, Nicholas; Adams, Lynne; Wong, Pierre [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario, K0J 1J0 (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) has been in operation for over 60 years. Radioactive, mixed, hazardous and non-hazardous wastes have been and continue to be generated at CRL as a result of research and development, radioisotope production, reactor operation and facility decommissioning activities. AECL has implemented several improvement initiatives at CRL to simplify the interface between waste generators and waste receivers: - Introduction of trained Waste Officers representing their facilities or activities at CRL; - Establishment of a Waste Management Customer Support Service as a Single-Point of Contact to provide guidance to waste generators for all waste management processes; and - Implementation of a streamlined approach for waste identification with emphasis on early identification of waste types and potential disposition paths. As a result of implementing these improvement initiatives, improvements in waste management and waste transfer efficiencies have been realized at CRL. These included: 1) waste generators contacting the Customer Support Service for information or guidance instead of various waste receivers; 2) more clear and consistent guidance provided to waste generators for waste management through the Customer Support Service; 3) more consistent and correct waste information provided to waste receivers through Waste Officers, resulting in reduced time and resources required for waste management (i.e., overall cost); 4) improved waste minimization and segregation approaches, as identified by in-house Waste Officers; and 5) enhanced communication between waste generators and waste management groups. (authors)

  4. Studies of thermal energy confinement scaling in PDX plasmas: D0 → H+ limiter discharges

    Kaye, S.M.; Goldston, R.J.; Bell, M.

    1984-06-01

    Experiments were performed on the PDX tokamak to study plasma heating and β scaling with higher power, near-perpendicular neutral beam injection. The data taken during these experiments were analyzed using a time-dependent data interpretation code (TRANSP) to study the transport and thermal confinement scaling over a wide range of plasma parameters. This study focuses on results from experiments with D 0 injection into H + plasmas using graphite rail limiters, a = 40 to 44 cm, R = 143 cm, I/sub p/ = 200 to 480 kA, B/sub T/ = 0.7 to 2.2 T, and typically anti n/sub e/ = 2.5 to 4.2 x 10 13 cm -3 . The results of this study indicate that for both ohmic and neutral beam heated discharges the energy flow out of the plasma is dominated by anomalous electron losses, attributed to electron thermal conduction. The ion conduction losses are well described to electron thermal conduction. The ion conduction losses are well described by neoclassical theory; however, the total ion loss influences the power balance significantly only at high toroidal fields and high plasma currents

  5. The role and limitation of judicial control in the licensing procedure under the Atomic Energy Act

    Sommer, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the problems of the judiciary with decision-finding in proceedings where large and complicated technical installations are involved, presenting proposals aiming at more clearly defining and probably restricting judicial control. According to the author, a feasible step towards limiting the controlling competence of the judiciary is to more precisely define the factual characteristic 'state of the art in science and technology' which, in pursuance with sect. 7, sub-sect. 2 of the Atomic Energy Act is taken as a criterion to evaluate the efficiency of precautionary measures to prevent damage emanating from the erection and operation of nuclear installations. As the legislature explicitly wants the judiciary to use this characteristic, the judiciary has to have recourse to evaluation factors that do not belong to the science of jurisprudence. It is not the function of the judiciary to verify whether the 'state of the art' is based on appropriate principles. This adoption guarantees the 'best possible risk prevention and protection against hazards', as required by the Federal Constitutional Court. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Optimizing Regional Food and Energy Production under Limited Water Availability through Integrated Modeling

    Junlian Gao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Across the world, human activity is approaching planetary boundaries. In northwest China, in particular, the coal industry and agriculture are competing for key limited inputs of land and water. In this situation, the traditional approach to planning the development of each sector independently fails to deliver sustainable solutions, as solutions made in sectorial ‘silos’ are often suboptimal for the entire economy. We propose a spatially detailed cost-minimizing model for coal and agricultural production in a region under constraints on land and water availability. We apply the model to the case study of Shanxi province, China. We show how such an integrated optimization, which takes maximum advantage of the spatial heterogeneity in resource abundance, could help resolve the conflicts around the water–food–energy (WFE nexus and assist in its management. We quantify the production-possibility frontiers under different water-availability scenarios and demonstrate that in water-scarce regions, like Shanxi, the production capacity and corresponding production solutions are highly sensitive to water constraints. The shadow prices estimated in the model could be the basis for intelligent differentiated water pricing, not only to enable the water-resource transfer between agriculture and the coal industry, and across regions, but also to achieve cost-effective WFE management.

  7. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Antonio Sergio De Franchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  8. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  9. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  10. Control Limits for Building Energy End Use Based on Engineering Judgment, Frequency Analysis, and Quantile Regression

    Henze, Gregor P. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Petersen, Anya [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Long, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scambos, Alexander T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Approaches are needed to continuously characterize the energy performance of commercial buildings to allow for (1) timely response to excess energy use by building operators; and (2) building occupants to develop energy awareness and to actively engage in reducing energy use. Energy information systems, often involving graphical dashboards, are gaining popularity in presenting energy performance metrics to occupants and operators in a (near) real-time fashion. Such an energy information system, called Building Agent, has been developed at NREL and incorporates a dashboard for public display. Each building is, by virtue of its purpose, location, and construction, unique. Thus, assessing building energy performance is possible only in a relative sense, as comparison of absolute energy use out of context is not meaningful. In some cases, performance can be judged relative to average performance of comparable buildings. However, in cases of high-performance building designs, such as NREL's Research Support Facility (RSF) discussed in this report, relative performance is meaningful only when compared to historical performance of the facility or to a theoretical maximum performance of the facility as estimated through detailed building energy modeling.

  11. Evaluating the limits of solar photovoltaics (PV) in electric power systems utilizing energy storage and other enabling technologies

    Denholm, Paul; Margolis, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate technologies that will enable solar photovoltaics (PV) to overcome the limits of traditional electric power systems. We performed simulations of a large utility system using hourly solar insolation and load data and attempted to provide up to 50% of this system's energy from PV. We considered several methods to avoid the limits of unusable PV that result at high penetration due to the use of inflexible baseload generators. The enabling technologies considered in this work are increased system flexibility, load shifting via demand responsive appliances, and energy storage

  12. Dependence of the energy given by a CI limited to double substitutions with respect to the number of electrons

    Kutzelnigg, W.; Meunier, A.; Levy, B.; Berthier, G.

    1977-01-01

    Regarding the electronic structure of molecules it is demonstrated that two seemingly different statements are not in conflict but that they are consistent with each other. Namely it is considered and shown that the statement that the energy which is obtained in a configuration interaction calculation limited to double substitutions with respect to a leading configuration contains spurious terms proportional to N 2 , where N is the number of electrons is not in conflict with the statement that the correlation energy accounted for by a configuration interaction limited to double substitution to a model system of N noninteracting subsystems is, for large N, proportional to root N rather than to N. 5 references

  13. Energy Efficiency and Performance Limiting Effects in Thermo-Osmotic Energy Conversion from Low-Grade Heat.

    Straub, Anthony P; Elimelech, Menachem

    2017-11-07

    Low-grade heat energy from sources below 100 °C is available in massive quantities around the world, but cannot be converted to electricity effectively using existing technologies due to variability in the heat output and the small temperature difference between the source and environment. The recently developed thermo-osmotic energy conversion (TOEC) process has the potential to harvest energy from low-grade heat sources by using a temperature difference to create a pressurized liquid flux across a membrane, which can be converted to mechanical work via a turbine. In this study, we perform the first analysis of energy efficiency and the expected performance of the TOEC technology, focusing on systems utilizing hydrophobic porous vapor-gap membranes and water as a working fluid. We begin by developing a framework to analyze realistic mass and heat transport in the process, probing the impact of various membrane parameters and system operating conditions. Our analysis reveals that an optimized system can achieve heat-to-electricity energy conversion efficiencies up to 4.1% (34% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 °C, respectively, and an operating pressure of 5 MPa (50 bar). Lower energy efficiencies, however, will occur in systems operating with high power densities (>5 W/m 2 ) and with finite-sized heat exchangers. We identify that the most important membrane properties for achieving high performance are an asymmetric pore structure, high pressure resistance, a high porosity, and a thickness of 30 to 100 μm. We also quantify the benefits in performance from utilizing deaerated water streams, strong hydrodynamic mixing in the membrane module, and high heat exchanger efficiencies. Overall, our study demonstrates the promise of full-scale TOEC systems to extract energy from low-grade heat and identifies key factors for performance optimization moving forward.

  14. Reconstruction of limited-angle dual-energy CT using mutual learning and cross-estimation (MLCE)

    Zhang, Huayu; Xing, Yuxiang

    2016-03-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging has gained a lot of attenuation because of its capability to discriminate materials. We proposes a flexible DECT scan strategy which can be realized on a system with general X-ray sources and detectors. In order to lower dose and scanning time, our DECT acquires two projections data sets on two arcs of limited-angular coverage (one for each energy) respectively. Meanwhile, a certain number of rays from two data sets form conjugate sampling pairs. Our reconstruction method for such a DECT scan mainly tackles the consequent limited-angle problem. Using the idea of artificial neural network, we excavate the connection between projections at two different energies by constructing a relationship between the linear attenuation coefficient of the high energy and that of the low one. We use this relationship to cross-estimate missing projections and reconstruct attenuation images from an augmented data set including projections at views covered by itself (projections collected in scanning) and by the other energy (projections estimated) for each energy respectively. Validated by our numerical experiment on a dental phantom with rather complex structures, our DECT is effective in recovering small structures in severe limited-angle situations. This DECT scanning strategy can much broaden DECT design in reality.

  15. Strings on AdS2 and the high-energy limit of noncritical M-theory

    Horava, Petr; Horava, Petr; Keeler, Cynthia A.

    2007-01-01

    Noncritical M-theory in 2+1 dimensions has been defined as a double-scaling limit of a nonrelativistic Fermi liquid on a flat two-dimensional plane. Here we study this noncritical M-theory in the limit of high energies, analogous to the alpha(prime) → ∞ limit of string theory. In the related case of two-dimensional Type 0A strings, it has been argued that the conformal alpha(prime) → ∞ limit leads to AdS 2 with a propagating fermion whose mass is set by the value of the RR flux. Here we provide evidence that in the high-energy limit, the natural ground state of noncritical M-theory similarly describes the AdS 2 x S 1 spacetime, with a massless propagating fermion. We argue that the spacetime effective theory in this background is captured by a topological higher-spin extension of conformal Chern-Simons gravity in 2+1 dimensions, consistently coupled to a massless Dirac field. Intriguingly, the two-dimensional plane populated by the original nonrelativistic fermions is essentially the twistor space associated with the symmetry group of the AdS 2 x S 1 spacetime; thus, at least in the high-energy limit, noncritical M-theory can be nonperturbatively described as a 'Fermi liquid on twistor space'

  16. Limits on dark radiation, early dark energy, and relativistic degrees of freedom

    Calabrese, Erminia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Huterer, Dragan; Linder, Eric V.; Pagano, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Recent cosmological data analyses hint at the presence of an extra relativistic energy component in the early universe. This component is often parametrized as an excess of the effective neutrino number N eff over the standard value of 3.046. The excess relativistic energy could be an indication for an extra (sterile) neutrino, but early dark energy and barotropic dark energy also contribute to the relativistic degrees of freedom. We examine the capabilities of current and future data to constrain and discriminate between these explanations, and to detect the early dark energy density associated with them. We find that while early dark energy does not alter the current constraints on N eff , a dark radiation component, such as that provided by barotropic dark energy models, can substantially change current constraints on N eff , bringing its value back to agreement with the theoretical prediction. Both dark energy models also have implications for the primordial mass fraction of Helium Y p and the scalar perturbation index n s . The ongoing Planck satellite mission will be able to further discriminate between sterile neutrinos and early dark energy.

  17. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E. H. J.; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; Van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-01-01

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase

  18. A lower limit to the altitude of coronal particle storage regions deduced from solar proton energy spectra

    Krimigis, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    The spectrum of low energy protons observed at 1 AU following solar flares shows little or no evidence of energy degradation down to approximately 0.3 MeV. Such observations may be used to set a lower limit on the altitude of hypothetical coronal particle storage regions, ranging from 2 to 7 R sub s. It is pointed out that closed coronal magnetic loop structures are observed to extend to 2R sub s, so that long-term storage of low energy protons does not take place in the immediate vicinity of the sun. It is further suggested that in the few cases where the proton spectrum appears to be degraded at low energies, the energy loss may be due to adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind. The alternative of continual acceleration is suggested as a plausible substitute for the particle storage hypothesis.

  19. Energy

    Foland, Andrew Dean

    2007-01-01

    Energy is the central concept of physics. Unable to be created or destroyed but transformable from one form to another, energy ultimately determines what is and isn''t possible in our universe. This book gives readers an appreciation for the limits of energy and the quantities of energy in the world around them. This fascinating book explores the major forms of energy: kinetic, potential, electrical, chemical, thermal, and nuclear.

  20. The limits of human development and the use of energy and natural resources

    Dias, Rubens A.; Mattos, Cristiano R.; Balestieri, Jose A.P.

    2006-01-01

    The development of nations is an unquestionable requirement. A lot of challenges concerning health, education and economy are present. A discussion on these development models has occupied the minds of decision makers in recent years. When energy supply and demand is considered, the situation becomes critical and the crucial question is: how to improve the quality of life of developing countries based on available models of development that are related to the life style of developed countries, for which the necessary use and waste of energy are present? How much energy is essential to humanity for not so as to endangering the survival conditions of future generations? The human development index (HDI) establishes the relationship among energy use, economic growth and social growth. Here it can be seen that 75% of the world population has a significant energy consumption potential. This is a strong reason to consider that the sustainable development concepts on energy policies are strategic to the future of the planet. This paper deals with the importance of seeking alternative development models for human development balance, natural resources conservation and environment through rational energy use concepts

  1. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual

  2. Limits for the burial of the Department of Energy transuranic wastes

    Healy, J.W.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1979-01-15

    Potential limits for the shallow earth burial of transuranic elements were examined by simplified models of the individual pathways to man. Pathways examined included transport to surface steams, transport to ground water, intrusion, and people living on the burial ground area after the wastes have surfaced. Limits are derived for each pathway and operational limits are suggested based upon a dose to the organ receiving the maximum dose rate of 0.5 rem/y after 70 years of exposure for the maximum exposed individual.

  3. Performance Limits of Online Energy Harvesting Communications with Noisy Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridha; Rezki, Zouheir; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    to mobility and environmental changes. In this paper, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the quality of channel state information (CSI) measured at the transmitter, in order to maximize

  4. Performance limits of energy harvesting communications under imperfect channel state information

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-07-26

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to availability of energy harvested during the course of communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility and environmental changes. In this paper, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the degree of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize the throughput. Differently from previous work, the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. We solve this problem with respect to the causality and energy storage constraints. We determine the optimal offline policy in the case where the channel is assumed to be perfectly known at the receiver. Also, we obtain the power policy when the transmitter has no CSI. Furthermore, we analyze the asymptotic average throughput in a system where the average recharge rate goes asymptotically to zero. © 2016 IEEE.

  5. Performance Limits of Energy Harvesting Communications under Imperfect Channel State Information

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridah; Rezki, Zouheir; Tembine, Hamidou; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    to mobility and environmental changes. In this work, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the degree of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize

  6. Performance limits of energy harvesting communications under imperfect channel state information

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridha; Rezki, Zouheir; Tembine, Hamidou; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    to mobility and environmental changes. In this paper, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the degree of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize

  7. Improved limit to the diffuse flux of ultrahigh energy neutrinos from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Chudoba, Jiří; Ebr, Jan; Mandát, Dušan; Nečesal, Petr; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Trávníček, Petr; Vícha, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 9 (2015), "092008-1"-"092008-14" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13007; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14AR005; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-17501S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : cosmic rays * Pierre Auger * ultrahigh energy * surface detector Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  8. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    Glushkov, Dmitry Olegovich; Strizhak, Pavel Alexandrovich; Vershinina, Kseniya Yurievna

    2015-01-01

    Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc.) in the vicinity of storage areas, tra...

  9. Fire Danger of Interaction Processes of Local Sources with a Limited Energy Capacity and Condensed Substances

    Glushkov Dmitrii O.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical investigation of flammable interaction processes of local energy sources with liquid condensed substances has been carried out. Basic integrated characteristic values of process have been defined – ignition delay time at different energy sources parameters. Recommendations have been formulated to ensure fire safety of technological processes, characterized by possible local heat sources formation (cutting, welding, friction, metal grinding etc. in the vicinity of storage areas, transportation, transfer and processing of flammable liquids (gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel.

  10. The Gibbs free energy of homogeneous nucleation: From atomistic nuclei to the planar limit.

    Cheng, Bingqing; Tribello, Gareth A; Ceriotti, Michele

    2017-09-14

    In this paper we discuss how the information contained in atomistic simulations of homogeneous nucleation should be used when fitting the parameters in macroscopic nucleation models. We show how the number of solid and liquid atoms in such simulations can be determined unambiguously by using a Gibbs dividing surface and how the free energy as a function of the number of solid atoms in the nucleus can thus be extracted. We then show that the parameters (the chemical potential, the interfacial free energy, and a Tolman correction) of a model based on classical nucleation theory can be fitted using the information contained in these free-energy profiles but that the parameters in such models are highly correlated. This correlation is unfortunate as it ensures that small errors in the computed free energy surface can give rise to large errors in the extrapolated properties of the fitted model. To resolve this problem we thus propose a method for fitting macroscopic nucleation models that uses simulations of planar interfaces and simulations of three-dimensional nuclei in tandem. We show that when the chemical potentials and the interface energy are pinned to their planar-interface values, more precise estimates for the Tolman length are obtained. Extrapolating the free energy profile obtained from small simulation boxes to larger nuclei is thus more reliable.

  11. Solar photovoltaic system design optimization by shading analysis to maximize energy generation from limited urban area

    Rachchh, Ravi; Kumar, Manoj; Tripathi, Brijesh

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Scheme to maximize total number of solar panels in a given area. • Enhanced energy output from a fixed area without compromising the efficiency. • Capacity and generated energy are enhanced by more than 25%. - Abstract: In the urban areas the demand of solar power is increasing due to better awareness about the emission of green house gases from conventional thermal power plants and significant decrease in the installation cost of residential solar power plants. But the land cost and the under utilization of available space is hindering its further growth. Under these circumstances, solar photovoltaic system installation needs to accommodate the maximum number of solar panels in either roof-top or land-mounted category. In this article a new approach is suggested to maximize the total number of solar panels in a given area with enhanced energy output without compromising the overall efficiency of the system. The number of solar panels can be maximized in a solar photovoltaic energy generation system by optimizing installation parameters such as tilt angle, pitch, gain factor, altitude angle and shading to improve the energy yield. In this paper mathematical analysis is done to show that the capacity and generated energy can be enhanced by more than 25% for a given land area by optimization various parameters.

  12. The low-energy limiting behavior of the pseudofermion dynamical theory

    Carmelo, J.M.P.; Martelo, L.M.; Penc, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we show that the general finite-energy spectral-function expressions provided by the pseudofermion dynamical theory for the one-dimensional Hubbard model lead to the expected low-energy Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid correlation function expressions. Moreover, we use the former general expressions to derive correlation-function asymptotic expansions in space and time which go beyond those obtained by conformal-field theory and bosonization: we derive explicit expressions for the pre-factors of all terms of such expansions and find that they have an universal form, as the corresponding critical exponents. Our results refer to all finite values of the on-site repulsion U and to a chain of length L very large and with periodic boundary conditions for the above model, but are of general nature for many integrable interacting models. The studies of this paper clarify the relation of the low-energy Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid behavior to the scattering mechanisms which control the spectral properties at all energy scales and provide a broader understanding of the unusual properties of quasi-one-dimensional nanostructures, organic conductors, and optical lattices of ultracold fermionic atoms. Furthermore, our results reveal the microscopic mechanisms which are behind the similarities and differences of the low-energy and finite-energy spectral properties of the model metallic phase

  13. Performance Limits of Online Energy Harvesting Communications with Noisy Channel State Information at the Transmitter

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridha

    2017-03-01

    In energy harvesting communications, the transceivers have to adjust the data transmission to the energy scavenged during the course of communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility and environmental changes. In this paper, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the quality of channel state information (CSI) measured at the transmitter, in order to maximize the throughput. Differently from previous work, we focus on energy harvesting communications where the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. In the present paper, we introduce a Markov process that models the energy arrival process. Indeed, we solve the throughput maximization problem with respect to energy harvesting constraints. We show that the optimal online power policy can be found using dynamic programming. Furthermore, we study the asymptotic behavior of the communication system at low and high average recharge rate (ARR) regime. Selected numerical results are provided to support our analysis.

  14. Resource limits and conversion efficiency with implications for climate change and California's energy supply

    Croft, Gregory Donald

    There are two commonly-used approaches to modeling the future supply of mineral resources. One is to estimate reserves and compare the result to extraction rates, and the other is to project from historical time series of extraction rates. Perceptions of abundant oil supplies in the Middle East and abundant coal supplies in the United States are based on the former approach. In both of these cases, an approach based on historical production series results in a much smaller resource estimate than aggregate reserve numbers. This difference is not systematic; natural gas production in the United States shows a strong increasing trend even though modest reserve estimates have resulted in three decades of worry about the gas supply. The implication of a future decline in Middle East oil production is that the market for transportation fuels is facing major changes, and that alternative fuels should be analyzed in this light. Because the U.S. holds very large coal reserves, synthesizing liquid hydrocarbons from coal has been suggested as an alternative fuel supply. To assess the potential of this process, one has to look at both the resource base and the net efficiency. The three states with the largest coal production declines in the 1996 to 2006 period are among the top 5 coal reserve holders, suggesting that gross coal reserves are a poor indicator of future production. Of the three categories of coal reserves reported by the U.S. Energy Information Administration, reserves at existing mines is the narrowest category and is approximately the equivalent of proved developed oil reserves. By this measure, Wyoming has the largest coal reserves in the U.S., and it accounted for all of U.S. coal production growth over the 1996 to 2006 time period. In Chapter 2, multi-cycle Hubbert curve analysis of historical data of coal production from 1850 to 2007 demonstrates that U.S. anthracite and bituminous coal are past their production peak. This result contradicts estimates based

  15. Energy Limits of Electron Acceleration in the Plasma Sheet During Substorms: A Case Study with the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Turner, D. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Clemmons, J. H.; Mauk, B. H.; Cohen, I. J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Craft, J. V.; Wilder, F. D.; Baker, D. N.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present multipoint observations of earthward moving dipolarization fronts and energetic particle injections from NASAs Magnetospheric Multiscale mission with a focus on electron acceleration. From a case study during a substorm on 02 August 2015, we find that electrons are only accelerated over a finite energy range, from a lower energy threshold at approx. 7-9 keV up to an upper energy cutoff in the hundreds of keV range. At energies lower than the threshold energy, electron fluxes decrease, potentially due to precipitation by strong parallel electrostatic wavefields or initial sources in the lobes. Electrons at energies higher than the threshold are accelerated cumulatively by a series of impulsive magnetic dipolarization events. This case demonstrates how the upper energy cutoff increases, in this case from approx. 130 keV to >500 keV, with each depolarization/injection during sustained activity. We also present a simple model accounting for these energy limits that reveals that electron energization is dominated by betatron acceleration.

  16. Simulation of water-energy fluxes through small-scale reservoir systems under limited data availability

    Papoulakos, Konstantinos; Pollakis, Giorgos; Moustakis, Yiannis; Markopoulos, Apostolis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Small islands are regarded as promising areas for developing hybrid water-energy systems that combine multiple sources of renewable energy with pumped-storage facilities. Essential element of such systems is the water storage component (reservoir), which implements both flow and energy regulations. Apparently, the representation of the overall water-energy management problem requires the simulation of the operation of the reservoir system, which in turn requires a faithful estimation of water inflows and demands of water and energy. Yet, in small-scale reservoir systems, this task in far from straightforward, since both the availability and accuracy of associated information is generally very poor. For, in contrast to large-scale reservoir systems, for which it is quite easy to find systematic and reliable hydrological data, in the case of small systems such data may be minor or even totally missing. The stochastic approach is the unique means to account for input data uncertainties within the combined water-energy management problem. Using as example the Livadi reservoir, which is the pumped storage component of the small Aegean island of Astypalaia, Greece, we provide a simulation framework, comprising: (a) a stochastic model for generating synthetic rainfall and temperature time series; (b) a stochastic rainfall-runoff model, whose parameters cannot be inferred through calibration and, thus, they are represented as correlated random variables; (c) a stochastic model for estimating water supply and irrigation demands, based on simulated temperature and soil moisture, and (d) a daily operation model of the reservoir system, providing stochastic forecasts of water and energy outflows. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students

  17. Energy levels of a scalar particle in a static gravitational field close to the black hole limit

    Gossel, G. H.; Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2011-10-01

    The bound-state energy levels of a scalar particle in the gravitational field of finite-sized objects with interiors described by the Florides and Schwarzschild metrics are found. For these metrics, bound states with zero energy (where the binding energy is equal to the rest mass of the scalar particle) only exist when a singularity occurs in the metric. Therefore, in contrast to the Coulomb case, no pairs are produced in the non-singular static metric. For the Florides metric the singularity occurs in the black hole limit, while for the Schwarzschild interior metric it corresponds to infinite pressure at the center. Moreover, the energy spectrum is shown to become quasi-continuous as the metric becomes singular.

  18. Limits to prediction of energy balance from milk composition measures at individual cow level

    Løvendahl, P; Ridder, C; Friggens, N C

    2010-01-01

    at each milking. Three breeds (Danish Red, Holstein-Friesian, and Jersey) of cows (299 cows, 623 lactations) in parities 1 to 4 were used. Milk data were smoothed using a rolling local regression. Energy balance based on milk composition was calculated using a partial least squares (PLS) model based......Frequently updated energy balance (EB) estimates for individual cows are especially useful for dairy herd management, and individual-level estimates form the basis for group-level EB estimates. The accuracy of EB estimates determines the value of this information for management decision support....... This study aimed to assess EB accuracy through ANOVA components and by comparing EB estimates based either on milk composition (EBalMilk) or on body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) (EBalBody). Energy balance based on milk composition was evaluated using data in which milk composition was measured...

  19. Possibilities and limitations of biomass as an energy source. Mogelijkheden en beperkingen van biomassa als energiebron

    Goudriaan, J; Kropff, M J; Rabbinge, R

    1991-06-01

    The potential energetic efficiency of photosynthesis is discussed. Some factors are mentioned which can reduce the theoretical efficiency. The average efficiency of a crop is 3% of the total global solar radiation. Data on the energy input and energy output concerning the production of crops are presented and discussed. Also attention is paid to the impact of nitrogen fertilization and the ratio CO{sub 2} intake and water evaporation on the energetic efficiency of photosynthesis. Next the options of producing more crops by means of area enlargement (expansion) or by means of intensification are dealt with. Finally an overview is given of the characteristics of the ideal energy crops. 1 ill., 3 tabs., 18 refs.

  20. The French Energy Transition Law for Green Growth: At the limits of governance by objectives

    Ruedinger, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this article is threefold: firstly, it briefly retraces the policy process that led to the adoption of the French Energy Transition Law over the last three years (2012-2015). Secondly, it provides a summary of the law's contents, including the main targets and measures. Eventually, it puts this overview into perspective, through an analysis of the key challenges for implementation, with a special focus on the new governance framework for the energy transition. After 3 years of extensive debates, the French energy transition law was adopted in July 2015. Through its 215 articles, it provides a comprehensive and ambitious roadmap for the transformation of the energy system and introduces various policy instruments. The transition builds on strong objectives for GHG reduction (-40% until 2030, -75% by 2050), energy efficiency (reducing demand by 20% until 2030 and 50% until 2050), and the diversification of energy supply through reduced nuclear and fossil fuels and an accelerated deployment of renewables. The law introduces a clear trajectory for the carbon price signal introduced in 2014, which should reach up to euro 56/ton by 2022 and euro 100/ton by 2030, applying to the final consumption of transport and heating fuels. Other key measures include new obligations to massively deploy building retrofits and the evolution of renewable support mechanisms towards a market premium scheme. While the adoption of the law represented a lengthy process, its implementation over the coming years will be even more challenging: the law essentially introduces a framework of governance by objectives, including a profusion of new targets and planning instruments. However, it might very well become an empty shell if this framework is not backed with equally strong measures to provide an effective implementation strategy

  1. Limitations to depth resolution in high-energy, heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Elliman, R.G.; Palmer, G.R.; Ophel, T.R.; Timmers, H.

    1998-01-01

    The depth resolution of heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis was examined for Al and Co thin films ranging in thickness from 100 to 400 nm. Measurements were performed with 154 MeV Au ions as the incident beam, and recoils were detected using a gas ionisation detector. Energy spectra were extracted for the Al and Co recoils and the depth resolution determined as a function of film thickness from the width of the high- and low- energy edges. These results were compared with theoretical estimates calculated using the computer program DEPTH. (authors)

  2. Impact parameter representation without high-energy, small-angle limitation

    Islam, M.M.

    Using Watson-Sommerfeld transform the impact parameter representation of the scattering amplitude is shown to be valid for all physical energies and scattering angles. It is also shown how the direct channel Regge poles enter in the impact parameter amplitude [fr

  3. Performance Limits of Energy Harvesting Communications under Imperfect Channel State Information

    Zenaidi, Mohamed Ridah

    2015-01-07

    In energy harvesting communications, the transmitters have to adapt transmission to availability of energy harvested during the course of communication. The performance of the transmission depends on the channel conditions which vary randomly due to mobility and environmental changes. In this work, we consider the problem of power allocation taking into account the energy arrivals over time and the degree of channel state information (CSI) available at the transmitter, in order to maximize the throughput. In this work, the CSI at the transmitter is not perfect and may include estimation errors. We solve this problem with respect to the causality and energy storage constraints. We determine the optimal offline policy in the case where the channel is assumed to be perfectly known at the receiver. Different cases of CSI availability are studied for the transmitter. We obtain the power policy when the transmitter has either perfect CSI or no CSI. We also investigate of utmost interest the case of fading channels with imperfect CSI. Furthermore, we analyze the asymptotic average throughput in a system where the average recharge rate goes asymptotically to zero and when it is very high.

  4. Nuclear research and development: a program of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited

    Sonnekus, D.

    1985-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa are briefly discussed. The activities consists of the following components: geotecnics, research and development, reactor development, research reactor, radiation technology, post-reactor fuel service, safety, research computers and library service

  5. Nutrient or energy limitation on egg formation: a feeding experiment in great tits

    Nager, R.G.; Ruegger, C.; Van Noordwijk, A.J.

    1997-01-01

    1. We tested the hypothesis that protein availability rather than energy availability constrains egg formation in great tits (Parus major L.) by providing them with two food supplements of different protein content in the prelaying and laying period of 1991 and 1992. 2. Timing of breeding, clutch

  6. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E. H. J.; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-01

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders’ Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today’s low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  7. Limited emission reductions from fuel subsidy removal except in energy-exporting regions.

    Jewell, Jessica; McCollum, David; Emmerling, Johannes; Bertram, Christoph; Gernaat, David E H J; Krey, Volker; Paroussos, Leonidas; Berger, Loïc; Fragkiadakis, Kostas; Keppo, Ilkka; Saadi, Nawfal; Tavoni, Massimo; van Vuuren, Detlef; Vinichenko, Vadim; Riahi, Keywan

    2018-02-07

    Hopes are high that removing fossil fuel subsidies could help to mitigate climate change by discouraging inefficient energy consumption and levelling the playing field for renewable energy. In September 2016, the G20 countries re-affirmed their 2009 commitment (at the G20 Leaders' Summit) to phase out fossil fuel subsidies and many national governments are using today's low oil prices as an opportunity to do so. In practical terms, this means abandoning policies that decrease the price of fossil fuels and electricity generated from fossil fuels to below normal market prices. However, whether the removal of subsidies, even if implemented worldwide, would have a large impact on climate change mitigation has not been systematically explored. Here we show that removing fossil fuel subsidies would have an unexpectedly small impact on global energy demand and carbon dioxide emissions and would not increase renewable energy use by 2030. Subsidy removal would reduce the carbon price necessary to stabilize greenhouse gas concentration at 550 parts per million by only 2-12 per cent under low oil prices. Removing subsidies in most regions would deliver smaller emission reductions than the Paris Agreement (2015) climate pledges and in some regions global subsidy removal may actually lead to an increase in emissions, owing to either coal replacing subsidized oil and natural gas or natural-gas use shifting from subsidizing, energy-exporting regions to non-subsidizing, importing regions. Our results show that subsidy removal would result in the largest CO 2 emission reductions in high-income oil- and gas-exporting regions, where the reductions would exceed the climate pledges of these regions and where subsidy removal would affect fewer people living below the poverty line than in lower-income regions.

  8. Limiting absorption principle at low energies for a mathematical model of weak interaction: the decay of a boson

    Barbarouxa, J.M.; Guillot, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectral properties of a Hamiltonian describing the weak decay of spin 1 massive bosons into the full family of leptons. We prove that the considered Hamiltonian is self-adjoint, with a unique ground state and we derive a Mourre estimate and a limiting absorption principle above the ground state energy and below the first threshold, for a sufficiently small coupling constant. As a corollary, we prove absence of eigenvalues and absolute continuity of the energy spectrum in the same spectral interval. (authors)

  9. Towards limits of excitation energy in the reaction 3He(1.8 GeV) + natAg

    Pollacco, E.C.; Brzychczyk, J.; Volant, C.; Legrain, R.; Nalpas, L.; Bracken, D.S.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Morley, K.B.; Foxford, E.R.; Viola, V.E.; Yoder, N.R.

    1996-03-01

    Hot nuclei are studied, where through an appropriate choice of incident channel and event selection, dynamical effects are attenuated and multifragmentation is limited. Three preparatory results are given, the 3 He(1.8 GeV) + nat Ag can be described using an intranuclear cascade, INC, model; through a suitable selection of events a limit of the excitation energy that a nucleus can absorb without breaking into large pieces is given, it is shown that corresponding alpha decay is consistent with an evaporative process. (K.A.)

  10. An approach to the determination of physical-chemical limits of energy consumption for the transition to a stationary state

    Zimen, K.E.

    1975-02-01

    The paper gives a model of energy consumption and a programme for its application. Previous models are mainly criticized on the grounds that new technological developments as well as adjustments due to learning processes of homo sapiens are generally not sufficiently accounted for in these models. The approach of this new model is therefore an attempt at the determination of the physical-chemical limiting values for the capacity of the global HST (homo sapiens - Tellus) system or of individual regions with respect to certain critical factors. These limiting values determined by the physical-chemical system of the earth are independent of human ingenuity and flexibility. (orig./AK) [de

  11. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings

    Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Durner, George M.; Anderson-Sprecher, R.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Ben-David, M.

    2015-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of “ice” bears in summer is unknown, “shore” bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation.

  12. Estimating Limits for the Geothermal Energy Potential of Abandoned Underground Coal Mines: A Simple Methodology

    Rafael Rodríguez Díez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Flooded mine workings have good potential as low-enthalpy geothermal resources, which could be used for heating and cooling purposes, thus making use of the mines long after mining activity itself ceases. It would be useful to estimate the scale of the geothermal potential represented by abandoned and flooded underground mines in Europe. From a few practical considerations, a procedure has been developed for assessing the geothermal energy potential of abandoned underground coal mines, as well as for quantifying the reduction in CO2 emissions associated with using the mines instead of conventional heating/cooling technologies. On this basis the authors have been able to estimate that the geothermal energy available from underground coal mines in Europe is on the order of several thousand megawatts thermal. Although this is a gross value, it can be considered a minimum, which in itself vindicates all efforts to investigate harnessing it.

  13. Animal physiology. Summer declines in activity and body temperature offer polar bears limited energy savings.

    Whiteman, J P; Harlow, H J; Durner, G M; Anderson-Sprecher, R; Albeke, S E; Regehr, E V; Amstrup, S C; Ben-David, M

    2015-07-17

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) summer on the sea ice or, where it melts, on shore. Although the physiology of "ice" bears in summer is unknown, "shore" bears purportedly minimize energy losses by entering a hibernation-like state when deprived of food. Such a strategy could partially compensate for the loss of on-ice foraging opportunities caused by climate change. However, here we report gradual, moderate declines in activity and body temperature of both shore and ice bears in summer, resembling energy expenditures typical of fasting, nonhibernating mammals. Also, we found that to avoid unsustainable heat loss while swimming, bears employed unusual heterothermy of the body core. Thus, although well adapted to seasonal ice melt, polar bears appear susceptible to deleterious declines in body condition during the lengthening period of summer food deprivation. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Limitation of peak fitting and peak shape methods for determination of activation energy of thermoluminescence glow peaks

    Sunta, C M; Piters, T M; Watanabe, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper shows the limitation of general order peak fitting and peak shape methods for determining the activation energy of the thermoluminescence glow peaks in the cases in which retrapping probability is much higher than the recombination probability and the traps are filled up to near saturation level. Right values can be obtained when the trap occupancy is reduced by using small doses or by post-irradiation partial bleaching. This limitation in the application of these methods has not been indicated earlier. In view of the unknown nature of kinetics in the experimental samples, it is recommended that these methods of activation energy determination should be applied only at doses well below the saturation dose.

  15. Limitations of Electronic Energy Transfer in the Determination of Lipid Nanodomain Sizes

    Šachl, Radek; Humpolíčková, Jana; Štefl, Martin; Johansson, L. B. A.; Hof, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 101, č. 11 (2011), L60-L62 ISSN 0006-3495 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1090; GA ČR GAP208/10/0376 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Foerster resonance energy transfer * nanodomains * Monte Carlo Setup Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.653, year: 2011

  16. Energy efficiency consultants as change agents? Examining the reasons for EECs’ limited success

    Feser, Daniel; Runst, Petrik

    2016-01-01

    Residential energy consumption has been increasingly singled out by public policies as a key area for potential emission reduction. The public implementation of energy efficiency consultants (EECs) as change agents aims at the diffusion of innovation in residential building efficiency and overcoming information asymmetries in the construction sector. However, the success of these measures has been described as low. We conducted a case study involving 17 in-depth expert interviews to examine the causes of this failure in the case of Germany. In Germany, EECs are organized in a certification scheme which is prerequisite to participate in the publicly funded subsidy system. This analysis has important implications for EECs in general and hence other European countries pursuing such policies. We show that information asymmetries (ex-ante/ex-post) in the ECC market lead to a low willingness to pay. Certification of EECs does not suffice to overcome information asymmetries. We also identify a mismatch between EECs and customer incentives. As top-down policies have failed to facilitate a viable EEC market, we recommend a greater role for private and private-public networks, the cutting of EEC subsidies and a closer alignment between climate policy goals and home owners’ economic efficiency considerations. - Highlights: • Energy Efficiency Consultants have not increased the rate of energetic retrofits of residential buildings in Germany. • We show that information asymmetries (ex-ante/ex-post) in the ECC market led to a low willingness to pay. • Certification of EECs does not suffice to overcome information asymmetries.

  17. Guaranteed and computable bounds of the limit load for variational problems with linear growth energy functionals

    Haslinger, Jaroslav; Repin, S.; Sysala, Stanislav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 5 (2016), s. 527-564 ISSN 0862-7940 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LQ1602 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : functionals with linear growth * limit load * truncation method * perfect plasticity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.618, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10492-016-0146-6

  18. A registry for the study of the health of radiation workers employed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Weeks, J.L.

    1979-05-01

    Factors to be considered in formulating a study of the health of radiation workers are discussed, and a proposal is made for the establishment of such a study in relation to the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. By setting up a registry of AECL radiation workers, data could be accumulated suitable for the long-term followup of their health, and for preparing periodic interim reports on mortality and morbidity. (author)

  19. Direct Detection Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy: A Method to Push the Limits of Resolution and Sensitivity.

    Hart, James L; Lang, Andrew C; Leff, Asher C; Longo, Paolo; Trevor, Colin; Twesten, Ray D; Taheri, Mitra L

    2017-08-15

    In many cases, electron counting with direct detection sensors offers improved resolution, lower noise, and higher pixel density compared to conventional, indirect detection sensors for electron microscopy applications. Direct detection technology has previously been utilized, with great success, for imaging and diffraction, but potential advantages for spectroscopy remain unexplored. Here we compare the performance of a direct detection sensor operated in counting mode and an indirect detection sensor (scintillator/fiber-optic/CCD) for electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Clear improvements in measured detective quantum efficiency and combined energy resolution/energy field-of-view are offered by counting mode direct detection, showing promise for efficient spectrum imaging, low-dose mapping of beam-sensitive specimens, trace element analysis, and time-resolved spectroscopy. Despite the limited counting rate imposed by the readout electronics, we show that both core-loss and low-loss spectral acquisition are practical. These developments will benefit biologists, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists alike.

  20. Use and limitations of learning curves for energy technology policy: A component-learning hypothesis

    Ferioli, F.; Schoots, K.; Zwaan, B.C.C. van der

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the use of learning curves for the description of observed cost reductions for a variety of energy technologies. Starting point of our analysis is the representation of energy processes and technologies as the sum of different components. While we recognize that in many cases 'learning-by-doing' may improve the overall costs or efficiency of a technology, we argue that so far insufficient attention has been devoted to study the effects of single component improvements that together may explain an aggregated form of learning. Indeed, for an entire technology the phenomenon of learning-by-doing may well result from learning of one or a few individual components only. We analyze under what conditions it is possible to combine learning curves for single components to derive one comprehensive learning curve for the total product. The possibility that for certain technologies some components (e.g., the primary natural resources that serve as essential input) do not exhibit cost improvements might account for the apparent time dependence of learning rates reported in several studies (the learning rate might also change considerably over time depending on the data set considered, a crucial issue to be aware of when one uses the learning curve methodology). Such an explanation may have important consequences for the extent to which learning curves can be extrapolated into the future. This argumentation suggests that cost reductions may not continue indefinitely and that well-behaved learning curves do not necessarily exist for every product or technology. In addition, even for diffusing and maturing technologies that display clear learning effects, market and resource constraints can eventually significantly reduce the scope for further improvements in their fabrication or use. It appears likely that some technologies, such as wind turbines and photovoltaic cells, are significantly more amenable than others to industry-wide learning. For such

  1. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited-Chemical Company Annual review of operations, 1980-81

    1981-01-01

    Record production of heavy water was achieved: the plants at Glace Bay and Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia, produced a total of 560 megagrams. A shipment of 500 Mg was delivered on time to the Wolsung CANDU reactor in Korea. Energy conservation and waste heat utilization programs included the construction of a greenhouse at the Glace Bay site. Long-term protection of the La Prade site is essentially complete. The company has reorganized its marketing and engineering division and assumed a greater international role

  2. Investigation of Concrete Structures in Serviceability Limit State Using Energy Principles

    Hagsten, Lars German; Fisker, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    of the choices, made in relation to the design of the structure with respect to the ultimate limit state (ULS). Hence, a rational link between the two states is established. The approach is appropriate for the design of new structures and assessment of existing structures. The method and the link between...... the choices made regarding the ULS and the state of stress in the SLS is compared with tests on reinforced concrete disks and beams, respectively. Fairly good agreement between theory and tests is achieved....

  3. Means of control of the public authorities as participants in public limited energy supply companies

    Kermel, C.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the fundamental studies by Emmerich and Puettner, the control of publicly owned companies by the state as a majority shareholder has not evolved to a generally accepted form. With a mind to the discussion on a nuclear phase-out at Hamburgische Electrizitaetswerke AG the author examines the scope offered by the law on public limited companies for realising the interests of the state as a shareholder. She arrives at interesting conclusions regarding the means to this end and the legal consequences of a phase-out decision. Lower supply companies are an ideal object of study for the purposes of this work. (orig./UA) [de

  4. Modelling, development and optimization of integrated power LDMOS transistor. Performance limits in terms of energy; Modelisation, conception et optimisation de composant de puissance lateral DMOS integre. Etude des limites de performance en energie

    Farenc, D.

    1997-12-16

    Technologies for Smart Power Integrated Circuits combine into a single chip Bipolar and CMOS transistors, plus power with lateral or vertical DMOS transistors. Complexity which has been increasing dramatically since the mid-80`s has allowed to integrate, into a single monolithic solution, entire systems. This thesis deals with the modelling, conception and test of the power integrated LDMOS transistor. The power LDMOS transistor is used as a switching device. It is characterized by two parameters which are the Specific On-resistance R{sub sp} and the breakdown voltage BV{sub DSS}. The LDMOS transistor developed for the new Smart Power technology exhibits a Specific On-resistance of 200 m{Omega}{sup *}mm{sup 2} and a breakdown voltage of 60 V. This device is dedicated to automotive applications. A reduction of the power device which is achieved with a low Specific On-resistance puts forward new issues such as the maximum Energy capability. When the power device is switched-off on an inductive load, a certain amount of energy is dissipated; if it is beyond a certain limit, the device is destroyed. Our goal is to determine the energy limits which are associated with our new Power integrated LDMOS transistor. (author) 28 refs.

  5. A study of the health of the employees of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited. 1

    Weeks, J.L.

    1981-09-01

    This report summarizes the status of Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.'s health study of its present and past employees, and is a description of the steps which have been taken up to the time of writing. During the design phase there was a shift in the emphasis of the study. What was originally proposed as a study of mortality in a population of radiation workers, related spacifically to radiation exposure, has become a study of mortality data for all AECL employees. The interest in mortality as a function of occupational radiation expksure remains, but it is recognized that the data available to the study will probably be inadequate for the definition of a dose-effect relationship, although it will be useful in conjuction with other similar studies. The importance of cancer incidence is recognized, and the possibility of linking the AECL data to that contained in the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System is being pursued

  6. Limited energy supply in Müller cells alters glutamate uptake

    Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Skytt, Dorte Marie; Poulsen, Kristian Arild

    2014-01-01

    The viability of retinal ganglion cells (RGC) is essential for the maintenance of visual function. RGC homeostasis is maintained by the surrounding retinal glial cells, the Müller cells, which buffer the extracellular concentration of neurotransmitters and provide the RGCs with energy. This study...... evaluates if glucose-deprivation of Müller cells interferes with their ability to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. The human Müller glial cell line, Moorfields/Institute of Ophthalmology-Müller 1, was used to study changes in glutamate uptake. Excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) proteins...... were up-regulated in glucose-deprived Müller cells and glutamate uptake was significantly increased in the absence of glucose. The present findings revealed an up-regulation of EAAT1 and EAAT2 in glucose-deprived Müller cells as well as an increased ability to take up glutamate. Hence, glucose...

  7. Ultimate Limit State Model Basis for Assessment of Offshore Wind Energy Converters

    Thöns, Sebastian; Faber, M. H.; Rücker, W.

    2012-01-01

    then in combina-tion with the ultimate limit state requirements leads to the specific constitutive relations. As a result finite element models based on shell elements incorporating a structural and a loading model are introduced and described in detail. Applying these models the ultimate capacity of the support...... on the basis of literature review and measurement data from a prototype Multibrid M5000 support structure. In combination with the developed structural and loading models, sensitivity analyses in regard to the responses are peiformed to enhance the understanding and to refine the developed models. To this end...... variables on the responses including nonlinearity the refinement of the model is performed on a quantitative basis....

  8. Thermodynamics of a Fermi liquid beyond the low-energy limit

    Chubukov, A.V.; Maslov, D.L.; Gangadharaiah, S.; Glazman, L.I.

    2005-05-01

    We consider the non-analytic temperature dependences of the specific heat coefficient, C(T)/T and spin susceptibility, X s (T), of 2D interacting fermions beyond the weak-coupling limit. We demonstrate within the Luttinger-Ward formalism that the leading temperature dependences of C(T)/T and X s (T) are linear in T, and are described by the Fermi liquid theory. We show that these temperature dependences are universally determined by the states near the Fermi level and, for a generic interaction, are expressed via the spin and charge components of the exact backscattering amplitude of quasi- particles. We compare our theory to recent experiments on monolayers of He 3 . (author)

  9. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  10. AmpaCity. Superconducting cables and fault current limiters for the energy supply in conurbations

    Merschel, F.; Noe, M.; Stemmle, M.; Hobl, A.; Sauerbach, O.

    2013-01-01

    In 2013 RWE Germany is working jointly with cable manufacturer Nexans and with the scientific support of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to install world's longest superconducting cable in the downtown area electricity grid of Essen. The AmpaCity project is partly funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology and is playing an exemplary role in the further development of electricity grids in major cities worldwide. The project consortium presents AmpaCity as a convincing system solution especially with respect to economics and security of supply. Components of the system are a superconducting three-phase AC cable with two terminations and one connection joint in combination with a fault current limiter, which is also based on superconducting materials. The superconducting system is designed for 10 kV nominal voltage and 40 MW nominal power. It will replace a 110 kV cable system of equal capacity. At the same time, the project partners are paving the way for high failsafe performance, as the cable in conjunction with the fault current limiter cannot be overloaded by short circuit currents in the event of faults in the grid. Planning and follow up on the civil works in Essen posed a major challenge. Cable laying in the inner city, with various crossings of major highways, tramways, as well as already dense cable routes necessitated very thorough preparation and coordination. The civil works in Essen started in April 2013. At around the same time, after the cable had passed the type test, it went into production. Cable laying is scheduled for late summer. After commissioning, planned for the end of 2013, the field trial will run for at least two years under real grid conditions, to demonstrate this technology's suitability for wider deployment.

  11. New self-similar radiation-hydrodynamics solutions in the high-energy density, equilibrium diffusion limit

    Lane, Taylor K; McClarren, Ryan G

    2013-01-01

    This work presents semi-analytic solutions to a radiation-hydrodynamics problem of a radiation source driving an initially cold medium. Our solutions are in the equilibrium diffusion limit, include material motion and allow for radiation-dominated situations where the radiation energy is comparable to (or greater than) the material internal energy density. As such, this work is a generalization of the classical Marshak wave problem that assumes no material motion and that the radiation energy is negligible. Including radiation energy density in the model serves to slow down the wave propagation. The solutions provide insight into the impact of radiation energy and material motion, as well as present a novel verification test for radiation transport packages. As a verification test, the solution exercises the radiation–matter coupling terms and their v/c treatment without needing a hydrodynamics solve. An example comparison between the self-similar solution and a numerical code is given. Tables of the self-similar solutions are also provided. (paper)

  12. Augmented potential, energy densities, and virial relations in the weak- and strong-interaction limits of DFT

    Vuckovic, Stefan; Levy, Mel; Gori-Giorgi, Paola

    2017-12-01

    The augmented potential introduced by Levy and Zahariev [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 113002 (2014)] is shifted with respect to the standard exchange-correlation potential of the Kohn-Sham density functional theory by a density-dependent constant that makes the total energy become equal to the sum of the occupied orbital energies. In this work, we analyze several features of this approach, focusing on the limit of infinite coupling strength and studying the shift and the corresponding energy density at different correlation regimes. We present and discuss coordinate scaling properties of the augmented potential, study its connection to the response potential, and use the shift to analyze the classical jellium and uniform gas models. We also study other definitions of the energy densities in relation to the functional construction by local interpolations along the adiabatic connection. Our findings indicate that the energy density that is defined in terms of the electrostatic potential of the exchange-correlation hole is particularly well suited for this purpose.

  13. Energy

    1975-10-01

    On the occasion of the World Environment Day the Norwegian Ministry for the Environment held a conference on growth problems in energy consumption. The themes which were treated were energy conservation, hydroelectric power, the role of nuclear power, radioactive waste disposal, fossil fuel resources, ecological limits, pollution and international aspects. Nuclear energy forms the main theme of one lecture and an aspect of several others. (JIW)

  14. Limitations of the condensed history method for low-energy electrons

    Martin, W.R.; Ballinger, C.T.; Rathkopf, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    A systematic evaluation of the conventional, condensed history electron transport methodology has been performed through comparisons with more accurate single-scatter Monte Carlo calculations. These comparisons highlight the inaccuracies associated with the condensed history method and indicate its range of validity. The condensed history method is used in codes such as MCNP4, SANDYL, ETRAN, ITS, and EGS and requires a number of restrictive assumptions about the scattering characteristics to make tractable the analytical solution to the infinite-medium transport equation. Distributions describing electron characteristics after multiple collisions (multiscatter distributions) are constructed from such solutions and serve as the heart of the condensed history codes. A two-level approach is taken to quantify the errors inherent in condensed history. First, conventional condensed history multiscattering distributions in energy and angle are compared directly with analogous distributions generated with a single-scatter Monte Carlo code. This recently developed code directly simulates individual electron interactions. Second, the conventional distributions are replaced in the condensed history code by distributions constructed via a single-scatter Monte Carlo simulation

  15. Potential and limitations of bio-energy options for low carbon transitions

    Bibas, Ruben; Mejean, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    Sustaining low CO 2 emission pathways to 2100 may rely on electricity production from biomass. We analyze the effect of the availability of biomass resources and technologies with and without carbon capture and storage within a general equilibrium framework. Biomass technologies are introduced into the electricity module of the hybrid general equilibrium model Imaclim-R. We assess the robustness of this technology, with and without carbon capture and storage, as a way of reaching the RCP 3.7 stabilization target. The impact of a uniform CO 2 tax on energy prices, investments and the structure of the electricity mix is examined. World GDP growth is affected by the absence of the CCS or biomass options, and biomass is shown to be a possible technological answer to the absence of CCS. As the use of biomass on a large scale might prove unsustainable, we illustrate early action as a strategy to reduce the need for biomass and enhance economic growth in the long term. (authors)

  16. Crystal–liquid interfacial free energy and thermophysical properties of pure liquid Ti using electrostatic levitation: Hypercooling limit, specific heat, total hemispherical emissivity, density, and interfacial free energy

    Lee, Geun Woo; Jeon, Sangho; Park, Cheolmin; Kang, Dong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are obtained by electrostatic levitation. • How to measure the thermophysical properties is shown with non-contact method. • Hypercooling limit of liquid Ti guarantying homogeneous nucleation is 341 K. • Accurate ratio C p /ε T of the liquid Ti is obtained with weak temperature dependence. • Interfacial free energy of Ti is estimated with the thermophysical parameters. -- Abstract: Thermophysical properties of liquid Ti are measured by a newly developed electrostatic levitation. In this study, we measure a hypercooling limit (ΔT hyp ), specific heat (C p ), total hemispherical emissivity (ε T ), and density (ρ) of liquid Ti. The ΔT hyp of the liquid Ti is 341 K. The C p of the liquid Ti shows very weak temperature dependence during supercooling. The ε T and ρ of the liquid Ti are given by 0.329 and ρ(T) (g/cm 3 ) = (4.16 − 2.36) · 10 −4 (T − T m ). Finally, the interfacial free energy is estimated with the measured thermophysical parameters. The interfacial free energy is 0.164 J/m 2 , and Turnbull’s coefficient is 0.48

  17. A diffraction limited nitrogen laser for detector calibration in high energy physics

    Hartjes, F.G.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. In part I the operation of a pulsed two-stage nitrogen laser is described. In contrast to most other lasers an optical resonator can not be used in a nitrogen laser because of the very short pulse time (∼ 1 ns). Therefore the emitted beam of a simple nitrogen laser has a large divergence. A nitrogen laser with a small beam divergence however can be constructed via the 'Master Oscillator Power Amplifier' principle. Herein a double nitrogen laser system is employed in which both lasers fire simultaneously. The diameter of the laser beam from the first stage (oscillator) is enlarged by a telescope by which the divergence decreases strongly. In a second stage (amplifier) subsequently the weak laser beam is amplified again. The outcoming beam has an elongated diameter which is changed in an approximately round form by a telescope of two cylindrical lenses. The process leading to the formation of population inversion in the nitrogen causing emission of laser ligth is described. The electric circuit, which delivers the high-voltage pulse causing the electric discharge in the laser cavity, is described. The mechanical construction of the laser, in particular with regard to the choices of the materials, is described. Finally, the optical system of the two-stage nitrogen laser is explained. In part II the application of the two-stage nitrogen laser in high-energy physics is treated. Instructions are given about the practical use of the laser: the usual optical system and the ionization profile to be expected in the detector gas. Herein three different kinds of beams are distinguished: the parallel beam, the weakly focussed, and the strongly focussed beam. Some examples are given of the use of the laser: a time very close to the wire, the outlining of the drift wire chambers with a long parallel beam, and the measurement of optical properties of scintillating plastic fibers. (author). 52 refs.; 76 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. High-energy master oscillator power amplifier with near-diffraction-limited output based on ytterbium-doped PCF fiber

    Li, Rao; Qiao, Zhi; Wang, Xiaochao; Fan, Wei; Lin, Zunqi

    2017-10-01

    With the development of fiber technologies, fiber lasers are able to deliver very high power beams and high energy pulses which can be used not only in scientific researches but industrial fields (laser marking, welding,…). The key of high power fiber laser is fiber amplifier. In this paper, we present a two-level master-oscillator power amplifier system at 1053 nm based on Yb-doped photonic crystal fibers. The system is used in the front-end of high power laser facility for the amplification of nano-second pulses to meet the high-level requirements. Thanks to the high gain of the system which is over 50 dB, the pulse of more than 0.89 mJ energy with the nearly diffraction-limited beam quality has been obtained.

  19. Statistical analysis of the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance of the High Energy Photon Source

    Jiao, Yi, E-mail: jiaoyi@ihep.ac.cn; Duan, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    In a diffraction-limited storage ring, half integer resonances can have strong effects on the beam dynamics, associated with the large detuning terms from the strong focusing and strong sextupoles as required for an ultralow emittance. In this study, the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance (MA) was statistically analyzed based on one design of the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It was found that the probability of MA reduction due to crossing of half integer resonances is closely correlated with the level of beta beats at the nominal tunes, but independent of the error sources. The analysis indicated that for the presented HEPS lattice design, the rms amplitude of beta beats should be kept below 1.5% horizontally and 2.5% vertically to reach a small MA reduction probability of about 1%.

  20. Northeast Empire Limited Partnership No. 2 Alternative Energy, Inc. and Maine Public Service Company (Docket No. EA-95): Environmental Assessment

    1992-05-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared in connection with the application (the Application) by Alternative Energy, Inc. (AEI), Northeast Empire Limited Partnership number-sign 2 (the Partnership) and Maine Public Service Company (MPS and, collectively with AEI and the Partnership, the Applicants), filed on January 6, 1992, for authorization to transmit electric energy to a foreign country. The electric energy to be exported would be produced by a 39-megawatt (MW), wood-fired powerplant (the Project) to be developed by AEI and to be built by the Partnership in Ashland, Maine, which is located in MPS' service territory. In the Application, the Applicants requested authorization for MPS to transmit electricity generated by the Project from Maine through New Brunswick, Canada, on route back to the US for domestic use by Central Maine Power Company (MP). The need to cross the US -Canadian border arises due to the geography of the area and to facilitate access to an existing transmission line. None of the power will be used in Canada. This EA addresses the environmental impacts associated with the export of electric energy and the connected actions which are expected to result from the authorization of those exports. The electricity would be exported over cross-border transmission facilities maintained between MPS and New Brunswick Power Corporation (NB Power). No new cross-border facilities, and no modification of any existing cross-border facilities, are required in connection with the proposed action

  1. Mixed H2/H∞-Based Fusion Estimation for Energy-Limited Multi-Sensors in Wearable Body Networks

    Chao Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes collect plenty of data for each time period. If all of data are transmitted to a Fusion Center (FC, the power of sensor node would run out rapidly. On the other hand, the data also needs a filter to remove the noise. Therefore, an efficient fusion estimation model, which can save the energy of the sensor nodes while maintaining higher accuracy, is needed. This paper proposes a novel mixed H2/H∞-based energy-efficient fusion estimation model (MHEEFE for energy-limited Wearable Body Networks. In the proposed model, the communication cost is firstly reduced efficiently while keeping the estimation accuracy. Then, the parameters in quantization method are discussed, and we confirm them by an optimization method with some prior knowledge. Besides, some calculation methods of important parameters are researched which make the final estimates more stable. Finally, an iteration-based weight calculation algorithm is presented, which can improve the fault tolerance of the final estimate. In the simulation, the impacts of some pivotal parameters are discussed. Meanwhile, compared with the other related models, the MHEEFE shows a better performance in accuracy, energy-efficiency and fault tolerance.

  2. Rotational Energy as Mass in H3 + and Lower Limits on the Atomic Masses of D and 3He

    Smith, J. A.; Hamzeloui, S.; Fink, D. J.; Myers, E. G.

    2018-04-01

    We have made precise measurements of the cyclotron frequency ratios H3 +/HD+ and H3 +/ 3He+ and observe that different H3+ ions result in different cyclotron frequency ratios. We interpret these differences as due to the molecular rotational energy of H3 + changing its inertial mass. We also confirm that certain high J , K rotational levels of H3+ have mean lifetimes exceeding several weeks. From measurements with the lightest H3+ ion we obtain lower limits on the atomic masses of deuterium and helium-3 with respect to the proton.

  3. Rotational Energy as Mass in H_{3}^{+} and Lower Limits on the Atomic Masses of D and ^{3}He.

    Smith, J A; Hamzeloui, S; Fink, D J; Myers, E G

    2018-04-06

    We have made precise measurements of the cyclotron frequency ratios H_{3}^{+}/HD^{+} and H_{3}^{+}/^{3}He^{+} and observe that different H_{3}^{+} ions result in different cyclotron frequency ratios. We interpret these differences as due to the molecular rotational energy of H_{3}^{+} changing its inertial mass. We also confirm that certain high J, K rotational levels of H_{3}^{+} have mean lifetimes exceeding several weeks. From measurements with the lightest H_{3}^{+} ion we obtain lower limits on the atomic masses of deuterium and helium-3 with respect to the proton.

  4. Electron attachment in F2 - Conclusive demonstration of nonresonant, s-wave coupling in the limit of zero electron energy

    Chutjian, A.; Alajajian, S. H.

    1987-01-01

    Dissociative electron attachment to F2 has been observed in the energy range 0-140 meV, at a resolution of 6 meV (full width at half maximum). Results show conclusively a sharp, resolution-limited threshold behavior consistent with an s-wave cross section varying as sq rt of epsilon. Two accurate theoretical calculations predict only p-wave behavior varying as the sq rt of epsilon. Several nonadiabatic coupling effects leading to s-wave behavior are outlined.

  5. Energy density functionals from the strong-coupling limit applied to the anions of the He isoelectronic series

    Mirtschink, André; Gori-Giorgi, Paola; Umrigar, C. J.; Morgan, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Anions and radicals are important for many applications including environmental chemistry, semiconductors, and charge transfer, but are poorly described by the available approximate energy density functionals. Here we test an approximate exchange-correlation functional based on the exact strong-coupling limit of the Hohenberg-Kohn functional on the prototypical case of the He isoelectronic series with varying nuclear charge Z − and to capture in general the physics of loosely bound anions, with a tendency to strongly overbind that can be proven mathematically. We also include corrections based on the uniform electron gas which improve the results

  6. INTOR rescaling for non-intended plasma shape applying preliminary scalings for energy confinement and density limit

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1986-11-01

    On the basis of a simplified rescaling procedure with INTOR, as of Phase IIA Part 1, serving as reference case, alternative design points are discussed that take into account more recent findings on β-limits, density limits and possible extrapolations with respect to plasma elongation. Two tentative scalings for the energy confinement time as derived from ASDEX results and by Goldston are applied to find minimum size INTOR alternatives, which, of course, could be quite different for the two scalings. Large plasma elongation is needed for getting close to the original outlay for INTOR. The density limit according to some possible scalings requires some adjustment of the plasma temperature to above 10 keV. The neutron wall load, being the important parameter with respect to the INTOR test programme, can be practically kept at the reference level. For ASDEX confinement scaling this requires that an ignition margin of about 2 be adhered to. A sensitivity study on the impact of individual modifications in input assumptions of the order of 10% shows that only a limited range of such alternatives remains acceptable. (orig.)

  7. Operational limits of a three level neutral point clamped converter used for controlling a hybrid energy storage system

    Etxeberria, A.; Vechiu, I.; Camblong, H.; Kreckelbergh, S.; Bacha, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The control of a hybrid storage system using a Three Level NPC converter is analysed. • A sinusoidal PWM with an offset injection is used to control the storage system. • The operation of the selected converter is analysed in its entire operation range. • The operational limits of the Three Level NPC converter are defined. - Abstract: This work analyses the use of a Three-Level Neutral Point Clamped (3LNPC) converter to control the power flow of a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) and at the same time interconnect it with the common AC bus of a microgrid. Nowadays there is not any storage technology capable of offering a high energy storage capacity, a high power capacity and a fast response at the same time. Therefore, the necessity of hybridising more than one storage technology is a widely accepted idea in order to satisfy the mentioned requirements. This work shows how the operational limits of the 3LNPC converter can be calculated and integrated in a control structure to facilitate an optimal use of the HESS according to the rules fixed by the user

  8. A cooperative agreement for research on radioactive waste management between the United States Department of Energy and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Dormuth, K.W.; Levich, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) have a history of more than ten years of bilateral cooperation in the management of high level radioactive waste. In 1982, the USDOE and AECL executed a five year information-exchange agreement, for open-quotes Cooperation in Radioactive Waste Managementclose quotes. Since that time, this bilateral umbrella agreement has been renewed twice and the third renewal is currently being processed. International cooperation in high level radioactive waste management is highly beneficial to all concerned. Each nation involved in high level waste disposal has a single coordinated program for developing, testing, and evaluating approaches, hardware, and techniques for high level waste disposal. Thus there is limited opportunity for researchers in each country to exchange views regarding disposal technology with experienced researchers external to their own program, and to share research and development activities. The international arena, however, provides a host of organizations who have similar responsibilities and therefore similar interests and needs

  9. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir, E-mail: amir.karton@uwa.edu.au [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  10. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L α two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1 . The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol –1

  11. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    Coleman, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report

  12. Supplemental Release Limits for the Directed Reuse of Lead in Shielding Products by the Department of Energy

    Coleman, R.L.

    2001-08-22

    The DOE National Center of Excellence for Metals Recycle (NMR) proposes to define and implement a complex-wide directed reuse strategy for surplus radiologically impacted lead (Pb) as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's commitment to the safe and cost-effective recycle or reuse of excess materials and equipment across the DOE complex. NMR will, under this proposal, act on behalf of the DOE Office of Environmental Management, Office of Technical Program Integration (specifically EM-22), as the Department's clearinghouse for DOE surplus lead and lead products by developing and maintaining a cost-effective commercially-based contaminated lead recycle program. It is NMR's intention, through this directed reuse strategy, to mitigate the adverse environmental and economic consequences of managing surplus lead as a waste within the complex. This approach would promote the safe and cost-effective reuse of DOE's scrap and surplus lead in support of the Department's goals of resource utilization, energy conservation, pollution prevention and waste minimization. This report discusses recommendations for supplemental radiological limits for the directed reuse of contaminated lead and lead products by the DOE within the nuclear industry. The limits were selected--with slight modification--from the recently published American National Standards Institute and Health Physics Society standard N13.12 titled Surface and Volume Radioactivity Standards for Clearance (ANSI/HPS 1999) and are being submitted for formal approval by the DOE. Health and measurement implications from the adoption and use of the limits for directed reuse scenarios are discussed within this report.

  13. Energy loss straggling in Aluminium foils for Li and C ions in fractional energy loss limits (ΔE/E) ∼10-60%

    Diwan, P. K.; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Shyam; Sharma, V.; Khan, S. A.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    The energy loss straggling of Li and C ions in Al foils of various thicknesses has been measured, within the fractional energy loss limit (∆E/E) ∼ 10-60%. These measurements have been performed using the 15UD Pelletron accelerator facility available at Inter University Accelerator Centre (IUAC), New Delhi, India. The measured straggling values have been compared with the corresponding predicted values adopting popularly used collisional straggling formulations viz Bohr, Lindhard and Scharff, Bethe-Livingston, Titeica. In addition, the experimental data has been compared to the Yang et al. empirical formula and Close Form Model, recently proposed by Montanari et al. The straggling values derived by Titeica theory were found to be in better agreement with the measured values as compared to other straggling formulations. The charge-exchange straggling component has been estimated from the measured data based on Titeica's theory. Finally, a function of the ion effective charge and the energy loss fraction within the target has been fitted to the latter straggling component.

  14. Perturbation expansion of the ground-state energy for the one-dimensional cyclic Hubbard system in the Hueckel limit

    Takahashi, M.; Bracken, P.; Cizek, J.; Paldus, J.

    1995-01-01

    The perturbation expansion coefficients for the ground-state energy of the half-filled one-dimensional Hubbard model with N = 4 ν + 2, (ν = 1,2,...) sites and satisfying cyclic boundary conditions were calculated in the Hueckel limit (U/β → 0), where β designates the one-electron hopping or resonance integral, and U, the two-electron on-site Coulomb integral. This was achieved by solving-order by order-the Lieb-Wu equations, a system of transcendental equations that determines the set of quasi-momenta (k i ) and spin variable τ α for this model. The exact values for these quantities were found for the N = 6 member ring up to the 20th order in terms of the coupling constant B = U/2β, as well as numerically for 10 ≤ N ≤ 50, and the N = 6 Lieb-Wu system was reduced to a system of sextic algebraic equations. These results are compared with those of the infinite system derived analytically by Misurkin and Ovchinnikov. It is further shown how the results of this article can be used for the interpolation by the root of a polynomial. It is demonstrated that a polynomial of relatively small degree provides a very good approximation for the energy in the intermediate coupling region. 20 refs., 3 tabs

  15. Geometric Energy Derivatives at the Complete Basis Set Limit: Application to the Equilibrium Structure and Molecular Force Field of Formaldehyde.

    Morgan, W James; Matthews, Devin A; Ringholm, Magnus; Agarwal, Jay; Gong, Justin Z; Ruud, Kenneth; Allen, Wesley D; Stanton, John F; Schaefer, Henry F

    2018-03-13

    Geometric energy derivatives which rely on core-corrected focal-point energies extrapolated to the complete basis set (CBS) limit of coupled cluster theory with iterative and noniterative quadruple excitations, CCSDTQ and CCSDT(Q), are used as elements of molecular gradients and, in the case of CCSDT(Q), expansion coefficients of an anharmonic force field. These gradients are used to determine the CCSDTQ/CBS and CCSDT(Q)/CBS equilibrium structure of the S 0 ground state of H 2 CO where excellent agreement is observed with previous work and experimentally derived results. A fourth-order expansion about this CCSDT(Q)/CBS reference geometry using the same level of theory produces an exceptional level of agreement to spectroscopically observed vibrational band origins with a MAE of 0.57 cm -1 . Second-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT2) and variational discrete variable representation (DVR) results are contrasted and discussed. Vibration-rotation, anharmonicity, and centrifugal distortion constants from the VPT2 analysis are reported and compared to previous work. Additionally, an initial application of a sum-over-states fourth-order vibrational perturbation theory (VPT4) formalism is employed herein, utilizing quintic and sextic derivatives obtained with a recursive algorithmic approach for response theory.

  16. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  17. Evaluation of scenarios for energy systems. Potentials, limits and acceptance; Bewertung von Szenarien fuer Energiesysteme. Potenziale, Grenzen und Akzeptanz

    Schubert, Daniel Kurt Josef

    2016-05-15

    In contrast to previous approaches in connection with the energy transition, the dissertation leads to a change of perspective towards social consideration. Previous scenario studies focused on technical feasibility as well as individual cost and environmental aspects, as shown in the pre-analysis. Society plays a secondary role in this case. Instead of being taken into account in the prior decision-making process, time and effort are often invested in the downstream conviction of the population only after that. The approach pursued in the work consistently focuses on incorporating social preferences and barriers into the decision-making process in advance, so that decisions themselves have lasting validity. Representative telephone surveys are used to determine the preferences of the population on the one hand and the limits of acceptance in the form of willingness to pay on the other hand. Only then are scenario calculations carried out in order to be able to quantitatively evaluate energy policy options for action. In the subsequent comparison of social barriers and model results, however, the limits of this approach are also made clear: a desired action option from the perspective of the population (here the brown coal exit) can also fail because of political and legal barriers. [German] Die Dissertationsschrift fuehrt im Gegensatz zu bisherigen Ansaetzen im Zusammenhang mit der Energiewende einen Perspektivwechsel hin zur gesellschaftlichen Beruecksichtigung herbei. Bisherige Szenariostudien richteten ihren Fokus auf die technische Machbarkeit sowie einzelne Kosten- und Umweltaspekte, wie in der Voranalyse gezeigt wird. Die Gesellschaft spielt in diesem Fall eine sekundaere Rolle. Statt einer Beruecksichtigung im vorab geschalteten Entscheidungsprozess werden so haeufig erst im Anschluss Zeit und Aufwand in die nachgelagerte Ueberzeugung der Bevoelkerung investiert. Der in der Arbeit verfolgte Ansatz setzt konsequent darauf, gesellschaftliche Praeferenzen und

  18. Exploring the limits of case-to-capsule ratio, pulse length, and picket energy for symmetric hohlraum drive on NIF

    Callahan, Debra

    2017-10-01

    Over the past two years, we have been exploring low gasfill hohlraums (He fill at 0.3-0.6 mg/cc) as an alternate to the high gasfill hohlraums used in NIC and the High Foot campaigns (He fill at 1-1.6 mg/cc). These low fill hohlraums have significantly reduced laser-plasma instabilities and increased coupling to the target as compared to the high fill hohlraums and take us to a new region of parameter space where the hohlraum is limited by hydrodynamic motion of the hohlraum wall rather than by laser plasma interactions. The outer cone laser beams interacting with the hohlraum wall produce a ``bubble'' of low density, high Z material that moves toward the center of the hohlraum. This gold or depleted uranium bubble eventually intercepts the inner cone beams and prevents the inner cone beams from reaching the waist of the hohlraum-where they are needed to get a symmetric implosion. Thus, the speed of the bubble expansion sets the allowable pulse duration in a given size hohlraum. Data and simulations suggest that the bubble is launched by the early part of the laser pulse (``picket'') and the gold/gas interfaces moves nearly linearly in time toward the axis of the hohlraum. The velocity of the bubble is related to the square root of the energy in the picket of the pulse - thus the picket energy and pulse duration set the allowable hohlraum size and case-to-capsule ratio. In this talk, will discuss a data based model to describe the bubble motion and apply this model to a broad set of data from a variety of ablators (CH, HDC, Be), pulse durations (6-14 ns), case-to-capsule ratios (rhohl/rcap of 3-4.2), hohlraum sizes (5.4-6.7 mm diameter), and hohlraum gasfill densities (0.3-0.6 mg/cc). We will discuss how this model can help guide future designs and how improvements in the hohlraum (foam liners, hohlraum shape) can open up new parts of parameter space. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National

  19. Comparison between Canadian probabilistic safety assessment methods formulated by Atomic Energy of Canada limited and probabilistic risk assessment methods

    Shapiro, H.S.; Smith, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures used by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to perform probabilistic safety assessments (PRAs) differ somewhat from conventionally accepted probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) procedures used elsewhere. In Canada, PSA is used by AECL as an audit tool for an evolving design. The purpose is to assess the safety of the plant in engineering terms. Thus, the PSA procedures are geared toward providing engineering feedback so that necessary changes can be made to the design at an early stage, input can be made to operating procedures, and test and maintenance programs can be optimized in terms of costs. Most PRAs, by contrast, are performed in plants that are already built. Their main purpose is to establish the core melt frequency and the risk to the public due to core melt. Also, any design modification is very expensive. The differences in purpose and timing between PSA and PRA have resulted in differences in methodology and scope. The PSA procedures are used on all plants being designed by AECL

  20. Protocol for development of authorized release limits for concrete at U.S. Department of Energy sites

    Arnish, J.; Kamboj, S.; Chen, S.-Y.; Parker, F. L.; Smith, A. M.; Meservey, R. H.; Tripp, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this protocol is to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) sites in releasing concrete for reuse. Current regulations allow the sites to release surface-contaminated materials if their radioactivity falls below certain levels and to possibly release materials with volumetric contamination or higher levels of surface contamination on a case-by-case basis. In all cases, an ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) analysis that evaluates the risks of releasing volumetrically contaminated concrete or concrete with higher levels of surface contamination is required as a basis for proposing and setting new release limits that allow for reuse of the concrete material. To evaluate the dose impacts of reusing radioactively contaminated material, the measured radiation levels (pCi/g or disintegrations per minute [dpm]/100 cm 2 ) must be converted to the estimated dose (mrem/yr) that would be received by affected individuals. The dose depends on the amounts and types of isotopes present and the time, distance, and method of exposure (e.g., inhalation or external exposure). For each disposition alternative, the protocol provides a systematic method to evaluate the impact of the dose on the affected individuals. The cost impacts of reusing concrete also need to be evaluated. They too depend on the disposition alternative and the extent and type of contamination. The protocol provides a method to perform a detailed analysis of these factors and evaluate the dose and cost impacts for various disposition alternatives. Once the dose and cost impacts of the various alternatives have been estimated, the protocol outlines the steps required to propose new release standards that allow release and reuse of the concrete material

  1. Thermodynamic limits to the conversion of blackbody radiation by quantum systems. [with application to solar energy conversion devices

    Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.; Byvik, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    Using general thermodynamic arguments, we analyze the conversion of the energy contained in the radiation from a blackbody to useful work by a quantum system. We show that the energy available for conversion is bounded above by the change in free energy in the incident and reradiated fields and that this free energy change depends upon the temperature of the receiving device. Universal efficiency curves giving the ultimate thermodynamic conversion efficiency of the quantum system are presented in terms of the blackbody temperature and the temperature and threshold energy of the quantum system. Application of these results is made to a variety of systems including biological photosynthetic, photovoltaic, and photoelectrochemical systems.

  2. Approaches to the Organization of the Energy Efficient Activity at the Regional Level in the Context of Limited Budget Resources during the Transformation of Energy Market Paradigm

    Vakulenko, Ihor; Myroshnychenko, Iuliia

    2015-12-01

    The research is devoted to the problem of the assessment of the integrated projects investment efficiency, energy saving and energy efficiency measures for social and municipal buildings within the course aimed at the reduction of the natural gas consumption and its replacement by alternative fuel types, that is important for a number of European countries, and Ukraine in particular. The objectives of the research are as follows: comparative assessment of the quality of integrated and element-by-element approaches to energy saving encompassing investment, environmental, social and organizational aspects; the formulation of practical recommendations to improve the efficiency of development and implementation of integrated programs in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency. It is proposed to use the methodology of system analysis with the elements of deduction that is practical and that allows to set key factors that influence the processes of energy replacement and energy efficiency increase, as well as factors that constrain them.

  3. Approaches to the Organization of the Energy Efficient Activity at the Regional Level in the Context of Limited Budget Resources during the Transformation of Energy Market Paradigm

    Vakulenko Ihor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The research is devoted to the problem of the assessment of the integrated projects investment efficiency, energy saving and energy efficiency measures for social and municipal buildings within the course aimed at the reduction of the natural gas consumption and its replacement by alternative fuel types, that is important for a number of European countries, and Ukraine in particular. The objectives of the research are as follows: comparative assessment of the quality of integrated and element-by-element approaches to energy saving encompassing investment, environmental, social and organizational aspects; the formulation of practical recommendations to improve the efficiency of development and implementation of integrated programs in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency. It is proposed to use the methodology of system analysis with the elements of deduction that is practical and that allows to set key factors that influence the processes of energy replacement and energy efficiency increase, as well as factors that constrain them.

  4. DLA TEST Defense Infrastructure: Improvement Needed in Energy Reporting and Security Funding at Installations with Limited Connectivity

    2016-01-01

    include natural gas, petroleum, coal, and incorporation of renewable sources of energy— e.g., wind, solar, and biodiesel . • Use of renewable energy...based fuels—making it vulnerable to price fluctuations in the energy market and disruptions to the transportation of fuels. In 2013 and 2014, Alaska

  5. The 'mini' and 'micro' energy sources and their limitations; Les ''minis'' et ''micros'' sources d'energie et leurs limites

    Anon.

    2004-03-01

    The 'Science and defense 2003' colloquium took place in Paris on December 2 and 3. It was organized by the general delegation of armament (DGA), the French atomic energy commission (CEA) with the participation of the national center of scientific research (CNRS) and the French ministry of research and new technologies. The main topic was the needs and the solutions implemented in the domain of energy sources both for civil and military portable applications. This article make a general summary of the content of this colloquium only in the domain of small power energy sources: emergence of new miniaturized portable devices (phones, computers, cameras, autonomous medical systems, wireless communication systems, soldiers equipments, drones etc..), improvement of batteries energy density and price, new needs linked with new functionalities, technological challenges (energy generation and recovery systems, miniaturized fuel-cells, use of recoverable energy sources, implantation of power sources in the human body etc..), new technological files (new electrode materials, micron- or sub-micron scale mechanical and electronic components, sensors, micro-motors, transfer of microelectronics technologies, hybrid systems..), international competition. (J.S.)

  6. How many times again will we examine the energy-income nexus using a limited range of traditional econometric tools?

    Karanfil, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    During the last three decades, following closely the developments in econometric theory, energy and environmental economists have empirically examined the energy-income nexus for different countries and time periods. However, today, in spite of the growing interest in this area, the state of knowledge is still controversial and unsettled. This viewpoint paper attempts to highlight some of the issues related to the existing literature on the long-run relationship and causality between energy consumption and economic growth. In particular, it discusses how it is difficult to make policy recommendations on the basis of inconsistent and conflicting results in the published literature on the subject. In order to do so, the paper first illustrates the increasing trend in the number of studies published in this area providing also a brief comparison of the conventional methods used to estimate the energy-income nexus. It then deals with new directions and different viewpoints on the same issue

  7. Exploring the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus using dynamic energy budget modeling

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we conducted growth and bioaccumulation studies that contribute t...

  8. UK Local Authority engagement with the Energy Service Company (ESCo) model: Key characteristics, benefits, limitations and considerations

    Hannon, Matthew J.; Bolton, Ronan

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how some UK Local Authorities (LAs) have opted to engage with the Energy Service Company (ESCo) model in a bid to enhance their influence over local energy system change and help them to deliver on their political ‘public good’ objectives. Three common approaches to LA ESCo model engagement are outlined including the: (1) LA owned ‘arm's-length’ model; (2) private sector owned concession agreement model; and (3) community owned and run model. The LA's decision to establish its own ESCo, or alternatively enter into a partnership with another, predominantly depends on: its willingness to expose itself to risk, the level of strategic control it desires and the resources it has at its disposal. However, the business case is contingent on the extent to which the national policy and regulatory framework facilitates and obligates LAs to play an active energy governance role. Stronger alignment of local and national energy agendas through communication and coordination between different governance actors could help to remove critical barriers to LA ESCo engagement and their wider energy governance activities. - Highlights: • Some UK Local Authorities (LAs) have engaged with Energy Service Company (ESCo). • Driven by a desire to shape local energy system to deliver on their objectives. • LA may establish an ‘arm's length’ ESCo or partner with a private or community ESCo. • Trade-off between strategic control over energy system change and exposure to risk. • LA can bolster ESCo business case but ultimately depends on central government

  9. Energy efficiency : potential fuel savings generated by a national speed limit would be influenced by many other factors.

    2008-11-07

    "Congress expressed interest in obtaining information on using a national speed limit to reduce fuel consumption. In response to the request, we reviewed existing literature and consulted knowledgeable stakeholders on the following: (1) What is the r...

  10. Nonlinear energy transfer and current sheet development in localized Alfvén wavepacket collisions in the strong turbulence limit

    Verniero, J. L.; Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.

    2018-02-01

    In space and astrophysical plasmas, turbulence is responsible for transferring energy from large scales driven by violent events or instabilities, to smaller scales where turbulent energy is ultimately converted into plasma heat by dissipative mechanisms. The nonlinear interaction between counterpropagating Alfvén waves, denoted Alfvén wave collisions, drives this turbulent energy cascade, as recognized by early work with incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations. Recent work employing analytical calculations and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of Alfvén wave collisions in an idealized periodic initial state have demonstrated the key properties that strong Alfvén wave collisions mediate effectively the transfer of energy to smaller perpendicular scales and self-consistently generate current sheets. For the more realistic case of the collision between two initially separated Alfvén wavepackets, we use a nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation to show here that these key properties persist: strong Alfvén wavepacket collisions indeed facilitate the perpendicular cascade of energy and give rise to current sheets. Furthermore, the evolution shows that nonlinear interactions occur only while the wavepackets overlap, followed by a clean separation of the wavepackets with straight uniform magnetic fields and the cessation of nonlinear evolution in between collisions, even in the gyrokinetic simulation presented here which resolves dispersive and kinetic effects beyond the reach of the MHD theory.

  11. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  12. A Method for Increasing the Operating Limit Capacity of Wind Farms Using Battery Energy Storage Systems with Rate of Change of Frequency

    Dae-Hee Son

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the appropriate rated power of battery energy storage system (BESS and the operating limit capacity of wind farms are determined considering power system stability, and novel output control methods of BESS and wind turbines are proposed. The rated power of BESS is determined by correlation with the kinetic energy that can be released from wind turbines and synchronous generators when a disturbance occurs in the power system. After the appropriate rated power of BESS is determined, a novel control scheme for quickly responding to disturbances should be applied to BESS. It is important to compensate the insufficient power difference between demand and supply more quickly after a disturbance, and for this purpose, BESS output is controlled using the rate of change of frequency (ROCOF. Generally, BESS output is controlled by the frequency droop control (FDC, however if ROCOF falls below the threshold, BESS output increases sharply. Under this control for BESS, the power system’s stability can be improved and the operating limit capacity of wind farms can be increased. The operating limit capacity is determined as the smaller of technical limit and dynamic limit capacity. The technical limit capacity is calculated by the difference between the maximum power of the generators connected to the power system and the magnitude of loads, and the dynamic limit capacity is determined by considering dynamic stability of a power system frequency when the wind turbines drop out from a power system. Output of the dynamic model developed for wind turbine is based on the operating limit capacity and is controlled by blade pitch angle. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed control method, different case studies are conducted, with simulations for BESS and wind turbine using Power System Simulation for Engineering (PSS/E.

  13. Protein energy malnutrition during vaccination has limited influence on vaccine efficacy but abolishes immunity if administered during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    Hoang, Truc; Agger, Else Marie; Cassidy, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), but it is not clear how PEM influences vaccine-promoted immunity to TB. We demonstrate that PEM during low-level steady-state TB infection in a mouse model results in rapid relapse...

  14. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1994-FY 95 annual report. Volume 9, Number 2

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during CY 1994 and FY 1995. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC`s Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through FY 1995. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC`s mission.

  15. Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data 1994-FY 95 annual report. Volume 9, Number 2

    1996-09-01

    This annual report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data (AEOD) describes activities conducted during CY 1994 and FY 1995. The report is published in three parts. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 1, covers power reactors and presents an overview of the operating experience of the nuclear power industry from the NRC perspective, including comments about the trends of some key performance measures. The report also includes the principal findings and issues identified in AEOD studies over the past year and summarizes information from such sources as licensee event reports, diagnostic evaluations, and reports to the NRC's Operations Center. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 2, covers nuclear materials and presents a review of the events and concerns associated with the use of licensed material in nonreactor applications, such as personnel overexposures and medical misadministrations. Both reports also contain a discussion of the Incident Investigation Team program and summarize both the Incident Investigation Team and Augmented Inspection Team reports. Each volume contains a list of the AEOD reports issued from 1980 through FY 1995. NUREG-1272, Vol. 9, No. 3, covers technical training and presents the activities of the Technical Training Center in support of the NRC's mission

  16. Acupuncture Effect on Pain, Mouth Opening Limitation and on the Energy Meridians in Patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Vera LR. Zotelli

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Temporomandibular disorders (TMD, recognized as the most common conditions of chronic orofacial pain, have a multifactorial etiology. Acupuncture can help to relieve the pain and discomfort associated with these conditions, because it can rebalance the energy (Qi circulating in the meridians. The aim of the study was to verify the effectiveness of acupuncture in treating the pain; mouth opening limitation, and energy circulating in the meridians of patients with TMD of muscular or mixed origin. This was a controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted at the Piracicaba Dental School (FOP/Unicamp, in Piracicaba SP, Brazil. The Treatment Group received acupuncture with real penetration of the needle, and the Placebo Group received a sham treatment without needle penetration. The acupoints used were: ST6, ST7, SI18, GV20, GB20, BL10, and LI4, during treatment performed for four weekly sessions. The TMD and mouth opening were evaluated according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC. The measurements of the energy at the meridians were performed by the Ryodoraku method, before and after acupuncture in all of the sessions in both groups. The results showed no decrease in pain in the Treatment Group when compared with the Placebo Group (p = 0.2261. There was no increase in the oral opening limit in the Treatment Group compared with the Placebo Group (p > 0.05. Regarding the energy levels, after acupuncture, there was a decrease in Yang energy in all sessions (p < 0.05, in both groups, however, only real acupuncture was effective in maintaining the Yin energy average throughout the four sessions, with significant difference between groups (p = 0.0198. In conclusion, volunteers with TMD presented a pattern of energy deficiency and the most prevalent imbalance patterns identified were in the meridians coupled to the kidney and bladder, and in the Shao Yin (heart/kidney and Shao Yang (triple

  17. Stake and limit of nuclear energy on the respect of social, cultural and economic rights of African people

    KABORE Al Hassan

    2009-06-01

    The development of the capacities of energy production generates economic, social and cultural progress. However the energy production, especially that related to nuclear power, comprises many risks for man and his environment. These risks are primarily related to safety and health. In the developing countries like Burkina Faso, the nuclear engineering is used in the field of socio-economic and cultural development, and is beneficial to agriculture, medicine, the breeding, the research and management of water resources. The use of this nuclear engineering must however be subjected to the safety standards in the prospect of minimizing dangers such as accident risks, the stealing of sealed sources or its use by unqualified people. Its use should also be done in line with respecting human rights according to the convention on the complementary repair of damages. That would help reduce considerably the impacts of the use of nuclear engineering on human rights relating to public health, the environment and to the food [fr

  18. Installation of high-resolution ERDA in UTTAC at the University of Tsukuba: Determination of the energy resolution and the detection limit for hydrogen

    Sekiba, D., E-mail: sekiba@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC), Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Chito, K.; Harayama, I. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Watahiki, Y.; Ishii, S. [University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC), Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Ozeki, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa 4-12-1, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    A newly developed high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HERDA) system installed at the 1 MV Tandetron in UTTAC at the University of Tsukuba is introduced. The effective solid angle of detector, energy resolution and detection limit for hydrogen are, for the first time, determined quantitatively by the measurements on an a-C:H (and D) film deposited on a Si substrate. In the case of a 500 keV {sup 16}O{sup +} as the incident beam, an energy resolution of ∼0.45 keV and a detection limit of ∼3.8 × 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} (∼0.18 at.%) with a data acquisition time of ∼310 s are derived.

  19. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Reiche, Danyel [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC. (author)

  20. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Reiche, Danyel, E-mail: dr09@aub.edu.l [American University of Beirut, Jesup Hall, Room 205, P.O. Box 11-0236, Riad El Solh, Beirut 1107 2020 (Lebanon); Wuppertal Institute (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  1. Contracting knowledge: the organizational limits to interdisciplinary energy efficiency research and development in the US and the UK

    Lutzenhiser, Loren [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Shove, Elizabeth [Lancaster Univ., Centre for Science Studies, Lancaster (United Kingdom)

    1999-04-01

    Comparison of the organization and management of government funded energy efficiency research and development in the United States and the United Kingdom reveals a number of common features as well as as some important differences. The UK pattern is one of centralized agenda-setting and competition in which rival research contractors bid for small, pre-determined, ``bite-sized`` pieces of work. By contrast, the US approach involves complex negotiations between federal energy and environmental policy agencies and semi-entrepreneurial national laboratories. How do these differing research environments influence the knowledge we have of energy efficiency? How do these organizational features affect the shaping of research agendas, the definition of research problems and the management and dissemination of resulting expertise? More specifically, what consequences do these arrangements have for the conduct of needed social science studies within this conventionally technical field? In exploring these questions, the paper identifies a variety of ways in which opportunities for inter-disciplinarity are inadvertently structured by the mechanics of research management. (Author)

  2. Energy Policies of Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-possibilities and limitations of ecological modernization in rentier states

    Reiche, Danyel

    2010-01-01

    Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates are major oil and natural gas producing countries that make up the Gulf Cooperation Council. The six GCC countries fall in the top 25 countries of carbon dioxide emissions per capita and are perceived as the main actors blocking international climate change negotiations. The aim of this article is to discuss from a policy perspective the capacities of the GCC states to switch toward an ecological modernization of their energy sectors. At the beginning of the paper, I analyze the benefits of transforming oil wealth into funding for renewable energy and energy efficiency. After this, I discuss obstacles to such a transformation process based on the rentier states theory. Finally, I investigate governance of the GCC on all levels (international, regional, and local). The article shows that the GCC countries have recently adopted a more pro-active approach toward ecological modernization. This reorientation has not yet resulted in the development of consistent strategies and policies, however. The concluding assumption based on the concept of policy transfer is that pioneering projects such as Masdar City and innovative regulation like the green building code in Dubai will spread within the GCC.

  3. The effect of using solid-state fermented peeled and unpeeled cassava root tubers and limiting amino acid supplementation on metabolisable energy for meat-type cockerels

    Oso, A.O.; Li, L; Zhang, B.; Liu, H.; Li, F; Osho, S.O.; Olayemi, W.A.; Pirgozliev, V.

    2017-01-01

    A preliminary in-vitro solid-state fermentation of peeled (PCRM) and unpeeled cassava root tuber meal (UCRM) using Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, was conducted, followed by a force-feeding experiment to investigate the effects of a diet of solid state fermented peeled (PCRM) and unpeeled (UPCRM) cassava root, supplemented with limiting amino acid, on metabolizable energy (ME) for meat-type cockerels. Forty eight, 84 d-old meat-type cockerels (Ross 308) were assigned to 8 treatments consisting...

  4. Extending Lean and Exhaust Gas Recirculation-Dilute Operating Limits of a Modern Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine Using a Low-Energy Transient Plasma Ignition System

    Sevik, James; Wallner, Thomas; Pamminger, Michael; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Singleton, Dan; Sanders, Jason

    2016-05-24

    The efficiency improvement and emissions reduction potential of lean and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR)-dilute operation of spark-ignition gasoline engines is well understood and documented. However, dilute operation is generally limited by deteriorating combustion stability with increasing inert gas levels. The combustion stability decreases due to reduced mixture flame speeds resulting in significantly increased combustion initiation periods and burn durations. A study was designed and executed to evaluate the potential to extend lean and EGR-dilute limits using a low-energy transient plasma ignition system. The low-energy transient plasma was generated by nanosecond pulses and its performance compared to a conventional transistorized coil ignition (TCI) system operated on an automotive, gasoline direct-injection (GDI) single-cylinder research engine. The experimental assessment was focused on steady-state experiments at the part load condition of 1500 rpm 5.6 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), where dilution tolerance is particularly critical to improving efficiency and emission performance. Experimental results suggest that the energy delivery process of the low-energy transient plasma ignition system significantly improves part load dilution tolerance by reducing the early flame development period. Statistical analysis of relevant combustion metrics was performed in order to further investigate the effects of the advanced ignition system on combustion stability. Results confirm that at select operating conditions EGR tolerance and lean limit could be improved by as much as 20% (from 22.7 to 27.1% EGR) and nearly 10% (from λ = 1.55 to 1.7) with the low-energy transient plasma ignition system.

  5. Ulysses observations of magnetic waves due to newborn interstellar pickup ions. II. Application of turbulence concepts to limiting wave energy and observability

    Cannon, Bradford E. [Physics Department, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Joyce, Colin J. [Physics Department and Space Science Center, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space, University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States); Murphy, Neil [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Mail Stop 180-600, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nuno, Raquel G., E-mail: bc13h@my.fsu.edu, E-mail: Charles.Smith@unh.edu, E-mail: Phil.Isenberg@unh.edu, E-mail: Bernie.Vasquez@unh.edu, E-mail: cjl46@wildcats.unh.edu, E-mail: Neil.Murphy@jpl.nasa.gov, E-mail: raquel.nuno@asu.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The low-frequency magnetic waves that arise from the isotropization of newborn interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) are reasonably well described by linear and quasi-linear kinetic theory in so far as those theories predict the wave frequency and polarization in the spacecraft frame. Those theories fail to describe the scarce observability of the waves. Quasilinear theory predicts that the wave power should accumulate over long periods of time as the relatively weak kinetic instability slowly adds power to the observed spectrum. At the same time it has been argued that the same wave energy must serve as a secondary source of thermal ion heating in the outer heliosphere once the initial turbulence is depleted. To the extent that turbulent transport of the wave energy acts against the spectrally confined accumulation of wave energy, turbulence should be a limiting factor in observability. We argue that turbulence does limit the observability of the waves and we use turbulence theory to predict the observed wave energy. We compare this prediction against a database of 502 wave observations attributed to newborn interstellar PUIs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft.

  6. Ulysses observations of magnetic waves due to newborn interstellar pickup ions. II. Application of turbulence concepts to limiting wave energy and observability

    Cannon, Bradford E.; Smith, Charles W.; Isenberg, Philip A.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Joyce, Colin J.; Murphy, Neil; Nuno, Raquel G.

    2014-01-01

    The low-frequency magnetic waves that arise from the isotropization of newborn interstellar pickup ions (PUIs) are reasonably well described by linear and quasi-linear kinetic theory in so far as those theories predict the wave frequency and polarization in the spacecraft frame. Those theories fail to describe the scarce observability of the waves. Quasilinear theory predicts that the wave power should accumulate over long periods of time as the relatively weak kinetic instability slowly adds power to the observed spectrum. At the same time it has been argued that the same wave energy must serve as a secondary source of thermal ion heating in the outer heliosphere once the initial turbulence is depleted. To the extent that turbulent transport of the wave energy acts against the spectrally confined accumulation of wave energy, turbulence should be a limiting factor in observability. We argue that turbulence does limit the observability of the waves and we use turbulence theory to predict the observed wave energy. We compare this prediction against a database of 502 wave observations attributed to newborn interstellar PUIs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft.

  7. Energy

    Meister, F.; Ott, F.

    2002-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of the current energy economy in Austria. The Austrian political aims of sustainable development and climate protection imply a reorientation of the Austrian energy policy as a whole. Energy consumption trends (1993-1998), final energy consumption by energy carrier (indexed data 1993-1999), comparative analysis of useful energy demand (1993 and 1999) and final energy consumption of renewable energy sources by sector (1996-1999) in Austria are given. The necessary measures to be taken in order to reduce the energy demand and increased the use of renewable energy are briefly mentioned. Figs. 5. (nevyjel)

  8. Energy Limits in Second Generation High-pitch Dual Source CT - Comparison in an Upper Abdominal Phantom

    Martin Beeres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of our study was to find out how much energy is applicable in second-generation dual source high-pitch computed tomography (CT in imaging of the abdomen. Materials and Methods: We examined an upper abdominal phantom using a Somatom Definition Flash CT-Scanner (Siemens, Forchheim, Germany. The study protocol consisted of a scan-series at 100 kV and 120 kV. In each scan series we started with a pitch of 3.2 and reduced it in steps of 0.2, until a pitch of 1.6 was reached. The current was adjusted to the maximum the scanner could achieve. Energy values, image noise, image quality, and radiation exposure were evaluated. Results: For a pitch of 3.2 the maximum applicable current was 142 mAs at 120 kV and in 100 kV the maximum applicable current was 114 mAs. For conventional abdominal imaging, current levels of 200 to 260 mAs are generally used. To achieve similar current levels, we had to decrease the pitch to 1.8 at 100 kV - at this pitch we could perform our imaging at 204 mAs. At a pitch of 2.2 in 120 kV we could apply a current of 206 mAs. Conclusion: We conclude our study by stating that if there is a need for a higher current, we have to reduce the pitch. In a high-pitch dual source CT, we always have to remember where our main focus is, so we can adjust the pitch to the energy we need in the area of the body that has to be imaged, to find answers to the clinical question being raised.

  9. Energy

    Meister, F.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of energy production, energy conversion, atomic energy and renewable energy. The development of the energy consumption in Austria for the years 1993 to 1999 is given for the different energy types. The development of the use of renewable energy sources in Austria is given, different domestic heat-systems are compared, life cycles and environmental balance are outlined. (a.n.)

  10. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  11. Ethnic disparities among food sources of energy and nutrients of public health concern and nutrients to limit in adults in the United States: NHANES 2003-2006.

    O'Neil, Carol E; Nicklas, Theresa A; Keast, Debra R; Fulgoni, Victor L

    2014-01-01

    Identification of current food sources of energy and nutrients among US non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Mexican American (MA) adults is needed to help with public health efforts in implementing culturally sensitive and feasible dietary recommendations. The objective of this study was to determine the food sources of energy and nutrients to limit [saturated fatty acids (SFA), added sugars, and sodium] and nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium) by NHW, NHB, and MA adults. This was a cross-sectional analysis of a nationally representative sample of NWH (n=4,811), NHB (2,062), and MA (n=1,950) adults 19+ years. The 2003-2006 NHANES 24-h recall (Day 1) dietary intake data were analyzed. An updated USDA Dietary Source Nutrient Database was developed using current food composition databases. Food grouping included ingredients from disaggregated mixtures. Mean energy and nutrient intakes from food sources were sample-weighted. Percentages of total dietary intake contributed from food sources were ranked. Multiple differences in intake among ethnic groups were seen for energy and all nutrients examined. For example, energy intake was higher in MA as compared to NHB; SFA, added sugars, and sodium intakes were higher in NHW than NHB; dietary fiber was highest in MA and lowest in NHB; vitamin D was highest in NHW; calcium was lowest in NHB; and potassium was higher in NHW as compared to NHB. Food sources of these nutrients also varied. Identification of intake of nutrients to limit and of public health concern can help health professionals implement appropriate dietary recommendations and plan interventions that are ethnically appropriate.

  12. Drug discovery strategies in the field of tumor energy metabolism: Limitations by metabolic flexibility and metabolic resistance to chemotherapy.

    Amoedo, N D; Obre, E; Rossignol, R

    2017-08-01

    The search for new drugs capable of blocking the metabolic vulnerabilities of human tumors has now entered the clinical evaluation stage, but several projects already failed in phase I or phase II. In particular, very promising in vitro studies could not be translated in vivo at preclinical stage and beyond. This was the case for most glycolysis inhibitors that demonstrated systemic toxicity. A more recent example is the inhibition of glutamine catabolism in lung adenocarcinoma that failed in vivo despite a strong addiction of several cancer cell lines to glutamine in vitro. Such contradictory findings raised several questions concerning the optimization of drug discovery strategies in the field of cancer metabolism. For instance, the cell culture models in 2D or 3D might already show strong limitations to mimic the tumor micro- and macro-environment. The microenvironment of tumors is composed of cancer cells of variegated metabolic profiles, supporting local metabolic exchanges and symbiosis, but also of immune cells and stroma that further interact with and reshape cancer cell metabolism. The macroenvironment includes the different tissues of the organism, capable of exchanging signals and fueling the tumor 'a distance'. Moreover, most metabolic targets were identified from their increased expression in tumor transcriptomic studies, or from targeted analyses looking at the metabolic impact of particular oncogenes or tumor suppressors on selected metabolic pathways. Still, very few targets were identified from in vivo analyses of tumor metabolism in patients because such studies are difficult and adequate imaging methods are only currently being developed for that purpose. For instance, perfusion of patients with [ 13 C]-glucose allows deciphering the metabolomics of tumors and opens a new area in the search for effective targets. Metabolic imaging with positron emission tomography and other techniques that do not involve [ 13 C] can also be used to evaluate tumor

  13. Scope and limitations of high energy electron scattering in obtaining relevant structural information about atoms and molecules

    Ketkar, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    During the course of this work experiments were undertaken to measure the scattering cross-sections for high energy electrons scattering from various target systems. The experiments can be broadly classified into two categories, one dealing with rather small systems and the other dealing with large systems (at least in the view of physicists). Although the experimental aspects, in so much as the experimental measurement of the intensities of the scattered electron is concerned, is the same for both the cases the motivation for performing the experiment is totally different. In the first case, simple atomic and molecular target systems, namely He, H 2 and D 2 , are used. For such systems, good theoretical framework is available and critical comparisons of experimental cross sections are made with theoretical predictions. Attention is focussed mainly at small momentum transfer (up to 10A -1 ), and correlation and binding effects are studied. In the second case, somewhat larger molecular systems, namely naphthalene, anthraquinone, anthracene and dichromium tetraacetate are used. For such systems attention is focused at large momentum transfer (from 10 to 25 A -1 ) to obtain structural information about the molecules

  14. U.S. reference paper on the potential and limitations of uranium to meet the anticipated needs of nuclear energy

    1978-10-01

    A framework is provided to analyze the interrelationship between uranium availability and the deployment of fast breeder and converter reactors. Included are models which can be used to estimate the uranium price for economic parity between breeders and converters, the dates for economical commercialization of fast breeders, and the effect of breeder deployment on uranium availability. Factors such as energy demand, resources and economics which are dominant in decisions as to potential breeder commercialization are discussed. Included are examples which show that breeder breakeven introduction date could fall between the year 2000 and well beyond 2025. A principal conclusion is that the break-even introduction date is very sensitive to uncertainty in the estimate of increase in capital costs of the breeder relative to the LWR, the estimates of power demand, and the estimate of the uranium resource base available at less than $130/kg (e.g. consideration of the IUREP estimates of speculative resources which if available doubles or triples the resource base)

  15. Technical Evaluation of Superconducting Fault Current Limiters Used in a Micro-Grid by Considering the Fault Characteristics of Distributed Generation, Energy Storage and Power Loads

    Lei Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerning the development of a micro-grid integrated with multiple intermittent renewable energy resources, one of the main issues is related to the improvement of its robustness against short-circuit faults. In a sense, the superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL can be regarded as a feasible approach to enhance the transient performance of a micro-grid under fault conditions. In this paper, the fault transient analysis of a micro-grid, including distributed generation, energy storage and power loads, is conducted, and regarding the application of one or more flux-coupling-type SFCLs in the micro-grid, an integrated technical evaluation method considering current-limiting performance, bus voltage stability and device cost is proposed. In order to assess the performance of the SFCLs and verify the effectiveness of the evaluation method, different fault cases of a 10-kV micro-grid with photovoltaic (PV, wind generator and energy storage are simulated in the MATLAB software. The results show that, the efficient use of the SFCLs for the micro-grid can contribute to reducing the fault current, improving the voltage sags and suppressing the frequency fluctuations. Moreover, there will be a compromise design to fully take advantage of the SFCL parameters, and thus, the transient performance of the micro-grid can be guaranteed.

  16. Rice straw as a renewable energy source in India, Thailand, and the Philippines: Overall potential and limitations for energy contribution and greenhouse gas mitigation

    Gadde, Butchaiah; Menke, Christoph; Wassmann, Reiner

    2009-01-01

    abstract: Rice is a widely grown crop in the South and South-East Asia that leaves substantial quantity of straw in the field. The aim of this paper is to assess the quantity of rice straw produced, estimate Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions based on its current uses, and assess its possible energy potential and related GHG emissions mitigation potential. Updated statistics on rough rice production are used in this study in combination with the literature values on Straw-to-Grain Ratio (SGR) to quantify the amount of rice straw produced in the three countries of focus. It is estimated that 97.19, 21.86, and 10.68 Mt of rice straw residue are produced in India, Thailand, and the Philippines, respectively. In India, 23% of rice straw residue produced is surplus and is either left in the field as uncollected or to a large extent open-field burnt. About 48% of this residue produced is subjected to open-field burning in Thailand, and in the Philippines it is 95%. The GHG emissions contribution through open-field burning of rice straw in India, Thailand, and the Philippines are 0.05%, 0.18%, and 0.56%, and the mitigated GHG emissions when generated electricity is used would be 0.75%, 1.81%, and 4.31%, respectively, when compared to the total country GHG emissions.

  17. Protein energy malnutrition during vaccination has limited influence on vaccine efficacy but abolishes immunity if administered during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Hoang, Truc; Agger, Else Marie; Cassidy, Joseph P; Christensen, Jan P; Andersen, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Protein energy malnutrition (PEM) increases susceptibility to infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), but it is not clear how PEM influences vaccine-promoted immunity to TB. We demonstrate that PEM during low-level steady-state TB infection in a mouse model results in rapid relapse of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as increased pathology, in both Mycobacterium bovis BCG-vaccinated and unvaccinated animals. PEM did not change the overall numbers of CD4 T cells in BCG-vaccinated animals but resulted in an almost complete loss of antigen-specific cytokine production. Furthermore, there was a change in cytokine expression characterized by a gradual loss of multifunctional antigen-specific CD4 T cells and an increased proportion of effector cells expressing gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (IFN-γ(+) TNF-α(+) and IFN-γ(+) cells). PEM during M. tuberculosis infection completely blocked the protection afforded by the H56-CAF01 subunit vaccine, and this was associated with a very substantial loss of the interleukin-2-positive memory CD4 T cells promoted by this vaccine. Similarly, PEM during the vaccination phase markedly reduced the H56-CAF01 vaccine response, influencing all cytokine-producing CD4 T cell subsets, with the exception of CD4 T cells positive for TNF-α only. Importantly, this impairment was reversible and resupplementation of protein during infection rescued both the vaccine-promoted T cell response and the protective effect of the vaccine against M. tuberculosis infection. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Energy

    Bobin, J.L.

    1996-01-01

    Object of sciences and technologies, energy plays a major part in economics and relations between nations. Jean-Louis Bobin, physicist, analyses the relations between man and energy and wonders about fears that delivers nowadays technologies bound to nuclear energy and about the fear of a possible shortage of energy resources. (N.C.). 17 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Energy Level Statistics of SO(5) Limit of Super-symmetry U(6/4) in Interacting Boson-Fermion Model

    Bai Hongbo; Zhang Jinfu; Zhou Xianrong

    2005-01-01

    We study the energy level statistics of the SO(5) limit of super-symmetry U(6/4) in odd-A nucleus using the interacting boson-fermion model. The nearest neighbor spacing distribution (NSD) and the spectral rigidity (Δ 3 ) are investigated, and the factors that affect the properties of level statistics are also discussed. The results show that the boson number N is a dominant factor. If N is small, both the interaction strengths of subgroups SO B (5) and SO BF (5) and the spin play important roles in the energy level statistics, however, along with the increase of N, the statistics distribution would tend to be in Poisson form.

  20. Comparison of sensitivities and detection limits between direct excitation and secondary excitation modes in energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence analysis

    Artz, B.E.; Short, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    A comparison was made between the direct tube excitation mode and the secondary target excitation mode using a Kevex 0810 energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence system. Relative sensitivities and detection limits were determined with two system configurations. The first configuration used a standard, high power, x-ray fluorescence tube to directly excite the specimen. Several x-ray tubes, including chromium, molybdenum, and tungsten, both filtered and not filtered, were employed. The second configuration consisted of using the x-ray tube to excite a secondary target which in turn excited the specimen. Appropriate targets were compared to the direct excitation results. Relative sensitivities and detection limits were determined for K-series lines for elements from magnesium to barium contained in a low atomic number matrix and in a high atomic number matrix

  1. The use of NH4+ rather than NO3- affects cell stoichiometry, C allocation, photosynthesis and growth in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. UTEX LB 2380, only when energy is limiting.

    Ruan, Zuoxi; Giordano, Mario

    2017-02-01

    The assimilation of N-NO 3 - requires more energy than that of N-NH 4 + . This becomes relevant when energy is limiting and may impinge differently on cell energy budget depending on depth, time of the day and season. We hypothesize that N-limited and energy-limited cells of the oceanic cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. differ in their response to the N source with respect to growth, elemental stoichiometry and carbon allocation. Under N limitation, cells retained almost absolute homeostasis of elemental and organic composition, and the use of NH 4 + did not stimulate growth. When energy was limiting, however, Synechococcus grew faster in NH 4 + than in NO 3 - and had higher C (20%), N (38%) and S (30%) cell quotas. Furthermore, more C was allocated to protein, whereas the carbohydrate and lipid pool size did not change appreciably. Energy limitation also led to a higher photosynthetic rate relative to N limitation. We interpret these results as an indication that, under energy limitation, the use of the least expensive N source allowed a spillover of the energy saved from N assimilation to the assimilation of other nutrients. The change in elemental stoichiometry influenced C allocation, inducing an increase in cell protein, which resulted in a stimulation of photosynthesis and growth. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Limits on charmed-meson production in e+e- annihilation at 4.8-GeV center-of-mass energy

    Boyarski, A.M.; Breidenbach, M.; Bulos, F.

    1975-01-01

    Data from e + e - annihilation into hadrons at 4.8 GeV center-of-mass energy were used to search for charmed mesons in the mass range 1.5 to 4.0 GeV/c 2 . Narrow peaks in the invariant-mass distributions for K -+ π +- , K 0 /sub s/π + π - , π + π - , K + K - , K -+ , π +- π +- , K 0 /sub s/π +- , K 0 /sub s/K +- , and π + π - π +- were sought. Upper limits are presented for the inclusive production cross section times the branching ratio for charmed mesons having these decay modes. 2 figures, 1 table

  3. Steady-State Growth under Inorganic Carbon Limitation Conditions Increases Energy Consumption for Maintenance and Enhances Nitrous Oxide Production in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    Mellbye, Brett L; Giguere, Andrew; Chaplen, Frank; Bottomley, Peter J; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A

    2016-06-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to obtain energy for growth on carbon dioxide (CO2) and can also produce nitrous oxide (N2O), a greenhouse gas. We interrogated the growth, physiological, and transcriptome responses of N. europaea to conditions of replete (>5.2 mM) and limited inorganic carbon (IC) provided by either 1.0 mM or 0.2 mM sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) supplemented with atmospheric CO2 IC-limited cultures oxidized 25 to 58% of available NH3 to nitrite, depending on the dilution rate and Na2CO3 concentration. IC limitation resulted in a 2.3-fold increase in cellular maintenance energy requirements compared to those for NH3-limited cultures. Rates of N2O production increased 2.5- and 6.3-fold under the two IC-limited conditions, increasing the percentage of oxidized NH3-N that was transformed to N2O-N from 0.5% (replete) up to 4.4% (0.2 mM Na2CO3). Transcriptome analysis showed differential expression (P ≤ 0.05) of 488 genes (20% of inventory) between replete and IC-limited conditions, but few differences were detected between the two IC-limiting treatments. IC-limited conditions resulted in a decreased expression of ammonium/ammonia transporter and ammonia monooxygenase subunits and increased the expression of genes involved in C1 metabolism, including the genes for RuBisCO (cbb gene cluster), carbonic anhydrase, folate-linked metabolism of C1 moieties, and putative C salvage due to oxygenase activity of RuBisCO. Increased expression of nitrite reductase (gene cluster NE0924 to NE0927) correlated with increased production of N2O. Together, these data suggest that N. europaea adapts physiologically during IC-limited steady-state growth, which leads to the uncoupling of NH3 oxidation from growth and increased N2O production. Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, is an important process in the global nitrogen cycle. This process is generally dependent on ammonia

  4. First limits on the very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission of a fast radio burst. H.E.S.S. observations of FRB 150418

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abdalla, H.; Abramowski, A.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Andersson, T.; Angüner, E. O.; Arakawa, M.; Arrieta, M.; Aubert, P.; Backes, M.; Balzer, A.; Barnard, M.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Berge, D.; Bernhard, S.; Bernlöhr, K.; Blackwell, R.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Bregeon, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bryan, M.; Büchele, M.; Bulik, T.; Capasso, M.; Carr, J.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chakraborty, N.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chen, A.; Chevalier, J.; Chrétien, M.; Coffaro, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Condon, B.; Conrad, J.; Cui, Y.; Davids, I. D.; Decock, J.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Devin, J.; Dewilt, P.; Dirson, L.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Donath, A.; Drury, L. O.'c.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Eschbach, S.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Funk, S.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giavitto, G.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Gottschall, D.; Goyal, A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Hahn, J.; Haupt, M.; Hawkes, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hoischen, C.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Ivascenko, A.; Iwasaki, H.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, D.; Jankowsky, F.; Jingo, M.; Jogler, T.; Jouvin, L.; Jung-Richardt, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katsuragawa, M.; Katz, U.; Kerszberg, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; King, J.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Kraus, M.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lau, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lefranc, V.; Lemière, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Leser, E.; Lohse, T.; Lorentz, M.; Liu, R.; López-Coto, R.; Lypova, I.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Mariaud, C.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Meyer, M.; Mitchell, A. M. W.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Mohrmann, L.; Morå, K.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Nakashima, S.; de Naurois, M.; Niederwanger, F.; Niemiec, J.; Oakes, L.; O'Brien, P.; Odaka, H.; Öttl, S.; Ohm, S.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Padovani, M.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perennes, C.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Piel, Q.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Prokhorov, D.; Prokoph, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Richter, S.; Rieger, F.; Romoli, C.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Saito, S.; Salek, D.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Sasaki, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwemmer, S.; Seglar-Arroyo, M.; Settimo, M.; Seyffert, A. S.; Shafi, N.; Shilon, I.; Simoni, R.; Sol, H.; Spanier, F.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Takahashi, T.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Tavernier, T.; Taylor, A. M.; Terrier, R.; Tibaldo, L.; Tiziani, D.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Tsuji, N.; Tuffs, R.; Uchiyama, Y.; van der Walt, D. J.; van Eldik, C.; van Rensburg, C.; van Soelen, B.; Vasileiadis, G.; Veh, J.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vink, J.; Voisin, F.; Völk, H. J.; Vuillaume, T.; Wadiasingh, Z.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, R. M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Yang, R.; Zabalza, V.; Zaborov, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zanin, R.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zefi, F.; Ziegler, A.; Żywucka, N.; Superb Collaboration; Jankowski, F.; Keane, E. F.; Petroff, E.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Following the detection of the fast radio burst FRB150418 by the SUPERB project at the Parkes radio telescope, we aim to search for very-high energy gamma-ray afterglow emission. Methods: Follow-up observations in the very-high energy gamma-ray domain were obtained with the H.E.S.S. imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope system within 14.5 h of the radio burst. Results: The obtained 1.4 h of gamma-ray observations are presented and discussed. At the 99% C.L. we obtained an integral upper limit on the gamma-ray flux of Φγ(E > 350 GeV) FRB 150418. Conclusions: No hints for high-energy afterglow emission of FRB 150418 were found. Taking absorption on the extragalactic background light into account and assuming a distance of z = 0.492 based on radio and optical counterpart studies and consistent with the FRB dispersion, we constrain the gamma-ray luminosity at 1 TeV to L < 5.1 × 1047 erg/s at 99% C.L.

  5. Limiting absorption principle at low energies for a mathematical model of weak interaction: the decay of a boson; Proprietes spectrales et principe d'absorption limite a faible energie pour un modele mathematique d'interaction faible: la desintegration d'un boson

    Barbarouxa, J.M. [Centre de Physique Theorique, 13 - Marseille (France); Toulon-Var Univ. du Sud, Dept. de Mathematiques, 83 - La Garde (France); Guillot, J.C. [Centre de Mathematiques Appliquees, UMR 7641, Ecole Polytechnique - CNRS, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2009-09-15

    We study the spectral properties of a Hamiltonian describing the weak decay of spin 1 massive bosons into the full family of leptons. We prove that the considered Hamiltonian is self-adjoint, with a unique ground state and we derive a Mourre estimate and a limiting absorption principle above the ground state energy and below the first threshold, for a sufficiently small coupling constant. As a corollary, we prove absence of eigenvalues and absolute continuity of the energy spectrum in the same spectral interval. (authors)

  6. Energy

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Confounded by kinetic energy? Suspect that teaching about simple machines isn t really so simple? Exasperated by electricity? If you fear the study of energy is beyond you, this entertaining book will do more than introduce you to the topic. It will help you actually understand it. At the book s heart are easy-to-grasp explanations of energy basics work, kinetic energy, potential energy, and the transformation of energy and energy as it relates to simple machines, heat energy, temperature, and heat transfer. Irreverent author Bill Robertson suggests activities that bring the basic concepts of energy to life with common household objects. Each chapter ends with a summary and an applications section that uses practical examples such as roller coasters and home heating systems to explain energy transformations and convection cells. The final chapter brings together key concepts in an easy-to-grasp explanation of how electricity is generated. Energy is the second book in the Stop Faking It! series published by NS...

  7. Constraint-Based Modeling Highlights Cell Energy, Redox Status and α-Ketoglutarate Availability as Metabolic Drivers for Anthocyanin Accumulation in Grape Cells Under Nitrogen Limitation

    Eric Soubeyrand

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanin biosynthesis is regulated by environmental factors (such as light, temperature, and water availability and nutrient status (such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate nutrition. Previous reports show that low nitrogen availability strongly enhances anthocyanin accumulation in non carbon-limited plant organs or cell suspensions. It has been hypothesized that high carbon-to-nitrogen ratio would lead to an energy excess in plant cells, and that an increase in flavonoid pathway metabolic fluxes would act as an “energy escape valve,” helping plant cells to cope with energy and carbon excess. However, this hypothesis has never been tested directly. To this end, we used the grapevine Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Gamay Teinturier (syn. Gamay Freaux or Freaux Tintorier, VIVC #4382 cell suspension line as a model system to study the regulation of anthocyanin accumulation in response to nitrogen supply. The cells were sub-cultured in the presence of either control (25 mM or low (5 mM nitrate concentration. Targeted metabolomics and enzyme activity determinations were used to parametrize a constraint-based model describing both the central carbon and nitrogen metabolisms and the flavonoid (phenylpropanoid pathway connected by the energy (ATP and reducing power equivalents (NADPH and NADH cofactors. The flux analysis (2 flux maps generated, for control and low nitrogen in culture medium clearly showed that in low nitrogen-fed cells all the metabolic fluxes of central metabolism were decreased, whereas fluxes that consume energy and reducing power, were either increased (upper part of glycolysis, shikimate, and flavonoid pathway or maintained (pentose phosphate pathway. Also, fluxes of flavanone 3β-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, and anthocyanidin synthase were strongly increased, advocating for a regulation of the flavonoid pathway by alpha-ketoglutarate levels. These results strongly support the hypothesis of anthocyanin biosynthesis acting as

  8. Energy

    Torriti, Jacopo

    2016-01-01

    The impact of energy policy measures has been assessed with various appraisal and evaluation tools since the 1960s. Decision analysis, environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment are all notable examples of progenitors of Regulatory Impact Assessment (RIA) in the assessment of energy policies, programmes and projects. This chapter provides overview of policy tools which have been historically applied to assess the impacts of energy policies, programmes and projects....

  9. Energies

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  10. The concession contractual quantity limit agreements in the light of energy law and cartel law; Konzessionsvertragliche Mengengrenzvereinbarungen im Lichte von Energierecht und Kartellrecht

    Hoech, Thomas; Kalwa, Feh [Kanzlei Hoech und Partner, Dortmund (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    In the year 2009, the Federal Cartel Office (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) reached to two decisions on the cartel legal validity of quantity limit agreements in franchise agreements and on their handling with the survey and calculation of concession deliveries. In both cases, the Federal Cartel Office proceeds from an offence against paragraph 19 sect. 1 GWB (law against the restriction of competition) and paragraph 19 sect. 2 GWB. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution under consideration report on different legal questions. The question arises whether paragraph 19 GWB is applicable to the decided facts at all, or whether the exclusion regulation paragraph 111 sect. 1 of the Energy Economy Law (EnWG) intervenes. The authors describe the right of concession delivery and the two resolutions of the Federal Cartel Office. Afterwards, these resolutions are appreciated regarding to the raised legal questions.

  11. Inclusive distributions of diffractively produced neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas, and upper limits on Λ/sub c/+ production in high energy γ p interactions

    Bhadra, S.

    1985-01-01

    The author has used a large acceptance spectrometer in a tagged photon beam to study the interactions of real photons with protons in a hydrogen target. In particular, this thesis presents distributions of neutral kaons, lambdas, and antilambdas from diffractive dissociation where the kinematic regions of the target and projectile fragments are clearly distinguished by using events with clean recoiling protons. This data extends the neutral strange particle production rate measurements to higher overall centre-of-mass energies than previous photoproduction experiments. Comparison to pion-induced reactions supports the hypothesis that the photon behaves primarily as a hardon. Finally, upper limits have been set on the Λ/sub c/ + cross section times the branching ratio for decay modes leading to neutral strange particles for a diffractive dissociation process

  12. Two-neutron “halo” from the low-energy limit of neutron–neutron interaction: Applications to drip-line nuclei 22C and 24O

    Toshio Suzuki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The formation of two-neutron “halo”, a low-density far-extended surface of weakly-bound two neutrons, is described using the neutron–neutron (nn interaction fixed at the low-energy nn scattering limit. This method is tested for loosely-bound two neutrons in 24O, where a good agreement with experimental data is found. It is applied to halo neutrons in 22C in two ways: with the 20C core being closed or correlated (due to excitations from the closed core. This nn interaction is shown to be strong enough to produce a two-neutron halo in both cases, locating 22C on the drip line, while 21C remains unbound. A unique relation between the two neutron separation energy, S2n, and the radius of neutron halo is presented. New predictions for S2n and the radius of neutron halo are given for 22C. The appearance of Efimov states is also discussed.

  13. Evaluation of the combination of radio frequency, infrared energy and mechanical rollers with suction to improve skin surface irregularities (cellulite) in a limited treatment area.

    Kulick, Michael

    2006-12-01

    This IRB-approved (Institutional Review Board) study evaluated the efficacy of a device that combines radio frequency, infrared energy and mechanical rollers/suction (ELOS technology) to reduce skin surface irregularities in a limited treatment zone. Sixteen patients were enrolled and received two treatments per week for 4 consecutive weeks. Treatments were limited to a 20.53 cm x 33.02 cm area of the posterior or lateral thigh and lasted for 15 minutes. Maximum machine settings were used for all but one individual at every treatment. Evaluations consisted of a patient questionnaire and photographic assessment of skin contour by three physicians at 3 and 6 months after the last session who were blind to the treatment each patient received. Physician evaluators determined that all patients were improved at both post-treatment periods. The average improvement at 3 and 6 months was 62% and 50%, respectively. All patients felt they were improved. One patient described the treatment as painful and required reduced treatment parameters after the initial treatment. Bruising within the treatment area was observed in five patients following the initial sessions but this did not alter the treatment protocol and did not occur in subsequent treatments. One patient had a superficial skin burn due to poor electrode contact that did not require corrective treatment.

  14. SU-F-207-07: Dual-Energy Computed Tomography Detection Limit of Various Radiopaque Contrast Agents That Can Be Infused Within Absorbable Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    Melancon, A; Jacobsen, M; Salatan, F; Jones, A; Cody, D; Nute, J; Melancon, M [U.T.M.D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Absorbable IVC filters are shown to be safe and efficacious in preventing pulmonary embolism. These absorbable filters disappear from the body after their required duration, alleviating costly removal procedures and downstream complications. Monitoring the positioning and integrity of absorbable devices using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) would improve treatment efficacy. The purpose of this study is to determine the limit of detection and the energy dependence of DECT for various contrast agents that may be infused within the IVC filters including gold nanoparticles (AuNP) having diameters of 2 and 4 nm. Methods: All imaging studies were performed on a GE Discovery CT750 system in Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI) mode. Plastic vials containing the contrast agent solutions of water and blood were placed in a water bath, and images were acquired with the GSI-5 preset. The images were reformatted into the coronal plane and 5mm diameter ROIs were placed within each solution on a GE Advantage Workstation. Monoenergetic reconstructions were generated from 40 – 140 keV. Results: Mass attenuation (contrast per unit density) for AuNPs was greater than iron, but less than barium and iodine. Contrast was 10.2 (± 3.6) HU for 4 nm AuNP at 0.72 mg/ml and 12.1 (± 4.2) for 2 nm AuNP at 0.31 mg/ml at 70 keV suggesting reasonable chance of visualization at these concentrations for 70 keV reconstruction. The contrast as a function of CT energy is similar in both water and blood. Iodine is most dependent, followed closely by barium and iron, and trailed by a large margin by the AuNP. This was unexpected given Au’s large atomic number and the predominance of photoelectric effect at low energy. Conclusion: Infusion of IVC filters with AuNP is feasible. Discrimination of AuNP-infused IVC filters from surrounding anatomy warrants further investigation.

  15. Bandwidth based methodology for designing a hybrid energy storage system for a series hybrid electric vehicle with limited all electric mode

    Shahverdi, Masood

    The cost and fuel economy of hybrid electrical vehicles (HEVs) are significantly dependent on the power-train energy storage system (ESS). A series HEV with a minimal all-electric mode (AEM) permits minimizing the size and cost of the ESS. This manuscript, pursuing the minimal size tactic, introduces a bandwidth based methodology for designing an efficient ESS. First, for a mid-size reference vehicle, a parametric study is carried out over various minimal-size ESSs, both hybrid (HESS) and non-hybrid (ESS), for finding the highest fuel economy. The results show that a specific type of high power battery with 4.5 kWh capacity can be selected as the winning candidate to study for further minimization. In a second study, following the twin goals of maximizing Fuel Economy (FE) and improving consumer acceptance, a sports car class Series-HEV (SHEV) was considered as a potential application which requires even more ESS minimization. The challenge with this vehicle is to reduce the ESS size compared to 4.5 kWh, because the available space allocation is only one fourth of the allowed battery size in the mid-size study by volume. Therefore, an advanced bandwidth-based controller is developed that allows a hybridized Subaru BRZ model to be realized with a light ESS. The result allows a SHEV to be realized with 1.13 kWh ESS capacity. In a third study, the objective is to find optimum SHEV designs with minimal AEM assumption which cover the design space between the fuel economies in the mid-size car study and the sports car study. Maximizing FE while minimizing ESS cost is more aligned with customer acceptance in the current state of market. The techniques applied to manage the power flow between energy sources of the power-train significantly affect the results of this optimization. A Pareto Frontier, including ESS cost and FE, for a SHEV with limited AEM, is introduced using an advanced bandwidth-based control strategy teamed up with duty ratio control. This controller

  16. Large spin limit of AdS5xS5 string theory and low energy expansion of ferromagnetic spin chains

    Kruczenski, M.; Ryzhov, A.V.; Tseytlin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    By considering AdS 5 xS 5 string states with large S 5 angular momenta one can provide non-trivial quantitative checks of the AdS/CFT duality. A string rotating in S 5 with two angular momenta J 1 , J 2 is dual to an operator in N=4 SYM theory whose conformal dimension can be computed by diagonalizing a (generalization of) spin 1/2 Heisenberg chain Hamiltonian. It was recently argued and verified to lowest order in a large J=J 1 +J 2 expansion, that the Heisenberg chain can be described using a non-relativistic low energy effective 2d action for a unit vector field n i which exactly matches the corresponding large J limit of the classical AdS 5 xS 5 string action. In this paper we show that this agreement extends to the next order and develop a systematic procedure for computing higher orders in such large angular momentum expansion. This involves several non-trivial steps. On the string side, we need to choose a special gauge with a non-diagonal world-sheet metric which insures that the angular momentum is uniformly distributed along the string, as indeed is the case on the spin chain side. We need also to implement an order by order redefinition of the field n i to get an action linear in the time derivative. On the spin chain side, it turns out to be crucial to include the effects of integrating out short wave-length modes. In this way we gain a better understanding of how (a subsector of) the string sigma model emerges from the dual gauge theory, allowing us to demonstrate the duality beyond comparing particular examples of states with large J

  17. Current limiters

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  18. Proposal of law which aims at limiting the energy loads in collective buildings for accommodation purpose; Proposition de loi visant a limiter les charges energetiques dans les immeubles collectifs a usage d'habitation

    Cochet, Y.; Billard, M.; Mamere, N.

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this proposal of law is to limit to 40% maximum the share of electricity in the production of heat and hot water in new collective residential buildings. Electric heating is the less expensive solution in terms of investment but certainly the most expensive solution on the long term use for the budget of households. (J.S.)

  19. Quench limits

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  20. Environmental implications of carbon limits on market penetration of combined heat and power with the U.S. energy sector (Slides)

    Combined heat and power (CHP) is promoted as an economical, energy-efficient option for combating climate change. To fully examine the viability of CHP as a clean-technology solution, its market potential and impacts need to be analyzed as part of scenarios of the future energy s...

  1. Dose limits

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  2. Mitigating greenhouse: Limited time, limited options

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Most human-caused climate change comes from fossil fuel combustion emissions. To avoid the risk of serious climate change, very recent research suggests that emission reductions will need to be both large and rapidly implemented. We argue that technical solutions-improving energy efficiency, use of renewable and nuclear energy, and carbon capture and sequestration-can only be of minor importance, mainly given the limited time available to take effective climate action. Only curbing energy use, perhaps through 'social efficiency' gains, particularly in the high-energy consumption countries, can provide the rapid emissions reductions needed. The social efficiency approach requires a basic rethinking in how we can satisfy our human needs with low environmental impacts. Large cuts in emissions could then occur rapidly, but only if resistance to such changes can be overcome. Particularly in transport, there are also serious potential conflicts between the technical and the social efficiency approaches, requiring a choice to be made

  3. Limits on fundamental limits to computation.

    Markov, Igor L

    2014-08-14

    An indispensable part of our personal and working lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Steady improvements in computer hardware have been supported by periodic doubling of transistor densities in integrated circuits over the past fifty years. Such Moore scaling now requires ever-increasing efforts, stimulating research in alternative hardware and stirring controversy. To help evaluate emerging technologies and increase our understanding of integrated-circuit scaling, here I review fundamental limits to computation in the areas of manufacturing, energy, physical space, design and verification effort, and algorithms. To outline what is achievable in principle and in practice, I recapitulate how some limits were circumvented, and compare loose and tight limits. Engineering difficulties encountered by emerging technologies may indicate yet unknown limits.

  4. Speed limits in The Netherlands : a detailed consideration of the situation inside and outside built-up areas. Contribution to the International OECD symposium "The Effects of Speed Limits on Traffic Accidents and Transport Energy Use", Dublin, 6-8 October, 1981.

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a contribution to the international OECD symposium "the effect of speed limits on traffic accidents and transport energy use", held in Dublin on 6-8 October 1981. Outlined are the problems of actual speeds, how speed is influenced, speed restrictions etc. in the Netherlands. In

  5. On the Remarkable Features of the Lower Limits of Charge and the Radiated Energy of Antennas as Predicted by Classical Electrodynamics

    Vernon Cooray

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic energy radiated by antennas working in both the frequency domain and time domain is studied as a function of the charge associated with the current in the antenna. The frequency domain results, obtained under the assumption of sinusoidal current distribution, show that, for a given charge, the energy radiated within a period of oscillation increases initially with L/λ and then starts to oscillate around a steady value when L/λ > 1. The results show that for the energy radiated by the antenna to be equal to or larger than the energy of one photon, the oscillating charge in the antenna has to be equal to or larger than the electronic charge. That is, U ≥ hν or UT ≥ h ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the energy dissipated over a period, ν is the frequency of oscillation, T is the period, h is Planck’s constant, q is the rms value of the oscillating charge, and e is the electronic charge. In the case of antennas working in the time domain, it is observed that UΔt ≥ h/4π ⇒ q ≥ e, where U is the total energy radiated, Δt is the time over which the energy is radiated, and q is the charge transported by the current. It is shown that one can recover the time–energy uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics from this time domain result. The results presented in this paper show that when quantum mechanical constraints are applied to the electromagnetic energy radiated by a finite antenna as estimated using the equations of classical electrodynamics, the electronic charge emerges as the smallest unit of free charge in nature.

  6. Inverse Limits

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  7. Development of a dynamic energy budget modeling approach to investigate the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus.

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we are developing growth and bioaccumulation studies that contrib...

  8. Development of a dynamic energy budget modeling approach to investigate the effects of temperature and resource limitation on mercury bioaccumulation in Fundulus heteroclitus-presentation

    Dynamic energy budget (DEB) theory provides a generalizable and broadly applicable framework to connect sublethal toxic effects on individuals to changes in population survival and growth. To explore this approach, we are conducting growth and bioaccumulation studies that contrib...

  9. Spectroscopic constants and the potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 0+g state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    Akopyan, M E; Baturo, V V; Lukashov, S S; Poretsky, S A; Pravilov, A M

    2013-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-colour aser excitation scheme and rotational as well as rovibrational energy transfer processes in the 0 + g state induced by collisions with He and Ar atoms are used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound 0 + g state correlating with the I( 2 P 1/2 ) + I( 2 P 1/2 ) dissociation limit. Dunham coefficients of the state, Y i0 (i = 0–3), Y i1 (i = 0–3) and Y 02 for the v 0 g + = 0–16 and J 0 g + ≈ 14–135 ranges as well as the dissociation energy of the state, D e , and equilibrium I–I distance of the state, R e , are determined. The potential energy curve of the state constructed using these constants is also reported. (paper)

  10. Density limits in Tokamaks

    Tendler, M.

    1984-06-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  11. Electrical limitations to energy resolution in semiconductor particle detectors; Limitations electriques du pouvoir de resolution en energie des detecteurs a semi-conducteurs; Ehlektricheskie ogranicheniya razreshayushchej sposobnosti po ehnergii v poluprovodnikovykh detektorakh chastits; Limitaciones electricas en la resolucion energetica de detectores de particulas a base de semiconductores

    Hansen, W L; Goulding, F S [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    Based on the assumption that the noise contribution of a semiconductor detector is due solely to its bulk properties, equations are presented which indicate the theoretical limits of noise in detectoramplifier combinations. These equations show that an optimum amplifier time-constant and detector bias voltage exist for which condition the minimum noise is independent of the semiconductor resistivity. The optimum performance of a detector-amplifier system is shown to depend only upon detector area, input capacity (less detector capacity), semiconductor minority carrier lifetime and the transconductance of the amplifier input tube. A new detector structure which includes a guard-ring electrode as an integral part of the detector structure is described which has the effect of largely eliminating noise due to surface leakage. Experimental results for detector leakage and energy resolution which agree well with theory are presented. The theoretical limit of noise, expressed as full width at half maximum, is from 7 to 10 keV for 1-cm{sup 2} p-type silicon detectors at 25{sup o}C. (author) [French] Partant de l'hypothese que le bruit imputable au detecteur a semi-conducteur est du exclusivement aux proprietes fondamentales du semi-conducteur, les auteurs etablissent des equations donnant les limites theoriques du bruit dans les combinaisons detecteur-amplificateur. Ces equations montrent qu'il existe une constante de temps optimum de l'amplificateur et une tension de polarisation du detecteur, pour lesquelles le bruit minimum est independant de la resistivite du semi-conducteur. Les auteurs prouvent que l'optimum de fonctionnement d'un ensemble detecteur-amplificateur ne depend que de la surface du detecteur, de la capacite a l'entree (deduction faite de la capacite du detecteur), du porteur minoritaire du semi-conducteur, de la duree de vie et de la transconductance du tube d'entree de l'amplificateur. Ils decrivent un modele nouveau de detecteur qui comprend une

  12. Exploitation of the Phebus inquiry. Better qualifying fuel poverty situations: coldness, heating restrictions, payment difficulties of energy bills, constrained limited mobility

    Ambrosio, Giulia; Belaid, Fateh; Bair, Sabrine; Teissier, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    The object of the research consists in estimating situations of fuel poverty from the statistical analysis of Phebus database 2012. The analysis of thermal characteristics of housing crossed with the uses by cutting down of heating, restriction of mobility and difficulties of payment of energy bills will allow us to anticipate better the phenomenon and to bring adapted answers

  13. Investigation of Truck Size and Weight Limits - Technical Supplement. Vol. 7. Carrier, Market and Regional Cost and Energy Tradeoffs (pt. 1)

    1982-01-01

    This study applied a systematic investigation of the range of benefits and costs to the U.S. economy and society as a whole, as well as to individual interest groups, resulting from a set of alternative changes to current Federal limits on truck size...

  14. Tokamak pump limiters

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  15. Tokamak pump limiters

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  16. The limits of application of variable-energy slow positron beams for investigating TiN hard coatings prepared by PVD

    Marek, T.; Suevegh, K.; Vertes, A.; Szeles, Cs.; Lynn, K.G.

    2000-01-01

    Samples of TiN hard coatings prepared by physical vapour deposition (PVD) were investigated by means of depth-sensitive positron annihilation spectroscopy. The results indicate that the samples are at the limits of the applicability of this method presumably due to the high defect concentration. Though the samples are thoroughly characterized by other independent methods, they might not be sufficient to explain all aspects of positron-solid interactions in these cases. (author)

  17. Energy sustainability through green energy

    Sharma, Atul

    2015-01-01

    This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development

  18. Range and limits of application of Sec.12, Atomic Energy Act, as a legal basis of the nuclear plant safety ordinance

    Schmidt-Preuss, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Ensuring plant safety is a key purpose of nuclear law. Sec.7 II No.3, Atomic Energy Act, is considered the basic norm of nuclear legislation. The main requirement this embodies is ensuring 'the provisions against damage arising from construction and operation of a plant as required in accordance with the state of the art'. These normative requirements constitute the strictest yardstick existing in legislation about technology. Putting it into effect has always been the purpose of the set of nuclear rules and regulations constituting the next lower level of legislation, which so far have developed by evolution and are now to be updated comprehensively in the format of so-called modules as provided for in the concept of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, and Nuclear Safety (BMU). So far, there has not been a nuclear plant safety ordinance. The Atomic Energy Act has always provided a basis for adopting such an ordinance, especially so in Sec.12 I 1 No.1, Atomic Energy Act. No federal government has so far wanted to make use of it. This makes it all the more remarkable that the BMU took up the subject of a nuclear plant safety ordinance as early as in 2006, starting a dialog with the federal states. This dialog meanwhile has come to a halt. The subject seems to be dormant right now, but certainly has not been shelved. Ensuring plant safety is a key purpose of nuclear law. Sec.7 II No.3, Atomic Energy Act, is considered the basic norm of nuclear legislation. The main requirement this embodies is ensuring 'the provisions against damage arising from construction and operation of a plant as required in accordance with the state of the art'. These normative requirements constitute the strictest yardstick existing in legislation about technology. Putting it into effect has always been the purpose of the set of nuclear rules and regulations constituting the next lower level of legislation, which so far have developed by evolution and are now to be

  19. The safety of Ontario's nuclear power reactors. A scientific and technical review. A submission to the Ontario Nuclear Safety Review by Atomic Energy Canada Limited

    1987-01-01

    This submission comments on the evolution of the Canadian nuclear program, the management of safety, and the reactor design, analysis, operation and research programs that contribute to the safety of the CANDU reactor and provide assurance of safety to the regulatory agency and to the public. The CANDU reactor system has been designed and developed with close cooperation between Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), utilities, manufacturers, and the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB). The AECB has the responsibility, on behalf of the public, for establishing acceptable standards with respect to public risk and for establishing through independent review that these standards are satisfied. The plant designer has responsibility for defining how those standards will be met. The plant operator has responsibility for operating within the framework of those standards. The Canadian approach to safety design is based on the philosophy of defence in depth. Defence in depth is achieved through a high level of equipment quality, system redundancy and fail-safe design; regulating and process systems designed to maintain all process systems within acceptable operating parameters; and, independent safety systems to shut down the reactor, provide long-term cooling, and contain potential release of radioactivity in the event of an accident. The resulting design meets regulatory requirements not only in Canada but also in other countries. Probabilistic safety and risk evaluations show that the CANDU design offers a level of safety and least as good as other commercially available reactor designs

  20. Research on the mobile strategy of micro air vehicles with limited energy%能量受限的微型无人机移动策略研究

    徐马蒙; 刘航; 夏宁

    2016-01-01

    针对无线中继网络场景中微型无人机能量优化的目的,提出一种基于传输速率梯度变化最大的移动策略。通过理论仿真,并且和传统的直线移动策略进行对比,对比结果表明:依据所提出的移动策略,微型无人机转发的数据量提高6%,单位数据量消耗的能量降低8%,从而提升了无人机执行任务的效率。%Aiming at the problem of energy optimization for micro air vehicles in relay networks, a mobile strategy based on maximum gradient change of transmission rate is presented. Through theoretical simulation and comparison with the conventional strategy of linear movement, the results of simulation show that based on the proposed mobile strategy, the data size forwarded by UAV is increased by 6%and the consuming energy per unit data size is reduced by 8%.,so as to improve the efficiency of the implementation of the task.

  1. Debate on an energy consensus without a forum? On the limitations of journalism in bringing about a consensus; Energiekonsensdebatte ohne Forum? Zu den publizistischen Grenzen der Konsensbildung

    Kocks, K.

    1995-12-31

    Encouragingly, unanimity is regularly seen to prevail at least on the notion that a consensus among the major political and social groups on our future energy policy is at all desirable, if not even necessary. The focus here is on the world of the media as the stage for the evolving debate. For the publicist things only start getting interesting at the transition between the stage of agreement among the leading economists and politicians and the ensuing formation of public opinion. Where does the discourse leading to a consensus within the political class (in the best and most inclusive sense of the term) and, ultimately, reaching the whole of our pluralistic society take place, and what is it actually about? While the financial columns of some dailies have remained splendid islands of classical journalism, the media world is changing so dramatically that it will inevitably lead to a radically different mode of opinion formation from that guided by reflected national policy. Pressed to bring about a consensus, the energy economy now sees the publicistic forum it needs for this purpose melting away. (orig./UA) [Deutsch] Dass ein Konsens der wesentlichen politischen und gesellschaftlichen Gruppen ueber die kuenftige Energiepolitik wuenschenswert, vielleicht sogar notwendig ist, darueber zumindest herrscht immer wieder Einigkeit. Es geht hier um die Medienwelt, in der sich die Debatte entfalten soll. Aus der Sicht der Publizisten stellt sich das Problem erst am Uebergang zwischen der Einigung von wirtschaftlichen und politischen Entscheidungstraegern einerseits und der dann einzunehmenden oeffentlichen Meinung andererseits. Wo und worueber findet innerhalb der politischen Klasse (im besten und weitesten Sinne des Wortes) und dann mit der Vielfalt unserer Gesellschaft der konsensbildende Diskurs statt? Waehrend die Wirtschaftsteile einiger Tageszeitungen noch Inseln klassischer Publizistik sind, wandelt sich die Medienwelt so dramatisch, dass sie radikal andere Gestade

  2. Casimir force, excess free energy and C-function in O(n) systems with long-range interactions in the n → ∞ limit

    Chamati, H.; Dantchev, D.M.

    2004-06-01

    We present exact results on the behavior of the thermodynamic Casimir force and the excess free energy and the C-function in the framework of the d-dimensional spherical model with a power law long-range interaction decaying at large distances r as r -d- σ, where σ c , as well as for T > Tc and T c . The universal finite-size scaling function governing the behavior of the force in the critical region is derived and its asymptotics are investigated. While in the critical and under -d -d-, critical region the force is of the order of L -d , for T > T c it decays as L -dσ , where L is the thickness of the film. We consider both the case of a finite system that has no phase transition of its own, when d - σ when one observes a dimensional crossover from d to a d - 1 dimensional critical behavior. The behavior of the force along the phase coexistence line for a magnetic field H = 0 and T c . is also derived. We have proven analytically that the excess free energy is always negative ad monotonically increasing function of T and H, while the C-function is always non-negative and monotonically decreasing function of T and H. For the Casimir force we have demonstrated that for any σ > it is everywhere negative, i.e. an attraction between the surfaces bounding the system is to be observed. At T = T c the force is an increasing function of T for σ > 1 and a decreasing one for σ c is always achieved at some H ≠ 0 . (author)

  3. Energies; Energies

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In the framework of the National Debate on the energies in a context of a sustainable development some associations for the environment organized a debate on the nuclear interest facing the renewable energies. The first part presents the nuclear energy as a possible solution to fight against the greenhouse effect and the associated problem of the wastes management. The second part gives information on the solar energy and the possibilities of heat and electric power production. A presentation of the FEE (French wind power association) on the situation and the development of the wind power in France, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  4. Limit, breakthrough and prosperity

    Takahashi, Minoru

    1973-01-01

    It is pointed out that the flow toward serious crises is in progress with regard to energy and industrial problems. Technical and industrial preparation and countermeasure to the flow are proposed, and the existence of a certain new world attainable on the assumption that the countermeasure is successful is described. The relation between oil output and the increasing demand for energy is pointed out as a subject matter of the crisis. The contribution of oil energy to total energy, after the output turns to decreasing process, decreases by 177.87x10 6 tons (converted to coal at the rate 6848 kcal/kg) per year at maximum. Converted to the GNP of the world, this becomes (425 dollar/ton x 177.87 x 10 6 ton=75.6 x 10 9 dollar). This fluctuation width in a year must be compensated by the change of industrial structure and energy supplying means. The countermeasure and preparation are proposed from the viewpoints of the energy and the industrial structure in which nuclear power generation plays important role. The largest production on the earth limited by energy consumption and the temperature balance on the earth is investigated, and the perspective in the future is given. (Yamamoto, Y.)

  5. H.E.S.S. Limits on Linelike Dark Matter Signatures in the 100 GeV to 2 TeV Energy Range Close to the Galactic Center.

    Abdalla, H; Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Ait Benkhali, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Andersson, T; Angüner, E O; Arrieta, M; Aubert, P; Backes, M; Balzer, A; Barnard, M; Becherini, Y; Becker Tjus, J; Berge, D; Bernhard, S; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Blackwell, R; Böttcher, M; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Bregeon, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bryan, M; Bulik, T; Capasso, M; Carr, J; Casanova, S; Chakraborty, N; Chalme-Calvet, R; Chaves, R C G; Chen, A; Chevalier, J; Chrétien, M; Colafrancesco, S; Cologna, G; Condon, B; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Cui, Y; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Devin, J; deWilt, P; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Donath, A; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Edwards, T; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Ernenwein, J-P; Eschbach, S; Farnier, C; Fegan, S; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Funk, S; Füßling, M; Gabici, S; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Giavitto, G; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Gottschall, D; Goyal, A; Grondin, M-H; Grudzińska, M; Hadasch, D; Hahn, J; Hawkes, J; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hervet, O; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hoischen, C; Holler, M; Horns, D; Ivascenko, A; Jacholkowska, A; Jamrozy, M; Janiak, M; Jankowsky, D; Jankowsky, F; Jingo, M; Jogler, T; Jouvin, L; Jung-Richardt, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kerszberg, D; Khélifi, B; Kieffer, M; King, J; Klepser, S; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kolitzus, D; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Krakau, S; Kraus, M; Krayzel, F; Krüger, P P; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lau, J; Lees, J-P; Lefaucheur, J; Lefranc, V; Lemière, A; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lenain, J-P; Leser, E; Liu, R; Lohse, T; Lorentz, M; Lypova, I; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Mariaud, C; Marx, R; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; Meintjes, P J; Meyer, M; Mitchell, A M W; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Morå, K; Moulin, E; Murach, T; de Naurois, M; Niederwanger, F; Niemiec, J; Oakes, L; O'Brien, P; Odaka, H; Ohm, S; Ostrowski, M; Öttl, S; Oya, I; Padovani, M; Panter, M; Parsons, R D; Paz Arribas, M; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perennes, C; Petrucci, P-O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Poon, H; Prokhorov, D; Prokoph, H; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raab, S; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; de Los Reyes, R; Rieger, F; Romoli, C; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Salek, D; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Sasaki, M; Schlickeiser, R; Schüssler, F; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwemmer, S; Settimo, M; Seyffert, A S; Shafi, N; Shilon, I; Simoni, R; Sol, H; Spanier, F; Spengler, G; Spies, F; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Tavernet, J-P; Tavernier, T; Taylor, A M; Terrier, R; Tibaldo, L; Tluczykont, M; Trichard, C; Tuffs, R; van der Walt, J; van Eldik, C; van Soelen, B; Vasileiadis, G; Veh, J; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Vink, J; Voisin, F; Völk, H J; Vuillaume, T; Wadiasingh, Z; Wagner, S J; Wagner, P; Wagner, R M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Willmann, P; Wörnlein, A; Wouters, D; Yang, R; Zabalza, V; Zaborov, D; Zacharias, M; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zefi, F; Ziegler, A; Żywucka, N

    2016-10-07

    A search for dark matter linelike signals iss performed in the vicinity of the Galactic Center by the H.E.S.S. experiment on observational data taken in 2014. An unbinned likelihood analysis iss developed to improve the sensitivity to linelike signals. The upgraded analysis along with newer data extend the energy coverage of the previous measurement down to 100 GeV. The 18 h of data collected with the H.E.S.S. array allow one to rule out at 95% C.L. the presence of a 130 GeV line (at l=-1.5°, b=0° and for a dark matter profile centered at this location) previously reported in Fermi-LAT data. This new analysis overlaps significantly in energy with previous Fermi-LAT and H.E.S.S. No significant excess associated with dark matter annihilations was found in the energy range of 100 GeV to 2 TeV and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux and the velocity weighted annihilation cross section are derived adopting an Einasto dark matter halo profile. Expected limits for present and future large statistics H.E.S.S. observations are also given.

  6. Fundamental energy limits of SET-based Brownian NAND and half-adder circuits. Preliminary findings from a physical-information-theoretic methodology

    Ercan, İlke; Suyabatmaz, Enes

    2018-06-01

    The saturation in the efficiency and performance scaling of conventional electronic technologies brings about the development of novel computational paradigms. Brownian circuits are among the promising alternatives that can exploit fluctuations to increase the efficiency of information processing in nanocomputing. A Brownian cellular automaton, where signals propagate randomly and are driven by local transition rules, can be made computationally universal by embedding arbitrary asynchronous circuits on it. One of the potential realizations of such circuits is via single electron tunneling (SET) devices since SET technology enable simulation of noise and fluctuations in a fashion similar to Brownian search. In this paper, we perform a physical-information-theoretic analysis on the efficiency limitations in a Brownian NAND and half-adder circuits implemented using SET technology. The method we employed here establishes a solid ground that enables studying computational and physical features of this emerging technology on an equal footing, and yield fundamental lower bounds that provide valuable insights into how far its efficiency can be improved in principle. In order to provide a basis for comparison, we also analyze a NAND gate and half-adder circuit implemented in complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology to show how the fundamental bound of the Brownian circuit compares against a conventional paradigm.

  7. What energies?

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Energy consumption has developed significantly since the Second World War and population growth and improved living standards should see needs increasing even more. Traditional forecasts show that this energy consumption will continue to depend heavily on fossil energy. However, resources are limited and their use have a negative impact on the greenhouse effect and climate change. There is therefore a need to develop large quantities of renewable energy sources, to intensify energy saving programs and to pursue research in certain key areas

  8. Limits of Nuclear Stability

    Nerlo-Pomorska, B; Kleban, M

    2003-01-01

    The modern version of the liquid-drop model (LSD) is compared with the macroscopic part of the binding energy evaluated within the Hartree-Fock- Bogoliubov procedure with the Gogny force and the relativistic mean field theory. The parameters of a liquid-drop like mass formula which approximate on the average the self-consistent results are compared with other models. The limits of nuclear stability predicted by these models are discussed.

  9. Energies; Energies

    Cotard, E.

    2002-02-01

    A review is made about the consequences of the European directive on energy that entered into application in august 2000. It appears that most countries are opening their electricity and gas markets at a faster pace than required by the E.U. directive. European gas imports reached 480 Gm{sup 3} in 2000 and are expected to be over 700 Gm{sup 3} in 2015, so the question of the reliability of the gas suppliers has to be answered at the European level. The current time is marked by an increase of the complexity of the energy market that is due to different factors: 1) the delay in the implementation of European energy directives in France, 2) new arrangement is occurring in United-Kingdom in the energy sector, 3) the lack of a regulating authority in Germany, and 4) the difficulty of inter-connecting the different European energy networks. This transitory period may generate some economic imbalances and competition disturbances by allowing some enterprises to benefit from lower energy prices before others. (A.C.)

  10. Energy storage

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  11. Reasons for decision in the matter of Coral Energy Canada Inc. : application for approval of modifications to the Firm Transportation Risk Alleviation Mechanism (FT-RAM) pilot for the TransCanada PipeLines Limited Mainline

    2006-01-01

    Coral Energy Canada Inc. (Coral) is one of the largest wholesale energy marketers and traders in North America whose customers include utilities, gas distribution companies, municipalities, rural electrical cooperatives, independent power producers, industrial customers and commercial customers. As such, it is one of the largest shippers on the TransCanada Mainline Natural Gas Transmission System operated by TransCanada PipeLines Limited. As part of its 2001 and 2002 tolls and tariff applications, TransCanada proposed a new service enhancement called the Firm Transportation (FT) Make-up credits, which has proven to be flawed. A modified service enhancement known as the Firm Transportation Risk Alleviation Mechanism (FT-RAM) was subsequently proposed so that credits could be applied against a shipper's monthly interruptible transportation (IT) service account, based on any unused demand charges from the shippers FT contracts. In order to promote long haul service, the credits are only given for long-haul contracts, primarily for points originating in Alberta and Saskatchewan. On September 30, 2005, Coral applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board for approval of modifications to the (FT-RAM) pilot to be effective on November 1, 2005. Coral proposed that the existing pilot be expanded to include short-haul FT contracts in limited circumstances where the same shipper holds a long-haul contract that delivers to the same location as the receipt point of the short-haul FT contract. The Board sought views from interested party of the appropriate process and associated timelines that should be used to deal with the application. Certain parties suggested that it would be inappropriate for the Board to approve any modifications to the existing FT-RAM pilot until the terms and conditions underlying certain Toll Task Force Resolutions were fulfilled. This document presented the positions of the interested parties, Coral's response to the positions of parties, views of

  12. Energy accountancy

    Boer, G.A. de.

    1981-01-01

    G.A. de Boer reacts to recently published criticism of his contribution to a report entitled 'Commentaar op het boek 'Tussen Kernenergie en Kolen. Een Analyse' van ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen' (Commentary on the book 'Nuclear Energy versus Coal. An Analysis by ir. J.W. Storm van Leeuwen), published by the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs. The contribution (Appendix B) deals with energy analyses. He justifies his arguments for using energy accountancy for assessing different methods of producing electricity, and explains that it is simply an alternative to purely economic methods. The energy conversion yield (ratio of energy produced to energy required) is tabulated for different sources. De Boer emphasises that his article purposely discusses among other things, definitions, forms of energy, the limits of the systems, the conversion of money into energy and the definition of the energy yield at length, in order to prevent misunderstandings. (C.F.)

  13. Possible limits of plasma linear colliders

    Zimmermann, F.

    2017-07-01

    Plasma linear colliders have been proposed as next or next-next generation energy-frontier machines for high-energy physics. I investigate possible fundamental limits on energy and luminosity of such type of colliders, considering acceleration, multiple scattering off plasma ions, intrabeam scattering, bremsstrahlung, and betatron radiation. The question of energy efficiency is also addressed.

  14. Limits to biofuels

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  15. Limits to biofuels

    Johansson, S.

    2013-06-01

    Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays' use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years' agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2-6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass) in the more optimistic cases.

  16. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  17. Applied Energy Program

    Science Programs Applied Energy Programs Civilian Nuclear Energy Programs Laboratory Directed Research » Applied Energy Program Applied Energy Program Los Alamos is using its world-class scientific capabilities to enhance national energy security by developing energy sources with limited environmental impact

  18. Nuclear Structure at the Limits

    Nazarewicz, W.

    1998-01-01

    One of the frontiers of todays nuclear science is the journey to the limits of atomic charge and nuclear mass, of neutron-to-proton ratio, and of angular momentum. The tour to the limits is not only a quest for new, exciting phenomena, but the new data are expected, as well, to bring qualitatively new information about the fundamental properties of the nucleonic many-body system, the nature of the nuclear interaction, and nucleonic correlations at various energy-distance scales. In this series of lectures, current developments in nuclear structure at the limits are discussed from a theoretical perspective, mainly concentrating on medium-mass and heavy nuclei

  19. LANSCE Beam Current Limiter (XL)

    Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is an engineered safety system that provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated proton beams. The Beam Current Limiter (XL), as an active component of the RSS, limits the maximum average current in a beamline, thus the current available for a beam spill accident. Exceeding the pre-set limit initiates action by the RSS to mitigate the hazard (insertion of beam stoppers in the low energy beam transport). The beam limiter is an electrically isolated, toroidal transformer and associated electronics. The device was designed to continuously monitor beamline currents independent of any external timing. Fail-safe operation was a prime consideration in its development. Fail-safe operation is defined as functioning as intended (due to redundant circuitry), functioning with a more sensitive fault threshold, or generating a fault condition. This report describes the design philosophy, hardware, implementation, operation, and limitations of the device

  20. Partnerships – Limited partnerships and limited liability limited partnerships

    Henning, Johan J.

    2000-01-01

    Consideration of the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000 which introduced a new corporate entity, carrying the designations “partnership” and “limited” which allow members to limit their liability whilst organising themselves internally as a partnership. Article by Professor Johan Henning (Director of the Centre for Corporate Law and Practice, IALS and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced ...

  1. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    Leduc, D.; England, J.; Rothermel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs

  2. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  3. HOME Income Limits

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  4. 10 CFR 605.16 - Indirect cost limitations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 605.16 Section 605.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS THE OFFICE OF ENERGY RESEARCH FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 605.16 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and scientific...

  5. What value, detection limits

    Currie, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Specific approaches and applications of LLD's to nuclear and ''nuclear-related'' measurements are presented in connection with work undertaken for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. In this work, special attention was given to assumptions and potential error sources, as well as to different types of analysis. For the former, the authors considered random and systematic error associated with the blank and the calibration and sample preparation processes, as well as issues relating to the nature of the random error distributions. Analysis types considered included continuous monitoring, ''simple counting'' involving scalar quantities, and spectrum fitting involving data vectors. The investigation of data matrices and multivariate analysis is also described. The most important conclusions derived from this study are: that there is a significant lack of communication and compatibility resulting from diverse terminology and conceptual bases - including no-basis ''ad hoc'' definitions; that the distinction between detection decisions and detection limits is frequently lost sight of; and that quite erroneous LOD estimates follow from inadequate consideration of the actual variability of the blank, and systematic error associated with the blank, the calibration-recovery factor, matrix effects, and ''black box'' data reduction models

  6. The quasi-abelian limit

    Fried, H.M.; Avan, J.

    2000-01-01

    A new, non-perturbative, eikonal method called the ''quasi abelian limit'' (QAL) is suggested for high energy quark (nucleon) scattering involving the exchange of all possible, non-interacting, non-abelian gluons (mesons). With this method, those functional integrals defining, e.g., the exchange of color coordinates in quark-quark scattering, are replaced by a finite number of quadratures over a subset of their coordinates. Mathematically, this procedure is not rigourous, because an unjustified interchange of limits has been performed; physically, it corresponds to the observation that the non-perturbative sum over all color-moment fluctuations can vanish at arbitrarily high energies. The QAL generates a result in agreement with a corrected, ''contiguity'' calculation, when the latter is summed over all perturbative orders. (orig.)

  7. Transportation Energy - Sandia Energy

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  8. Energy Research - Sandia Energy

    Energy Energy Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Menu Stationary Power solar Energy Conversion Efficiency Increasing the amount of electricity produced from a given thermal energy input. Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2

  9. Casimir effect: The classical limit

    Feinberg, J.; Mann, A.; Revzen, M.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the high temperature (or classical) limit of the Casimir effect. A useful quantity which arises naturally in our discussion is the 'relative Casimir energy', which we define for a configuration of disjoint conducting boundaries of arbitrary shapes, as the difference of Casimir energies between the given configuration and a configuration with the same boundaries infinitely far apart. Using path integration techniques, we show that the relative Casimir energy vanishes exponentially fast in temperature. This is consistent with a simple physical argument based on Kirchhoff's law. As a result the 'relative Casimir entropy', which we define in an obviously analogous manner, tends, in the classical limit, to a finite asymptotic value which depends only on the geometry of the boundaries. Thus the Casimir force between disjoint pieces of the boundary, in the classical limit, is entropy driven and is governed by a dimensionless number characterizing the geometry of the cavity. Contributions to the Casimir thermodynamical quantities due to each individual connected component of the boundary exhibit logarithmic deviations in temperature from the behavior just described. These logarithmic deviations seem to arise due to our difficulty to separate the Casimir energy (and the other thermodynamical quantities) from the 'electromagnetic' self-energy of each of the connected components of the boundary in a well defined manner. Our approach to the Casimir effect is not to impose sharp boundary conditions on the fluctuating field, but rather take into consideration its interaction with the plasma of 'charge carriers' in the boundary, with the plasma frequency playing the role of a physical UV cutoff. This also allows us to analyze deviations from a perfect conductor behavior

  10. Impact-limiting materials characterization

    Glass, R.E.; Duffey, T.A.; McConnell, P.

    1993-01-01

    Three types of impact-limiting materials have been characterized which have applications in packages for the transport of radioactive materials. These materials are aluminum honeycombs, polyurethane foams, and aluminum foams. The results of the materials characterization have indicated strengths and weaknesses for each type of material. The polyurethane foams provide good impact limiting ability and excellent thermal insulation. However, they burn when subjected to the regulatory thermal event in the presence of air. The aluminum honeycombs provide excellent impact resistance in specific impact orientations. However, they provide relatively poor resistance to thermal assault. Finally, the aluminum foams exhibit relatively poor impact energy absorption capacities, significant variability in energy absorption, and limited thermal insulation. The development of the figures of merit examined the response of the materials to the impact event with the intent of maximizing the energy absorption of the materials with respect to either the volume or mass of the materials. Three figures of merit will be presented for the structural response. The figure of merit for the thermal event is based on minimizing the heat flux to the containment boundary. The paper presents a discussion of the test methods, a summary of the data and the figures of merit for each material. (J.P.N.)

  11. Derived limits for surface contamination

    Wrixon, A D; Linsley, G S; White, D F

    1979-01-01

    Derived limits (DLs) for surface contamination were first established for use in the nuclear energy industry where a wide variety of radionuclides is encountered. They were later used in factories, hospitals, and universities, where the radionuclides used are normally fewer in number, either known or readily identifiable, and often of low toxicity. In these situations the current limits are frequently over-restrictive. This report describes a reassessment of the values in the light of more recent information on the possible pathways of exposure and the dose equivalent limits given in ICRP Publication 26. The reassessment is prompted also by the introduction of SI units. The results of the reassessment are used to produce a classification of DLs for all radionuclides for active and inactive area surfaces and for skin.

  12. Land of limited possibilities

    Weirauch, Grit

    2011-01-01

    Armenia has had to face heavy crises, both political and energy-related. Now, the country could be the leading Caucasian state in renewable energy development. Or, alternatively, it may continue to opt for nuclear power.

  13. Window in the dark matter exclusion limits

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela; Farrar, Glennys R.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the cross section limits for light dark matter cadnidates (m=0.4 to 10 GeV). We calculate the interaction of dark matter in the crust above underground dark matter detectors and find that in the intermediate cross section range, the energy loss of dark matter is sufficient to fall below the energy threshold of current underground experiments. This implies the existence of a window in the dark matter exclusion limits in the micro-barn range

  14. The World energy issue

    Nifenecker, Herve

    2011-01-01

    This Power Point document proposes figures and data about the current world energy consumption, the various energy sources, the share of primary energy consumption by different sectors, and the levels of energy reserves. It addresses the issue of global warming (evolution of temperature, regional anomalies, the challenge of limitation of temperature, the greenhouse gas emissions), the strategic role of electricity (energy mix, heat production with electricity), energy savings, electricity production (key data on solar, wind, solar and biomass energy, possibilities of carbon capture, nuclear energy, costs of these different energies)

  15. Robust test limits

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the

  16. A history of energy

    Debeir, Jean-Claude; Deleage, Jean-Paul; Hemery, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This document briefly presents a book in which the authors propose a history of energy. They notice that means of conversion of raw energy into useful energy have always met physical limits (depletion of resources, saturation of hydraulic sites by mills, etc.), social limits (wood for rich people and coal for poor people like in England during the 18. century), economic and geopolitical limits (rare energy in the South, petrol as you wish and button-pressing electricity in over-developed countries). They discuss these issues as energy systems are approaching to critical situations, and as global warming accelerates

  17. LANSCE beam current limiter

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  18. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Diego Paiva Pires

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  19. Limits on extra dimensions and new particle production in the exclusive photon and missing energy signature in pp collisions at square root [s]=1.8 TeV.

    Acosta, D; Affolder, T; Akimoto, H; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amidei, D; Anikeev, K; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Asakawa, T; Ashmanskas, W; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Bailey, S; de Barbaro, P; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Barone, M; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bell, W H; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Bensinger, J; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Blusk, S R; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Bolla, G; Bonushkin, Y; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Brandl, A; Bromberg, C; Brozovic, M; Brubaker, E; Bruner, N; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calafiura, P; Campbell, M; Carithers, W; Carlson, J; Carlsmith, D; Caskey, W; Castro, A; Cauz, D; Cerri, A; Chan, A W; Chang, P S; Chang, P T; Chapman, J; Chen, C; Chen, Y C; Cheng, M-T; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chirikov-Zorin, I; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Christofek, L; Chu, M L; Chung, J Y; Chung, W-H; Chung, Y S; Ciobanu, C I; Clark, A G; Coca, M; Colijn, A P; Connolly, A; Convery, M; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cranshaw, J; Culbertson, R; Dagenhart, D; D'Auria, S; DeJongh, F; Dell'Agnello, S; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; Devlin, T; Dittmann, J R; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dorigo, T; Dunietz, I; Eddy, N; Einsweiler, K; Engels, E; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Fan, Q; Fang, H-C; Feild, R G; Fernandez, J P; Ferretti, C; Field, R D; Fiori, I; Flaugher, B; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J; Friedman, J; Frisch, H J; Fukui, Y; Furic, I; Galeotti, S; Gallas, A; Gallinaro, M; Gao, T; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gatti, P; Gay, C; Gerdes, D W; Gerstein, E; Giannetti, P; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Green, C; Grim, G; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Guenther, M; Guillian, G; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Haas, R M; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hall, C; Handa, T; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hardman, A D; Harris, R M; Hartmann, F; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Heinrich, J; Heiss, A; Herndon, M; Hill, C; Hocker, A; Hoffman, K D; Hollebeek, R; Holloway, L; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R; Huston, J; Huth, J; Ikeda, H; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Ivanov, A; Iwai, J; Iwata, Y; James, E; Jones, M; Joshi, U; Kambara, H; Kamon, T; Kaneko, T; Karagoz Unel, M; Karr, K; Kartal, S; Kasha, H; Kato, Y; Keaffaber, T A; Kelley, K; Kelly, M; Kennedy, R D; Kephart, R; Khazins, D; Kikuchi, T; Kilminster, B; Kim, B J; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirk, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Koehn, P; Kondo, K; Konigsberg, J; Korn, A; Korytov, A; Kovacs, E; Kroll, J; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kurino, K; Kuwabara, T; Laasanen, A T; Lai, N; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, J; Lancaster, M; Lander, R; Lath, A; Latino, G; LeCompte, T; Le, Y; Lee, K; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lindgren, M; Liss, T M; Liu, J B; Liu, T; Liu, Y C; Litvintsev, D O; Lobban, O; Lockyer, N S; Loken, J; Loreti, M; Lucchesi, D; Lukens, P; Lusin, S; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Malferrari, L; Mangano, M; Manca, G; Mariotti, M; Martignon, G; Martin, M; Martin, A; Martin, V; Matthews, J A J; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; Menguzzato, M; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Meyer, A; Miao, T; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Minato, H; Miscetti, S; Mishina, M; Mitselmakher, G; Miyazaki, Y; Moggi, N; Moore, E; Moore, R; Morita, Y; Moulik, T; Mulhearn, M; Mukherjee, A; Muller, T; Munar, A; Murat, P; Murgia, S; Nachtman, J; Nagaslaev, V; Nahn, S; Nakada, H; Nakano, I; Napora, R; Nelson, C; Nelson, T; Neu, C; Neuberger, D; Newman-Holmes, C; Ngan, C-Y P; Nigmanov, T; Niu, H; Nodulman, L; Nomerotski, A; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Ohmoto, T; Ohsugi, T; Oishi, R; Okusawa, T; Olsen, J; Onyisi, P U E; Orejudos, W; Pagliarone, C; Palmonari, F; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Partos, D; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Pauly, T; Paus, C; Pellett, D; Pescara, L; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K T; Pompos, A; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Pratt, T; Prokoshin, F; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Pukhov, O; Punzi, G; Rademacker, J; Rakitine, A; Ratnikov, F; Reher, D; Reichold, A; Renton, P; Ribon, A; Riegler, W; Rimondi, F; Ristori, L; Riveline, M; Robertson, W J; Rodrigo, T; Rolli, S; Rosenson, L; Roser, R; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Roy, A; Ruiz, A; Safonov, A; St Denis, R; Sakumoto, W K; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Sansoni, A; Santi, L; Sato, H; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A; Scribano, A; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Shah, T; Shapiro, M D; Shepard, P F; Shibayama, T; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Sidoti, A; Siegrist, J; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Singh, P; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Snider, F D; Solodsky, A; Spalding, J; Speer, T; Spezziga, M; Sphicas, P; Spinella, F; Spiropulu, M; Spiegel, L; Steele, J; Stefanini, A; Strologas, J; Strumia, F; Stuart, D; Sumorok, K; Suzuki, T; Takano, T; Takashima, R; Takikawa, K; Tamburello, P; Tanaka, M; Tannenbaum, B; Tecchio, M; Tesarek, R J; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thurman-Keup, R; Tipton, P; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tollestrup, A; Tonelli, D; Tonnesmann, M; Toyoda, H; Trischuk, W; de Troconiz, J F; Tseng, J; Tsybychev, D; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Vaiciulis, T; Valls, J; Vataga, E; Vejcik, S; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Volobouev, I; von der Mey, M; Vucinic, D; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallace, N B; Wan, Z; Wang, C; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Watanabe, T; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wenzel, H; Wester, W C; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Wilkes, T; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Winn, D; Wolbers, S; Wolinski, D; Wolinski, J; Wolinski, S; Worm, S; Wu, X; Wyss, J; Yang, U K; Yao, W; Yeh, G P; Yeh, P; Yi, K; Yoh, J; Yosef, C; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S; Yu, Z; Yun, J C; Zanetti, A; Zetti, F; Zucchelli, S

    2002-12-31

    The exclusive gammaE(T) signal has a small standard model cross section and is thus a channel sensitive to new physics. This signature is predicted by models with a superlight gravitino or with large extra spatial dimensions. We search for such signals at the Collider Detector at Fermilab, using 87 pb(-1) of data at square root [s]=1.8 TeV, and extract 95% C.L. limits on these processes. A limit of 221 GeV is set on the scale |F|(1/2) in supersymmetric models. For 4, 6, and 8 extra dimensions, model-dependent limits on the fundamental mass scale M(D) of 0.55, 0.58, and 0.60 TeV, respectively, are found. We also specify a "pseudo-model-independent" method of comparing the results to theoretical predictions.

  20. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  1. Hamiltonian mechanics limits microscopic engines

    Anglin, James; Gilz, Lukas; Thesing, Eike

    2015-05-01

    We propose a definition of fully microscopic engines (micro-engines) in terms of pure mechanics, without reference to thermodynamics, equilibrium, or cycles imposed by external control, and without invoking ergodic theory. This definition is pragmatically based on the observation that what makes engines useful is energy transport across a large ratio of dynamical time scales. We then prove that classical and quantum mechanics set non-trivial limits-of different kinds-on how much of the energy that a micro-engine extracts from its fuel can be converted into work. Our results are not merely formal; they imply manageable design constraints on micro-engines. They also suggest the novel possibility that thermodynamics does not emerge from mechanics in macroscopic regimes, but rather represents the macroscopic limit of a generalized theory, valid on all scales, which governs the important phenomenon of energy transport across large time scale ratios. We propose experimental realizations of the dynamical mechanisms we identify, with trapped ions and in Bose-Einstein condensates (``motorized bright solitons'').

  2. New energy technologies 4. Energy management and energy efficiency

    Sabonnadiere, J.C.; Caire, R.; Raison, B.; Quenard, D.; Verneau, G.; Zissis, G.

    2007-01-01

    This forth tome of the new energy technologies handbook is devoted to energy management and to the improvement of energy efficiency. The energy management by decentralized generation insertion and network-driven load control, analyzes the insertion and management means of small power generation in distribution networks and the means for load management by the network with the aim of saving energy and limiting peak loads. The second part, devoted to energy efficiency presents in a detailed way the technologies allowing an optimal management of energy in buildings and leading to the implementation of positive energy buildings. A special chapter treats of energy saving using new lighting technologies in the private and public sectors. Content: 1 - decentralized power generation - impacts and solutions: threat or opportunity; deregulation; emerging generation means; impact of decentralized generation on power networks; elements of solution; 2 - mastery of energy demand - loads control by the network: stakes of loads control; choice of loads to be controlled; communication needs; measurements and controls for loads control; model and algorithm needs for loads control. A better energy efficiency: 3 - towards positive energy buildings: key data for Europe; how to convert fossil energy consuming buildings into low-energy consuming and even energy generating buildings; the Minergie brand; the PassivHaus or 'passive house' label; the zero-energy house/zero-energy home (ZEH); the zero-energy building (ZEB); the positive energy house; comparison between the three Minergie/PassivHaus/ZEH types of houses; beyond the positive energy building; 4 - light sources and lighting systems - from technology to energy saving: lighting yesterday and today; light sources and energy conversion; energy saving in the domain of lighting: study of some type-cases; what future for light sources. (J.S.)

  3. 10 CFR 602.15 - Indirect cost limitations.

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cost limitations. 602.15 Section 602.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ASSISTANCE REGULATIONS EPIDEMIOLOGY AND OTHER HEALTH STUDIES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 602.15 Indirect cost limitations. Awards issued under this part for conferences and...

  4. JET pump limiter

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  5. Reactor limit control system

    Rubbel, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)

  6. Detector limitations, STAR

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  7. Performance limitations at ISABELLE

    Keil, E.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse stability of coasting beams in the planned ISABELLE storage rings was studied. The beam--beam tune shift limitation at 0.005 can be avoided, and a computer simulation seems to show 0.005 is a pessimistic limit. For beams of reasonable smoothness on the edge, the actual limit should be somewhat higher. Some coupling effects due to the beam--beam interaction are also examined

  8. Limit loads in nozzles

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  9. Limit analysis via creep

    Taroco, E.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author) [pt

  10. First pump limiter experiments in Tore Supra

    Chatelier, M.; Bruneau, J.L.; Chappuis, P.; Gil, C.; Guilhem, D.; Lipa, M.; Rodriguez, L.; Vallet, J.C.; Van Houtte, D.; Watkins, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The thermal load and the particle pumping effects on the outboard pump limiters (OPL), in Tore Supra are analyzed. The investigations are performed for the plasma either in contact with the OPL/ONPL (outboard non pumped limiters) alone or with the OPL and the vertical limiters together. Calorimetric measurements provide estimates of the time-integrated balance of the energy flow at the plasma edge. Radiated and charge exchange energy losses are deduced from the inner vessel calorimetry (R=242cm, a=94cm). Conductive/convective losses on the OPL and vertical (top and bottom) limiters are independently measured, as well as the integrated energy flow on the ergodic divertors. The calorimetric results, the bolometric measurements of the radiated power and the Ohmic power estimates, are indicated. The central line density from interferometric measurement for the two successive shots, with the ONPL and with the OPL, are given

  11. Food irradiation, profits and limitations

    Luna C, P.C.

    1992-05-01

    The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)

  12. Limitation to development and implantation of solar energy in Caceres : Normative for urban planning; Limitaciones al desarrollo y la implantacion de la energia solar en Caceres. Las normas del planeamiento urbano

    Tejeiro, C. V.; Mendez, J. A. S.; Gutierrez, P. D. M.; Barrigon, J. M. M.

    2004-07-01

    The implantation of the solar energy implies the placing of elements, which can be visible from the facades and roofs. The negative effect on the landscape would be a delay for this implantation. Considering the architectural capital of the inhabited space of Extremadura, it is analysed the degree of sensibility of the town directives in their General Plans. It is studied the adaptability of these directives establishing: a) Zoning: to distinguish between the different styles, ages of the edification, etc. b) Aesthetic characteristics of the edification: specifying materials, colours, textures, etc. c) Set of partial measures of integration in the edification: showing possible accepted solutions. A table has been done where it is included all the picked up information. In general, it is concluded that the implantation of renewable energies would need additional points to the directives to fix the three previously mentioned aspects. (Author)

  13. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  14. Advanced limiters for ISX

    Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous removal of heat and particles becomes a vital necessity in future steady-state fusion devices. The pump limiter seems to be an attractive concept to combine these two tasks. On ISX, various schemes of pump limiters are being explored with the final goal to furnish the ISX--C device with a pump limiter to handle heat removal and particle control in steady state. The emphasis of the present paper is on pump limiters based on ballistic particle collection. If this concept turns out to be successful in supplying sufficient pumping efficiency, it may be possible to design pump limiters without a leading edge. Analytical calculations of the particle collection efficiency are given for various limiter configurations. Pumping efficiencies of approximately 4--10%, depending on the specific configuration, seem to be feasible and should be sufficient for steady-state operation. Initial experimental results on pump limiter studies in ISX--B confirm the calculated collection efficiencies. By measuring the ion saturation current to the limiter blade and the pressure buildup simultaneously, we found a correlation between the incident particle flux and the pressure rise that agrees well with a simple model

  15. Limits to Inclusion

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  16. The Peierls model: Progress and limitations

    Schoeck, Gunther

    2005-01-01

    The basic features of the Peierls model are reviewed. The original model is based on the concept of balance of stresses in 1D and has serious limitations. These limitations can be overcome by a treatment as a variational problem on the energy level in 2D. The fundamental equations are given and applications to determine displacement profiles for dislocations and their dissociations are discussed. When the core misfit has a planar extension and the misfit energy in the glide plane - the γ-surface - is determined from ab initio methods, very reliable core configurations can be determined. For dislocations along close-packed lattice directions the misfit energy can be obtained by a summing procedure using Euler coordinates. When these dislocations are dissociated multiple equilibrium configurations with different splitting widths can exist, but the values of energy difference in between - the Peierls energy - are too small to be determined reliably, considering the simplifying assumptions of the model

  17. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curve of the iodine weakly bound 1u state correlating with the I(2P1/2) + I(2P1/2) dissociation limit

    Akopyan, M E; Baturo, V V; Lukashov, S S; Poretsky, S A; Pravilov, A M

    2015-01-01

    The stepwise three-step three-color laser population of the I 2 (β1 g , ν β , J β ) rovibronic states via the B0 u + , ν B , J B rovibronic states and rovibronic levels of the 1 u (bb) and 0 g + (bb) states mixed by hyperfine interaction is used for determination of rovibronic level energies of the weakly bound I 2 (1 u (bb)) state. Dunham coefficients of the state, Y i0 (i = 0–3), Y i1 (i = 0–2), Y 02 and Y 12 for the v 1 u  = 1–5, 8, 10, 15 and J 1 u  ≈ 9–87 ranges, the dissociation energy of the state, D e , and equilibrium I–I distance, R e , as well as the potential energy curve are determined. There are aperiodicities in the excitation spectrum corresponding to the β, ν β  = 23, J β  ← 1 u (bb), ν 1u  = 4, 5, J 1u progressions in the I 2  + Rg = He, Ar mixture, namely, a great number of lines which do not coincide with the R or P line progressions. Their positions conflict with the ΔJ-even selection rule. Furthermore, they do not correspond to the ΔJ-odd progression. (paper)

  18. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  19. Moving toroidal limiter

    Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.

    1983-06-01

    The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)

  20. On a connection between the limit set of the Moebius-Klein transformation, periodic continued fractions, El Naschie's topological theory of high energy particle physics and the possibility of a new axion-like particle

    Marek-Crnjac, L.

    2004-01-01

    In the present work we first give a general representation of the derivatives of the irrational number phi, for instance ((1)/(phi)), ((1)/(phi 2 )), ((1)/(phi 3 )) etc., as periodic continued fractions. Any irrational number can then be expanded in an infinite continued fraction. The limit set of the Kleinian transformation acting on the E-infinity Cantorian spacetime turned out to be this set of periodic continued fractions, consequently the vacuum of the E-infinity is described by this limit set. As discussed by El Naschie, every particle can be interpreted geometrically as a scaling of another. This is done using the topology of hyperbolic Kleinian space of VAK, which is nothing but our limit set. Here we will present the ratios of the theoretical masses of certain elementary particles to that of some chosen particles in term of phi. Many of these masses are quite close to integer multiples of the mass of a chosen particle. Finally we discuss the possibility of new transfinite, axion-like particles as discussed recently by Krauss and El Naschie [Quintessence, Vintage, London, 1999

  1. Plane wave limits and T-duality

    Guven, R.

    2000-04-01

    The Penrose limit is generalized to show that, any leading order solution of the low-energy field equations in any one of the five string theories has a plane wave solution as a limit. This limiting procedure takes into account all the massless fields that may arise and commutes with the T-duality so that any dual solution has again a plane wave limit. The scaling rules used in the limit are unique and stem from the scaling property of the D = 11 supergravity action. Although the leading order dual solutions need not be exact or supersymmetric, their plane wave limits always preserve some portion of the Poincare supersymmetry and solve the relevant field equations in all powers of the string tension parameter. Further properties of the limiting procedure are discussed. (author)

  2. Novel limiter pump topologies

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  3. Novel limiter pump topologies

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  4. ANALYSIS OF THE TRANSIENT STABILITY LIMIT OF NIGERIA'S ...

    user

    contingencies exceeds the acceptable security limits and reliability margins ... At the end of this study, security limit for faults ... protection to prevent the system from widespread effect ..... Conference on Computer, Energy, Networking, Robotics.

  5. HUD Program Income Limits

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  6. Limited Income and Resources

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  7. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  8. Limited Denial of Participation

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  9. Towards Improved Optical Limiters

    Huffman, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... The first approach was to synthesize and study soluble thallium phthalocyanines. Thallium, due to its proximity to lead and indium on the periodic table, should exhibit favorable optical limiting properties...

  10. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  11. HOME Rent Limits

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing for...

  12. Limit lines for risk

    Cox, D.C.; Baybutt, P.

    1982-01-01

    Approaches to the regulation of risk from technological systems, such as nuclear power plants or chemical process plants, in which potential accidents may result in a broad range of adverse consequences must take into account several different aspects of risk. These include overall or average risk, accidents posing high relative risks, the rate at which accident probability decreases with increasing accident consequences, and the impact of high frequency, low consequence accidents. A hypothetical complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), with appropriately chosen parametric form, meets all these requirements. The Farmer limit line, by contrast, places limits on the risks due to individual accident sequences, and cannot adequately account for overall risk. This reduces its usefulness as a regulatory tool. In practice, the CCDF is used in the Canadian nuclear licensing process, while the Farmer limit line approach, supplemented by separate qualitative limits on overall risk, is employed in the United Kingdom

  13. Adjusting estimative prediction limits

    Masao Ueki; Kaoru Fueda

    2007-01-01

    This note presents a direct adjustment of the estimative prediction limit to reduce the coverage error from a target value to third-order accuracy. The adjustment is asymptotically equivalent to those of Barndorff-Nielsen & Cox (1994, 1996) and Vidoni (1998). It has a simpler form with a plug-in estimator of the coverage probability of the estimative limit at the target value. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

  14. Smoothness of limit functors

    Abstract. Let S be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimen- sional split torus Gm,S on a smooth affine S-scheme X. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor Xλ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action. 'admits a limit at 0'. We show that Xλ is representable by a smooth ...

  15. Safety and design limits

    Shishkov, L. K.; Gorbaev, V. A.; Tsyganov, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    The paper touches upon the issues of NPP safety ensuring at the stage of fuel load design and operation by applying special limitations for a series of parameters, that is, design limits. Two following approaches are compared: the one used by west specialists for the PWR reactor and the Russian approach employed for the WWER reactor. The closeness of approaches is established, differences that are mainly peculiarities of terms are noted (Authors)

  16. Altruism and Reproductive Limitations

    Carey J. Fitzgerald

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined how different types of reproductive limitations — functional (schizoid personality disorder and schizophrenia, physical (malnutrition, and sexual (bisexuality and homosexuality — influenced altruistic intentions toward hypothetical target individuals of differing degrees of relatedness (r = 0, .25, and .50. Participants were 312 undergraduate students who completed a questionnaire on altruism toward hypothetical friends, half-siblings, and siblings with these different types of reproductive limitations. Genetic relatedness and reproductive limitations did not influence altruistic decision-making when the cost of altruism was low but did as the cost of altruism increased, with participants being more likely to help a sibling over a half-sibling and a half-sibling over a friend. Participants also indicated they were more likely to help a healthy (control person over people with a reproductive limitation. Of the three types of reproductive limitations, functional limitations had the strongest effect on altruistic decision-making, indicating that people were less likely to help those who exhibit abnormal social behavior.

  17. A study of bat populations at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument, Jemez Mountains, New Mexico: FY95--97 report to Los Alamos National Laboratory and Bandelier National Monument

    Bogan, M.A.; O`Shea, T.J.; Cryan, P.M.; Ditto, A.M.; Schaedla, W.H.; Valdez, E.W.; Castle, K.T.; Ellison, L. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-12-31

    In 1995, a three-year study was initiated to assess the current status of bat species of concern, elucidate distribution and relative abundance, and obtain information on roosting sites of bats. The authors captured and released 1532 bats of 15 species (Myotis californicus, M. ciliolabrum, M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, M. yumanensis, Lasiurus cinereus, Lasionycteris noctivagans, Pipistrellus hesperus, Eptesicus fuscus, Euderma maculatum, Corynorhinus townsendii, Antrozous pallidus, Tadarida brasiliensis, and Nyctinomops macrotis) and followed 32 bats of eight species (M. evotis, M. thysanodes, M. volans, E. fuscus, E. maculatum, C. townsendii, A. pallidus, and N. macrotis) to 51 active diurnal roosts. The most abundant species were L. noctivagans, E. fuscus, L. cinereus, M. evotis, M. volans, and M. ciliolabrum. Most of these species are typical inhabitants of ponderosa pine-mixed coniferous forests.

  18. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  19. Inherent hazards, poor reporting and limited learning in the solid biomass energy sector: A case study of a wheel loader igniting wood dust, leading to fatal explosion at wood pellet manufacturer

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John; Nichols, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    are insufficiently developed and give ample room for potentially erroneous subjective individual judgment. It is a contributing factor that combustible dust, although with great hazard potential, is not classified as a dangerous substance. Accidents therefore fall outside the scope of systems designed to disseminate...... biomass, the accident investigation and any learning that subsequently took place. The paper argues that learning opportunities were missed repeatedly. Significant root causes were not identified; principles of inherent safety in design were ignored; the hazardous area classification was based on flawed...... lessons learned and prevent future accidents. More attention to safety is needed for the renewable energy and environmentally friendly biomass pellet industry also to become sustainable from a worker safety perspective....

  20. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff; Nieto, Michael Martin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts to place limits on deviations from canonical formulations of electromagnetism and gravity have probed length scales increasing dramatically over time. Historically, these studies have passed through three stages: (1) testing the power in the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving explicit gauge or general-coordinate invariance. Since the previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit, and rapid current progress in astronomy makes further advance likely. For gravity there have been vigorous debates about even the concept of graviton rest mass. Meanwhile there are striking observations of astronomical motions that do not fit Einstein gravity with visible sources. ''Cold dark matter'' (slow, invisible classical particles) fits well at large scales. ''Modified Newtonian dynamics'' provides the best phenomenology at galactic scales. Satisfying this phenomenology is a requirement if dark matter, perhaps as invisible classical fields, could be correct here too. ''Dark energy''might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect, with associated Compton wavelength comparable to the radius of the visible universe. Significant mass limits are summarized in a table.

  1. Workshop on confidence limits. Proceedings

    James, F.; Lyons, L.; Perrin, Y.

    2000-01-01

    The First Workshop on Confidence Limits was held at CERN on 17-18 January 2000. It was devoted to the problem of setting confidence limits in difficult cases: number of observed events is small or zero, background is larger than signal, background not well known, and measurements near a physical boundary. Among the many examples in high-energy physics are searches for the Higgs, searches for neutrino oscillations, B s mixing, SUSY, compositeness, neutrino masses, and dark matter. Several different methods are on the market: the CL s methods used by the LEP Higgs searches; Bayesian methods; Feldman-Cousins and modifications thereof; empirical and combined methods. The Workshop generated considerable interest, and attendance was finally limited by the seating capacity of the CERN Council Chamber where all the sessions took place. These proceedings contain all the papers presented, as well as the full text of the discussions after each paper and of course the last session which was a discussion session. The list of participants and the 'required reading', which was expected to be part of the prior knowledge of all participants, are also included. (orig.)

  2. Approach to DOE threshold guidance limits

    Shuman, R.D.; Wickham, L.E.

    1984-01-01

    The need for less restrictive criteria governing disposal of extremely low-level radioactive waste has long been recognized. The Low-Level Waste Management Program has been directed by the Department of Energy (DOE) to aid in the development of a threshold guidance limit for DOE low-level waste facilities. Project objectives are concernd with the definition of a threshold limit dose and pathway analysis of radionuclide transport within selected exposure scenarios at DOE sites. Results of the pathway analysis will be used to determine waste radionuclide concentration guidelines that meet the defined threshold limit dose. Methods of measurement and verification of concentration limits round out the project's goals. Work on defining a threshold limit dose is nearing completion. Pathway analysis of sanitary landfill operations at the Savannah River Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is in progress using the DOSTOMAN computer code. Concentration limit calculations and determination of implementation procedures shall follow completion of the pathways work. 4 references

  3. Impact limiter retention using a tape joint

    Gonzales, A.; Eakes, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) Cask employs polyurethane foam impact limiters that fit onto the ends of the cask. A foam impact limiter takes energy out of a system during a hypothetical accident condition by allowing foam crush and large deformations to occur. This, in turn, precludes high stresses or deformations from occurring to the cask. Because of the need to transmit significant amounts of heat to the environment, the BUSS cask impact limiters were designed to shield a minimum amount of the cask surface area. With this design impact limiter retention after the initial impact resulting from the 9 meter regulatory drops becomes a concern. Retention is essential to ensure the cask does not experience higher stresses during any secondary or rebound effects without impact limiters than it does during the 9 meter regulatory drop with impact limiters in place

  4. Force Limit System

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  5. Theory of limit cycles

    Ye, Yan-Qian; Lo, Chi Y

    1986-01-01

    Over the past two decades the theory of limit cycles, especially for quadratic differential systems, has progressed dramatically in China as well as in other countries. This monograph, updating the 1964 first edition, includes these recent developments, as revised by eight of the author's colleagues in their own areas of expertise. The first part of the book deals with limit cycles of general plane stationary systems, including their existence, nonexistence, stability, and uniqueness. The second section discusses the global topological structure of limit cycles and phase-portraits of quadratic systems. Finally, the last section collects important results that could not be included under the subject matter of the previous two sections or that have appeared in the literature very recently. The book as a whole serves as a reference for college seniors, graduate students, and researchers in mathematics and physics.

  6. Hadron collider luminosity limitations

    Evans, Lyndon R

    1992-01-01

    The three colliders operated to date have taught us a great deal about the behaviour of both bunched and debunched beams in storage rings. The main luminosity limitations are now well enough understood that most of them can be stronglu attenuated or eliminated by approriate design precautions. Experience with the beam-beam interaction in both the SPS and the Tevatron allow us to predict the performance of the new generation of colliders with some degree of confidence. One of the main challenges that the accelerator physicist faces is the problem of the dynamic aperture limitations due to the lower field quality expected, imposed by economic and other constraints.

  7. SLC kicker magnet limitations

    Cassel, R.; Donaldson, A.; Mattison, T.; Bowden, G.; Weaver, J.; Bulos, F.; Fiander, D.

    1991-01-01

    The SLC Damping Ring kicker magnets requires a fast magnetic field rise time of 58 nsec, a peak field of 800 gauss, a pulse amplitude stability of 0.01%, and a reasonable operational lifetime. The original kicker magnets designed by SLAC and at Fermi were not able to fulfill the SLC kicker requirements. Extensive studies were conducted to determine the limitation in the magnets, response of the ferrite in kicker magnet, and the modifications needed to improve the kicker magnet performance. The paper details the SLAC and Fermi kicker magnets limitation of performance

  8. Limitations of ZAF correction factors in the determination of calcium/phosphorus ratios: Important forensic science considerations relevant to the analysis of bone fragments using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray microanalysis

    Payne, C.M.; Cromey, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A series of calcium phosphate standards having calcium/phosphorus (Ca/P) molar ratios of 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, and 1.67, respectively, was prepared for bulk specimen analysis using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDXA). The standards were mounted on carbon planchettes as either pure crystals or crystals embedded in epoxy resin. Ten different samples of each embedded and non-embedded standard were analyzed in a JEOL 100 CX electron microscope interfaced with a Kevex 8000 EDXA system using a lithium-drifted silicon detector and a multichannel analyzer. The Ca/P ratios were determined by calculating both net peak intensities without matrix corrections and atomic kappa-ratios using the MAGIC V computer program with ZAF correction factors for quantitative analysis. There was such extensive absorption of phosphorus X-rays in standards embedded in an epoxy matrix that the observed Ca/P ratios were statistically compatible with four different standards ranging in theoretical Ca/P ratios from 1.0 to 1.67. Although the non-embedded crystals showed a greater separation in the Ca/P ratios, both methods of preparation produced serious flaws in analysis. Direct application of the discovery of this caveat to the identification of suspected bone fragments for forensic science purposes is discussed

  9. Synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels

    Hori, Masao

    2007-01-01

    Because primary energies such as fossil fuels, nuclear energy and renewable energy are limited in quantity of supply, it is necessary to use available energies effectively for the increase of energy demand that is inevitable this century while keeping environment in good condition. For this purpose, an efficient synergistic energy conversion process using nuclear energy and fossil fuels together converted to energy carriers such are electricity, hydrogen, and synthetic fuels seems to be effective. Synergistic energy conversion processes containing nuclear energy were surveyed and effects of these processes on resource saving and the CO 2 emission reduction were discussed. (T.T.)

  10. Energy and energy policy

    Clerici, A.

    2007-01-01

    Energy has taken with his reflections on the environment, the geopolitical aspects and its pervasive use in all activities a crucial role for sustainable development of our planet. The energy in the future will be increasingly a global problem [it

  11. National pollutants emission limits

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Pawelec, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  12. National pollutants emission limits

    Chmielewski, A. G.; Pawelec, A. [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels are the main energy sources. Unfortunately the vast quantities of pollutants are emitted to the atmosphere during their combustion. These emissions lead to the environment degradation and affect human health. Therefore most of the countries have introduced the standards concerning emission control. These regulations for some countries are presented in the paper. (author)

  13. Three dimensional energy profile:

    Kowsari, Reza; Zerriffi, Hisham

    2011-01-01

    The provision of adequate, reliable, and affordable energy has been considered as a cornerstone of development. More than one-third of the world's population has a very limited access to modern energy services and suffers from its various negative consequences. Researchers have been exploring various dimensions of household energy use in order to design strategies to provide secure access to modern energy services. However, despite more than three decades of effort, our understanding of household energy use patterns is very limited, particularly in the context of rural regions of the developing world. Through this paper, the past and the current trends in the field of energy analysis are investigated. The literature on rural energy and energy transition in developing world has been explored and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The and the factors affecting households' decisions on energy use are listed. The gaps identified in the literature on rural household energy analysis provide a basis for developing an alternative model that can create a more realistic view of household energy use. The three dimensional energy profile is presented as a new conceptual model for assessment of household energy use. This framework acts as a basis for building new theoretical and empirical models of rural household energy use. - Highlights: ► Reviews literature on household energy, energy transitions and decision-making in developing countries. ► Identifies gaps in rural household energy analysis and develops a new conceptual framework. ► The 3-d energy profile provides a holistic view of household energy system characteristics. ► Illustrates the use of the framework for understanding household energy transitions.

  14. Research for energy

    Garbers, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper deals with energy R D and its funding in the South African public sector. The objectives of the National Programme for Energy Research are discussed within the framework of the country's manpower and financial needs and limitations. It is shown that energy research is multidisciplinary where the focus is on infrastructure development within the constraints of technical, economic and environmental factors. Possible mechanisms to cater for the country's energy research funding are suggested

  15. Energy efficient lighting

    Aslam, M.

    1992-01-01

    The main sources of Pakistan's energy supply are oil, natural gas, coal, hydro power, nuclear power and liquefied petroleum gas. At present 75 % of total energy delivered is met through oil and gas. The limited resources and financial constraints have proved to be stumbling block in the way of prosperity and economics stability. Lighting is a conspicuous consumer of energy and thus an easy prey for saving drives which is indeed a very promising target for energy saving. (A.B.)

  16. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  17. Thermal background noise limitations

    Gulkis, S.

    1982-01-01

    Modern detection systems are increasingly limited in sensitivity by the background thermal photons which enter the receiving system. Expressions for the fluctuations of detected thermal radiation are derived. Incoherent and heterodyne detection processes are considered. References to the subject of photon detection statistics are given.

  18. The Copyright Agency Limited.

    Morgan, Caroline

    1993-01-01

    The evolution and functions of Australia's Copyright Agency Limited are described. The agency is a copyright collecting organization which collectively administers the rights of authors and publishers whose works are copied in education, and enters into blanket agreements with educational authorities outside the existing statutory license. Some…

  19. Occupational dose equivalent limits

    Goldfinch, E.P.

    1980-01-01

    This paper considers methods of limiting individual radiation risks by recognizing the variation of risk with age at exposure, taking into account both somatic and genetic risks and proposes a simple formula for controlling individual cumulative exposure and hence risk. (Author)

  20. The Limits of Accountability.

    Bailey, Stephen K.

    This discussion, presented at the Regent's Trustees' Conference, February 1973, reviews the limits of accountability in higher education. Managerial efficiency is suggested to assist in eliminating educational and financial waste. This, however, is the secondary concept emphasized. The primary emphasis indicates the legitimacy of the claims that a…

  1. Limitations on blanket performance

    Malang, S.

    1999-01-01

    The limitations on the performance of breeding blankets in a fusion power plant are evaluated. The breeding blankets will be key components of a plant and their limitations with regard to power density, thermal efficiency and lifetime could determine to a large degree the attractiveness of a power plant. The performance of two rather well known blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European Blanket Programme is assessed and their limitations are compared with more advanced (and more speculative) concepts. An important issue is the question of which material (structure, breeder, multiplier, coatings) will limit the performance and what improvement would be possible with a 'better' structural material. This evaluation is based on the premise that the performance of the power plant will be limited by the blankets (including first wall) and not by other components, e.g. divertors, or the plasma itself. However, the justness of this premise remains to be seen. It is shown that the different blanket concepts cover a large range of allowable power densities and achievable thermal efficiencies, and it is concluded that there is a high incentive to go for better performance in spite of possibly higher blanket cost. However, such high performance blankets are usually based on materials and technologies not yet developed and there is a rather high risk that the development could fail. Therefore, it is explained that a part of the development effort should be devoted to concepts where the materials and technologies are more or less in hand in order to ensure that blankets for a DEMO reactor can be developed and tested in a given time frame. (orig.)

  2. Inherent hazards, poor reporting and limited learning in the solid biomass energy sector: A case study of a wheel loader igniting wood dust, leading to fatal explosion at wood pellet manufacturer

    Hedlund, Frank Huess; Astad, John; Nichols, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Large loaders are commonly used when handling solid biomass fuels. A preventable accident took place in 2010, where the malfunction of a front-end wheel loader led to a dust explosion which killed the driver and destroyed the building. The case offers an opportunity to examine the hazards of solid biomass, the accident investigation and any learning that subsequently took place. The paper argues that learning opportunities were missed repeatedly. Significant root causes were not identified; principles of inherent safety in design were ignored; the hazardous area classification was based on flawed reasoning; the ATEX assessment was inadequate as it dealt only with electrical installations, ignoring work operations; and powered industrial trucks had not been recognized as a source of ignition. Perhaps most importantly, guidelines for hazardous area classification for combustible dust are insufficiently developed and give ample room for potentially erroneous subjective individual judgment. It is a contributing factor that combustible dust, although with great hazard potential, is not classified as a dangerous substance. Accidents therefore fall outside the scope of systems designed to disseminate lessons learned and prevent future accidents. More attention to safety is needed for the renewable energy and environmentally friendly biomass pellet industry also to become sustainable from a worker safety perspective. - Highlights: • Wheel loader ignited wood dust, leading to flash fire and explosion. • ATEX assessment inadequate, dealing only with electrical installations. • Guidelines for ATEX zones for combustible dusts are insufficiently developed. • Facility exploded 2002, 2010, root causes not identified, no evidence of learning. • Future repeat explosion likely had facility not been closed down

  3. Energy Transformation of Croatia

    Potocnik, V.

    2014-01-01

    Due to obvious climate change, caused mainly by combustion of the fossil fuels, as well as to their modest reserves, energy transformation is under way. It is the transition from the fossil fuels to improved energy efficiency (ENEF) and renewable energy sources (RES). Leading role in the energy transformation has Germany with 'Energiewende', which among other includes closing of existing nuclear power plants until 2022. Croatia has very limited proven fossil fuels reserves, which cover 3/4 of primary energy in consumption. Croatia also has large potential for improvements in ENEF and RES. Therefore, energy transformation of Croatia is justified. (author).

  4. Action Investment Energy Games

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Laursen, Simon; Srba, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the formalism of action investment energy games where we study the trade-off between investments limited by given budgets and resource constrained (energy) behavior of the underlying system. More specifically, we consider energy games extended with costs of enabling actions and fixed...... budgets for each player. We ask the question whether for any Player 2 investment there exists a Player 1 investment such that Player 1 wins the resulting energy game. We study the action investment energy game for energy intervals with both upper and lower bounds, and with a lower bound only, and give...

  5. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  6. Electroweak bubble wall speed limit

    Bödeker, Dietrich [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Bielefeld, 33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Moore, Guy D., E-mail: bodeker@physik.uni-bielefeld.de, E-mail: guymoore@ikp.physik.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Kernphysik, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-05-01

    In extensions of the Standard Model with extra scalars, the electroweak phase transition can be very strong, and the bubble walls can be highly relativistic. We revisit our previous argument that electroweak bubble walls can 'run away,' that is, achieve extreme ultrarelativistic velocities γ ∼ 10{sup 14}. We show that, when particles cross the bubble wall, they can emit transition radiation. Wall-frame soft processes, though suppressed by a power of the coupling α, have a significance enhanced by the γ-factor of the wall, limiting wall velocities to γ ∼ 1/α. Though the bubble walls can move at almost the speed of light, they carry an infinitesimal share of the plasma's energy.

  7. Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits

    Di Sia, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.disia@univr.it, E-mail: 10alla33@virgilio.it [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Verona University, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy) and Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bozen, Piazza Domenicani 3, I-39100 Bozen-Bolzano (Italy)

    2011-07-08

    A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

  8. Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits

    Di Sia, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

  9. Electrical characteristics of an ideal tokamak limiter

    Motley, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The intrusion of an equipotential poloidal limiter into the edge plasma of a circular tokamak discharge distorts the axisymmetry in several ways: (1) it (partially) shorts out the top-to-bottom Pfirsch-Schlueter potentials, (2) it creates zones of reversed equilibrium current flow into the limiter, and (3) it generates an electrostatic field opposing the loop current. The resulting boundary mismatch between the outer layers and the inner axisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlueter layer increases the free energy available to drive the edge plasma unstable. A number of special limiters are proposed to symmetrize the edge plasma and thereby reduce the electrical and MHD activity in the boundary layer. (author)

  10. Age Limit of Pediatrics.

    Hardin, Amy Peykoff; Hackell, Jesse M

    2017-09-01

    Pediatrics is a multifaceted specialty that encompasses children's physical, psychosocial, developmental, and mental health. Pediatric care may begin periconceptionally and continues through gestation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Although adolescence and young adulthood are recognizable phases of life, an upper age limit is not easily demarcated and varies depending on the individual patient. The establishment of arbitrary age limits on pediatric care by health care providers should be discouraged. The decision to continue care with a pediatrician or pediatric medical or surgical subspecialist should be made solely by the patient (and family, when appropriate) and the physician and must take into account the physical and psychosocial needs of the patient and the abilities of the pediatric provider to meet these needs. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. FTU pump limiter

    Alessandrini, C.; Ciotti, M.; Mattei, A. De; Maddaluno, G.; Mazzitelli, G.

    1989-01-01

    The control of the refuelling and recycling of the plasma is crucial in providing enhanced performances in tokamaks and steady-state operation in future reactors. In this paper, we report details of the design and analysis for the pump limiter to be incorporated into the FTU tokamak. The FTU, presently under commissioning, is a compact high field (B=8T), medium high density, circular cross section machine with small accesses. The dimensions of the equatorial port (width 8 cm) would reduce the length of the entrance throat to a few centimeters, which is unacceptable for efficient particle trapping. We have, therefore, designed a rotating blade of the pump limiter head that, in the working position, extends in the toroidal direction inside the vacuum chamber. (author) 8 refs., 4 figs

  12. Current limiter circuit system

    Witcher, Joseph Brandon; Bredemann, Michael V.

    2017-09-05

    An apparatus comprising a steady state sensing circuit, a switching circuit, and a detection circuit. The steady state sensing circuit is connected to a first, a second and a third node. The first node is connected to a first device, the second node is connected to a second device, and the steady state sensing circuit causes a scaled current to flow at the third node. The scaled current is proportional to a voltage difference between the first and second node. The switching circuit limits an amount of current that flows between the first and second device. The detection circuit is connected to the third node and the switching circuit. The detection circuit monitors the scaled current at the third node and controls the switching circuit to limit the amount of the current that flows between the first and second device when the scaled current is greater than a desired level.

  13. Are Limit Orders Rational?

    Šmíd, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2007), s. 32-38 ISSN 0572-3043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/06/1417; GA ČR GA402/04/1294; GA ČR GD402/03/H057 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : market microstructure * limit order market * portfolio selection Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  14. INAA - application and limitation

    Heydorn, K.

    1990-01-01

    The uncertainties associated with performing Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are discussed in relation to their category. The Comite International de Poids et Mesure (CIPM) distinguishes between uncertainties according to how their contribution to the overall uncertainty is evaluated. INAA is a potentially definitive method, if all sources of uncertainty can be accounted for. The limitation of the method is reached when uncertainties, which cannot be accounted for, assume significance, and the method cannot be brought in statistical control. (orig.)

  15. Heat flux limiting sleeves

    Harris, William G.

    1985-01-01

    A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

  16. Renewable energy

    Olsen, Birgitte Egelund

    2016-01-01

    Renewable energy projects are increasingly confronted by local opposition, which delays and sometimes even prevents their implementation. This reflects the frequent gap between support for the general idea of renewables as a strategy for reducing carbon emissions, and acceptance of renewable energy...... installations in the local landscape. A number of countries have introduced financial incentives to promote community acceptance. The tool box of incentives is still limited but in recent years it has been expanded to address local concerns. Certain general characteristics can be identified, suggesting...... that there are at least three distinct categories of incentives: individual compensation, community benefits and ownership measures. Local opposition must be approached with caution, as financial incentives to promote local acceptance can be seen as buying consent or even ‘bribery’, stirring up further opposition....

  17. Hybrid 21 MW wind-solar system to limit energy costs at an industrial plant; Sistema híbrido eólico-solar de 21 MW para contención del coste energético en una planta industrial

    López, C.

    2016-07-01

    Ereda has undertaken a project that aims to analyse the possibility of limiting the cost of the energy supply to a medium-sized industrial plant, with an installed capacity of over 26 MW, located in the south-west of Kazakhstan. The cost of electricity for its processes accounts for an important part of its production cost, achieving values in excess of 40%. The price of electricity in the country is expected to rise over the coming years. In addition, the plant is now required to reduce CO2 emissions from its industrial activity, which is why a further cost arising from the acquisition of emissions rights is expected in future. (Author)

  18. Superconductive AC current limiter

    Bekhaled, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an AC current limiter for a power transport line including a power supply circuit and feeding a load circuit via an overload circuit-breaker member. The limiter comprises a transformer having a primary winding connected in series between the power supply circuit and the load circuit and at least one secondary winding of superconductor material contained in a cryogenic enclosure and short-circuited on itself. The leakage reactance of the transformer as seen from the primary winding is low, and the resistance of the at least one secondary winding when in the non-superconducting state and as seen from the primary is much greater than the nominal impedance of the transformer. The improvement whereby the at least one secondary winding of the transformer comprises an active winding in association with a set of auxiliary windings. The set of auxiliary windings is constituted by an even number of series-connected auxiliary windings wound in opposite directions, with the total number of turns in one direction being equal to the total number of turns in the opposite direction, and with the thermal capacity of the secondary winding as a whole being sufficiently high to limit the expansion thereof to a value which remains small during the time it takes the circuit-breaking member to operate

  19. Energy globalization

    Tierno Andres

    1997-01-01

    Toward the future, the petroleum could stop to be the main energy source in the world and the oil companies will only survive if they are adjusted to the new winds that blow in the general energy sector. It will no longer be enough to be the owner of the resource (petroleum or gas) so that a company subsists and be profitable in the long term. The future, it will depend in great measure of the vision with which the oil companies face the globalization concept that begins to experience the world in the energy sector. Concepts like globalization, competition, integration and diversification is something that the companies of the hydrocarbons sector will have very present. Globalization means that it should be been attentive to what happens in the world, beyond of the limits of its territory, or to be caught by competitive surprises that can originate in very distant places. The search of cleaner and friendlier energy sources with the means it is not the only threat that it should fear the petroleum. Their substitution for electricity in the big projects of massive transport, the technology of the communications, the optic fiber and the same relationships with the aboriginal communities are aspects that also compete with the future of the petroleum

  20. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.